WorldWideScience

Sample records for complexity performance contest

  1. A (Small) complexity performance contest: SPT versus LBFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2002-01-01

    When discussing the nature of loading rules relevant to continuous dynamic job/flow shop systems, the general understanding is that results obtained in simpler structures of 2 to 4 machines are invariant to scaling and can be generalised without problems to more complex structures. The SPT...... results on pure re-entrant flow shop structures emerges. It now seems that alternative loading rules as for instance the LBFS (Last Buffer First Served) due to its strong long run stabilising property attracts quite some interest. To be more precise about the complexity aspect, complexity in job...... are not entirely only of theoretical interest, as well as results from a standard serial job/flow shop set-up, but with resource limitations that prevent the independent operations of the individual stations in the system....

  2. A (Small) Complexity Performance Contest: SPT versus LBFS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2002-01-01

    When discussing the nature of loading rules relevant to continuous dynamic job/flow shop systems, the general understanding is that results obtained in simpler structures of 2 to 4 machines are invariant to scaling and can be generalised without problems to more complex structures. The SPT...... results on pure re-entrant flow shop structures emerges. It now seems that alternative loading rules as for instance the LBFS (Last Buffer First Served) due to its strong long run stabilising property attracts quite some interest. To be more precise about the complexity aspect, complexity in job...... are not entirely only of theoretical interest, as well as results from a standard serial job/flow shop set-up, but with resource limitations that prevent the independent operations of the individual stations in the system....

  3. Rising to the challenge : A model of contest performance

    OpenAIRE

    DesAutels, Philip; Berthon, Pierre; Salehi-Sangari, Esmail

    2011-01-01

    Contests are a ubiquitous form of promotion widely adopted by financial services advertisers, yet, paradoxically, academic research on them is conspicuous in its absence. This work addresses this gap by developing a model of contest engagement and performance. Using motivation theory, factors that drive participant engagement are modeled, and engagement's effect on experience and marketing success of the contest specified. Measures of contest performance, in-contest engagement and post-contes...

  4. The Effect of Peer Pressure on Performance in Crowdsourcing Contests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heite, Jonas; Hoisl, Karin

    We investigate whether and why performance differences exist between contestants with the same abilities but who compete against more skilled or less skilled contestants. We analyze 1,677 unique coders competing in 38 software algorithm competitions with random assignment. Part of these coders co...

  5. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2005-05-19

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.

  6. Individual performance and leader's laterality in interactive contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2017-05-01

    Left-handedness is known to provide an intrinsic and tactical advantage at top level in many sports involving interactive contests. Again, most of the renowned leaders of the world are known to have been left-handed. Leadership plays an important role in politics, sports and mentorship. In this paper we show that Cricket captains who bat left-handed have a strategic advantage over the right-handed captains in One Day International (ODI) and Test matches. The present study involving 46 left-handed captains and 148 right-handed captains in ODI matches, reveal a strong relation between leader's laterality and team member performance, demonstrating the critical importance of left-handedness and successful leadership. The odds for superior batting performance in an ODI match under left-handed captains are 89% higher than the odds under right-handed captains. Our study shows that left-handed captains are more successful in extracting superior performance from the batsmen and bowlers in ODI and Test matches; perhaps indicating left-handed leaders are better motivators as leaders when compared to right-handed captains.

  7. Engaging stakeholders on complex, and potentially contested, science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, John; Atherton, Elizabeth; Tweed, Cherry

    2014-01-01

    An effective process for engaging stakeholders on the science underpinning radioactive waste disposal will be essential for the successful implementation of geological disposal in the United Kingdom. Of particular importance are those stakeholders representing, and living in, volunteer communities. There have been two major shifts over the last 10-20 years in society's engagement with science which are particularly relevant to the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate's (RWMD) stakeholder engagement: - a shift to a more inclusive approach in which the public have more of a say about science and its uses; - a shift to a more evidence-based approach to societal decision making. Significant challenges to effective communication and confidence building in geological disposal arise from: - the complexities and uncertainties inherent in the relevant science; - the sensitivities and 'high stakes' (locally and nationally) associated with a disposal facility; - the expectation that there will continue to be vocal stakeholders who are fundamentally opposed to geological disposal of radioactive wastes who will focus on any remaining uncertainties as just cause for their position. This abstract summarises the findings of a project to evaluate approaches to engaging with stakeholders on the science underpinning sensitive decisions in sectors other than radioactive waste disposal and to identify elements of good practice which may help RWMD in taking forward the implementation of a geological disposal facility for the United Kingdom's radioactive wastes. Six elements of good practice are listed and discussed below: - Using science appropriately: Taking an inclusive, evidence-based approach in which collaborative inquiry takes a holistic, weight-of-evidence view of the science rather than focusing on items of evidence in isolation, using them to prove or disprove a particular point of view. - Building trust: Ensuring that processes of engagement engender trust, and that trust

  8. Contestations and complexities of nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ditlopo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increased emphasis globally on nurses’ involvement in health policy and systems development. However, there has been limited scholarly attention on nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa. Objective: This paper analyses the dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses of nurses’ participation in four national health workforce policies: the 2008 Nursing Strategy, revision of the Scope of Practice for nurses, the new Framework for Nursing Qualifications, and the Occupation-Specific Dispensation (OSD remuneration policy. Design: Using a policy analysis framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 key informants and 73 frontline nurses in four South African provinces. Thematic content analysis was done using the Atlas.ti software. Results: The study found that nurses’ participation in policy-making is both contested and complex. The contestation relates to the extent and nature of nurses’ participation in nursing policies. There was a disjuncture between nursing leadership and frontline nurses in their levels of awareness of the four policies. The latter group was generally unaware of these policies with the exception of the OSD remuneration policy as it affected them directly. There was also limited consensus on which nursing group legitimately represented nursing issues in the policy arena. Shifting power relationships influenced who participated, how the participation happened, and the degree to which nurses’ views and inputs were considered and incorporated. Conclusions: The South African health system presents major opportunities for nurses to influence and direct policies that affect them. This will require a combination of proactive leadership, health policy capacity and skills development among nurses, and strong support from the national nursing association.

  9. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    In recent years, hydropower and the sustainability of large hydropower projects has become a contested field. While for example hydropower companies maintain that hydropower is a renewable and sustainable source of electricity, a number of NGOs sharply question this assumption. The paper explores...... policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... and natural scientists and Chinese hydropower companies (to name a few). The paper maps different actors’ framing of the issue to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of hydropower policymaking in China, as well as map the local consequences of global policymaking about large hydropower...

  10. Caffeine Reduces Reaction Time and Improves Performance in Simulated-Contest of Taekwondo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Victor G. F.; Santos, Vander R. F.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Almeida, Jose W.; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Kiss, Maria A. P. D. M.; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time during a specific taekwondo task and athletic performance during a simulated taekwondo contest. Ten taekwondo athletes ingested either 5 mg·kg−1 body mass caffeine or placebo and performed two combats (spaced apart by 20 min). The reaction-time test (five kicks “Bandal Tchagui”) was performed immediately prior to the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. Caffeine improved reaction time (from 0.42 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.07 s) only prior to the first combat (P = 0.004). During the first combat, break times during the first two rounds were shorter in caffeine ingestion, followed by higher plasma lactate concentrations compared with placebo (P = 0.029 and 0.014, respectively). During the second combat, skipping-time was reduced, and relative attack times and attack/skipping ratio was increased following ingestion of caffeine during the first two rounds (all P Caffeine resulted in no change in combat intensity parameters between the first and second combat (all P > 0.05), but combat intensity was decreased following placebo (all P caffeine reduced reaction time in non-fatigued conditions and delayed fatigue during successive taekwondo combats. PMID:24518826

  11. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  12. Chameleons communicate with complex colour changes during contests: different body regions convey different information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Russell A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Many animals display static coloration (e.g. of feathers or fur) that can serve as a reliable sexual or social signal, but the communication function of rapidly changing colours (as in chameleons and cephalopods) is poorly understood. We used recently developed photographic and mathematical modelling tools to examine how rapid colour changes of veiled chameleons Chamaeleo calyptratus predict aggressive behaviour during male-male competitions. Males that achieved brighter stripe coloration were more likely to approach their opponent, and those that attained brighter head coloration were more likely to win fights; speed of head colour change was also an important predictor of contest outcome. This correlative study represents the first quantification of rapid colour change using organism-specific visual models and provides evidence that the rate of colour change, in addition to maximum display coloration, can be an important component of communication. Interestingly, the body and head locations of the relevant colour signals map onto the behavioural displays given during specific contest stages, with lateral displays from a distance followed by directed, head-on approaches prior to combat, suggesting that different colour change signals may evolve to communicate different information (motivation and fighting ability, respectively).

  13. Contest Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehnke, Randy

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of contests to keep physics interesting and exciting for the students. Includes: balloon car, egg drop, tennis ball catapult, bridge building, mousetrap vehicle, musical instrument, slide photo, electric junk dissection, windmill generator, and solar heater. (MVL)

  14. Classroom Environment as Related to Contest Ratings among High School Performing Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Donald L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines influence of classroom environments, measured by the Classroom Environment Scale, Form R (CESR), on vocal and instrumental ensembles' musical achievement at festival contests. Using random sample, reveals subjects with higher scores on CESR scales of involvement, affiliation, teacher support, and organization received better contest…

  15. Contesting Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The new book shows how citizenship, its meaning and form, have become a vital site of contestation. While many minority groups struggle to redefine the rights of citizenship in more pluralized forms, the responsivbilities of citizenship are being reaffirmed by democratic governments concerned to ...

  16. Contestable Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Zvika Neeman; Gerhard O. Orosel

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a model of repeated franchise bidding for natural monopoly with contestable licensing - a franchisee halds an (exclusive) license to operate a franchise until another rm offers to pay more for it. In a world where quality is observable but not veri able, the simple regulatory scheme we describe combines market-like incentives with regulatory oversight to generate efficient outcomes.

  17. Contested collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    . The model describes design phases, roles, themes, and intergroup communication networks as they evolve throughout the design process and characterizes design as a process of "contested collaboration". It is a first step towards a predictive design model that suggests strategies which may help participants...

  18. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    To fulfil the expectations of demanding clients, new project-delivery mechanisms have been developed. Approaches focusing on performance-based building or new procurement processers such as new forms of private-public partnerships are considered as solutions improving the overall performance...... to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between CSTB...

  19. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    the transition process. Design/methodology/approach – A multiple, longitudinal case study method is used to examine the transition towards PCP. The study deploys rich qualitative data sets by combining semi-structured interviews, focus group meetings and organisational reports and documents. Findings...... and relational challenges they need to master when facing higher levels of performance and infrastructural complexity. Originality/value – The study adds to the limited empirical and conceptual understanding on the nature of long-term public-private interactions in PCP. It contributes through a rare focus...

  20. Food deserts in Winnipeg, Canada: a novel method for measuring a complex and contested construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Slater

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: "Food deserts" have emerged over the past 20 years as spaces of concern for communities, public health authorities and researchers because of their potential negative impact on dietary quality and subsequent health outcomes. Food deserts are residential geographic spaces, typically in urban settings, where low-income residents have limited or no access to retail food establishments with sufficient variety at affordable cost. Research on food deserts presents methodological challenges including retail food store identification and classification, identification of low-income populations, and transportation and proximity metrics. Furthermore, the complex methods often used in food desert research can be difficult to reproduce and communicate to key stakeholders. To address these challenges, this study sought to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a simple and reproducible method of identifying food deserts using data easily available in the Canadian context. Methods: This study was conducted in Winnipeg, Canada in 2014. Food retail establishments were identified from Yellow Pages and verified by public health dietitians. We calculated two scenarios of food deserts based on location of the lowest-income quintile population: (a living ≥ 500 m from a national chain grocery store, or (b living ≥ 500 m from a national chain grocery store or a full-service grocery store. Results: The number of low-income residents living in a food desert ranged from 64 574 to 104 335, depending on the scenario used. Conclusion: This study shows that food deserts affect a significant proportion of the Winnipeg population, and while concentrated in the urban core, exist in suburban neighbourhoods also. The methods utilized represent an accessible and transparent, reproducible process for identifying food deserts. These methods can be used for costeffective, periodic surveillance and meaningful engagement with communities, retailers and policy

  1. Contesting danger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban...... of danger is contested within the region. The example of urban violence in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and Jalalabad, Afghanistan in 2010 demonstrates how opportunities to mitigate conflict may have been lost due to the distortions of this discourse of danger. It concludes by raising the challenge to policy...

  2. Contested Property Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Property relations are such a common feature of social life that we can sometimes forget the immense complexity of the web of laws, practices, and ideas that allow a property regime to function smoothly. But we are quickly reminded of this complexity when social conflict over property erupts. When...... social actors confront a property regime – for example by squatting – they enact what can be called ‘contested property claims’. These confrontations raise crucial issues of social justice and show the ways in which property conflicts often reflect wider social conflicts. Through a series of case studies...... from across the globe, this multidisciplinary anthology exploring contested property claims brings together works from anthropologists, legal scholars, and geographers, who show how disagreements give us a privileged window onto how property regimes function and illustrates the many ways...

  3. Contested Property Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Property relations are such a common feature of social life that the complexity of the web of laws, practices, and ideas that allow a property regime to function smoothly are often forgotten. But we are quickly reminded of this complexity when conflict over property erupts. When social actors...... confront a property regime – for example by squatting – they enact what can be called ‘contested property claims’. As this book demonstrates, these confrontations raise crucial issues of social justice and show the ways in which property conflicts often reflect wider social conflicts. Through a series...... of case studies from across the globe, this multidisciplinary anthology brings together works from anthropologists, legal scholars, and geographers, who show how exploring contested property claims offers a privileged window onto how property regimes function, as well as an illustration of the many ways...

  4. Centralized vs decentralized contests

    OpenAIRE

    Beviá, Carmen; Corchón, Luis C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare two contests, decentralized in which there are several independent contests with non overlapping contestants and centralized in which all contestants fight for a unique prize which is the sum of all prizes in the small contests. We study the relationship between payoffs and efforts between these two contests. The first author acknowledges financial support from ECO2008-04756 (Grupo Consolidado-C), SGR2014-515 and PROMETEO/2013/037. The second author acknowledges financial suppor...

  5. Mathematical Modeling in the People's Republic of China--Indicators of Participation and Performance on COMAP's Modeling Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Mainland Chinese teams have been the dominant participants in the two COMAP-sponsored mathematical modeling competitions: the Mathematical Contest in Modeling (MCM) and the Interdisciplinary Contest in Modeling (ICM). This study examines five factors that lead to the Chinese teams' dramatic increase in participation rate and…

  6. Contested Spaces. Meaningful Places. Contemporary Performances of Place and Belonging in Spain and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. C. Krom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to contribute to current anthropological debate on space and place, analysing in two instances of festival performance how, on the one hand the politics of appropriation of space contributes to the configuration of power relations, and how on the other hand, participants in these festivals engage individually and collectively with physical space(s to create places which they experience as meaningful in terms of identity and belonging.

  7. Software Performs Complex Design Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Designers use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to gain greater understanding of the fluid flow phenomena involved in components being designed. They also use finite element analysis (FEA) as a tool to help gain greater understanding of the structural response of components to loads, stresses and strains, and the prediction of failure modes. Automated CFD and FEA engineering design has centered on shape optimization, which has been hindered by two major problems: 1) inadequate shape parameterization algorithms, and 2) inadequate algorithms for CFD and FEA grid modification. Working with software engineers at Stennis Space Center, a NASA commercial partner, Optimal Solutions Software LLC, was able to utilize its revolutionary, one-of-a-kind arbitrary shape deformation (ASD) capability-a major advancement in solving these two aforementioned problems-to optimize the shapes of complex pipe components that transport highly sensitive fluids. The ASD technology solves the problem of inadequate shape parameterization algorithms by allowing the CFD designers to freely create their own shape parameters, therefore eliminating the restriction of only being able to use the computer-aided design (CAD) parameters. The problem of inadequate algorithms for CFD grid modification is solved by the fact that the new software performs a smooth volumetric deformation. This eliminates the extremely costly process of having to remesh the grid for every shape change desired. The program can perform a design change in a markedly reduced amount of time, a process that would traditionally involve the designer returning to the CAD model to reshape and then remesh the shapes, something that has been known to take hours, days-even weeks or months-depending upon the size of the model.

  8. Rhetoric and Essentially Contested Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Eugene

    1978-01-01

    Draws a connection between Gallie's essentially contested concepts and Aristotle's account of rhetorical argument by presenting a definition of Essentially Contested Argument which is used as the connecting term between rhetoric and essentially contested concepts and by demonstrating the value of making this connection. (JF)

  9. Most Physically Educated Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Kevin; Howard, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    It is seldom that the accomplishments of secondary physical education students are celebrated. The Most Physically Educated Contest was developed to allow students from several school districts to gather for appropriate competition and to display the characteristics of physical literacy attained from participation in high-quality physical…

  10. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  11. Campaigning and Contestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Sander Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article is a critical study of the Facebook pages of politicians as public spheres using Dahlberg’s notion of contestation. A method is implemented inspired by qualitative content analysis and including focus groups in order to study citizen comments on eight main political candidates...

  12. Complexity factors and prediction of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braarud, Per Oeyvind

    1998-03-01

    Understanding of what makes a control room situation difficult to handle is important when studying operator performance, both with respect to prediction as well as improvement of the human performance. A factor analytic approach identified eight factors from operators' answers to an 39 item questionnaire about complexity of the operator's task in the control room. A Complexity Profiling Questionnaire was developed, based on the factor analytic results from the operators' conception of complexity. The validity of the identified complexity factors was studied by prediction of crew performance and prediction of plant performance from ratings of the complexity of scenarios. The scenarios were rated by both process experts and the operators participating in the scenarios, using the Complexity Profiling Questionnaire. The process experts' complexity ratings predicted both crew performance and plant performance, while the operators' rating predicted plant performance only. The results reported are from initial studies of complexity, and imply a promising potential for further studies of the concept. The approach used in the study as well as the reported results are discussed. A chapter about the structure of the conception of complexity, and a chapter about further research conclude the report. (author)

  13. Some core contested concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  14. A contest of sensors in close range 3D imaging: performance evaluation with a new metric test object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hess

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An independent means of 3D image quality assessment is introduced, addressing non-professional users of sensors and freeware, which is largely characterized as closed-sourced and by the absence of quality metrics for processing steps, such as alignment. A performance evaluation of commercially available, state-of-the-art close range 3D imaging technologies is demonstrated with the help of a newly developed Portable Metric Test Artefact. The use of this test object provides quality control by a quantitative assessment of 3D imaging sensors. It will enable users to give precise specifications which spatial resolution and geometry recording they expect as outcome from their 3D digitizing process. This will lead to the creation of high-quality 3D digital surrogates and 3D digital assets. The paper is presented in the form of a competition of teams, and a possible winner will emerge.

  15. Managing teams performing complex innovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Dhondt, S.; Gaspersz, J.B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Complexity of projects is hotly debated and a factor which affects innovativeness of team performance. Much attention in the past is paid to technical complexity and many issues are related to natural and physical sciences. A growing awareness of the importance of socio-organisational issues is

  16. Contest in Nanai Shamanic Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Diomidovna Bulgakova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tale motif of the shamanic tale competition is examined with due regard for the interpretation given by the Nanai storyteller-shamans from the standpoint of their personal spiritual experience. In shamanic practice it is not the personal ability (skill or physical power that provides a challenger victory in conflict, but obtaining spirits-helpers more powerful than those of his or her rival. The predominate role of these fantastic personages/helpers in tales that represent invisible spirit helpers perform real shamanic praxis, explains the loser’s unconditional submission and readiness to sacrifice their freedom or life to the winner. It also clarifies the motivation of the initiators of these contests and games: by means of gathering a great number of competitors, such shamans solve their personal spiritual problems, such as the need to overcome their adversaries or find allies in the struggle against their opponents.

  17. Graph transformation tool contest 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; van Gorp, Pieter

    This special section is the outcome of the graph transformation tool contest organised during the Graph-Based Tools (GraBaTs) 2008 workshop, which took place as a satellite event of the International Conference on Graph Transformation (ICGT) 2008. The contest involved two parts: three “off-line case

  18. Performance Potential at one Complex, Specific Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    disciplines: performance, drama, dance and music. Complex rules of “borders” between audience and actors/performers appeared to be present and active during this long happening. Different narrative genres were active simultaneously during the experimental session. A lot of complex and surprising phenomena...... and combinations of spatial, dramaturgical, narrative and interactive challenges, which appear to be of special interest for the kind of experiences an audience might gather in a site like this, originally created with totally different intentions. Or was it?...

  19. Joining Distributed Complex Objects: Definition and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.B.; Teeuw, Wouter B.; Blanken, Henk

    1992-01-01

    The performance of a non-standard distributed database system is strongly ifluenced by complex objects. The effective exploitation of parallelism in querying them and a suitable structure to store them are required in order to obtain acceptable response times in these database environments where

  20. Reward and punishment in a team contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine, F.A.; Strobel, M.

    2015-01-01

    A team contest entails both public good situations within the teams as well as a contest across teams. In an experimental study, we analyse behaviour in such a team contest when allowing to punish or to reward other group members. Moreover, we compare two types of contest environment: One in which

  1. Cloud Computing for Complex Performance Codes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, Gordon John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klein, Brandon Thorin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miner, John Gifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes the use of cloud computing services for running complex public domain performance assessment problems. The work consisted of two phases: Phase 1 was to demonstrate complex codes, on several differently configured servers, could run and compute trivial small scale problems in a commercial cloud infrastructure. Phase 2 focused on proving non-trivial large scale problems could be computed in the commercial cloud environment. The cloud computing effort was successfully applied using codes of interest to the geohydrology and nuclear waste disposal modeling community.

  2. Social Identity and Group Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Zaunbrecher, Henrik; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Social identity has been shown to successfully enhance cooperation and effort in cooperation and coordination games. Little is known about the causal effect of social identity on the propensity to engage in group conflict. In this paper we explore theoretically and experimentally whether social identity increases investments in group contests. We show theoretically that increased social identity with the own group implies higher investments in Tullock contests. Empirically we find that induce...

  3. Photowalk contest winners

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    The local winners of the global particle physics Photowalk have been announced by the five participating laboratories. At CERN, Diego Giol and Christian Stephani were the jury’s favourites, and their photos will now go forward to the global vote, competing against the local winners from DESY in Germany, Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and TRIUMF in Canada. Two prizes are to be awarded, one selected by a global jury, the other by popular vote – it’s time to get voting!   Diego Giol #1 The global winners of the Photowalk contest will be revealed by the second week of October, but the local CERN winners were announced last week. After three weeks of work, two meetings of the jury and three successive selections, 20 photos were chosen from the 792 entries. The three highest-ranked will participate in the final competition. The public can vote for their favourite photos on the interactions.org website until 8 October. Only two photographers took the three winning photo...

  4. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  5. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations

  6. Case study: Natural bodybuilding contest preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Brandon M; Fitschen, Peter J; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiorespiratory performance was measured by VO(2)peak at baseline, 13 weeks, and 26 weeks. Body weight (88.6 to 73.3 Kg, R(2) = .99) and percent body fat (17.5 to 7.4%) were reduced during preparation. CV measurements including blood pressure (128/61 to 113/54 mmHg), brachial pulse wave velocity (7.9 to 5.8m/s), and measures of wave reflection all improved. Indexed cardiac output was reduced (2.5 to 1.8L/m(2)) primarily due to a reduction in resting heart rate (71 to 44 bpm), and despite an increase in ejection faction (57.9 to 63.9%). Assessment of HRV found a shift in the ratio of low to high frequency (209.2 to 30.9%). Absolute VO2 was minimally reduced despite weight loss resulting in an increase in relative VO2 (41.9 to 47.7 ml/Kg). In general, this prolonged contest preparation technique helped the athlete to improve body composition and resulted in positive CV changes, suggesting that this method of contest preparation appears to be effective in natural male bodybuilders.

  7. Experience affects the outcome of agonistic contests without affecting the selective advantage of size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Elias, Damian O; Punzalan, David; Mason, Andrew C; Andrade, Maydianne C B

    2009-06-01

    In the field, phenotypic determinants of competitive success are not always absolute. For example, contest experience may alter future competitive performance. As future contests are not determined solely on phenotypic attributes, prior experience could also potentially alter phenotype-fitness associations. In this study, we examined the influence of single and multiple experiences on contest outcomes in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus. We also examined whether phenotype-fitness associations altered as individuals gained more experience. Using both size-matched contests and a tournament design, we found that both winning and losing experience affected future contest success; males with prior winning experience were more likely to win subsequent contests. Although experience was a significant determinant of success in future contests, male weight was approximately 1.3 times more important than experience in predicting contest outcomes. Despite the importance of experience in determining contest outcomes, patterns of selection did not change between rounds. Overall, our results show that experience can be an important determinant in contest outcomes, even in short-lived invertebrates, and that experience alone is unlikely to alter phenotype-fitness associations.

  8. Contestation and Continuity in Educational Reform: A Critical Study of Innovations in Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robottom, Ian Morris

    Contestation can be defined as a process in which self-interested individuals and groups in a social organization cooperate, compete, and negotiate in a complex interaction aimed at solving social problems. This dissertation explores the notion of contestation in the field of environmental education. In the first part of the document a framework…

  9. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  10. Contest experience and body size affect different types of contest decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Hsu, Yuying

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the relative importance of contest experience and size differences to behavioral decisions over the course of contests. Using a mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, we showed that although contest experience and size differences jointly determined contest outcomes, they affected contestants' interactions at different stages of contests. Contest experience affected behavioral decisions at earlier stages of contests, including the tendency and latency to launch attacks, the tendency to escalate contests into mutual attacks and the outcome of non-escalated contests. Once contests were escalated into mutual attacks, the degree of size difference affected the fish's persistence in escalation and chance of winning, but contest experience did not. These results support the hypothesis that contest experience modifies individuals' estimation of their fighting ability rather than their actual strength. Furthermore, (1) in contests between two naïve contestants, more than 60 % of fish that were 2-3 mm smaller than their opponent escalated the contest to physical fights, even though their larger opponents eventually won 92 % of escalated fights and (2) fish with a losing experience were very likely to retreat in the face of an opponent 2-3 mm smaller than them without escalating. The result that a 2-3 mm size advantage could not offset the influence of a losing experience on the tendency to escalate suggests that, as well as depending on body size, the fish's physical strength is influenced by other factors which require further investigation.

  11. 29 CFR 2200.38 - Employee contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee contests. 2200.38 Section 2200.38 Labor... Pleadings and Motions § 2200.38 Employee contests. (a) Secretary's statement of reasons. Where an affected employee or authorized employee representative files a notice of contest with respect to the abatement...

  12. Physics Contests for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Doug; Nelson, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the Ontario Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers started a "Grade Eleven Prize Physics Contest" to generate interest in physics and recognize outstanding students. Also describes outcomes of contests, adaptation of the contest by Southeastern Pennsylvania Section, and suggestions for others wanting to…

  13. Introduction : Global Cultures of Contestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeren, E.; Celikates, R.; de Kloet, J.; Poell, T.; Peeren, E.; Celikates, R.; de Kloet, J.; Poell, T.

    2018-01-01

    From the popular uprisings in North Africa and the Middle East in early 2011, via the Spanish indignados and Occupy Wall Street to the Umbrella movement in Hong Kong, recent years have seen major instances of popular contestation across the world. Moving beyond positions that present a singularly

  14. Financing bidders in takeover contests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vladimirov, V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies a takeover contests, in which cash-constrained bidders decide on the optimal way to finance their cash bid. For both bidders and the seller this decision is at least as important as deciding on whether the payment should be in cash or in securities. The main result is that the

  15. Collaboration or contestation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middleton, Geoff; Evans, Adam Brian; Henderson, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    -agency approach. The strength of health promotion initiatives relies on formed ‘coalitions’ or partnerships and the subsequent collaboration in the design, delivery and administration of the programme’s multiple components. Advantages of partnership are the pooling of resources, avoiding duplication...... to the development, implementation and evaluation of such programmes (Middleton et al., 2014, Kleij et al., 2015). This includes leadership issues, competing agendas and priorities, the unwieldy nature of large multi-agency networks and the complexities around making a sustained impact. Those involved...

  16. A Prediction Contest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul; Tveterås, Sigbjørn

    , advanced distributed lag time-series analyses show that the sensing of front-line employees (surprisingly) is a better medium-term predictor of organizational performance than executive judgments. These results have implications for the way organizations set up their management information......The literature suggests that important strategic initiatives can derive from employees within the organization as they respond to needs and opportunities observed in daily operations. This seems to indicate that employees have a good sense of the firm’s operational capabilities observed through...... direct interactions with colleagues, customers and partners. Executives make their own judgments about the corporate capabilities from discussions with various managers, other executives and industry specialists. But the information gathered by executives may be qualitatively different from...

  17. Complex Heat Exchangers for Improved Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bran, Gabriela Alejandra

    After a detailed literature review, it was determined that there was a need for a more comprehensive study on the transient behavior of heat exchangers. Computational power was not readily available when most of the work on transient heat exchangers was done (1956 - 1986), so most of these solutions have restrictions, or very specific assumptions. More recently, authors have obtained numerical solutions for more general problems (2003 - 2013), but they have investigated very specific conditions, and cases. For a more complex heat exchanger (i.e. with heat generation), the transient solutions from literature are no longer valid. There was a need to develop a numerical model that relaxes the restrictions of current solutions to explore conditions that have not been explored. A one dimensional transient heat exchanger model was developed. There are no restrictions on the fluids and wall conditions. The model is able to obtain a numerical solution for a wide range of fluid properties and mass flow rates. Another innovative characteristic of the numerical model is that the boundary and initial conditions are not limited to constant values. The boundary conditions can be a function of time (i.e. sinusoidal signal), and the initial conditions can be a function of position. Four different cases were explored in this work. In the first case, the start-up of a system was investigated where the whole system is assumed to be at the same temperature. In the second case, the new steady state in case one gets disrupted by a smaller inlet temperature step change. In the third case, the new steady state in case one gets disrupted by a step change in one of the mass flow rates. The response of these three cases show that there are different transient behaviors, and they depend on the conditions imposed on the system. The fourth case is a system that has a sinusoidal time varying inlet temperature for one of the flows. The results show that the sinusoidal behavior at the inlet

  18. Complexity rating of abnormal events and operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeivind Braarud, Per

    1998-01-01

    The complexity of the work situation during abnormal situations is a major topic in a discussion of safety aspects of Nuclear Power plants. An understanding of complexity and its impact on operator performance in abnormal situations is important. One way to enhance understanding is to look at the dimensions that constitute complexity for NPP operators, and how those dimensions can be measured. A further step is to study how dimensions of complexity of the event are related to performance of operators. One aspect of complexity is the operator 's subjective experience of given difficulties of the event. Another related aspect of complexity is subject matter experts ratings of the complexity of the event. A definition and a measure of this part of complexity are being investigated at the OECD Halden Reactor Project in Norway. This paper focus on the results from a study of simulated scenarios carried out in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory, which is a full scope PWR simulator. Six crews of two licensed operators each performed in 16 scenarios (simulated events). Before the experiment subject matter experts rated the complexity of the scenarios, using a Complexity Profiling Questionnaire. The Complexity Profiling Questionnaire contains eight previously identified dimensions associated with complexity. After completing the scenarios the operators received a questionnaire containing 39 questions about perceived complexity. This questionnaire was used for development of a measure of subjective complexity. The results from the study indicated that Process experts' rating of scenario complexity, using the Complexity Profiling Questionnaire, were able to predict crew performance quite well. The results further indicated that a measure of subjective complexity could be developed that was related to crew performance. Subjective complexity was found to be related to subjective work load. (author)

  19. Performance Measurement of Complex Event Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zámečníková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find and compare existing solutions of complex event processing platforms (CEP. CEP platforms generally serve for processing and/or predicting of high frequency data. We intend to use CEP platform for processing of complex time series and integrate a solution for newly proposed method of decision making. The decision making process will be described by formal grammar. As there are lots of CEP solutions we will take the following characteristics under consideration - the processing in real time, possibility of processing of high volume data from multiple sources, platform independence, platform allowing integration with user solution and open license. At first we will talk about existing CEP tools and their specific way of use in praxis. Then we will mention the design of method for formalization of business rules used for decision making. Afterwards, we focus on two platforms which seem to be the best fit for integration of our solution and we will list the main pros and cons of each approach. Next part is devoted to benchmark platforms for CEP. Final part is devoted to experimental measurements of platform with integrated method for decision support.

  20. Corporate contestability and corporate expropriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hadi Zulkafli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents evidence on the role of ownership in dealing with corporate expropriation of listed companies in Malaysia. From the perspective of expropriation, a single controlling shareholder is always associated with such behavior due to their power and control at the expense of minority shareholder. However, subsequent individual or coalition of large shareholders can be an important corporate governance tool by providing effective monitoring that would lessen the possibility of expropriation by the controlling shareholder. Relating to that, this study evaluates the role of controlling and large shareholders in dealing with corporate expropriation. It is found that there is a negative relationship between single controlling shareholders and dividend payout ratio indicating that firms with only controlling shareholder will pay a lower dividend due to possible expropriation through profit diversion by controlling shareholder. Using Herfindahl Index as a proxy for ownership contestability, the presence of large shareholders along with controlling shareholder has a positive relationship with dividend payout implying that increased contestability helps to curb the power of controlling shareholder to expropriate fund for their own benefit. In accordance with agency theory, the outcome suggests that large shareholders play a monitoring role in minimizing the Type II agency problem. It is also verifying the argument made based on the Catering Theory of Dividend that the presence of large shareholder brings benefit to all shareholders as they are able to reduce profit diversion by demanding for higher dividend

  1. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  2. Learning Reproducibility with a Yearly Networking Contest

    KAUST Repository

    Canini, Marco; Crowcroft, Jon

    2017-01-01

    fostered by organizing a yearly international contest. We argue that holding a contest undertaken by a plurality of students will have benefits that are two-fold. First, it will promote hands-on learning of skills that are helpful in producing artifacts

  3. Payoff Shares in Two-Player Contests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Häfner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In imperfectly discriminating contests with symmetric valuations, equilibrium payoffs are positive shares of the value of the prize. In contrast to a bargaining situation, players’ shares sum to less than one because a residual share of the value is lost due to rent dissipation. In this paper, we consider contests with two players and investigate the relationship between these equilibrium shares and the parameters of a class of asymmetric Tullock contest success functions. Our main finding is that any players’ shares that sum up to less than one can arise as the unique outcome of a pure-strategy Nash equilibrium for appropriate parameters.

  4. Similarity, Not Complexity, Determines Visual Working Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Linden, David E. J.; Roberts, Mark V.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Haenschel, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that visual working memory (WM) is poorer for complex versus simple items, traditionally accounted for by higher information load placing greater demands on encoding and storage capacity limits. Other research suggests that it may not be complexity that determines WM performance per se, but rather increased…

  5. Procurement of complex performance in public infrastructure: a process perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Andreas; Roehrich, Jens; Davies, Andrew; Frederiksen, Lars; Davies, J.; Harrington, T.; Kirkwood, D.; Holweg, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the process of transitioning from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance in public infrastructure. The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during the transition process. Based on a multiple, longitudinal case study the paper proposes three generic transition stages towards increased performance and infrastructural complexity. These stag...

  6. CONTESTED IDENTITIES IN MEDIA PORTRAYAL OF MILITANTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR MATTHEW

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... been highly contested, along political, social and religious lines. ... This approach to CDA tends to link text analysis of news ... opposition materials allows the militants' view of their identity to be contrasted and compared.

  7. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender ... First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  8. Corporal punishment contestations, paradoxes and implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporal punishment contestations, paradoxes and implications for school leadership: A case study of two South African high schools. ... South African Journal of Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  9. The Effects of Residency and Body Size on Contest Initiation and Outcome in the Territorial Dragon, Ctenophorus decresii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Osborne, Louise; Keogh, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies of the determinants of contests have been attempting to unravel the complexity of animal contest behaviour for decades. This complexity requires that experiments incorporate multiple determinants into studies to tease apart their relative effects. In this study we examined the complex contest behaviour of the tawny dragon (Ctenophorus decresii), a territorial agamid lizard, with the specific aim of defining the factors that determine contest outcome. We manipulated the relative size and residency status of lizards in contests to weight their importance in determining contest outcome. We found that size, residency and initiating a fight were all important in determining outcomes of fights. We also tested whether residency or size was important in predicting the status of lizard that initiated a fight. We found that residency was the most important factor in predicting fight initiation. We discuss the effects of size and residency status in context of previous studies on contests in tawny dragons and other animals. Our study provides manipulative behavioural data in support of the overriding effects of residency on initiation fights and winning them. PMID:23077558

  10. The effects of residency and body size on contest initiation and outcome in the territorial dragon, Ctenophorus decresii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Empirical studies of the determinants of contests have been attempting to unravel the complexity of animal contest behaviour for decades. This complexity requires that experiments incorporate multiple determinants into studies to tease apart their relative effects. In this study we examined the complex contest behaviour of the tawny dragon (Ctenophorus decresii, a territorial agamid lizard, with the specific aim of defining the factors that determine contest outcome. We manipulated the relative size and residency status of lizards in contests to weight their importance in determining contest outcome. We found that size, residency and initiating a fight were all important in determining outcomes of fights. We also tested whether residency or size was important in predicting the status of lizard that initiated a fight. We found that residency was the most important factor in predicting fight initiation. We discuss the effects of size and residency status in context of previous studies on contests in tawny dragons and other animals. Our study provides manipulative behavioural data in support of the overriding effects of residency on initiation fights and winning them.

  11. Contested psychiatric ontology and feminist critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss the emergence of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) within American psychiatry and beyond in the postwar period, setting out what I believe to be important and suggestive questions neglected in existing scholarship. Tracing the nomenclature within successive editions of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), I consider the reification of the term ‘FSD’, and the activism and scholarship that the rise of the category has occasioned. I suggest that analysis of FSD benefits from scrutiny of a wider range of sources (especially since the popular and scientific cross-pollinate). I explore the multiplicity of FSD that emerges when one examines this wider range, but I also underscore a reinscribing of anxieties about psychogenic aetiologies. I then argue that what makes the FSD case additionally interesting, over and above other conditions with a contested status, is the historically complex relationship between psychiatry and feminism that is at work in contemporary debates. I suggest that existing literature on FSD has not yet posed some of the most important and salient questions at stake in writing about women’s sexual problems in this period, and can only do this when the relationship between ‘second-wave’ feminism, ‘post-feminism’, psychiatry and psychoanalysis becomes part of the terrain to be analysed, rather than the medium through which analysis is conducted. PMID:23355764

  12. Narratives as Dialogic, Contested, and Aesthetic Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Pete Anderson, a clinician and professor at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, entered the life of Anna and her family two years ago. Anna was referred to him because of his clinical research and expertise in pediatric oncology and multimodality therapies. Anna had been diagnosed with metastatic Ewing's Sarcoma, a form of bone…

  13. Bitcoin Mining as a Contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Dimitri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple game theoretic framework, assuming complete information, to model Bitcoin mining activity. It does so by formalizing the activity as an all-pay contest: a competition where participants contend with each other to win a prize by investing in computational power, and victory is probabilistic. With at least two active miners, the unique pure strategy Nash equilibrium of the game suggests the following interesting insights on the motivation for being a miner: while the optimal amount of energy consumption depends also on the reward for solving the puzzle, as long as the reward is positive the decision to be an active miner depends only on the mining costs. Moreover, the intrinsic structure of the mining activity seems to prevent the formation of a monopoly, because in an equilibrium with two miners, both of them will have positive expected profits for any level of the opponent’s costs. A monopoly could only form if the rate of return on investment were higher outside bitcoin.

  14. The 2016 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Thiébaut, E.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Heininger, M.; Schertl, D.; Weigelt, G.; Millour, F.; Schutz, A.; Ferrari, A.; Vannier, M.; Mary, D.; Young, J.

    2016-08-01

    Image reconstruction in optical interferometry has gained considerable importance for astrophysical studies during the last decade. This has been mainly due to improvements in the imaging capabilities of existing interferometers and the expectation of new facilities in the coming years. However, despite the advances made so far, image synthesis in optical interferometry is still an open field of research. Since 2004, the community has organized a biennial contest to formally test the different methods and algorithms for image reconstruction. In 2016, we celebrated the 7th edition of the "Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest". This initiative represented an open call to participate in the reconstruction of a selected set of simulated targets with a wavelength-dependent morphology as they could be observed by the 2nd generation of VLTI instruments. This contest represents a unique opportunity to benchmark, in a systematic way, the current advances and limitations in the field, as well as to discuss possible future approaches. In this contribution, we summarize: (a) the rules of the 2016 contest; (b) the different data sets used and the selection procedure; (c) the methods and results obtained by each one of the participants; and (d) the metric used to select the best reconstructed images. Finally, we named Karl-Heinz Hofmann and the group of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie as winners of this edition of the contest.

  15. Performances and improvement of copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fenfen; Zhang Hao; Sun Haijun; Liu Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    Copper-hydrazine complexation deoxidising resin is tested to examine its performances including effluent water quality and capacity of deoxidisation. By the means of changing the resin type and regeneration, the deoxidising capacity of the resin can be improved to 13 times more than before. At the same time, physical performances of the resin are also greatly improved while maintaining its velocity of deoxidisation and effluent quality. (authors)

  16. Assessing vocal performance in complex birdsong: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Aubin, Thierry

    2014-08-06

    Vocal performance refers to the ability to produce vocal signals close to physical limits. Such motor skills can be used by conspecifics to assess a signaller's competitive potential. For example it is difficult for birds to produce repeated syllables both rapidly and with a broad frequency bandwidth. Deviation from an upper-bound regression of frequency bandwidth on trill rate has been widely used to assess vocal performance. This approach is, however, only applicable to simple trilled songs, and even then may be affected by differences in syllable complexity. Using skylarks (Alauda arvensis) as a birdsong model with a very complex song structure, we detected another performance trade-off: minimum gap duration between syllables was longer when the frequency ratio between the end of one syllable and the start of the next syllable (inter-syllable frequency shift) was large. This allowed us to apply a novel measure of vocal performance ¿ vocal gap deviation: the deviation from a lower-bound regression of gap duration on inter-syllable frequency shift. We show that skylarks increase vocal performance in an aggressive context suggesting that this trait might serve as a signal for competitive potential. We suggest using vocal gap deviation in future studies to assess vocal performance in songbird species with complex structure.

  17. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed.

  18. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  19. Learning Reproducibility with a Yearly Networking Contest

    KAUST Repository

    Canini, Marco

    2017-08-10

    Better reproducibility of networking research results is currently a major goal that the academic community is striving towards. This position paper makes the case that improving the extent and pervasiveness of reproducible research can be greatly fostered by organizing a yearly international contest. We argue that holding a contest undertaken by a plurality of students will have benefits that are two-fold. First, it will promote hands-on learning of skills that are helpful in producing artifacts at the replicable-research level. Second, it will advance the best practices regarding environments, testbeds, and tools that will aid the tasks of reproducibility evaluation committees by and large.

  20. Holiday Door Decorating Contest Brings Cheer | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer Other than the time of year, what do the following have in common: the leg lamp from the movie “A Christmas Story,” a compilation of silly holiday jokes, a gingerbread house, and Santa on a motorcycle? All four were among the individual door winners for the Holiday Door Decorating Contest, held at NCI at Frederick in December. Employees dressed up their office doors, hallways, and even stairwells to participate. Entries for the contest included individual office doors as well as groups. Some employees even “decked the halls” of whole office buildings to participate.

  1. Contestation of citizenship ’from below’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brändle, Verena Katharina

    -up’ approach to citizenship contestation according to people’s views of their relationship with political authorities as well as concerning questions of how to organise just social interaction among each other. Here, the thesis argues that online media allow people to constitute themselves as political...... citizenship, the thesis conducts an inductive comments analysis and compares them across German and Danish online news sites. Regarding EU mobiles’ citizenship contestation, it draws from two online surveys distributed in Facebook groups and analyses and compares semi-structured interviews with EU mobiles...

  2. Performance in complex motor tasks deteriorates in hyperthermic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Jacob Feder; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Trangmar, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    -motor tracking performance was reduced by 10.7 ± 6.5% following exercise-induced hyperthermia when integrated in the multipart protocol and 4.4 ± 5.7% when tested separately (bothP 1.3% (P math tasks...... of information or decision-making prior to responding. We hypothesized that divergences could relate to task complexity and developed a protocol consisting of 1) simple motor task [TARGET_pinch], 2) complex motor task [Visuo-motor tracking], 3) simple math task [MATH_type], 4) combined motor-math task [MATH...

  3. Hybrid All-Pay and Winner-Pay Contests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In many contests in economic and political life, both all-pay and winner-pay expenditures matter for winning. This paper studies such hybrid contests under symmetry and asymmetry. The symmetric model is very general but still yields a simple closed-form solution. More contestants tend to lead to ...... expenditures. An endogenous bias that maximizes total expenditures disfavors the high-valuation contestant but still makes her the more likely one to win....

  4. Contesting the Neoliberal Project for Agriculture: Productivist and Multifunctional Trajectories in the European Union and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibden, Jacqui; Potter, Clive; Cocklin, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The liberalisation of agricultural trade is strongly contested as an international policy project. In the context of the current World Trade Organisation (WTO) Doha trade round, concerns revolve around the implications of freer trade for rural livelihoods and environments. Analysis of this complex and morally charged issue offers important…

  5. The National Solo and Ensemble Contest 1929-1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first investigation of the nine-year history of the National Solo and Ensemble Contests, held in the United States in conjunction with the National School Band and Orchestra Contests of the late 1920s and early to mid-1930s. Primary sources used include letters from those involved with the planning of the contests, meeting…

  6. Bribing potential entrants in a rent-seeking contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, L.

    We consider a two-stage model of a Tullock rent-seeking contest where one new potential entrant makes his appearance. In the first stage each other player can contribute to bribe this new player to commit not to enter the contest. In the second stage we have the actual contest either with or without

  7. Cooperative decoding in femtocell networks: Performance-complexity tradeoff

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2012-06-01

    Femtocells, which are low cost low power, stand alone cellular access points, are a potential solution to provide good indoor coverage with high data rate. However, the femtocell deployment may also increase the co-channel interference (CCI) by reducing the distance reuse of the spectrum. In this paper, we introduce methods to cancel out the interference among the femtocells while considering that macrocells operate orthogonally to the femtocells. The femtocells may also cooperate through joint detection of the received signal and improve the overall error performance at the expense of an increased computational complexity. In this paper, the performance-complexity tradeoff of cooperative detection is investigated for uplink transmissions. Numerical results show that the cooperative detection gain may reach 10 dB at a Bit-Error Rate (BER) of 10 -2 when compared to the case without cooperation. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Cooperative decoding in femtocell networks: Performance-complexity tradeoff

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Femtocells, which are low cost low power, stand alone cellular access points, are a potential solution to provide good indoor coverage with high data rate. However, the femtocell deployment may also increase the co-channel interference (CCI) by reducing the distance reuse of the spectrum. In this paper, we introduce methods to cancel out the interference among the femtocells while considering that macrocells operate orthogonally to the femtocells. The femtocells may also cooperate through joint detection of the received signal and improve the overall error performance at the expense of an increased computational complexity. In this paper, the performance-complexity tradeoff of cooperative detection is investigated for uplink transmissions. Numerical results show that the cooperative detection gain may reach 10 dB at a Bit-Error Rate (BER) of 10 -2 when compared to the case without cooperation. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Procuring complex performance:case: public infrastructure projects

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, T. (Tero)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This research studies procuring complex performance (PCP) in the case of public infrastructure projects. Focus of the research is on the interface between public clients and private sector contractors. Purpose of this research is to find out what are the main challenges of different project delivery methods according to literature (RQ1) and what are the practical challenges of public procurement (RQ2). As an end re...

  10. Contending with contest in academic literacy. | Murray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 29 (1996) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Contending with contest in academic literacy. H Murray ...

  11. Contests with rank-order spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Baye (Michael); D. Kovenock (Dan); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a unified framework for characterizing symmetric equilibrium in simultaneous move, two-player, rank-order contests with complete information, in which each player's strategy generates direct or indirect affine "spillover" effects that depend on the rank-order of her

  12. Robots in Action - Professional Contest 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ciprian Patic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Robotics Society of Romania, Targoviste subsidiary, together with the Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology Faculty, "Valahia" University of Targoviste, held on May 30th 2017, starting from 11.00h, in the Rotonda of Engineering Faculties, the tenth edition of the professional students contest "ROBOTS IN ACTION".

  13. Robots in Action - Professional Contest 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ciprian Patic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The organizers of the 9th edition of the Professional Contest "ROBOTS IN ACTION" were, as usual, the Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology Faculty, "Valahia" University of Targoviste, together with the Robotics Society of Romania, Targoviste subsidiary and the Students League.

  14. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...

  15. Jackpot for Insurgent in Louisiana Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Campaigns for state school board are typically quiet affairs, eliciting only modest interest from the public and even less from political donors. But the race last fall for the District 2 seat on Louisiana's board of elementary and secondary education was a remarkable exception. The contest attracted the attention of education activists and…

  16. Designing Successful Science Contests for K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, T.; Colleton, N.

    2006-12-01

    Contests can engage, motivate, instruct and inspire students of all grade levels and interests. What are the ingredients necessary for a successful science contest? The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) has recommendations for designing science-based competitions that are both fun and educational for for elementary and secondary students. These recommendations were developed as a result of IGES' experience gained through two annual student competitions that focus on Earth science topics: An annual art contest, for grades 2-4, challenges U.S. students to explore a specific Earth science topic. For example, past themes have included Polar Explorations: Going to Extremes (2006); Connect-4: Air, Land, Water, and Life (2005); and Picture Me: What Kind of Earth Explorer Would I Be? (2004). The contest supports national science education standards for grades K-4, and includes suggested classroom activities, books, and movies. The Thacher Scholarship was founded in 2000 by IGES in honor of the late Peter S. Thacher, a former IGES board member and leader in promoting the use of satellite remote sensing. The $4,000 scholarship is awarded to exceptional high school students displaying the best use of satellite remote sensing in understanding our changing planet.

  17. Contested claims to gardens and land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obika, Julaina; Adol, Ben Otto; Babiiha, Sulayman Mpisi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores how, in a patrilineal and patriarchal society recovering from two decades of war, women and men frame arguments about entitlement. Here claims to gardens (plots of land for cultivation) become a contested conversation about women’s rights of belonging to family and community...

  18. Complexities and constraints influencing learner performance in physical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores complexities and constraints affecting performance and output of physical science learners in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study was motivated by the desire of the researcher to establish, profile and characterise the complexities and constraints reminiscence of poor performance of learners in physical science as measured through end-of-year Grade 12 (final year of high school education examination results. Twenty six schools (n=26 were purposively selected from three circuits of education (n=3. From these schools, two learners were randomly selected (n=52 for interviews. In addition, two circuit managers (n=2 were conveniently selected as part of Key Informant Interviews (KII. For the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs, twelve (n=12 parents were randomly selected to form two groups of six members each. Multi-factor complexities and constraints impeding performance of learners were discovered. Intensive teacher in-service programme is recommended. Community engagement should be encouraged to educate parents on the value of involvement in the education of their children. Free access learner support structures such as Homework and Extra-lessons Assistance Centre (H&EACs should be established.

  19. The 2014 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, John D.; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Tuthill, Peter G.; Wittkowski, Markus; Grellmann, Rebekka; Müller, André; Renganswany, Sridhar; Hummel, Christian; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Young, John; Buscher, David; Sanchez-Bermudez, Joel; Alberdi, Antxon; Schoedel, Rainer; Köhler, Rainer; Soulez, Ferréol; Thiébaut, Éric; Kluska, Jacques; Malbet, Fabien; Duvert, Gilles; Kraus, Stefan; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Baron, Fabien; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Rivinius, Thomas; Merand, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    Here we present the results of the 6th biennial optical interferometry imaging beauty contest. Taking advantage of a unique opportunity, the red supergiant VY CMa and the Mira variable R Car were observed in the astronomical H-band with three 4-telescope configurations of the VLTI-AT array using the PIONIER instrument. The community was invited to participate in the subsequent image reconstruction and interpretation phases of the project. Ten groups submitted entries to the beauty contest, and we found reasonable consistency between images obtained from independent workers using quite different algorithms. We also found that significant differences existed between the submitted images, much greater than in past beauty contests that were all based on simulated data. A novel crowd-sourcing" method allowed consensus median images to be constructed, filtering likely artifacts and retaining real features." We definitively detect strong spots on the surfaces of both stars as well as distinct circumstellar shells of emission (likely water/CO) around R Car. In a close contest, Joel Sanchez (IAA-CSIC/Spain) was named the winner of the 2014 interferometric imaging beauty contest. This process has shown that new comers" can use publicly-available imaging software to interpret VLTI/PIONIER imaging data, as long as sufficient observations are taken to have complete uv coverage { a luxury that is often missing. We urge proposers to request adequate observing nights to collect sufficient data for imaging and for time allocation committees to recognise the importance of uv coverage for reliable interpretation of interferometric data. We believe that the result of the proposed broad international project will contribute to inspiring trust in the image reconstruction processes in optical interferometry.

  20. Contests versus Norms: Implications of Contest-Based and Norm-Based Intervention Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Magnus; Nilsson, Andreas; Hansla, André

    2017-01-01

    Interventions using either contests or norms can promote environmental behavioral change. Yet research on the implications of contest-based and norm-based interventions is lacking. Based on Goal-framing theory, we suggest that a contest-based intervention frames a gain goal promoting intensive but instrumental behavioral engagement. In contrast, the norm-based intervention was expected to frame a normative goal activating normative obligations for targeted and non-targeted behavior and motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviors in the future. In two studies participants ( n = 347) were randomly assigned to either a contest- or a norm-based intervention technique. Participants in the contest showed more intensive engagement in both studies. Participants in the norm-based intervention tended to report higher intentions for future energy conservation (Study 1) and higher personal norms for non-targeted pro-environmental behaviors (Study 2). These findings suggest that contest-based intervention technique frames a gain goal, while norm-based intervention frames a normative goal.

  1. Contests versus Norms: Implications of Contest-Based and Norm-Based Intervention Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Bergquist

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interventions using either contests or norms can promote environmental behavioral change. Yet research on the implications of contest-based and norm-based interventions is lacking. Based on Goal-framing theory, we suggest that a contest-based intervention frames a gain goal promoting intensive but instrumental behavioral engagement. In contrast, the norm-based intervention was expected to frame a normative goal activating normative obligations for targeted and non-targeted behavior and motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviors in the future. In two studies participants (n = 347 were randomly assigned to either a contest- or a norm-based intervention technique. Participants in the contest showed more intensive engagement in both studies. Participants in the norm-based intervention tended to report higher intentions for future energy conservation (Study 1 and higher personal norms for non-targeted pro-environmental behaviors (Study 2. These findings suggest that contest-based intervention technique frames a gain goal, while norm-based intervention frames a normative goal.

  2. Effects of orientation on Rey complex figure performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F Richard; Grossman, Jennifer; Bren, Amy; Hoverson, Allysa

    2002-10-01

    An experiment was performed that examined the impact of stimulus orientation on performance on the Rey complex figure. A total of 48 undergraduates (24 men, 24 women) were randomly assigned to one of four Rey figure orientation groups (0 degrees, 90 degrees, 180 degrees, and 270 degrees ). Participants followed standard procedures for the Rey figure, initially copying it in whatever orientation group they were assigned to. Next, all participants performed a 15-20 min lexical decision experiment, used as a filler task. Finally, and unbeknownest to them, participants were asked to recall as much of the figure as they could. As expected, results revealed a main effect of Task (F = 83.92, p orientation was not significant, nor did orientation interact with task (Fs .57). The results are important from an applied setting, especially if testing conditions are less than optimal and a fixed stimulus position is not possible (e.g., testing at the bedside).

  3. Roles of Working Memory Performance and Instructional Strategy in Complex Cognitive Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, V.; Altun, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how working memory (WM) performances and instructional strategy choices affect learners' complex cognitive task performance in online environments. Three different e-learning environments were designed based on Merrill's (2006a) model of instructional strategies. The lack of experimental research on his framework is…

  4. Speculative values and courtroom contestations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the trial of former Goldman Sachs employee Fabrice Tourre, who was held liable for securities fraud in 2013, and asks what it tells us about postcrisis understanding of politics and critique. What does it mean to hold Tourre individually liable amid the complex

  5. Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Rojas, David; Childs, Ruth; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care simulation. We investigate the sensitivity of these measures to predicted differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in task complexity and learner expertise during simulation-based surgical skills training. We randomly assigned 28 novice medical students to simulation training on a simple or complex surgical knot-tying task. Participants completed 13 practice trials, interspersed with computer-based video instruction. On trials 1, 5, 9 and 13, knot-tying performance was assessed using time and movement efficiency measures, and cognitive load was assessed using subjective rating of mental effort (SRME) and simple reaction time (SRT) on a vibrotactile stimulus-monitoring secondary task. Significant improvements in knot-tying performance (F(1.04,24.95)  = 41.1, p cognitive load (F(2.3,58.5)  = 57.7, p load among novices engaged in simulation-based learning. These measures can be used to track cognitive load during skills training. Mental effort ratings are also sensitive to small differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in the physical complexity of a simulation task. The complementary nature of these subjective and objective measures suggests their combined use is advantageous in simulation instructional design research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. HIGH PERFORMANCE PIAA CORONAGRAPHY WITH COMPLEX AMPLITUDE FOCAL PLANE MASKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Belikov, Ruslan; Soummer, Remi

    2010-01-01

    We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 λ/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at ∼1.2 λ/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below ∼ 10 8 ), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where

  7. Soft plasma electrolysis with complex ions for optimizing electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil, Muhammad Prisla; Kaseem, Mosab; Ko, Young Gun

    2017-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was a promising surface treatment for light metals to tailor an oxide layer with excellent properties. However, porous coating structure was generally exhibited due to excessive plasma discharges, restraining its performance. The present work utilized ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Cu-EDTA complexing agents as electrolyte additives that alter the plasma discharges to improve the electrochemical properties of Al-1.1Mg alloy coated by PEO. To achieve this purpose, PEO coatings were fabricated under an alternating current in silicate electrolytes containing EDTA and Cu-EDTA. EDTA complexes were found to modify the plasma discharging behaviour during PEO that led to a lower porosity than that without additives. This was attributed to a more homogeneous electrical field throughout the PEO process while the coating growth would be maintained by an excess of dissolved Al due to the EDTA complexes. When Cu-EDTA was used, the number of discharge channels in the coating layer was lower than that with EDTA due to the incorporation of Cu2O and CuO altering the dielectric behaviour. Accordingly, the sample in the electrolyte containing Cu-EDTA constituted superior corrosion resistance to that with EDTA. The electrochemical mechanism for excellent corrosion protection was elucidated in the context of equivalent circuit model.

  8. Circadian Effects on Simple Components of Complex Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Benjamin A.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Vieane, Alex Z.; Gutzwiller, Robert S.; Sebok, Angelia L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to advance understanding and prediction of the impact of circadian rhythm on aspects of complex task performance during unexpected automation failures, and subsequent fault management. Participants trained on two tasks: a process control simulation, featuring automated support; and a multi-tasking platform. Participants then completed one task in a very early morning (circadian night) session, and the other during a late afternoon (circadian day) session. Small effects of time of day were seen on simple components of task performance, but impacts on more demanding components, such as those that occur following an automation failure, were muted relative to previous studies where circadian rhythm was compounded with sleep deprivation and fatigue. Circadian low participants engaged in compensatory strategies, rather than passively monitoring the automation. The findings and implications are discussed in the context of a model that includes the effects of sleep and fatigue factors.

  9. Constructing and Contesting City of London Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Andrew; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Existing literature on the City of London has tended to focus on its ‘structural power’, while neglecting political and narrative agency. This paper acts as a corrective by presenting evidence to show that since the financial crash of 2008 the political terrain the City operates on has become more...... contested, crowded and noisier. The contribution develops a middle course between a positive assessment of the role of civil society in relation to global finance, and a more pessimistic reading. We demonstrate how macro-narratives and public story-telling both construct and contest City and financial...... sector power. In a new pattern since the financial crash, NGOs have moved from campaigns of limited duration and narrow focus, to a more sustained presence on macro-structural issues. Adopting a supply–demand framework for assessing governance and regulatory change, we look at the emergence of TheCity...

  10. Robots in Action - Proffesional Contest 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ciprian Patic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology Faculty, "Valahia" University of Targoviste, together with the Robotics Society of Romania, Targoviste subsidiary and the Students League, held the 7th edition of the Professional Contest "ROBOTS IN ACTION" on June 5th 2014, starting from 12.00h, in the Faculty hall. Students and teams of students participated, exposing 10 practical applications in the fields of robotics and mechatronics.

  11. Complex Analysis of Financial State and Performance of Construction Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Krivka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the financial state and performance of large constructions enterprises by applying financial indicators. As there is no one single decisive financial indicator enabling to objectively assess enterprise performance, the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM methods are applied with four groups of financial ratios (profitability, liquidity, solvency and asset turnover acting as evaluation criteria, while the alternatives assessed are two enterprises compared throughout the reference period of three years, also with the average indicator values of the whole construction sector. The weights of the criteria have been estimated by involving competent experts with chi-square test employed to check the degree of agreement of expert estimates. The research methodology contributes to the issue of complex evaluation of enterprise financial state and performance, while the result of the multi-criteria assessment – the ranking of enterprises and sector average with respect to financial state and performance – could be considered worth attention from business owners, potential investors, customers or other possible stakeholders.

  12. Integrated modeling tool for performance engineering of complex computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gary; Ball, Duane; Hoyt, Susan; Steele, Oscar

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes Advanced System Technologies' accomplishments on the Phase 2 SBIR contract NAS7-995. The technical objectives of the report are: (1) to develop an evaluation version of a graphical, integrated modeling language according to the specification resulting from the Phase 2 research; and (2) to determine the degree to which the language meets its objectives by evaluating ease of use, utility of two sets of performance predictions, and the power of the language constructs. The technical approach followed to meet these objectives was to design, develop, and test an evaluation prototype of a graphical, performance prediction tool. The utility of the prototype was then evaluated by applying it to a variety of test cases found in the literature and in AST case histories. Numerous models were constructed and successfully tested. The major conclusion of this Phase 2 SBIR research and development effort is that complex, real-time computer systems can be specified in a non-procedural manner using combinations of icons, windows, menus, and dialogs. Such a specification technique provides an interface that system designers and architects find natural and easy to use. In addition, PEDESTAL's multiview approach provides system engineers with the capability to perform the trade-offs necessary to produce a design that meets timing performance requirements. Sample system designs analyzed during the development effort showed that models could be constructed in a fraction of the time required by non-visual system design capture tools.

  13. Monarto’s Contested Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to develop a new city at Monarto in South Australia during the 1970s was an important project of the reforming government of Don Dunstan. Dunstan’s view was that Monarto would be a city environmentally suited to the tough conditions of its site, and to an ‘Australian way of life’. As planning and preliminary design proceeded from 1972 to 1975, the landscape potential of the city’s selected site became central to its conception. This paper draws on new research comprising interviews with key participants and archival material to examine four issues: the adoption of an environmental orientation in Australian urban planning and discourse in the 1970s; strategies in the design proposals that seemingly gave Monarto validity even as the demographic and political drivers for it dissolved away; the investigations that supported Monarto’s landscape strategies; and attitudes to social and cultural history that the Monarto project adopted. While ultimately the plan for Monarto was abandoned, the projected city’s landscape can be seen as a theatre for competing values in relation to natural and cultural heritage and design ambitions. The paper situates Monarto within national and international urban discourse that is more complex than has been previously acknowledged, indicative of competing values and ideologies in the planning, landscape and design discourses of the period.

  14. Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term Pitcher Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013. The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114. With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.

  15. High performance ultrasonic field simulation on complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouh, H.; Rougeron, G.; Chatillon, S.; Iehl, J. C.; Farrugia, J. P.; Ostromoukhov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic field simulation is a key ingredient for the design of new testing methods as well as a crucial step for NDT inspection simulation. As presented in a previous paper [1], CEA-LIST has worked on the acceleration of these simulations focusing on simple geometries (planar interfaces, isotropic materials). In this context, significant accelerations were achieved on multicore processors and GPUs (Graphics Processing Units), bringing the execution time of realistic computations in the 0.1 s range. In this paper, we present recent works that aim at similar performances on a wider range of configurations. We adapted the physical model used by the CIVA platform to design and implement a new algorithm providing a fast ultrasonic field simulation that yields nearly interactive results for complex cases. The improvements over the CIVA pencil-tracing method include adaptive strategies for pencil subdivisions to achieve a good refinement of the sensor geometry while keeping a reasonable number of ray-tracing operations. Also, interpolation of the times of flight was used to avoid time consuming computations in the impulse response reconstruction stage. To achieve the best performance, our algorithm runs on multi-core superscalar CPUs and uses high performance specialized libraries such as Intel Embree for ray-tracing, Intel MKL for signal processing and Intel TBB for parallelization. We validated the simulation results by comparing them to the ones produced by CIVA on identical test configurations including mono-element and multiple-element transducers, homogeneous, meshed 3D CAD specimens, isotropic and anisotropic materials and wave paths that can involve several interactions with interfaces. We show performance results on complete simulations that achieve computation times in the 1s range.

  16. A low complexity visualization tool that helps to perform complex systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiro, M G; Alvarez-Hamelin, J I; Busch, J R

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an extension of large network visualization (LaNet-vi), a tool to visualize large scale networks using the k-core decomposition. One of the new features is how vertices compute their angular position. While in the later version it is done using shell clusters, in this version we use the angular coordinate of vertices in higher k-shells, and arrange the highest shell according to a cliques decomposition. The time complexity goes from O(n√n) to O(n) upon bounds on a heavy-tailed degree distribution. The tool also performs a k-core-connectivity analysis, highlighting vertices that are not k-connected; e.g. this property is useful to measure robustness or quality of service (QoS) capabilities in communication networks. Finally, the actual version of LaNet-vi can draw labels and all the edges using transparencies, yielding an accurate visualization. Based on the obtained figure, it is possible to distinguish different sources and types of complex networks at a glance, in a sort of 'network iris-print'.

  17. A low complexity visualization tool that helps to perform complex systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiró, M. G.; Alvarez-Hamelin, J. I.; Busch, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present an extension of large network visualization (LaNet-vi), a tool to visualize large scale networks using the k-core decomposition. One of the new features is how vertices compute their angular position. While in the later version it is done using shell clusters, in this version we use the angular coordinate of vertices in higher k-shells, and arrange the highest shell according to a cliques decomposition. The time complexity goes from O(n\\sqrt n) to O(n) upon bounds on a heavy-tailed degree distribution. The tool also performs a k-core-connectivity analysis, highlighting vertices that are not k-connected; e.g. this property is useful to measure robustness or quality of service (QoS) capabilities in communication networks. Finally, the actual version of LaNet-vi can draw labels and all the edges using transparencies, yielding an accurate visualization. Based on the obtained figure, it is possible to distinguish different sources and types of complex networks at a glance, in a sort of 'network iris-print'.

  18. Effects of task complexity on rhythmic reproduction performance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannarilli, Flora; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Iosa, Marco; Pesce, Caterina; Capranica, Laura

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of task complexity on the capability to reproduce rhythmic patterns. Sedentary musically illiterate individuals (age: 34.8±4.2 yrs; M±SD) were administered a rhythmic test including three rhythmic patterns to be reproduced by means of finger-tapping, foot-tapping and walking. For the quantification of subjects' ability in the reproduction of rhythmic patterns, qualitative and quantitative parameters were submitted to analysis. A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct and evaluate individual performances. The findings indicated a good internal stability of the rhythmic reproduction, suggesting that the present experimental design is suitable to discriminate the participants' rhythmic ability. Qualitative aspects of rhythmic reproduction (i.e., speed of execution and temporal ratios between events) varied as a function of the perceptual-motor requirements of the rhythmic reproduction task, with larger reproduction deviations in the walking task. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The politics of power, pleasure and prayer in the Eurovision Song Contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolman Filip V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first annual Eurovision Song Contest in 1956, politics and popularity have intersected to influence the ways in which Eurovision songs have reflected the complex forms of European nationalism. With the Eurovision victory of Marija Šerifović’s ′Molitva′ at the 52nd Eurovision in Helsinki the politics of regionalism and nationalism fully enveloped Southeastern Europe, creating the impression that old and new European alignments, from Habsburg nostalgia to an emerging Balkan brotherhood, overwhelmed the criteria that would otherwise mean that the grand prix would go to the best song. Taking Marija Šerifović’s ′Molitva′ 2007 as a point of departure, this article examines the extremely complex set of networks that intersect at the Eurovision Song Contest and the national rituals and competitions that transform the power and pleasure driving European popular song in the twenty-first century.

  20. The Cultural Ideological Contestation in National Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerta Adhi Made

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the forms and the factors leading to the contestation of cultural ideology in National Examination. This research utilized Qualitative Research method and the approach of Cultural Studies. Based on the analysis, it was found that the forms of ideological contestation, specifically, centralistic, prioritizing on the result of cognitive domain, and imaging. The factors which caused consisted of political of education, state policies, and socio-cultural. The implications of this research were (1 There was shifting of educational values into capitalism, (2 The meaning of learning became limited in which it was just purposed at facing National Examination, (3 Educational services have shifted from humanist public services to commodification of education, with the result that honesty was marginalized. Eventhough the government has developed sophisticated system and very tight supervision, if the character of the subjects are not formed and cultured, accordingly, the National Examination stated honest and achievement oriented will be just a slogan. Therefore, the education system needs to be improved. The education paradigm which is more emphasized on the increasing of intellectual intelligence by multiple choice tests and scores needs to be deconstructed by adjusting with Indonesian cultural values based on “Pancasila” as ideological foundation and developing character education to the children from early age.

  1. Contested Boundaries: psychiatry, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    Since the 19th century, we have come to think of disease in terms of specific entities--entities defined and legitimated in terms of characteristic somatic mechanisms. Since the last third of that century, we have expanded would-be disease categories to include an ever-broader variety of emotional pain, idiosyncrasy, and culturally unsettling behaviors. Psychiatry has been the residuary legatee of these developments, developments that have always been contested at the ever-shifting boundary between disease and deviance, feeling and symptom, the random and the determined, the stigmatized and the value-free. Even in our era of reductionist hopes, psychopharmaceutical practice, and corporate strategies, the legitimacy of many putative disease categories will remain contested. The use of the specific disease entity model will always be a reductionist means to achieve necessarily holistic ends, both in terms of cultural norms and the needs of suffering individuals. Bureaucratic rigidities and stakeholder conflicts structure and intensify such boundary conflicts, as do the interests and activism of an interested lay public.

  2. Self-sacrifice in 'desperado' contests between relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnin Thibaud

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intra-specific competition occurs in all animal species and can lead to escalated conflict. Overt fighting entails the risk of injury or death, and is usually avoided through the use of conventions or pre-fight assessments. However, overt fighting can be expected when value of the contest outweighs the value of the future, as contestants have little or nothing to lose. In these situations, respect for conventions and asymmetries between contestants can break down, and overt fighting becomes more likely (the desperado effect. Such conditions can arise in contests between queens over colony ownership in social insects, because the value of inheriting a colony of potentially thousands of helpers is huge and queens may have very limited alternative reproductive options. However, in social species the balance of possible outcomes may be influenced by inclusive fitness, as contestants are often relatives. Here we present a simple model based on social insects, which demonstrates that not fighting can be selectively advantageous when there is a risk posed by fighting to inclusive fitness, even when not fighting is likely to result in death. If contestants are related, a loser can still gain indirect fitness through the winner, whereas fighting introduces a risk that both queens will die and thereby obtain zero inclusive fitness. When relatedness is high and fighting poses a risk of all contestants dying, it can be advantageous to cede the contest and be killed, rather than risk everything by fighting.

  3. 27 CFR 10.24 - Sales promotion contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales promotion contests. 10.24 Section 10.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.24 Sales promotion contests...

  4. Reversing the AAPT Photo Contest: A Physics Teacher Education Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    This year while awaiting the arrival of the AAPT High School Physics Photo Contest poster, I developed an idea for my physics teacher education course that used the photo contest in a new context. While using an external source like a photograph to learn physics is not new to physics education, this article describes how we used the foundational…

  5. A Contest-Oriented Project for Learning Intelligent Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; Su, Juing-Huei; Lee, Chyi-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    A contest-oriented project for undergraduate students to learn implementation skills and theories related to intelligent mobile robots is presented in this paper. The project, related to Micromouse, Robotrace (Robotrace is the title of Taiwanese and Japanese robot races), and line-maze contests was developed by the embedded control system research…

  6. Product Complexity Impact on Quality and Delivery Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature on product portfolio complexity is mainly focused on cost related aspects. It is widely acknowledged that an increase in a company’s product portfolio will lead to an increase in complexity related costs such as order management, procurement and inventory. The objective of this article is to examine which other factors that might be affected when a company is expanding its product portfolio, if initiatives are not taken to accommodate this increase. Empirical work carried ...

  7. Using contests to allocate pollution rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, Ian A.; Hanley, Nick; Kornienko, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we advocate a new initial allocation mechanism for a tradable pollution permit market. We outline a Permit Allocation Contest (PAC) that distributes permits to firms based on their rank relative to other firms. This ranking is achieved by ordering firms based on an observable 'external action' where the external action is an activity or characteristic of the firm that is independent of their choice of emissions in the tradable permit market. We argue that this mechanism has a number of benefits over auctioning and grandfathering. Using this mechanism efficiently distributes permits, allows for the attainment of a secondary policy objective and has the potential to be more politically appealing than existing alternatives.

  8. The Indian IVF saga: a contested history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Bharadwaj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The politics of conception in India can be traced back to the birth of the world’s first test-tube baby in 1978. This article focuses on an incident where scientists and clinicians were involved in a heated contest over ascription of intellectual credit for the birth of the first test-tube baby in India. It traces the controversy surrounding claims and counter-claims within the medical domain that appear to have emerged as a corollary to the rapid expansion of assisted conception in India. The article emphasizes the fact that this contentious issue played out largely in the media and shows that the generation of scientific credibility and reward is produced and ascribed both inside and outside the scientific domain. In so doing the article offers a glimpse into the unique ability of cultural activity to shape and recast the perception of science and scientific outcomes.

  9. Peroxide accumulation and cell death in filamentous fungi induced by contact with a contestant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silar, Philippe

    2005-02-01

    Podospora anserina and Coprinopsis cinerea (syn. Coprinus cinereus) are endowed with a defence system able to differentiate self vs. non-self and involving the generation of peroxide. Indeed, they produce peroxide when confronted with a filamentous fungus, only in non-self confrontations. Both species are not able to recognize yeasts and show a differential response to bacteria. The accumulation of peroxides in the ascomycete Podospora anserina requires an NADPH oxidase and a MAP kinase cascade, previously shown to be involved in fruit body formation, cell differentiation and cell degeneration. Confrontation is accompanied by the death of the contestant hyphae only in specific combinations of species. As in animals and plants, data suggest that peroxide is likely involved in signalling rather than playing a direct toxic role. Fungi display more complex behaviours than generally acknowledged, i.e. they are able to recognize potential contestants and built up defence reactions involving evolutionary conserved enzymes.

  10. Model for measuring complex performance in an aviation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to identify models of pilot performance through the attainment and analysis of concurrent verbal protocols. Sixteen models were identified. Novice and expert pilots differed with respect to the models they used. Models were correlated to performance, particularly in the case of expert subjects. Models were not correlated to performance shaping factors (i.e. workload). 3 refs., 1 tab

  11. Autism does not limit strategic thinking in the "beauty contest" game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelis, Peter C; Kennedy, Daniel P

    2017-03-01

    A popular hypothesis in developmental psychology is that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a specific impairment or developmental delay in their ability to reason about other people's mental processes, especially when this reasoning process is of a higher-order, recursive, or nested variety. One type of interpersonal interaction that involves this sort of complex reasoning about others' minds is an economic game, and because economic games have been extensively modeled in behavioral economics, they provide a unique testbed for a quantitative and precise analysis of cognitive functioning in ASD. This study specifically asked whether ASD is associated with strategic depth in the economic game known as The Beauty Contest, in which all players submit a number from 0 to 100, and the winner is the player who submits the number closest to 2/3 of the mean of all numbers submitted. Unexpectedly, the distribution of responses among adult participants with ASD reflected a level of strategic reasoning at least as deep as that of their neurotypical peers, with the same proportion of participants with ASD being characterized as "higher order" strategic players. Thus, whatever mentalistic reasoning abilities are necessary for typical performance in the context of this economic game appear to be largely intact, and therefore unlikely to be fundamental to persistent social dysfunction in ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  13. Performance of four Dactylorhiza species over a complex trophic gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, E; Grootjans, AB

    Spontananeous distribution and survival in experimental plots of four marsh orchids (Dactylorhiza spp.) in a hay-meadow complex were related to mineral composition of groundwater, soil nutrient availability and species composition of the vegetation. Differences in Ca2+ contents of the groundwater

  14. Complex matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2014-02-11

    Mechanisms for performing a complex matrix multiplication operation are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the complex matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. The first vector operand comprises a real and imaginary part of a first complex vector value. A complex load and splat operation is performed to load a second complex vector value of a second vector operand and replicate the second complex vector value within a second target vector register. The second complex vector value has a real and imaginary part. A cross multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the complex matrix multiplication operation. The partial product is accumulated with other partial products and a resulting accumulated partial product is stored in a result vector register.

  15. Product Complexity Impact on Quality and Delivery Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature on product portfolio complexity is mainly focused on cost related aspects. It is widely acknowledged that an increase in a company’s product portfolio will lead to an increase in complexity related costs such as order management, procurement and inventory. The objective...... is increased, but it is not the only factor affected. We can document that there is a tendency towards increasing lead times as well as a drop in on time delivery and quality for newly introduced product variants. This means that the company experiences a reduced ability to deliver on time while also receiving...... of this article is to examine which other factors that might be affected when a company is expanding its product portfolio, if initiatives are not taken to accommodate this increase. Empirical work carried out in a large international engineering company having a market leader position confirms that cost...

  16. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, B Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-10-19

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (∼50 mJ m(-2)) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule.

  17. 29 CFR 2700.21 - Effect of filing notice of contest of citation or order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of filing notice of contest of citation or order... REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Contests of Citations and Orders § 2700.21 Effect of filing notice of contest of citation or order. (a) The filing of a notice of contest of a citation or order issued under...

  18. Decision-making and emotions in the contested information environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Haas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Future conflicts will necessitate the ability to conduct effective military operations in a contested information environment. The building and maintaining of robust situational awareness, protection of decision-making effectiveness of individuals and teams, fighting through information attacks from both in, and through, the cyberspace domain, will be essential. Increasing the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in degrading task performance and decision-making during cyber attacks will enable the development of advanced human-centered defensive techniques that aid fight-through capability. In this position paper, the development and evaluation of software that simulates real-time and persistent manipulation of the information environment is discussed. Results of the evaluation indicated that the task performance of a team of decision-makers performing collaborative tasks could be degraded through real-time manipulation of cyberspace content and operation. The paper concludes with a discussion of focus and direction for future research and development. It is suggested that the building of a deeper understanding of the perceptual and cognitive factors that are significant in the relationship between information environment manipulation and reduction in task performance is required. This understanding will aid in the defence of cyberspace attacks, will aid in fight through and mission assurance, and will aid the Information Operations community.

  19. Information Distribution in Complex Systems to Improve Team Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sperling, Brian K; Pritchett, Amy; Estrada, Arthur; Adam, Gina E

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, this study hypothesizes that providing task specific information to individual team members will improve coordination and decision-making, and therefore team performance, at time-critical tasks...

  20. Access Contested: Security, Identity, and Resistance in Asian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... Book cover Access Contested: Security, Identity, and Resistance in Asian ... examines the interplay of national security, social and ethnic identity, and ... Burmese media, and distributed-denial-of-service attacks and other ...

  1. Animal personality as a cause and consequence of contest behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briffa, Mark; Sneddon, Lynne U; Wilson, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    We review the evidence for a link between consistent among-individual variation in behaviour (animal personality) and the ability to win contests over limited resources. Explorative and bold behaviours often covary with contest behaviour and outcome, although there is evidence that the structure of these 'behavioural syndromes' can change across situations. Aggression itself is typically repeatable, but also subject to high within-individual variation as a consequence of plastic responses to previous fight outcomes and opponent traits. Common proximate mechanisms (gene expression, endocrine control and metabolic rates) may underpin variation in both contest behaviour and general personality traits. Given the theoretical links between the evolution of fighting and of personality, we suggest that longitudinal studies of contest behaviour, combining behavioural and physiological data, would be a useful context for the study of animal personalities. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Another Tale of Two Cities: Contestation of Globalization in Odia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Another Tale of Two Cities: Contestation of Globalization in Odia Ofeimun's ... state, in all its social, economic and cultural aspirations, coupled with its trappings of ... as a result of such issues as capitalism, race, nationality, identity and nativity.

  3. Sporting contests: seeing red? Putting sportswear in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Candy; Harris, Julie M; Roberts, S Craig

    2005-10-27

    The shirt colour worn by sportsmen can affect the behaviour of the competitors, but Hill and Barton show that it may also influence the outcome of contests. By analysing the results of men's combat sports from the Athens 2004 Olympics, they found that more matches were won by fighters wearing red outfits than by those wearing blue; they suggest that red might confer success because it is a sign of dominance in many animal species and could signal aggression in human contests. Here we use another data set from the 2004 Olympics to show that similar winning biases occur in contests in which neither contestant wears red, indicating that a different mechanism may be responsible for these effects.

  4. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  5. Holiday Decorating Contest - A Way to Meet Fellow Employees | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trolls from “Frozen,” a North Pole tunnel, and a Christmas tree­–shaped periodic table of elements were just a few of the decorations on display during the second annual Holiday Decorating Contest in December. The contest, sponsored by the R&W Club Frederick, awarded prizes to three groups and two individuals whose decorations were judged based on visual impact,

  6. A national environmental design contest and capstone course for universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhada, Ron K.; Abbas Ghassemi; Deraid Morgan, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Waste-management Education and Research Consortium (WERC) of New Mexico has developed and implemented an environmental design contest for competition by universities throughout America. This is the first university environmental design contest anywhere in the world. WERC is a consortium of three universities, a community college, and two national laboratories sponsored by the DOE with the mission of generating resources to address issues associated with environmental management. The contest was structured to give university student groups from all over America an opportunity to exchange information via a national contest for design, development, and testing of an environmental control process. A practical environmental problem was presented to the competing teams. Each team prepared a total plant design for the solution of the environmental problem. They further prepared a working model to demonstrate each solution on a smaller scale. The design stressed not just the technical solution, but also such factors as economics, risk analysis, regulations, public policy and communications. The judging was preformed by experts from academia, industry and government agencies. The awards were based on the written plant design, the small demonstration, as well as presentations by the competing teams. All the criteria noted above(technical excellence, risk analysis, etc.) were weighted in the judging. Seven universities from throughout the United States competed in the first contest held in April 1991. The program fully accomplished its objective of providing a design challenge as well as providing a medium of exchanging information in the environmental area between various regions of the country. Over twenty universities have signed up to compete in next year's contest. In fact many have used the contest problem as part of their capstone design course. This paper presents the experiences of the first design contest and the topic for the second year. (author)

  7. Contested Development in Indonesia: Rethinking Ethnicity and Gender in Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Großmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Page Header User Username Password Remember me Notifications View Subscribe Information For Readers Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Submit your Article Leave the Editoral Platform and Return to our Website Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2017 > Großmann Contested Development in Indonesia: Rethinking Ethnicity and Gender in Mining Kristina Großmann, Martina Padmanabhan, Katharina von Braun Abstract This article reviews the literature on the relationship between gender and ethnicity in Indonesia’s mining sector and outlines shortcomings and prospects for further research. Recent studies on mining and gender focus predominantly on women and how they are negatively affected by mining. Ethnicity, although a growing asset in struggles on environmental transformations, is hardly included in research on mining. The intertwinement of ethnicity and gender in elaborations on mining is often depicted in literature of development programs and environmental organizations in which indigenous women are homogenized as marginalized victims. We argue, however, for a multidimensional approach on mining that takes into account the institutionalization of gender and ethnicity in mining governance as well as the role of gender and ethnic identities. Feminist political ecology and institutional analysis are pointing the way for such an approach. Furthermore, other relevant categories such as class, age, or status should be considered in the analysis of the complex and multidimensional environmental transformations of the mining sector in Indonesia.

  8. Contest ``LET your School GO Into - Space Baptism 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, G.

    2009-05-01

    The contest ``Space Baptism 2007'' was organized with the cooperation of the Mirador de la Ciencia, a science museum associated with the local zoo in Barquisimeto, Venezuela, and in collaboration with the Asociación Larense de Astronomía, a local astronomy amateur group. This contest was aimed at students of primary schools and had as a final award the chance to give a proper name to an asteroid. The ultimate goal of the contest was to promote basic and space sciences to children and the young through activities that involved the creation of stories related to astronomy, enforcing creativity and originality, and encouraging group work and solidarity. As a result, the asteroid (12758) 1993 SM3 will be known from now on as (12758) Kabudarí. The success of this initiative is demonstrated by stories about the contest that appeared in several publications in local newspapers and magazines about the school and the students who won the contest. We are currently developing plans for repetitions of the contest to name two more asteroids.

  9. "Rape Culture" language and the news media: contested versus non-contested cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April COBOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The American news media has recently reported on several rape and sexual assault cases in various cultural settings, sparking public conversations about rape culture in different cultural contexts. The article is focused as a Critical Discourse Analysis that compares the language use in news articles from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal over a six months period in order to more clearly understand the way the news media uses language in regards to gender and sexual assault and creates a spectrum of valid versus contested reports of sexual assault in different cultural settings.

  10. Contested understandings of recovery in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Rhiannah; Whittington, Richard; Cramond, Laura; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2018-05-17

    The concept of recovery is contested throughout the existing literature and in mental health services. Little research exists that gives voice to service user perspectives of recovery. This paper explores how service users in two recovery oriented services run by the National Health Service in North West England talked about recovery and what it meant to them. 14 service users accessing these services took part in semi-structured qualitative interviews focusing on the concept of recovery. Data were analysed using an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach. Service users talked about recovery as a dynamic, day to day process as well as an outcome; specifically related to being discharged from inpatient settings. A number of factors including relationships and medication were cited to have the potential to make or break recovery. The study highlights the continued dominance of the biomedical model in mental health services. Service users appear to have internalised staff and services' understanding of recovery perhaps unsurprisingly given the power differential in these relationships. Implications for clinical practice are explored.

  11. MYCOBACTERIUM COMPLEX IDENTIFICATION BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A HAWAII

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are different ways for identification of Mycobacteria. One of the most sensitive method is HPLC of phenacyl esters of mycolic acids of Mycobacteria for rapid identification of them after their primary cultures. This study uses HPLC for rapid identification and dissociation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Methods: In this study we use HPLC patterns of mycolic acids for identification three important species of mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG from other mycobacterial species. All the strains were obtained from Tuberculosis and Pulmonary Diseases Research Center. HPLC conditions was as follows: HPLC: Model 1200 Cecil, Column: URP C-18 25X4.6 mm, Detector: U.V variable wave length at 254 nm, Elution: Gradient of methanol/chloroform. Flow rate: 2.5 ml/min. Results: HPLC leads to obtaining chromatograms which on its X-axis retention times (of different peaks which exist in the sample and on its Y-axis U.V absorbance (of these peaks were drown. These chromatograms in M. bovis and M. tuberculosis samples are similar with each other but differs from BCG ones. Discussion: On the basis of different retention times and numbers of the peaks which present in each chromatogram, we can differentiate between M. bovis, M. tuberculosis and BCG from other Mycobacteria. Also, with this method we can identify BCG from M. bovis and M. tuberculosis (because BCG has 9 and M. bovis and M. tuberculosis has 7 characteristic peaks in their chromatograms.

  12. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. 493.1453 Section 493.1453 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  13. The Role of Task Complexity, Modality, and Aptitude in Narrative Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Trebits, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this paper investigated the relationship between components of aptitude and the fluency, lexical variety, syntactic complexity, and accuracy of performance in two types of written and spoken narrative tasks. We also addressed the question of how narrative performance varies in tasks of different cognitive complexity in the…

  14. Rethinking Eurovision Song Contest as a Clash of Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Merve ŞIVGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern era’s understanding of culture overlooked culture, as a social and cultural analysis category as well as a way of life. This point of view has lost its validity and culture gained significance as an area where rulership and power struggle exists. Especially the privileged existence of popular culture; having an interdependence attachment to power relations in addition to an allowing structure for alternative discourses other than the official discourse is a cruicial asset. This article examines Eurovision Song Contest with its over 50 years of traditionaled history, as a noteworthy television program of popular culture. Despite often being considered as “kitsch”, the contest refers more than of an ordinary song competition. The artists who participate in the contest compete for the country they represent rather than an individual race which takes “national identity” more on stage. In this respect the contest has a stimulus effect on national consciousness. This alerted effect can clearly be seen on public debates just before, during and after the contest. It is claimed in this study that Turkey’s position in Eurovision Song Contest offers a view of the “cultural struggle” towards Western civilization since the beginning of the modernization process. In this framework this study primarily focuses on the relationship between identity and culture, followed by the role of popular culture in the construction of cultural identity. Afterwards the study tries to discover how does this contest became a tool of cultural struggle in Turkish society by analyzing the news and the discource of the news that took place in national print media.

  15. Heterogeneous information sharing of sensor information in contested environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Jason A.; Hsieh, Chien; Toth, Andrew; Sheatsley, Ryan

    2017-05-01

    The inherent nature of unattended sensors makes these devices most vulnerable to detection, exploitation, and denial in contested environments. Physical access is often cited as the easiest way to compromise any device or network. A new mechanism for mitigating these types of attacks developed under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, ASD(R and E) project, "Smoke Screen in Cyberspace", was demonstrated in a live, over-the-air experiment. Smoke Screen encrypts, slices up, and disburses redundant fragments of files throughout the network. Recovery is only possible after recovering all fragments and attacking/denying one or more nodes does not limit the availability of other fragment copies in the network. This experiment proved the feasibility of redundant file fragmentation, and is the foundation for developing sophisticated methods to blacklist compromised nodes, move data fragments from risks of compromise, and forward stored data fragments closer to the anticipated retrieval point. This paper outlines initial results in scalability of node members, fragment size, file size, and performance in a heterogeneous network consisting of the Wireless Network after Next (WNaN) radio and Common Sensor Radio (CSR).

  16. Atmospheric stability and topography effects on wind turbine performance and wake properties in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xingxing; Liu, Deyou; Xu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of atmospheric stability and topography on wind turbine performance and wake properties in complex terrain. To assess atmospheric stability effects on wind turbine performance, an equivalent wind speed calculated with the power output and the manufacture power...... and topography have significant influences on wind turbine performance and wake properties. Considering effects of atmospheric stability and topography will benefit the wind resource assessment in complex terrain....

  17. Product variety, product complexity and manufacturing operational performance: A systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trattner, Alexandria Lee; Hvam, Lars; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    Manufacturing in the twenty-first century has been wrought with the struggle to satisfy the rising demand for greater product variety and more complex products while still maintaining efficient manufacturing operations. However, the literature lacks an overview of which operational performance...... measures are most affected by increased variety and complexity. This study presents a systematic literature review of the recent scholarly literature on variety, complexity and manufacturing operational performance (MOP). Results show that product variety has a consistently negative relationship with MOP...... across different time, cost, quality and flexibility measures while product complexity lacks evidence of strong relationships with MOP measures....

  18. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  19. The effects of physical threat on team processes during complex task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Vogelaar, A.L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Teams have become the norm for operating in dangerous and complex situations. To investigate how physical threat affects team performance, 27 threeperson teams engaged in a complex planning and problem-solving task, either under physical threat or under normal conditions. Threat consisted of the

  20. Where to from here? Future applications of mental models of complex performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.A.; Nelson, W.R.; Blackman, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to raise issues for discussion regarding the applications of mental models in the study of complex performance. Applications for training, expert systems and decision aids, job selection, workstation design, and other complex environments are considered. 1 ref

  1. The Effects of Differential Goal Weights on the Performance of a Complex Financial Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmister, Robert O.; Locke, Edwin A.

    1987-01-01

    Determined whether people could obtain outcomes on a complex task that would be in line with differential goal weights corresponding to different aspects of the task. Bank lending officers were run through lender-simulation exercises. Five performance goals were weighted. Demonstrated effectiveness of goal setting with complex tasks, using group…

  2. The Intra-Industry Effects of Proxy Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Chen; Jian Huang; Han Yu

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the first study on the intra-industry effects of proxy contests. Using a sample of proxy contests from January 1988 through December 2008, we identify a striking cross-sectional difference in market reaction to the target companies. As much as 61% of the target firms have a significant positive cumulative abnormal return (CARs) in the period (‒10, +10) around the announcement day, while 39% of the target firms have the negative CARs in the same event window. Moreover, we find th...

  3. Sex Difference in Testosterone Response to a Video Game Contest

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Allan; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Edelbrock, Sandy

    1997-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were assayed from saliva samples given by young men (n = 28) and women (n = 32) before, during, and after competing with a same-sex partner in a video game. The T response to the competition is different in each sex; the C response is the same. Male results confirm prior reports of a pre-contest rise in testosterone. Male results did not confirm previous findings that after a contest, the testosterone of winners is higher than that of losers, perhaps because ...

  4. Analysis of karate injuries sustained in 295 contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLatchie, G R

    1976-11-01

    The injuries sustained in 295 karate contests were analysed. It was noted that in 25 per cent of the contests there was some sort of injury, and in 10 per cent the injury was severe enough to cause the withdrawal of the participant. Injury seemed to occur most commonly among lower-grade participants and more often in the first hour of each day's competition. Protective padding of the arms, legs, feet and hands, and the use of gumshields and protective boxes appeared to reduce the incidence and severity of injury.

  5. Contestability of Container Liner Shipping Market in Alliance Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enna Hirata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross section panel model is applied to estimate the effect that the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI has on container freight rates for a sample of six major container liner shipping routes during 2009 to 2011. The estimated coefficient of HHI is non-positive and statistically insignificant, indicating that higher concentration level does not lead to high price and the container liner shipping market is contestable for the period under consideration. The suggestion that efficiency can be achieved without actual competition in a contestable market is highly significant for policy makers.

  6. Task complexity and task, goal, and reward interdependence in group performance management : A prescriptive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vijfeijken, H.; Kleingeld, A.; van Tuijl, H.; Algera, J.A.; Thierry, Hk.

    2002-01-01

    A prescriptive model on how to design effective combinations of goal setting and contingent rewards for group performance management is presented. The model incorporates the constructs task complexity, task interdependence, goal interdependence, and reward interdependence and specifies optimal fit

  7. Task complexity and task, goal, and reward interdependence in group performance : a prescriptive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijfeijken, van H.T.G.A.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.; Tuijl, van H.F.J.M.; Algera, J.A.; Thierry, H.

    2002-01-01

    A prescriptive model on how to design effective combinations of goal setting and contingent rewards for group performance management is presented. The model incorporates the constructs task complexity, task interdependence, goal interdependence, and reward interdependence and specifies optimal fit

  8. Performance of community health workers:situating their intermediary position within complex adaptive health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Maryse. C; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W; Theobald, Sally; Ormel, Hermen; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Health systems are social institutions, in which health worker performance is shaped by transactional processes between different actors. This analytical assessment unravels the complex web of factors that influence the performance of community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income countries. It examines their unique intermediary position between the communities they serve and actors in the health sector, and the complexity of the health systems in which they operate. The assessment...

  9. “Terrorists or tags”? Contested identities in media portrayal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contested identities in media portrayal of militants in Nigeria. ... that have been highly contested, along political, social and religious lines. ... This approach to CDA tends to link text analysis of news stories to media production processes and ...

  10. Recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: resistance and cardiovascular training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, E R; Fitschen, P J; Aragon, A A; Cronin, J; Schoenfeld, B J

    2015-03-01

    The anabolic effect of resistance training can mitigate muscle loss during contest preparation. In reviewing relevant literature, we recommend a periodized approach be utilized. Block and undulating models show promise. Muscle groups should be trained 2 times weekly or more, although high volume training may benefit from higher frequencies to keep volume at any one session from becoming excessive. Low to high (~3-15) repetitions can be utilized but most repetitions should occur in the 6-12 range using 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum. Roughly 40-70 reps per muscle group per session should be performed, however higher volume may be appropriate for advanced bodybuilders. Traditional rest intervals of 1-3 minutes are adequate, but longer intervals can be used. Tempo should allow muscular control of the load; 1-2 s concentric and 2-3 s eccentric tempos. Training to failure should be limited when performing heavy loads on taxing exercises, and primarily relegated to single-joint exercises and higher repetitions. A core of multi-joint exercises with some single-joint exercises to address specific muscle groups as needed should be used, emphasizing full range of motion and proper form. Cardiovascular training can be used to enhance fat loss. Interference with strength training adaptations increases concomitantly with frequency and duration of cardiovascular training. Thus, the lowest frequency and duration possible while achieving sufficient fat loss should be used. Full-body modalities or cycling may reduce interference. High intensities may as well; however, require more recovery. Fasted cardiovascular training may not have benefits over fed-state and could be detrimental.

  11. Benchmarking in pathology: development of a benchmarking complexity unit and associated key performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Amanda; Pfeffer, Sally; Burnett, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This paper details the development of a new type of pathology laboratory productivity unit, the benchmarking complexity unit (BCU). The BCU provides a comparative index of laboratory efficiency, regardless of test mix. It also enables estimation of a measure of how much complex pathology a laboratory performs, and the identification of peer organisations for the purposes of comparison and benchmarking. The BCU is based on the theory that wage rates reflect productivity at the margin. A weighting factor for the ratio of medical to technical staff time was dynamically calculated based on actual participant site data. Given this weighting, a complexity value for each test, at each site, was calculated. The median complexity value (number of BCUs) for that test across all participating sites was taken as its complexity value for the Benchmarking in Pathology Program. The BCU allowed implementation of an unbiased comparison unit and test listing that was found to be a robust indicator of the relative complexity for each test. Employing the BCU data, a number of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) were developed, including three that address comparative organisational complexity, analytical depth and performance efficiency, respectively. Peer groups were also established using the BCU combined with simple organisational and environmental metrics. The BCU has enabled productivity statistics to be compared between organisations. The BCU corrects for differences in test mix and workload complexity of different organisations and also allows for objective stratification into peer groups.

  12. Performance-complexity tradeoff in sequential decoding for the unconstrained AWGN channel

    KAUST Repository

    Abediseid, Walid

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the performance limits and the computational complexity of the lattice sequential decoder are analyzed for the unconstrained additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance analysis available in the literature for such a channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the lattice decoder. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement, and the search for low complexity receivers for the detection of lattice codes is considered a challenging problem. However, the low computational complexity advantage that sequential decoding promises, makes it an alternative solution to the lattice decoder. In this work, we characterize the performance and complexity tradeoff via the error exponent and the decoding complexity, respectively, of such a decoder as a function of the decoding parameter - the bias term. For the above channel, we derive the cut-off volume-to-noise ratio that is required to achieve a good error performance with low decoding complexity. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Research Policy and Academic Performativity: Compliance, Contestation and Complicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwood, Carole; Read, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Research, a major purpose of higher education, has become increasingly important in a context of global economic competitiveness. In this paper, we draw on data from email interviews with academics in Britain to explore responses to current research policy trends. Although the majority of academics expressed opposition to current policy…

  14. Dark Side or Bright Light: Destructive and Constructive Deviant Content in Consumer Ideation Contests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatzweiler, A.; Blazevic, V.; Piller, F.T.

    2017-01-01

    Firms use ideation contests to generate ideas from consumers. This type of collaboration provides access to new knowledge and reveals latent consumer needs. But it also is risky, as firms give up control to an unknown crowd. Some contestants use ideation contests to post content that is unintended

  15. Using Soil and Water Conservation Contests for Extension: Experiences from the Bolivian Mountain Valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, A.; Graaff, de J.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) contests among farmer groups were organized in five rural villages in the Bolivian mountain valleys. The contests were aimed at quickly achieving widespread sustainable results. This article analyzes the effectiveness of these contests as an extension tool. Mixed

  16. Contesting “Iraq”: a social constructivist explanation | Bailie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using social constructivism as a theoretical lens of inquiry, sense is made of this migration. The empirical evidence that accompanies this theoretical work is drawn from the debate over the conflict in Iraq. This debate is used as a means by which to bring the contestation over the notion of “civil war” to the fore and reveal the ...

  17. CERN Photo Club (CPC) / Canon Contest - My View of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Steyaert, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Photo Club has organized in collaboration with Canon Switzerland a photo contest open to all members of the CERN (Persons with a CERN access card). The only restriction is that the photos must have been taken with a CANON camera (DSLR, bridge or compact) between 1 and 31 October 2016.

  18. Perspectives on ... Multiculturalism and Library Exhibits: Sites of Contested Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Gwendolyn J.

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes a multicultural library exhibit presenting the Palestinian/Israeli conflict as a site of contested representation. Qualitative methodology is used to interrogate the exhibit and its audience reception. Drawing on insights from critical pedagogy, implications for libraries arising from this case study are given and suggestions…

  19. Contesting 'Patriotic History': Zimbabwe's liberation war history and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remarkably, the article observes that the exclusively women authored anthology on liberation war history offers an inventory of a gender based trajectory of memory, thus ... On the other hand, the sidelined demographic categories contest narrow 'patriotic history' by engineering counter discursive historical accounts.

  20. Writing Freedom: The Art of Contesting Incarceration | Maina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human existence and interaction is essentially characterized by a contest between individuals who at times have diametrically opposed social, political, and economic ideals. Due to the forceful nature of our idiosyncrasies, we always perceive our ideals infallible and hence as fit of being enforced on others. This attempt ...

  1. Unravelling the Contested Nature of Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Egmond, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Our climate is changing. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been identified as an important technology to reduce CO2 emissions in order to avoid dangerous climate change. The implementation of CCS is however slow and CCS is publicly contested. This thesis focuses on the debate on this technology.

  2. Giving Back — IDRC photo contest winner shares prize with ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-28

    Jan 28, 2011 ... Giving Back — IDRC photo contest winner shares prize with Senegalese colleagues ... South or the developed world are tackling the challenges of urban living. ... Upon his return to Canada, the 26-year-old wrote to IDRC the ...

  3. Contest success function with the possibility of a draw: axiomatization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blavatskyy, Pavlo R.

    -, č. 208 (2004), s. 1-21 ISSN 1424-0459 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : contest success function * logit * irrelevant alternatives Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.iew.unizh.ch/wp/iewwp208.pdf

  4. Contestation des Nobel une tradition aussi ancienne que leur attribution

    CERN Document Server

    Sevestre, G

    2003-01-01

    "La contestation des Nobel, avec cette annee la campagne lancee par un Americain afin de faire reconnaitre son role dans la mise au point de l'imagerie a resonance magnetique (IRM), constitue une tradition, quasiment aussi ancienne que l'attribution de ces distinctions" (1 page).

  5. Contested Space of Transborder Fishing in Timor and Arafura Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiskha Prabawaningtyas

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the transformation of transborder fishing in Timor and Arafura Sea to demonstrated the contested space of which interplayed by local, state and international actor. State regulations had transformed transborder fishing into political space of authority competition relied on territorial sovereignty, while socio-cultural heritage reminds exploited within fluid space of livelihood survival when state function is just absent.

  6. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.D.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Essen, H. van

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue

  7. 5 CFR 890.1055 - Contesting a denial of reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administrative Sanctions Imposed Against... reconsideration of the initial decision. A provider may contest OPM's decision to deny a reinstatement application... present oral arguments to the debarring official. The provider may be accompanied by counsel when making a...

  8. CIP's Eighth Annual Educational Software Contest: The Winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Denis

    1997-01-01

    Announces the winners of an annual software contest for innovative software in physics education. Winning entries include an application to help students visualize the origin of energy bands in a solid, a package on the radioastronomy of pulsars, and a school-level science simulation program. Also includes student winners, honorable mentions,…

  9. ECMS--Educational Contest Management System for Selecting Elite Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Selecting elite students out of a huge collective is a difficult task. The main problem is to provide automated processes to reduce human work. ECMS (Educational Contest Management System) is an online tool approach to help--fully or partly automated--with the task of selecting such elite students out of a mass of candidates. International tests…

  10. Online videos to promote sun safety: results of a contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise Lorelei Dawson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-percent of Americans search health information online, half of whom access medical content on social media websites.  In spite of this broad usage, the medical community underutilizes social media to distribute preventive health information.  This project aimed to highlight the promise of social media for delivering skin cancer prevention messaging by hosting and quantifying the impact of an online video contest. In 2010 and 2011, we solicited video submissions and searched existing YouTube videos.  Three finalists were selected and ranked. Winners were announced at national dermatology meetings and publicized via a contest website. Afterwards, YouTube view counts were monitored.  No increase in video viewing frequency was observed following the 2010 or 2011 contest.  This contest successfully identified exemplary online sun safety videos; however, increased viewership remains to be seen.  Social media offers a promising outlet for preventive health messaging. Future efforts must explore strategies for enhancing viewership of online content.

  11. Winning the young men over through a contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweeken, F A

    1987-11-01

    5 years ago, the Family Planning Association of Liberia (FPAL) was perturbed by the very minimal youth participation in its programs. Male participation was also at its lowest. The president of the Association then hit upon an innovative idea: a Gentleman of the Year contest. The contestants are selected on the basis of the following criteria: they must be between the ages of 21 and 30 years, at least high school graduates, sportsmen, and possessed of good character and good health. They should also have some knowledge of family planning. The contestants appear before the judges 5 times. For their 1st appearance they don sportswear; for their 2nd, African attire; and for the 5th, a business suit. During their 3rd and 4th appearances they display a talent and go through an interview. As a result of the contest, the FPAL can now boast a viable National Youth Department. The FPAL considers the National Youth Department its most valuable program. A budgetary allocation for it has been included in the Association's 3 year plan to enable the Department to function even more effectively. Plans are also being made for a youth seminar.

  12. Evaluating the Operational Content of Contestable Market Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Aurelius , Marcus , Meditations. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, Ltd., 1964. Bailey, Elizabeth and John Panzar. "The Contestability of Airline...must have as its sole aim the service and harmony of all." ( Aurelius , Book 7, Verse 5) I also thank my reader, Dr. Dennis Quinn. Accession For %’A

  13. Law as a Second-Order Essentially Contested Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Burg (Wibren)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractSince Gallie introduced the notion of essentially contested concepts, it has given rise to considerable debate and confusion. The aim of this paper is to bring clarity to these debates by offering a critical reconstruction of the notion of essential contestedness. I argue that we

  14. Conservation narratives and contested protected areas in Zambia: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation narratives and contested protected areas in Zambia: a political ecological analysis. ... Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies ... This paper uses a political ecological perspective to examine the link between environmental conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia's protected ...

  15. Performance of community health workers : situating their intermediary position within complex adaptive health systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maryse C; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Theobald, Sally; Ormel, Hermen; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Health systems are social institutions, in which health worker performance is shaped by transactional processes between different actors.This analytical assessment unravels the complex web of factors that influence the performance of community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income

  16. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 493.1415 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a clinical consultant who meets the qualification requirements of § 493.1417 of this... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate...

  17. The Influence of Time Pressure and Case Complexity on Physicians׳ Diagnostic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal A. ALQahtani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Time pressure did not impact the diagnostic performance, whereas the complexity of the clinical case negatively influenced the diagnostic accuracy. Further studies with the enhanced experimental manipulation of time pressure are needed to reveal the effect of time pressure, if any, on a physician׳s diagnostic performance.

  18. Innovation contests to promote sexual health in china: a qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innovation contests call on non-experts to help solve problems. While these contests have been used extensively in the private sector to increase engagement between organizations and clients, there is little data on the role of innovation contests to promote health campaigns. We implemented an innovation contest in China to increase sexual health awareness among youth and evaluated community engagement in the contest. Methods The sexual health image contest consisted of an open call for sexual health images, contest promotion activities, judging of entries, and celebrating contributions. Contest promotion activities included in-person and social media feedback, classroom didactics, and community-driven activities. We conducted 19 semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample to ensure a range of participant scores, experts and non-expert participants, submitters and non-submitters. Transcripts of each interview were coded with Atlas.ti and evaluated by three reviewers. Results We identified stages of community engagement in the contest which contributed to public health impact. Community engagement progressed across a continuum from passive, moderate, active, and finally strong engagement. Engagement was a dynamic process that appeared to have little relationship with formally submitting an image to the contest. Among non-expert participants, contest engagement increased knowledge, healthy attitudes, and empowered participants to share ideas about safe sex with others outside of the contest. Among experts who helped organize the contest, the process of implementing the contest fostered multi-sectoral collaboration and re-oriented public health leadership towards more patient-centered public health campaigns. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that innovation contests may be a useful tool for public health promotion by enhancing community engagement and re-orienting health campaigns to make them more patient-centered.

  19. Innovation contests to promote sexual health in China: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Schaffer, David; Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Songyuan; Tang, Weiming; Huang, Shujie; Yang, Bin; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-01-14

    Innovation contests call on non-experts to help solve problems. While these contests have been used extensively in the private sector to increase engagement between organizations and clients, there is little data on the role of innovation contests to promote health campaigns. We implemented an innovation contest in China to increase sexual health awareness among youth and evaluated community engagement in the contest. The sexual health image contest consisted of an open call for sexual health images, contest promotion activities, judging of entries, and celebrating contributions. Contest promotion activities included in-person and social media feedback, classroom didactics, and community-driven activities. We conducted 19 semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample to ensure a range of participant scores, experts and non-expert participants, submitters and non-submitters. Transcripts of each interview were coded with Atlas.ti and evaluated by three reviewers. We identified stages of community engagement in the contest which contributed to public health impact. Community engagement progressed across a continuum from passive, moderate, active, and finally strong engagement. Engagement was a dynamic process that appeared to have little relationship with formally submitting an image to the contest. Among non-expert participants, contest engagement increased knowledge, healthy attitudes, and empowered participants to share ideas about safe sex with others outside of the contest. Among experts who helped organize the contest, the process of implementing the contest fostered multi-sectoral collaboration and re-oriented public health leadership towards more patient-centered public health campaigns. The results of this study suggest that innovation contests may be a useful tool for public health promotion by enhancing community engagement and re-orienting health campaigns to make them more patient-centered.

  20. The Effect of Performance-Contingent Incentives when Task Complexity is Manipulated through Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monte Wynder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When, and how, performance-contingent incentives improve performance is an important question fororganisations. Empirical results have been mixed – performance-contingent incentives sometimes increaseperformance, sometimes decrease performance, and sometimes have no effect. Theorists have called forfurther research to identify the effect of various moderating variables, including knowledge and taskcomplexity. This study responds by considering the role of instruction in providing the necessary knowledgeto reduce task complexity. The results suggest that a performance-contingent penalty can be a particularlyeffective means of directing effort for a simple task. For a complex task, performance can be improvedthrough instruction. The type of instruction is important – with rule-based instruction effectively directingeffort – however principle-based instruction is necessary to facilitate problem investigation and problemsolving.

  1. The impact of manufacturing complexity drivers on performance-a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huah Leang, Suh; Mahmood, Wan Hasrulnizzam Wan; Rahman, Muhamad Arfauz A.

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing systems, in pursuit of cost, time and flexibility optimisation are becoming more and more complex, exhibiting a dynamic and nonlinear behaviour. Unpredictability is a distinct characteristic of such behaviour and effects production planning significantly. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the priority level and current achievement of manufacturing performance in Malaysia’s manufacturing industry and the complexity drivers on manufacturing productivity performance. The results showed that Malaysia’s manufacturing industry prioritised product quality and they managed to achieve a good on time delivery performance. However, for other manufacturing performance, there was a difference where the current achievement of manufacturing performances in Malaysia’s manufacturing industry is slightly lower than the priority given to them. The strong correlation of significant value for priority status was observed between efficient production levelling (finished goods) and finish product management while the strong correlation of significant value for current achievement was minimised the number of workstation and factory transportation system. This indicates that complexity drivers have an impact towards manufacturing performance. Consequently, it is necessary to identify complexity drivers to achieve well manufacturing performance.

  2. Does complexity matter? Meta-analysis of learner performance in artificial grammar tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Katan, Pesia

    2014-01-01

    Complexity has been shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks (categorization of test items as grammatical/ungrammatical according to the implicitly trained grammar rules). However, previously published AGL experiments did not utilize consistent measures to investigate the comprehensive effect of grammar complexity on task performance. The present study focused on computerizing Bollt and Jones's (2000) technique of calculating topological entropy (TE), a quantitative measure of AGL charts' complexity, with the aim of examining associations between grammar systems' TE and learners' AGL task performance. We surveyed the literature and identified 56 previous AGL experiments based on 10 different grammars that met the sampling criteria. Using the automated matrix-lift-action method, we assigned a TE value for each of these 10 previously used AGL systems and examined its correlation with learners' task performance. The meta-regression analysis showed a significant correlation, demonstrating that the complexity effect transcended the different settings and conditions in which the categorization task was performed. The results reinforced the importance of using this new automated tool to uniformly measure grammar systems' complexity when experimenting with and evaluating the findings of AGL studies.

  3. Collaborative crew performance in complex operational systems: L'Efficacité du travail en équipage dans des systèmes opérationnel complexes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... As we progress towards the next millennium, complex operations will increasingly require consideration and integration of the collaborative element wherein crew performance becomes a critical factor for success...

  4. Economic Complexity and Human Development: DEA performance measurement in Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Diogo; Moralles, Hérick Fernando; Suarez Campoli, Jéssica; Ribeiro de Oliveira, Fabíola Cristina; do Nascimento Rebelatto, Daisy Aparecida

    2018-01-01

    Economic growth is not the unique factor to explain human development. Due to that many authors have prioritized studies to measure the Human Development Index. However, these indices do not analyze how Economic Complexity can increase Human Development. The aim of this paper is to determine the efficiency of a set of nations from Latin America and Asia, to measure a country’s performance in converting Economic Complexity into Human Development, between 2010 and 2014. The method used was Data...

  5. Relação entre o desempenho no vestibular e o desempenho durante o curso de graduação Relación entre el desempeño en el examen para ingreso en la universidad (vestibular y el desempeño durante el curso de graduación Relation between the University contest performance and the performance during the graduation course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelin da Silva

    2008-03-01

    cursos tuvieron papel relevante en esta diferencia, pues incluyó público distinto y reflejó datos contrastantes. La prueba de la competencia de la universidad distingue los alumnos más bien preparados para la trayectoria académica. Durante el curso otros factores como familia, trabajo, formación básica, identificación con el curso determinan el desempeño de esos estudiantes. Otras pesquisas que caractericen las condiciones socio-económicas y también las condiciones de aprendizaje de cada alumno parecen necesarias para afirmar con exactitud que estos factores contribuyen efectivamente para un buen o mal desempeño.To enter a public or a private higher education institution the candidate must take an ingression examination, the initial call examination. The basic formation, which is responsible for developing the students skills, by giving them subsidies to exert the citizenship and also to improve in their jobs and future studies, has a very important role in the result of the university contest. Open to people who had finished high school and passed the examinations, higher education must be accessible to everyone during their whole lives. Our goal with this paper was to check if the first and the last ones placed in the university contest for the biology course keep the same results during the course, and what factors contribute to the continuity or not of this performance. To collect these data, questionnaires were given to the first and last five candidates classified in the vestibular contest for the two modalities of the biology course: licentiate and bachelor of biology; it also analyzed the academic descriptions of the students, in order to see their performance in the disciplines. To study the results a statistic analysis was made. We conclude that, in general, the first placed students perform better than the last ones, and reasons like basic formation (basic and average education, work and the age of the pupils are related to their performance during

  6. The effect of two complexity factors on the performance of emergency tasks-An experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Jung, Kwangtae

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the use of procedures is very important in securing the safety of process systems, since good procedures effectively guide human operators by providing 'what should be done' and 'how to do it', especially under stressful conditions. At the same time, it has been emphasized that the use of complicated procedures could drastically impair operators' performance. This means that a systematic approach that can properly evaluate the complexity of procedures is indispensable for minimizing the side effects of complicated procedures. For this reason, Park et al. have developed a task complexity measure called TACOM that can be used to quantify the complexity of tasks stipulated in emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The TACOM measure consists of five sub-measures that can cover five important factors making the performance of emergency tasks complicated. However, a verification activity for two kinds of complexity factors-the level of abstraction hierarchy (AH) and engineering decision (ED)-seems to be insufficient. In this study, therefore, an experiment is conducted by using a low-fidelity simulator in order to clarify the appropriateness of these complexity factors. As a result, it seems that subjects' performance data are affected by the level of AH as well as ED. Therefore it is anticipate that both the level of AH and ED will play an important role in evaluating the complexity of EOPs

  7. Variations in task constraints shape emergent performance outcomes and complexity levels in balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Sánchez, Carla; Barbado Murillo, David; Davids, Keith; Moreno Hernández, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which specific interacting constraints of performance might increase or decrease the emergent complexity in a movement system, and whether this could affect the relationship between observed movement variability and the central nervous system's capacity to adapt to perturbations during balancing. Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed eight trials where different performance constraints were manipulated: task difficulty (three levels) and visual biofeedback conditions (with and without the center of pressure (COP) displacement and a target displayed). Balance performance was assessed using COP-based measures: mean velocity magnitude (MVM) and bivariate variable error (BVE). To assess the complexity of COP, fuzzy entropy (FE) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were computed. ANOVAs showed that MVM and BVE increased when task difficulty increased. During biofeedback conditions, individuals showed higher MVM but lower BVE at the easiest level of task difficulty. Overall, higher FE and lower DFA values were observed when biofeedback was available. On the other hand, FE reduced and DFA increased as difficulty level increased, in the presence of biofeedback. However, when biofeedback was not available, the opposite trend in FE and DFA values was observed. Regardless of changes to task constraints and the variable investigated, balance performance was positively related to complexity in every condition. Data revealed how specificity of task constraints can result in an increase or decrease in complexity emerging in a neurobiological system during balance performance.

  8. 29 CFR 2700.20 - Notice of contest of a citation or order issued under section 104 of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of contest of a citation or order issued under... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Contests of Citations and Orders § 2700.20 Notice of contest of a citation or order issued under section 104 of the Act. (a) Who may contest. (1) An...

  9. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  10. Optimation and Determination of Fe-Oxinate Complex by Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavia, B.; Nasra, E.; Sary, R. C.

    2018-04-01

    The need for iron will improve the industrial processes that require iron as its raw material. Control of industrial iron waste is very important to do. One method of iron analysis is to conduct indirect analysis of iron (III) ions by complexing with 8-Hydroxyquinoline or oxine. In this research, qualitative and quantitative tests of iron (III) ions in the form of complex with oxine. The analysis was performed using HPLC at a wavelength of 470 nm with an ODS C18 column. Three methods of analysis were performed: 1) Fe-oxinate complexes were prepared in an ethanol solvent so no need for separation anymore, (2) Fe-oxinate complexes were made in chloroform so that a solvent extraction was required before the complex was injected into the column while the third complex was formed in the column, wherein the eluent contains the oxide and the metal ions are then injected. The resulting chromatogram shows that the 3rd way provides a better chromatogram for iron analysis.

  11. ASYMMETRIC PRICE TRANSMISSION MODELING: THE IMPORTANCE OF MODEL COMPLEXITY AND THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SELECTION CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry de-Graft Acquah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Criteria provides an attractive basis for selecting the best model from a set of competing asymmetric price transmission models or theories. However, little is understood about the sensitivity of the model selection methods to model complexity. This study therefore fits competing asymmetric price transmission models that differ in complexity to simulated data and evaluates the ability of the model selection methods to recover the true model. The results of Monte Carlo experimentation suggest that in general BIC, CAIC and DIC were superior to AIC when the true data generating process was the standard error correction model, whereas AIC was more successful when the true model was the complex error correction model. It is also shown that the model selection methods performed better in large samples for a complex asymmetric data generating process than with a standard asymmetric data generating process. Except for complex models, AIC's performance did not make substantial gains in recovery rates as sample size increased. The research findings demonstrate the influence of model complexity in asymmetric price transmission model comparison and selection.

  12. Measuring working memory in aphasia: Comparing performance on complex span and N-back tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanova

    2014-04-01

    No significant correlations were observed between performance on complex span task and N-back tasks.Furthermore, performance on the modified listening span was related to performance on the comprehension subtest of the QASA, while no relationship was found for 2-back and 0-back tasks.Our results mirror studies in healthy controls that demonstrated no relationship between performance on the two tasks(Jaeggi et al., 2010; Kane et al., 2007. Thus although N-back tasks seem similar to traditional complex span measures and may also index abilities related to cognitive processing, the evidence to date does not warrant their direct association with the construct of WM. Implications for future investigation of cognitive deficits in aphasia will be discussed.

  13. Does model performance improve with complexity? A case study with three hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Staudinger, Maria; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Seibert, Jan; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades considerable progress has been made in climate model development. Following the massive increase in computational power, models became more sophisticated. At the same time also simple conceptual models have advanced. In this study we validate and compare three hydrological models of different complexity to investigate whether their performance varies accordingly. For this purpose we use runoff and also soil moisture measurements, which allow a truly independent validation, from several sites across Switzerland. The models are calibrated in similar ways with the same runoff data. Our results show that the more complex models HBV and PREVAH outperform the simple water balance model (SWBM) in case of runoff but not for soil moisture. Furthermore the most sophisticated PREVAH model shows an added value compared to the HBV model only in case of soil moisture. Focusing on extreme events we find generally improved performance of the SWBM during drought conditions and degraded agreement with observations during wet extremes. For the more complex models we find the opposite behavior, probably because they were primarily developed for prediction of runoff extremes. As expected given their complexity, HBV and PREVAH have more problems with over-fitting. All models show a tendency towards better performance in lower altitudes as opposed to (pre-) alpine sites. The results vary considerably across the investigated sites. In contrast, the different metrics we consider to estimate the agreement between models and observations lead to similar conclusions, indicating that the performance of the considered models is similar at different time scales as well as for anomalies and long-term means. We conclude that added complexity does not necessarily lead to improved performance of hydrological models, and that performance can vary greatly depending on the considered hydrological variable (e.g. runoff vs. soil moisture) or hydrological conditions (floods vs. droughts).

  14. Hmong transnational identity: the gendering of contested discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Julian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hmong women throughout the diaspora are increasingly expressing ‘what it means to be Hmong’ and ‘what it means to be a Hmong woman’ in a variety of media that constitute western popular culture. At the same time, Hmong women residing in different nation-states live Hmong femininity differently. This paper explores the contested nature of Hmong identity through an exploration of discourses and practices at global and local levels, with a particular emphasis on their gendered dimensions. The paper argues that global narratives of Hmong identity are analytically distinct from, but empirically intertwined with, the constructions of Hmong identities across transnational social spaces. Through a focus on Hmong in Australia and the United States, the paper highlights the significance of place, generation, gender, religion, class and status as axes of contestation and debate in the construction of Hmong identities.

  15. The HepTestContest: a global innovation contest to identify approaches to hepatitis B and C testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D; Meyers, Kathrine; Best, John; Kaplan, Karyn; Pendse, Razia; Fenton, Kevin A; Andrieux-Meyer, Isabelle; Figueroa, Carmen; Goicochea, Pedro; Gore, Charles; Ishizaki, Azumi; Khwairakpam, Giten; Miller, Veronica; Mozalevskis, Antons; Ninburg, Michael; Ocama, Ponsiano; Peeling, Rosanna; Walsh, Nick; Colombo, Massimo G; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2017-11-01

    Innovation contests are a novel approach to elicit good ideas and innovative practices in various areas of public health. There remains limited published literature on approaches to deliver hepatitis testing. The purpose of this innovation contest was to identify examples of different hepatitis B and C approaches to support countries in their scale-up of hepatitis testing and to supplement development of formal recommendations on service delivery in the 2017 World Health Organization hepatitis B and C testing guidelines. This contest involved four steps: 1) establishment of a multisectoral steering committee to coordinate a call for contest entries; 2) dissemination of the call for entries through diverse media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, email listservs, academic journals); 3) independent ranking of submissions by a panel of judges according to pre-specified criteria (clarity of testing model, innovation, effectiveness, next steps) using a 1-10 scale; 4) recognition of highly ranked entries through presentation at international conferences, commendation certificate, and inclusion as a case study in the WHO 2017 testing guidelines. The innovation contest received 64 entries from 27 countries and took a total of 4 months to complete. Sixteen entries were directly included in the WHO testing guidelines. The entries covered testing in different populations, including primary care patients (n = 5), people who inject drugs (PWID) (n = 4), pregnant women (n = 4), general populations (n = 4), high-risk groups (n = 3), relatives of people living with hepatitis B and C (n = 2), migrants (n = 2), incarcerated individuals (n = 2), workers (n = 2), and emergency department patients (n = 2). A variety of different testing delivery approaches were employed, including integrated HIV-hepatitis testing (n = 12); integrated testing with harm reduction and addiction services (n = 9); use of electronic medical records to support targeted testing (n = 8

  16. The HepTestContest: a global innovation contest to identify approaches to hepatitis B and C testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Tucker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innovation contests are a novel approach to elicit good ideas and innovative practices in various areas of public health. There remains limited published literature on approaches to deliver hepatitis testing. The purpose of this innovation contest was to identify examples of different hepatitis B and C approaches to support countries in their scale-up of hepatitis testing and to supplement development of formal recommendations on service delivery in the 2017 World Health Organization hepatitis B and C testing guidelines. Methods This contest involved four steps: 1 establishment of a multisectoral steering committee to coordinate a call for contest entries; 2 dissemination of the call for entries through diverse media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, email listservs, academic journals; 3 independent ranking of submissions by a panel of judges according to pre-specified criteria (clarity of testing model, innovation, effectiveness, next steps using a 1-10 scale; 4 recognition of highly ranked entries through presentation at international conferences, commendation certificate, and inclusion as a case study in the WHO 2017 testing guidelines. Results The innovation contest received 64 entries from 27 countries and took a total of 4 months to complete. Sixteen entries were directly included in the WHO testing guidelines. The entries covered testing in different populations, including primary care patients (n = 5, people who inject drugs (PWID (n = 4, pregnant women (n = 4, general populations (n = 4, high-risk groups (n = 3, relatives of people living with hepatitis B and C (n = 2, migrants (n = 2, incarcerated individuals (n = 2, workers (n = 2, and emergency department patients (n = 2. A variety of different testing delivery approaches were employed, including integrated HIV-hepatitis testing (n = 12; integrated testing with harm reduction and addiction services (n = 9; use of electronic medical records to

  17. Complex Hand Dexterity: A Review of Biomechanical Methods for Measuring Musical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Diane Metcalf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Complex hand dexterity is fundamental to our interactions with the physical, social and cultural environment. Dexterity can be an expression of creativity and precision in a range of activities, including musical performance. Little is understood about complex hand dexterity or how virtuoso expertise is acquired, due to the versatility of movement combinations available to complete any given task. This has historically limited progress of the field because of difficulties in measuring movements of the hand. Recent developments in methods of motion capture and analysis mean it is now possible to explore the intricate movements of the hand and fingers. These methods allow us insights into the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning complex hand dexterity and motor learning. They also allow investigation into the key factors that contribute to injury, recovery and functional compensation.The application of such analytical techniques within musical performance provides a multidisciplinary framework for purposeful investigation into the process of learning and skill acquisition in instrumental performance. These highly skilled manual and cognitive tasks present the ultimate achievement in complex hand dexterity. This paper will review methods of assessing instrumental performance in music, focusing specifically on biomechanical measurement and the associated technical challenges faced when measuring highly dexterous activities.

  18. Effects of Task Performance and Task Complexity on the Validity of Computational Models of Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, L. de; Maanen, P.P. van; Dongen, K. van

    2008-01-01

    Computational models of attention can be used as a component of decision support systems. For accurate support, a computational model of attention has to be valid and robust. The effects of task performance and task complexity on the validity of three different computational models of attention were

  19. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  20. Model Complexity and Out-of-Sample Performance: Evidence from S&P 500 Index Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaeck, Andreas; Rodrigues, Paulo; Seeger, Norman J.

    We apply a range of out-of-sample specification tests to more than forty competing stochastic volatility models to address how model complexity affects out-of-sample performance. Using daily S&P 500 index returns, model confidence set estimations provide strong evidence that the most important model

  1. The Effect of Focus on Form and Task Complexity on L2 Learners' Oral Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Second Language learners' oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners' oral…

  2. Guobin Yang (ed.), China’s Contested Internet,

    OpenAIRE

    Arsène, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    China’s Contested Internet is a collective book composed of 10 chapters, seven of which were previously published in a special issue of China Information in July 2014. With case studies ranging from around 2006 to 2013, this collection of papers covers some of the most salient phenomena that have characterised the Chinese Internet over the last decade: e-government initiatives such as public consultation on the health system reform project (Steven J. Balla), and municipal microblogs (Jesper S...

  3. Winner of video contest inspired by the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    A video contest was launched this year to mark the 10th anniversary of the Frederick Phineas and Sandra Priest Rose Centre for Earth and Space. Luke Cahill, a 27 year-old BFA graduate, has just won the contest with a movie about CERN.   Luke, who works in the film industry in Los Angeles and also takes physics classes, came across a video promoting the contest while he was browsing the American Natural History Museum website. "It seemed like a perfect opportunity to combine my passion for science with my craft of filmmaking", says Luke. Luke decided to make a video about the LHC. To him, CERN embodies the ideals of scientific progress and discovery, continually expanding the boundaries of our knowledge. "I have never actually been to CERN but it's high on the list of places I want to visit when I travel to Europe", says Luke. There is a lot of misleading information on the Internet about CERN – especially about the LHC. Luke wanted to clarify what the ...

  4. Influence of step complexity and presentation style on step performance of computerized emergency operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Song Fei; Luo Wei; Zhao Qianyi; Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    With the development of information technology, computerized emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are taking the place of paper-based ones. However, ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately since the industrial practice is quite limited yet. This study examined the influence of step complexity and presentation style of EOPs on step performance. A simulated computerized EOP system was developed in two presentation styles: Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination. Step complexity was quantified by a complexity measure model based on an entropy concept. Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. The results of data analysis on the experiment data indicate that step complexity and presentation style could significantly influence step performance (both step error rate and operation time). Regression models were also developed. The regression analysis results imply that operation time of a step could be well predicted by step complexity while step error rate could only partly predicted by it. The result of a questionnaire investigation implies that step error rate was influenced not only by the operation task itself but also by other human factors. These findings may be useful for the design and assessment of computerized EOPs.

  5. Wind turbine power performance verification in complex terrain and wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gjerding, S.; Enevoldsen, P.

    2002-01-01

    is a power performance verification procedure for individual wind turbines. The third is a power performance measurement procedure of whole wind farms, and the fourth is a power performance measurement procedurefor non-grid (small) wind turbines. This report presents work that was made to support the basis......The IEC/EN 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing is being revised. The standard will be divided into four documents. The first one of these is more or less a revision of the existing document on power performance measurementson individual wind turbines. The second one...... then been investigated in more detail. The work has given rise to a range of conclusionsand recommendations regarding: guaranties on power curves in complex terrain; investors and bankers experience with verification of power curves; power performance in relation to regional correction curves for Denmark...

  6. The disruptive effects of pain on complex cognitive performance and executive control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Keogh

    Full Text Available Pain interferes and disrupts attention. What is less clear is how pain affects performance on complex tasks, and the strategies used to ensure optimal outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of pain on higher-order executive control processes involved in managing complex tasks. Sixty-two adult volunteers (40 female completed two computer-based tasks: a breakfast making task and a word generation puzzle. Both were complex, involving executive control functions, including goal-directed planning and switching. Half of those recruited performed the tasks under conditions of thermal heat pain, and half with no accompanying pain. Whilst pain did not affect central performance on either task, it did have indirect effects. For the breakfast task, pain resulted in a decreased ability to multitask, with performance decrements found on the secondary task. However, no effects of pain were found on the processes thought to underpin this task. For the word generation puzzle, pain did not affect task performance, but did alter subjective accounts of the processes used to complete the task; pain affected the perceived allocation of time to the task, as well as switching perceptions. Sex differences were also found. When studying higher-order cognitive processes, pain-related interference effects are varied, and may result in subtle or indirect changes in cognition.

  7. The disruptive effects of pain on complex cognitive performance and executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Edmund; Moore, David J; Duggan, Geoffrey B; Payne, Stephen J; Eccleston, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Pain interferes and disrupts attention. What is less clear is how pain affects performance on complex tasks, and the strategies used to ensure optimal outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of pain on higher-order executive control processes involved in managing complex tasks. Sixty-two adult volunteers (40 female) completed two computer-based tasks: a breakfast making task and a word generation puzzle. Both were complex, involving executive control functions, including goal-directed planning and switching. Half of those recruited performed the tasks under conditions of thermal heat pain, and half with no accompanying pain. Whilst pain did not affect central performance on either task, it did have indirect effects. For the breakfast task, pain resulted in a decreased ability to multitask, with performance decrements found on the secondary task. However, no effects of pain were found on the processes thought to underpin this task. For the word generation puzzle, pain did not affect task performance, but did alter subjective accounts of the processes used to complete the task; pain affected the perceived allocation of time to the task, as well as switching perceptions. Sex differences were also found. When studying higher-order cognitive processes, pain-related interference effects are varied, and may result in subtle or indirect changes in cognition.

  8. Ligand effect on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes based on europium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Junfeng; You Han; Gao Jia; Lu Wu; Ma Dongge

    2007-01-01

    A series of europium complexes were synthesized and their electroluminescent (EL) characteristics were studied. It was found by comparison that the different substituted groups, such as methyl, chlorine, and nitryl, on ligand 1,10-phenanthroline affect significantly the EL performance of devices based on these complexes. The more methyl-substituted groups on ligand 1,10-phenanthroline led to higher device efficiency. A chlorine-substituted group showed the approximate EL performance as two methyl-substituted groups, whereas a nitryl substituent reduced significantly the EL luminous efficiency. However, β-diketonate ligand TTA and DBM exhibited similar EL performance. The improved EL luminous efficiency by proper substituted groups on the 1,10-phenanthroline was attributed to the reduction of the energy loss caused by light hydrogen atom vibration, as well as concentration quenching caused by intermolecular interaction, and the match of energy level between the ligand and Eu 3+

  9. High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: II. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Staffelbach, G; Vermorel, O; Duchaine, F; Boussuge, J-F; Poinsot, T

    2009-01-01

    Present regulations in terms of pollutant emissions, noise and economical constraints, require new approaches and designs in the fields of energy supply and transportation. It is now well established that the next breakthrough will come from a better understanding of unsteady flow effects and by considering the entire system and not only isolated components. However, these aspects are still not well taken into account by the numerical approaches or understood whatever the design stage considered. The main challenge is essentially due to the computational requirements inferred by such complex systems if it is to be simulated by use of supercomputers. This paper shows how new challenges can be addressed by using parallel computing platforms for distinct elements of a more complex systems as encountered in aeronautical applications. Based on numerical simulations performed with modern aerodynamic and reactive flow solvers, this work underlines the interest of high-performance computing for solving flow in complex industrial configurations such as aircrafts, combustion chambers and turbomachines. Performance indicators related to parallel computing efficiency are presented, showing that establishing fair criterions is a difficult task for complex industrial applications. Examples of numerical simulations performed in industrial systems are also described with a particular interest for the computational time and the potential design improvements obtained with high-fidelity and multi-physics computing methods. These simulations use either unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods or large eddy simulation and deal with turbulent unsteady flows, such as coupled flow phenomena (thermo-acoustic instabilities, buffet, etc). Some examples of the difficulties with grid generation and data analysis are also presented when dealing with these complex industrial applications.

  10. Executive Functioning and School Performance Among Pediatric Survivors of Complex Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Melissa; Beebe, Dean W.; Drotar, Dennis; Cassedy, Amy; Marino, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the presence and severity of real-world impairments in executive functioning– responsible for children’s regulatory skills (metacognition, behavioral regulation) – and its potential impact on school performance among pediatric survivors of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Study design Survivors of complex CHD aged 8–16 years (n=143)and their parents/guardians from a regional CHD survivor registry participated (81% participation rate). Parents completed proxy measures of executive functioning, school competency, and school-related quality of life (QOL). Patients also completed a measure of school QOL and underwent IQ testing. Patients were categorized into two groups based on heart lesion complexity: two-ventricle or single-ventricle. Results Survivors of complex CHD performed significantly worse than norms for executive functioning, IQ, school competency, and school QOL. Metacognition was more severely affected than behavioral regulation, and metacognitive deficits were more often present in older children. Even after taking into account demographic factors, disease severity, and IQ, metacognition uniquely and strongly predicted poorer school performance. In exploratory analyses, patients with single-ventricle lesions were rated as having lower school competency and school QOL, and patients with two-ventricle lesions were rated as having poorer behavioral regulation. Conclusions Survivors of complex CHD experience greater executive functioning difficulties than healthy peers, with metacognition particularly impacted and particularly relevant for day-to-day school performance. Especially in older children, clinicians should watch for metacognitive deficits, such as problems with organization, planning, self-monitoring, and follow-through on tasks. PMID:26875011

  11. Cassini Scientist for a Day: an international contest in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Moussas, Xenophon; Xystouris, Georgios; Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Katsavrias, Christos; Bampasidis, Georgios; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Patsou, Ioanna

    2013-04-01

    The Cassini Outreach Team of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is being organizing a brilliant school contest in Astronomy focusing in the Saturnian system. This essay contest provides school students all around the worlds with the opportunity to get involved in astronomy and astrophysics and planetary sciences in particular. From 2010 the 'Cassini Scientist for a Day' contest has being one of the most successful as well as important outreach activities of ESA and NASA in Greece with hundreds of participants all over Greece. The number of participants is growing rapidly every year. This type of school competition in Greece is particularly important since Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Sciences, although very popular, are not included in the school curricula and thus students rarely have the opportunity to experience and participate actively in these subjects. For the years 2010 and 2011, the Space Physics Group of the Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mechanics section of the University of Athens in association with external colleagues has been selected as the co-ordinator of NASA for the competition in Greece. Under the guidance of Cassini Outreach team, the members of the Space Physics Group have informed, explained and spread the rules of the competition at primary, secondary and high schools all over Greece. In general, the students have the option to choose Cassini monitoring between three targets of the Saturnian system, which the participants show that will bring the best scientific result. Their arguments should be summarized in an essay of 500 words more or less. They also have the option to do team work through groups of maximum three students. The participation in the contest for 2010 was unexpectedly high and thoroughly satisfied. The winners awarded through a ceremony which was held in the largest amphitheater at the central building of the University of Athens, that was fully packed. The following year 2011 the participation increased up to 300% while

  12. 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest Winner: Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a Centrifugal Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Otto, Mathias

    2012-09-01

    In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall that impede the pump\\'s effectiveness. The winning entry split analysis of the pump into three parts based on the pump\\'s functional behavior. It then applied local and integration-based methods to communicate the unsteady flow behavior in different regions of the dataset. This research formed the basis for a comparison of common vortex extractors and more recent methods. In particular, integration-based methods (separation measures, accumulated scalar fields, particle path lines, and advection textures) are well suited to capture the complex time-dependent flow behavior. This video (http://youtu.be/ oD7QuabY0oU) shows simulations of unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest winner: Visualizing unsteady vortical behavior of a centrifugal pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Alexander; Engelke, Wito; Theisel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall that impede the pump's effectiveness. The winning entry split analysis of the pump into three parts based on the pump's functional behavior. It then applied local and integration-based methods to communicate the unsteady flow behavior in different regions of the dataset. This research formed the basis for a comparison of common vortex extractors and more recent methods. In particular, integration-based methods (separation measures, accumulated scalar fields, particle path lines, and advection textures) are well suited to capture the complex time-dependent flow behavior. This video (http://youtu.be/oD7QuabY0oU) shows simulations of unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump.

  14. Task complexity, student perceptions of vocabulary learning in EFL, and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-03-01

    The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-efficacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a fine-tuned task-specific level. The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-efficacy beliefs, domain-related prior knowledge, learning strategy use, and task performance as they were applied to English vocabulary learning from reading tasks. Participants were 120 second-year university students (mean age 21) from a Chinese university. This experiment had two conditions (simple/complex). A vocabulary level test was first conducted to measure participants' prior knowledge of English vocabulary. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the learning tasks. Participants were administered task booklets together with the self-efficacy scales, measures of learning strategy use, and post-tests. Data obtained were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis. Results from the MANOVA model showed a significant effect of vocabulary level on self-efficacy beliefs, learning strategy use, and task performance. Task complexity showed no significant effect; however, an interaction effect between vocabulary level and task complexity emerged. Results from the path analysis showed self-efficacy beliefs had an indirect effect on performance. Our results highlighted the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs and learning strategy use. Our findings indicate that students' prior knowledge plays a crucial role on both self-efficacy beliefs and task performance, and the predictive power of self-efficacy on task performance may lie in its association with learning strategy use. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  15. High-performance liquid chromatography of metal complexes of pheophytins a and b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brykina, G.D.; Lazareva, E.E.; Uvarova, M.I.; Shpigun, O.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cu(2), Zn(2), Pb(2), Hg(2), and Ce(4) complexes of phenophytins a and b were synthesized. The chromatographic retention parameters of pheophytins a and b, chlorophylls a and b, and the above complexes were determined under conditions of normal-phase and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The adsorption of metal pheophytinates in the hexane-n-butanol (96:4)-Silasorb 600 and acetonitrile-ethanol-acetic acid (40:40:16)-Nucleosil C 18 systems was studied by HPLC. Factors that affect the chromatographic and adsorption characteristics of compounds (structural differences between pheophytinates of the a and b series, the nature of the central metal atom, and the nature of the mobile and stationary phases) are discussed. It is demonstrated that pheophytins a and b their metal complexes can be identified and quantiatively determined by HPLC in the concentration range (0.6-44.0)[10 -6 M

  16. A series of copper complexes with carbazole and oxadiazole moieties: Synthesis, characterization and luminescence performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai Weiyang, E-mail: baiwy02@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Sun Li [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, various moieties of ethyl, carbazole and oxadiazole are attached to 2-thiazol-4-yl-1H-benzoimidazole to form a series of diamine ligands. Their corresponding Cu(I) complexes are also synthesized using bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether as the auxiliary ligand. Crystal structures, thermal property, electronic nature and luminescence property of these Cu(I) complexes are discussed in detail. These Cu(I) complexes are found to be efficient green-emitting ones in solutions and the emissive parameters are improved largely by the incorporation of substituent moieties. Detailed analysis suggests that the effective suppression of solvent-induced exciplex quenching is responsible for this phenomenon. On the other hand, the introduction of substituent moieties exerts no obvious influence on molecular structure, thermal stability and emitting-energy of the Cu(I) complexes, owing to their absence from inner coordination sphere. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamine ligands with various moieties and Cu(I) complexes are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures and photophysical property are discussed in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of substituent moieties improves luminescence performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent-induced exciplex quenching is suppressed by substituent moieties.

  17. Enhancing the Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells with a Down-Conversion Eu-Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Chen, Wangchao; Zheng, Jiawei; Zhu, Liangzheng; Mo, Li'e; Li, Zhaoqian; Hu, Linhua; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Zhang, Changneng; Dai, Songyuan

    2017-08-16

    Organometal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have shown high photovoltaic performance but poor utilization of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Lanthanide complexes have a wide absorption range in the UV region and they can down-convert the absorbed UV light into visible light, which provides a possibility for PSCs to utilize UV light for higher photocurrent, efficiency, and stability. In this study, we use a transparent luminescent down-converting layer (LDL) of Eu-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Eu-complex) to improve the light utilization efficiency of PSCs. Compared with the uncoated PSC, the PSC coated with Eu-complex LDL on the reverse of the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass displayed an enhancement of 11.8% in short-circuit current density (J sc ) and 15.3% in efficiency due to the Eu-complex LDL re-emitting UV light (300-380 nm) in the visible range. It is indicated that the Eu-complex LDL plays the role of enhancing the power conversion efficiency as well as reducing UV degradation for PSCs.

  18. When David beats Goliath: the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive contests declines over evolutionary time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Martin

    Full Text Available Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those

  19. Performance and complexity of tunable sparse network coding with gradual growing tuning functions over wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Ortiz, Pablo; Sørensen, Chres W.; Lucani Roetter, Daniel Enrique; Agüero Calvo, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) has been shown to be a technique with several benefits, in particular when applied over wireless mesh networks, since it provides robustness against packet losses. On the other hand, Tunable Sparse Network Coding (TSNC) is a promising concept, which leverages a trade-off between computational complexity and goodput. An optimal density tuning function has not been found yet, due to the lack of a closed-form expression that links density, performance and comp...

  20. Optical Interference Coatings Design Contest 2007: triple bandpass filter and nonpolarizing beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsch, Markus; Hendrix, Karen

    2008-05-01

    A triple bandpass filter (28 solutions received) and a nonpolarizing beam splitter (23 solutions received) were the subjects of the design contest held in conjunction with the 2007 Optical Interference Coatings topical meeting of the Optical Society of America. Fifteen designers participated using a wide spectrum of design approaches and optimization strategies to create the submissions. The results differ significantly, but all meet the contest requirements. Fabien Lemarchand wins both contests by submitting the thinnest (6254 nm) triple bandpass design and the widest (61.7 nm) nonpolarizing beam-splitter design. Michael Trubetskov is in second place, followed by Vladimir Pervak in both contests. The submitted designs are described and evaluated.

  1. Improving performance of DS-CDMA systems using chaotic complex Bernoulli spreading codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan Sabahi, Mohammad; Dehghanfard, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The most important goal of spreading spectrum communication system is to protect communication signals against interference and exploitation of information by unintended listeners. In fact, low probability of detection and low probability of intercept are two important parameters to increase the performance of the system. In Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) systems, these properties are achieved by multiplying the data information in spreading sequences. Chaotic sequences, with their particular properties, have numerous applications in constructing spreading codes. Using one-dimensional Bernoulli chaotic sequence as spreading code is proposed in literature previously. The main feature of this sequence is its negative auto-correlation at lag of 1, which with proper design, leads to increase in efficiency of the communication system based on these codes. On the other hand, employing the complex chaotic sequences as spreading sequence also has been discussed in several papers. In this paper, use of two-dimensional Bernoulli chaotic sequences is proposed as spreading codes. The performance of a multi-user synchronous and asynchronous DS-CDMA system will be evaluated by applying these sequences under Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channel. Simulation results indicate improvement of the performance in comparison with conventional spreading codes like Gold codes as well as similar complex chaotic spreading sequences. Similar to one-dimensional Bernoulli chaotic sequences, the proposed sequences also have negative auto-correlation. Besides, construction of complex sequences with lower average cross-correlation is possible with the proposed method.

  2. High-Speed, High-Performance DQPSK Optical Links with Reduced Complexity VDFE Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Nanou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical transmission technologies optimized for optical network segments sensitive to power consumption and cost, comprise modulation formats with direct detection technologies. Specifically, non-return to zero differential quaternary phase shift keying (NRZ-DQPSK in deployed fiber plants, combined with high-performance, low-complexity electronic equalizers to compensate residual impairments at the receiver end, can be proved as a viable solution for high-performance, high-capacity optical links. Joint processing of the constructive and the destructive signals at the single-ended DQPSK receiver provides improved performance compared to the balanced configuration, however, at the expense of higher hardware requirements, a fact that may not be neglected especially in the case of high-speed optical links. To overcome this bottleneck, the use of partially joint constructive/destructive DQPSK equalization is investigated in this paper. Symbol-by-symbol equalization is performed by means of Volterra decision feedback-type equalizers, driven by a reduced subset of signals selected from the constructive and the destructive ports of the optical detectors. The proposed approach offers a low-complexity alternative for electronic equalization, without sacrificing much of the performance compared to the fully-deployed counterpart. The efficiency of the proposed equalizers is demonstrated by means of computer simulation in a typical optical transmission scenario.

  3. On improving the performance of nonphotochemical quenching in CP29 light-harvesting antenna complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Gennady P. [Theoretical Division, T-4, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Nesterov, Alexander I., E-mail: nesterov@cencar.udg.mx [Departamento de Física, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Revolución 1500, Guadalajara, CP 44420, Jalisco (Mexico); Sayre, Richard T. [Biological Division, B-11, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Still, Susanne [Department of Information and Computer Sciences, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, 1860 East–West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-03-22

    We model and simulate the performance of charge-transfer in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in the CP29 light-harvesting antenna-complex associated with photosystem II (PSII). The model consists of five discrete excitonic energy states and two sinks, responsible for the potentially damaging processes and charge-transfer channels, respectively. We demonstrate that by varying (i) the parameters of the chlorophyll-based dimer, (ii) the resonant properties of the protein-solvent environment interaction, and (iii) the energy transfer rates to the sinks, one can significantly improve the performance of the NPQ. Our analysis suggests strategies for improving the performance of the NPQ in response to environmental changes, and may stimulate experimental verification. - Highlights: • Improvement of the efficiency of the charge-transfer nonphotochemical quenching in CP29. • Strategy for restoring the NPQ efficiency when the environment changes. • By changing of energy transfer rates to the sinks, one can significantly improve the performance of the NPQ.

  4. The Impact of Environmental Complexity and Team Training on Team Processes and Performance in Multi-Team Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cobb, Marshall

    1999-01-01

    This study examined how manipulating the level of environmental complexity and the type of team training given to subject volunteers impacted important team process behaviors and performance outcomes...

  5. A Novel Method for Assessing Task Complexity in Outpatient Clinical-Performance Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Amspoker, Amber B; Petersen, Laura A

    2016-04-01

    Clinical-performance measurement has helped improve the quality of health-care; yet success in attaining high levels of quality across multiple domains simultaneously still varies considerably. Although many sources of variability in care quality have been studied, the difficulty required to complete the clinical work itself has received little attention. We present a task-based methodology for evaluating the difficulty of clinical-performance measures (CPMs) by assessing the complexity of their component requisite tasks. Using Functional Job Analysis (FJA), subject-matter experts (SMEs) generated task lists for 17 CPMs; task lists were rated on ten dimensions of complexity, and then aggregated into difficulty composites. Eleven outpatient work SMEs; 133 VA Medical Centers nationwide. Clinical Performance: 17 outpatient CPMs (2000-2008) at 133 VA Medical Centers nationwide. Measure Difficulty: for each CPM, the number of component requisite tasks and the average rating across ten FJA complexity scales for the set of tasks comprising the measure. Measures varied considerably in the number of component tasks (M = 10.56, SD = 6.25, min = 5, max = 25). Measures of chronic care following acute myocardial infarction exhibited significantly higher measure difficulty ratings compared to diabetes or screening measures, but not to immunization measures ([Formula: see text] = 0.45, -0.04, -0.05, and -0.06 respectively; F (3, 186) = 3.57, p = 0.015). Measure difficulty ratings were not significantly correlated with the number of component tasks (r = -0.30, p = 0.23). Evaluating the difficulty of achieving recommended CPM performance levels requires more than simply counting the tasks involved; using FJA to assess the complexity of CPMs' component tasks presents an alternate means of assessing the difficulty of primary-care CPMs and accounting for performance variation among measures and performers. This in turn could be used in designing

  6. Contested Hydrohegemony: Hydraulic Control and Security in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Warner

    2008-10-01

    The present analysis suggests that Turkey’s basin and regional hegemony is contested and constrained from different sides, not least at home. Its water projects are a flashpoint of domestic, basin as well as global politics. It argues that the need to access capital in the international market to realise these ambitions necessitated a 'passive revolution' in Turkey which opened a window of opportunity utilised by the internationalised counter-hegemonic moves against Turkey’s dam projects in Southeast Anatolia, notably the ongoing Ilisu dam on the Tigris.

  7. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.; van Essen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,87...

  8. Into the black. 1993 Hospital Turnaround Contest winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerne, F; Bergman, R

    1993-07-20

    Turning a hospital around takes a lot more than adjusting the financials, as the winners and finalists in the Great Comebacks 1993: The Hospital Turnaround Contest demonstrate. In every case we report on, the hospital being recognized has worked intensively with its community to reassess the services needed by its patients, build support for major management and delivery changes, and articulate the reasons for the strategies being used. Each of the eight hospital organizations we profile, which are spread across the country from Texas to Wisconsin to Maine to North Carolina--has put together its own version of success--in other words, eight lessons in innovation and progress.

  9. Contested Regional Orders and Institutional Balancing in the Asia Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . On the basis of institutional balancing theory, I argue that (i) China’s rise has led to a competition among different regional orders, that is, the US-led bilateralism versus ASEAN-centered and China-supported multilateralism. However, conflicts or wars are not inevitable since the contested regional orders...... can coexist in the Asia Pacific. (ii) The deepening economic interdependence has encouraged regional powers, including the United States, China and ASEAN, to rely on different institutional balancing strategies to pursue security after the Cold War....

  10. Managing project complexity : A study into adapting early project phases to improve project performance in large engineering projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Rekveldt, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Engineering projects become increasingly more complex and project complexity is assumed to be one of the causes for projects being delivered late and over budget. However, what this project complexity actually comprised of was unclear. To improve the overall project performance, this study focuses

  11. Performance and Complexity Evaluation of Iterative Receiver for Coded MIMO-OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida El Chall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO technology in combination with channel coding technique is a promising solution for reliable high data rate transmission in future wireless communication systems. However, these technologies pose significant challenges for the design of an iterative receiver. In this paper, an efficient receiver combining soft-input soft-output (SISO detection based on low-complexity K-Best (LC-K-Best decoder with various forward error correction codes, namely, LTE turbo decoder and LDPC decoder, is investigated. We first investigate the convergence behaviors of the iterative MIMO receivers to determine the required inner and outer iterations. Consequently, the performance of LC-K-Best based receiver is evaluated in various LTE channel environments and compared with other MIMO detection schemes. Moreover, the computational complexity of the iterative receiver with different channel coding techniques is evaluated and compared with different modulation orders and coding rates. Simulation results show that LC-K-Best based receiver achieves satisfactory performance-complexity trade-offs.

  12. Cognitive function predicts listening effort performance during complex tasks in normally aging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennine Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines whether cognitive function, as measured by the subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson III (WCJ-III assessment, predicts listening-effort performance during dual tasks across the adults of varying ages. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 14 listeners (number of females = 11 who were 41–61 years old [mean = 53.18; standard deviation (SD = 5.97]. Group 2 consisted of 15 listeners (number of females = 9 who were 63–81 years old (mean = 72.07; SD = 5.11. Participants were administered the WCJ-III Memory for Words, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Matching, and Decision Speed subtests. All participants were tested in each of the following three dual-task experimental conditions, which were varying in complexity: (1 auditory word recognition + visual processing, (2 auditory working memory (word + visual processing, and (3 auditory working memory (sentence + visual processing in noise. Results: A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that task complexity significantly affected the performance measures of auditory accuracy, visual accuracy, and processing speed. Linear regression revealed that the cognitive subtests of the WCJ-III test significantly predicted performance across dependent variable measures. Conclusion: Listening effort is significantly affected by task complexity, regardless of age. Performance on the WCJ-III test may predict listening effort in adults and may assist speech-language pathologist (SLPs to understand challenges faced by participants when subjected to noise.

  13. On improving the performance of nonphotochemical quenching in CP29 light-harvesting antenna complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Nesterov, Alexander I.; Sayre, Richard T.; Still, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    We model and simulate the performance of charge-transfer in nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in the CP29 light-harvesting antenna-complex associated with photosystem II (PSII). The model consists of five discrete excitonic energy states and two sinks, responsible for the potentially damaging processes and charge-transfer channels, respectively. We demonstrate that by varying (i) the parameters of the chlorophyll-based dimer, (ii) the resonant properties of the protein-solvent environment interaction, and (iii) the energy transfer rates to the sinks, one can significantly improve the performance of the NPQ. Our analysis suggests strategies for improving the performance of the NPQ in response to environmental changes, and may stimulate experimental verification.

  14. Effect of action verbs on the performance of a complex movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Rabahi

    Full Text Available The interaction between language and motor action has been approached by studying the effect of action verbs, kinaesthetic imagery and mental subtraction upon the performance of a complex movement, the squat vertical jump (SVJ. The time of flight gave the value of the height of the SVJ and was measured with an Optojump® and a Myotest® apparatuses. The results obtained by the effects of the cognitive stimuli showed a statistically significant improvement of the SVJ performance after either loudly or silently pronouncing, hearing or reading the verb saute (jump in French language. Action verbs specific for other motor actions (pince = pinch, lèche = lick or non-specific (bouge = move showed no or little effect. A meaningless verb for the French subjects (tiáo = jump in Chinese showed no effect as did rêve (dream, tombe (fall and stop. The verb gagne (win improved significantly the SVJ height, as did its antonym perds (lose suggesting a possible influence of affects in the subjects' performance. The effect of the specific action verb jump upon the heights of SVJ was similar to that obtained after kinaesthetic imagery and after mental subtraction of two digits numbers from three digits ones; possibly, in the latter, because of the intervention of language in calculus. It appears that the effects of the specific action verb jump did seem effective but not totally exclusive for the enhancement of the SVJ performance. The results imply an interaction among language and motor brain areas in the performance of a complex movement resulting in a clear specificity of the corresponding action verb. The effect upon performance may probably be influenced by the subjects' intention, increased attention and emotion produced by cognitive stimuli among which action verbs.

  15. Performance of community health workers: situating their intermediary position within complex adaptive health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maryse C; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Theobald, Sally; Ormel, Hermen; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2017-09-02

    Health systems are social institutions, in which health worker performance is shaped by transactional processes between different actors.This analytical assessment unravels the complex web of factors that influence the performance of community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income countries. It examines their unique intermediary position between the communities they serve and actors in the health sector, and the complexity of the health systems in which they operate. The assessment combines evidence from the international literature on CHW programmes with research outcomes from the 5-year REACHOUT consortium, undertaking implementation research to improve CHW performance in six contexts (two in Asia and four in Africa). A conceptual framework on CHW performance, which explicitly conceptualizes the interface role of CHWs, is presented. Various categories of factors influencing CHW performance are distinguished in the framework: the context, the health system and intervention hardware and the health system and intervention software. Hardware elements of CHW interventions comprise the supervision systems, training, accountability and communication structures, incentives, supplies and logistics. Software elements relate to the ideas, interests, relationships, power, values and norms of the health system actors. They influence CHWs' feelings of connectedness, familiarity, self-fulfilment and serving the same goals and CHWs' perceptions of support received, respect, competence, honesty, fairness and recognition.The framework shines a spotlight on the need for programmes to pay more attention to ideas, interests, relationships, power, values and norms of CHWs, communities, health professionals and other actors in the health system, if CHW performance is to improve.

  16. Balancing collaboration with coordination: Contesting eradication in the Australian plant pest and disease biosecurity system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Robert Jeff McAllister

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The logistical challenge of coordinating natural resource management actions across large scales is typically complicated by the diversity of stakeholders’ interests. Devising a plan is difficult. Getting diverse stakeholders to agree to and adhere to any logistical solution is harder still. Hence logistical solutions to large-scale problems involve a combination of coordination, and trust-building and contestation which are two key features of collaboration. We studied networks based on stakeholder participation in institutional responses to agricultural pest and disease incursions, where the spatial complexity of response is further challenged by the need to design and implement plans quickly in order to stop the spread of incursions. Using data from the 2010 Australian myrtle rust incursion, we used novel statistical network methods which showed that policy forums at national scales, where higher-level decisions are made, were associated with denser overlapping stakeholder interactions signifying collaboration (bondingcapital, high transaction-costs. Our qualitative data unpacked this, showing how at times uncertainty in process and information is used by some stakeholders to contest decisions at national scales. We failed to find statistical evidence that at local scales, where plans are implemented more-or-less at face value, networks exhibited lower-transaction cost interactions associated with the socially cheaper task of coordination (bridging-capital, low transaction-costs. By identifying the mix of coordination and collaboration in networks for solving environmental problems, capacity building can be more targeted, and rules-of-behaviour can be developed that better fit the requirements of the diverse tasks involved.

  17. Wind turbine power performance verification in complex terrain and wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friis Pedersen, T.; Gjerding, S.; Ingham, P.; Enevoldsen, P.; Kjaer Hansen, J.; Kanstrup Joergensen, H.

    2002-04-01

    The IEC/EN 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing is being revised. The standard will be divided into four documents. The first one of these is more or less a revision of the existing document on power performance measurements on individual wind turbines. The second one is a power performance verification procedure for individual wind turbines. The third is a power performance measurement procedure of whole wind farms, and the fourth is a power performance measurement procedure for non-grid (small) wind turbines. This report presents work that was made to support the basis for this standardisation work. The work addressed experience from several national and international research projects and contractual and field experience gained within the wind energy community on this matter. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge regarding existing methodologies, which has then been investigated in more detail. The work has given rise to a range of conclusions and recommendations regarding: guaranties on power curves in complex terrain; investors and bankers experience with verification of power curves; power performance in relation to regional correction curves for Denmark; anemometry and the influence of inclined flow. (au)

  18. Impact of Business Interoperability on the Performance of Complex Cooperative Supply Chain Networks: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izunildo Cabral

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an agent-based model for evaluating the effect of business interoperability on the performance of cooperative supply chain networks. The model is based on insights from the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing network approach and the complex systems theory perspective. To demonstrate its applicability, an explanatory case study regarding a Portuguese reverse logistics cooperative supply chain network is presented. Face-to-face interviews and forms were used to collect data. The findings show that the establishment of appropriate levels of business interoperability has helped to reduce several non-value-added interaction processes and consequently improve the operational performance of the Valorpneu network. Regarding the research implications, this paper extends the current knowledge on business interoperability and an important problem in business: how business interoperability gaps in dyadic organizational relationships affect the network of companies that the two companies belong to—network effect. In terms of practical implications, managers can use the proposed model as a starting point to simulate complex interactions between supply chain network partners and understand better how the performance of their networks emerges from these interactions and from the adoption of different levels of business interoperability.

  19. Shifting effects in randomised controlled trials of complex interventions: a new kind of performance bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, C; Erkkilä, J; Crawford, M J

    2012-11-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) aim to provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects. However, the process of implementing trial procedures may have an impact on the performance of complex interventions that rely strongly on the intuition and confidence of therapists. We aimed to examine whether shifting effects over the recruitment period can be observed that might indicate such impact. Three RCTs investigating music therapy vs. standard care were included. The intervention was performed by experienced therapists and based on established methods. We examined outcomes of participants graphically, analysed cumulative effects and tested for differences between first vs. later participants. We tested for potential confounding population shifts through multiple regression models. Cumulative differences suggested trends over the recruitment period. Effect sizes tended to be less favourable among the first participants than later participants. In one study, effects even changed direction. Age, gender and baseline severity did not account for these shifting effects. Some trials of complex interventions have shifting effects over the recruitment period that cannot be explained by therapist experience or shifting demographics. Replication and further research should aim to find out which interventions and trial designs are most vulnerable to this new kind of performance bias. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Contested Space of Transborder Fishing in Timor and Arafura Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiskha Prabawaningtyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of Indonesian transborder fishing activities into Australian Fishing Zone (AFZ highlights the rooted dispute of maritime border when contested space of boundary shared by local, state and international actor is confronted. Therefore, the prevailing of multilayer perspective of maritime boundary should not be easily neglected. The colonial project in early 19th century in Southeast Asia that initiated the foundation of modern state-formation had challenged the prior-political and economic construction of the region, specifically on the issue of territoriality. The modernization of shipping and fishing activities of which relied on technology and capitals had generated political and economic competitions and later persuaded state’s actors of applying the strategy of the territorialisation of the sea in order to ensure control. Unavoidably, securitization of transborder fishing became preferable solution. Transborder fishings are further subjected into state control relied on territorial sovereignty. This paper examines the transformation of transborder fishing in Timor and Arafura Sea to demonstrated the contested space of which interplayed by local, state and international actor. State regulations had transformed transborder fishing into political space of authority competition relied on territorial sovereignty, while socio-cultural heritage reminds exploited within fluid space of livelihood survival when state function is just absent.

  1. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Dijkstra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014. In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi. We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi. The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  2. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Peter D; Preenen, Paul T Y; van Essen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014). In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi . We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi . The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  3. Halloween Drama Contest: A Didactic Approach to English Language Teaching in a non-Bilingual School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Camelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an action research project developed in Mayor de San Bartolomé School in 2007, when the authors’ teaching practice took place. The observation of 38 eighth graders, between 13 and 14 years old, highlighted their lack of motivation towards the English class. In the coming semester after the observation, the drama activities carried out in the English class made the students more eager to participate in the class activities and to use this language to communicate with their peers. The Halloween Drama Contest consisted of drama activities along with reading comprehension, writing production, vocabulary exercises and phonetics practice. Students were asked to prepare scripts of six horror movies to be performed on Halloween.

  4. Gains from resistance: contesting a new digital technology in a service sector workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shulzhenko, Elena; Holmgren, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Increasing expectations of efficiency enabled by new digital technology have led to renewed interest in spaces remaining for employee resistance to management power. The study contributes to this debate by analysing resistance to a new technology introduced in the home-nursing sector in Denmark....... Nurses succeeded in halting a technological change that allowed them to report data related to their visits online from inside patients’ homes and reduced their co-located working time. Work location became a central area of contestation between nurses and management. The study offers a nuanced analysis...... of power relations during the technological change. It shows that the capacity of IT management – a management actor uninhibited by a care ethos - to influence nursing workplaces rose along with the increasing significance of expertise in digital technologies in performing care work. Nurses’ alliances...

  5. Analyzing complex wake-terrain interactions and its implications on wind-farm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Mandar; Rasheed, Adil; Fuchs, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Rotating wind turbine blades generate complex wakes involving vortices (helical tip-vortex, root-vortex etc.).These wakes are regions of high velocity deficits and high turbulence intensities and they tend to degrade the performance of down-stream turbines. Hence, a conservative inter-turbine distance of up-to 10 times turbine diameter (10D) is sometimes used in wind-farm layout (particularly in cases of flat terrain). This ensures that wake-effects will not reduce the overall wind-farm performance, but this leads to larger land footprint for establishing a wind-farm. In-case of complex-terrain, within a short distance (say 10D) itself, the nearby terrain can rise in altitude and be high enough to influence the wake dynamics. This wake-terrain interaction can happen either (a) indirectly, through an interaction of wake (both near tip vortex and far wake large-scale vortex) with terrain induced turbulence (especially, smaller eddies generated by small ridges within the terrain) or (b) directly, by obstructing the wake-region partially or fully in its flow-path. Hence, enhanced understanding of wake- development due to wake-terrain interaction will help in wind farm design. To this end the current study involves: (1) understanding the numerics for successful simulation of vortices, (2) understanding fundamental vortex-terrain interaction mechanism through studies devoted to interaction of a single vortex with different terrains, (3) relating influence of vortex-terrain interactions to performance of a wind-farm by studying a multi-turbine wind-farm layout under different terrains. The results on interaction of terrain and vortex has shown a much faster decay of vortex for complex terrain compared to a flatter-terrain. The potential reasons identified explaining the observation are (a) formation of secondary vortices in flow and its interaction with the primary vortex and (b) enhanced vorticity diffusion due to increased terrain-induced turbulence. The implications of

  6. Performance and Complexity of Tunable Sparse Network Coding with Gradual Growing Tuning Functions over Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Pablo; Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2016-01-01

    Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) has been shown to be a technique with several benefits, in particular when applied over wireless mesh networks, since it provides robustness against packet losses. On the other hand, Tunable Sparse Network Coding (TSNC) is a promising concept, which leverages...... a trade-off between computational complexity and goodput. An optimal density tuning function has not been found yet, due to the lack of a closed-form expression that links density, performance and computational cost. In addition, it would be difficult to implement, due to the feedback delay. In this work...

  7. The Wildlife Habitat Education Program: Moving from Contest Participation to Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kevin; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Harper, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Do members participating in the Wildlife Habitat Education Program (WHEP) apply knowledge gained by implementing wildlife management practices at the local level? 4-H members who participated in the National WHEP Contest from 2003-2005 and 2007-2011 completed an evaluation at the end of each contest. The evaluation asked participants if they…

  8. Exploring the Effects of Contest Mechanisms on Idea Shortlisting in an Open Idea Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merz, Alexander Benedikt; Seeber, Isabella; Maier, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Picking the most promising from a multitude of crowd-generated ideas challenges organizations that employ open idea competitions. Hence, hosts of such contests often filter submitted ideas into shortlists to help juries selecting the winning ideas. While contest communities and rewards have been...

  9. Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2013: The Teams and the Design of Their Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlbrecht, Tobias; Bender-Saebelkampf, Christian; Brito, Maiquel

    2013-01-01

    Five teams participated in the Multi-Agent Programming Contest in 2013: All of them gained experience in 2012 already. In order to better understand which paradigms they used, which techniques they considered important and how much work they invested, the organisers of the contest compiled together...

  10. Developing Conceptions of Fair Contest Procedures and the Understanding of Skill and Luck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Theresa A.; White-McNulty, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to assumptions about aversive effects of competition on achievement motivation, in this study young people saw academic contests as fair. When participants completed structural interviews on fair ways to organize science contests and on differentiation of skill and luck, age-related trends in their conceptions of procedural justice were…

  11. Multitemporal Very High Resolution From Space: Outcome of the 2016 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, L.; Zhu, X.; Vakalopoulou, M.; Karantzalos, K.; Paragios, N.; Saux, Le B.; Moser, G.; Tuia, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the scientific outcomes of the 2016 Data Fusion Contest organized by the Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society are discussed. The 2016 Contest was an open topic competition based on a multitemporal and multimodal dataset,

  12. Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2011 - The Python-DTU Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Ettienne, Mikko Berggren; Vester, Steen

    We provide a brief description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall design, the tools and the algorithms that we plan to use in the agent contest.......We provide a brief description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall design, the tools and the algorithms that we plan to use in the agent contest....

  13. Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2016 – The Python-DTU Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Halkjær From, Andreas; Jacobi, Salvador

    2018-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall system design and the tools used in the agent contest.......We provide a detailed description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall system design and the tools used in the agent contest....

  14. Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2012 - The Python-DTU Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Ettienne, Mikko Berggren

    We provide a brief description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall design, the tools and the algorithms that we plan to use in the agent contest.......We provide a brief description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall design, the tools and the algorithms that we plan to use in the agent contest....

  15. The Structure-Agency Dialectic in Contested Science Spaces: "Do Earthworms Eat Apples?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on a group of African American third graders who attend a high-poverty urban school, I explore the structure-agency dialectic within contested spaces situated in a dialogically oriented science classroom. Contested spaces entail the moments in which the students challenge each other's and their teacher's science ideas and, in the process,…

  16. Will hypertension performance measures used for pay-for-performance programs penalize those who care for medically complex patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Laura A; Woodard, Lechauncy D; Henderson, Louise M; Urech, Tracy H; Pietz, Kenneth

    2009-06-16

    There is concern that performance measures, patient ratings of their care, and pay-for-performance programs may penalize healthcare providers of patients with multiple chronic coexisting conditions. We examined the impact of coexisting conditions on the quality of care for hypertension and patient perception of overall quality of their health care. We classified 141 609 veterans with hypertension into 4 condition groups: those with hypertension-concordant (diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia) and/or -discordant (arthritis, depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) conditions or neither. We measured blood pressure control at the index visit, overall good quality of care for hypertension, including a follow-up interval, and patient ratings of satisfaction with their care. Associations between condition type and number of coexisting conditions on receipt of overall good quality of care were assessed with logistic regression. The relationship between patient assessment and objective measures of quality was assessed. Of the cohort, 49.5% had concordant-only comorbidities, 8.7% had discordant-only comorbidities, 25.9% had both, and 16.0% had none. Odds of receiving overall good quality after adjustment for age were higher for those with concordant comorbidities (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.70 to 1.87), discordant comorbidities (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.41), or both (odds ratio, 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 2.13 to 2.38) compared with neither. Findings did not change after adjustment for illness severity and/or number of primary care and specialty care visits. Patient assessment of quality did not vary by the presence of coexisting conditions and was not related to objective ratings of quality of care. Contrary to expectations, patients with greater complexity had higher odds of receiving high-quality care for hypertension. Subjective ratings of care did not vary with the presence or absence of

  17. Stop: a fast procedure for the exact computation of the performance of complex probabilistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corynen, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    A new set-theoretic method for the exact and efficient computation of the probabilistic performance of complex systems has been developed. The core of the method is a fast algorithm for disjointing a collection of product sets which is intended for systems with more than 1000 components and 100,000 cut sets. The method is based on a divide-and-conquer approach, in which a multidimensional problem is progressively decomposed into lower-dimensional subproblems along its dimensions. The method also uses a particular pointer system that eliminates the need to store the subproblems by only requiring the storage of pointers to those problems. Examples of the algorithm and the divide-and-conquer strategy are provided, and comparisons with other significant methods are made. Statistical complexity studies show that the expected time and space complexity of other methods is O(me/sup n/), but that our method is O(nm 3 log(m)). Problems which would require days of Cray-1 computer time with present methods can now be solved in seconds. Large-scale systems that can only be approximated with other techniques can now also be evaluated exactly

  18. Front-office/back-office configurations and operational performance in complex health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmel, Paul; van Steenis, Thomas; Meijboom, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) occurs from various causes at different ages and leads to many different types of healthcare needs. Several Dutch ABI-networks installed a local co-ordination and contact point (CCP) which functions as a central and easily accessible service for people to consult when they have questions related to ABI. To explore the relationship between front/back office design and operational performance by investigating the particular enquiry service provided by different CCPs for people affected by an ABI. In-depth interviews with 14 FO/BO employees from three case organizations, complemented with information from desk research and three one-day field visits. The CCPs applied different FO/BO configurations in terms of customer contact and in terms of grouping of front and/or back office activities into tasks for one employee. It is the complexity of the enquiry that determines which approach is more appropriate. For complex enquiries, the level of decoupling is high in all CCPs. This allows multiple experts to be involved in the process. For regular enquiries, CCPs have a choice: either working in the same way as in the complex enquiries or coupling FO/BO activities to be able to serve clients faster and without handovers.

  19. Electrochemically fabricated polypyrrole-cobalt-oxygen coordination complex as high-performance lithium-storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bingkun; Kong, Qingyu; Zhu, Ying; Mao, Ya; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Wan, Meixiang; Chen, Liquan

    2011-12-23

    Current lithium-ion battery (LIB) technologies are all based on inorganic electrode materials, though organic materials have been used as electrodes for years. Disadvantages such as limited thermal stability and low specific capacity hinder their applications. On the other hand, the transition metal oxides that provide high lithium-storage capacity by way of electrochemical conversion reaction suffer from poor cycling stability. Here we report a novel high-performance, organic, lithium-storage material, a polypyrrole-cobalt-oxygen (PPy-Co-O) coordination complex, with high lithium-storage capacity and excellent cycling stability. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure and Raman spectroscopy and other physical and electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that this coordination complex can be electrochemically fabricated by cycling PPy-coated Co(3)O(4) between 0.0 V and 3.0 V versus Li(+)/Li. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that each cobalt atom coordinates with two nitrogen atoms within the PPy-Co coordination layer and the layers are connected with oxygen atoms between them. Coordination weakens the C-H bonds on PPy and makes the complex a novel lithium-storage material with high capacity and high cycling stability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Impact of Technology, Job Complexity and Religious Orientation on Managerial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesmin Islam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of technology, job complexity and religious orientation on the performance of managers in the financial services industries. Data were collected from bank managers representing Islamic and conventional banks in Bangladesh. Path models were used to analyse the data. The results provide supportfor the hypothesis that a management accounting systems (MAS adequacy gap exists in the financial sector in a developing country such as Bangladesh. These Islamic and conventional banks also experienced varied outcomes regarding the impact of the MAS adequacy gap on managerial effectiveness. Significant results emerged concerning the direct influence of technology and job complexity on managerial effectiveness, although these findings again differed across religious and conventional banks. Significant intervening effects of both MAS adequacy gap and job complexity on the relationships between contingency factors and managers' effectiveness were also found. Overall the findings showed that the type of religious orientation in Islamic banks wielded an important influence on the sensitivity of the MAS adequacy gap. Religious orientation served as a control device for the relationships between job-related contingency factors andmanagerial effectiveness.

  1. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.

    2017-07-04

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  2. Modeling and Performance Considerations for Automated Fault Isolation in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Bob; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the modeling considerations and performance metrics that were examined in the development of a large-scale Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) system. The FDIR system is envisioned to perform health management functions for both a launch vehicle and the ground systems that support the vehicle during checkout and launch countdown by using suite of complimentary software tools that alert operators to anomalies and failures in real-time. The FDIR team members developed a set of operational requirements for the models that would be used for fault isolation and worked closely with the vendor of the software tools selected for fault isolation to ensure that the software was able to meet the requirements. Once the requirements were established, example models of sufficient complexity were used to test the performance of the software. The results of the performance testing demonstrated the need for enhancements to the software in order to meet the demands of the full-scale ground and vehicle FDIR system. The paper highlights the importance of the development of operational requirements and preliminary performance testing as a strategy for identifying deficiencies in highly scalable systems and rectifying those deficiencies before they imperil the success of the project

  3. Comparative Visual Analysis of Structure-Performance Relations in Complex Bulk-Heterojunction Morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Aboulhassan, A.; Sicat, R.; Baum, D.; Wodo, O.; Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The structure of Bulk-Heterojunction (BHJ) materials, the main component of organic photovoltaic solar cells, is very complex, and the relationship between structure and performance is still largely an open question. Overall, there is a wide spectrum of fabrication configurations resulting in different BHJ morphologies and correspondingly different performances. Current state-of-the-art methods for assessing the performance of BHJ morphologies are either based on global quantification of morphological features or simply on visual inspection of the morphology based on experimental imaging. This makes finding optimal BHJ structures very challenging. Moreover, finding the optimal fabrication parameters to get an optimal structure is still an open question. In this paper, we propose a visual analysis framework to help answer these questions through comparative visualization and parameter space exploration for local morphology features. With our approach, we enable scientists to explore multivariate correlations between local features and performance indicators of BHJ morphologies. Our framework is built on shape-based clustering of local cubical regions of the morphology that we call patches. This enables correlating the features of clusters with intuition-based performance indicators computed from geometrical and topological features of charge paths.

  4. The Effects of Enzyme Complex on Performance, Intestinal Health and Nutrient Digestibility of Weaned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Q. Yi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing a corn-soybean meal-based diet with an enzyme complex containing amylase, protease and xylanase on the performance, intestinal health, apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 108 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were fed one of three diets containing 0 (control, 100, or 150 ppm enzyme complex for 4 wks, based on a two-phase feeding program namely 1 to 7 d (phase 1 and 8 to 28 d (phase 2. At the end of the experiment, six pigs from the control group and the group supplemented with 150 ppm enzyme complex were chosen to collect digesta samples from intestine to measure viscosity and pH in the stomach, ileum, and cecum, as well as volatile fatty acid concentrations and composition of the microflora in the cecum and colon. There were linear increases (p<0.01 in weight gain, gain: feed ratio and digestibility of gross energy with the increasing dose rate of enzyme supplementation during the whole experiment. Supplementation with enzyme complex increased the digesta viscosity in the stomach (p<0.05 and significantly increased (p<0.01 the concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acid in the cecum and colon. Enzyme supplementation also significantly increased the population of Lactobacilli (p<0.01 in the cecum and decreased the population of E. coli (p<0.05 in the colon. In Exp. 2, six crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 18.26±1.21 kg, fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, were assigned to three dietary treatments according to a replicated 3×3 Latin Square design. The experimental diets were the same as the diets used in phase 2 in Exp. 1. Apparent ileal digestibility of isoleucine (p<0.01, valine (p<0.05 and aspartic acid (p<0.05 linearly increased with the increasing dose rate of enzyme supplementation. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet with an enzyme complex containing amylase, protease and

  5. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

  6. A complex symbol signal-to-noise ratio estimator and its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Y.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for estimating the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of signals that contain data on a downconverted suppressed carrier or the first harmonic of a square-wave subcarrier. This algorithm can be used to determine the performance of the full-spectrum combiner for the Galileo S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) mission by measuring the input and output symbol SNR. A performance analysis of the algorithm shows that the estimator can estimate the complex symbol SNR using 10,000 symbols at a true symbol SNR of -5 dB with a mean of -4.9985 dB and a standard deviation of 0.2454 dB, and these analytical results are checked by simulations of 100 runs with a mean of -5.06 dB and a standard deviation of 0.2506 dB.

  7. Estimating the operator's performance time of emergency procedural tasks based on a task complexity measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dae; Park, Jink Yun

    2012-01-01

    It is important to understand the amount of time required to execute an emergency procedural task in a high-stress situation for managing human performance under emergencies in a nuclear power plant. However, the time to execute an emergency procedural task is highly dependent upon expert judgment due to the lack of actual data. This paper proposes an analytical method to estimate the operator's performance time (OPT) of a procedural task, which is based on a measure of the task complexity (TACOM). The proposed method for estimating an OPT is an equation that uses the TACOM as a variable, and the OPT of a procedural task can be calculated if its relevant TACOM score is available. The validity of the proposed equation is demonstrated by comparing the estimated OPTs with the observed OPTs for emergency procedural tasks in a steam generator tube rupture scenario.

  8. High-performance execution of psychophysical tasks with complex visual stimuli in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Wael F.; Santhanam, Navaneethan; McClellan, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral, psychological, and physiological experiments often require the ability to present sensory stimuli, monitor and record subjects' responses, interface with a wide range of devices, and precisely control the timing of events within a behavioral task. Here, we describe our recent progress developing an accessible and full-featured software system for controlling such studies using the MATLAB environment. Compared with earlier reports on this software, key new features have been implemented to allow the presentation of more complex visual stimuli, increase temporal precision, and enhance user interaction. These features greatly improve the performance of the system and broaden its applicability to a wider range of possible experiments. This report describes these new features and improvements, current limitations, and quantifies the performance of the system in a real-world experimental setting. PMID:23034363

  9. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected

  10. BETWEEN PARCIMONY AND COMPLEXITY: COMPARING PERFORMANCE MEASURES FOR ROMANIAN BANKING INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA MUNTEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to establish the relationship between traditional measures of performance (ROE, ROA and NIM and EVA in order to gain some insight about the relevance of using more sophisticated performance measurements tools. Towards this end the study uses two acknowledged statistical measures: Kendall’s Tau and Spearman rank correlation Index. Using data from 12 Romanian banking institutions that report under IFRS for the period 2006-2010 the results suggest that generally EVA is highly correlated with Residual Income in the years that present positive operational profits whereas for the years with negative outcome the correlation is low. ROA and ROE are the measure that best correlates with EVA for the entire period and thus -applying Occam’s razor- could be used as a substitute for more complex shareholder earnings measures.

  11. Innovation in user-centered skills and performance improvement for sustainable complex service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    In order to leverage individual and organizational learning and to remain competitive in current turbulent markets it is important for employees, managers, planners and leaders to perform at high levels over time. Employee competence and skills are extremely important matters in view of the general shortage of talent and the mobility of employees with talent. Two factors emerged to have the greatest impact on the competitiveness of complex service systems: improving managerial and employee's knowledge attainment for skills, and improving the training and development of the workforce. This paper introduces the knowledge-based user-centered service design approach for sustainable skill and performance improvement in education, design and modeling of the next generation of complex service systems. The rest of the paper cover topics in human factors and sustainable business process modeling for the service industry, and illustrates the user-centered service system development cycle with the integration of systems engineering concepts in service systems. A roadmap for designing service systems of the future is discussed. The framework introduced in this paper is based on key user-centered design principles and systems engineering applications to support service competitiveness.

  12. Effects of Maize Source and Complex Enzymes on Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defu Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize source and complex enzymes containing amylase, xylanase and protease on performance and nutrient utilization of broilers. The experiment was a 4×3 factorial design with diets containing four source maize samples (M1, M2, M3, and M4 and without or with two kinds of complex enzyme A (Axtra XAP and B (Avizyme 1502. Nine hundred and sixty day old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used in the trial (12 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 10 chicks. Birds fed M1 diet had better body weight gain (BWG and lower feed/gain ratio compared with those fed M3 diet and M4 diet (p0.05, respectively. The fresh feces output was significantly decreased by the addition of enzyme B (p<0.05. Maize source affects the nutrients digestibility and performance of broilers, and a combination of amylase, xylanase and protease is effective in improving the growth profiles of broilers fed maize-soybean-rapeseed-cotton mixed diets.

  13. An evaluation of the performance of two binaural beamformers in complex and dynamic multitalker environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Mejia, Jorge; Freeston, Katrina; van Hoesel, Richard J; Dillon, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Binaural beamformers are super-directional hearing aids created by combining microphone outputs from each side of the head. While they offer substantial improvements in SNR over conventional directional hearing aids, the benefits (and possible limitations) of these devices in realistic, complex listening situations have not yet been fully explored. In this study we evaluated the performance of two experimental binaural beamformers. Testing was carried out using a horizontal loudspeaker array. Background noise was created using recorded conversations. Performance measures included speech intelligibility, localization in noise, acceptable noise level, subjective ratings, and a novel dynamic speech intelligibility measure. Participants were 27 listeners with bilateral hearing loss, fitted with BTE prototypes that could be switched between conventional directional or binaural beamformer microphone modes. Relative to the conventional directional microphones, both binaural beamformer modes were generally superior for tasks involving fixed frontal targets, but not always for situations involving dynamic target locations. Binaural beamformers show promise for enhancing listening in complex situations when the location of the source of interest is predictable.

  14. HIV cure research community engagement in North Carolina: a mixed-methods evaluation of a crowdsourcing contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Allison; Farley, Samantha; Blumberg, Meredith; Knight, Kimberley; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa; Muessig, Kate; Rennie, Stuart; Tucker, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a crowdsourcing contest to promote HIV cure research community engagement. Crowdsourcing contests are open calls for community participation to achieve a task, in this case to engage local communities about HIV cure research. Our contest solicited images and videos of what HIV cure meant to people. Contestants submitted entries to IdeaScale, an encrypted online contest platform. We used a mixed-methods study design to evaluate the contest. Engagement was assessed through attendance at promotional events and social media user analytics. Google Analytics measured contest website user-engagement statistics. Text from contest video entries was transcribed, coded and analysed using MAXQDA. There were 144 attendees at three promotional events and 32 entries from 39 contestants. Most individuals who submitted entries were black ( n =31), had some college education ( n =18) and were aged 18-23 years ( n =23). Social media analytics showed 684 unique page followers, 2233 unique page visits, 585 unique video views and an overall reach of 80,624 unique users. Contest submissions covered themes related to the community's role in shaping the future of HIV cure through education, social justice, creativity and stigma reduction. Crowdsourcing contests are feasible for engaging community members in HIV cure research. Community contributions to crowdsourcing contests provide useful content for culturally relevant and locally responsive research engagement.

  15. Low-Complexity Interference-Free Downlink Channel Assignment with Improved Performance in Coordinated Small Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a low-complexity interference-free channel assignment scheme with improved desired downlink performance in coordinated multi-antenna small-coverage access points (APs) that employ the open-access control strategy. The adopted system treats the case when each user can be granted an access to one of the available channels at a time. Moreover, each receive terminal can suppress a limited number of resolvable interfering sources via its highly-correlated receive array. On the other hand, the operation of the deployed APs can be coordinated to serve active users, and the availability of multiple physical channels and the use of uncorrelated transmit antennas at each AP are exploited to improve the performance of supported users. The analysis provides new approaches to use the transmit antenna array at each AP, the multiple physical channels, the receive antenna array at each user in order to identify interference-free channels per each user, and then to select a downlink channel that provides the best possible improved performance. The event of concurrent interference-free channel identification by different users is also treated to further improve the desired link associated with the scheduled user. The analysis considers the practical scenario of imperfect identification of interference-free channel by an active user and/or the imperfectness in scheduling concurrent users requests on the same channel. The developed formulations can be used to study any performance metric and they are applicable for any statistical and geometric channel models. © 2015 IEEE.

  16. Influence of complexing agents on the mechanical performances of the cement conditioning matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicu, M.; Mihai, F.; Turcanu, C.

    1998-01-01

    The safety of the radioactive waste disposal is a priority demand concerning the protection of the environment and population. For this reason, an engineering multi-barrier system is studied in order to be improved. This study aims to establish the influence of the complexing agents on the mechanical performances of the cement conditioning matrix. Radioactive effluents which contain agents as oxalic and citric acids are generated during the radioactive decontamination operation using chemical methods. The conditioning of these wastes by cementing process imposed the experimental determination of the mechanical performances of the matrix and the upper permissible level of complexing agent concentration. To determine the influence of complexing agents on the mechanical performances of cement conditioning matrix, cubic samples (20 mm x 20 mm x 20 mm) were prepared using commercial Portland cement and solutions of organic complexing acids or salts (citric acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, sodium citrate and ammonium oxalate). The complexation concentration varied between 0.25% and 1% in distilled and drinking water, respectively. The selected cement/water ratio was 0.5. The experiments were focused on: - establishing the firmness of the Pa 35 cement pastes and mortars in dependence on the water/cement ratio, by classical methods (Tetmeyer probe for pastes and standard cone for mortars) and by triclinic time through a funnel with 15 mm aperture; - studying the influence of the tartaric, oxalic, citric acids, ammonium oxalate and sodium citrate solution concentrations on water quantities used to obtain pastes with normal firmness and on Pa 35 cement setting; - the influence of oxalic acid, tartaric acid and ammonium oxalate solution concentrations on the strength of compression of the pastes with normal firmness; - for testing, standard test bar cubes with 20 mm sides were used and the strength of compression was tested at 28 days; - establishing the behaviour in time of

  17. Weighing both sides: morality, mortality, and framing contests over obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C; Riley, Kevin W

    2005-10-01

    Despite recent and growing media attention surrounding obesity in the United States, the so-called obesity epidemic remains a highly contested scientific and social fact. This article examines the contemporary obesity debate through systematic examination of the claims and claimants involved in the controversy. We argue that four primary groups-antiobesity researchers, antiobesity activists, fat acceptance researchers, and fat acceptance activists-are at the forefront of this controversy and that these groups are fundamentally engaged in framing contests over the nature and consequences of excess body weight. While members of the fat acceptance groups embrace a body diversity frame, presenting fatness as a natural and largely inevitable form of diversity, members of the antiobesity camp frame higher weights as risky behavior akin to smoking, implying that body weight is under personal control and that people have a moral and medical responsibility to manage their weight. Both groups sometimes frame obesity as an illness, which limits blame by suggesting that weight is biologically or genetically determined but simultaneously stigmatizes fat bodies as diseased. While the antiobesity camp frames obesity as an epidemic to increase public attention, fat acceptance activists argue that concern over obesity is distracting attention from a host of more important health issues for fat Americans. We examine the strategies claimants use to establish their own credibility or discredit their opponents, and explain how the fat acceptance movement has exploited structural opportunities and cultural resources created by AIDS activism and feminism to wield some influence over U.S. public health approaches. We conclude that notions of morality play a central role in the controversy over obesity, as in many medical disputes, and illustrate how medical arguments about body weight can be used to stymie rights claims and justify morality-based fears.

  18. Mitosis detection in breast cancer histological images An ICPR 2012 contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Roux

    2013-01-01

    multispectral microscope. The data set is made up of 50 high power fields (HPF coming from 5 different slides scanned at ×40 magnification. There are 10 HPFs/slide. The pathologist has annotated all the mitotic cells manually. A HPF has a size of 512 μm × 512 μm (that is an area of 0.262 mm 2 , which is a surface equivalent to that of a microscope field diameter of 0.58 mm. These 50 HPFs contain a total of 326 mitotic cells on images of both scanners, and 322 mitotic cells on the multispectral microscope. Results : Up to 129 teams have registered to the contest. However, only 17 teams submitted their detection of mitotic cells. The performance of the best team is very promising, with F-measure as high as 0.78. However, the database we provided is by far too small for a good assessment of reliability and robustness of the proposed algorithms. Conclusions : Mitotic count is an important criterion in the grading of many types of cancers, however, very little research has been made on automatic mitotic cell detection, mainly because of a lack of available data. A main objective of this contest was to propose a database of mitotic cells on digitized breast cancer histopathology slides to initiate works on automated mitotic cell detection. In the future, we would like to extend this database to have much more images from different patients and also for different types of cancers. In addition, mitotic cells should be annotated by several pathologists to reflect the partial agreement among them.

  19. CyNC - towards a General Tool for Performance Analysis of Complex Distributed Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Jessen, Jan Jakob; Nielsen, Jens F. Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the current state and the ongoing activities of a tool for performance analysis of complex real time systems. The tool named CyNC is based on network calculus allowing for the computation of backlogs and delays in a system from specified lower and upper bounds of external...... workflow and computational resources. The current version of the tool implements an extension to previous work in that it allows for general workflow and resource bounds and provides optimal solutions even to systems with cyclic dependencies. Despite the virtues of the current tool, improvements...... and extensions still remain, which are in focus of ongoing activities. Improvements include accounting for phase information to improve bounds, whereas the tool awaits extension to include flow control models, which both depend on the possibility of accounting for propagation delay. Since the current version...

  20. Analysis of the existing Standard on Power performance measurement and its application in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerva, A.

    1997-01-01

    There are some groups working on the improvement of the existing Standard and recommendation on WECS power performance measurement and analysis. One of them, besides the one working in this project, is the MEASNET expert group. This one is trying to adequate the main reference, the IEC1400-12 Ref. [9]. to the current requirements on technical quality and trueness. Within this group and the MEASNET one, many deficiencies have been detected in the procedure followed up to now. Several of them belong to general aspects of the method (calculations, assumptions, etc. ) but the most critical fact regards to the inherent characteristics of complex terrain and to the issue of site calibration and uncertainties due to it, specifically. (Author)

  1. Analysis of the existing Standard on Power performance measurement and its application in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuerva, A.

    1997-10-01

    There are some groups working on the improvement of the existing Standard and recommendation on WECS power performance measurement and analysis. One of them, besides the one working in this project, is the MEASNET expert group. This one is trying to adequate the main reference, the IEC 1400-12 Re.[9]. to the current requirements on technical quality and trueness. Within this group and the MEASNET one, many deficiencies have been detected in the procedure followed up to now. Several of them belong to general aspects of the method (calculations, assumptions, etc.) but the most critical fact regards to the inherent characteristics of complex terrain and to the issue of site calibration and uncertainties due to it, specifically. (Author)

  2. A FPGA-Based Broadband EIT System for Complex Bioimpedance Measurements—Design and Performance Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kusche

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical impedance tomography (EIT is an imaging method that is able to estimate the electrical conductivity distribution of living tissue. This work presents a field programmable gate array (FPGA-based multi-frequency EIT system for complex, time-resolved bioimpedance measurements. The system has the capability to work with measurement setups with up to 16 current electrodes and 16 voltage electrodes. The excitation current has a range of about 10 µA to 5 mA, whereas the sinusoidal signal used for excitation can have a frequency of up to 500 kHz. Additionally, the usage of a chirp or rectangular signal excitation is possible. Furthermore, the described system has a sample rate of up to 3480 impedance spectra per second (ISPS. The performance of the EIT system is demonstrated with a resistor-based phantom and tank phantoms. Additionally, first measurements taken from the human thorax during a breathing cycle are presented.

  3. HGSA DNA day essay contest winner 60 years on: still coding for cutting-edge science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    MESSAGE FROM THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE: In 2013, the Education Committee of the Human Genetics Society of Australasia (HGSA) established the DNA Day Essay Contest in Australia and New Zealand. The contest was first established by the American Society of Human Genetics in 2005 and the HGSA DNA Day Essay Contest is adapted from this contest via a collaborative partnership. The aim of the contest is to engage high school students with important concepts in genetics through literature research and reflection. As 2013 marks the 60th anniversary of the discovery of the double helix of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick and the 10th anniversary of the first sequencing of the human genome, the essay topic was to choose either of these breakthroughs and explain its broader impact on biotechnology, human health and disease, or our understanding of basic genetics, such as genetic variation or gene expression. The contest attracted 87 entrants in 2013, with the winning essay authored by Patrick Yates, a Year 12 student from Melbourne High School. Further details about the contest including the names and schools of the other finalists can be found at http://www.hgsa-essay.net.au/. The Education Committee would like to thank all the 2013 applicants and encourage students to enter in 2014.

  4. Ethical Concerns of and Risk Mitigation Strategies for Crowdsourcing Contests and Innovation Challenges: Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Stephen W; Mathews, Allison; Stein, Gabriella; Bayus, Barry; Rennie, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Background Crowdsourcing contests (also called innovation challenges, innovation contests, and inducement prize contests) can be used to solicit multisectoral feedback on health programs and design public health campaigns. They consist of organizing a steering committee, soliciting contributions, engaging the community, judging contributions, recognizing a subset of contributors, and sharing with the community. Objective This scoping review describes crowdsourcing contests by stage, examines ethical problems at each stage, and proposes potential ways of mitigating risk. Methods Our analysis was anchored in the specific example of a crowdsourcing contest that our team organized to solicit videos promoting condom use in China. The purpose of this contest was to create compelling 1-min videos to promote condom use. We used a scoping review to examine the existing ethical literature on crowdsourcing to help identify and frame ethical concerns at each stage. Results Crowdsourcing has a group of individuals solve a problem and then share the solution with the public. Crowdsourcing contests provide an opportunity for community engagement at each stage: organizing, soliciting, promoting, judging, recognizing, and sharing. Crowdsourcing poses several ethical concerns: organizing—potential for excluding community voices; soliciting—potential for overly narrow participation; promoting—potential for divulging confidential information; judging—potential for biased evaluation; recognizing—potential for insufficient recognition of the finalist; and sharing—potential for the solution to not be implemented or widely disseminated. Conclusions Crowdsourcing contests can be effective and engaging public health tools but also introduce potential ethical problems. We present methods for the responsible conduct of crowdsourcing contests. PMID:29523500

  5. From metamorphosis to maturity in complex life cycles: equal performance of different juvenile life history pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Benedikt R; Hödl, Walter; Schaub, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Performance in one stage of a complex life cycle may affect performance in the subsequent stage. Animals that start a new stage at a smaller size than conspecifics may either always remain smaller or they may be able to "catch up" through plasticity, usually elevated growth rates. We study how size at and date of metamorphosis affected subsequent performance in the terrestrial juvenile stage and lifetime fitness of spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus). We analyzed capture-recapture data of > 3000 individuals sampled during nine years with mark-recapture models to estimate first-year juvenile survival probabilities and age-specific first-time breeding probabilities of toads, followed by model selection to assess whether these probabilities were correlated with size at and date of metamorphosis. Males attained maturity after two years, whereas females reached maturity 2-4 years after metamorphosis. Age at maturity was weakly correlated with metamorphic traits. In both sexes, first-year juvenile survival depended positively on date of metamorphosis and, in males, also negatively on size at metamorphosis. In males, toads that metamorphosed early at a small size had the highest probability to reach maturity. However, because very few toadlets metamorphosed early, the vast majority of male metamorphs had a very similar probability to reach maturity. A matrix projection model constructed for females showed that different juvenile life history pathways resulted in similar lifetime fitness. We found that the effects of date of and size at metamorphosis on different juvenile traits cancelled each other out such that toads that were small or large at metamorphosis had equal performance. Because the costs and benefits of juvenile life history pathways may also depend on population fluctuations, ample phenotypic variation in life history traits may be maintained.

  6. Local newspaper movie contests and the creation of the first movie fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Leonora Whitehead

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the advent of local newspaper movie contests in the 1910s and how these contests helped to create active movie fans. Such contests increased the popularity of the new medium of film by engaging local audiences in the process of filmmaking, including fans as scriptwriters and even stars. They helped to transform film into a dominant cultural practice by creating local spaces for film patrons to become part of the national pastime of going to the show. They did so by appealing directly to female spectators, who both legitimized going to the movies and created dynamic film fan communities.

  7. The role of human performance in safe operation of complex plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Irina Aida; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Croitoru, Cornelia

    1999-01-01

    According to statistics, about 20-30% from the failures occurring in plants are caused directly or indirectly by human errors. Furthermore, it was established that 10-15 percents of the global failures are related to the human errors. These are mainly due to the wrong actions, maintenance errors, and misinterpretation of instruments. The human performance is influenced by: professional ability, complexity and danger of the plant, experience in the same working place, level of skills, events in personal and/or professional life, discipline, social ambience and somatic health. The human performances assessment in the probabilistic safety assessment offers the possibility of evaluation for human contribution to the events sequences outcome. A human error may be recovered before the unwanted consequences had been occurred on system. This paper presents the possibilities to use the probabilistic methods (event tree, fault tree) to identify the solution for human reliability improvement in order to minimise the risk in industrial plant operation. Also, are defined the human error types and their causes and the 'decision tree method' is presented as technique in our analyses for human reliability assessment. The exemplification of human error analysis method was achieved based on operation data for Valcea heavy water pilot plant. (authors)

  8. The role of human performance in the safety complex plants' operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, Irina Aida; Lazar, Roxana Elena; Croitoru, Cornelia

    1999-01-01

    According to statistics, about 20-30% from the failures occurred in the plants are caused directly or indirectly by human errors. Furthermore, it was established that 10-15% of the global failures are related with the human errors. These are mainly due to the wrong actions, maintenance errors, and misinterpretation of instruments. The human performance is influenced by: professional ability, complexity and danger to the plant experience in the working place, level of skills, events in personal and/or professional life, discipline, social ambience, somatic health. The human performances' assessment in the probabilistic safety assessment offers the possibility of evaluation of human contribution to the events sequences outcome. Not all the human errors have impact on the system. A human error may be recovered before the unwanted consequences had been occurred on system. This paper presents the possibilities to use the probabilistic method (event tree, fault tree) to identify the solutions for human reliability improved in order to minimize the risk in industrial plants' operation. Also, the human error types and their causes are defined and the 'decision tree method' as technique in our analysis for human reliability assessment is presented. The exemplification of human error analysis method was achieved based on operation data for Valcea Heavy Water Pilot Plant. As initiating event for the accident state 'the steam supply interruption' event has been considered. The human errors' contribution was analysed for the accident sequence with the worst consequences. (authors)

  9. Recent advances in improving performances of the lightweight complex hydrides Li-Mg-N-H system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of state-of-the art advances in improving performances of the lightweight complex hydrides Li-Mg-N-H system is reported. Among the hydrogen storage materials, Li-Mg-N-H combination systems are regarded as one of the most potential candidates for the vehicular applications owing to their high hydrogen storage capacity (>5 wt% H and a more appropriate thermodynamic properties of hydrogen absorption and desorption. In the Li-Mg-N-H systems, tremendous efforts have been devoted to improving the hydrogen storage properties by adjusting composition, revealing reaction mechanisms, adding catalysts and refining the microstructures, etc. During the studies, different mechanisms, such as the coordinated two-molecule or multimolecule reaction mechanism and the ammonia-mediated mechanism, are proposed and applied under some certain conditions. Catalysis and nanosizing are very effective in enhancing the kinetic properties and thermodynamic destabilization of Li-Mg-N-H systems. Due to nano effects, the space-confinement and nanoconfinement seems to be more effective for improving the hydrogen storage performance, and it is great significant to develop hydrogen storage materials by studying the nanoconfined effects on the Li-Mg-N-H systems.

  10. Impact of automation: Measurement of performance, workload and behaviour in a complex control environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to compare three levels of automation in rail signalling; a high level in which an automated agent set routes for trains using timetable information, a medium level in which trains were routed along pre-defined paths, and a low level where the operator (signaller) was responsible for the movement of all trains. These levels are described in terms of a Rail Automation Model based on previous automation theory (Parasuraman et al., 2000). Performance, subjective workload, and signaller activity were measured for each level of automation running under both normal operating conditions and abnormal, or disrupted, conditions. The results indicate that perceived workload, during both normal and disrupted phases of the experiment, decreased as the level of automation increased and performance was most consistent (i.e. showed the least variation between participants) with the highest level of automation. The results give a strong case in favour of automation, particularly in terms of demonstrating the potential for automation to reduce workload, but also suggest much benefit can achieved from a mid-level of automation potentially at a lower cost and complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Annual Performance Assessment of Complex Fenestration Systems in Sunny Climates Using Advanced Computer Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Basurto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex Fenestration Systems (CFS are advanced daylighting systems that are placed on the upper part of a window to improve the indoor daylight distribution within rooms. Due to their double function of daylight redirection and solar protection, they are considered as a solution to mitigate the unfavorable effects due to the admission of direct sunlight in buildings located in prevailing sunny climates (risk of glare and overheating. Accordingly, an adequate assessment of their performance should include an annual evaluation of the main aspects relevant to the use of daylight in such regions: the indoor illuminance distribution, thermal comfort, and visual comfort of the occupant’s. Such evaluation is possible with the use of computer simulations combined with the bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF data of these systems. This study explores the use of available methods to assess the visible and thermal annual performance of five different CFS using advanced computer simulations. To achieve results, an on-site daylight monitoring was carried out in a building located in a predominantly sunny climate location, and the collected data was used to create and calibrate a virtual model used to carry-out the simulations. The results can be employed to select the CFS, which improves visual and thermal interior environment for the occupants.

  12. A high performance, low power computational platform for complex sensing operations in smart cities

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jiming; Claudel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new wireless platform designed for an integrated traffic/flash flood monitoring system. The sensor platform is built around a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller and a 2.4GHz 802.15.4802.15.4 ISM compliant radio module. It can be interfaced with fixed traffic sensors, or receive data from vehicle transponders. This platform is specifically designed for solar-powered, low bandwidth, high computational performance wireless sensor network applications. A self-recovering unit is designed to increase reliability and allow periodic hard resets, an essential requirement for sensor networks. A radio monitoring circuitry is proposed to monitor incoming and outgoing transmissions, simplifying software debugging. We illustrate the performance of this wireless sensor platform on complex problems arising in smart cities, such as traffic flow monitoring, machine-learning-based flash flood monitoring or Kalman-filter based vehicle trajectory estimation. All design files have been uploaded and shared in an open science framework, and can be accessed from [1]. The hardware design is under CERN Open Hardware License v1.2.

  13. Compressive Sensing Based Bayesian Sparse Channel Estimation for OFDM Communication Systems: High Performance and Low Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Shan, Lin; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM) communication systems, channel state information (CSI) is required at receiver due to the fact that frequency-selective fading channel leads to disgusting intersymbol interference (ISI) over data transmission. Broadband channel model is often described by very few dominant channel taps and they can be probed by compressive sensing based sparse channel estimation (SCE) methods, for example, orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm, which can take the advantage of sparse structure effectively in the channel as for prior information. However, these developed methods are vulnerable to both noise interference and column coherence of training signal matrix. In other words, the primary objective of these conventional methods is to catch the dominant channel taps without a report of posterior channel uncertainty. To improve the estimation performance, we proposed a compressive sensing based Bayesian sparse channel estimation (BSCE) method which cannot only exploit the channel sparsity but also mitigate the unexpected channel uncertainty without scarifying any computational complexity. The proposed method can reveal potential ambiguity among multiple channel estimators that are ambiguous due to observation noise or correlation interference among columns in the training matrix. Computer simulations show that proposed method can improve the estimation performance when comparing with conventional SCE methods. PMID:24983012

  14. A high performance, low power computational platform for complex sensing operations in smart cities

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jiming

    2017-02-02

    This paper presents a new wireless platform designed for an integrated traffic/flash flood monitoring system. The sensor platform is built around a 32-bit ARM Cortex M4 microcontroller and a 2.4GHz 802.15.4802.15.4 ISM compliant radio module. It can be interfaced with fixed traffic sensors, or receive data from vehicle transponders. This platform is specifically designed for solar-powered, low bandwidth, high computational performance wireless sensor network applications. A self-recovering unit is designed to increase reliability and allow periodic hard resets, an essential requirement for sensor networks. A radio monitoring circuitry is proposed to monitor incoming and outgoing transmissions, simplifying software debugging. We illustrate the performance of this wireless sensor platform on complex problems arising in smart cities, such as traffic flow monitoring, machine-learning-based flash flood monitoring or Kalman-filter based vehicle trajectory estimation. All design files have been uploaded and shared in an open science framework, and can be accessed from [1]. The hardware design is under CERN Open Hardware License v1.2.

  15. Performance and evaluation of a coupled prognostic model TAPM over a mountainous complex terrain industrial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaios, Vasileios N.; Triantafyllou, Athanasios G.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.; Sakkas, Vasileios; Garas, Stelios

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric modeling is considered an important tool with several applications such as prediction of air pollution levels, air quality management, and environmental impact assessment studies. Therefore, evaluation studies must be continuously made, in order to improve the accuracy and the approaches of the air quality models. In the present work, an attempt is made to examine the air pollution model (TAPM) efficiency in simulating the surface meteorology, as well as the SO2 concentrations in a mountainous complex terrain industrial area. Three configurations under different circumstances, firstly with default datasets, secondly with data assimilation, and thirdly with updated land use, ran in order to investigate the surface meteorology for a 3-year period (2009-2011) and one configuration applied to predict SO2 concentration levels for the year of 2011.The modeled hourly averaged meteorological and SO2 concentration values were statistically compared with those from five monitoring stations across the domain to evaluate the model's performance. Statistical measures showed that the surface temperature and relative humidity are predicted well in all three simulations, with index of agreement (IOA) higher than 0.94 and 0.70 correspondingly, in all monitoring sites, while an overprediction of extreme low temperature values is noted, with mountain altitudes to have an important role. However, the results also showed that the model's performance is related to the configuration regarding the wind. TAPM default dataset predicted better the wind variables in the center of the simulation than in the boundaries, while improvement in the boundary horizontal winds implied the performance of TAPM with updated land use. TAPM assimilation predicted the wind variables fairly good in the whole domain with IOA higher than 0.83 for the wind speed and higher than 0.85 for the horizontal wind components. Finally, the SO2 concentrations were assessed by the model with IOA varied from 0

  16. Wisdom of the Crowds: Crowd-Based Development of a Logo for a Conference Using a Crowdsourcing Contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason J; Bilardi, Jade E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-10-01

    Crowdsourcing methods have been widely used in business, but rarely in sexual health research. We evaluated a crowdsourced logo contest as part of an international human immunodeficiency virus conference. A logo crowdsourcing contest was conducted for the 20th International Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Conference. Crowdsourcing has a group of individuals solve a task, often as part of an open contest. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key informants including contest organizers, contest contributors, and conference attendees. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content analysis approach. In total, 22 interviews were conducted with 3 contest organizers, 7 contest contributors, and 12 conference attendees. All individuals reported that the crowdsourced logo provided benefits beyond branding the conference, including creating a shared sense of purpose among diverse conference participants and explicitly demonstrating the strong community orientation of the conference. Conference organizers and attendees all reported deeper engagement because of the story of the Tanzanian artist who won the contest. Most conference attendees (11/12) preferred the crowdsourced logo compared with the previous company-organized logo, and all (22/22) supported the logo contest continuing. Implementing a logo contest was simple and relatively inexpensive. Stakeholders identified several ways to enhance crowdsourcing logo contest methods including wider promotion of the contest to encourage broader participation, greater transparency in the selection process, and a different prize structure which acknowledges the contribution of more contestants. We found that a crowdsourcing contest helped engage local and global communities in the lead-up before and during an international conference. Similar participatory events may be useful for sexual health conferences and research projects.

  17. Effect of squatting on sprinting performance and repeated exposure to complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam K

    2010-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of a heavy weight training exercise on sprinting performance and on the effect of repeated exposure to a complex training protocol. Eleven male rugby union players (age 20.9 +/- 3.1 years) participated in the study, which involved 5 separate testing sessions. Back squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) was established in session 1. Sessions 2-5 were identical and involved the subjects completing a 30-m sprint before and after a 3RM back squat protocol. Four minutes of rest was given between the back squatting and the posttest 30-m sprint. All sprint trials were measured with a laser measurement device (LAVEG, Jenoptik, Jena, Germany). Sprint time and instantaneous, average, and maximum velocity were the dependent variables. The criterion for significance was set at an alpha level of p > or = 0.05. No significant improvement was evident for any of the testing sessions (p > or = 0.05). In session 1, there was a significant increase in 30-m time and a significant reduction in average 30-m velocity and maximum velocity (p benefits in sprinting may not have been realized because of intra and intersubject variations in sprint technique. The session x phase interaction revealed a significant improvement in the pre to posttest changes in instantaneous velocity at 20 m (p = 0.035) and 30 m (p = 0.036) from session 1 to session 4. This indicates that the rugby players may be able to learn to apply the potentiation effects of complex training. From a practical perspective, players may need repeated exposure to this training modality to gain benefit from it, and this should be reflected in program planning.

  18. Impact of the motion and visual complexity of the background on players' performance in video game-like displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroux, Loïc; Le Bigot, Ludovic; Vibert, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The visual interfaces of virtual environments such as video games often show scenes where objects are superimposed on a moving background. Three experiments were designed to better understand the impact of the complexity and/or overall motion of two types of visual backgrounds often used in video games on the detection and use of superimposed, stationary items. The impact of background complexity and motion was assessed during two typical video game tasks: a relatively complex visual search task and a classic, less demanding shooting task. Background motion impaired participants' performance only when they performed the shooting game task, and only when the simplest of the two backgrounds was used. In contrast, and independently of background motion, performance on both tasks was impaired when the complexity of the background increased. Eye movement recordings demonstrated that most of the findings reflected the impact of low-level features of the two backgrounds on gaze control.

  19. People's practices : exploring contestation, counter-development, and rural livelihoods : ...cases from Muktinagar, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huq, H.

    2000-01-01

    People's Practices: Exploring contestation, Counter - development, and rural livelihoods

    The central problems explored in the thesis concern the vulnerability of disadvantaged local people, especially women, and their agency; development discourses and counter-development

  20. Regulation as a political contest: the probability of conservation of a renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2017-01-01

    How do the levels of extreme positions of various interest groups influence the conservation policies in the context of a renewable resource conservation contest? To answer this question, a model is provided where conservation policy is determined as a contest between two opposing interest groups......: one in favor of conservation and another in favor of non-conservation. The levels of extreme positions for the conservationalists are determined by their demands about the severity of the conservation strategy that needs to be implemented. For the non-conservation group, the level of extreme position...... is determined by how large the current harvest of the resource should be. The main driver of the model is that resource conservation is realized only if the conservation group wins the contest, which again depends on the relative gain the two contenders receive when winning the contest. The paper derives...

  1. 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest Winner: Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a Centrifugal Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Alexander; Engelke, Wito; Theisel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall

  2. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to

  3. Re-Packaging FPIC: Contesting the Shape of Corporate Responsability,Sate Authority, and Indigenous Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Szablowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I propose to examine how rival global governmentalprojects are asserted and contested by decentralized networks thatlink actors operating at different scales. I argue that Tsing’s notionof «travelling packages» provides a useful way of conceptualizingthe means by which elements of these projects are diffused, translated,taken up, and adapted into different localities around theworld. I explore these dynamics in relation to the contestation of agovernance model based on the principle that the free, prior andinformed consent (FPIC of an indigenous people is required toauthorize actions that may affect upon indigenous territory or indigenousrights. Through the assertion of different versions of FPIC,networked actors are contesting the nature and shape of corporatesocial responsibility, the authority of the state, and the significanceof indigenous governance. I propose to explore the implicationsof different packaging strategies on the contestation between rivalgovernance models and on their propensity for uptake in local sites.

  4. Issues and challenges of information fusion in contested environments: panel results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Kadar, Ivan; Chong, Chee; Jones, Eric K.; Tierno, Jorge E.; Fenstermacher, Laurie; Gorman, John D.; Levchuk, Georgiy

    2015-05-01

    With the plethora of information, there are many aspects to contested environments such as the protection of information, network privacy, and restricted observational and entry access. In this paper, we review and contrast the perspectives of challenges and opportunities for future developments in contested environments. The ability to operate in a contested environment would aid societal operations for highly congested areas with limited bandwidth such as transportation, the lack of communication and observations after a natural disaster, or planning for situations in which freedom of movement is restricted. Different perspectives were presented, but common themes included (1) Domain: targets and sensors, (2) network: communications, control, and social networks, and (3) user: human interaction and analytics. The paper serves as a summary and organization of the panel discussion as towards future concerns for research needs in contested environments.

  5. Martin Luther King Jr. contest winning posters to be displayed in downtown Blacksburg

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Kelly Baker

    2010-01-01

    Each year as part of the Martin Luther King Jr. celebration at Virginia Tech area kindergarten through 12th grade students are invited to participate in the annual Martin Luther King Jr. poster contest.

  6. A review of human factors challenges of complex adaptive systems: discovering and understanding chaos in human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Waldemar

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the author explores a need for a greater understanding of the true nature of human-system interactions from the perspective of the theory of complex adaptive systems, including the essence of complexity, emergent properties of system behavior, nonlinear systems dynamics, and deterministic chaos. Human performance, more often than not, constitutes complex adaptive phenomena with emergent properties that exhibit nonlinear dynamical (chaotic) behaviors. The complexity challenges in the design and management of contemporary work systems, including service systems, are explored. Examples of selected applications of the concepts of nonlinear dynamics to the study of human physical performance are provided. Understanding and applications of the concepts of theory of complex adaptive and dynamical systems should significantly improve the effectiveness of human-centered design efforts of a large system of systems. Performance of many contemporary work systems and environments may be sensitive to the initial conditions and may exhibit dynamic nonlinear properties and chaotic system behaviors. Human-centered design of emergent human-system interactions requires application of the theories of nonlinear dynamics and complex adaptive system. The success of future human-systems integration efforts requires the fusion of paradigms, knowledge, design principles, and methodologies of human factors and ergonomics with those of the science of complex adaptive systems as well as modern systems engineering.

  7. Falling with Style: Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations by Adjusting Wing Inertia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila J Bergou

    Full Text Available The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Bats have evolved an impressive capacity to control their flight, in large part due to their ability to modulate wing shape, area, and angle of attack through many independently controlled joints. Bat wings, however, also contain many bones and relatively large muscles, and thus the ratio of bats' wing mass to their body mass is larger than it is for all other extant flyers. Although the inertia in bat wings would typically be associated with decreased aerial maneuverability, we show that bat maneuvers challenge this notion. We use a model-based tracking algorithm to measure the wing and body kinematics of bats performing complex aerial rotations. Using a minimal model of a bat with only six degrees of kinematic freedom, we show that bats can perform body rolls by selectively retracting one wing during the flapping cycle. We also show that this maneuver does not rely on aerodynamic forces, and furthermore that a fruit fly, with nearly massless wings, would not exhibit this effect. Similar results are shown for a pitching maneuver. Finally, we combine high-resolution kinematics of wing and body movements during landing and falling maneuvers with a 52-degree-of-freedom dynamical model of a bat to show that modulation of wing inertia plays the dominant role in reorienting the bat during landing and falling maneuvers, with minimal contribution from aerodynamic forces. Bats can, therefore, use their wings as multifunctional organs, capable of sophisticated aerodynamic and inertial dynamics not previously observed in other flying animals. This may also have implications for the control of aerial robotic vehicles.

  8. Means of Evidence and Evidence Collection in Contested Procedure in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Makfirete Krasniqi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to serve as a helpful tool for students, jurists, lawyers, judges and others, in the profesional and scientific aspect. In ruling a contested procedure in a professional manner, the court has to find the truth, so that the contested procedure is most efficient until reaching the final verdict. In my research, I intend to enrich the science with my knowledge in the field of contested procedure. In this study I have used analytical, comparative, synthesis, generalization and other methods. Those reading this paper will understand how evidence is the most important part in a fair trial, since failure to prove claims very often leads towards an incorrect situation; they will understand how difficult and painful would be forfeiting rights for the litigating party, which would lead to serious changes, such as losing property, losing a job, compensation of personal income, compensation for damage caused. The paper in itself contains deposited evidence, which maintain the level of estimation from the court in order to make a judgment in a contested procedure with a court verdict. In this paper I present the subject of: “Means of evidence and evidence collection in contested procedure”, where I have tried to research the theory but also the practice in contested proceedings, addressing the positive aspects, the deficiencies and novelties. In the legal provisions of the Law on Contested Procedure of theRepublicofKosovo, no. 03/L-006, of 30 June 2008, and Law no. 04/L-118, of 13 September 2012, on amendments to the Law on Contested Procedure, evidentiary means and evidence collection are included in chapter XXII.

  9. 1993 Technical Paper Contest for Women. Gear Up 2000: Women in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orans, Robin (Editor); Duckett, Sophie (Editor); White, Susan (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Advisory Committee for Women (ACW) sponsored the second ACW Technical paper Contest for Ames women in order to increase the visibility of, and to encourage writing for publication by Ames women scientists, engineers, and technicians. The topics of the contest paper mirrored in the topics of the 1993 Society for Women Engineers (SWE) National Convention, which included technological, workplace, global, and family issues.

  10. Does popularity matter in a TV song competition? Evidence from a national music contest

    OpenAIRE

    Budzinski, Oliver; Pannicke, Julia

    2017-01-01

    There is a considerable amount of literature analyzing factors of success in music contests, in particular those where the audience votes for the winner. However, one factor that is highlighted by the economic theory of stardom is generally neglected in the literature. In this paper, we tackle this research gap by focusing on a national music contest in Germany and investigating how popularity of the participating artists influences the final voting results. We employ two different concepts o...

  11. Working Paper 172 - Political Economy of Service Delivery: Monitoring versus Contestation

    OpenAIRE

    Kjell Hausken; Mthuli Ncube

    2013-01-01

    Many communities suffer limited public goods provision due to civil servants (doctors, teachers, etc) supplementing their low income with moonlighting activities. Monitors of civil servants commonly also earn low salaries from monitoring and may prefer political contestation for power and prestige. We determine an internal equilibrium for how monitors strike a balance between monitoring and political contestation. We also determine a corner solution where an unresourceful monitor does not mon...

  12. Globalized conflicts, globalized responses. Changing manners of contestation among indigenous communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benyei, Petra; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2017-01-01

    In a globalized world, environmental conflicts affecting indigenous communities (including hunter-gatherer groups) have intensified and grown in their transnational character. These changes have affected the choice of manners of contestation of these groups, favouring in some cases the emergence...... activities and confront conflicts through a truly bottom-up approach. The chapter ends discussing how, despite the potential of such new manners of contestation, the power imbalances that currently underpin many indigenous conflicts are first to be addressed....

  13. Boundary Struggles : Contestations of Free Speech in the Norwegian Publis Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental human right and a core value in liberal democracies. It is also, however, one of our time’s most contested issues, constantly claimed to be either too wide-ranging, at the peril of vulnerable minority groups, or too limited, restricting dissent and democratic deliberation. Employing a sociological lens on the dynamics of the public sphere, this book investigates how the boundaries of free speech are contested and negotiated through social processes which sil...

  14. Contested Norms in the Process of EU Enlargement: Non-Discrimination and Minority Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Antje Wiener; Guido Schwellnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the adoption of EU conditions regarding non-discrimination and minority protection in three applicant countries: Romania, Hungary and Poland. While non-discrimination is a well established EU norm, minority rights are a contested norm and not enshrined in the acquis communautaire. It is argued that contestation over norm meaning highlights the importance of norm resonance and domestic norm construction in processes of norm diffusion, and that the conceptual tension between...

  15. Contesting modernity: Tobacco use and romanticism among older Dai farmers in Xishuangbanna, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; Davey, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    The majority of research about tobacco use in China focuses on Han Chinese, the main ethnic group comprising over 90 per cent of the population, and a paucity of research exists on ethnic minorities. The present study elucidates tobacco use among the Dai people, an ethnic group in Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The study design consisted of interviews and grounded theory methodology in a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework. The categories of the grounded theory revealed tobacco consumption was weaved in a complex web of meanings: social practices, perceptions of health, and work lives as agriculturalists, situated in Dai cultural and social milieu. An important finding was the stage-managing of tobacco as a symbol of 'tradition' versus 'modernity': Through a process of contested modernity, the older men championed long-standing tobacco customs as representative of Dai heritage and thus their own tobacco use as upholding traditions amid encroaching cultural and societal change in China. These findings are important because little is known about Dai people's tobacco use and how they are responding to social change. There are also implications for the development of culturally-appropriate tobacco control strategies. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  16. The charcoal-degradation nexus: contested 'fuelscapes' in the sub-Saharan drylands of northern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Christoph; Petersen, Maike; Roden, Paul; Nüsser, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal ranks amongst the most commercialized but least regulated commodities in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its prevalence as an energy source for cooking and heating, localized environmental and livelihood impacts of charcoal production are poorly understood so far. The identified research deficit is amplified by widespread negative views of this activity as a poverty-driven cause of deforestation and land degradation. However, the charcoal-degradation nexus is apparently more complicated, not least because the extraction of biomass from already degraded woodlands can also be interpreted as an appropriate option under given management regimes. In order to better calibrate existing research agendas to site-specific geographies of charcoal production, we propose a re-conceptualization of such energy landscapes as 'fuelscapes' with complex material and social dimensions. The concept is tested with reference to a case study in Central Pokot, northern Kenya, where charcoal production only began in the early 1990's. Based on the assumption that the fine line between sustainable land management and degradation in dryland energy landscapes is not only highly variable but also increasingly contested, our study combines the knowledge input of different stakeholders with longitudinal time series of remote sensing data. Based on the results of our interdisciplinary analyses, we outline an integrated tool for the co-operative monitoring and management of prevailing degradation processes against the background of diversified livelihood activities in sub-Saharan drylands.

  17. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  18. Can motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals? Influence of goal setting on performance and affect in a complex problem solving task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. Rohe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model (Storch & Krause, 2014, so-called motto-goals (e.g., "I breathe happiness" should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. It was found that motto-goals are effective with unpleasant duties. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that motto-goals outperform learning and performance goals in the case of complex problems. A total of N = 123 subjects participated in the experiment. In dependence of their goal condition, subjects developed a personal motto, learning, or performance goal. This goal was adapted for the computer-simulated complex scenario Tailorshop, where subjects worked as managers in a small fictional company. Other than expected, there was no main effect of goal condition for the management performance. As hypothesized, motto goals led to higher positive and lower negative affect than the other two goal types. Even though positive affect decreased and negative affect increased in all three groups during Tailorshop completion, participants with motto goals reported the lowest rates of negative affect over time. Exploratory analyses investigated the role of affect in complex problem solving via mediational analyses and the influence of goal type on perceived goal attainment.

  19. "Show me your impact": evaluating transitional justice in contested spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Colleen

    2012-02-01

    This paper discusses some of the most significant challenges and opportunities for evaluating the effects of programs in support of transitional justice - the field that addresses how post-conflict or post authoritarian societies deal with legacies of wide spread human rights violations. The discussion is empirically grounded in a case study that assesses the efforts of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and one of its Guatemalan partners to evaluate the effects of a museum exposition that is attempting to recast historic memory and challenge racist attitudes in post-conflict Guatemala. The paper argues that despite the increasing trend to fund transitional justice programs, many international aid donors are stuck in traditional and arguably orthodox paradigms of program evaluation. This is having a negative effect not only upon the administration of aid but also upon how transitional justice research is perceived and valued by local populations. The case study experience indicates that there is no perfect evaluation model or approach for evaluating transitional justice programming - only choices to be made by commissioners of evaluation, evaluators, and those being evaluated. These are profoundly influenced by the extreme politics and moral values that define transitional justice settings as contested spaces in which calls to remember the tragic past must be balanced with aspirations to re-build a hopeful future. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Design Disruption in Contested, Contingent and Contradictory Future-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Akama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to problematize how we step into situations that are often contested, contingent and contradictory. In this context, how can we sharpen our sensitivity of the role design plays in generating understanding and future-making possibilities? Here, we employ the term disruption as a way to question our own knowledge construction and research practices in Design Anthropology and Participatory Design. We pursue disruption as a political and necessary consciousness when Design Anthropology meets Participatory Design and discuss the generative, reflexive and analytical dimensions of disruption through three vignettes. These vignettes raises questions of how we interrogate disruptions of power to consider different ways in which this manifests when entering into and participating in ongoing changing process. They also highlight the need to displace existing knowledge, rather than pursuing ‘mutual learning’ that had been a defining commitment of Participatory Design. Lastly, the vignettes reveal the need to disrupt the designer-researcher in order to surrender to contradiction and contingency as part of future-making.

  1. Contested minorities – the case of Upper Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierczak Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Upper Silesia in terms of ethnicity is a typical example of a historical region in Europe, but in fact, one of the few exceptions in contemporary Poland, where its mixed ethnic and religious structures have at least partly survived until today. While their existence had been denied by Nazi Germany (1933-1945 as well as by the Polish People's Republic (1945-1989, the emancipation of the German and Silesian minorities after the democratic changes of 1989 have evoked strong emotions in the ethnically almost uniform country. Nonetheless, the recent situation of minorities has improved as never before. Minority organisations has been officially recognized and German finally has become the second language in some municipalities of Upper Silesia, but the largest ethnic group in the whole country, the Silesians, have still experienced no formal recognition as a national minority. This article deals with the demographic aspects of the ethnic groups in Upper Silesia since the 19th century until recent times. The census results concerning the ethnic minorities or languages in Upper Silesia have been contested since the first records of that kind have been taken. The outcomes of the both last censuses of 2002 and 2011 concerning the minority question reflected for the first time a much more realistic picture of the status quo. Furthermore, they showed that the idea of Silesian identification found an unexpected high number of supporters. This fact indicates an emerging meaning of regional identification amid significant changes of cultural values in Polish society.

  2. Performance and Complexity Co-evaluation of the Advanced Video Coding Standard for Cost-Effective Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saponara Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The advanced video codec (AVC standard, recently defined by a joint video team (JVT of ITU-T and ISO/IEC, is introduced in this paper together with its performance and complexity co-evaluation. While the basic framework is similar to the motion-compensated hybrid scheme of previous video coding standards, additional tools improve the compression efficiency at the expense of an increased implementation cost. As a first step to bridge the gap between the algorithmic design of a complex multimedia system and its cost-effective realization, a high-level co-evaluation approach is proposed and applied to a real-life AVC design. An exhaustive analysis of the codec compression efficiency versus complexity (memory and computational costs project space is carried out at the early algorithmic design phase. If all new coding features are used, the improved AVC compression efficiency (up to 50% compared to current video coding technology comes with a complexity increase of a factor 2 for the decoder and larger than one order of magnitude for the encoder. This represents a challenge for resource-constrained multimedia systems such as wireless devices or high-volume consumer electronics. The analysis also highlights important properties of the AVC framework allowing for complexity reduction at the high system level: when combining the new coding features, the implementation complexity accumulates, while the global compression efficiency saturates. Thus, a proper use of the AVC tools maintains the same performance as the most complex configuration while considerably reducing complexity. The reported results provide inputs to assist the profile definition in the standard, highlight the AVC bottlenecks, and select optimal trade-offs between algorithmic performance and complexity.

  3. Intelligence and impact contests in systems with redundancy, false targets, and partial protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers a system consisting of identical elements that can be intentionally attacked. The cumulative performance of the system elements should meet a demand. To prevent loss of demand the defender provides system redundancy (deploying genuine system elements (GEs) with cumulative performance exceeding the demand); deploys false elements (FEs), and protects the GEs. If the attacker cannot distinguish GEs and FEs, he chooses the number of elements to attack and attacks at random these elements distributing his resource evenly among the attacked elements. In order to get the information about the system the attacker allocates a part of his resource into the intelligence activity. Analogously, the defender allocates a part of his resource into the counter-intelligence activity. The attacker's strategy presumes distribution of his resource among the intelligence and attack effort and choice of the number of attacked elements. If the attacker wins the intelligence contest, he can identify both FEs and unprotected GEs ignoring the former ones and destroying the latter ones with negligible effort. The defender's strategy presumes distribution of his resource among the counter-intelligence and the three defensive actions. The paper considers a three-period non-cooperative minmax game between the defender and the attacker and presents an algorithm for determining the agents' optimal strategies.

  4. Muscle Torque and its Relation to Technique, Tactics, Sports Level and Age Group in Judo Contestants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman’s r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  5. Muscle torque and its relation to technique, tactics, sports level and age group in judo contestants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-03-29

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman's r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821).

  6. High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: I. Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Montagnac, M; Vermorel, O; Staffelbach, G; Garcia, M; Boussuge, J-F; Gazaix, M; Poinsot, T

    2009-01-01

    Efficient numerical tools coupled with high-performance computers, have become a key element of the design process in the fields of energy supply and transportation. However flow phenomena that occur in complex systems such as gas turbines and aircrafts are still not understood mainly because of the models that are needed. In fact, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions as found today in industry focus on a reduced or simplified version of the real system (such as a periodic sector) and are usually solved with a steady-state assumption. This paper shows how to overcome such barriers and how such a new challenge can be addressed by developing flow solvers running on high-end computing platforms, using thousands of computing cores. Parallel strategies used by modern flow solvers are discussed with particular emphases on mesh-partitioning, load balancing and communication. Two examples are used to illustrate these concepts: a multi-block structured code and an unstructured code. Parallel computing strategies used with both flow solvers are detailed and compared. This comparison indicates that mesh-partitioning and load balancing are more straightforward with unstructured grids than with multi-block structured meshes. However, the mesh-partitioning stage can be challenging for unstructured grids, mainly due to memory limitations of the newly developed massively parallel architectures. Finally, detailed investigations show that the impact of mesh-partitioning on the numerical CFD solutions, due to rounding errors and block splitting, may be of importance and should be accurately addressed before qualifying massively parallel CFD tools for a routine industrial use.

  7. A Performance Assessment of an Airborne Separation Assistance System Using Realistic Complex Traffic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Bussink, Frank J. L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study that investigates the performance of a tactical Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) in en route airspace, under varying demand levels, with realistic traffic flows. The ASAS concept studied here allows flight crews of equipped aircraft to perform separation from other air traffic autonomously. This study addresses the tactical aspects of an ASAS using aircraft state data (i.e. position and velocity) to detect and resolve projected conflicts. In addition, use of a conflict prevention system helps ASAS-equipped aircraft avoid maneuvers that may cause new conflicts. ASAS-capable aircraft are equipped with satellite-based navigation and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) for transmission and receipt of aircraft state data. In addition to tactical conflict detection and resolution (CD&R), a complete, integrated ASAS is likely to incorporate a strategic CD&R component with a longer look-ahead time, using trajectory intent information. A system-wide traffic flow management (TFM) component, located at the FAA command center helps aircraft to avoid regions of excessive traffic density and complexity. A Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), as used today is the system of last resort. This integrated approach avoids sole reliance on the use of the tactical CD&R studied here, but the tactical component remains a critical element of the complete ASAS. The focus of this paper is to determine to what extent the proposed tactical component of ASAS alone can maintain aircraft separation at demand levels up to three times that of current traffic. The study also investigates the effect of mixing ASAS-equipped aircraft with unequipped aircraft (i.e. current day) that do not have the capability to self-separate. Position and velocity data for unequipped aircraft needs to be available to ASASequipped. Most likely, for this future concept, state data would be available from instrument flight rules (IFR

  8. A model of R-D performance evaluation for Rate-Distortion-Complexity evaluation of H.264 video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a method for evaluation of Rate-Distortion-Complexity (R-D-C) performance of video coding. A statistical model of the transformed coefficients is used to estimate the Rate-Distortion (R-D) performance. A model frame work for rate, distortion and slope of the R-D curve for inter...... and intra frame is presented. Assumptions are given for analyzing an R-D model for fast R-D-C evaluation. The theoretical expressions are combined with H.264 video coding, and confirmed by experimental results. The complexity frame work is applied to the integer motion estimation....

  9. Theatrical Tectonics: The Mediating Agent for a Contesting Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevork Hartoonian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper posits the idea that the theme of agency in architecture is parallactic. It discusses the tectonic as an agent through which architecture turns into a state of constant flux. The intention is to promote a discourse of criticality, the thematic of which is drawn from the symptoms that galvanise architecture’s rapport with the image-laden culture of late capitalism. In an attempt to log the thematic of a contested practice, this essay will re-map the recent history of contemporary architecture.Exploring New Brutalism’s criticism of the established ethos of International Style architecture, the first part of this paper will highlight the movement’s tendency towards replacing the painterly with the sculptural, and this in reference to the contemporary interest in monolithic architecture. Having established the import of tectonics for the architecture of Brutalism, the paper then argues that in the present situation, when architecture – like other cultural products – is infatuated with the spectacle of late capitalism, a re-thinking of the Semperian notion of theatricality is useful. Of interest in the tectonic of theatricality is the work’s capacity to bring forth the division between intellectual and physical labours, and this in reference to architecture’s reserved acceptance of technification for which the aforementioned division is vital.Particular attention will be given to two projects, Zaha Hadid’s Phaeno Center and OMA’s Casa da Musica, where architectonic aspects of New Brutalism are revisited in the light of the tectonic of theatricality.

  10. Obesity-specific neural cost of maintaining gait performance under complex conditions in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofundiya, Olufunmilola; Benden, Mark E; Dowdy, Diane; Mehta, Ranjana K

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence of obesity-related changes in the prefrontal cortex during cognitive and seated motor activities has surfaced; however, the impact of obesity on neural activity during ambulation remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine obesity-specific neural cost of simple and complex ambulation in older adults. Twenty non-obese and obese individuals, 65years and older, performed three tasks varying in the types of complexity of ambulation (simple walking, walking+cognitive dual-task, and precision walking). Maximum oxygenated hemoglobin, a measure of neural activity, was measured bilaterally using a portable functional near infrared spectroscopy system, and gait speed and performance on the complex tasks were also obtained. Complex ambulatory tasks were associated with ~2-3.5 times greater cerebral oxygenation levels and ~30-40% slower gait speeds when compared to the simple walking task. Additionally, obesity was associated with three times greater oxygenation levels, particularly during the precision gait task, despite obese adults demonstrating similar gait speeds and performances on the complex gait tasks as non-obese adults. Compared to existing studies that focus solely on biomechanical outcomes, the present study is one of the first to examine obesity-related differences in neural activity during ambulation in older adults. In order to maintain gait performance, obesity was associated with higher neural costs, and this was augmented during ambulatory tasks requiring greater precision control. These preliminary findings have clinical implications in identifying individuals who are at greater risk of mobility limitations, particularly when performing complex ambulatory tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How students process equations in solving quantitative synthesis problems? Role of mathematical complexity in students’ mathematical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashirah Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine students’ mathematical performance on quantitative “synthesis problems” with varying mathematical complexity. Synthesis problems are tasks comprising multiple concepts typically taught in different chapters. Mathematical performance refers to the formulation, combination, and simplification of equations. Generally speaking, formulation and combination of equations require conceptual reasoning; simplification of equations requires manipulation of equations as computational tools. Mathematical complexity is operationally defined by the number and the type of equations to be manipulated concurrently due to the number of unknowns in each equation. We use two types of synthesis problems, namely, sequential and simultaneous tasks. Sequential synthesis tasks require a chronological application of pertinent concepts, and simultaneous synthesis tasks require a concurrent application of the pertinent concepts. A total of 179 physics major students from a second year mechanics course participated in the study. Data were collected from written tasks and individual interviews. Results show that mathematical complexity negatively influences the students’ mathematical performance on both types of synthesis problems. However, for the sequential synthesis tasks, it interferes only with the students’ simplification of equations. For the simultaneous synthesis tasks, mathematical complexity additionally impedes the students’ formulation and combination of equations. Several reasons may explain this difference, including the students’ different approaches to the two types of synthesis problems, cognitive load, and the variation of mathematical complexity within each synthesis type.

  12. Performance Analysis with Network-Enhanced Complexities: On Fading Measurements, Event-Triggered Mechanisms, and Cyber Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derui Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the real-world systems are usually subject to various complexities such as parameter uncertainties, time-delays, and nonlinear disturbances. For networked systems, especially large-scale systems such as multiagent systems and systems over sensor networks, the complexities are inevitably enhanced in terms of their degrees or intensities because of the usage of the communication networks. Therefore, it would be interesting to (1 examine how this kind of network-enhanced complexities affects the control or filtering performance; and (2 develop some suitable approaches for controller/filter design problems. In this paper, we aim to survey some recent advances on the performance analysis and synthesis with three sorts of fashionable network-enhanced complexities, namely, fading measurements, event-triggered mechanisms, and attack behaviors of adversaries. First, these three kinds of complexities are introduced in detail according to their engineering backgrounds, dynamical characteristic, and modelling techniques. Then, the developments of the performance analysis and synthesis issues for various networked systems are systematically reviewed. Furthermore, some challenges are illustrated by using a thorough literature review and some possible future research directions are highlighted.

  13. Three propositions on why characteristics of performance management systems converge across policy areas with different levels of task complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    of task complexity amidst a lack of formal and overarching, government-wide policies. We advance our propositions from a case study comparing the characteristics of performance management systems across social services (eldercare) and technical services (park services) in Denmark. Contrary to expectations......This article investigates the differences and similarities between performance management systems across public services. We offer three propositions as to why the characteristics of performance management systems may still converge across policy areas in the public sector with different levels...... for divergence due to differences in task complexity, the characteristics of performance management systems in the two policy areas are observed to converge. On the basis of a case study, we propose that convergence has occurred due to 1) similarities in policy-specific reforms, 2) institutional pressures, and 3...

  14. 5 CFR 890.1069 - Information the debarring official must consider in deciding a provider's contest of proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... deciding a provider's contest of proposed penalties and assessments. (a) Documentary material and written...

  15. Competition and market contestability of banks: Evidence from emerging financial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntazir Hussain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is an attempt to investigate the nature of competition and market contestability of 35 Pakistani banks for the period of 2007-2011 by employing Panzar and Rosse (PR-model. The test of competition overall sample (2007-2011 suggest that banks in Pakistan in state of monopolistic competition and market is in equilibrium. The sub sample (2007-2009 result of competition and equilibrium are similar as for sample period (2007-2011 suggesting that revenue produced during this period is state of monopolistic competition. Finally the results of sample period (2010-2011 suggest that banks in Pakistan are instate of perfect competition however, the market in not in long-run equilibrium. The results have interesting policy implications; it is suggested to encourage the foreign banks presence to improve the competitive condition of banking industry so that to ensure the exit and entrance of banks in the industry to increase the competition and produce the variety of product to improve banks performance and customer satisfaction.

  16. Patient agency and contested notions of disability in social assistance applications in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gabrielle

    2017-02-01

    Problems in fairly allocating welfare and health resources are very often located in the spaces where citizens interact directly with state workers. This study draws on observations of doctor-patient encounters in disability assessments for the South African disability grant (DG) to examine how doctor-patient interactions and patient agency shape social welfare allocation in a context of high poverty and inequality. Data were gathered via interviews with healthcare workers and observations of doctor-patient interactions in twelve clinics and three hospitals in the Western Cape province between October 2013 and August 2014. Twenty-four doctors were interviewed, of whom seventeen were observed conducting a total of 216 consultations with patients. Two training sessions of DG assessors were also observed. Findings show that interactions between doctors and patients are sites of negotiation and contestation over rights to social assistance. Claimants' understanding of disability differed from biomedical and bureaucratic definitions. Patients attempted to influence doctors' decisions through narratives of suffering and performances of disability. Others used verbal or physical abuse as a form of protest against perceived unfair treatment. To defend themselves from these pressures and maintain authority in these interactions, doctors employed coping strategies that distanced and objectified claimants. This resulted in strained doctor-patient relationships and made the DG system confusing to the public. This demonstrates the importance of considering trust, power dynamics and the exercise of agency by both patients and providers in understanding policy implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding perceptions of genital herpes disclosure through analysis of an online video contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catallozzi, Marina; Ebel, Sophia C; Chávez, Noé R; Shearer, Lee S; Mindel, Adrian; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to examine pre-existing videos in order to explore the motivation for, possible approaches to, and timing and context of disclosure of genital herpes infection as described by the lay public. A thematic content analysis was performed on 63 videos submitted to an Australian online contest sponsored by the Australian Herpes Management Forum and Novartis Pharmaceuticals designed to promote disclosure of genital herpes. Videos either provided a motivation for disclosure of genital herpes or directed disclosure without an explicit rationale. Motivations included manageability of the disease or consistency with important values. Evaluation of strategies and logistics of disclosure revealed a variety of communication styles including direct and indirect. Disclosure settings included those that were private, semiprivate and public. Disclosure was portrayed in a variety of relationship types, and at different times within those relationships, with many videos demonstrating disclosure in connection with a romantic setting. Individuals with genital herpes are expected to disclose to susceptible partners. This analysis suggests that understanding lay perspectives on herpes disclosure to a partner may help healthcare providers develop counselling messages that decrease anxiety and foster disclosure to prevent transmission.

  18. The effects of overtime work and task complexity on the performance of nuclear plant operators: A proposed methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Potash, L.

    1985-01-01

    This document presents a very general methodology for determining the effect of overtime work and task complexity on operator performance in response to simulated out-of-limit nuclear plant conditions. The independent variables consist of three levels of overtime work and three levels of task complexity. Multiple dependent performance measures are proposed for use and discussion. Overtime work is operationally defined in terms of the number of hours worked by nuclear plant operators beyond the traditional 8 hours per shift. Task complexity is operationalized in terms of the number of operator tasks required to remedy a given plant anomalous condition and bring the plant back to a ''within limits'' or ''normal'' steady-state condition. The proposed methodology would employ a 2 factor repeated measures design along with the analysis of variance (linear) model

  19. Complexities in innovation management in companies from the European industry. A path model of innovation project performance determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tepic, M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Omta, S.W.F.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated framework of complex relations among innovation characteristics, organizational capabilities, innovation potential and innovation performance. Design/methodology/approach – The model is tested using partial least squares (PLS) modeling

  20. "One Task Fits All"? The Roles of Task Complexity, Modality, and Working Memory Capacity in L2 Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalbidea, Janire

    2017-01-01

    The present study explores the independent and interactive effects of task complexity and task modality on linguistic dimensions of second language (L2) performance and investigates how these effects are modulated by individual differences in working memory capacity. Thirty-two intermediate learners of L2 Spanish completed less and more complex…

  1. Self-Efficacy, Task Complexity and Task Performance: Exploring Interactions in Two Versions of Vocabulary Learning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed for better understanding of the interactions between task complexity and students' self-efficacy beliefs and students' use of learning strategies, and finally their interacting effects on task performance. This investigation was carried out in the context of Chinese students learning English as a foreign language in a…

  2. An Analysis of the Influence of Graph Theory When Preparing for Programming Contests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Jordán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject known as Programming Contests in the Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Engineering course focuses on solving programming problems frequently met within contests such as the Southwest Europe Regional Contest (SWERC. In order to solve these problems one first needs to model the problem correctly, find the ideal solution, and then be able to program it without making any mistakes in a very short period of time. Leading multinationals such as Google, Apple, IBM, Facebook and Microsoft place a very high value on these abilities when selecting candidates for posts in their companies. In this communication we present some preliminary results of an analysis of the interaction between two optional subjects in the Computer Science Degree course: Programming Contests (PC and Graphs, Models and Applications (GMA. The results of this analysis enabled us to make changes to some of the contents in GMA in order to better prepare the students to deal with the challenges they have to face in programming contests.

  3. UV-green iridescence predicts male quality during jumping spider contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Matthew L M; Li, Daiqin

    2013-01-01

    Animal colour signals used in intraspecies communications can generally be attributed to a composite effect of structural and pigmentary colours. Notably, the functional role of iridescent coloration that is 'purely' structural (i.e., absence of pigments) is poorly understood. Recent studies reveal that iridescent colorations can reliably indicate individual quality, but evidence of iridescence as a pure structural coloration indicative of male quality during contests and relating to an individual's resource-holding potential (RHP) is lacking. In age- and size-controlled pairwise male-male contests that escalate from visual displays of aggression to more costly physical fights, we demonstrate that the ultraviolet-green iridescence of Cosmophasis umbratica predicts individual persistence and relates to RHP. Contest initiating males exhibited significantly narrower carapace band separation (i.e., relative spectral positions of UV and green hues) than non-initiators. Asymmetries in carapace and abdomen brightness influenced overall contest duration and escalation. As losers retreated upon having reached their own persistence limits in contests that escalated to physical fights, losers with narrower carapace band separation were significantly more persistence. We propose that the carapace UV-green iridescence of C. umbratica predicts individual persistence and is indicative of a male's RHP. As the observed UV-green hues of C. umbratica are 'pure' optical products of a multilayer reflector system, we suggest that intrasexual variations in the optical properties of the scales' chitin-air-chitin microstructures are responsible for the observed differences in carapace band separations.

  4. UV-green iridescence predicts male quality during jumping spider contests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L M Lim

    Full Text Available Animal colour signals used in intraspecies communications can generally be attributed to a composite effect of structural and pigmentary colours. Notably, the functional role of iridescent coloration that is 'purely' structural (i.e., absence of pigments is poorly understood. Recent studies reveal that iridescent colorations can reliably indicate individual quality, but evidence of iridescence as a pure structural coloration indicative of male quality during contests and relating to an individual's resource-holding potential (RHP is lacking. In age- and size-controlled pairwise male-male contests that escalate from visual displays of aggression to more costly physical fights, we demonstrate that the ultraviolet-green iridescence of Cosmophasis umbratica predicts individual persistence and relates to RHP. Contest initiating males exhibited significantly narrower carapace band separation (i.e., relative spectral positions of UV and green hues than non-initiators. Asymmetries in carapace and abdomen brightness influenced overall contest duration and escalation. As losers retreated upon having reached their own persistence limits in contests that escalated to physical fights, losers with narrower carapace band separation were significantly more persistence. We propose that the carapace UV-green iridescence of C. umbratica predicts individual persistence and is indicative of a male's RHP. As the observed UV-green hues of C. umbratica are 'pure' optical products of a multilayer reflector system, we suggest that intrasexual variations in the optical properties of the scales' chitin-air-chitin microstructures are responsible for the observed differences in carapace band separations.

  5. Social licence, corporate social responsibility and coal seam gas: framing the new political dynamics of contestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, Giorel

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the contestation dynamics between the unconventional gas mining sector and its challengers through the prism of the social licence to operate. Social licence is a dominant narrative in the mining sector today and as a signifier of the sector's CSR credentials, the term is an influential one. Its capacity to confer project legitimacy, and hence avoid the risks of community opposition, helps explain why most companies seek to gain one. Today both gas proponents and opponents talk the language of social licence: the former to defend their projects, the latter to challenge them. Yet, beyond rhetoric, the precise meaning of social licence remains elusive. This paper uses a case study of community opposition to primarily coal seam gas projects in an eastern Australian region to explore how the absence of a precise meaning for social licence has created a strategic opportunity space for the industry's opponents to invest social licence with a potent democracy frame. This democracy framing has proved particularly effective as a contestation tool and helps explain the outcomes in this case. - Highlights: • Unconventional gas exploration and mining is becoming increasingly contested. • A key way of managing this contestation is through the social licence to operate. • Both proponents and opponents of gas mining use social licence strategically. • Social licence has become increasingly politicised. • A democratic frame assists the effectiveness of contestation.

  6. Selecting a change and evaluating its impact on the performance of a complex adaptive health care delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaz A Boustani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaz A Boustani1,2,3,4, Stephanie Munger1,2, Rajesh Gulati3,4, Mickey Vogel4, Robin A Beck3,4, Christopher M Callahan1,2,3,41Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 2Regenstrief Institute Inc., 3Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, 4Indiana University Medical Group-Primary Care; Indianapolis, IN USAAbstract: Complexity science suggests that our current health care delivery system acts as a complex adaptive system (CAS. Such systems represent a dynamic and flexible network of individuals who can coevolve with their ever changing environment. The CAS performance fluctuates and its members’ interactions continuously change over time in response to the stress generated by its surrounding environment. This paper will review the challenges of intervening and introducing a planned change into a complex adaptive health care delivery system. We explore the role of the “reflective adaptive process” in developing delivery interventions and suggest different evaluation methodologies to study the impact of such interventions on the performance of the entire system. We finally describe the implementation of a new program, the Aging Brain Care Medical Home as a case study of our proposed evaluation process.Keywords: complexity, aging brain, implementation, complex adaptive system, sustained change, care delivery

  7. The Relationship between Students' Performance on Conventional Standardized Mathematics Assessments and Complex Mathematical Modeling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…

  8. 100 Gbps IM/DD links using quad-polarization: Performance, complexity, and power dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; Piels, Molly; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A computational complexity, power consumption, and receiver sensitivity analysis for three different scenarios for short-range direct detection links is presented: 1) quad-polarization, 2) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and 3) parallel optics. Results show that the power consumption pena...... sensitivity of 4.4 dBm...

  9. Exploring the dynamic and complex integration of sustainability performance measurement into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Morioka, S.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi

    2016-01-01

    In order to deal with the complex and dynamic nature of sustainability integration into the product development process, this research explore the use of a qualitative System Dynamics approach by using the causal loop diagram (CLD) tool. A literature analysis was followed by a case study, aiming ...

  10. Supply chain integration and performance : the moderating effect of supply complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giménez, C.; van der Vaart, T.; van Donk, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of supply chain integration in different contexts. More specifically, it aims to show that supply chain integration is only effective in buyer-supplier relationships characterised by high supply complexity.

  11. Determinants of alliance portfolio complexity and its effect on innovative performance of companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijsters, G.M.; Lokshin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Alliance formation is often described as a mechanism used by firms to increase voluntary knowledge transfers. Access to external knowledge has been increasingly recognized as a main source of a firm's innovativeness. A phenomenon that has recently emerged is alliance portfolio complexity. In line

  12. The impact of traffic noise on mental performance considering complexity of activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

      Conclusion: One of the most significant findings emerged from this study is that traffic noise seems to have no effect on the mentioned variables under simple activity condition. However, traffic noise has devastating effects on median reaction time, number of appeared stimuli and reactions under complex activity condition.

  13. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  14. Performance-complexity tradeoff in sequential decoding for the unconstrained AWGN channel

    KAUST Repository

    Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the lattice decoder. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement

  15. Bright electroluminescence from a chelate phosphine oxide Eu{sup III} complex with high thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Hui [School of Chemistry and Materials, Heilongjiang University, 74 Xuefu Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150080, Heilongjiang Province (China); Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 66 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 21003, Jiangsu Province (China); Yin Kun; Wang Lianhui [Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, 66 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 21003, Jiangsu Province (China); Huang Wei [Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: wei-huang@njupt.edu.cn

    2008-10-01

    The chelate phosphine oxide ligand 1,8-bis(diphenylphosphino)naphthalene oxide (NaPO) was used to prepare complex 1 tris(2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(1,8-bis(diphenylphosphino)naphthalene oxide)europium(III). The rigid structure of NaPO makes 1 have more compact structure resulting in a temperature of glass transition as high as 147 deg. C, which is the highest in luminescent Eu{sup III} complexes, and a higher decomposition temperature of 349 deg. C. The improvement of carrier transfer ability of NaPO was proved by Gaussian simulation. The multi-layered electroluminescent device based on 1 had a low turn-on voltage of 6.0 V, the maximum brightness of 601 cd m{sup -2} at 21.5 V and 481.4 mA cm{sup -2}, and the excellent voltage-independent spectral stability. These properties demonstrated NaPO cannot only be favorable to form the rigid and compact complex structure, and increase the thermal and morphological stability of the complex, but also reduce the formation of the exciplex.

  16. Task Complexity, Student Perceptions of Vocabulary Learning in EFL, and Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-ef?cacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a ?ne-tuned task-speci?c level. Aim: The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-ef?cacy beliefs, domain-related…

  17. The Role of Awareness for Complex Planning Task Performance: A Microgaming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukosch, Heide; Groen, Daan; Kurapati, Shalini; Klemke, Roland; Verbraeck, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the concept of microgames to support situated learning in order to foster situational awareness (SA) of planners in seaport container terminals. In today's complex working environments, it is often difficult to develop the required level of understanding of a given situation, described as situational awareness. A container…

  18. Cognitive Task Complexity Effects on L2 Writing Performance: An Application of Mixed-Methods Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi Tabari, Mahmoud; Ivey, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a methodological review of previous research on cognitive task complexity, since the term emerged in 1995, and investigates why much research was more quantitative rather than qualitative. Moreover, it sheds light onto the studies which used the mixed-methods approach and determines which version of the mixed-methods designs…

  19. A Low-Complexity and High-Performance 2D Look-Up Table for LDPC Hardware Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Chieh; Yang, Po-Hui; Lain, Jenn-Kaie; Chung, Tzu-Wen

    In this paper, we propose a low-complexity, high-efficiency two-dimensional look-up table (2D LUT) for carrying out the sum-product algorithm in the decoding of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Instead of employing adders for the core operation when updating check node messages, in the proposed scheme, the main term and correction factor of the core operation are successfully merged into a compact 2D LUT. Simulation results indicate that the proposed 2D LUT not only attains close-to-optimal bit error rate performance but also enjoys a low complexity advantage that is suitable for hardware implementation.

  20. Homeostatic study of the effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Qin; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Wu, Ren-Le; Ruan, Chang-Xiong; He, Li-Mei; Liu, Song-Hao

    2008-12-01

    There are effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome. It has been explained from the psychological and perceptual viewpoints, respectively. It was studied by integrating the homeostatic theory of exercise training and autonomic nervous model of color vision in this paper. It was found that the effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome depend on autonomic nervous homeostasis (ANH). Color can be classified into hot color such as red, orange and yellow and cold color such as green, blue and violet. If the athletes have been in ANH, there are no effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome. If the autonomic nervous system is far from ANH due to exercise induced fatigue, wearing cold color had no predominance for cold-hot matches, and wearing white had no predominance for white-color matches.

  1. Technical paper contest for women 1992. Space challenges: Earth and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orans, Robin (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Two of the major concerns of the NASA Ames Research Center (NASA ARC) Advisory Committee for Women (ACW) are that recruitment of women scientists, engineers, and technicians needs to increase and that barriers to advancement need to be removed for improved representation of women in middle and upper management and scientific positions. One strategy that addressed this concern was the ACW sponsorship of a Technical Paper Contest for Women at Ames Research Center. Other sponsors of the Contest were the Ames Equal Opportunity Council and the Ames Contractor Council. The Technical Paper Contest for Women greatly increased the visibility of both the civil service women and the women who work for contractors at Ames. The women had the opportunity to hone their written and oral presentation skills. Networking among Ames women increased.

  2. The first mathematical models of dynamic meteorology: The Berlin prize contest of 1746

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egger, J.; Pelkowski, J. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    2008-02-15

    The first models of dynamic meteorology were published in 1747 as a result of a prize contest of the Academy of Prussia. The topic of the contest concerned the determination of the winds 'if the Earth were surrounded everywhere by an ocean'. D'Alembert formulated a shallow water model for the first time in his prize-winning contribution and attempted to calculate tidal motions within the fluid layers. Daniel Bernoulli viewed the atmosphere as a boundary layer wherein the winds rotating with the earth at low elevations have to adjust their motion to a solar atmosphere at large heights. He is first in applying the principle of angular momentum conservation in continuum geophysics when calculating the zonal wind profile. An account of the historical background of the contest is given, as well as some later reactions to d'Alembert's solution. (orig.)

  3. Neurological surgery: the influence of physical and mental demands on humans performing complex operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Sarah K; Walcott, Brian P; Sheth, Sameer A; Coumans, Jean-Valery C E

    2013-03-01

    Performing neurological surgery is an inherently demanding task on the human body, both physically and mentally. Neurosurgeons routinely perform "high stakes" operations in the setting of mental and physical fatigue. These conditions may be not only the result of demanding operations, but also influential to their outcome. Similar to other performance-based endurance activities, training is paramount to successful outcomes. The inflection point, where training reaches the point of diminishing returns, is intensely debated. For the neurosurgeon, this point must be exploited to the maximum, as patients require both the best-trained and best-performing surgeon. In this review, we explore the delicate balance of training and performance, as well as some routinely used adjuncts to improve human performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Influencing Adaptation and Performance at Physical Exercise in Complex Congenital Heart Diseases after Surgical Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Bassareo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last thirty years, steady progress in the diagnostic tools and care of subjects affected by congenital heart diseases (CHD has resulted in a significant increase in their survival to adulthood, even for those affected by complex CHD. Based on these premises, a number of teenagers and adults affected by corrected (surgically or through interventional techniques CHD ask to be allowed to undertake sporting activities, both at a recreational and competitive level. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms influencing the adaption at physical exercise of patients suffering from complex CHD. The conclusion is that even if there are some modest risks with exercise, they should be seen in perspective, and the life-long benefits of regular exercise on general health, mood, and well-being should be emphasized.

  5. Stepwise Distributed Open Innovation Contests for Software Development: Acceleration of Genome-Wide Association Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Loh, Po-Ru; Bharadwaj, Ragu B; Pons, Pascal; Shang, Jingbo; Guinan, Eva; Lakhani, Karim; Kilty, Iain; Jelinsky, Scott A

    2017-05-01

    The association of differing genotypes with disease-related phenotypic traits offers great potential to both help identify new therapeutic targets and support stratification of patients who would gain the greatest benefit from specific drug classes. Development of low-cost genotyping and sequencing has made collecting large-scale genotyping data routine in population and therapeutic intervention studies. In addition, a range of new technologies is being used to capture numerous new and complex phenotypic descriptors. As a result, genotype and phenotype datasets have grown exponentially. Genome-wide association studies associate genotypes and phenotypes using methods such as logistic regression. As existing tools for association analysis limit the efficiency by which value can be extracted from increasing volumes of data, there is a pressing need for new software tools that can accelerate association analyses on large genotype-phenotype datasets. Using open innovation (OI) and contest-based crowdsourcing, the logistic regression analysis in a leading, community-standard genetics software package (PLINK 1.07) was substantially accelerated. OI allowed us to do this in innovation, we achieved an end-to-end speedup of 591-fold for a data set size of 6678 subjects by 645 863 variants, compared to PLINK 1.07's logistic regression. This represents a reduction in run time from 4.8 hours to 29 seconds. Accelerated logistic regression code developed in this project has been incorporated into the PLINK2 project. Using iterative competition-based OI, we have developed a new, faster implementation of logistic regression for genome-wide association studies analysis. We present lessons learned and recommendations on running a successful OI process for bioinformatics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. A comparative investigation on absorption performances of three expanded graphite-based complex materials for toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shande; Tian Shuanghong; Feng Yunfeng; Lei Jiajia; Wang, Piaopiao; Xiong Ya

    2010-01-01

    Three kinds of expanded graphite-based complex materials were prepared to absorb toluene by dispersing plant oil, animal oil and mineral oil on the surface of expanded graphite, respectively. These complex materials were characterized by scanning electronic micrograph, contact angle meter and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area. And their absorption capacities for toluene were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the surfaces of the three types of sorbents were very hydrophobic and nonporous, but they all had excellent absorption capacities for toluene. And their absorption capacities were proportional to the toluene concentration in streams and decreased differently with increasing the absorption temperature. It was noteworthy that the absorption capacities varied with the unsaturated degree of the complex materials and kept unchanged under different relative humidities of streams. Moreover, the regeneration experiments showed that after 15-run regeneration the absorption capacities of expanded graphite modified by mineral oil almost kept unchanged, while that of expanded graphite loaded plant oil and animal oil dropped by 157 and 93.6 mg g -1 , respectively. The losses of their absorption capacities were ascribed to the destruction of their unsaturated carbon bounds.

  7. Comparison of surface extraction techniques performance in computed tomography for 3D complex micro-geometry dimensional measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba, Marta; Jiménez, Roberto; Yagüe-Fabra, José A.

    2018-01-01

    micro-geometries as well (i.e., in the sub-mm dimensional range). However, there are different factors that may influence the CT process performance, being one of them the surface extraction technique used. In this paper, two different extraction techniques are applied to measure a complex miniaturized......The number of industrial applications of computed tomography (CT) for dimensional metrology in 100–103 mm range has been continuously increasing, especially in the last years. Due to its specific characteristics, CT has the potential to be employed as a viable solution for measuring 3D complex...... dental file by CT in order to analyze its contribution to the final measurement uncertainty in complex geometries at the mm to sub-mm scales. The first method is based on a similarity analysis: the threshold determination; while the second one is based on a gradient or discontinuity analysis: the 3D...

  8. Performance and Complexity Analysis of Blind FIR Channel Identification Algorithms Based on Deterministic Maximum Likelihood in SIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Omar, Samir; Slock, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We analyze two algorithms that have been introduced previously for Deterministic Maximum Likelihood (DML) blind estimation of multiple FIR channels. The first one is a modification of the Iterative Quadratic ML (IQML) algorithm. IQML gives biased estimates of the channel and performs poorly at low...... to the initialization. Its asymptotic performance does not reach the DML performance though. The second strategy, called Pseudo-Quadratic ML (PQML), is naturally denoised. The denoising in PQML is furthermore more efficient than in DIQML: PQML yields the same asymptotic performance as DML, as opposed to DIQML......, but requires a consistent initialization. We furthermore compare DIQML and PQML to the strategy of alternating minimization w.r.t. symbols and channel for solving DML (AQML). An asymptotic performance analysis, a complexity evaluation and simulation results are also presented. The proposed DIQML and PQML...

  9. Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency and Lexis in Task-Based Performance: A Synthesis of the Ealing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skehan, Peter; Foster, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will present a research synthesis of a series of studies, termed here the Ealing research. The studies use the same general framework to conceptualise tasks and task performance, enabling easier comparability. The different studies, although each is self-contained, build into a wider picture of task performance. The major point of…

  10. The CEO performance effect : Statistical issues and a complex fit perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blettner, D.P.; Chaddad, F.R.; Bettis, R.

    2012-01-01

    How CEOs affect strategy and performance is important to strategic management research. We show that sophisticated statistical analysis alone is problematic for establishing the magnitude and causes of CEO impact on performance. We discuss three problem areas that substantially distort the

  11. Research protocol: a realist synthesis of contestability in community-based mental health markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Bains, Amara

    2015-03-25

    In most developed nations, there has been a shift from public services to a marketisation of public goods and services - representing a significant reform process aiming to transform the way in which community-based human services, such as health, are delivered and consumed. For services, this means developing the capacity to adapt and innovate in response to changing circumstances to achieve quality. The availability of rigorous research to demonstrate whether a market approach and contestability, in particular, is a coherent reform process is largely absent. Contestability operates on the premise that better procurement processes allow more providers to enter the market and compete for contracts. This is expected to create stimulus for greater efficiencies, innovation and improved service delivery to consumers. There is limited understanding, however, about how community-based providers morph and re-configure in response to the opportunities posed by contestability. This study focuses on the effect of a contestability policy on the community-managed mental health sector. A realist review will be undertaken to understand how and why the introduction of contestability into a previously incontestable market influences the ways in which community-based mental health providers respond to contestability. The review will investigate those circumstances that shape organisational response and generate outcomes through activating mechanisms. An early scoping has helped to formulate the initial program theory. A realist synthesis will be undertaken to identify relevant journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the emerging contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations. The analysis will seek patterns and regularities in these configurations across the extracted data and will focus on addressing our theory-based questions. Increasingly, community-based mental health markets are moving to contestability models. Rigorous

  12. A Comparison between the Swedish 3G Beauty Contest and the UK 3G Auction

    OpenAIRE

    Welin, Erik

    2006-01-01

    This thesis compares the two different version of public franchise bidding for awarding 3G licenses used in Sweden and the UK, respectively a beauty contest and an auction. The fact is that the Swedish beauty contest has failed to tackle many of the problems discussed in connection with public franchise bidding in an effective way. Sweden has first of all had problems with enforcing the ambitious coverage criteria. The UK has on the other hand succeeded in tackling the problems and raised gov...

  13. Complex system theory in team sports. example in 5 on 5 basketball contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garc\\u00EDa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del siguiente estudio fue analizar la competición de baloncesto como un sistema complejo, utilizando como parámetros de orden y control la eficacia ofensiva y el tiempo. Se analizaron los partidos de la liga A.C.B. de baloncesto en la temporada 2007-08, seleccionado para el estudio dinámico los 73 partidos que no se consiguen explicar mediante el análisis dinámico. A través de la transformada de Hilbert se halló la fase relativa de los equipos en competición. Los resultados muestran periodos de estabilidad, inestabilidad y transición, tanto en fase como en anti fase. También se encontraron perturbaciones en el desarrollo del juego que llevan al sistema desde un estado estable a otro inestable. Los resultados del estudio avalan el análisis de los partidos de baloncesto a través de la teoría de sistemas. Los entrenadores deben preparar a sus equipos para ser capaces de obtener la información del entorno de competición y buscar nuevas soluciones a los problemas emergentes del juego.

  14. Context, Complexity and Contestation: Birmingham's Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education since the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen G.; Freathy, Rob J. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present article offers an historical perspective on the 1975, 1995 and 2007 Birmingham Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education. It draws upon historical evidence uncovered as part of "The hidden history of curriculum change in religious education in English schools, 1969-1979" project, and curriculum history theories, especially…

  15. 78 FR 21180 - Announcement of the 2013 SBA-Visa Export Video Contest Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... submitted per business. Videos must not contain violence, profanity, sex, images of a prurient nature, or... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Announcement of the 2013 SBA-Visa Export Video Contest Under the... the ``Cosponsors'') announce a video contest for eligible small businesses to showcase the advantages...

  16. Positive Affect Relevant to Epistemic Curiosity to Reflect Continuance Intention to Join a Hands-On Making Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Szeto, Elson; Tai, Kai-Hsin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei

    2016-01-01

    Hands-on making (e.g., "Maker") has become prevalent in current educational settings. To understand the role that students' epistemic curiosity plays in hands-on making contests, this study explored its correlation to students' positive affect and continuance intention to participate in a hands-on making contest called…

  17. Understanding Fear of Opportunism in Global Prize-Based Science Contests: Evidence for Gender and Age Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Oguz Ali; van den Ende, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.

  18. Understanding fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests : Evidence for gender and age differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.A. Acar (Oguz); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGlobal prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure,

  19. Understanding Fear of Opportunism in Global Prize-Based Science Contests: Evidence for Gender and Age Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Ali Acar

    Full Text Available Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.

  20. Open Data for Global Multimodal Land Use Classification: Outcome of the 2017 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoya, Naoto; Ghamisi, Pedram; Xia, Junshi; Sukhanov, Sergey; Heremans, Roel; Tankoyeu, Ivan; Bechtel, Benjamin; Saux, Le Bertrand; Moser, Gabriele; Tuia, Devis

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the scientific outcomes of the 2017 Data Fusion Contest organized by the Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society. The 2017 Contest was aimed at addressing the problem of local climate zones classification based on

  1. Complex dynamics in the distribution of players’ scoring performance in Rugby Union world cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The evolution of the scoring performance of Rugby Union players is investigated over the seven rugby world cups (RWC) that took place from 1987 to 2011, and a specific attention is given to how they may have been impacted by the switch from amateurism to professionalism that occurred in 1995. The distribution of the points scored by individual players, Ps, ranked in order of performance were well described by the simplified canonical law Ps∝(, where r is the rank, and ϕ and α are the parameters of the distribution. The parameter α did not significantly change from 1987 to 2007 (α=0.92±0.03), indicating a negligible effect of professionalism on players’ scoring performance. In contrast, the parameter ϕ significantly increased from ϕ=1.32 for 1987 RWC, ϕ=2.30 for 1999 to 2003 RWC and ϕ=5.60 for 2007 RWC, suggesting a progressive decrease in the relative performance of the best players. Finally, the sharp decreases observed in both α(α=0.38) and ϕ(ϕ=0.70) in the 2011 RWC indicate a more even distribution of the performance of individuals among scorers, compared to the more heterogeneous distributions observed from 1987 to 2007, and suggest a sharp increase in the level of competition leading to an increase in the average quality of players and a decrease in the relative skills of the top players. Note that neither α nor ϕ significantly correlate with traditional performance indicators such as the number of points scored by the best players, the number of games played by the best players, the number of points scored by the team of the best players or the total number of points scored over each RWC. This indicates that the dynamics of the scoring performance of Rugby Union players is influenced by hidden processes hitherto inaccessible through standard performance metrics; this suggests that players’ scoring performance is connected to ubiquitous phenomena such as anomalous diffusion.

  2. The Influence of Business Environmental Dynamism, Complexity and Munificence on Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Oduor Okeyo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to examine how business environment affects small and medium enterprises. The paper is motivated by the important contributions small and medium enterprises have in many countries, especially Kenya towards job creation, poverty reduction and economic development. Literature however argues that effectiveness of the contributions is conditioned by the state of business environmental factors such as politics, economy, socio-culture, technology, ecology and laws/regulations. Dynamism, complexity and munificence of these factors are therefore vital to achievement of organizational objectives and overall performance. Even so, a review of literature reveals contradictory views regarding the effect of these factors on performance of organizations. Furthermore, studies focusing on these factors in the Kenyan context, particularly with regard to their effect on performance of small and medium firms, are scarce. This article bridges this gap based on a study focusing on 800 manufacturing organizations in Nairobi – Kenya. A sample of 150 enterprises was selected through stratification by business sector followed by simple random sampling. The research design was cross sectional survey where data was collected using a structured questionnaire over a period of one month at the end of which 95 organizations responded giving a response rate of 64%. Reliability and validity of the instrument were determined through Cronbach’s alpha tests and expert reviews. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to determine normality through descriptive statistics and study hypotheses tested using inferential statistics. The study established that business environment had an overall impact on organizational performance. Specifically, dynamism, complexity and munificence each had a direct influence on the enterprises in the study. Furthermore the combined effect on performance was found to be greater than that of dynamism and

  3. Using iMCFA to Perform the CFA, Multilevel CFA, and Maximum Model for Analyzing Complex Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiun-Yu; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Lin, John J H

    2018-01-01

    To construct CFA, MCFA, and maximum MCFA with LISREL v.8 and below, we provide iMCFA (integrated Multilevel Confirmatory Analysis) to examine the potential multilevel factorial structure in the complex survey data. Modeling multilevel structure for complex survey data is complicated because building a multilevel model is not an infallible statistical strategy unless the hypothesized model is close to the real data structure. Methodologists have suggested using different modeling techniques to investigate potential multilevel structure of survey data. Using iMCFA, researchers can visually set the between- and within-level factorial structure to fit MCFA, CFA and/or MAX MCFA models for complex survey data. iMCFA can then yield between- and within-level variance-covariance matrices, calculate intraclass correlations, perform the analyses and generate the outputs for respective models. The summary of the analytical outputs from LISREL is gathered and tabulated for further model comparison and interpretation. iMCFA also provides LISREL syntax of different models for researchers' future use. An empirical and a simulated multilevel dataset with complex and simple structures in the within or between level was used to illustrate the usability and the effectiveness of the iMCFA procedure on analyzing complex survey data. The analytic results of iMCFA using Muthen's limited information estimator were compared with those of Mplus using Full Information Maximum Likelihood regarding the effectiveness of different estimation methods.

  4. The effects of age, sleep deprivation, and altitude on complex performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Little research has been concerned with the combined effects on performance of age, sleep deprivation, and altitude. This study examined their potential interaction with laboratory tasks measuring aviation-related psychological functions. : Healthy m...

  5. Evidence for the influence of the mere-exposure effect on voting in the Eurovision Song Contest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarmuid B. Verrier

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mere exposure, or familiarity, effect is the tendency for people to feel more positive about stimuli to which they have previously been exposed. The Eurovision Song Contest is a two-stage event, in which some contestants in the final will be more familiar to viewers than others. Thus, viewers' voting is likely to be influenced by this effect. Previous work attempting to demonstrate this effect in this context has been unable to control for contestant quality. The current study, which used a novel procedure to analyse the way in which contestant countries distributed their points (a function of how viewers voted in those countries between 2008 and 2011, showed that contestants did better if they previously appeared in a semifinal that was seen by voters. This is evidence that the mere exposure effect, alongside previously studied factors such as cultural and geographical closeness, influences the way viewers vote in the Eurovision.

  6. Improvement of a three-dimensional atmospheric dynamic model and examination of its performance over complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1994-11-01

    A three-dimensional atmospheric dynamic model (PHYSIC) was improved and its performance was examined using the meteorological data observed at a coastal area with a complex terrain. To introduce synoptic meteorological conditions into the model, the initial and boundary conditions were improved. By this improvement, the model can predict the temporal change of wind field for more than 24 hours. Moreover, the model successfully simulates the land and sea breeze observed at Shimokita area in the summer of 1992. (author)

  7. Profiles of Motor Laterality in Young Athletes' Performance of Complex Movements: Merging the MOTORLAT and PATHoops Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, Marta; Andueza, Juan; Hileno, Raúl; Puigarnau, Silvia; Prat, Queralt; Camerino, Oleguer

    2018-01-01

    Laterality is a key aspect of the analysis of basic and specific motor skills. It is relevant to sports because it involves motor laterality profiles beyond left-right preference and spatial orientation of the body. The aim of this study was to obtain the laterality profiles of young athletes, taking into account the synergies between the support and precision functions of limbs and body parts in the performance of complex motor skills. We applied two instruments: (a) MOTORLAT, a motor laterality inventory comprising 30 items of basic, specific, and combined motor skills, and (b) the Precision and Agility Tapping over Hoops (PATHoops) task, in which participants had to perform a path by stepping in each of 14 hoops arranged on the floor, allowing the observation of their feet, left-right preference and spatial orientation. A total of 96 young athletes performed the PATHoops task and the 30 MOTORLAT items, allowing us to obtain data about limb dominance and spatial orientation of the body in the performance of complex motor skills. Laterality profiles were obtained by means of a cluster analysis and a correlational analysis and a contingency analysis were applied between the motor skills and spatial orientation actions performed. The results obtained using MOTORLAT show that the combined motor skills criterion (for example, turning while jumping) differentiates athletes' uses of laterality, showing a clear tendency toward mixed laterality profiles in the performance of complex movements. In the PATHoops task, the best spatial orientation strategy was “same way” (same foot and spatial wing) followed by “opposite way” (opposite foot and spatial wing), in keeping with the research assumption that actions unfolding in a horizontal direction in front of an observer's eyes are common in a variety of sports. PMID:29930527

  8. Wireless sensors in complex networks: study and performance evaluation of a new hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curia, Vincenzo; Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; Sottile, Cesare; Voznak, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    Many recent research efforts have confirmed that, given the natural evolution of telecommunication systems, they can be approached by a new modeling technique, not based yet on traditional approach of graphs theory. The branch of complex networking, although young, is able to introduce a new and strong way of networks modeling, nevertheless they are social, telecommunication or friendship networks. In this paper we propose a new modeling technique applied to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The modeling has the purpose of ensuring an improvement of the distributed communication, quantifying it in terms of clustering coefficient and average diameter of the entire network. The main idea consists in the introduction of hybrid Data Mules, able to enhance the whole connectivity of the entire network. The distribution degree of individual nodes in the network will follow a logarithmic trend, meaning that the most of the nodes are not necessarily adjacent but, for each pair of them, there exists a relatively short path that connects them. The effectiveness of the proposed idea has been validated thorough a deep campaign of simulations, proving also the power of complex and small-world networks.

  9. Building on the EGIPPS performance assessment: the multipolar framework as a heuristic to tackle the complexity of performance of public service oriented health care organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Bruno; Hoerée, Tom; da Silveira, Valéria Campos; Van Belle, Sara; Prashanth, Nuggehalli S; Kegels, Guy

    2014-04-17

    Performance of health care systems is a key concern of policy makers and health service managers all over the world. It is also a major challenge, given its multidimensional nature that easily leads to conceptual and methodological confusion. This is reflected by a scarcity of models that comprehensively analyse health system performance. In health, one of the most comprehensive performance frameworks was developed by the team of Leggat and Sicotte. Their framework integrates 4 key organisational functions (goal attainment, production, adaptation to the environment, and values and culture) and the tensions between these functions.We modified this framework to better fit the assessment of the performance of health organisations in the public service domain and propose an analytical strategy that takes it into the social complexity of health organisations. The resulting multipolar performance framework (MPF) is a meta-framework that facilitates the analysis of the relations and interactions between the multiple actors that influence the performance of health organisations. Using the MPF in a dynamic reiterative mode not only helps managers to identify the bottlenecks that hamper performance, but also the unintended effects and feedback loops that emerge. Similarly, it helps policymakers and programme managers at central level to better anticipate the potential results and side effects of and required conditions for health policies and programmes and to steer their implementation accordingly.

  10. Childhood school performance, education and occupational complexity: a life-course study of dementia in the Kungsholmen Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekhtyar, Serhiy; Wang, Hui-Xin; Fratiglioni, Laura; Herlitz, Agneta

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive reserve hypothesis predicts that intellectually demanding activities over the life course protect against dementia. We investigate if childhood school performance remains associated with dementia once education and occupational complexity are taken into account. A cohort of 440 individuals aged 75+ from the Kungsholmen Project was followed up for 9 years to detect dementia. To measure early-life contributors to reserve, we used grades at age 9-10 extracted from the school archives. Data on formal education and occupational complexity were collected at baseline and first follow-up. Dementia was ascertained through comprehensive clinical examination. Cox models estimated the relationship between life-course cognitive reserve measures and dementia. Dementia risk was elevated [hazard ratio (HR): 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03 to 2.29] in individuals with low early-life school grades after adjustment for formal educational attainment and occupational complexity. Secondary education was associated with a lower risk of dementia (HR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.50 to 1.03), although the effects of post-secondary and university degrees were indistinguishable from baseline. Occupational complexity with data and things was not related to dementia. However, an association was found between high occupational complexity with people and dementia, albeit only in women (HR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.99). The pattern of results remained unchanged after adjustment for genetic susceptibility, comorbidities and depressive symptoms. Low early-life school performance is associated with an elevated risk of dementia, independent of subsequent educational and occupational attainment. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  11. The Computational Complexity, Parallel Scalability, and Performance of Atmospheric Data Assimilation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyster, Peter M.; Guo, J.; Clune, T.; Larson, J. W.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The computational complexity of algorithms for Four Dimensional Data Assimilation (4DDA) at NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is discussed. In 4DDA, observations are assimilated with the output of a dynamical model to generate best-estimates of the states of the system. It is thus a mapping problem, whereby scattered observations are converted into regular accurate maps of wind, temperature, moisture and other variables. The DAO is developing and using 4DDA algorithms that provide these datasets, or analyses, in support of Earth System Science research. Two large-scale algorithms are discussed. The first approach, the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS), uses an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) and an observation-space based analysis system, the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS). GEOS DAS is very similar to global meteorological weather forecasting data assimilation systems, but is used at NASA for climate research. Systems of this size typically run at between 1 and 20 gigaflop/s. The second approach, the Kalman filter, uses a more consistent algorithm to determine the forecast error covariance matrix than does GEOS DAS. For atmospheric assimilation, the gridded dynamical fields typically have More than 10(exp 6) variables, therefore the full error covariance matrix may be in excess of a teraword. For the Kalman filter this problem can easily scale to petaflop/s proportions. We discuss the computational complexity of GEOS DAS and our implementation of the Kalman filter. We also discuss and quantify some of the technical issues and limitations in developing efficient, in terms of wall clock time, and scalable parallel implementations of the algorithms.

  12. Authentic Performance of Complex Problem-Solving Tasks with an EPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Chet; McCabe, Cynthia

    Just-In-Time Learning (JIT Learning) is a semester-long graduate course that teaches corporate trainers and instructional designers how to design performance improvement interventions. This course is part of a Master's program in Instructional Technology at San Francisco State University. The course has been offered three times and has been…

  13. Complex Multi-Chamber Airbag Performance Simulation Final Report CRADA No. TSB-961-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Gregory [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kithil, Philip [Advanced Safety Concepts, Inc. (ASCI), Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    2018-01-22

    The purpose of this small business CRADA was to evaluate the performance of new airbag concepts which were developed by the Advanced Safety Concepts, Inc. (ASCI). These new airbag concepts, if successful, could have major potential savings to society in terms of fewer injuries, lost time and lives.

  14. Focus on Opportunities as a Mediator of the Relationships between Age, Job Complexity, and Work Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Heusner, Sandra; Schmitz, Michael; Zwierzanska, Monika M.; Frese, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "Focus on opportunities" is a cognitive-motivational facet of occupational future time perspective that describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities individuals expect to have in their personal work-related futures. This study examined focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age and work performance and…

  15. Good distractions: Testing the effects of listening to an audiobook on driving performance in simple and complex road environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Robert J; Trick, Lana M; Toxopeus, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Distracted driving (driving while performing a secondary task) causes many collisions. Most research on distracted driving has focused on operating a cell-phone, but distracted driving can include eating while driving, conversing with passengers or listening to music or audiobooks. Although the research has focused on the deleterious effects of distraction, there may be situations where distraction improves driving performance. Fatigue and boredom are also associated with collision risk and it is possible that secondary tasks can help alleviate the effects of fatigue and boredom. Furthermore, it has been found that individuals with high levels of executive functioning as measured by the OSPAN (Operation Span) task show better driving while multitasking. In this study, licensed drivers were tested in a driving simulator (a car body surrounded by screens) that simulated simple or complex roads. Road complexity was manipulated by increasing traffic, scenery, and the number of curves in the drive. Participants either drove, or drove while listening to an audiobook. Driving performance was measured in terms of braking response time to hazards (HRT): the time required to brake in response to pedestrians or vehicles that suddenly emerged from the periphery into the path of the vehicle, speed, standard deviation of speed, standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). Overall, braking times to hazards were higher on the complex drive than the simple one, though the effects of secondary tasks such as audiobooks were especially deleterious on the complex drive. In contrast, on the simple drive, driving while listening to an audiobook lead to faster HRT. We found evidence that individuals with high OSPAN scores had faster HRTs when listening to an audiobook. These results suggest that there are environmental and individual factors behind difference in the allocation of attention while listening to audiobooks while driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food Security: The Elaboration of Contested Claims to a Consensus Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Patrick H.; Hunt, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates Gamson's claim that behind the apparent agreement implied by "consensus frames" lies considerable dissensus. Ironically, the very potency of consensus frames may generate contested claims to the ownership of a social problem. Food security is a potent consensus frame that has generated at least three distinct collective…

  17. Local contestation against the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahr, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    This article examines local contestation against the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX), manifesting itself in local actors publicly demanding a change in the mission’s mandate and/or its operations. The article investigates how EULEX’s actions and its effectiveness are perceived

  18. Contesting history and identity formation in Paul and in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares dynamics in the contestation of history and identity between Paul to post-1994 white Afrikaners in South Africa. In reference to Paul, I am interested in how the followers of the nascent Hellenistic Gentile Christian movement claimed legitimacy as the true Jews, usurping the monopoly of the identity 'true ...

  19. How a Braille Contest Serendipitously Accelerated the Use of Digital Audio Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebrugge, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    When Braille Institute in Los Angeles conceived The Braille Challenge contest more than a decade ago, the goal was to create an innovative way to promote braille literacy. Now that more than 4,500 students over the last 12 years from across the United States and Canada have chosen to participate in The Challenge, it is safe to say that it has been…

  20. 77 FR 12845 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Surgeon General's (SG) Youth Video Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... of the Contest and their immediate family (spouse, parents and step-parents, siblings and step-siblings, and children and step- children) and household members (people who share the same residence at... conjunction with the launch of the new SG Report, the Surgeon General will be releasing a Consumer Piece in...

  1. The role of status and leadership style in sales contests: A natural field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.; Bagozzi, R.P.; Belschak, F.D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the question whether status alone, as compared to a combined financial/status incentive, is strong enough to motivate team members taking part in a retail sales contest to sell more goods to customers. Using a two-phase natural field experiment, we studied the impact of a sales

  2. Contesting silence : the ban on drumming and the musical politics of Pentecostalism in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van R.A.

    2001-01-01

    During the Fourth Republic in Ghana there has been an unprecedented growth in Pentecostalism. The chief message of Pentecostalism is the contestation of tradition. It encourages members to abandon the past and traditions and to adopt a completely new way of life, unemcumbered by the sins of the

  3. 20 CFR 726.307 - Form of notice of contest and request for hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of notice of contest and request for hearing. 726.307 Section 726.307 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.... In particular, the person must indicate his agreement or disagreement with: (i) The Director's...

  4. Contested water rights in post-apartheid South Africa: The struggle for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Water Act (1998) of South Africa provides strong tools to redress inequities inherited from the past. However, a decade after the introduction of the Act, access to water is still skewed along racial lines. This paper analyses the various ways in which the Water Act is contested, based on empirical data detailing ...

  5. Graph and model transformation tools for model migration : empirical results from the transformation tool contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, L.M.; Herrmannsdoerfer, M.; Mazanek, S.; Van Gorp, P.M.E.; Buchwald, S.; Horn, T.; Kalnina, E.; Koch, A.; Lano, K.; Schätz, B.; Wimmer, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the results of the Transformation Tool Contest 2010 workshop, in which nine graph and model transformation tools were compared for specifying model migration. The model migration problem—migration of UML activity diagrams from version 1.4 to version 2.2—is non-trivial and practically

  6. Contesting a linguistic space: A case in the teaching and learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to highlight a contesting linguistic space, investigating the impact and the significance of code-switching in the teaching and learning of African languages in private schools. This research was undertaken in three private schools in the Limpopo Province in South Africa. In these schools English is prescribed ...

  7. Relationships among Moral and Contesting Variables and Prosocial and Antisocial Behavior in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Funk, Christopher D.; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2018-01-01

    The current study of US intercollegiate athletes (n = 1066) involved in multiple sports investigated relationships among moral (moral reasoning maturity, moral value evaluation [MVE], and moral identity), contesting (partnership and war orientations) and behavioral (prosocial and antisocial) variables in sport. Among other relationships, results…

  8. Contested Science in the Media: Linguistic Traces of News Writers' Framing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Science reporting in the media often involves contested issues, such as, for example, biotechnology, climate change, and, more recently, geoengineering. The reporter's framing of the issue is likely to influence readers' perception of it. The notion of framing is related to how individuals and groups perceive and communicate about the…

  9. Contested water rights in post-apartheid South Africa: The struggle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-25

    Mar 25, 2010 ... the redistribution of water resources is contested by the elite. The paper identifies ... implementation of the South African National Water Act by presenting empirical ... The participation in decision making on water management ...... Even more striking is the lack of an integrated approach across sectors ...

  10. Frame contestation in the news: national identity, cultural resonance, and U.S. drone policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowling, C.M.; Sheets, P.; Jones, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Scholarship suggests that disagreement among political officials significantly impacts how the press covers a particular policy issue and how the public perceives and comes to understand it. An unexplored area of research in the framing effects literature asks to what extent frame contestation

  11. The Internet as a Global/Local Site of Contestation : The Case of Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimardani, M.; Milan, S.; Peeren, E.; Celikates, R.; de Kloet, J.; Poell, T.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter sheds light on the role of the internet as a site of contestation capable of connecting the local and the global dimension of a protest in countries with a virtually closed political arena. It takes Iran as an exemplary case for the study of the technology-related protest cultures that

  12. Stress and strategic decision-making in the beauty contest game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Johannes; Häusser, Jan Alexander; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Often, economic decisions do not only depend on one's own preferences, but also on the choices of others and therefore require strategizing (i.e., thinking about what others might think). In experimental economics, this has been modeled by the beauty contest game. Another typical feature of economic decisions is that they are often carried out under stress. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to examine the influence of stress on decision-making in the beauty contest game. Participants were randomly assigned to either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a placebo version of the TSST-G (control condition). Then, participants played four rounds of a standard beauty contest game. As a biomarker of stress, salivary cortisol was measured. As predicted, participants under stress chose higher numbers in the beauty contest game than non-stressed participants, indicating less strategizing. This effect was mediated by the stress-induced increase in cortisol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Iceland’s contested European Policy : the footprint of the past - a small and insular society

    OpenAIRE

    Thorhallsson, Baldur; University of Malta. Institute for European Studies; Pace, Roderick

    2013-01-01

    This paper will address the political developments in Iceland since the 2008 economic crash and place it in a historical context. The aim is to understand Iceland’s present foreign policy and, in particular, the highly contested decision by its government in 2009 to apply for membership of the European Union.

  14. Flags, funerals and fanfares : Herero and missionary contestations of the acceptable, 1900-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the contested relationship that existed between the Herero and German missionaries in Namibia between 1900 and 1940. It argues that Herero converted to Christianity with specific aims and intentions, which were not necessarily the same as those envisaged or intended by German

  15. Geography, culture, and religion: Explaining the bias in Eurovision song contest voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierdijk, L.; Vellekoop, M.H.

    This paper analyses votes cast in the Eurovision Song Contest in the period 1975 - 2003. We test whether accusations of 'political' voting among participants can be substantiated by looking at geographical influences. Our approach differs in two ways from earlier studies. First, we take into account

  16. Preemption Contested: Suspect Spaces and Preventability in the July 7 Inquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2014-01-01

    The London Coroner's Inquest into the deaths of July 7 2005 unequivocally rejected the notion that the security services could and should have been able to identify the 7/7 perpetrators as potential future terrorists before July 2005. These findings contest powerful post-9/11 security logics of

  17. Paramountcy, Family Rights and Contested Adoption: Does Contact with Birth Relatives Balance the Scales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Mandi; McLoughlin, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This article combines practitioner insight and research evidence to chart how principles of partnership and paramountcy have led to birth family contact becoming the expected norm following contested adoption from care in Northern Ireland. The article highlights how practice has adapted to the delay in proposed reforms to adoption legislation…

  18. Contested Conversations: Presentations, Expectations, and Responsibility at the National Museum of the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Joanne; Dumont, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This article interrogates the politics of representation, expectation, and responsibility at the new National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) in Washington, DC. The authors explore the interpretive contests (between and among Natives and non-Natives) provoked by the museum's representational strategies. They think that NMAI has positioned…

  19. Performance-oriented Architecture and the Spatial and Material Organisation Complex. Rethinking the Definition, Role and Performative Capacity of the Spatial and Material Boundaries of the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ulrich Hensel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the proposition that performance-oriented design is characterised by four domains of ‘active agency’: the human subject, the spatial and material organisation complex and the environment (Hensel, 2010. While these four domains are seen to be interdependent and interacting with one another, it is nevertheless necessary to examine each in its own right. However, the spatial and material organisation complex contains both the spatial and material domains, which are interdependent to such a degree that these need to be examined in relation to one another and also in relation to the specific environment they are set within and interacting with. To explore this combined domain within the context of performance-oriented design is the aim of this article, in particularly in relation to the question of the definition and performative capacity of spatial and material boundaries. The various sections are accompanied by research by design efforts undertaken in specified academic contexts, which are intended as examples of modes and areas of inquiry relative to the purpose of this article.

  20. Continuity, change and complexity in the performance of masculinity among elite young footballers in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven; Anderson, Eric; Magrath, Rory

    2017-06-01

    Following recent research evidencing that young men are redefining the essential components of what it is to be a man, this paper draws on qualitative interviews with 22 elite-level, English Premier League academy level football (soccer) players to investigate their performances and understandings of masculinity in relation to decreasing homohysteria. Even in this gender-segregated, near-total institution, these working-class, non-educationally aspiring adolescents evidence an attenuated performance of 'maleness' and improved attitudinal disposition toward homosexuality. Congruent with insights developed by inclusive masculinity scholars, respondents maintained emotional closeness and physical tactility with male teammates and friends. These more inclusive attitudes and homosocial behaviours were, however, slightly more conservative than in other recent research. We close by explaining this variation with reference to theoretical apparatus' provided by Goffman and Bourdieu to advance theoretical debates about social class and masculinities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  1. Chitosan–Zinc(II Complexes as a Bio-Sorbent for the Adsorptive Abatement of Phosphate: Mechanism of Complexation and Assessment of Adsorption Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Roza Yazdani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines zinc(II–chitosan complexes as a bio-sorbent for phosphate removal from aqueous solutions. The bio-sorbent is prepared and is characterized via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Point of Zero Charge (pHPZC–drift method. The adsorption capacity of zinc(II–chitosan bio-sorbent is compared with those of chitosan and ZnO–chitosan and nano-ZnO–chitosan composites. The effect of operational parameters including pH, temperature, and competing ions are explored via adsorption batch mode. A rapid phosphate uptake is observed within the first three hours of contact time. Phosphate removal by zinc(II–chitosan is favored when the surface charge of bio-sorbent is positive/or neutral e.g., within the pH range inferior or around its pHPZC, 7. Phosphate abatement is enhanced with decreasing temperature. The study of background ions indicates a minor effect of chloride, whereas nitrate and sulfate show competing effect with phosphate for the adsorptive sites. The adsorption kinetics is best described with the pseudo-second-order model. Sips (R2 > 0.96 and Freundlich (R2 ≥ 0.95 models suit the adsorption isotherm. The phosphate reaction with zinc(II–chitosan is exothermic, favorable and spontaneous. The complexation of zinc(II and chitosan along with the corresponding mechanisms of phosphate removal are presented. This study indicates the introduction of zinc(II ions into chitosan improves its performance towards phosphate uptake from 1.45 to 6.55 mg/g and provides fundamental information for developing bio-based materials for water remediation.

  2. Research on Design and Simulation of Biaxial Tensile-Bending Complex Mechanical Performance Test Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailian Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize a micro-mechanic performance test of biaxial tensile-bending-combined loading and solve the problem of incompatibility of test apparatus and observation apparatus, novel biaxial-combined tensile-bending micro-mechanical performance test apparatus was designed. The working principle and major functions of key constituent parts of test apparatus, including the servo drive unit, clamping unit and test system, were introduced. Based on the finite element method, biaxial tensile and tension-bending-combined mechanical performances of the test-piece were studied as guidance to learn the distribution of elastic deformation and plastic deformation of all sites of the test-piece and to better plan test regions. Finally, this test apparatus was used to conduct a biaxial tensile test under different pre-bending loading and a tensile test at different rates; the image of the fracture of the test-piece was acquired by a scanning electron microscope and analyzed. It was indicated that as the pre-bending force rises, the elastic deformation phase would gradually shorten and the slope of the elastic deformation phase curve would slightly rise so that a yield limit would appear ahead of time. Bending speed could exert a positive and beneficial influence on tensile strength but weaken fracture elongation. If bending speed is appropriately raised, more ideal anti-tensile strength could be obtained, but fracture elongation would decline.

  3. European Space Agency announces contest to "Name the Cluster Quartet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    1. Contest rules The European Space Agency (ESA) is launching a public competition to find the most suitable names for its four Cluster II space weather satellites. The quartet, which are currently known as flight models 5, 6, 7 and 8, are scheduled for launch from Baikonur Space Centre in Kazakhstan in June and July 2000. Professor Roger Bonnet, ESA Director of Science Programme, announced the competition for the first time to the European Delegations on the occasion of the Science Programme Committee (SPC) meeting held in Paris on 21-22 February 2000. The competition is open to people of all the ESA member states (*). Each entry should include a set of FOUR names (places, people, or things from history, mythology, or fiction, but NOT living persons). Contestants should also describe in a few sentences why their chosen names would be appropriate for the four Cluster II satellites. The winners will be those which are considered most suitable and relevant for the Cluster II mission. The names must not have been used before on space missions by ESA, other space organizations or individual countries. One winning entry per country will be selected to go to the Finals of the competition. The prize for each national winner will be an invitation to attend the first Cluster II launch event in mid-June 2000 with their family (4 persons) in a 3-day trip (including excursions to tourist sites) to one of these ESA establishments: ESRIN (near Rome, Italy): winners from France, Ireland, United Kingdom, Belgium. VILSPA (near Madrid, Spain): winners from The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland. ESTEC (near Amsterdam, The Netherlands): winners from Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria. ESOC (in the Rhine Valley, Germany): winners from Italy, Spain , Portugal. During the first Cluster II launch event (June 2000) the chosen four names for the spacecraft will be announced. The grand prize will be: * a trip for the winner and family (4 people) to Paris where ESA's headquarters are

  4. Performance of some transgenic cotton cultivars against insect pest complex, virus incidence and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.K.; Karar, H.; Hasnain, M.; Saleem, M.; Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    Five cultivars of cotton i.e., IR4-NIBGE, IR5-NIBGE Bt-121, Sitara-10M and Sitara-11M were screened for resistance against insect pest complex and Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV) incidence in the research area of Cotton Research Station, Multan. The result depicted that the most resistant variety against jassids was IR4-NIBGE and Sitara-11M whereas IR4-NIBGE showed the maximum resistance against whitefly infestation. The least susceptible variety to the infestation of thrips was Sitara-10M. The most susceptible variety to the prevalence of Red Cotton Bug (RCB) was IR4-NIBGE. The genotype Bt-121 showed the attack of spotted bollworm. The high population of Dusky Cotton Bug (DCB) was observed on Bt-121 throughout the season. The incidence of virus percentage increased with the passage of time; however, the variety IR5-NIBGE exhibited maximum level of tolerance. Variety Bt-121 gave the maximum yield i.e., 1852 kg per acre followed by IR5-NIBGE, Sitara-11M, Sitara-10M 1584, 1503, 1466 kg per acre respectively. Our results suggest that IR4-NIBGE and Sitara -11M are comparatively tolerant to jassids and whitefly which are the yield losing pest. So IR4-NIBGE and Sitara -11M varieties can be included in IPM programme for the management of these voracious pests. (author)

  5. Π4U: A high performance computing framework for Bayesian uncertainty quantification of complex models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidoukas, P. E.; Angelikopoulos, P.; Papadimitriou, C.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2015-03-01

    We present Π4U, an extensible framework, for non-intrusive Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) of complex and computationally demanding physical models, that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures. The framework incorporates Laplace asymptotic approximations as well as stochastic algorithms, along with distributed numerical differentiation and task-based parallelism for heterogeneous clusters. Sampling is based on the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) algorithm and its variants. The optimization tasks associated with the asymptotic approximations are treated via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). A modified subset simulation method is used for posterior reliability measurements of rare events. The framework accommodates scheduling of multiple physical model evaluations based on an adaptive load balancing library and shows excellent scalability. In addition to the software framework, we also provide guidelines as to the applicability and efficiency of Bayesian tools when applied to computationally demanding physical models. Theoretical and computational developments are demonstrated with applications drawn from molecular dynamics, structural dynamics and granular flow.

  6. Π4U: A high performance computing framework for Bayesian uncertainty quantification of complex models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidoukas, P.E.; Angelikopoulos, P.; Papadimitriou, C.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present Π4U, 1 an extensible framework, for non-intrusive Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) of complex and computationally demanding physical models, that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures. The framework incorporates Laplace asymptotic approximations as well as stochastic algorithms, along with distributed numerical differentiation and task-based parallelism for heterogeneous clusters. Sampling is based on the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) algorithm and its variants. The optimization tasks associated with the asymptotic approximations are treated via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). A modified subset simulation method is used for posterior reliability measurements of rare events. The framework accommodates scheduling of multiple physical model evaluations based on an adaptive load balancing library and shows excellent scalability. In addition to the software framework, we also provide guidelines as to the applicability and efficiency of Bayesian tools when applied to computationally demanding physical models. Theoretical and computational developments are demonstrated with applications drawn from molecular dynamics, structural dynamics and granular flow

  7. Complex analysis of movement in evaluation of flat bench press performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Henryk; Golas, Artur; Sobota, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    The complex methodology of investigations was applied to study a movement structure on bench press. We have checked the usefulness of multimodular measuring system (SMART-E, BTS company, Italy) and a special device for tracking the position of barbell (pantograph). Software Smart Analyser was used to create a database allowing chosen parameters to be compared. The results from different measuring devices are very similar, therefore the replacement of many devices by one multimodular system is reasonable. In our study, the effect of increased barbell load on the values of muscles activity and bar kinematics during the flat bench press movement was clearly visible. The greater the weight of a barbell, the greater the myoactivity of shoulder muscles and vertical velocity of the bar. It was also confirmed the presence of the so-called sticking point (period) during the concentric phase of the bench press. In this study, the initial velocity of the barbell decreased (v(min)) not only under submaximal and maximal loads (90 and 100% of the one repetition maximum; 1-RM), but also under slightly lighter weights (70 and 80% of 1-RM).

  8. Π4U: A high performance computing framework for Bayesian uncertainty quantification of complex models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjidoukas, P.E.; Angelikopoulos, P. [Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8092 (Switzerland); Papadimitriou, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Thessaly, GR-38334 Volos (Greece); Koumoutsakos, P., E-mail: petros@ethz.ch [Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8092 (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    We present Π4U,{sup 1} an extensible framework, for non-intrusive Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification and Propagation (UQ+P) of complex and computationally demanding physical models, that can exploit massively parallel computer architectures. The framework incorporates Laplace asymptotic approximations as well as stochastic algorithms, along with distributed numerical differentiation and task-based parallelism for heterogeneous clusters. Sampling is based on the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) algorithm and its variants. The optimization tasks associated with the asymptotic approximations are treated via the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). A modified subset simulation method is used for posterior reliability measurements of rare events. The framework accommodates scheduling of multiple physical model evaluations based on an adaptive load balancing library and shows excellent scalability. In addition to the software framework, we also provide guidelines as to the applicability and efficiency of Bayesian tools when applied to computationally demanding physical models. Theoretical and computational developments are demonstrated with applications drawn from molecular dynamics, structural dynamics and granular flow.

  9. DnaSAM: Software to perform neutrality testing for large datasets with complex null models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Andrew J; Liechty, John D; Tearse, Brandon R; Pande, Barnaly; Neale, David B

    2010-05-01

    Patterns of DNA sequence polymorphisms can be used to understand the processes of demography and adaptation within natural populations. High-throughput generation of DNA sequence data has historically been the bottleneck with respect to data processing and experimental inference. Advances in marker technologies have largely solved this problem. Currently, the limiting step is computational, with most molecular population genetic software allowing a gene-by-gene analysis through a graphical user interface. An easy-to-use analysis program that allows both high-throughput processing of multiple sequence alignments along with the flexibility to simulate data under complex demographic scenarios is currently lacking. We introduce a new program, named DnaSAM, which allows high-throughput estimation of DNA sequence diversity and neutrality statistics from experimental data along with the ability to test those statistics via Monte Carlo coalescent simulations. These simulations are conducted using the ms program, which is able to incorporate several genetic parameters (e.g. recombination) and demographic scenarios (e.g. population bottlenecks). The output is a set of diversity and neutrality statistics with associated probability values under a user-specified null model that are stored in easy to manipulate text file. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The cognitive complexity of concurrent cognitive-motor tasks reveals age-related deficits in motor performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Reiche, Mikkel Staall; Vinescu, Cristina Ioana

    2018-01-01

    Aging reduces cognitive functions, and such impairments have implications in mental and motor performance. Cognitive function has been recently linked to the risk of falls in older adults. Physical activities have been used to attenuate the declines in cognitive functions and reduce fall incidence......, but little is known whether a physically active lifestyle can maintain physical performance under cognitively demanding conditions. The aim of this study was to verify whether physically active older adults present similar performance deficits during upper limb response time and precision stepping walking...... tasks when compared to younger adults. Both upper limb and walking tasks involved simple and complex cognitive demands through decision-making. For both tasks, decision-making was assessed by including a distracting factor to the execution. The results showed that older adults were substantially slower...

  11. The Effects of Ocean Acidification on Feeding and Contest Behaviour by the Beadlet Anemone Actinia equina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Tess Olivia; Jackson, Angus Charles; Mansfield, Robert Philip

    2018-05-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing oceanic pH to decline worldwide, a phenomenon termed ocean acidification. Mounting experimental evidence indicates that near-future levels of CO2 will affect calcareous invertebrates such as corals, molluscs and gastropods, by reducing their scope for calcification. Despite extensive research into ocean acidification in recent years, the effects on non-calcifying anthozoans, such as sea anemones, remain little explored. In Western Europe, intertidal anemones such as Actinia equina are abundant, lower trophic-level organisms that function as important ecosystem engineers. Changes to behaviours of these simple predators could have implications for intertidal assemblages. This investigation identified the effects of reduced seawater pH on feeding and contest behaviour by A. equina. Video footage was recorded for A. equina feeding at current-day seawater (pH 8.1), and the least (pH 7.9) and most (pH 7.6) severe end-of-century predictions. Footage was also taken of contests over ownership of space between anemones exposed to reduced pH and those that were not. No statistically significant differences were identified in feeding duration or various aspects of contest behaviour including initiating, winning, inflating acrorhagi, inflicting acrorhagial peels and contest duration. Multivariate analyses showed no effect of pH on a combination of these variables. This provides contrast with other studies where anemones with symbiotic algae thrive in areas of natural increased acidity. Thus, novel experiments using intraspecific contests and resource-holding potential may prove an effective approach to understand sub-lethal consequences of ocean acidification for A. equina, other sea anemones and more broadly for marine ecosystems.

  12. Salt-induced phase separation for the determination of metals as their diethyldithiocarbamate complexes by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.J.; Lovett, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection can be used to determine trace levels of Pt(II), Pd(II), Rh(III), Co(III), Ru(III), and Ir in aqueous solution following complexation with diethyldithiocarbamate. The metal complexes are extracted into acetonitrile from aqueous solution by the addition of a saturated salt solution. Quantitative metal recovery from aqueous solution is achievable for most metals for a wide solution pH range. Detection limits for the metals are <3 ng of metal/mL of original aqueous sample. Analyses of real samples are highly reproducible and sensitive. Ir an interfere in the determination of Pt(II) and Rh(III). A general protocol for chromatographic separation and determination of Pt(II), Pd(II), Rh(III), Ru(III), and Ir in aqueous solution is presented

  13. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  14. Distillation of a Complex Mixture. Part II: Performance Analysis of a Distillation Column Using Exergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouadjenia Fatima

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the performance of the separation process, we have introduced thethermodynamic concept of exergy through the exergetic efficiency of the column. Thesimulation results show that the exergetic output is relatively low and that the producedirreversibility fluxes are distributed throughout the whole column in a non-uniform manner.They are particularly significant in the condenser, boiler and tray feed. The influence of thevarious operating parameters (temperature, concentration and irreversibility in both sectionsof the column is also established. To emphasize the results, the relation in equation 17, ispresented graphically to evaluate the cumulative irreversibilities from the overhead to thebottom. This presentation is equivalent to the Grassmann diagram.

  15. Probabilistic performance assessment of complex energy process systems - The case of a self-sustained sanitation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolios, Athanasios; Jiang, Ying; Somorin, Tosin; Sowale, Ayodeji; Anastasopoulou, Aikaterini; Anthony, Edward J; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Collins, Matt; Tyrrel, Sean

    2018-05-01

    A probabilistic modelling approach was developed and applied to investigate the energy and environmental performance of an innovative sanitation system, the "Nano-membrane Toilet" (NMT). The system treats human excreta via an advanced energy and water recovery island with the aim of addressing current and future sanitation demands. Due to the complex design and inherent characteristics of the system's input material, there are a number of stochastic variables which may significantly affect the system's performance. The non-intrusive probabilistic approach adopted in this study combines a finite number of deterministic thermodynamic process simulations with an artificial neural network (ANN) approximation model and Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) to assess the effect of system uncertainties on the predicted performance of the NMT system. The joint probability distributions of the process performance indicators suggest a Stirling Engine (SE) power output in the range of 61.5-73 W with a high confidence interval (CI) of 95%. In addition, there is high probability (with 95% CI) that the NMT system can achieve positive net power output between 15.8 and 35 W. A sensitivity study reveals the system power performance is mostly affected by SE heater temperature. Investigation into the environmental performance of the NMT design, including water recovery and CO 2 /NO x emissions, suggests significant environmental benefits compared to conventional systems. Results of the probabilistic analysis can better inform future improvements on the system design and operational strategy and this probabilistic assessment framework can also be applied to similar complex engineering systems.

  16. A high performance cost-effective digital complex correlator for an X-band polarimetry survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergano, Miguel; Rocha, Armando; Cupido, Luís; Barbosa, Domingos; Villela, Thyrso; Boas, José Vilas; Rocha, Graça; Smoot, George F

    2016-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of the Milky Way radio emission is important to characterize galactic foregrounds masking extragalactic and cosmological signals. The update of the global sky models describing radio emissions over a very large spectral band requires high sensitivity experiments capable of observing large sky areas with long integration times. Here, we present the design of a new 10 GHz (X-band) polarimeter digital back-end to map the polarization components of the galactic synchrotron radiation field of the Northern Hemisphere sky. The design follows the digital processing trends in radio astronomy and implements a large bandwidth (1 GHz) digital complex cross-correlator to extract the Stokes parameters of the incoming synchrotron radiation field. The hardware constraints cover the implemented VLSI hardware description language code and the preliminary results. The implementation is based on the simultaneous digitized acquisition of the Cartesian components of the two linear receiver polarization channels. The design strategy involves a double data rate acquisition of the ADC interleaved parallel bus, and field programmable gate array device programming at the register transfer mode. The digital core of the back-end is capable of processing 32 Gbps and is built around an Altera field programmable gate array clocked at 250 MHz, 1 GSps analog to digital converters and a clock generator. The control of the field programmable gate array internal signal delays and a convenient use of its phase locked loops provide the timing requirements to achieve the target bandwidths and sensitivity. This solution is convenient for radio astronomy experiments requiring large bandwidth, high functionality, high volume availability and low cost. Of particular interest, this correlator was developed for the Galactic Emission Mapping project and is suitable for large sky area polarization continuum surveys. The solutions may also be adapted to be used at signal processing

  17. Monitoring performance of a highly distributed and complex computing infrastructure in LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Z.; Haen, C.; Stagni, F.

    2017-10-01

    In order to ensure an optimal performance of the LHCb Distributed Computing, based on LHCbDIRAC, it is necessary to be able to inspect the behavior over time of many components: firstly the agents and services on which the infrastructure is built, but also all the computing tasks and data transfers that are managed by this infrastructure. This consists of recording and then analyzing time series of a large number of observables, for which the usage of SQL relational databases is far from optimal. Therefore within DIRAC we have been studying novel possibilities based on NoSQL databases (ElasticSearch, OpenTSDB and InfluxDB) as a result of this study we developed a new monitoring system based on ElasticSearch. It has been deployed on the LHCb Distributed Computing infrastructure for which it collects data from all the components (agents, services, jobs) and allows creating reports through Kibana and a web user interface, which is based on the DIRAC web framework. In this paper we describe this new implementation of the DIRAC monitoring system. We give details on the ElasticSearch implementation within the DIRAC general framework, as well as an overview of the advantages of the pipeline aggregation used for creating a dynamic bucketing of the time series. We present the advantages of using the ElasticSearch DSL high-level library for creating and running queries. Finally we shall present the performances of that system.

  18. Risk Management Capability Maturity and Performance of Complex Product and System (CoPS Projects with an Asian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex Products and Systems (CoPS are high value, technology and engineering-intensive capital goods. The motivation of this study is the persistent high failure rate of CoPS projects, Asian CoPS provider’s weak capability and lack of specific research on CoPS risk management. This paper evaluates risk management maturity level of CoPS projects against a general CoPS risk management capability maturity model (RM-CMM developed by the authors. An Asian based survey was conducted to investigate the value of RM to project performance, and Asian (non-Japanese CoPS implementers’ perceived application of RM practices, their strengths and weaknesses. The survey result shows that higher RM maturity level leads to higher CoPS project performance. It also shows project complexity and uncertainty moderates the relationship between some RM practices and project performance, which implies that a contingency approach should be adopted to manage CoPS risks effectively. In addition, it shows that Asian CoPS implementers are weak in RM process and there are also rooms for improvement in the softer aspects of organizational capabilities and robustness.

  19. Outage Performance of Hybrid FSO/RF System with Low-Complexity Power Adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2016-02-26

    Hybrid free-space optical (FSO) / radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high data- rate wireless communication systems. We consider truncated channel inversion based power adaptation strategy for coherent and non- coherent hybrid FSO/RF systems, employing an adaptive combining scheme. Specifically, we activate the RF link along with the FSO link when FSO link quality is unacceptable, and adaptively set RF transmission power to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio at receiver terminal. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are derived. Numerical examples show that, the hybrid FSO/RF systems with power adaptation achieve considerable outage performance improvement over conventional hybrid FSO/RF systems without power adaptation. © 2015 IEEE.

  20. Performance modeling & simulation of complex systems (A systems engineering design & analysis approach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Laverne

    1995-01-01

    Modeling of the Multi-mission Image Processing System (MIPS) will be described as an example of the use of a modeling tool to design a distributed system that supports multiple application scenarios. This paper examines: (a) modeling tool selection, capabilities, and operation (namely NETWORK 2.5 by CACl), (b) pointers for building or constructing a model and how the MIPS model was developed, (c) the importance of benchmarking or testing the performance of equipment/subsystems being considered for incorporation the design/architecture, (d) the essential step of model validation and/or calibration using the benchmark results, (e) sample simulation results from the MIPS model, and (f) how modeling and simulation analysis affected the MIPS design process by having a supportive and informative impact.

  1. Improving performance of wavelet-based image denoising algorithm using complex diffusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Sharifzadeh, Sara; Korhonen, Jari

    2012-01-01

    using a variety of standard images and its performance has been compared against several de-noising algorithms known from the prior art. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm preserves the edges better and in most cases, improves the measured visual quality of the denoised images......Image enhancement and de-noising is an essential pre-processing step in many image processing algorithms. In any image de-noising algorithm, the main concern is to keep the interesting structures of the image. Such interesting structures often correspond to the discontinuities (edges...... in comparison to the existing methods known from the literature. The improvement is obtained without excessive computational cost, and the algorithm works well on a wide range of different types of noise....

  2. Role of decision-tree analysis in the performance of a complex feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworkin, D.; Sarkar, A.; Motwani, J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Feasibility Study (FS) of a National Priorities List (NPL) site in New Jersey and the decision tree that made this FS possible. The development of the decision tree and the remedial action alternatives that address the hazards at the site are presented. The FS efforts were performed in accordance with U.S. EPA guidance under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). A Record of Decision (ROD) is expected in mid-1990. The subject site, the Myers Property site in Franklin Township, New Jersey, has been owned by several individuals and companies since 1811. Uses have included the production of DDT. A Remedial Investigation (RI) was performed by WESTON, the lead technical firm for this feasibility study, which identified soils/sediments, groundwater and buildings on the site as areas of concern. The major chemicals of concern are DDT and its metabolites, polynuclear aromatic compounds, various chlorinated benzenes, dioxin/furan homologues and heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and nickel. While this FS was developed in accordance with current CERCLA FS guidance and procedures, it was expanded to accommodate several outstanding technical and policy issues. Outstanding technical issues focused on uncertainties with respect to hydrogeologic conditions, and policy issues centered upon the development of the site-specific remedial action goals. A decision tree was established to facilitate the development of remedial strategies. The decision tree formed the basis for the FS and allowed remedial alternatives to be identified and evaluated based on key policy decisions. Site media were addressed as contaminated soils/sediments, groundwater and the on-site buildings

  3. Engaging Earth- and Environmental-Science Undergraduates Through Weather Discussions and an eLearning Weather Forecasting Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, David M.; Anderson, Stuart; Seo-Zindy, Ryo

    2013-06-01

    For students who major in meteorology, engaging in weather forecasting can motivate learning, develop critical-thinking skills, improve their written communication, and yield better forecasts. Whether such advances apply to students who are not meteorology majors has been less demonstrated. To test this idea, a weather discussion and an eLearning weather forecasting contest were devised for a meteorology course taken by third-year undergraduate earth- and environmental-science students. The discussion consisted of using the recent, present, and future weather to amplify the topics of the week's lectures. Then, students forecasted the next day's high temperature and the probability of precipitation for Woodford, the closest official observing site to Manchester, UK. The contest ran for 10 weeks, and the students received credit for participation. The top students at the end of the contest received bonus points on their final grade. A Web-based forecast contest application was developed to register the students, receive their forecasts, and calculate weekly standings. Students who were successful in the forecast contest were not necessarily those who achieved the highest scores on the tests, demonstrating that the contest was possibly testing different skills than traditional learning. Student evaluations indicate that the weather discussion and contest were reasonably successful in engaging students to learn about the weather outside of the classroom, synthesize their knowledge from the lectures, and improve their practical understanding of the weather. Therefore, students taking a meteorology class, but not majoring in meteorology, can derive academic benefits from weather discussions and forecast contests. Nevertheless, student evaluations also indicate that better integration of the lectures, weather discussions, and the forecasting contests is necessary.

  4. A simple approach to enhance the performance of complex-coefficient filter-based PLL in grid-connected applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramezani, Malek; Golestan, Saeed; Li, Shuhui

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of three-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) have been developed. One of the most popular ones is the complex coefficient filterbased PLL (CCF-PLL). The CCFs benefit from a sequence selective filtering ability and, hence, enable the CCF-PLL to selectively reject/extract...... disturbances before the PLL control loop while maintaining an acceptable dynamic behavior. The aim of this paper is presenting a simple yet effective approach to enhance the standard CCF-PLL performance without requiring any additional computational load....

  5. Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plansky, L.E.; Hoiland, S.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail.

  6. Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plansky, L.E.; Hoiland, S.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail

  7. From Surrogacy to Contested Adoption: What Went Wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Joanna; Jennings, Seamus

    1995-01-01

    Notes the complex and emotive nature of surrogate motherhood. Describes a surrogacy arrangement that was apparently based initially on a clear agreement and partnership, but developed into a disputed adoption application when the surrogate mother became dissatisfied with contact arrangements. (HTH)

  8. Gaming and simulation to explore resilience of contested agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, E.N.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords:

    Complex systems, resilience thinking theory, communal decision-making, agent-based modeling, serious games

    Over the past decades, smallholder farming communities have become increasingly affected by an ever larger number of

  9. Laser rapid forming technology of high-performance dense metal components with complex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weidong; Chen, Jing; Li, Yanming; Lin, Xin

    2005-01-01

    Laser rapid forming (LRF) is a new and advanced manufacturing technology that has been developed on the basis of combining high power laser cladding technology with rapid prototyping (RP) to realize net shape forming of high performance dense metal components without dies. Recently we have developed a set of LRF equipment. LRF experiments were carried out on the equipment to investigate the influences of processing parameters on forming characterizations systematically with the cladding powder materials as titanium alloys, superalloys, stainless steel, and copper alloys. The microstructure of laser formed components is made up of columnar grains or columnar dendrites which grow epitaxially from the substrate since the solid components were prepared layer by layer additionally. The result of mechanical testing proved that the mechanical properties of laser formed samples are similar to or even over that of forging and much better than that of casting. It is shown in this paper that LRF technology is providing a new solution for some difficult processing problems in the high tech field of aviation, spaceflight and automobile industries.

  10. Comparative performance of UASB and anaerobic hybrid reactors for the treatment of complex phenolic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2012-11-01

    The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) was investigated for the treatment of simulated coal wastewater containing toxic phenolics at different hydraulic retention times (0.75-0.33d). Fast start-up and granulation of biomass could be achieved in an AHR (45d) than UASB (58d) reactor. Reduction of HRT from 1.5 to 0.33d resulted in a decline in phenolics removal efficiency from 99% to 77% in AHR and 95% to 68% in UASB reactor respectively. AHR could withstand 2.5 times the selected phenolics loading compared to UASB reactor that could not withstand even 1.2 times the selected phenolics loading. Residence time distribution (RTD) study revealed a plug flow regime in the AHR and completely mixed regime in UASB reactor respectively. Energy economics of the reactors revealed that 12,159MJd(-1) more energy can be generated using AHR than UASB reactor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Markov counting and reward processes for analysing the performance of a complex system subject to random inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Castro, Juan Eloy

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete complex reliability system subject to internal failures and external shocks, is modelled algorithmically. Two types of internal failure are considered: repairable and non-repairable. When a repairable failure occurs, the unit goes to corrective repair. In addition, the unit is subject to external shocks that may produce an aggravation of the internal degradation level, cumulative damage or extreme failure. When a damage threshold is reached, the unit must be removed. When a non-repairable failure occurs, the device is replaced by a new, identical one. The internal performance and the external damage are partitioned in performance levels. Random inspections are carried out. When an inspection takes place, the internal performance of the system and the damage caused by external shocks are observed and if necessary the unit is sent to preventive maintenance. If the inspection observes minor state for the internal performance and/or external damage, then these states remain in memory when the unit goes to corrective or preventive maintenance. Transient and stationary analyses are performed. Markov counting and reward processes are developed in computational form to analyse the performance and profitability of the system with and without preventive maintenance. These aspects are implemented computationally with Matlab. - Highlights: • A multi-state device is modelled in an algorithmic and computational form. • The performance is partitioned in multi-states and degradation levels. • Several types of failures with repair times according to degradation levels. • Preventive maintenance as response to random inspection is introduced. • The performance-profitable is analysed through Markov counting and reward processes.

  12. Functional Mitochondrial Complex I Is Required by Tobacco Leaves for Optimal Photosynthetic Performance in Photorespiratory Conditions and during Transients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutilleul, Christelle; Driscoll, Simon; Cornic, Gabriel; De Paepe, Rosine; Foyer, Christine H.; Noctor, Graham

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in photosynthesis was studied using the tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) mutant CMSII, which lacks functional complex I. Rubisco activities and oxygen evolution at saturating CO2 showed that photosynthetic capacity in the mutant was at least as high as in wild-type (WT) leaves. Despite this, steady-state photosynthesis in the mutant was reduced by 20% to 30% at atmospheric CO2 levels. The inhibition of photosynthesis was alleviated by high CO2 or low O2. The mutant showed a prolonged induction of photosynthesis, which was exacerbated in conditions favoring photorespiration and which was accompanied by increased extractable NADP-malate dehydrogenase activity. Feeding experiments with leaf discs demonstrated that CMSII had a lower capacity than the WT for glycine (Gly) oxidation in the dark. Analysis of the postillumination burst in CO2 evolution showed that this was not because of insufficient Gly decarboxylase capacity. Despite the lower rate of Gly metabolism in CMSII leaves in the dark, the Gly to Ser ratio in the light displayed a similar dependence on photosynthesis to the WT. It is concluded that: (a) Mitochondrial complex I is required for optimal photosynthetic performance, despite the operation of alternative dehydrogenases in CMSII; and (b) complex I is necessary to avoid redox disruption of photosynthesis in conditions where leaf mitochondria must oxidize both respiratory and photorespiratory substrates simultaneously. PMID:12529534

  13. Fingerprinting of complex mixtures with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yongnian; Peng Yunyan; Kokot, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The molecular and metal profile fingerprints were obtained from a complex substance, Atractylis chinensis DC-a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with the use of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques. This substance was used in this work as an example of a complex biological material, which has found application as a TCM. Such TCM samples are traditionally processed by the Bran, Cut, Fried and Swill methods, and were collected from five provinces in China. The data matrices obtained from the two types of analysis produced two principal component biplots, which showed that the HPLC fingerprint data were discriminated on the basis of the methods for processing the raw TCM, while the metal analysis grouped according to the geographical origin. When the two data matrices were combined into a one two-way matrix, the resulting biplot showed a clear separation on the basis of the HPLC fingerprints. Importantly, within each different grouping the objects separated according to their geographical origin, and they ranked approximately in the same order in each group. This result suggested that by using such an approach, it is possible to derive improved characterisation of the complex TCM materials on the basis of the two kinds of analytical data. In addition, two supervised pattern recognition methods, K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) method, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were successfully applied to the individual data matrices-thus, supporting the PCA approach

  14. Performance of predictive models in phase equilibria of complex associating systems: PC-SAFT and CEOS/GE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bender

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cubic equations of state combined with excess Gibbs energy predictive models (like UNIFAC and equations of state based on applied statistical mechanics are among the main alternatives for phase equilibria prediction involving polar substances in wide temperature and pressure ranges. In this work, the predictive performances of the PC-SAFT with association contribution and Peng-Robinson (PR combined with UNIFAC (Do through mixing rules are compared. Binary and multi-component systems involving polar and non-polar substances were analyzed. Results were also compared to experimental data available in the literature. Results show a similar predictive performance for PC-SAFT with association and cubic equations combined with UNIFAC (Do through mixing rules. Although PC-SAFT with association requires less parameters, it is more complex and requires more computation time.

  15. Explaining high and low performers in complex intervention trials: a new model based on diffusion of innovations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Heather; Griffiths, Chris; Leber, Werner; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-05-31

    Complex intervention trials may require health care organisations to implement new service models. In a recent cluster randomised controlled trial, some participating organisations achieved high recruitment, whereas others found it difficult to assimilate the intervention and were low recruiters. We sought to explain this variation and develop a model to inform organisational participation in future complex intervention trials. The trial included 40 general practices in a London borough with high HIV prevalence. The intervention was offering a rapid HIV test as part of the New Patient Health Check. The primary outcome was mean CD4 cell count at diagnosis. The process evaluation consisted of several hundred hours of ethnographic observation, 21 semi-structured interviews and analysis of routine documents (e.g., patient leaflets, clinical protocols) and trial documents (e.g., inclusion criteria, recruitment statistics). Qualitative data were analysed thematically using--and, where necessary, extending--Greenhalgh et al.'s model of diffusion of innovations. Narrative synthesis was used to prepare case studies of four practices representing maximum variety in clinicians' interest in HIV (assessed by level of serological testing prior to the trial) and performance in the trial (high vs. low recruiters). High-recruiting practices were, in general though not invariably, also innovative practices. They were characterised by strong leadership, good managerial relations, readiness for change, a culture of staff training and available staff time ('slack resources'). Their front-line staff believed that patients might benefit from the rapid HIV test ('relative advantage'), were emotionally comfortable administering it ('compatibility'), skilled in performing it ('task issues') and made creative adaptations to embed the test in local working practices ('reinvention'). Early experience of a positive HIV test ('observability') appeared to reinforce staff commitment to recruiting

  16. Contesting nonfiction: Fourth graders making sense of words and images in science information book discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfatti, Monica A.

    , and contesting textual and conceptual ideas. Moreover, through their joint inquiries, students marshaled and evaluated a rich array of resources. Students' sense-making of information books was not contained by the words and images alone; it involved a situated, complex process of making sense of multiple texts, discourses, and epistemologies. These findings suggest educators, theorists, and policy makers reconsider acontextual, linear, hierarchical models for developing elementary students as sense-makers of nonfiction.

  17. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. Copyright © 2016

  18. Contested spacing: International non-profit organizations and the mobility of asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    The importance of examining space from an organizational standpoint is timely, not the least because the use of this concept has critical and often unintended social, and political effects (Mengis, Nicolini & Gorli, 2016). The global refugee crisis following the post-2015 Syrian conflict is perhaps...... one indicative situation of the highly contested ways in which international non-profit organizations (INGOs) create spaces for their organizational activities (e.g., build informal settlements to provide emergency aid), and thus affect how individuals (e.g., asylum seekers) get re-settled, confined...... to, or even restricted from living in such spaces. These matters are relevant since in the contexts where both the opportunities to move freely and being at peace are challenged, space is not only a neutral structure in which such contested organizing takes place (Mengis et al., 2016). Rather...

  19. Privacy is an essentially contested concept: a multi-dimensional analytic for mapping privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Colin; Doty, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of privacy has been much disputed throughout its history in response to wave after wave of new technological capabilities and social configurations. The current round of disputes over privacy fuelled by data science has been a cause of despair for many commentators and a death knell for privacy itself for others. We argue that privacy’s disputes are neither an accidental feature of the concept nor a lamentable condition of its applicability. Privacy is essentially contested. Because it is, privacy is transformable according to changing technological and social conditions. To make productive use of privacy’s essential contestability, we argue for a new approach to privacy research and practical design, focused on the development of conceptual analytics that facilitate dissecting privacy’s multiple uses across multiple contexts. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The ethical impact of data science’. PMID:28336797

  20. Beyond Contesting Limits: Land, Access, and Resistance at the Virunga National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hochleithner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After almost two decades of violent conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC – during which time the Virunga National Park was focused mainly on 'mere survival' – nature conservation practices in the Park began following strategies of re-enclosure in 2003. These practices are being contested by local population groups using a variety of different strategies. While local and trans-local elites employ more overt, explicit forms of (political contestation, peasants resort to 'weapons of the weak', engaging in more covert, implicit forms of everyday resistance, whereby the customary mode of organising access to land works –among other functions– as a vehicle for resistance. This paper argues that this multi-dimensional resistance ties in with general conflict dynamics in eastern DRC, while at the same time reproducing them within the realm of nature conservation, tightly interwoven with global dynamics.

  1. [Health education in schools in Argentina: an art contest as a motivating activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnaud, Raquel; Dato, María Isabel

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to plan health education efforts that integrate the health and education sectors. From March to November 2004, an art contest was held for 7th-9th grade students in 109 schools in 11 of Argentina's provinces. The contest allowed improvements in knowledge to be measured and adjustments to be made to the curriculum. The students created works of art featuring tuberculosis. To evaluate knowledge acquired, two provinces were chosen at random. Student knowledge had increased from 67.2% to 96.4%. The administrators and teachers testified to the usefulness of the materials developed. These results show that when the efforts of health and education sectors are coordinated and the appropriate materials are leveraged, the efforts of educators can be substantially bolstered.

  2. Culinary Contests in Periodicals as Reflection of Russians’ Everyday Life in Conditions of Modern Economic Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Дмитриевна Попова

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of publications of culinary recipes contests in various periodicals. They demonstrate the specificity of Russians’ everyday life in conditions of economic reforms in the country. The published recipes reflect the dynamics of the socio-economic life of the population. These publications demonstrate various ways of doing housekeeping in conditions of the changing economic situation, which influenced the peculiarities of cooking food.

  3. Residency in white-eared hummingbirds (Hylocharis leucotis and its effect in territorial contest resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Mendiola-Islas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Territory owners usually defeat intruders. One explanation for this observation is the uncorrelated asymmetry hypothesis which argues that contests might be settled by an arbitrary convention such as “owners win.” We studied the effect of territorial residency on contest asymmetries in the white-eared hummingbird (Hylocharis leucotis in a fir forest from central Mexico. Methods Twenty white-eared male adult hummingbird territories were monitored during a winter season, recording the territorial behavior of the resident against intruding hummingbirds. The size and quality of the territory were related to the probability that the resident would allow the use of flowers by the intruder. Various generalized models (logistical models were generated to describe the probabilities of victory for each individual resident depending on the different combinations of three predictor variables (territory size, territory quality, and intruder identity. Results In general, small and low quality territory owners tend to prevent conspecific intruders from foraging at a higher rate, while they frequently fail to exclude heterospecific intruders such as the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens or the green violetear hummingbird (Colibri thalassinus on any territory size. Our results showed that the identity of the intruder and the size and quality of the territory determined the result of the contests, but not the intensity of defense. Discussion Initially, the rule that “the resident always wins” was supported, since no resident was expelled from its territory during the study. Nevertheless, the resident-intruder asymmetries during the course of a day depended on different factors, such as the size and quality of the territory and, mainly, the identity of the intruders. Our results showed that flexibility observed in contest tactics suggests that these tactics are not fixed but are socially plastic instead and they can be adjusted to

  4. Heightened aggression and winning contests increase corticosterone but decrease testosterone in male Australian water dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Troy A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Water dragons (Intellegama [Physignathus] lesueurii) are large (to >1m) agamid lizards from eastern Australia. Males are fiercely combative; holding a territory requires incessant displays and aggression against other males. If a dominant male is absent, injured or fatigued, another male soon takes over his territory. Our sampling of blood from free-ranging adult males showed that baseline levels of both testosterone and corticosterone were not related to a male's social tactic (territorial versus non-territorial), or his frequency of advertisement display, aggression, or courtship behavior. Even when we elicited intense aggression by non-territorial males (by temporarily removing territory owners), testosterone did not increase with the higher levels of aggression that ensued. Indeed, testosterone levels decreased in males that won contests. In contrast, male corticosterone levels increased with the heightened aggression during unsettled conditions, and were higher in males that won contests. High chronic male-male competition in this dense population may favor high testosterone levels in all adult males to facilitate advertisement and patrol activities required for territory maintenance (by dominant animals), and to maintain readiness for territory take-overs (in non-territorial animals). Corticosterone levels increased in response to intense aggression during socially unstable conditions, and were higher in contest winners than losers. A positive correlation between the two hormones during socially unstable conditions suggests that the high stress of contests decreased androgen production. The persistent intense competition in this population appears to exact a high physiological cost, which together with our observation that males sometimes lose their territories to challengers may indicate cycling between these two tactics to manage long-term energetic costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Brazilian electric power industry restructuring: an evaluation of the competition through the contestable market theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhaes, Elbia; Santana, Edvaldo de

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work is to evaluate the competition in the Brazilian electric power industry through the Contestable Market Theory proposed by Baumol

  6. Boundary-making in the public sphere: Contestations of free speech

    OpenAIRE

    Midtbøen, Arnfinn Haagensen; Steen-Johnsen, Kari; Thorbjørnsrud, Kjersti

    2017-01-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental human right and considered a core value in liberal democracies. However, it is also one of our time’s most contested issues, constantly claimed either to be too wide-ranging, allowing continuous repression of minority groups, or too limited – restricting dissent and democratic deliberation. In this book we depart from conventional approaches of free speech, which tend to focus on whether specific types of public talk should be considered legally allowed or n...

  7. Fourth Annual Holiday Decorating Contest Features Sharks, Santas, Toys, and More | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2017 holiday season brought cold temperatures and heated competition to NCI at Frederick as 14 groups faced off in the R&W Club of Frederick’s Fourth Annual Holiday Decorating Contest. Keeping with tradition, many of the competitors sought to outdo not just each other’s themed entries, but also their own decorations from previous years. Accordingly, this year’s themes ranged from childhood memories to local landscapes to the downright outlandish.

  8. Residency in white-eared hummingbirds (Hylocharis leucotis) and its effect in territorial contest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Islas, Verónica; Lara, Carlos; Corcuera, Pablo; Valverde, Pedro Luis

    2016-01-01

    Territory owners usually defeat intruders. One explanation for this observation is the uncorrelated asymmetry hypothesis which argues that contests might be settled by an arbitrary convention such as "owners win." We studied the effect of territorial residency on contest asymmetries in the white-eared hummingbird ( Hylocharis leucotis ) in a fir forest from central Mexico. Twenty white-eared male adult hummingbird territories were monitored during a winter season, recording the territorial behavior of the resident against intruding hummingbirds. The size and quality of the territory were related to the probability that the resident would allow the use of flowers by the intruder. Various generalized models (logistical models) were generated to describe the probabilities of victory for each individual resident depending on the different combinations of three predictor variables (territory size, territory quality, and intruder identity). In general, small and low quality territory owners tend to prevent conspecific intruders from foraging at a higher rate, while they frequently fail to exclude heterospecific intruders such as the magnificent hummingbird ( Eugenes fulgens ) or the green violetear hummingbird ( Colibri thalassinus ) on any territory size. Our results showed that the identity of the intruder and the size and quality of the territory determined the result of the contests, but not the intensity of defense. Initially, the rule that "the resident always wins" was supported, since no resident was expelled from its territory during the study. Nevertheless, the resident-intruder asymmetries during the course of a day depended on different factors, such as the size and quality of the territory and, mainly, the identity of the intruders. Our results showed that flexibility observed in contest tactics suggests that these tactics are not fixed but are socially plastic instead and they can be adjusted to specific circumstances.

  9. Application of high performance liquid chromatography for the profiling of complex chemical mixtures with the aid of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongnian; Zhang, Liangsheng; Churchill, Jane; Kokot, Serge

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, chemometrics methods were applied to resolve the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of complex, many-component substances to compare samples from a batch from a given manufacturer, or from those of different producers. As an example of such complex substances, we used a common Chinese traditional medicine, Huoxiang Zhengqi Tincture (HZT) for this research. Twenty-one samples, each representing a separate HZT production batch from one of three manufacturers were analyzed by HPLC with the aid of a diode array detector (DAD). An Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column with an Agilent Zorbax high pressure reliance cartridge guard-column were used. The mobile phase consisted of water (A) and methanol (B) with a gradient program of 25-65% (v/v, B) during 0-30min, 65-55% (v/v, B) during 30-35min and 55-100% (v/v, B) during 35-60min (flow rate, 1.0mlmin(-1); injection volume, 20mul; and column temperature-ambient). The detection wavelength was adjusted for maximum sensitivity at different time periods. A peak area matrix with 21objectsx14HPLC variables was obtained by sampling each chromatogram at 14 common retention times. Similarities were then calculated to discriminate the batch-to-batch samples and also, a more informative multi-criteria decision making methodology (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA, was applied to obtain more information from the chromatograms in order to rank and compare the complex HZT profiles. The results showed that with the MCDM analysis, it was possible to match and discriminate correctly the batch samples from the three different manufacturers. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra taken from samples from several batches were compared by the common similarity method with the HPLC results. It was found that the FT-IR spectra did not discriminate the samples from the different batches.

  10. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2014-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both

  11. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Mahdavi-Arab

    Full Text Available Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance

  12. Changes in heart rate associated with contest outcome in agonistic encounters in lobsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáindez-Falcón, Jesús; Basu, Alo C; Govindasamy, Siddhartan; Kravitz, Edward A

    2005-03-01

    Agonistic contests between lobsters housed together in a confined space progress through encounters of increasing intensity until a dominance relationship is established. Once this relationship is established, losing animals continually retreat from the advances of winners. These encounters are likely to consume much energy in both winning and losing animals. Therefore, one might expect involvement of many physiological systems before, during and after fights. Here, we report effects of agonistic encounters on cardiac frequency in winning and losing adult lobsters involved in dyadic interactions. The results show that: (i) small but significant increases in heart rate are observed upon chemical detection of a conspecific; (ii) during agonistic interactions, further increases in heart rate are seen; and (iii) ultimate winners exhibit greater increases in heart rate lasting longer periods of time compared to ultimate losers. Heart rate in winners remains elevated for at least 15 min after the contests have ended and animals have been returned to their home tanks. Reduced effects are seen in second and third pairings between familiar opponents. The sustained changes in heart rate that we observe in winning lobsters may result from hormonal modulation of cardiac function related to the change in social status brought about by contest outcome.

  13. Resistance and Contingent Contestations to Large-Scale Land Concessions in Southern Laos and Northeastern Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Baird

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there have been considerable concerns raised regarding the social and environmental impacts of large-scale land concessions for plantation development in various parts of the world, especially in the tropics, including in Laos and Cambodia. However, there is still much to learn about the various connections and interactions associated with reactions to what are often referred to as “land grabs”, and the ways they are associated or not associated with broader social movements and networks opposed to land grabbing. There is also the need to develop language for discussing these circumstances, something I aim to contribute to in this article. Here, I present four different cases of types of resistance, or what I refer to as contingent contestations, to land concessions in southern Laos and northeastern Cambodia (two from each country, focusing on the perspectives and associated strategies of smallholder farmers, but without ignoring broader issues. I consider the roles of locals in these contestations, through emphasizing the importance of histories, identities/ethnicities, politics, and geography in determining the types of responses to these land deals that emerge, and the strategies that are adopted for contesting these developments.

  14. Evolving Governance and Contested Water Reforms in Australia’s Murray Darling Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways water governance adapts to changing social values and political imperatives by examining the case of water policy reforms in Australia’s Murray Darling Basin. Over more than two decades, Australia’s water reforms have explicitly aimed to promote ecological sustainability and economic efficiency, attempting to balance pro-market, micro-economic reforms with broader social and sustainability goals. Despite the formality of Australia’s intergovernmental agreements, water reforms have been expensive and heavily contested, experiencing many implementation challenges. However, water market reforms have generally been regarded as successful, enabling the reallocation of water for environmental and extractive uses, contributing to flexibility and adaptive capacity. Recognising that discursive contestation is central to policy development, the paper documents the way the reform processes have attempted to broker compromises between three competing policy paradigms—national development, economic rationalism and environmentalism. These inherent tensions resulted in prolonged contests for influence over policy directions long after formal statements of policy intent by Governments. Given that climate change is driving the need for water governance reforms, the paper looks to what lessons can be learnt about the redesigns of meta-governance arrangements, including through structured commitments to independent audits and evaluations that can provide the feedback needed for adaptive governance and policy learning.

  15. Younger and older jurors: the influence of environmental supports on memory performance and decision making in complex trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J M

    2000-11-01

    This study compared memory and decision making by younger (aged 19-35) and older (aged 55-75) adults who had viewed a 2-hr video of a complex civil trial. Participants were tested for free recall, recognition memory, source identification, and the accuracy of their verdicts. The experiment manipulated (a) note taking during the trial and (b) timing of judicial instructions: either before (preinstructed) or after (standard) the presentation of relevant evidence. Judicial instructions provide jurors with a framework for understanding legal concepts such as liability and compensatory damages. Both younger and older adults provided more detailed and cohesive accounts when they were given judicial instructions before the evidence. Other benefits of preinstruction to memory and decision making were limited to older adults. Note-taking effects were generally limited but were consistent across age groups. The results highlight the potential value of relatively simple interventions for improving cognitive performance in a real-world setting.

  16. Bismarck or Beveridge: a beauty contest between dinosaurs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, J. van der; Kroneman, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health systems delivery systems can be divided into two broad categories: National Health Services (NHS) on the one hand and Social Security (based) Health care systems (SSH) on the other hand. Existing literature is inconclusive about which system performs best. In this paper we would

  17. The effects of sampling bias and model complexity on the predictive performance of MaxEnt species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syfert, Mindy M; Smith, Matthew J; Coomes, David A

    2013-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) trained on presence-only data are frequently used in ecological research and conservation planning. However, users of SDM software are faced with a variety of options, and it is not always obvious how selecting one option over another will affect model performance. Working with MaxEnt software and with tree fern presence data from New Zealand, we assessed whether (a) choosing to correct for geographical sampling bias and (b) using complex environmental response curves have strong effects on goodness of fit. SDMs were trained on tree fern data, obtained from an online biodiversity data portal, with two sources that differed in size and geographical sampling bias: a small, widely-distributed set of herbarium specimens and a large, spatially clustered set of ecological survey records. We attempted to correct for geographical sampling bias by incorporating sampling bias grids in the SDMs, created from all georeferenced vascular plants in the datasets, and explored model complexity issues by fitting a wide variety of environmental response curves (known as "feature types" in MaxEnt). In each case, goodness of fit was assessed by comparing predicted range maps with tree fern presences and absences using an independent national dataset to validate the SDMs. We found that correcting for geographical sampling bias led to major improvements in goodness of fit, but did not entirely resolve the problem: predictions made with clustered ecological data were inferior to those made with the herbarium dataset, even after sampling bias correction. We also found that the choice of feature type had negligible effects on predictive performance, indicating that simple feature types may be sufficient once sampling bias is accounted for. Our study emphasizes the importance of reducing geographical sampling bias, where possible, in datasets used to train SDMs, and the effectiveness and essentialness of sampling bias correction within MaxEnt.

  18. Multi-scalar agent-based complex design systems - the case of CECO (Climatic -Ecologies) Studio; informed generative design systems and performance-driven design workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi, S.; Yu, S.; Biloria, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates the application of different types of complex systems for digital form finding and design decision making with underlying methodological and pedagogical aims to emphasize performance-driven design solutions via combining generative methods of complex systems with simulation

  19. Allergen-containing immune complexes used for immunotherapy of allergic asthma. Preparation of complexes and evaluation of their clinical performance in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Lundberg, L; Søndergaard, I

    1989-01-01

    Guinea pigs inbred for their ability to develop respiratory anaphylaxis to experimental antigens have been used for comparison of different forms of immunotherapy (IT). Passive, active and combined (immune complexes between antigen and specific IgG) IT were compared with placebo. The bronchial re...... groups surprisingly recovered their original sensitivity to inhalation of the antigen....

  20. Why performance-based contracting failed in Uganda--an "open-box" evaluation of a complex health system intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Freddie; McPake, Barbara; Palmer, Natasha

    2012-07-01

    Performance-based contracting (PBC) is a tool that links rewards to attainment of measurable performance targets. Significant problems remain in the methods used to evaluate this tool. The primary focus of evaluations on the effects of PBC (black-box) and less attention to how these effects arise (open-box) generates suboptimal policy learning. A black-box impact evaluation of PBC pilot by the Development Research Group of the World Bank (DRG) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) concluded that PBC was ineffective. This paper reports a theory-based case study intended to clarify how and why PBC failed to achieve its objectives. To explain the observed PBC implementation and responses of participants, this case study employed two related theories i.e. complex adaptive system and expectancy theory respectively. A prospective study trailed the implementation of PBC (2003-2006) while collecting experiences of participants at district and hospital levels. Significant problems were encountered in the implementation of PBC that reflected its inadequate design. As problems were encountered, hasty adaptations resulted in a de facto intervention distinct from the one implied at the design stage. For example, inadequate time was allowed for the selection of service targets by the health centres yet they got 'locked-in' to these poor choices. The learning curve and workload among performance auditors weakened the validity of audit results. Above all, financial shortfalls led to delays, short-cuts and uncertainty about the size and payment of bonuses. The lesson for those intending to implement similar interventions is that PBC should not be attempted 'on the cheap'. It requires a plan to boost local institutional and technical capacities of implementers. It also requires careful consideration of the responses of multiple actors - both insiders and outsiders to the intended change process. Given the costs and complexity of PBC implementation, strengthening conventional approaches