WorldWideScience

Sample records for complexities ongoing challenges

  1. Ecommerce: Ongoing Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the challenges of online marketing, including the importance of adding online marketing to corporation budgets. A review of the pros and cons of social networking on the Internet, when used as a marketing tool by companies is presented. In addition, new forms of Internet shoppers and new niches for companies are identified

  2. Race, socioeconomic status, and health: complexities, ongoing challenges, and research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Leavell, Jacinta; Collins, Chiquita

    2010-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of racial variations in health and shows that differences in socioeconomic status (SES) across racial groups are a major contributor to racial disparities in health. However, race reflects multiple dimensions of social inequality and individual and household indicators of SES capture relevant but limited aspects of this phenomenon. Research is needed that will comprehensively characterize the critical pathogenic features of social environments and identify how they combine with each other to affect health over the life course. Migration history and status are also important predictors of health and research is needed that will enhance understanding of the complex ways in which race, SES, and immigrant status combine to affect health. Fully capturing the role of race in health also requires rigorous examination of the conditions under which medical care and genetic factors can contribute to racial and SES differences in health. The paper identifies research priorities in all of these areas.

  3. Refugee Health: An Ongoing Commitment and Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy T; Bith-Melander, Pollie

    2018-01-13

    Refugees represent a diverse group of displaced individuals with unique health issues and disease risks. The obstacles facing this population have their origins in war, violence, oppression, exploitation, and fear of persecution. Regardless of country of origin, a common bond exists, with refugees often confronting inadequate healthcare resources, xenophobia, discrimination, and a complex web of legal barriers in their new homelands. In many cases, the plight of refugees is multigenerational, manifesting as mental health issues, abuse, poverty, and family disruption. The health trajectory of refugees remains an ongoing commitment and challenge.

  4. Infertility: Ongoing Global challenge of new millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantibhai Naranbhai Sonaliya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility tends to be the global challenge even in the second decade of the new millennium. Especially in developing countries like India, it is still one the most lethal social evil responsible for a big proportion of cases of psychological disturbances including suicide. Again, recently, few conditions other than communicable or Non-communicable diseases are given place among the categories of significant public health problems like Road Traffic Accidents, Burns, Poisoning, drowning and few more. But, for developing countries like India, the list is incomplete without inclusion of Infertility (there may be several others also. In public health, tuberculosis, leprosy and some other diseases are considered social diseases which produce social stigma for the patients and/or his family members.1 In same manner, Infertility is an important cause of social stigmatization since centuries for a couple suffering from, especially for woman involved. During a transitory phase of industrialization and socio-economic development, the situation is changed a minute smidgen at urban areas of India but at rural parts, sub-urban or even at urban slums (mainly among pockets of recent migrants the situation is as same as a few hundred years ago. A female of no religion, caste, social status or higher level of education are barred from some stringent mores related to infertility. Infertile females are still not allowed to take part in so many religious or social ceremonies; on the contrary, they have to face more harassment including domestic violence than their counterparts, who have given birth to the child. Due to social, psychological, economic disturbances, they are forced to take multiple sorts of treatments including religious quacks. So many infertile women are exploited physically and economically also in such weird ways of treatment to gain a pregnancy.

  5. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  6. Dengue vaccines: recent developments, ongoing challenges and current candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Monica A.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Edelman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dengue is among the most prevalent and important arbovirus diseases of humans. In order to effectively control this rapidly spreading disease, control of the vector mosquito and a safe and efficacious vaccine are critical. Despite considerable efforts, the development of a successful vaccine has remained elusive. Multiple factors have complicated the creation of a successful vaccine, not the least of which are the complex, immune-mediated responses against four antigenically distinct serotypes necessitating a tetravalent vaccine providing long lasting protective immunity. Despite the multiple impediments, there are currently many promising vaccine candidates in pre-clinical and clinical development. Here we review the recent advances in dengue virus vaccine development and briefly discuss the challenges associated with the use of these vaccines as a public health tool. PMID:23984962

  7. Dengue vaccines: recent developments, ongoing challenges and current candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Monica A; Sztein, Marcelo B; Edelman, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Dengue is among the most prevalent and important arbovirus diseases of humans. To effectively control this rapidly spreading disease, control of the vector mosquito and a safe and efficacious vaccine are critical. Despite considerable efforts, the development of a successful vaccine has remained elusive. Multiple factors have complicated the creation of a successful vaccine, not the least of which are the complex, immune-mediated responses against four antigenically distinct serotypes necessitating a tetravalent vaccine providing long-lasting protective immunity. Despite the multiple impediments, there are currently many promising vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical development. Here, the recent advances in dengue virus vaccine development are reviewed and the challenges associated with the use of these vaccines as a public health tool are briefly discussed.

  8. The thin endometrium in assisted reproductive technology: An ongoing challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Eftekhar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thin endometrium is identified to adversely affect reproductive success rates after assisted reproductive technology (ART. Several treatment modalities have been presented to patients with thin endometrium, to improve endometrial thickness and the subsequent endometrial receptivity. These approaches comprising hormonal management by estradiol, tamoxifen, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist, vasoactive agents such as aspirin, vitamin E, pentoxifylline, nitroglycerin and sildenafil, intra-uterine infusion of growth factor such as Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF and the latest application of platelet-rich plasma, electrical stimulation, regenerative medicine and presentation of endometrial receptivity array. In spite of the large variety of treatment, most of the choices achieve only minor modification in the endometrium thickness and have not been validated so far. Treatment of thin endometrium remains a challenge and future enormous investigations are required to further clarification and ideal management of patients with thin endometrium.

  9. Challenges Facing New North Atlantic Treaty Organization Member States: An Analysis of the Alliance's Ongoing Enlargement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richter, Walter E

    2006-01-01

    While the primary focus of American foreign policy is clearly outside the European continent, NATO's ongoing enlargement and successful integration of new members remains in the vital interests of the United States...

  10. Ongoing measles outbreak in Wallonia, Belgium, December 2016 to March 2017: characteristics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammens, Tine; Schirvel, Carole; Leenen, Sylvie; Shodu, Nathalie; Hutse, Veronik; Mendes da Costa, Elise; Sabbe, Martine

    2017-04-27

    We describe characteristics of an ongoing measles outbreak in Wallonia, Belgium, and difficulties in control measures implementation. As at 12 March 2017, 177 measles cases were notified, of which 50% were 15 years and older, 49% female. Atypical clinical presentation and severe complications, mainly among adults, in combination with late notification, low or unknown vaccination coverage of contacts, infected healthcare workers and increased workload due to contact tracing, are the main concerns for outbreak management. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  11. Path of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years: an ongoing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Eliseu Alves; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri

    2016-12-22

    In this article, we comment on the main features of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years, highlighting how much of this path Revista de Saúde Pública could portray. From 1967 to 2016, 1,335 articles focusing on infectious diseases were published in Revista de Saúde Pública. Although the proportion of articles on the topic have decreased from about 50.0% to 15.0%, its notability remained and reflected the growing complexity of the research required for its control. It is noteworthy that studies design and analysis strategies progressively became more sophisticated, following the great development of epidemiology in Brazil in the recent decades. Thus, the journal has followed the success of public health interventions that permitted to control or eliminate numerous infectious diseases - which were responsible, in the past, for high rates of morbidity and mortality -, and also followed the reemergence of diseases already controlled and the emergence of until then unknown diseases, with a strong impact on the Brazilian population, establishing a little predictable and very challenging path. RESUMO Neste artigo, comentamos as principais características das doenças infecciosas no Brasil, nos últimos 50 anos, destacando o quanto a Revista de Saúde Pública conseguiu capturar essa trajetória. De 1967 a 2016, foram publicados 1.335 artigos na Revista de Saúde Pública com foco em doenças infecciosas. Ainda que a proporção de artigos sobre esse tema tenha declinado de cerca de 50,0% para 15,0%, seu destaque se manteve e refletiu a crescente complexidade das pesquisas necessárias para o seu controle. Nota-se que os desenhos dos estudos e as estratégias de análise ganharam progressivamente maior sofisticação, acompanhando o grande desenvolvimento da epidemiologia no Brasil, nas últimas décadas. Assim, foi registrado não apenas o sucesso de intervenções de saúde pública que permitiram o controle ou a eliminação de inúmeras doen

  12. Ongoing Challenges Faced by Expatriate Managers: An Exploratory Study of Expatriate Managers in Nigeria and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Otoakhia, Aikenosi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study will seek to uncover the concept of workforce diversity, to discover the effects of workforce diversity on an organization, to find out how the managers manage diverse workforces, to highlight the challenges faced by expat managers in managing a diverse workforce, and to identify the possible solutions to these challenges. Additionally, the study will compare the results of these aims between the workforces of Canada and Nigeria. Four research questions were developed t...

  13. Steam generator life cycle management challenges - on-going and new build

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, P.

    2009-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is committed to the safe, reliable, and cost-effective operation of its fleet of CANDU plants. Steam Generators (SGs) are a major component of the heat transport system in these plants and maintaining their health is an essential element to achieving plant safety, reliability and economic performance. OPG has been actively engaged in formal life cycle management of its SGs for about 15 years. Over this time, we have developed stable, mature, detailed life cycle plans for each of our plants on a unit by unit, and in some cases, SG by SG, basis. These plans have been externally reviewed over the years by our regulator and by other third-party experts, and they've been acknowledged as being among the best life cycle plans anywhere. Although we are pleased that our life cycle plans are as detailed and mature as they are, we certainly aren't fully satisfied because they're not perfect. Even if they were perfect at any point in time, they wouldn't be for very long because the environment is constantly changing, both the technical environment and the business environment. This paper presents some of these challenges and offers some possible solutions or suggestions based on OPG's experience. The paper describes the background on SG life cycle management in OPG, i.e. what it is and how we do it. Then it presents challenges in the following areas: despite having some very detailed and technically strong life cycle plans, we still face some technical issues; in addition, we face challenges in integrating these plans into the overall business processes within the company; up until now, our life cycle planning has been aimed at early-and mid-life in our units. But our units are aging and we are now within sight, at least in a life cycle management sense, of a point at which decisions need to be made on refurbishment, life extension or retirement of the units. We need to adjust our life cycle management approach as we approach those major

  14. Fatigue of Nitinol: The state-of-the-art and ongoing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtabi, M J; Shamsaei, Nima; Mitchell, M R

    2015-10-01

    Nitinol, a nearly equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, has been considered for a wide range of applications including medical and dental devices and implants as well as aerospace and automotive components and structures. The realistic loading condition in many of these applications is cyclic; therefore, fatigue is often the main failure mode for such components and structures. The fatigue behavior of Nitinol involves many more complexities compared with traditional metal alloys arising from its uniqueness in material properties such as superelasticity and shape memory effects. In this paper, a review of the present state-of-the-art on the fatigue behavior of superelastic Nitinol is presented. Various aspects of fatigue of Nitinol are discussed and microstructural effects are explained. Effects of material preparation and testing conditions are also reviewed. Finally, several conclusions are made and recommendations for future works are offered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The challenge of wolf recovery: an ongoing dilemma for state managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2013-01-01

    “Dave, would you do another legal declaration on the wolf for us?” The weary voice on the phone belonged to Mike Jimenez, Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Management and Science Coordinator for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). He was calling from Wyoming to ask me to prepare a document to address a legal challenge to the FWS’s August 2012 delisting of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Wyoming, a highly controversial move. Mike’s tone reflected the reality that — as so many wildlife biologists know and live each day — wildlife management is mainly people management. This contention could not be truer for managing any wildlife species than for managing the wolf. Dubbed “the beast of waste and desolation” by Teddy Roosevelt (The Wilderness Hunter 1893/1900), wolves had been universally hated as prolific predators of valuable livestock and game. Around the turn of the 20th century, members of the U.S. Biological Survey and various state agents, ranchers, cowboys, and other frontiersmen poisoned and persecuted wolves, extirpating them from most of the contiguous United States (Young and Goldman 1944). By 1967, Minnesota and nearby Isle Royale National Park in Michigan held the only remaining wolves in the Lower 48 states, prompting the FWS to place the wolf on the Endangered Species List (established by the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966). The wolf then became the list’s poster species, and the timing was ideal: Silent Spring (Carson 1962) had just seeded and fertilized the environmental movement, which blossomed on Earth Day (April 22, 1970) into the environmental revolution. “Save the wolf!” became one of the movement’s rallying cries. And save the wolf we did.

  16. Complex plasmas scientific challenges and technological opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Jose; Becker, Kurt; Thomsen, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with an introduction to the physics of complex plasmas, a discussion of the specific scientific and technical challenges they present, and an overview of their potential technological applications. Complex plasmas differ from conventional high-temperature plasmas in several ways: they may contain additional species, including nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles, negative ions, molecules and radicals, and they may exhibit strong correlations or quantum effects. This book introduces the classical and quantum mechanical approaches used to describe and simulate complex plasmas. It also covers some key experimental techniques used in the analysis of these plasmas, including calorimetric probe methods, IR absorption techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final part of the book reviews the emerging applications of microcavity and microchannel plasmas, the synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials through plasma electrochemistry, the large-scale generation of ozone using mi...

  17. The MOOC and Learning Analytics Innovation Cycle (MOLAC): A Reflective Summary of Ongoing Research and Its Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachsler, H.; Kalz, M.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the interplay between learning analytics and massive open online courses (MOOCs) and provides a conceptual framework to situate ongoing research in the MOOC and learning analytics innovation cycle (MOLAC framework). The MOLAC framework is organized on three levels: On the micro-level, the data collection and analytics…

  18. Water Policy Reforms in South Korea: A Historical Review and Ongoing Challenges for Sustainable Water Governance and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Chang Choi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an opinion on the state-of-the-art of changes and reforms of water policies in South Korea, as well as the challenges along with their implications for sustainable water governance and management. In parallel with change in water resource characteristics generated by physical, environmental and socio-economic challenges such as: (1 uncertainties about climate change (flooding and drought including seasonal and regional variation in precipitation; (2 significant increase in water use caused by rapid urbanization and population growth in industrialized urban areas; (3 inadequate water pricing mechanism which covers only around 80% of the production cost and makes it harder to maintain water systems; and (4 recursive water quality degradation and conflicts over water rights between regions resulting from non-point source pollution in highland versus lowland areas, Korean water policies have been developed through diverse reforms over 100 years. Nevertheless, new challenges for sustainable water management are continuously emerging. To meet those challenges we provide two ideas: (i provider-gets-principle (payment for ecosystem services of cost-benefit sharing among stakeholders who benefit from water use; and (ii water pricing applying full-cost pricing-principle internalizing environmental externalities caused by the intensive water use. Funds secured from the application of those methods would facilitate: (1 support for upstream (rural low income householders suffering from economic restrictions; (2 improvement in water facilities; and (3 efficient water use and demand management in South Korea’s water sectors. We expect that this paper can examine the lessons relevant to challenges that South Korea faces and offer some implications on the formulation of new integration and further reforms of the institutions, laws and organizations responsible for managing water resources in South Korea.

  19. Accountability Challenges in the Transnational Regime Complex for Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widerberg, O.E.; Pattberg, P.H.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses challenges to accountability in the context of transnational climate governance. It argues that the emergence of a distinct transnational regime complex and the increasingly integrated structure of international and transnational climate governance create new challenges for

  20. COMPLEX NETWORKS IN CLIMATE SCIENCE: PROGRESS, OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — COMPLEX NETWORKS IN CLIMATE SCIENCE: PROGRESS, OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES KARSTEN STEINHAEUSER, NITESH V. CHAWLA, AND AUROOP R. GANGULY Abstract. Networks have...

  1. Barcoding the largest animals on Earth: ongoing challenges and molecular solutions in the taxonomic identification of ancient cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, Camilla; van den Hurk, Youri; Charpentier, Anne; Rodrigues, Ana; Gardeisen, Armelle; Wilkens, Barbara; McGrath, Krista; Rowsell, Keri; Spindler, Luke; Collins, Matthew; Hofreiter, Michael

    2016-09-05

    Over the last few centuries, many cetacean species have witnessed dramatic global declines due to industrial overharvesting and other anthropogenic influences, and thus are key targets for conservation. Whale bones recovered from archaeological and palaeontological contexts can provide essential baseline information on the past geographical distribution and abundance of species required for developing informed conservation policies. Here we review the challenges with identifying whale bones through traditional anatomical methods, as well as the opportunities provided by new molecular analyses. Through a case study focused on the North Sea, we demonstrate how the utility of this (pre)historic data is currently limited by a lack of accurate taxonomic information for the majority of ancient cetacean remains. We then discuss current opportunities presented by molecular identification methods such as DNA barcoding and collagen peptide mass fingerprinting (zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry), and highlight the importance of molecular identifications in assessing ancient species' distributions through a case study focused on the Mediterranean. We conclude by considering high-throughput molecular approaches such as hybridization capture followed by next-generation sequencing as cost-effective approaches for enhancing the ecological informativeness of these ancient sample sets.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. Ongoing challenges to finding people with Parkinson's disease for epidemiological studies: a comparison of population-level case ascertainment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M Anne; Koehoorn, Mieke; Teschke, Kay

    2011-07-01

    Locating Parkinson's disease cases for epidemiological studies has long been challenging. Self reports, secondary records of physician diagnosis and drug tracer methods each exhibit known disadvantages but have rarely been compared directly. Prescriptions of levodopa have in some studies been considered to comprise a reasonable proxy for Parkinson's disease diagnosis. We tested this assumption by comparing three methods of population-level case ascertainment. We compared the number of Parkinson's disease cases in British Columbia derived from self-reports in the 2001 Canadian Community Health Survey to those obtained from administrative records of filled levodopa prescriptions and to Parkinson's disease diagnoses from physician visit billing and hospital discharge records in 1996 and 2005. We directly compared a case definition based on levodopa prescriptions with a definition based on records of physician diagnosis by calculating positive predictive value and sensitivity. Crude prevalence estimates ranged from approximately 100 to 200 per 100,000. Levodopa-based case definitions overestimated prevalence, while physician- and hospital-record-based case definitions provided lower prevalence estimates compared to survey derived estimates. The proportion of levodopa users with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease declined from 62% to 52% between 1996 and 2005. This decrease was most dramatic among women (64%-44%) and those under age 65 (54%-39%). Sex and age trends suggest increasing use of levodopa among patients with conditions other than Parkinson's disease, such as restless legs syndrome. Increased non-Parkinson's levodopa use decreases the efficiency of levodopa as a Parkinson's disease case tracer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Australia's Ongoing Legacy of Asbestos: Significant Challenges Remain Even after the Complete Banning of Asbestos Almost Fifteen Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeberg, Matthew; Vallance, Deborah A; Keena, Victoria; Takahashi, Ken; Leigh, James

    2018-02-23

    The most effective way of reducing the global burden of asbestos-related diseases is through the implementation of asbestos bans and minimising occupational and non-occupational exposure to respirable asbestos fibres. Australia's asbestos consumption peaked in the 1970s with Australia widely thought to have had among the highest per-capita asbestos consumption level of any country. Australia's discontinuation of all forms of asbestos and asbestos-containing products and materials did not occur at a single point of time. Crocidolite consumption ceased in the late 1960s, followed by amosite consumption stopping in the mid 1980s. Despite significant government reports being published in 1990 and 1999, it was not until the end of 2003 that a complete ban on all forms of asbestos (crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile) was introduced in Australia. The sustained efforts of trade unions and non-governmental organisations were essential in forcing the Australian government to finally implement the 2003 asbestos ban. Trade unions and non-government organisations continue to play a key role today in monitoring the government's response to Australian asbestos-related disease epidemic. There are significant challenges that remain in Australia, despite a complete asbestos ban being implemented almost fifteen years ago. The Australian epidemic of asbestos-related disease has only now reached its peak. A total of 16,679 people were newly diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma between 1982 and 2016, with 84% of cases occurring in men. There has been a stabilisation of the age-standardised malignant mesothelioma incidence rate in the last 10 years. In 2016, the incidence rate per 100,000 was 2.5 using the Australian standard population and 1.3 using the Segi world standard population. Despite Australia's complete asbestos ban being in place since 2003, public health efforts must continue to focus on preventing the devastating effects of avoidable asbestos-related diseases, including

  4. The Challenges for the Multilateral Trading System Raised by the Ongoing Structural Transformations in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, international trade has been growing faster than global production, steadily increasing interdependence among nations. Sustained trade growth has been accompanied by profound changes in the patterns of trade flows, reflecting new production structures emerging under the impact of rapid progress in the development of transport, communications and information technologies, major shifts in the patterns of demand, rapid expansion of global production networks, and increasing integration of developing countries into the world economy. While global trade relations experienced a dramatic transformation during the last decade, the multilateral trading system and the WTO – the venue for international trade cooperation – failed to keep pace with the rapidly changing trade environment. Consequently, the world trade rule-book that is currently guiding international trade relations as a result of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994 and the creation of the WTO (in 1995 is stuck in the requirements of 20st century trade. Improving and adjusting multilateral trade rules and disciplines ranked among the main objectives of the Doha Round launched in 2001. However, trade negotiations have been stalled since 2008. And with this impasse, the legislative function of the WTO responsible for the elaboration of new rules has been also blocked, hindering thus the process of adjustment. This paper addresses the main challenges confrunting the multilateral trading system both in the long and short-term in its endeavour to adjust to the new realities of 21st century trade. More specifically, it takes a look at the key problems arising for international cooperation in trade from: (1 the continually shifting weight of economic power and influence within the world economy; (2 the dynamic spread of global production networks operated by TNCs; and (3 the explosion of regionalism and preferential trade agreements. Finally, the paper highlights the vital

  5. Addressing complex challenges using a co-innovation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, Jessica; Srinivasan, M.S.; Dirks, Sarah; Fielke, Simon; Jongmans, C.T.; Agnew, Natasha; Klerkx, Laurens; Pinxterhuis, Ina; Moore, John; Edwards, Paul; Brazendale, Rob; Botha, Neels; Turner, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Co-innovation can be effective for complex challenges – involving interactions amongst multiple stakeholders, viewpoints, perceptions, practices and interests across programmes, sectors and national systems. Approaches to challenges in the primary sector have tended to be linear, where tools and

  6. The U.S. Forest Service's analysis of cumulative effects to wildlife: A study of legal standards, current practice, and ongoing challenges on a National Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Courtney A.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative effects analysis (CEA) allows natural resource managers to understand the status of resources in historical context, learn from past management actions, and adapt future activities accordingly. U.S. federal agencies are required to complete CEA as part of environmental impact assessment under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Past research on CEA as part of NEPA has identified significant deficiencies in CEA practice, suggested methodologies for handling difficult aspects of CEA, and analyzed the rise in litigation over CEA in U.S. courts. This article provides a review of the literature and legal standards related to CEA as it is done under NEPA and then examines current practice on a U.S. National Forest, utilizing qualitative methods in order to provide a detailed understanding of current approaches to CEA. Research objectives were to understand current practice, investigate ongoing challenges, and identify impediments to improvement. Methods included a systematic review of a set of NEPA documents and semi-structured interviews with practitioners, scientists, and members of the public. Findings indicate that the primary challenges associated with CEA include: issues of both geographic and temporal scale of analysis, confusion over the purpose of the requirement, the lack of monitoring data, and problems coordinating and disseminating data. Improved monitoring strategies and programmatic analyses could support improved CEA practice.

  7. Managing complexity challenges for industrial engineering and operations management

    CERN Document Server

    López-Paredes, Adolfo; Pérez-Ríos, José

    2014-01-01

    This book presents papers by experts in the field of Industrial Engineering, covering topics in business strategy; modelling and simulation in operations research; logistics and production; service systems; innovation and knowledge; and project management. The focus of operations and production management has evolved from product and manufacturing to the capabilities of firms and collaborative management. Nowadays, Industrial Engineering is concerned with the study of how to design, modify, control and improve the performance of complex systems. It has extended its scope to any physical landscape populated by social agents. This raises a major challenge to Industrial Engineering:  managing complexity. This volume shows how experts are dealing with this challenge.

  8. Challenging Stereotypes about Academic Writing: Complexity, Elaboration, Explicitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    The stereotypical view of professional academic writing is that it is grammatically complex, with elaborated structures, and with meaning relations expressed explicitly. In contrast, spoken registers, especially conversation, are believed to have the opposite characteristics. Our goal in the present paper is to challenge these stereotypes, based…

  9. Challenges in the analysis of complex systems: introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Harold M.; Davidsen, Jörn; Leung, Henry

    2017-12-01

    One of the main challenges of modern physics is to provide a systematic understanding of systems far from equilibrium exhibiting emergent behavior. Prominent examples of such complex systems include, but are not limited to the cardiac electrical system, the brain, the power grid, social systems, material failure and earthquakes, and the climate system. Due to the technological advances over the last decade, the amount of observations and data available to characterize complex systems and their dynamics, as well as the capability to process that data, has increased substantially. The present issue discusses a cross section of the current research on complex systems, with a focus on novel experimental and data-driven approaches to complex systems that provide the necessary platform to model the behavior of such systems.

  10. Challenges in data science: a complex systems perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, Meiko; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    The ability to process and manage large data volumes has been proven to be not enough to tackle the current challenges presented by “Big Data”. Deep insight is required for understanding interactions among connected systems, space- and time- dependent heterogeneous data structures. Emergence of global properties from locally interacting data entities and clustering phenomena demand suitable approaches and methodologies recently developed in the foundational area of Data Science by taking a Complex Systems standpoint. Here, we deal with challenges that can be summarized by the question: “What can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ”. Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking “What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?” These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics.

  11. Optic issues in ongoing ERL projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.; Muratori, B.D.; Owen, H.L.; Hoffstaetter, G.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Calaga, R.; Fischer, W.; Chang, X.Y.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; MacKay, W.W.; Montag, C.; Parker, B.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Ruggiero, A.; Satogata, T.; Surrow, B.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhang, S.Y.; Piot, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    A wide range of optics issues for energy recovery linac (ERL)-based projects are illustrated through the presentation of ongoing projects covering both light sources, at Cornell and Daresbury and high energy and nuclear physics accelerators at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This presented range of projects demonstrates how the different designs teams see the challenges of studying and solving optics issues for their particular project's ERLs, with studies appropriate to the stage of maturity of the project. Finally, as an illustration of the complexity and detail behind a single aspect of ERL optics design we present an overview of the highly important generic topic of longitudinal phase space evolution in ERLs

  12. Big data in complex systems challenges and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Azar, Ahmad; Snasael, Vaclav; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Abawajy, Jemal

    2015-01-01

    This volume provides challenges and Opportunities with updated, in-depth material on the application of Big data to complex systems in order to find solutions for the challenges and problems facing big data sets applications. Much data today is not natively in structured format; for example, tweets and blogs are weakly structured pieces of text, while images and video are structured for storage and display, but not for semantic content and search. Therefore transforming such content into a structured format for later analysis is a major challenge. Data analysis, organization, retrieval, and modeling are other  foundational challenges treated in this book. The material of this book will be useful for researchers and practitioners in the field of big data as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate  students. Each of the 17 chapters in the book opens with a chapter abstract and key terms list. The chapters are organized along the lines of problem description, related works, and analysis of the results and ...

  13. Challenges to the development of complex virtual reality surgical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, N E; Røtnes, J S

    2006-11-01

    Virtual reality simulation in surgical training has become more widely used and intensely investigated in an effort to develop safer, more efficient, measurable training processes. The development of virtual reality simulation of surgical procedures has begun, but well-described technical obstacles must be overcome to permit varied training in a clinically realistic computer-generated environment. These challenges include development of realistic surgical interfaces and physical objects within the computer-generated environment, modeling of realistic interactions between objects, rendering of the surgical field, and development of signal processing for complex events associated with surgery. Of these, the realistic modeling of tissue objects that are fully responsive to surgical manipulations is the most challenging. Threats to early success include relatively limited resources for development and procurement, as well as smaller potential for return on investment than in other simulation industries that face similar problems. Despite these difficulties, steady progress continues to be made in these areas. If executed properly, virtual reality offers inherent advantages over other training systems in creating a realistic surgical environment and facilitating measurement of surgeon performance. Once developed, complex new virtual reality training devices must be validated for their usefulness in formative training and assessment of skill to be established.

  14. Primary Care Physicians In Ten Countries Report Challenges Caring For Patients With Complex Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Robin; Moulds, Donald; Schneider, Eric C; Doty, Michelle M; Squires, David; Sarnak, Dana O

    2015-12-01

    Industrialized countries face a daunting challenge in providing high-quality care for aging patients with increasingly complex health care needs who will need ongoing chronic care management, community, and social services in addition to episodic acute care. Our international survey of primary care doctors in the United States and nine other countries reveals their concern about how well prepared their practices are to manage the care of patients with complex needs and about their variable experiences in coordinating care and communicating with specialists, hospitals, home care, and social service providers. While electronic information exchange remains a challenge in most countries, a positive finding was the significant increase in the adoption of electronic health records by primary care doctors in the United States and Canada since 2012. Finally, feedback on job-related stress, perceptions of declining quality of care, and administrative burden signal the need to monitor front-line perspectives as health reforms are conceived and implemented. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysavy, Noel M.; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Turner, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from 200?years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world. In spite of their penetrance of the human biota, these compounds...... such as cancer and diabetes, which are already multifactorial and highly complex, creates the context for the current review paper. Here, we summarize dioxin exposure paradigms and the resulting physiological effects that have been documented in animals and humans. Novel insights into potential endogenous end...... requiring that researchers leverage the power of genomics and epigenetics. However, the continuation of longitudinal epidemiological studies and the development of a firmer basis from which to extrapolate animal studies will be critical in ensuring optimal insight from these resource-intensive techniques...

  16. Oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Slate

    Full Text Available Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV. Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US. Advances in enhanced surveillance have facilitated sampling of greater scope and intensity near ORV zones for improved rabies management decision-making in real time. The value of enhanced surveillance as a complement to public health surveillance was best illustrated in Ohio during 2007, where 19 rabies cases were detected that were critical for the formulation of focused contingency actions for controlling rabies in this strategically key area. Diverse complexities and challenges are commonplace when applying ORV to control rabies in wild meso-carnivores. Nevertheless, intervention has resulted in notable successes, including the elimination of an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus rabies virus variant in most of southern Ontario, Canada, with ancillary benefits of elimination extending into Quebec and the northeastern US. Progress continues with ORV toward preventing the spread and working toward elimination of a unique variant of gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus rabies in west central Texas. Elimination of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans through ORV contributed to the US being declared free of canine rabies in 2007. Raccoon (Procyon lotor rabies control continues to present the greatest challenges among meso-carnivore rabies reservoirs, yet to date intervention has prevented this variant from gaining a broad geographic foothold beyond ORV zones designed to prevent its spread from the eastern US

  17. Teaching Architecture - Contemporary Challenges and Threats in the Complexity of Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucka, Justyna; Macikowski, Bartosz

    2017-10-01

    The complexity of the modern built environment is a problem not only of architectural and urban issues. This issue extends to many other disciplines as well as covering a wide range of social engagements. The idea of writing this paper is generally initiated by the debate which took place in Gdańsk on 22.01.2016, and was prepared in order to meet representatives of the four circles of interest within the architectural sphere: universities, professional architectural organisations and associations, architectural practice (professionals running their own studios, managing projects and leading construction) and local social organisations active in city of Gdańsk. This paper is a comparison of the results of this discussion in relation to the policy and methodology of architecture teaching on the University level. Teaching architecture and urban planning according to the present discussion needs to be improved and advanced to meet the increasing complexity of both disciplines. Contemporary dynamic development of cities creates the necessity of engaging multiple stakeholders, participants and users of architecture and urban space. This is crucial to make them conscious of sharing responsibility for increasing the quality of living in the built environment. This discussion about architectural education is open and has the nature of an ongoing process adapting to a changing environment and is in fact a constant challenge which brings questions rather than simple answers. Transformation of architecture and urban planning, and consequently its education are increasingly entering into the related fields, especially into the professional practice and social environment. The question of how to teach architecture and urban planning and educate users of urban space should take place in the context of a wide discussion. This interdisciplinary debate seems to be a crucial and challenging step towards improving the future education of architecture and urban planning leading to a

  18. De-Conflicting Canada’s Anti-Terrorism Legislation: Khawaja and the Ongoing Challenges of the ‘Armed Conflict’ Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K. Penny

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The definition of ‘terrorist activity’ is fundamental to Canada’s anti-terrorism legislation. Following the recent trial of Momin Khawaja before the Ontario Superior Court of Justice, it is clear that the ‘armed conflict’ exclusion – exempting wartime activities undertaken in accordance with international law – poses serious challenges to the coherence of this legislative regime, threatening the effectiveness of future domestic terrorism prosecutions. This article examines the ‘armed conflict’ exclusion and its judicial treatment in Khawaja, identifying key challenges and making specific recommendations to address them. Coupled with other issues arising from the ‘armed conflict’ exclusion, Khawaja serves to highlight a clear and pressing need for amendment of the statutory definition of ‘terrorist activity.’ La définition d’ « activité terroriste » est un élément fondamental de la législation canadienne contre le terrorisme. Suite au récent procès de Momin Khawaja devant la Cour supérieure de justice de l’Ontario, il est clair que l’exclusion « conflit armé » - qui fait exemption d’activités en temps de guerre entreprises conformément au droit international – présente des défis importants à la cohérence de ce régime législatif, menaçant l’efficacité de poursuites contre le terrorisme au Canada à l’avenir. Cet article examine l’exclusion « conflit armé » et le traitement juridique que l’on en fait dans Khawaja, identifiant des défis-clés et faisant des recommandations précises pour en traiter. En conjonction avec d’autres questions que soulève l’exclusion « conflit armé », Khawaja sert à mettre en évidence un besoin clair et pressant de modification à la définition statutaire d’ « activité terroriste ».

  19. Australia’s Ongoing Legacy of Asbestos: Significant Challenges Remain Even after the Complete Banning of Asbestos Almost Fifteen Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeberg, Matthew; Vallance, Deborah A.; Keena, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    The most effective way of reducing the global burden of asbestos-related diseases is through the implementation of asbestos bans and minimising occupational and non-occupational exposure to respirable asbestos fibres. Australia’s asbestos consumption peaked in the 1970s with Australia widely thought to have had among the highest per-capita asbestos consumption level of any country. Australia’s discontinuation of all forms of asbestos and asbestos-containing products and materials did not occur at a single point of time. Crocidolite consumption ceased in the late 1960s, followed by amosite consumption stopping in the mid 1980s. Despite significant government reports being published in 1990 and 1999, it was not until the end of 2003 that a complete ban on all forms of asbestos (crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile) was introduced in Australia. The sustained efforts of trade unions and non-governmental organisations were essential in forcing the Australian government to finally implement the 2003 asbestos ban. Trade unions and non-government organisations continue to play a key role today in monitoring the government’s response to Australian asbestos-related disease epidemic. There are significant challenges that remain in Australia, despite a complete asbestos ban being implemented almost fifteen years ago. The Australian epidemic of asbestos-related disease has only now reached its peak. A total of 16,679 people were newly diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma between 1982 and 2016, with 84% of cases occurring in men. There has been a stabilisation of the age-standardised malignant mesothelioma incidence rate in the last 10 years. In 2016, the incidence rate per 100,000 was 2.5 using the Australian standard population and 1.3 using the Segi world standard population. Despite Australia’s complete asbestos ban being in place since 2003, public health efforts must continue to focus on preventing the devastating effects of avoidable asbestos-related diseases

  20. Inclusive Education as Complex Process and Challenge for School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khamisy Danuta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Education may be considered as a number of processes, actions and effects affecting human being, as the state or level of the results of these processes or as the modification of the functions, institutions and social practices roles, which in the result of inclusion become new, integrated system. Thus this is very complex process. Nowadays the complexity appears to be one of very significant terms both in science and in philosophy. It appears that despite searching for simple rules, strategies, solutions everything is still more complex. The environment is complex, the organism living in it and exploring it, and just the exploration itself is a complex phenomenon, much more than this could initially seem to be.

  1. "Smartening Up": Ongoing Challenges for Australia's Outback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradduck, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    As the international community moves inexorably towards a "smart" future, the position of Australia's non-urban areas in that future is less certain. The (re-elected) Australian federal government made a commitment to moving Australian cities forward as part of the international "smart city" movement. However, the effectiveness…

  2. Advances in dynamics, patterns, cognition challenges in complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Pikovsky, Arkady; Rulkov, Nikolai; Tsimring, Lev

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on recent progress in complexity research based on the fundamental nonlinear dynamical and statistical theory of oscillations, waves, chaos, and structures far from equilibrium. Celebrating seminal contributions to the field by Prof. M. I. Rabinovich of the University of California at San Diego, this volume brings together perspectives on both the fundamental aspects of complexity studies, as well as in applications in different fields ranging from granular patterns to understanding of the cognitive brain and mind dynamics. The slate of world-class authors review recent achievements that together present a broad and coherent coverage of modern research in complexity greater than the sum of its parts. Presents the most up-to-date developments in the studies of complexity Combines basic and applied aspects Links background nonlinear theory of oscillations and waves with modern approaches Allows readers to recognize general dynamical principles across the applications fields.

  3. Inclusive Education as Complex Process and Challenge for School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khamisy, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Education may be considered as a number of processes, actions and effects affecting human being, as the state or level of the results of these processes or as the modification of the functions, institutions and social practices roles, which in the result of inclusion become new, integrated system. Thus this is very complex process. Nowadays the…

  4. Colorectal cancer: complexities and challenges in managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Neil B

    2007-08-01

    Managed care weighs advances and associated costs to determine whether the combination of longer life at sometimes significantly increased cost represents value. The price of treatment is only 1 factor. To review treatment decision processes for oncologic agents in managed care environments. Price can be exceptionally high for individuals. But if the population size is low, the per-member-per-month (PMPM) impact can be almost negligible, unlike treatments that have moderate costs but are used ubiquitously. Cancer therapies have, for the most part, escaped managed care's notice. For 2007, the national Cancer Institute projects that antineoplastic agents will consume almost a quarter of the overall drug spend. The Medicare population is a unique concern with regard to cancer. Traditionally, Medicare reimbursement of chemotherapeutic agents was based on average wholesale price (AWP) discounting, not the oncologist's purchasing cost. This allowed oncologists to use reimbursement for infusions to support their medical practices. The proposed plan of the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to use average sales price (ASP) plus 6% to reimburse for drugs used in the office setting leads to significant problems. Pharmacy and therapeutics committees will also face challenges: fewer data are available for some agents because they have become available through the U.S. Food and drug administration's Fast Track, Priority review, or accelerated approval processes. Oncology disease management programs must reach out to patients and not necessarily deal with oncology issues directly, but address tangential issues that impact care, especially depression and pain management.

  5. Capturing Collaborative Challenges: Designing Complexity-Sensitive Theories of Change for Cross-Sector Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob); Keen, N. (Nienke)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractSystems change requires complex interventions. Cross-sector partnerships (CSPs) face the daunting task of addressing complex societal problems by aligning different backgrounds, values, ideas and resources. A major challenge for CSPs is how to link the type of partnership to the

  6. The electronic structure of organo-f-element complexes: A computational challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursten, B.E.; Pepper, M.J.M.; Schneider, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last seven years, the authors have investigated the electronic structure of organoactinide complexes by using a variety of electronic structure methods. The authors early studies employed the Xα-SW molecular orbital method exclusively; the large size of the system and the need to accommodate relativistic effects necessitated the use of this rather severely approximate method. The conclusions concerning the structure and bonding of organoactinide complexes from these studies will be presented. The concurrent growth in access to supercomputers as these studies were ongoing has allowed the authors to use more rigorous methodology. Recent results that use the more-rigorous DV-Xα method will be presented and compared to the Xα-SW results. In addition, their recent applications of ab initio MCSCF and CI methods to actinide molecules will be discussed

  7. Failing To Marvel: The Nuances, Complexities, and Challenges of Multicultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes de Carvalho, Paulo M.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the complex nature of multicultural education, which as it advocates recognition of the values of many cultures, is nevertheless grounded in a Western culture and subject to Western deconstruction. Considers the challenge of the multicultural educator to recognize his or her own voice as representative of the dominant culture. (SLD)

  8. Reductionist and integrative research approaches to complex water security policy challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, Mark; Lankford, Bruce; Krueger, Tobias; Forsyth, Tim; Carter, Richard; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Taylor, Richard; Varis, Olli; Cleaver, Frances; Boelens, Rutgerd; Swatuk, Larry; Tickner, David; Scott, Christopher A.; Mirumachi, Naho; Matthews, Nathanial

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews and contrasts two approaches that water security researchers employ to advance understanding of the complexity of water-society policy challenges. A prevailing reductionist approach seeks to represent uncertainty through calculable risk, links national GDP tightly to

  9. Causal inferences on the effectiveness of complex social programs: Navigating assumptions, sources of complexity and evaluation design challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores avenues for navigating evaluation design challenges posed by complex social programs (CSPs) and their environments when conducting studies that call for generalizable, causal inferences on the intervention's effectiveness. A definition is provided of a CSP drawing on examples from different fields, and an evaluation case is analyzed in depth to derive seven (7) major sources of complexity that typify CSPs, threatening assumptions of textbook-recommended experimental designs for performing impact evaluations. Theoretically-supported, alternative methodological strategies are discussed to navigate assumptions and counter the design challenges posed by the complex configurations and ecology of CSPs. Specific recommendations include: sequential refinement of the evaluation design through systems thinking, systems-informed logic modeling; and use of extended term, mixed methods (ETMM) approaches with exploratory and confirmatory phases of the evaluation. In the proposed approach, logic models are refined through direct induction and interactions with stakeholders. To better guide assumption evaluation, question-framing, and selection of appropriate methodological strategies, a multiphase evaluation design is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [The challenge of clinical complexity in the 21st century: Could frailty indexes be the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblàs-Novellas, Jordi; Espaulella-Panicot, Joan; Inzitari, Marco; Rexach, Lourdes; Fontecha, Benito; Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    The number of older people with complex clinical conditions and complex care needs continues to increase in the population. This is presenting many challenges to healthcare professionals and healthcare systems. In the face of these challenges, approaches are required that are practical and feasible. The frailty paradigm may be an excellent opportunity to review and establish some of the principles of comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in specialties outside Geriatric Medicine. The assessment of frailty using Frailty Indexes provides an aid to the 'situational diagnosis' of complex clinical situations, and may help in tackling uncertainty in a person-centred approach. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Challenges and potential solutions to educating learners about pediatric complex care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogetz, Jori F; Bogetz, Alyssa L; Bergman, David; Turner, Teri; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Ballantine, Allison

    2014-01-01

    To identify existing challenges and potential strategies for providing complex care training to future pediatricians from a national group of educators. Data were collected from pediatric educators involved in complex care at the Pediatric Educational Excellence Across the Continuum national meeting. Participants completed an anonymous 15-item survey adapted from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Best Practices for Better Care initiative and participated in a focus group to understand the challenges and potential solutions to pediatric complex care education. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Of the 15 participants, 9 (60%) were in educational leadership positions. All participants provided care to children with medical complexity (CMC), although 80% (n = 12) reported no formal training. Thematic analysis revealed learners' challenges in 2 domains: 1) a lack of ownership for the patient because of decreased continuity, decision-making authority, and autonomy, as a result of the multitude of care providers and parents' distrust; and 2) a sense of being overwhelmed as a result of lack of preparedness and disruptions in work flow. Participants suggested 3 mitigating strategies: being candid about the difficulties of complex care, discussing the social mandate to care for CMC, and cultivating humility among learners. Residency education must prepare pediatricians to care for all children, regardless of disease. Training in complex care involves redefining the physician's role so that they are better equipped to participate in collaboration, empathy and advocacy with CMC. This study is the first to identify specific challenges and offer potential solutions to help establish training guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecosystem services provided by a complex coastal region: challenges of classification and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lisa P; Sousa, Ana I; Alves, Fátima L; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-03-11

    A variety of ecosystem services classification systems and mapping approaches are available in the scientific and technical literature, which needs to be selected and adapted when applied to complex territories (e.g. in the interface between water and land, estuary and sea). This paper provides a framework for addressing ecosystem services in complex coastal regions. The roadmap comprises the definition of the exact geographic boundaries of the study area; the use of CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services) for ecosystem services identification and classification; and the definition of qualitative indicators that will serve as basis to map the ecosystem services. Due to its complexity, the Ria de Aveiro coastal region was selected as case study, presenting an opportunity to explore the application of such approaches at a regional scale. The main challenges of implementing the proposed roadmap, together with its advantages are discussed in this research. The results highlight the importance of considering both the connectivity of natural systems and the complexity of the governance framework; the flexibility and robustness, but also the challenges when applying CICES at regional scale; and the challenges regarding ecosystem services mapping.

  13. Terminology, criteria, and definitions in complex regional pain syndrome: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutton K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Dutton,1 Geoffrey Littlejohn21Department of Rheumatology, Townsville Hospital, Douglas, QLD, Australia; 2Department of Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Complex regional pain syndrome has long been recognized as a severe and high impact chronic pain disorder. However, the condition has historically been difficult to define and classify and little attention has been given to where complex regional pain syndrome sits within other apparently similar chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia and regional pain syndrome. In this review challenges in regard to nomenclature, definitions, and classification of complex regional pain syndrome are reviewed and suggestions are provided about future directions.Keywords: complex regional pain syndromes, fibromyalgia, causalgia, classification

  14. The work of language interpretation in health care: complex, challenging, exhausting, and often invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Liz; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Estrada, Robin Dawson

    2011-04-01

    The value of qualified language interpretation services for limited-English-proficient patients is gaining increasing recognition by policy makers and researchers in the United States. Yet the actual work experiences of health care interpreters have not been adequately studied. The purpose of this qualitative research was to explore the work experiences of formal and informal interpreters (n = 27). The core narrative finding from the interview data was the complex, challenging, exhausting, and often invisible work of language interpretation. Critical examination of health care interpreters' complex work and interactions with patients, providers, and administrators is needed to provide more effective and integrated services for limited-English proficient patients.

  15. Cultural complexity, post-colonialism and educational change: Challenges for comparative educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This study explores various elements in the struggle for a post-colonial refashioning of cultural identity through education. Drawing on experiences in Australia and the Caribbean, the author illustrates how educational systems undergoing decolonisation reflect socio-cultural tensions of race and power. The author discusses the complexities for comparative educators in engaging with suppressed knowledge, recognising the yearnings of the marginalised, challenging the conditions that lead to poverty, and refashioning education for social justice in an era when the achievement of justice seems increasingly difficult. She argues that comparative educators can benefit from using post-colonial thinking to understand cultural complexity and promote lifeaffirming practices in educational change.

  16. The deployed medical director: managing the challenges of a complex trauma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, P F; Hodgetts, T J; Hicks, I

    2011-09-01

    Contemporary combat casualty care has never been more sophisticated or effective, which is matched by an unprecedented level of clinical complexity. The management of this complexity has demanded the evolution of a more direct clinical leadership model in the field hospital: the Deployed Medical Director (DMD). The DMD has a central co-ordinating role in reducing the friction generated by individuals' unfamiliarity in a rapidly developing clinical environment that has diverged from the NHS; in cementing interoperability within a multinational medical treatment facility working at high intensity; and in maintaining and developing the highest clinical standards within the deployed trauma system. This article describes the evolution of the DMD role and illustrates the challenges through a series of vignettes. Particular emphasis is given to the organisational risk that the role carries through necessary ethical choices, the requirement to integrate multi-national cultural differences and the challenge of dealing with interpersonal frictions amongst senior staff.

  17. Anticoccidial activity of herbal complex in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Muhammad A; Iqbal, Zafar; Abbas, Rao Z; Khan, Muhammad N

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of different concentrations of the herbal complex of 4 plants (leaves of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum, flowers of Calotropis procera and seeds of Trachyspermum ammi) in broiler chickens in comparison with amprolium anticoccidial. Three concentrations (2 g, 4 g and 6 g) of herbal complex were given to the experimental groups once a day and amprolium (at the dose rate of 125 ppm) was given orally in drinking water from the 14th to the 21st days of age. One group was kept as infected, non-medicated control and one as non-infected, non-medicated control. All groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts on the 14th day of age except the non-infected, non-medicated control. Among herbal complex medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 6 g herbal complex followed by 4 g and 2 g herbal complex medicated groups. Treatment with 6 g of the herbal complex significantly reduced the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with Eimeria tenella challenge at a level that was comparable with amprolium when using a largely susceptible recent field isolate. In summary, concentration-dependent anticoccidial activity of the studied herbal complex suggests its use as an alternative anticoccidial agent to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control.

  18. Complex Challenges, Comprehensive Responses - Linking Security and Development : 11th International Summer School 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmann, Kathrin; Hauck, Hans Bastian

    2007-01-01

    "The link between international security and development constitutes a nexus that is only beginning to be understood and addressed by the international community and by regional security and development actors. During the International Summer School, participants and renowned speakers examine the complexity of contemporary development and security challenges, such as transnational warfare, terrorism, poor governance and state failure, migration and resource conflicts, as well as the transform...

  19. The animal sensorimotor organization: a challenge for the environmental complexity thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzer, Fred; Arnellos, Argyris

    2017-01-01

    Godfrey-Smith's environmental complexity thesis (ECT) is most often applied to multicellular animals and the complexity of their macroscopic environments to explain how cognition evolved. We think that the ECT may be less suited to explain the origins of the animal bodily organization, including this organization's potentiality for dealing with complex macroscopic environments. We argue that acquiring the fundamental sensorimotor features of the animal body may be better explained as a consequence of dealing with internal bodily-rather than environmental complexity. To press and elucidate this option, we develop the notion of an animal sensorimotor organization (ASMO) that derives from an internal coordination account for the evolution of early nervous systems. The ASMO notion is a reply to the question how a collection of single cells can become integrated such that the resulting multicellular organization becomes sensitive to and can manipulate macroscopic features of both the animal body and its environment. In this account, epithelial contractile tissues play the central role in the organization behind complex animal bodies. In this paper, we relate the ASMO concept to recent work on epithelia, which provides empirical evidence that supports central assumptions behind the ASMO notion. Second, we discuss to what extent the notion applies to basic animal architectures, exemplified by sponges and jellyfish. We conclude that the features exhibited by the ASMO are plausibly explained by internal constraints acting on and within this multicellular organization, providing a challenge for the role the ECT plays in this context.

  20. CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN OIL AND GAS COMPLEX ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Borodin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze the current state of the oil and gas complex of Ukraine, upon which to identify the challenges and to justify the development prospects of the effective activities of complex entities. Comprehensive introduction of the advanced mechanisms for the development of oil and gas complex entities’ development will contribute to the economic growth of other industries and the Ukrainian economy as a whole, as well as decrease in the energy dependence and security of the state interests. Methods. The following methods were used in research: systematic, economic and mathematical, balancing, judgment-based and abstract-logical. In addition, methods of statistical analysis, analytical spread sheet tabulation method, and method of scientific hypothesis modelling for studied processes. Results. The effectiveness of introduction of the proposed perspective trends of the entities of Ukrainian oil and gas complex is estimated. It is proved that their comprehensive implementation will improve the competitiveness of their operations, and energy independence of Ukraine. The necessity of introduction of the innovative technologies and new approaches to solution of the management problems at oil and gas complex entities is proved. Implementation of prospective mechanisms for the development of effective activity of oil and gas entities shall be based on economic competition between the entities with simultaneous implementation of the measures of state support for the promising modernization technologies reflecting the public interest to the energy security improvement. Practical significance. A study of the current state of oil and gas complex of Ukraine and challenges of development of the complex entities contributes to the identification of areas for balancing and substantiation of the development prospects of the oil and gas sector of economy in order to ensure its energy security, taking into account the strategic orientations

  1. Exploring themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chains – A complexity theory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Maisam

    identify, classify, and tackle the challenges that can hinder the execution of such strategies. To develop innovative strategies, the patterns of current trends and themes need to be learned and the missing ones need to be identified. The purpose of this research was to explore themes and challenges......To develop sustainable supply chains in a way that their negative environmental and social effects are minimized, shortand long-term targets should be set. The transformation of supply chains towards these targets calls for the development of innovative strategies and the need to continuously...... freight transport (RS3), one, urban freight distribution (RS4), and one, logistical services (RS5) in particular. RS6 explored a complexity theory perspective (CTP) on managing, governing, and developing sustainable supply chains activities. A CTP was chosen because of its applicability and ability...

  2. Large system change challenges: addressing complex critical issues in linked physical and social domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Steve; Cornell, Sarah; Hsueh, Joe; Ozer, Ceren; McLachlan, Milla; Birney, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Most action to address contemporary complex challenges, including the urgent issues of global sustainability, occurs piecemeal and without meaningful guidance from leading complex change knowledge and methods. The potential benefit of using such knowledge is greater efficacy of effort and investment. However, this knowledge and its associated tools and methods are under-utilized because understanding about them is low, fragmented between diverse knowledge traditions, and often requires shifts in mindsets and skills from expert-led to participant-based action. We have been engaged in diverse action-oriented research efforts in Large System Change for sustainability. For us, "large" systems can be characterized as large-scale systems - up to global - with many components, of many kinds (physical, biological, institutional, cultural/conceptual), operating at multiple levels, driven by multiple forces, and presenting major challenges for people involved. We see change of such systems as complex challenges, in contrast with simple or complicated problems, or chaotic situations. In other words, issues and sub-systems have unclear boundaries, interact with each other, and are often contradictory; dynamics are non-linear; issues are not "controllable", and "solutions" are "emergent" and often paradoxical. Since choices are opportunity-, power- and value-driven, these social, institutional and cultural factors need to be made explicit in any actionable theory of change. Our emerging network is sharing and building a knowledge base of experience, heuristics, and theories of change from multiple disciplines and practice domains. We will present our views on focal issues for the development of the field of large system change, which include processes of goal-setting and alignment; leverage of systemic transitions and transformation; and the role of choice in influencing critical change processes, when only some sub-systems or levels of the system behave in purposeful ways

  3. Medicines counterfeiting is a complex problem: a review of key challenges across the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The paper begins by asking why there is a market for counterfeit medicines, which in effect creates the problem of counterfeiting itself. Contributing factors include supply chain complexity and the lack of whole-systems thinking. These two underpin the author's view that counterfeiting is a complex (i.e. wicked) problem, and that corporate, public policy and regulatory actions need to be mindful of how their actions may be causal. The paper offers a problem-based review of key components of this complexity, viz., the knowledge end-users/consumers have of medicines; whether restrictive information policies may hamper information provision to patients; the internet's direct access to consumers; internet-enabled distribution of unsafe and counterfeit medicines; whether the internet is a parallel and competitive supply chain to legitimate routes; organised crime as an emerging medicines manufacturer and supplier and whether substandard medicines is really the bigger problem. Solutions respect the perceived complexity of the supply chain challenges. The paper identifies the need to avoid technologically-driven solutions, calling for 'technological agnosticism'. Both regulation and public policy need to reflect the dynamic nature of the problem and avoid creating perverse incentives; it may be, for instance, that medicines pricing and reimbursement policies, which affect consumer/patient access may act as market signals to counterfeiters, since this creates a cash market in cheaper drugs.

  4. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance: Coping with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value disagreements, or to make apparent the regulatory complexity, clouds the issue of how to move forward with governance of bioenergy. We suggest that governance should be shaped with greater focus on the role of value disagreements and regulatory complexity. There is a need for more openness and transparency about such factors, and about the inherent trade-offs in bioenergy governance. - Highlights: • Ethical and legal challenges in governance of liquid biofuels and wood pellets. • EU sustainability criteria legal and ethical analysis—EU bioenergy policy options. • Analysis of interplay between carbon and non-carbon concerns and regulatory options. • Governance must cope with value disagreement and regulatory complexity

  5. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural

  6. The Grand Challenges of Organ Banking: Proceedings from the first global summit on complex tissue cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jedediah K; Bischof, John C; Braslavsky, Ido; Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Fahy, Gregory M; Fuller, Barry J; Rabin, Yoed; Tocchio, Alessandro; Woods, Erik J; Wowk, Brian G; Acker, Jason P; Giwa, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The first Organ Banking Summit was convened from Feb. 27 - March 1, 2015 in Palo Alto, CA, with events at Stanford University, NASA Research Park, and Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. Experts at the summit outlined the potential public health impact of organ banking, discussed the major remaining scientific challenges that need to be overcome in order to bank organs, and identified key opportunities to accelerate progress toward this goal. Many areas of public health could be revolutionized by the banking of organs and other complex tissues, including transplantation, oncofertility, tissue engineering, trauma medicine and emergency preparedness, basic biomedical research and drug discovery - and even space travel. Key remaining scientific sub-challenges were discussed including ice nucleation and growth, cryoprotectant and osmotic toxicities, chilling injury, thermo-mechanical stress, the need for rapid and uniform rewarming, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. A variety of opportunities to overcome these challenge areas were discussed, i.e. preconditioning for enhanced stress tolerance, nanoparticle rewarming, cyroprotectant screening strategies, and the use of cryoprotectant cocktails including ice binding agents. Copyright © 2015.

  7. Challenges Facing the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta: Complex, Chaotic, or Simply Cantankerous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Luoma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss3art7Freshwater is a scarce and precious resource in California; its overall value is being made clear by the current severe drought. The Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta is a critical node in a complex water supply system that extends throughout much of the western U.S. wherein demand is exceeding supply. The Delta also underpins a major component of the U.S. economy, helps feed a substantial part of the country, is a unique and valuable ecological resource, and is a place with a rich cultural heritage. Sustaining the Delta is a problem that manifests itself in many dimensions including the physical structure of the Delta, the conflicting demands for water, changing water quality, rapidly evolving ecological character, and high institutional complexity. The problems of the California Delta are increasingly complex, sometimes chaotic, and always contentious. There is general agreement that current management will sustain neither the Delta ecosystem nor high-quality water exports, as required under the Delta Reform Act, so there is a renewed urgency to address all dimensions of the problem aggressively. Sustainable management of the Delta ecosystem and California’s highly variable water supply, in the face of global climate change, will require bold political decisions that include adjustments to the infrastructure but give equal emphasis to chronic overuse and misuse of water, promote enhanced efficiency of water use, and facilitate new initiatives for ecosystem recovery. This new approach will need to be underpinned by collaborative science that supports ongoing evaluation and re-adjustment of actions. Problems like the Delta are formally “wicked" problems that cannot be “solved” in the traditional sense, but they can be managed with appropriate knowledge and flexible institutions. Where possible, it is advisable to approach major actions incrementally, with an eye toward avoiding

  8. Hospital discharge of frail, elderly patients with complex care needs: a problem or a challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Silingardi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increase in patients with chronic disease that require on-going care is creating difficulties for the public health system, which have prompted recent attempts to remodel the system with a generalized reduction in the number of hospital beds and the implementation of services designed to promote home health care. Intermediate care is an opportunity to support timely discharge from acute-care facilities and promote functional recovery, but its efficacy requires a strong, complete and comprehensive assessment to ensure appropriate admission. Materials and methods: The Care Continuity Service of Rimini is a multiprofessional team that supplies support and counselling for acute hospital wards and training for nursing and medical professionals to develop their assessment skills. Results: A questionnaire filled out by the staff of acute-care internal medicine wards in the Greater Romagna Area has revealed ambiguities in the use of terms like ‘‘social’’ and ‘‘complex care needs.’’ It also documents difficulties in the early identification of patients likely to experience problems if they are discharged from the hospital directly to their homes. Discussion: To ensure prompt identification of these patients, we must identify/develop a screening instrument or clinical-functional method that can be used in acute-care hospital wards to plan discharges. The aims of intermediate care are to reduce hospital stays and improve continuity of care, but specific know-how and expertise are needed if these goals are to be met. Specific staff training programs and a patient-centred model are essential to ensure an acceptable cost-benefit ratio.

  9. Ongoing Projects on Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vaz de Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This number of the EAI Transactions on Serious Games is dedicated to a set of ongoing research and development projects in this area. The selected articles represent very well the diversity of approaches, contexts and objectives that foster and render highly dynamic this area of study. In Europe, several funding programmes like the 7th Framework Programme, the Lifelong Learning Programme and the most recent Horizon 2020 made specific provisions to support Serious Games projects. At the same time, enterprises are recognizing more and more the potential of SG to train and to motivate their workforce and are therefore joining forces with the academy and SG producers to design specific SG. Serious Games became one of the most interesting “places to be” due to its growing scientific and practitioner community. We can say that the motivating and addictive character of games has been successfully transmitted to the research and development of Serious Games.

  10. Complexities of emergency communication: clinicians' perceptions of communication challenges in a trilingual emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Jack Kh; Chan, Engle Angela; Murray, Kristen A; Slade, Diana; Matthiessen, Christian Mim

    2017-11-01

    To understand the challenges that clinicians face in communicating with patients and other clinicians within a Hong Kong trilingual emergency department. Effective communication has long been recognised as fundamental to the delivery of quality health care, especially in high-risk and time-constrained environments such as emergency departments. The issue of effective communication is particularly relevant in Hong Kong emergency departments, due to the high volume of patients and the linguistic complexity of this healthcare context. In Hong Kong, emergency department clinicians are native speakers of Chinese, but have received their medical training in English. The clinicians read and record virtually all of their medical documentation in English, yet they communicate verbally with patients in Cantonese and Mandarin. In addition, communication between clinicians occurs in spoken Cantonese, mixed with medical English. Thus, medical information is translated numerous times within one patient journey. This complex linguistic environment creates the potential for miscommunication. A mixed-methods design consisting of a quantitative survey with a sequential qualitative interview. Data were collected in a survey from a purposive sample of 58 clinicians and analysed through descriptive statistics. Eighteen of the clinicians were then invited to take part in semi-structured interviews, the data from which were then subjected to a manifest content analysis. Nearly half of the clinicians surveyed believed that medical information may be omitted or altered through repeated translation in a trilingual emergency department. Eighty-three per cent of clinicians stated that there are communication problems at triage. Over 40% said that they have difficulties in documenting medical information. Around 50% believed that long work hours reduced their ability to communicate effectively with patients. In addition, 34% admitted that they rarely or never listen to patients during a

  11. Considerations in starting a patient with advanced frailty on dialysis: complex biology meets challenging ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidler, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Nephrologists have focused on the uremic syndrome as an indication for dialysis. The elderly frail renal patient approaching ESRD represents a complex biologic system that is already failing. This patient phenotype exhibits progressive geriatric disabilities and dependence interspersed with shrinking periods of stability regardless of whether dialysis is started. Consequently, the frail renal patient faces challenging treatment choices underpinned by ethical tensions. Identifying the advanced frail renal patient and optimizing the shared decision-making process will enable him or her to make well informed choices based on an understanding of his or her overall condition and personal values and preferences. This approach will also permit nephrologists to fulfill their ethical obligations to respect patient autonomy, promote patient benefit, and minimize patient harm.

  12. Computational Cellular Dynamics Based on the Chemical Master Equation: A Challenge for Understanding Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Qian, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Modern molecular biology has always been a great source of inspiration for computational science. Half a century ago, the challenge from understanding macromolecular dynamics has led the way for computations to be part of the tool set to study molecular biology. Twenty-five years ago, the demand from genome science has inspired an entire generation of computer scientists with an interest in discrete mathematics to join the field that is now called bioinformatics. In this paper, we shall lay out a new mathematical theory for dynamics of biochemical reaction systems in a small volume (i.e., mesoscopic) in terms of a stochastic, discrete-state continuous-time formulation, called the chemical master equation (CME). Similar to the wavefunction in quantum mechanics, the dynamically changing probability landscape associated with the state space provides a fundamental characterization of the biochemical reaction system. The stochastic trajectories of the dynamics are best known through the simulations using the Gillespie algorithm. In contrast to the Metropolis algorithm, this Monte Carlo sampling technique does not follow a process with detailed balance. We shall show several examples how CMEs are used to model cellular biochemical systems. We shall also illustrate the computational challenges involved: multiscale phenomena, the interplay between stochasticity and nonlinearity, and how macroscopic determinism arises from mesoscopic dynamics. We point out recent advances in computing solutions to the CME, including exact solution of the steady state landscape and stochastic differential equations that offer alternatives to the Gilespie algorithm. We argue that the CME is an ideal system from which one can learn to understand “complex behavior” and complexity theory, and from which important biological insight can be gained. PMID:24999297

  13. Verification and Validation Challenges for Adaptive Flight Control of Complex Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2018-01-01

    Autonomy of aerospace systems requires the ability for flight control systems to be able to adapt to complex uncertain dynamic environment. In spite of the five decades of research in adaptive control, the fact still remains that currently no adaptive control system has ever been deployed on any safety-critical or human-rated production systems such as passenger transport aircraft. The problem lies in the difficulty with the certification of adaptive control systems since existing certification methods cannot readily be used for nonlinear adaptive control systems. Research to address the notion of metrics for adaptive control began to appear in the recent years. These metrics, if accepted, could pave a path towards certification that would potentially lead to the adoption of adaptive control as a future control technology for safety-critical and human-rated production systems. Development of certifiable adaptive control systems represents a major challenge to overcome. Adaptive control systems with learning algorithms will never become part of the future unless it can be proven that they are highly safe and reliable. Rigorous methods for adaptive control software verification and validation must therefore be developed to ensure that adaptive control system software failures will not occur, to verify that the adaptive control system functions as required, to eliminate unintended functionality, and to demonstrate that certification requirements imposed by regulatory bodies such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) can be satisfied. This presentation will discuss some of the technical issues with adaptive flight control and related V&V challenges.

  14. Is there a temperature? conceptual challenges at high energy, acceleration and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor Biró, Tamás

    2011-01-01

    Physical bodies can be hot or cold, moving or standing,simple or complex. In all such cases one assumes that their respective temperature is a well defined attribute.  What if, however, the ordinary measurement of temperature by direct body contact is not possible?  One conjectures its value, and yes, its very existence, by reasoning based on basic principles of thermodynamics. Is There a Temperature?  Conceptual Challenges at High Energy, Acceleration and Complexity, by Dr. Tamás Sándor Bíró, begins by asking the questions “Do we understand and can we explain in a unified framework the temperature of distant radiation sources, including event horizons, and that of the quark matter produced in high energy accelerator experiments? Or the astounding fluctuations on financial markets?” The book reviews the concept of temperature from its beginnings through the evolution of classical thermodynamics and atomic statistical physics through contemporary models of high energy particle matter.  Based on the...

  15. The Rise of Complexity in Flood Forecasting: Opportunities, Challenges and Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A. W.; Clark, M. P.; Nijssen, B.

    2017-12-01

    Operational flood forecasting is currently undergoing a major transformation. Most national flood forecasting services have relied for decades on lumped, highly calibrated conceptual hydrological models running on local office computing resources, providing deterministic streamflow predictions at gauged river locations that are important to stakeholders and emergency managers. A variety of recent technological advances now make it possible to run complex, high-to-hyper-resolution models for operational hydrologic prediction over large domains, and the US National Weather Service is now attempting to use hyper-resolution models to create new forecast services and products. Yet other `increased-complexity' forecasting strategies also exist that pursue different tradeoffs between model complexity (i.e., spatial resolution, physics) and streamflow forecast system objectives. There is currently a pressing need for a greater understanding in the hydrology community of the opportunities, challenges and tradeoffs associated with these different forecasting approaches, and for a greater participation by the hydrology community in evaluating, guiding and implementing these approaches. Intermediate-resolution forecast systems, for instance, use distributed land surface model (LSM) physics but retain the agility to deploy ensemble methods (including hydrologic data assimilation and hindcast-based post-processing). Fully coupled numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems, another example, use still coarser LSMs to produce ensemble streamflow predictions either at the model scale or after sub-grid scale runoff routing. Based on the direct experience of the authors and colleagues in research and operational forecasting, this presentation describes examples of different streamflow forecast paradigms, from the traditional to the recent hyper-resolution, to illustrate the range of choices facing forecast system developers. We also discuss the degree to which the strengths and

  16. Multisectoral Actions for Health: Challenges and Opportunities in Complex Policy Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Tangcharoensathien

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multisectoral actions for health, defined as actions undertaken by non-health sectors to protect the health of the population, are essential in the context of inter-linkages between three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. These multisectoral actions can address the social and economic factors that influence the health of a population at the local, national, and global levels. This editorial identifies the challenges, opportunities and capacity development for effective multisectoral actions for health in a complex policy environment. The root causes of the challenges lie in poor governance such as entrenched political and administrative corruption, widespread clientelism, lack of citizen voice, weak social capital, lack of trust and lack of respect for human rights. This is further complicated by the lack of government effectiveness caused by poor capacity for strong public financial management and low levels of transparency and accountability which leads to corruption. The absence of or rapid changes in government policies, and low salary in relation to living standards result in migration out of qualified staff. Tobacco, alcohol and sugary drink industries are major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs and had interfered with health policy through regulatory capture and potential law suits against the government. Opportunities still exist. Some World Health Assembly (WHA and United Nations General Assembly (UNGA resolutions are both considered as external driving forces for intersectoral actions for health. In addition, Thailand National Health Assembly under the National Health Act is another tool providing opportunity to form trust among stakeholders from different sectors.

  17. Complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects guinea pigs from three strains of Marburg virus challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Danher; Hevey, Michael; Juompan, Laure Y.; Trubey, Charles M.; Raja, Nicholas U.; Deitz, Stephen B.; Woraratanadharm, Jan; Luo Min; Yu Hong; Swain, Benjamin M.; Moore, Kevin M.; Dong, John Y.

    2006-01-01

    The Marburg virus (MARV), an African filovirus closely related to the Ebola virus, causes a deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans, with up to 90% mortality. Currently, treatment of disease is only supportive, and no vaccines are available to prevent spread of MARV infections. In order to address this need, we have developed and characterized a novel recombinant vaccine that utilizes a single complex adenovirus-vectored vaccine (cAdVax) to overexpress a MARV glycoprotein (GP) fusion protein derived from the Musoke and Ci67 strains of MARV. Vaccination with the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine led to efficient production of MARV-specific antibodies in both mice and guinea pigs. Significantly, guinea pigs vaccinated with at least 5 x 10 7 pfu of cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine were 100% protected against lethal challenges by the Musoke, Ci67 and Ravn strains of MARV, making it a vaccine with trivalent protective efficacy. Therefore, the cAdVaxM(fus) vaccine serves as a promising vaccine candidate to prevent and contain multi-strain infections by MARV

  18. Clinical challenges of chronic wounds: searching for an optimal animal model to recapitulate their complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nunan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficient healing of a skin wound is something that most of us take for granted but is essential for surviving day-to-day knocks and cuts, and is absolutely relied on clinically whenever a patient receives surgical intervention. However, the management of a chronic wound – defined as a barrier defect that has not healed in 3 months – has become a major therapeutic challenge throughout the Western world, and it is a problem that will only escalate with the increasing incidence of conditions that impede wound healing, such as diabetes, obesity and vascular disorders. Despite being clinically and molecularly heterogeneous, all chronic wounds are generally assigned to one of three major clinical categories: leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers or pressure ulcers. Although we have gleaned much knowledge about the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin healthy, acute wound healing from various animal models, we have learned much less about chronic wound repair pathology from these models. This might largely be because the animal models being used in this field of research have failed to recapitulate the clinical features of chronic wounds. In this Clinical Puzzle article, we discuss the clinical complexity of chronic wounds and describe the best currently available models for investigating chronic wound pathology. We also assess how such models could be optimised to become more useful tools for uncovering pathological mechanisms and potential therapeutic treatments.

  19. Managing severe burn injuries: challenges and solutions in complex and chronic wound care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers AD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alan D Rogers, Marc G Jeschke Ross Tilley Burn Centre, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Encountered regularly by health care providers across both medical and surgical fields and an increasing socioeconomic burden globally, wound care is severely neglected. Practice is heavily influenced by anecdote rather than evidence-based protocols and industry-biased literature rather than robust randomized controlled trials. Burn units are well placed to address this considerable need, as a result of their infrastructure, their multispecialty staffing, and their need to evolve in light of the declining incidence of major burn injury in developed countries. The aim of this review is to evaluate some of the ideological and practical challenges facing wound practitioners and burn surgeons while managing chronic and complex wounds. It also includes an approach to wound assessment and how to conceptualize and implement dressing strategies and new and existing multimodal therapies. Keywords: negative pressure wound therapy, instillation, antiseptic solutions, dressings, multidisciplinary wound care, stem cells, surgery, autograft, allograft, reconstructive ladder

  20. Challenging the Time Complexity of Exact Subgraph Isomorphism for Huge and Dense Graphs with VF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Vincenzo; Foggia, Pasquale; Saggese, Alessia; Vento, Mario

    2018-04-01

    Graph matching is essential in several fields that use structured information, such as biology, chemistry, social networks, knowledge management, document analysis and others. Except for special classes of graphs, graph matching has in the worst-case an exponential complexity; however, there are algorithms that show an acceptable execution time, as long as the graphs are not too large and not too dense. In this paper we introduce a novel subgraph isomorphism algorithm, VF3, particularly efficient in the challenging case of graphs with thousands of nodes and a high edge density. Its performance, both in terms of time and memory, has been assessed on a large dataset of 12,700 random graphs with a size up to 10,000 nodes, made publicly available. VF3 has been compared with four other state-of-the-art algorithms, and the huge experimentation required more than two years of processing time. The results confirm that VF3 definitely outperforms the other algorithms when the graphs become huge and dense, but also has a very good performance on smaller or sparser graphs.

  1. On the Ongoing Evolution of Very High Frequency Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Kamby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing demand for smaller and lighter power supplies is driving the motivation to increase the switching frequencies of power converters. Drastic increases however come along with new challenges, namely the increase of switching losses in all components. The application of power circuits used...

  2. Multisectoral Actions for Health: Challenges and Opportunities in Complex Policy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Srisookwatana, Orapan; Pinprateep, Poldej; Posayanonda, Tipicha; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn

    2017-05-16

    Multisectoral actions for health, defined as actions undertaken by non-health sectors to protect the health of the population, are essential in the context of inter-linkages between three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social, and environmental. These multisectoral actions can address the social and economic factors that influence the health of a population at the local, national, and global levels. This editorial identifies the challenges, opportunities and capacity development for effective multisectoral actions for health in a complex policy environment. The root causes of the challenges lie in poor governance such as entrenched political and administrative corruption, widespread clientelism, lack of citizen voice, weak social capital, lack of trust and lack of respect for human rights. This is further complicated by the lack of government effectiveness caused by poor capacity for strong public financial management and low levels of transparency and accountability which leads to corruption. The absence of or rapid changes in government policies, and low salary in relation to living standards result in migration out of qualified staff. Tobacco, alcohol and sugary drink industries are major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and had interfered with health policy through regulatory capture and potential law suits against the government. Opportunities still exist. Some World Health Assembly (WHA) and United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions are both considered as external driving forces for intersectoral actions for health. In addition, Thailand National Health Assembly under the National Health Act is another tool providing opportunity to form trust among stakeholders from different sectors. Capacity development at individual, institutional and system level to generate evidence and ensure it is used by multisectoral agencies is as critical as strengthening the health literacy of people and the overall good governance of a

  3. Hospital discharge of frail, elderly patients with complex care needs: a problem or a challenge?

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Silingardi; Denise Lombardi; Antonio Balotta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The increase in patients with chronic disease that require on-going care is creating difficulties for the public health system, which have prompted recent attempts to remodel the system with a generalized reduction in the number of hospital beds and the implementation of services designed to promote home health care. Intermediate care is an opportunity to support timely discharge from acute-care facilities and promote functional recovery, but its efficacy requires a strong, comp...

  4. A systematic review of hospital accreditation: the challenges of measuring complex intervention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubakk, Kirsten; Vist, Gunn E; Bukholm, Geir; Barach, Paul; Tjomsland, Ole

    2015-07-23

    The increased international focus on improving patient outcomes, safety and quality of care has led stakeholders, policy makers and healthcare provider organizations to adopt standardized processes for evaluating healthcare organizations. Accreditation and certification have been proposed as interventions to support patient safety and high quality healthcare. Guidelines recommend accreditation but are cautious about the evidence, judged as inconclusive. The push for accreditation continues despite sparse evidence to support its efficiency or effectiveness. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexes and keyword searches in any language. Studies were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and AMSTAR framework. 915 abstracts were screened and 20 papers were reviewed in full in January 2013. Inclusion criteria included studies addressing the effect of hospital accreditation and certification using systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies with a control group, or interrupted time series. Outcomes included both clinical outcomes and process measures. An updated literature search in July 2014 identified no new studies. The literature review uncovered three systematic reviews and one randomized controlled trial. The lone study assessed the effects of accreditation on hospital outcomes and reported inconsistent results. Excluded studies were reviewed and their findings summarized. Accreditation continues to grow internationally but due to scant evidence, no conclusions could be reached to support its effectiveness. Our review did not find evidence to support accreditation and certification of hospitals being linked to measurable changes in quality of care as measured by quality metrics and standards. Most studies did not report intervention context, implementation, or cost. This might reflect the challenges in assessing complex, heterogeneous interventions such as accreditation and

  5. Web-based communications systems: innovate solutions to complex development challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, D.S.; Sordi, G.M.; Villavicencio, A.L.H.; Biazini Filho, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research work focus on the potential value of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to enhance communication and education on Radiological Protection throughout Brazil. ICTs present unprecedented opportunities to innovate solutions to complex development issues, in this large country where it is a strong challenge to ensure access to information to as many people as possible, minimizing costs and optimizing results. Therefore, taking advantage of the impact of ICTs in modern Information Society and its institutions, some research works include education for workers, researchers and the public, offering conditions for learning and improving professional and personal skills. UNIPRORAD is a research work of informatization of radiological protection programs to offer unified programs and inter-related information in Portuguese. The system provides Brazilian facilities and researchers a complete repository for research, consultation and information. The content includes the best practices for optimization and monitoring programs, taking into account that in order to establish a Radiation Protection Plan or a Radiation Emergency Plan, there must be observed all procedures based on national and international recommendations published by different organizations over the past decades: International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Other than the efforts to disseminate information to radioactive facilities and researches, it is equally essential to invest in education and communication to increase public knowledge and understanding of the benefits of Nuclear Technology, such as food irradiation and social responsibility for electric power generation, for public acceptance of Nuclear Technology depends on public understanding of radiation and its effects on individuals, workers and environment. This research work aims to present several important initiatives

  6. The challenge for genetic epidemiologists: how to analyze large numbers of SNPs in relation to complex diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Boer, J.M.A.; Nagelkerke, N.; Mariman, E.C.M.; A, van der D.L.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic epidemiologists have taken the challenge to identify genetic polymorphisms involved in the development of diseases. Many have collected data on large numbers of genetic markers but are not familiar with available methods to assess their association with complex diseases. Statistical methods

  7. The ongoing challenge of restorative justice in South Africa: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... criteria, as often change in leadership is slower to come into effect than change amongst the other members. ... They represent a cross section of denominations, so that insight can be gained from leaders with different theological viewpoints. ... show that inequality is a result of the policies of apartheid. So.

  8. Abdominal tuberculosis. On-going challenge to gastroenterologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Mahgoub; Osuba, Abimbola

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to record the observations and experience on the diagnosis and management of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) and to highlight the difficulties in the diagnosis and management of this condition. Two hundred consecutive patients attending the Gastroenterology Department of the King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between May 1991 and May 2001, suspected with abdominal TB were investigated. A detailed clinical history and physical examination were obtained. Data of 75 confirmed cases of abdominal TB were analyzed. The most common presenting symptoms were anorexia (84%), abdominal pain (84%) and weight loss (72%). Abdominal tenderness was the most common clinical finding, followed by ascites and abdominal mass (42%). The chest radiograph suggestive of pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 24 patients (32%). Computed tomographic (CT) scanning revealed abnormalities in all 51 patients who underwent the procedure, while positive findings were observed by abdominal ultrasound in 66% of the tested patients. Histopathological examination of patients showed tuberculosis granuloma, while acid fast bacilli were seen in 34%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified by microbiological methods in 60% of patients. The most common presenting symptoms were anorexia (84%), abdominal pain (84%) and weight loss (72%). Abdominal tenderness was the most common clinical finding, followed by ascites and abdominal mass (42%). The chest radiograph suggestive of pulmonary TB was diagnosed in 24 patients (32%). Computed tomographic (CT) scanning revealed abnormalities in all 51 patients who underwent the procedure, while positive findings were observed by abdominal ultrasound in 66% of the tested patients. Histopathological examination of patients showed tuberculous granuloma, while acid fast bacilli were seen in 34%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified by microbiological methods in 60% of patients. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to make an early diagnosis of abdominal TB. Suspicion should be aroused, particularly in patients having a combination of anorexia, abdominal pain, weight loss and ascites. Diagnosis requires the utilization of a combination of various diagnostic procedures especially abdominal ultrasound, CT scan and endoscopy, which provides a high diagnostic yield in this disease. A normal chest radiograph does not exclude the presence of abdominal TB. A timely use of laparoscopy are often required to prevent surgical intervention. (author)

  9. The Korean Military Advisory Group -- Developmental Challenges during Ongoing Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    agrarian rice production facility. It valued the fields that South Korea provided over the human potential its people offered. As such, education was not...centuries of divergent language, religion , ethics, and customs surely was enough to compound it.70 Many advisory efforts in the past have been forced to...are our clones .95 Hence, future advisory efforts should focus on the host nations internal and culturally accepted organizations, institutions

  10. The ongoing challenge of restorative justice in South Africa: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa remains one of the most unequal societies in the world and any discussion around poverty and the church's response cannot exclude this reality. This article attempts to analyse the response of wealthy, 'majority white' suburban congregations in the southern suburbs of Cape Town to issues of poverty and ...

  11. Hypoxic Challenge Testing (Fitness to Fly) in children with complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nitha; Doughty, Victoria L; Starling, Luke; Franklin, Rodney C; Ward, Simon; Daubeney, Piers E F; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M

    2018-02-14

    Commercial airplanes fly with an equivalent cabin fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.15, leading to reduced oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in passengers. How this affects children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) is unknown. We conducted Hypoxic Challenge Testing (HCT) to assess need for inflight supplemental oxygen. Children aged <16 years had a standard HCT. They were grouped as (A) normal versus abnormal baseline SpO 2 (≥95% vs <95%) and (B) absence versus presence of an actual/potential right-to-left (R-L) shunt. We measured SpO 2 , heart rate, QT interval corrected for heart rate and partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured transcutaneously (PtcCO 2 ). A test failed when children with (1) normal baseline SpO 2 desaturated to 85%, (2) baseline SpO 2 85%-94% desaturated by 15% of baseline; and (3) baseline SpO 2 75%-84% desaturated to 70%. There were 68 children, mean age 3.3 years (range 10 weeks-14.5 years). Children with normal (n=36) baseline SpO 2 desaturated from median 99% to 91%, P<0.0001, and 3/36 (8%) failed the test. Those with abnormal baseline SpO 2 (n=32) desaturated from median 84% to 76%, P<0.0001, and 5/32 (16%) failed (no significant difference between groups). Children with no R-L shunt (n=25) desaturated from median 99% to 93%, P<0.0001, but 0/25 failed. Those with an actual/potential R-L shunt (n=43) desaturated from median 87% to 78%, P<0.0001, and 8/43 (19%) failed (difference between groups P<0.02). PtcCO 2 , heart rate and QT interval corrected for heart rate were unaffected by the hypoxic state. This is the first evidence to help guide which children with CHD need a preflight HCT. We suggest all children with an actual or potential R-L shunt should be tested. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The Ongoing and Open-Ended Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores a novel form of classroom simulation that differs from published examples in two important respects. First, it is ongoing. While most simulations represent a single learning episode embedded within a course, the ongoing simulation is a continuous set of interrelated events and decisions that accompany learning throughout…

  13. Addressing Complex Challenges through Adaptive Leadership: A Promising Approach to Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Tenneisha; Squires, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are faced with solving increasingly complex problems. Addressing these issues requires effective leadership that can facilitate a collaborative problem solving approach where multiple perspectives are leveraged. In this conceptual paper, we critique the effectiveness of earlier leadership models in tackling complex organizational…

  14. Equivalence of complex drug products: advances in and challenges for current regulatory frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaarts, Leonie; Mühlebach, Stefan; Shah, Vinod P; McNeil, Scott; Borchard, Gerrit; Flühmann, Beat; Weinstein, Vera; Neervannan, Sesha; Griffiths, Elwyn; Jiang, Wenlei; Wolff-Holz, Elena; Crommelin, Daan J A; de Vlieger, Jon S B

    2017-11-01

    Biotechnology and nanotechnology provide a growing number of innovator-driven complex drug products and their copy versions. Biologics exemplify one category of complex drugs, but there are also nonbiological complex drug products, including many nanomedicines, such as iron-carbohydrate complexes, drug-carrying liposomes or emulsions, and glatiramoids. In this white paper, which stems from a 1-day conference at the New York Academy of Sciences, we discuss regulatory frameworks in use worldwide (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Agency, the World Health Organization) to approve these complex drug products and their follow-on versions. One of the key questions remains how to assess equivalence of these complex products. We identify a number of points for which consensus was found among the stakeholders who were present: scientists from innovator and generic/follow-on companies, academia, and regulatory bodies from different parts of the world. A number of topics requiring follow-up were identified: (1) assessment of critical attributes to establish equivalence for follow-on versions, (2) the need to publish scientific findings in the public domain to further progress in the field, (3) the necessity to develop worldwide consensus regarding nomenclature and labeling of these complex products, and (4) regulatory actions when substandard complex drug products are identified. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  16. Exploring themes and challenges in developing sustainable supply chains – A complexity theory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Maisam

    identify, classify, and tackle the challenges that can hinder the execution of such strategies. To develop innovative strategies, the patterns of current trends and themes need to be learned and the missing ones need to be identified. The purpose of this research was to explore themes and challenges......To develop sustainable supply chains in a way that their negative environmental and social effects are minimized, shortand long-term targets should be set. The transformation of supply chains towards these targets calls for the development of innovative strategies and the need to continuously...... in developing sustainable supply chain activities from theoretical and empirical perspectives. Six research studies (RS) were designed and carried out. Two explored the patterns of the themes and challenges in making supply chains environmentally and socially sustainable in general (RS1, RS2). One explored...

  17. A Simple Model for Complex Fabrication of MEMS based Pressure Sensor: A Challenging Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani SHARMA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented the simple model for complex fabrication of MEMS based absolute micro pressure sensor. This kind of modeling is extremely useful for determining its complexity in fabrication steps and provides complete information about process sequence to be followed during manufacturing. Therefore, the need for test iteration decreases and cost, time can be reduced significantly. By using DevEdit tool (part of SILVACO tool, a behavioral model of pressure sensor have been presented and implemented.

  18. Building and Sustaining Complex Systems: Addressing Common Challenges to Implementing Intensive Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Maurice; Zumeta, Rebecca O.; Gandhi, Allison G.; Gersten, Russell

    2014-01-01

    School and district personnel have identified common challenges in implementing individualized, intensive interventions for students with severe, persistent learning and behavioral needs. The National Center on Intensive Intervention has worked with scores of local educators--including district administrators, building principals, special and…

  19. Complex restoration challenges: weeds, seeds, and roads in a forested wildland urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle Buonopane; Gabrielle Snider; Becky K. Kerns; Paul S. Doescher

    2013-01-01

    Federal policies in the US strongly emphasize reducing hazardous fuels at the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI). However, these areas present restoration challenges as they often have exotic weeds, frequent human disturbance, and the presence of roads. Understanding seed banks is important in planning for desirable post-disturbance community conditions, developing...

  20. Exploring Themes and Challenges in Developing Sustainable Supply Chains - A Complexity Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Maisam

    2014-01-01

    To develop sustainable supply chains in a way that their negative environmental and social effects are minimized, shortand long-term targets should be set. The transformation of supply chains towards these targets calls for the development of innovative strategies and the need to continuously identify, classify, and tackle the challenges that can hinder the execution of such strategies. To develop innovative strategies, the patterns of current trends and themes need to be learned and th...

  1. Why few older adults participate in complex motor skills: a qualitative study of older adults' perceptions of difficulty and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Katarina P; Steel, Kylie A; Macmillan, Freya; Olson, Rebecca; Merom, Dafna

    2015-11-26

    Maintaining neuromotor fitness across the life course is imperative. It can reduce falls in older individuals and improve/maintain physical and cognitive functioning. Complex motor skills (CMS) are involved in many physical activities (e.g., ball games, dance), which can improve neuromotor fitness. However, few older adults participate in CMS. This study aimed to understand how older adults perceive the degree of difficulty and challenge, using Gentile's taxonomy of motor skills as a framework. Six focus groups (FGs) were conducted with older adults (aged 61-92 years; N = 36) using a semi-structured question guide, to explore older adults' perceptions of difficulty and challenges associated with physical activity types. FGs were conducted in three villages and community groups in Sydney, Australia. Verbatim transcripts were coded inductively following a grounded theory approach to analysis to discover categories and concepts based on participants' views. Older adults perceived physical effort and pace as influencing difficulty where as challenging activities were not found to hinder older adults' willingness to participate. Other challenges in performing activities were attributed to: skill level, environment conditions (e.g., pool versus ocean swimming) and variations influencing complexity. Social and interpersonal issues, such as embarrassment, rapport with instructors, prior experience/ familiarity, in addition to physical effort, were other central features of older adults' perceptions of physical activities. Themes that appeared to increase the likelihood of participation in CMS were: age appropriate modification; enjoyment; social aspects; past experience; and having experienced instructors. This study offers recommendations for increasing participation in CMS. Modifying activities to suit ability and age and increasing exposure during the life span may help maintain participation into old age. Gentile's taxonomy provides an appropriate framework for

  2. Cultural Complexity, Post-Colonialism and Educational Change: Challenges for Comparative Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This study explores various elements in the struggle for a post-colonial refashioning of cultural identity through education. Drawing on experiences in Australia and the Caribbean, the author illustrates how educational systems undergoing decolonisation reflect socio-cultural tensions of race and power. The author discusses the complexities for…

  3. Large, dynamic, multi-protein complexes: a challenge for structural biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouřa, Evžen; Rozycki, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, Suppl 1 (2015), S52 ISSN 0175-7571. [EBSA European Biophysics Congress /10./. 18.07.2015-22.07.2015, Dresden] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : multi-protein complexes * protein structure * EROS hybrid method Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  4. An immune stimulating complex (iscom) subunit rabies vaccine protects dogs and mice against street rabies challenge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fekadu; J.H. Schaddock; J. Ekströ m; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D.W. Sanderlin; B. Sundquist; B. Morein (Bror)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDogs and mice were immunized with either a rabies glycoprotein subunit vaccine incorporated into an immune stimulating complex (ISCOM) or a commercial human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) prepared from a Pitman Moore (PM) rabies vaccine strain. Pre-exposure vaccination of mice with two

  5. Mediating Complex Texts in the Upper Grades: Considering Motivation, Instructional Intensity, and Cognitive Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Connors, Evelyn; Dougherty, Susan; Robertson, Dana A.; Paratore, Jeanne R.

    2015-01-01

    Rising expectations for middle grade students to independently read and comprehend complex, discipline-specific texts have also raised expectations for the ways teachers will teach. Helping all students, despite assessed reading levels, to access grade level texts calls for instructional approaches that not only meet readers where they are, but…

  6. Emergence of a complex global culture : Challenge for an innovative research strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browaeys, M.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Topics relating to international business are abundant, but they become increasingly complex. To match this trend, we need to think differently and to look for another way of investigation the field. The present article takes as example the cross-border mergers and acquisitions to propose an

  7. Experiences and challenges in implementing complex community-based research project: the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, J T; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Utter, J; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Millar, L; Kremer, P; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world are struggling to find effective ways to prevent the rising trend of obesity globally, particularly among children. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was the first large-scale, intervention research project conducted in the Pacific aiming to prevent obesity in adolescents. The project spanned four countries: Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga. This paper reports on the strengths and challenges experienced from this complex study implemented from 2004 to 2009 across eight cultural groups in different community settings. The key strengths of the project were its holistic collaborative approach, participatory processes and capacity building. The challenges inherent in such a large complex project were underestimated during the project's development. These related to the scale, complexity, duration, low research capacity in some sites and overall coordination across four different countries. Our experiences included the need for a longer lead-in time prior to intervention for training and up-skilling of staff in Fiji and Tonga, investment in overall coordination, data quality management across all sites and the need for realistic capacity building requirements for research staff. The enhanced research capacity and skills across all sites include the development and strengthening of research centres, knowledge translation and new obesity prevention projects. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  9. Perspectives and challenges in statistical physics and complex systems for the next decade

    CERN Document Server

    Raposo, Ernesto P; Gomes Eleutério da Luz, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Physics (SP) has followed an unusual evolutionary path in science. Originally aiming to provide a fundamental basis for another important branch of Physics, namely Thermodynamics, SP gradually became an independent field of research in its own right. But despite more than a century of steady progress, there are still plenty of challenges and open questions in the SP realm. In fact, the area is still rapidly evolving, in contrast to other branches of science, which already have well defined scopes and borderlines of applicability. This difference is due to the steadily expanding num

  10. Large, dynamic, multi-protein complexes: a challenge for structural biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozycki, B.; Bouřa, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 46 (2014), 463103/1-463103/11 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 333916 - STARPI4K Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : protein structure * multi-protein complexes * hybrid methods of structural biology Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014

  11. Understanding, creating, and managing complex techno-socio-economic systems: Challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, D.; Balietti, S.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.

    2011-05-01

    This contribution reflects on the comments of Peter Allen [1], Bikas K. Chakrabarti [2], Péter Érdi [3], Juval Portugali [4], Sorin Solomon [5], and Stefan Thurner [6] on three White Papers (WP) of the EU Support Action Visioneer (www.visioneer.ethz.ch). These White Papers are entitled "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises" (WP 1) [7], "From Social Simulation to Integrative System Design" (WP 2) [8], and "How to Create an Innovation Accelerator" (WP 3) [9]. In our reflections, the need and feasibility of a "Knowledge Accelerator" is further substantiated by fundamental considerations and recent events around the globe. newpara The Visioneer White Papers propose research to be carried out that will improve our understanding of complex techno-socio-economic systems and their interaction with the environment. Thereby, they aim to stimulate multi-disciplinary collaborations between ICT, the social sciences, and complexity science. Moreover, they suggest combining the potential of massive real-time data, theoretical models, large-scale computer simulations and participatory online platforms. By doing so, it would become possible to explore various futures and to expand the limits of human imagination when it comes to the assessment of the often counter-intuitive behavior of these complex techno-socio-economic-environmental systems. In this contribution, we also highlight the importance of a pluralistic modeling approach and, in particular, the need for a fruitful interaction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. newpara In an appendix we briefly summarize the concept of the FuturICT flagship project, which will build on and go beyond the proposals made by the Visioneer White Papers. EU flagships are ambitious multi-disciplinary high-risk projects with a duration of at least 10 years amounting to an envisaged overall budget of 1 billion EUR [10]. The goal of the FuturICT flagship initiative is to understand and manage complex

  12. Simple Front-End Concept for the Complex Challenges of Multi-Band Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskgaard, Emil Feldborg; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new architecture for mobile phone front-ends that dramatically reduces the complexity of multi-band smart phones. Traditional smart phone front-ends consist of many parallel transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) chains each dedicated to a single band. The proposed architecture simp...... bands realistic. Current 5G investigations show that the advantages of flexible front-ends will be even bigger as technology moves toward software defined radio. \\end{abstract}...

  13. The forgotten D : challenges of addressing forest degradation in complex mosaic landscapes under REDD

    OpenAIRE

    Mertz, O.; Muller, D.; Sikor, T.; Hett, C.; Heinimann, A.; Castella, Jean-Christophe; Lestrelin, Guillaume; Ryan, C. M.; Reay, D. S.; Schmidt-Vogt, D.; Danielsen, F.; Theilade, I.; van Noordwijk, M.; Verchot, L. V.; Burgess, N. D.

    2012-01-01

    International climate negotiations have stressed the importance of considering emissions from forest degradation under the planned REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation + enhancing forest carbon stocks) mechanism. However, most research, pilot-REDD+ projects and carbon certification agencies have focused on deforestation and there appears to be a gap in knowledge on complex mosaic landscapes containing degraded forests, smallholder agriculture, agroforestry and p...

  14. Effect of the Postural Challenge on the Dependence of the Cardiovascular Control Complexity on Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Catai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Short-term complexity of heart period (HP and systolic arterial pressure (SAP was computed to detect age and gender influences over cardiovascular control in resting supine condition (REST and during standing (STAND. Healthy subjects (n = 110, men = 55 were equally divided into five groups (21–30; 31–40; 41–50; 51–60; and 61–70 years of age. HP and SAP series were recorded for 15 min at REST and during STAND. A normalized complexity index (NCI based on conditional entropy was assessed. At REST we found that both NCIHP and NCISAP decreased with age in the overall population, but only women were responsible for this trend. During STAND we observed that both NCIHP and NCISAP were unrelated to age in the overall population, even when divided by gender. When the variation of NCI in response to STAND (ΔNCI = NCI at REST-NCI during STAND was computed individually, we found that ΔNCIHP progressively decreased with age in the overall population, and women were again responsible for this trend. Conversely, ΔNCISAP was unrelated to age and gender. This study stresses that the complexity of cardiovascular control and its ability to respond to stressors are more importantly lost with age in women than in men.

  15. Managing complexity practical considerations in the development and application of ABMs to contemporary policy challenges

    CERN Document Server

    O’Brien, Sean; Khouja, Moutaz

    2013-01-01

    This book emerged out of a project initiated and funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) that sought to build on efforts to transform agent-based models into platforms for predicting and evaluating policy responses to real world challenges around the world.  It began with the observation that social science theories of human behavior are often used to estimate the consequences of alternative policy responses to important issues and challenges.  However, alternative theories that remain subject to contradictory claims are ill suited to inform policy. The vision behind the DARPA project was to mine the social sciences literature for alternative theories of human behavior, and then formalize, instantiate, and integrate them within the context of an agent-based modeling system.  The research team developed an experimental platform to evaluate the conditions under which alternative theories and groups of theories applied.  The end result was a proof of concept—developed from the groun...

  16. Clinical uncertainties, health service challenges, and ethical complexities of HIV "test-and-treat": a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sonali P; Shah, Kavita R; Sarma, Karthik V; Mahajan, Anish P

    2013-06-01

    Despite the HIV "test-and-treat" strategy's promise, questions about its clinical rationale, operational feasibility, and ethical appropriateness have led to vigorous debate in the global HIV community. We performed a systematic review of the literature published between January 2009 and May 2012 using PubMed, SCOPUS, Global Health, Web of Science, BIOSIS, Cochrane CENTRAL, EBSCO Africa-Wide Information, and EBSCO CINAHL Plus databases to summarize clinical uncertainties, health service challenges, and ethical complexities that may affect the test-and-treat strategy's success. A thoughtful approach to research and implementation to address clinical and health service questions and meaningful community engagement regarding ethical complexities may bring us closer to safe, feasible, and effective test-and-treat implementation.

  17. Clinical Uncertainties, Health Service Challenges, and Ethical Complexities of HIV “Test-and-Treat”: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kavita R.; Sarma, Karthik V.; Mahajan, Anish P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the HIV “test-and-treat” strategy’s promise, questions about its clinical rationale, operational feasibility, and ethical appropriateness have led to vigorous debate in the global HIV community. We performed a systematic review of the literature published between January 2009 and May 2012 using PubMed, SCOPUS, Global Health, Web of Science, BIOSIS, Cochrane CENTRAL, EBSCO Africa-Wide Information, and EBSCO CINAHL Plus databases to summarize clinical uncertainties, health service challenges, and ethical complexities that may affect the test-and-treat strategy’s success. A thoughtful approach to research and implementation to address clinical and health service questions and meaningful community engagement regarding ethical complexities may bring us closer to safe, feasible, and effective test-and-treat implementation. PMID:23597344

  18. Clearing the haze: the complexities and challenges of research on state marijuana laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Esther K; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-04-01

    As states increasingly liberalize marijuana laws, high-quality research is needed that will inform the public and policymakers about the health and societal impact of these laws. However, there are many challenges to studying marijuana policy, including the heterogeneity of the drug and its use, the variability in the laws and their implementation from state to state, the need to capture a wide variety of relevant outcomes, and the poorly understood influence of marijuana commercialization. Furthermore, current instruments generally fail to distinguish between types of users and lack accurate and detailed measures of use. This review provides a background on marijuana laws in the United States and an overview of existing policy research, discusses methodological considerations when planning analysis of state marijuana laws, and highlights specific topics needing further development and investigation. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Advances and challenges in paracoccidioidomycosis serology caused by Paracoccidioides species complex: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Assato, Patricia Akemi; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the possible methodologies for the rapid and inexpensive identification of fungal infections is essential for disease diagnosis, but there are some limitations. To help with this problem, serological methods that detect antigens or antibodies are widely used and are useful for the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) through the detection of gp43, which is the main antigen employed for the immunodiagnosis of this disease caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. However, the use of gp43 has become restricted because it was recently found that this marker is not identified in the infections caused by Paracoccidioides lutzii. Therefore, it is necessary to identify new antigens in both species or antigens specific for P. lutzii to decrease the morbidity and/or mortality associated with PCM. This review provides a discussion of new diagnostic challenges after the recent discoveries regarding the taxonomy of the Paracoccidioides genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenging the dogma: the hidden layer of non-protein-coding RNAs in complex organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, John S

    2003-10-01

    The central dogma of biology holds that genetic information normally flows from DNA to RNA to protein. As a consequence it has been generally assumed that genes generally code for proteins, and that proteins fulfil not only most structural and catalytic but also most regulatory functions, in all cells, from microbes to mammals. However, the latter may not be the case in complex organisms. A number of startling observations about the extent of non-protein-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcription in the higher eukaryotes and the range of genetic and epigenetic phenomena that are RNA-directed suggests that the traditional view of the structure of genetic regulatory systems in animals and plants may be incorrect. ncRNA dominates the genomic output of the higher organisms and has been shown to control chromosome architecture, mRNA turnover and the developmental timing of protein expression, and may also regulate transcription and alternative splicing. This paper re-examines the available evidence and suggests a new framework for considering and understanding the genomic programming of biological complexity, autopoietic development and phenotypic variation. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Assessing the Heritability of Complex Traits in Humans: Methodological Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; Meyre, David

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this review article is to provide a conceptual based summary of how heritability estimates for complex traits such as obesity are determined and to explore the future directions of research in the heritability field. The target audience are researchers who use heritability data rather than those conducting heritability studies. The article provides an introduction to key concepts critical to understanding heritability studies including: i) definitions of heritability: broad sense versus narrow sense heritability; ii) how data for heritability studies are collected: twin, adoption, family and population-based studies; and iii) analytical techniques: path analysis, structural equations and mixed or regressive models of complex segregation analysis. For each section, a discussion of how the different definitions and methodologies influence heritability estimates is provided. The general limitations of heritability studies are discussed including the issue of "missing heritability" in which heritability estimates are significantly higher than the variance explained by known genetic variants. Potential causes of missing heritability include restriction of many genetic association studies to single nucleotide polymorphisms, gene by gene interactions, epigenetics, and gene by environment interactions. Innovative strategies of accounting for missing heritability including modeling techniques and improved software are discussed.

  2. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  3. Packaging Concerns and Techniques for Large Devices: Challenges for Complex Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is going to have to accept the use of non-hermetic packages for complex devices. There are a large number of packaging options available. Space application subjects the packages to stresses that they were probably not designed for (vacuum for instance). NASA has to find a way of having assurance in the integrity of the packages. There are manufacturers interested in qualifying non-hermetic packages to MIL-PRF-38535 Class V. Government space users are agreed that Class V should be for hermetic packages only. NASA is working on a new Class for non-hermetic packages for M38535 Appendix B, "Class Y". Testing for package integrity will be required but can be package specific as described by a Package Integrity Test Plan. The plan is developed by the manufacturer and approved by DSCC and government space.

  4. Ongoing Model Development Analyzing Glass Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, G.; Bojtar, I.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements...

  5. Soil Degradation, Land Scarcity and Food Security: Reviewing a Complex Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil health, along with water supply, is the most valuable resource for humans, as human life depends on the soil’s generosity. Soil degradation, therefore, poses a threat to food security, as it reduces yield, forces farmers to use more inputs, and may eventually lead to soil abandonment. Unfortunately, the importance of preserving soil health appears to be overlooked by policy makers. In this paper, I first briefly introduce the present situation concerning agricultural production, natural resources, soil degradation, land use and the challenge ahead, to show how these issues are strictly interwoven. Then, I define soil degradation and present a review of its typologies and estimates at a global level. I discuss the importance of preserving soil capital, and its relationship to human civilization and food security. Trends concerning the availability of arable agricultural land, different scenarios, and their limitations, are analyzed and discussed. The possible relation between an increase in a country’s GNP, population and future availability of arable land is also analyzed, using the World Bank’s database. I argue that because of the many sources of uncertainty in the data, and the high risks at stake, a precautionary approach should be adopted when drawing scenarios. The paper ends with a discussion on the key role of preserving soil organic matter, and the need to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. I also argue that both our relation with nature and natural resources and our lifestyle need to be reconsidered.

  6. Adaptation Challenges in Complex River Basins: Lessons Learned and Unlearned for the Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    Climate variations affect the function and operation of existing water infrastructure - including hydropower, structural flood defenses, drainage and irrigation systems - as well as water management practices in support of efficiency and environmental needs. Selected basins around the world, including the Colorado, show agreements in model projections of increasing aridity. Adverse effects of climate change on freshwater systems aggravate the impacts of other stresses, such as population growth, changing economic activity, land-use change and urbanization and most importantly upstream-downstream winners and losers. Thus current water management practices may not be robust enough to cope with the impacts of climate change on water supply reliability. In many locations, water management does not even satisfactorily cope with current climate variability, so that large flood and drought-related environmental and economic damages occur on seasonal to decadal timescales. The recently released IPCC Technical Paper notes that adaptation procedures and risk management practices that incorporate projected hydrological changes with related uncertainties are being developed in some countries and regions.In this presentation we will review the challenges and lessons provided in drought and water resources management and optimization in the context of climate variability and projected change in the Western U.S., the European Union (including the Iberian Peninsula), the Murray-Darling Basin, and elsewhere. Since the release of the IPCC report several of the authors (including the presenter) have held meetings on comparative assessments of adaptation and its challenges in interstate and international river basins. As a first step, improved incorporation of information about current climate variability into water-related management could assist adaptation to longer-term climate change impacts. Future adaptations include technical changes that improve water use efficiency, demand

  7. The Challenges of Dysphagia Management and Rehabilitation in Two Complex Cases Post Chemical Ingestion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F; Cremer, Rebecca; Chatwood, Astra; Fink, Sari; Haider, Sadaf; Yee, Michelle

    2016-11-01

    Dysphagia is common sequelae of chemical ingestion injury, resulting from damage to critical swallowing structures. From a speech-language pathology perspective, this study outlines the physiological deficits in 2 individuals with severe injury (1 woman, acid; 1 man, alkali) and the pattern of dysphagia rehabilitation and recovery. A retrospective chart review of clinical and instrumental assessments was conducted to examine swallow characteristics and speech-language pathology management (compensatory and rehabilitation strategies) at multiple time points. Chemical ingestion injury resulted in severe pharyngeal dysphagia for both participants, warranting speech-language pathology management. Dysphagia was characterized by poor base of tongue mobility and reduced laryngeal excursion. Decreased airway patency and protection, secondary to mucosal sloughing, widespread edema, and structural deficits necessitated tracheostomy. Recovery was complicated by physical alterations of pharyngeal and laryngeal structures (e.g., interarytenoid adhesions) and esophageal strictures. Participant 1 was discharged (Day 135) consuming a texture-modified diet; Participant 2 remained nil by mouth (Day 329). Dysphagia recovery subsequent to chemical ingestion is protracted and complex. Clinical outcomes may be improved through individualized and intensive rehabilitation by speech-language pathologists.

  8. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection: how to welcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of Ebola virus infection is the big global concern. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection is the topic that should be discussed. In fact, it is necessary to set up a biosecurity system to protect against the present Ebola outbreak. The medical personnel have to prepare for fighting the problem. The management of the present outbreak requires international collaboration and control of cross-border disease transmission is also the big challenge. The good case study is the Hajj scenario.

  9. From process complexity to communication effectiveness: A challenge to those within and outside of the environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K. E.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Interdisciplinary work has become a cornerstone in research across the environmental sciences. Our work does so by evaluating biogeochemical cycling, specifically methane, in the context of landscape hydrology. Atmospheric methane is a greenhouse gas 27 times more potent than carbon dioxide and has been increasing at an unprecedented rate. This drastic increase in atmospheric methane has been attributed to anthropogenic activities such as burning of fossil fuels, ruminants, and rice cultivation, which together constitute approximately 67% of global methane sources. Characterizing CH4 flux in natural systems has remained difficult due to complex relationships among environmental variables (e.g. soil temperature and soil water content). To address this, we focus on how the redistribution of water in complex terrain influences the magnitude and direction of flux in upland and riparian soils. Distilling this complex behavior and scaling these observations is complicated by interacting feedback loops and uncertainties associated with global scale modeling. However, progress is critical given that predicting future climate is necessary to forecasting the quantity and distribution of available fresh water, and understanding how ecosystem processes, and energy/food production will be affected. Water sciences and environmental science as a whole must improve communication to a range of audiences, and advocate for researchers, policy makers, and business leaders to work together for a more sustainable future. A crucial step in this process is to optimize the appropriate level of information to convey that is both memorable and meaningful given the complexity of environmental systems. The challenge also extends to artists and filmmakers to present the subject in compelling ways that inspire audiences to take action in their own communities. True integration of professionals across environmental, social, political, and economic disciplines while motivating local involvement

  10. Intervening in the lives of youth with complex behavioral health challenges and their families: the role of the wraparound process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Eric J; Walker, Janet S; Zabel, Michelle; Matarese, Marlene; Estep, Kimberly; Harburger, Deborah; Mosby, Madge; Pires, Sheila A

    2010-12-01

    Wraparound is an individualized, team-based service planning and care coordination process intended to improve outcomes for youth with complex behavioral health challenges and their families. In recent years, several factors have led wraparound to become an increasingly visible component of service systems for youth, including its alignment with the youth and family movements, clear role within the systems of care and public health frameworks, and expansion of the research base. In this paper, we provide a review of the place of the wraparound process in behavioral health, including a discussion of the opportunities it presents to the field, needs for further development and research, and recommendations for federal actions that have the potential to improve the model's positive contribution to child and family well-being.

  11. Recent Advances and Challenges of mTOR Inhibitors Use in the Treatment of Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Palavra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a genetic condition characterized by the presence of benign, noninvasive, and tumor-like lesions called hamartomas that can affect multiple organ systems and are responsible for the clinical features of the disease. In the majority of cases, TSC results from mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes, leading to the overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signalling pathway, which controls several cell functions, including cell growth, proliferation, and survival. The establishment of a connection between TSC and mTOR led to the clinical use of drugs known as mTOR inhibitors (like rapamycin, also known as sirolimus and everolimus, which are becoming an increasingly interesting tool in the management of TSC-associated features, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipomas, and also epilepsy. However, the intrinsic characteristics of these drugs and their systemic effects in such a heterogeneous condition pose many challenges in clinical practice, so that some questions remain unanswered. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological aspects of mTOR inhibitors about the clinical trials leading to their approval in TSC-related conditions and exposes current challenges and future directions associated with this promising therapeutic line.

  12. The challenge for genetic epidemiologists: how to analyze large numbers of SNPs in relation to complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, A Geert; Boer, Jolanda M A; Nagelkerke, Nico; Mariman, Edwin C M; van der A, Daphne L; Feskens, Edith J M

    2006-04-21

    Genetic epidemiologists have taken the challenge to identify genetic polymorphisms involved in the development of diseases. Many have collected data on large numbers of genetic markers but are not familiar with available methods to assess their association with complex diseases. Statistical methods have been developed for analyzing the relation between large numbers of genetic and environmental predictors to disease or disease-related variables in genetic association studies. In this commentary we discuss logistic regression analysis, neural networks, including the parameter decreasing method (PDM) and genetic programming optimized neural networks (GPNN) and several non-parametric methods, which include the set association approach, combinatorial partitioning method (CPM), restricted partitioning method (RPM), multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method and the random forests approach. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods are highlighted. Logistic regression and neural networks can handle only a limited number of predictor variables, depending on the number of observations in the dataset. Therefore, they are less useful than the non-parametric methods to approach association studies with large numbers of predictor variables. GPNN on the other hand may be a useful approach to select and model important predictors, but its performance to select the important effects in the presence of large numbers of predictors needs to be examined. Both the set association approach and random forests approach are able to handle a large number of predictors and are useful in reducing these predictors to a subset of predictors with an important contribution to disease. The combinatorial methods give more insight in combination patterns for sets of genetic and/or environmental predictor variables that may be related to the outcome variable. As the non-parametric methods have different strengths and weaknesses we conclude that to approach genetic association

  13. Ongoing Analysis of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D. S.; Showmwn, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated results from our ongoing analysis of Cassini observations of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach of the planet, the ISS instrument onboard Cassini regularly imaged the atmosphere of Jupiter. We created time-lapse movies from this period that show the complex activity and interactions of the equatorial atmosphere. During this period, hot spots exhibited significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes appear to be a result of interactions with passing vortex systems in adjacent latitudes. Strong anticyclonic gyres to the southeast of the dark areas converge with flow from the west and appear to circulate into a hot spot at its southwestern corner.

  14. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Ongoing dengue epidemic - Angola, June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    On April 1, 2013, the Public Health Directorate of Angola announced that six cases of dengue had been reported to the Ministry of Health of Angola (MHA). As of May 31, a total of 517 suspected dengue cases had been reported and tested for dengue with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). A total of 313 (60.5%) specimens tested positive for dengue, including one from a patient who died. All suspected cases were reported from Luanda Province, except for two from Malanje Province. Confirmatory diagnostic testing of 49 specimens (43 RDT-positive and six RDT-negative) at the CDC Dengue Branch confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection in 100% of the RDT-positive specimens and 50% of the RDT-negative specimens. Only DENV-1 was detected by molecular diagnostic testing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated this virus has been circulating in the region since at least 1968, strongly suggesting that dengue is endemic in Angola. Health-care professionals throughout Angola should be aware of the ongoing epidemic, the recommended practices for clinical management of dengue patients, and the need to report cases to MHA. Persons in Angola should seek medical care for acute febrile illness to reduce the risk for developing complications. Laboratory-confirmed dengue also has been reported from seven countries on four continents among persons who had recently traveled to Luanda, including 79 persons from Portugal. Angola is the third of four African countries to report a dengue outbreak in 2013. Persons returning from Africa with acute febrile illness should seek medical care, including testing for DENV infection, and suspected cases should be reported to public health authorities.

  16. Reservoir Modeling of Carbonate on Fika Field: The Challenge to Capture the Complexity of Rock and Oil Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Fitriyani Adji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i2.181The carbonate on Fika Field has a special character, because it grew above a basement high with the thickness and internal character variation. To develop the field, a proper geological model which can be used in reservoir simulation was needed. This model has to represent the complexity of the rock type and the variety of oil types among the clusters. Creating this model was challenging due to the heterogeneity of the Baturaja Formation (BRF: Early Miocene reef, carbonate platform, and breccia conglomerate grew up above the basement with a variety of thickness and quality distributions. The reservoir thickness varies between 23 - 600 ft and 3D seismic frequency ranges from 1 - 80 Hz with 25 Hz dominant frequency. Structurally, the Fika Field has a high basement slope, which has an impact on the flow unit layering slope. Based on production data, each area shows different characteristics and performance: some areas have high water cut and low cumulative production. Oil properties from several clusters also vary in wax content. The wax content can potentially build up a deposit inside tubing and flow-line, resulted in a possible disturbance to the operation. Five well cores were analyzed, including thin section and XRD. Seven check-shot data and 3D seismic Pre-Stack Time Migration (PSTM were available with limited seismic resolution. A seismic analysis was done after well seismic tie was completed. This analysis included paleogeography, depth structure map, and distribution of reservoir and basement. Core and log data generated facies carbonate distribution and rock typing, defining properties for log analysis and permeability prediction for each zone. An Sw prediction for each well was created by J-function analysis. This elaborates capillary pressure from core data, so it is very similar to the real conditions. Different stages of the initial model were done i.e. scale-up properties, data analysis, variogram modeling

  17. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  18. Can monaural temporal masking explain the ongoing precedence effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, Richard L; Morse-Fortier, Charlotte; Griffin, Amanda M; Zurek, Patrick M

    2018-02-01

    The precedence effect for transient sounds has been proposed to be based primarily on monaural processes, manifested by asymmetric temporal masking. This study explored the potential for monaural explanations with longer ("ongoing") sounds exhibiting the precedence effect. Transient stimuli were single lead-lag noise burst pairs; ongoing stimuli were trains of 63 burst pairs. Unlike with transients, monaural masking data for ongoing sounds showed no advantage for the lead, and are inconsistent with asymmetric audibility as an explanation for ongoing precedence. This result, along with supplementary measurements of interaural time discrimination, suggests different explanations for transient and ongoing precedence.

  19. The NGC 454 system: anatomy of a mixed ongoing merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, H.; Rampazzo, R.; Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Amram, Ph.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on NGC 454, a nearby interacting pair of galaxies (AM 0112-554, RR23), composed of an early-type (NGC 454 E) and a star-forming late-type companion (NGC 454 W). We aim at characterizing this wet merger candidate via a multi-λ analysis, from near-UV (NUV) to optical using Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT), and mapping the H α intensity (I) distribution, velocity (Vr) and velocity dispersion (σ) fields with SAM+Fabry-Perot@SOAR observations. Luminosity profiles suggest that NGC 454 E is an S0. Distortions in its outskirts caused by the ongoing interaction are visible in both optical and NUV frames. In NGC 454 W, the NUV-UVOT images and the H α show a set of star-forming complexes connected by a faint tail. H α emission is detected along the line connecting NGC 454 E to the NGC 454 main H II complex. We investigate the (I-σ), (I-Vr) and (Vr-σ) diagnostic diagrams of the H II complexes, most of which can be interpreted in a framework of expanding bubbles. In the main H II complex, enclosed in the UV brightest region, the gas velocity dispersion is highly supersonic reaching 60 km s-1. However, H α emission profiles are mostly asymmetric indicating the presence of multiple components with an irregular kinematics. Observations point towards an advanced stage of the encounter. Our smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementation suggest that this mixed pair can be understood in terms of a 1:1 gas/halo encounter giving rise to a merger in about 0.2 Gyr from the present stage.

  20. Appendicitis in pregnancy: an ongoing diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J J S; Wilson, C; Coleman, S; Joypaul, B V

    2009-02-01

    Appendicitis in pregnancy (AIP) is the most common nonobstetric cause of an acute abdomen requiring surgical intervention. Diagnostic difficulties arising from gestational symptoms compound the risk of foetal loss after negative appendicectomy and exponentially increase the risk to mother and foetus with delay in genuine cases. In this article, we investigate the symptoms and signs of AIP and attempt to identify consistent clinical features and review the role of imaging in diagnosis. MEDLINE and PubMed were searched for case-control studies recording preoperative symptoms/signs suggestive of AIP, as well as appendiceal pathology. Combined likelihood and odds ratios (OR) were created for clinical features across homogenous papers. Papers examining the use of laparoscopy, ultrasound (US), computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were assessed qualitatively. Seven papers met the inclusion criteria for the analysis of consistent clinical features (450 patients). The only symptoms or signs significantly associated with a diagnosis of appendicitis were nausea (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.34-3.66), vomiting (OR: 0.82-15.6 range) and peritonism (OR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.06-3.04). US, CT and MRI have all been used to successfully diagnose AIP. Laparoscopic appendicectomy has been safely undertaken in pregnancy. Appendicitis will continue to challenge the diagnostic acumen of surgeons. Whilst useful, consensus regarding the safety of laparoscopy, CT and MRI in pregnancy is yet to be achieved.

  1. Geocomputation over Hybrid Computer Architecture and Systems: Prior Works and On-going Initiatives at UARK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.

    2015-12-01

    As NSF indicated - "Theory and experimentation have for centuries been regarded as two fundamental pillars of science. It is now widely recognized that computational and data-enabled science forms a critical third pillar." Geocomputation is the third pillar of GIScience and geosciences. With the exponential growth of geodata, the challenge of scalable and high performance computing for big data analytics become urgent because many research activities are constrained by the inability of software or tool that even could not complete the computation process. Heterogeneous geodata integration and analytics obviously magnify the complexity and operational time frame. Many large-scale geospatial problems may be not processable at all if the computer system does not have sufficient memory or computational power. Emerging computer architectures, such as Intel's Many Integrated Core (MIC) Architecture and Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), and advanced computing technologies provide promising solutions to employ massive parallelism and hardware resources to achieve scalability and high performance for data intensive computing over large spatiotemporal and social media data. Exploring novel algorithms and deploying the solutions in massively parallel computing environment to achieve the capability for scalable data processing and analytics over large-scale, complex, and heterogeneous geodata with consistent quality and high-performance has been the central theme of our research team in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Arkansas (UARK). New multi-core architectures combined with application accelerators hold the promise to achieve scalability and high performance by exploiting task and data levels of parallelism that are not supported by the conventional computing systems. Such a parallel or distributed computing environment is particularly suitable for large-scale geocomputation over big data as proved by our prior works, while the potential of such advanced

  2. Recent and ongoing selection in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Hellmann, Ines; Hubisz, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    The recent availability of genome-scale genotyping data has led to the identification of regions of the human genome that seem to have been targeted by selection. These findings have increased our understanding of the evolutionary forces that affect the human genome, have augmented our knowledge...... of gene function and promise to increase our understanding of the genetic basis of disease. However, inferences of selection are challenged by several confounding factors, especially the complex demographic history of human populations, and concordance between studies is variable. Although such studies...

  3. Nitro-Grela-type complexes containing iodides - robust and selective catalysts for olefin metathesis under challenging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracz, Andrzej; Matczak, Mateusz; Urbaniak, Katarzyna; Skowerski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Iodide-containing nitro-Grela-type catalysts have been synthesized and applied to ring closing metathesis (RCM) and cross metathesis (CM) reactions. These new catalysts have exhibited improved efficiency in the transformation of sterically, non-demanding alkenes. Additional steric hindrance in the vicinity of ruthenium related to the presence of iodides ensures enhanced catalyst stability. The benefits are most apparent under challenging conditions, such as very low reaction concentrations, protic solvents or with the occurrence of impurities.

  4. Nitro-Grela-type complexes containing iodides – robust and selective catalysts for olefin metathesis under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tracz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Iodide-containing nitro-Grela-type catalysts have been synthesized and applied to ring closing metathesis (RCM and cross metathesis (CM reactions. These new catalysts have exhibited improved efficiency in the transformation of sterically, non-demanding alkenes. Additional steric hindrance in the vicinity of ruthenium related to the presence of iodides ensures enhanced catalyst stability. The benefits are most apparent under challenging conditions, such as very low reaction concentrations, protic solvents or with the occurrence of impurities.

  5. Ongoing development of digital radiotherapy plan review tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, M.A.; Hatton, J.; Cornes, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: To describe ongoing development of software to support the review of radiotherapy treatment planning system (TPS) data. The 'SWAN' software program was conceived in 2000 and initially developed for the RADAR (TROG 03.04) prostate radiotherapy trial. Validation of the SWAN program has been occurring via implementation by TROG in support of multiple clinical trials. Development has continued and the SWAN software program is now supported by modular components which comprise the 'SW AN system'. This provides a comprehensive set of tools for the review, analysis and archive of TPS exports. The SWAN system has now been used in support of over 20 radiotherapy trials and to review the plans of over 2,000 trial participants. The use of the system for the RADAR trial is now culminating in the derivation of dose-outcomes indices for prostate treatment toxicity. Newly developed SWAN tools include enhanced remote data archive/retrieval, display of dose in both relative and absolute modes, and interfacing to a Matlab-based add-on ('VAST') that allows quantitative analysis of delineated volumes including regional overlap statistics for multi-observer studies. Efforts are continuing to develop the SWAN system in the context of international collaboration aimed at harmonising the quality-assurance activities of collaborative trials groups. Tools such as the SWAN system are essential for ensuring the collection of accurate and reliable evidence to guide future radiotherapy treatments. One of the principal challenges of developing such a tool is establishing a development path that will ensure its validity and applicability well into the future.

  6. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H.; Milliken, Charles E.; Redder, Todd M.; Wolfe, John R.; Seaman, John

    2016-01-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  7. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Anna Sophia, E-mail: anna.knox@srn.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Paller, Michael H., E-mail: michael.paller@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Milliken, Charles E., E-mail: charles.milliken@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Redder, Todd M., E-mail: tredder@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Wolfe, John R., E-mail: jwolfe@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Seaman, John, E-mail: seaman@srel.uga.edu [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  8. The Challenge of Integrating Care in Dual Diagnosis; Anti-NMDA-Receptor Encephalitis; Presentation And Outcome In 3 Cases Referred For Complex Specialist Rehabilitation Services

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, A

    2018-03-01

    The successful implementation of an integrated care pathway (ICP) for any given condition is a challenge. Even more challenging is successful ICP implementation for individuals who have multiple co-morbidities. This is further compounded when there are dual mental health and physical disabilities that require integrated working across multiple disciplines, specialties, institutions and organisations. Anti-NMDA-Receptor encephalitis (aNMDARe) is a relatively new diagnostic entity with patients typically presenting with significant psychiatric symptoms followed by progressive neurological deterioration. In this case series, we describe 3 cases of females with aNMDARe who were referred for complex specialist rehabilitation (CSR) to The National Rehabilitation Hospital. CSR is the total active care of patients with a disabling condition, and their families, by a multi-professional team who have undergone recognised specialist training in rehabilitation, led \\/supported by a consultant trained and accredited in rehabilitation medicine (RM). These services provide for patients with highly complex rehabilitation needs that are beyond the scope of local services. In these cases, referral to CSR resulted in the construction of a bespoke integrated care pathway (ICP) that transcended the barriers between primary, secondary and tertiary care and across the boundaries of physical and mental health. A care pathway is a complex intervention for the mutual decision-making and organisation of care processes Rehabilitation services acted as the coordinator of services in these cases to ensure implementation of the care plan and to ensure successful transitions of care and supported local specialist and general teams in the management of these complex cases.

  9. Why Society is a Complex Matter Meeting Twenty-first Century Challenges with a New Kind of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Society is complicated. But this book argues that this does not place it beyond the reach of a science that can help to explain and perhaps even to predict social behaviour. As a system made up of many interacting agents – people, groups, institutions and governments, as well as physical and technological structures such as roads and computer networks – society can be regarded as a complex system. In recent years, scientists have made great progress in understanding how such complex systems operate, ranging from animal populations to earthquakes and weather. These systems show behaviours that cannot be predicted or intuited by focusing on the individual components, but which emerge spontaneously as a consequence of their interactions: they are said to be ‘self-organized’. Attempts to direct or manage such emergent properties generally reveal that ‘top-down’ approaches, which try to dictate a particular outcome, are ineffectual, and that what is needed instead is a ‘bottom-up’ approach that aim...

  10. Intermolecular vibrations of the CO2-CS2 complex: Experiment and theory agree, but understanding remains challenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghany, M.; Rezaei, Mojtaba; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Brown, James; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2016-12-01

    The infrared spectrum of the cross-shaped van der Waals complex CO2-CS2 is observed in the region of the CO2 ν3 fundamental band (≈2350 cm-1) using a tuneable diode laser to probe a pulsed supersonic slit jet expansion. Two combination bands are assigned, corresponding to the intermolecular torsion and CO2 bend modes, and their positions and rotational structure agree extremely well (torsional band is well-behaved, but the a-type CO2 bending band is highly unusual, with large shifts between the subband origins for Ka = 0, 2, and 4. The shifts may be rationalized as due to tunnelling effects and Ka-dependent perturbations from other intermolecular modes. But even though they are well predicted by our calculations, there is no simple qualitative explanation. The predicted low-lying planar slipped parallel isomer of CO2-CS2 is not observed.

  11. Improved tank car design development : ongoing studies on sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-02

    The Government and industry have a common interest in : improving the safety performance of railroad tank cars carrying : hazardous materials. Research is ongoing to develop strategies : to maintain the structural integrity of railroad tank cars carr...

  12. A brief overview of our energy challenge(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Robert

    2018-01-01

    I provide an overview of the current world-wide energy generation and use, and discuss the challenge of meeting the expectations of rising standards of living in the developing world, as well as the challenge posed by ongoing climate change. I focus in particular on the possible evolution of energy systems in response to these challenges.

  13. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-28

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  14. Characteristics and Likelihood of Ongoing Homelessness Among Unsheltered Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Byrne, Thomas H; Treglia, Daniel; Culhane, Dennis P

    2016-01-01

    Unsheltered homelessness is an important phenomenon yet difficult to study due to lack of data. The Veterans Health Administration administers a universal homelessness screener, which identifies housing status for Veterans screening positive for homelessness. This study compared unsheltered and sheltered Veterans, assessed differences in rates of ongoing homelessness, and estimated a mixed-effect logistic regression model to examine the relationship between housing status and ongoing homelessness. Eleven percent of Veterans who screened positive for homelessness were unsheltered; 40% of those who rescreened were homeless six months later, compared with less than 20% of sheltered Veterans. Unsheltered Veterans were 2.7 times as likely to experience ongoing homelessness. Unsheltered Veterans differ from their sheltered counterparts-they are older, more likely to be male, less likely to have income-and may be good candidates for an intensive housing intervention. Future research will assess clinical characteristics and services utilization among this population.

  15. Complex Challenges of Maintaining Whitebark Pine in Greater Yellowstone under Climate Change: A Call for Innovative Research, Management, and Policy Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hansen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate suitability is projected to decline for many subalpine species, raising questions about managing species under a deteriorating climate. Whitebark pine (WBP (Pinus albicaulis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE crystalizes the challenges that natural resource managers of many high mountain ecosystems will likely face in the coming decades. We review the system of interactions among climate, competitors, fire, bark beetles, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, and seed dispersers that make WBP especially vulnerable to climate change. A well-formulated interagency management strategy has been developed for WBP, but it has only been implemented across <1% of the species GYE range. The challenges of complex climate effects and land allocation constraints on WBP management raises questions regarding the efficacy of restoration efforts for WBP in GYE. We evaluate six ecological mechanisms by which WBP may remain viable under climate change: climate microrefugia, climate tolerances, release from competition, favorable fire regimes, seed production prior to beetle-induced mortality, and blister-rust resistant trees. These mechanisms suggest that WBP viability may be higher than previously expected under climate change. Additional research is warranted on these mechanisms, which may provide a basis for increased management effectiveness. This review is used as a basis for deriving recommendations for other subalpine species threatened by climate change.

  16. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) complexes of bovine calves in a bacterial respiratory challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanthorn, Christy J; Dewell, Grant A; Dewell, Renee D; Cooper, Vickie L; Wang, Chong; Plummer, Paul J; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2014-12-06

    Serum haptoglobin (Hp) and haptoglobin matrix metalloproteinase 9 complexes (Hp-MMP 9) have been identified as biomarkers with diagnostic potential in cattle with conditions resulting in an acute inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential diagnostic applications of serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations in calves with BRD and establish a timeline for their detection in calves experimentally challenged with Bibersteinia trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica. Thirty-five cross bred dairy calves were inoculated via tracheal catheterization with either a PCR confirmed leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi isolate, a PCR confirmed leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi isolate, a Mannheimia haemolytica isolate, a combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica, or a negative control. Serum samples were collected throughout the study. Calves were euthanized and necropsy performed on day 10 post inoculation. M. haemolytica inoculated calves had increased lung involvement. Serum Hp and Hp- MMP 9 concentrations were elevated compared to the other treatment groups. Increases in serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations for the M. haemolytica group were significantly different from other study groups on day 7 of the study. B. trehalosi inoculated calves did not have increased lung involvement compared to control calves, but the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group demonstrated increased serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from day 3 to the end of the study compared to the pre-inoculation concentrations. Serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting early pulmonary inflammation in calves challenged with B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica. Serum Hp-MMP 9 may also be a useful tool in detecting subclinical pulmonary inflammation in challenged calves.

  17. The relationship between event-based prospective memory and ongoing task performance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore A Evans

    Full Text Available Prospective memory is remembering to do something at a future time. A growing body of research supports that prospective memory may exist in nonhuman animals, but the methods used to test nonhuman prospective memory differ from those used with humans. The current work tests prospective memory in chimpanzees using a method that closely approximates a typical human paradigm. In these experiments, the prospective memory cue was embedded within an ongoing task. Tokens representing food items could be used in one of two ways: in a matching task with pictures of items (the ongoing task or to request a food item hidden in a different location at the beginning of the trial. Chimpanzees had to disengage from the ongoing task in order to use the appropriate token to obtain a higher preference food item. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees effectively matched tokens to pictures, when appropriate, and disengaged from the ongoing task when the token matched the hidden item. In Experiment 2, performance did not differ when the target item was either hidden or visible. This suggested no effect of cognitive load on either the prospective memory task or the ongoing task, but performance was near ceiling, which may have contributed to this outcome. In Experiment 3, we created a more challenging version of the task. More errors on the matching task occurred before the prospective memory had been carried out, and this difference seemed to be limited to the hidden condition. This finding parallels results from human studies and suggests that working memory load and prospective memory may have a similar relationship in nonhuman primates.

  18. Political Challenges in Complex Place-Based Health Promotion Partnerships: Lessons From an Exploratory Case Study in a Disadvantaged Area of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Letitia; Rowe Minniss, Fiona; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Settings-based health promotion involving multiple strategies and partners is complex, especially in disadvantaged areas. Partnership development and organizational integration are examined in the literature; however, there is more to learn from the examination of practice stakeholders' experience of intersectoral partnership processes. This case study examines stakeholder experiences of challenges in new partnership work in the context of a culturally diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged region in Queensland, Australia. Health promotion staff and community representatives participated in interviews and focus groups, and the thematic analysis included observations and documentary analyses. Our findings highlight the retrogressive influence of broader system dynamics, including policy reform and funding changes, upon partnership working. Partnership enablers are disrupted by external political influences and the internal politics (individual and organizational) of health promotion practice. We point to the need for organization level commitment to a consistent agreed vision specifically accounting for place, as a cornerstone of intersectoral health promotion partnership resilience. If organizations from diverse sectors can embed a vision for health that accounts for place, complex health promotion initiatives may be less vulnerable to broader system reforms, and health in all policy approaches more readily sustained.

  19. Ongoing Explorations of Exceptional Lightning Discharges in Several Meteorological Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W. A.; Warner, T. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Lang, T. J.; Orville, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    As new observing technologies and methodologies become available to any scientific discipline, unexpected discoveries often follow. This has certainly been true with regard to atmospheric electricity and lightning studies, as witnessed by the advancements allowed by regional and national lightning detection networks and radar. More recently, the ability to operationally monitor CG impulse charge moment changes (iCMC) using the National Charge Moment Change Network (CMCN), the advent of deployable high speed video imagers (to 10,000 images/sec and even faster), low-light television (LLTV) systems for detecting transient luminous events (TLEs), 3-D Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMA), and new software tools which facilitate the analysis and display of these complex data sets, is creating new areas of exploration of the lightning discharge plus delving into the characteristics of the storms which generate exceptional lightning discharges. By flagging those +CGs with large iCMCs values (>~300 C km), it is now possible in real-time to identify convective storms highly likely to generate TLEs, especially sprites. The ability of LLTVs to monitor TLEs above storms at ranges approaching 900 km (under ideal conditions) has allowed coordinated measurements, using high speed (1000-10,000 images/sec) video systems, of +CGs triggering both sprites and upward discharges from tall broadcast towers. Four such events were captured in the Rapid City area in May and June, 2010. Detailed analyses of the lightning video, the TLE imagery, and the NLDN, CMCN, and NEXRAD data are delineating the time line of these complex discharges in the context of their meteorological environment. The use of LLTVs to monitor TLEs above distant LMAs enabled studies of two MCSs traversing the Oklahoma LMA (OKLMA) in 2007. Continued analyses of these discharges, some >200 km in length, find sprite parent +CGs lowering charge to ground from altitudes varying from 4 to 8 or 9 km AGL, depending upon storm

  20. Fundamentals of complex networks models, structures and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guanrong; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks such as the Internet, WWW, transportationnetworks, power grids, biological neural networks, and scientificcooperation networks of all kinds provide challenges for futuretechnological development. In particular, advanced societies havebecome dependent on large infrastructural networks to an extentbeyond our capability to plan (modeling) and to operate (control).The recent spate of collapses in power grids and ongoing virusattacks on the Internet illustrate the need for knowledge aboutmodeling, analysis of behaviors, optimized planning and performancecontrol in such networks. F

  1. An investigation into cost overruns for ongoing building projects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total amount of cost overruns for any construction project can be fully determined once the project is completed. Estimating the amount of cost overruns at different stages of ongoing construction projects is important for project success. There is, however, a dearth of research for this exercise. This article reports the ...

  2. Reducing ongoing product design decision-making bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antioco, M.; Moenaert, R.K.; Lindgreen, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study is to add to our understanding of ongoing product design decision-making to reduce eventual decision-making bias. Six research questions are formulated with the aim to establish if and how functional membership and informal patterns of communication within an

  3. Ongoing Transition Sessions for Student Affairs Master's Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Deanna S.; Davis, Tracy L.

    2002-01-01

    An ongoing transition program which responds to the need for continuing support for graduate students and their developmental issues is the focus of this article. Student evaluations of the program revealed that participants found the transition sessions helpful because they instilled a sense of universality and provided a safe forum for open and…

  4. Survey of Ongoing Federal Chemical Information and Data Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson (John I.) and Co., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the survey was to collect data relating to (1) present usage of chemical information and data in the Federal community; (2) techniques and equipment now used in the acquisition, processing, and transmission of information and data; and (3) direction of plans for future chemical information services at ongoing systems. The scope of…

  5. The ongoing Challenge of HIV and AIDS to African Theology – A Review Article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers an extended review of some recent publications in the field of African theology and HIV and AIDS. Hence it critically examines the progress that is made in the engagement with and the reflection on issues related to the HIV epidemic by African theologians. The article observes

  6. [Neglected infectious diseases: an ongoing challenge for public health and equity in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Sánchez, César

    2014-04-01

    Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID) affect more than one billion people worldwide, and are associated with poverty, geographic isolation of populations, social stigma, lack of precise data on estimates on both the global and local burden of disease (underreporting of the diseases), inadequate financial and political resources to effective control measures, lack of lobbying on behalf of the most vulnerable population, as well as scarce drug and diagnostic methods development. In this article we describe the relationship between NID, poverty and inequality, we propose a new concept of disease in the tropics, expanding the list of diseases that share characteristics with NID in the Peruvian context, discuss the limited availability of drugs and diagnostic tests to properly deal with these diseases, as well as highlight the contributions by the Peruvian National Institute of Health, and as final thoughts, we state that the solution for the prevention and control of NID must include an integrated approach, including the social determinants of health in the context of the fight against poverty and inequality.

  7. High School Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts: An Ongoing Challenge for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanhuri, Muhd Ibrahim Muhamad; Treagust, David F.; Won, Mihye; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a quantitative case study design, the "Acids-Bases Chemistry Achievement Test" ("ABCAT") was developed to evaluate the extent to which students in Malaysian secondary schools achieved the intended curriculum on acid-base concepts. Responses were obtained from 260 Form 5 (Grade 11) students from five schools to initially…

  8. Implementation of Sustainability in Ongoing Supply Chain Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Meulengracht Jensen, Peter; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    and investigates what happens in the translation from ambitious strategic goals to operational practices. To do this an exploratory case study is presented detailing the efforts of a large Danish manufacturing company to introduce an ambitious sustainability agenda in its ongoing supply chain operations. The study......The need to take the sustainable agenda beyond its technological outset and include operational and supply chain practices is well-established, but still very little has happened and the supply chain and operational logics have remained largely unaffected. This paper asks why this may be the case...... aims to develop a deeper un-derstanding of the, inter-functional coordination and operational practices related to introducing the sustainable agenda in the supply chain. The study points to a lack of tangible environmental performance measurements related to day-to-day practice in the ongoing supply...

  9. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  10. The challenge of reducing scientific complexity for different target groups (without losing the essence) - experiences from interdisciplinary audio-visual media production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Bernd; Broschkowski, Ephraim; Kropp, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    The Climate Media Factory originates from an interdisciplinary media lab run by the Film and Television University "Konrad Wolf" Potsdam-Babelsberg (HFF) and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). Climate scientists, authors, producers and media scholars work together to develop media products on climate change and sustainability. We strive towards communicating scientific content via different media platforms reconciling the communication needs of scientists and the audience's need to understand the complexity of topics that are relevant in their everyday life. By presenting four audio-visual examples, that have been designed for very different target groups, we show (i) the interdisciplinary challenges during the production process and the lessons learnt and (ii) possibilities to reach the required degree of simplification without the need for dumbing down the content. "We know enough about climate change" is a short animated film that was produced for the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ) for training programs and conferences on adaptation in the target countries including Indonesia, Tunisia and Mexico. "Earthbook" is a short animation produced for "The Year of Science" to raise awareness for the topics of sustainability among digital natives. "What is Climate Engineering?". Produced for the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) the film is meant for an informed and interested public. "Wimmelwelt Energie!" is a prototype of an iPad application for children from 4-6 years of age to help them learn about different forms of energy and related greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Globalisation: what are the main statistical challenges?

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Dunnell; Fernando Galindo-Rueda; Richard Laux

    2007-01-01

    Provides an overview of the challenges faced by ONS in the ongoing process of social andeconomic integration.This article provides an overview of the challenges faced by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to meet policy and wider evidence needs on the ongoing process of social and economic integration. Globalisation has been singled out by the UK Government as oneof the main challenges and opportunities facing the country. Migration is the main work priority for ONS in this area. Other ...

  12. Mock Data Challenge for the MPD/NICA Experiment on the HybriLIT Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsenberger, Konstantin; Rogachevsky, Oleg

    2018-02-01

    Simulation of data processing before receiving first experimental data is an important issue in high-energy physics experiments. This article presents the current Event Data Model and the Mock Data Challenge for the MPD experiment at the NICA accelerator complex which uses ongoing simulation studies to exercise in a stress-testing the distributed computing infrastructure and experiment software in the full production environment from simulated data through the physical analysis.

  13. Offsetting Ongoing Methane Emissions --- An Alternative to Emission Equivalence Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clisby, N.; Enting, I. G.; Lauder, A.; Carter, J.; Cowie, A.; Henry, B.; Raupach, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) has been widely adopted as a metric for comparing the climate impact of different greenhouse gases. As has been frequently noted, there are many problems with using GWPs to define emission equivalence in spite of the use of GWPs for this purpose in contexts such as the Kyoto Protocol. We propose that for methane, rather than define emission equivalence, the appropriate comparison is between ongoing emissions of 0.9 to 1.0 kg of CH4 per year and one-off emissions of 1 tonne of carbon. This approach represents an approximate solution to the inverse problem of defining a forcing equivalent index (FEI) that gives exact equivalence of radiative forcing over a range of timescales. In our approach, if ongoing methane emissions are offset by a one-off carbon removal that is built up with 40-year e-folding time, then the result is close to radiatively neutral over periods from years to centuries. In contrast, the GWP provides radiative equivalence (in integrated terms) only at a single time, with large discrepancies at other times. Our approach also follows from consideration of greenhouse gas stabilisation, since stabilising atmospheric CO2 requires an approximate cap on total emissions, while stabilising methane requires stabilisation of ongoing emissions. Our quantitative treatment recognises that, on time scales of centuries, removal of 1 tonne of carbon only lowers the atmospheric carbon content by 0.3 to 0.35 tonnes. We discuss the implications for rangeland grazing systems. In the absence of effective mitigation techniques for methane from rangeland systems, this approach may provide an attractive offset mechanism in spite of requiring that woody vegetation be established and maintained over about 15% of the landscape, or an equivalent amount of carbon storage in soil.

  14. Ongoing clinical trials of the pleiotropic effects of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Davignon

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean Davignon1, Lawrence A Leiter21Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: The multiple effects (ie, pleiotropic effects of statins have received increasing recognition and may have clinical applicability across a broad range of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular conditions. Objective: To determine the relevance and significance of ongoing clinical trials of the pleiotropic effects of statins, focusing on nonlipid effects. Method: Ongoing trials were identified through personal communication, reports presented at scientific meetings (2000–2004, and queries made to AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, Merck & Co, Novartis, and Pfizer, manufacturers of the currently marketed statins. Published trials and other source material were identified through electronic searches on MEDLINE (1990–2003, abstract books, and references identified from bibliographies of pertinent articles. Eligible studies were the clinical trials of statins currently under way in which primary or secondary outcomes included the statins’ nonlipid (ie, pleiotropic effect(s. Data were extracted and trial quality was assessed by the authors. Results: Of the 22 ongoing trials of the nonlipid effects of statins identified, 10 assessed inflammatory markers and plaque stabilization, 4 assessed oxidized low density lipoprotein/vascular oxidant stress, 3 assessed end-stage renal disease, 3 assessed fibrinogen/viscosity, 2 assessed endothelial function, 2 assessed acute coronary syndrome, 2 assessed aortic stenosis progression, and 1 each assessed hypertension, osteoporosis, ischemic burden, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke (outcomes often overlapped. Conclusion: Given the excellent safety and tolerability of statins as a class, full exploration of their pleiotropic effects has the potential to provide additional benefits to many patients

  15. Management of Ground and Groundwater Contamination on a Compact Site Constrained by Ongoing Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilbeck, K.E.; Reeve, P.

    2009-01-01

    Sellafield Site is a compact and complex site which since the 1940's has been home to a range of facilities associated with the production and reprocessing of fissile material. The site contains the UK equivalent of the Chicago Pile-1 reactor, Hanford B Reactor, Rocky Flats Buildings 771 and 774, West Valley Main Process Plant Building, Savannah River Vitrification Plant, Savannah River MOX Plant, Savannah River F Canyon, Hanford 222 Analytical Laboratory, Savannah River K-, L-, and P-Basins, and the Fort St. Vrain Reactor all in an area of approximately 1000 acres. Spent fuel reprocessing is still undertaken on site; however waste management and decommissioning activities are of increasing importance. These include the emptying and removal of fragile ponds and silos containing significant radioactive inventories, the decommissioning of reactors (including the world's first commercial reactor for power generation and the Windscale Piles, the site of a reactor fire in the late 1950's) and the construction of a new generation of vitrification and encapsulation plants. Leaks, spills and on-site disposals during the site's industrial lifetime have resulted in a legacy of fission products and other radionuclides in the ground and groundwater. Volumes of contaminated ground have been estimated as being as much as 18 million m 3 and an estimated below ground inventory of approximately 1.8 E16 Bq. These have all occurred within close proximity to a range of receptors including farm land and the sea. The cramped nature of the facilities on site, overlapping source terms and ongoing decommissioning, waste management and operating activities all raise significant challenges in the management and remediation of contaminated land and groundwater. The strategy to address these challenges includes: 1. Data collection, management and interpretation. The congested nature of the site and the age of some of the monitoring facilities has resulted in particular difficulties. For

  16. The Rare Cancer Network: ongoing studies and future strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozsahin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Cancer Network (RCN was formed in the early 1990’s to create a global network that could pool knowledge and resources in the studies of rare malignancies whose infrequency prevented both their study with prospective clinical trials. To date, the RCN has initiated 74 studies resulting in 46 peer reviewed publications. The First International Symposium of the Rare Cancer Network took place in Nice in March of 2014. Status updates and proposals for new studies were heard for fifteen topics. Ongoing studies continue for cardiac sarcomas, thyroid cancers, glomus tumors, and adult medulloblastomas. New proposals were presented at the symposium for primary hepatic lymphoma, solitary fibrous tumors, Rosai-Dorfman disease, tumors of the ampulla of Vater, salivary gland tumors, anorectal melanoma, midline nuclear protein in testes carcinoma, pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, osteosarcomas of the mandible, and extra-cranial hemangiopericytoma. This manuscript presents the abstracts of those proposals and updates on ongoing studies, as well a brief summary of the vision and future of the RCN.

  17. HBIM CHALLENGE AMONG THE PARADIGM OF COMPLEXITY, TOOLS AND PRESERVATION: THE BASILICA DI COLLEMAGGIO 8 YEARS AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE (L’AQUILA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brumana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In December 2012 ENIservizi (the Italian multi-national energy agency operating in many countries, after the Earthquake that occurred in April 2009, decided to undertake the project ‘Re-start from Collemaggio’ with the aim of giving new hope to the L’Aquila community, funding around 14 million Euro to restore the Basilica di Collemaggio. The Superintendence Office carried on the restoration project with the scientific support of the Università degli Studi de L’Aquila and the Università La Sapienza di Roma, under the coordination of the Politecnico di Milano. ENIservizi, aware of the BIM potential in the complex building and infrastructure domain in the world, required an advanced HBIM from the laser scanner and photogrammetric surveying to support the diagnostic analysis, the design project, the tender and the restoration itself, today still on course. Plans and vertical sections were delivered (2012 starting from the surveying campaigns (February and June 2013, together with the first HBIM advancement from the end of 2012 in support of the preliminary-definitive-executive steps of the restoration design project (2013-14-15. Five years later, this paper tries to make a synthesis of the different lessons learnt, in addition to the positive and critical aspects relating HBIM feasibility, sustainability and usefulness to the challenging restoration work. In particular, the Collemaggio BIM experience anticipated the new Italian Public Procurement Legislation (D.Lgs 50/2016, Nuovo Codice degli Appalti pubblici aligned with to the EUPPD 24/2014: the EU Directive on Public Procurement asked all the 28 EU countries to adopt building informative modelling by February 2016 in order to support the whole LCM (Life Cycle Management, starting from the project and the intervention, through rewarding scores or mandatory regulations. Many analyses foresees to save from around 5% to 15% of the overall investment by adopting mature BIM (Level 3 to 5

  18. Hbim Challenge among the Paradigm of Complexity, Tools and Preservation: the Basilica DI Collemaggio 8 Years after the Earthquake (l'aquila)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumana, R.; Della Torre, S.; Oreni, D.; Previtali, M.; Cantini, L.; Barazzetti, L.; Franchi, A.; Banfi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In December 2012 ENIservizi (the Italian multi-national energy agency operating in many countries), after the Earthquake that occurred in April 2009, decided to undertake the project `Re-start from Collemaggio' with the aim of giving new hope to the L'Aquila community, funding around 14 million Euro to restore the Basilica di Collemaggio. The Superintendence Office carried on the restoration project with the scientific support of the Università degli Studi de L'Aquila and the Università La Sapienza di Roma, under the coordination of the Politecnico di Milano. ENIservizi, aware of the BIM potential in the complex building and infrastructure domain in the world, required an advanced HBIM from the laser scanner and photogrammetric surveying to support the diagnostic analysis, the design project, the tender and the restoration itself, today still on course. Plans and vertical sections were delivered (2012) starting from the surveying campaigns (February and June 2013), together with the first HBIM advancement from the end of 2012 in support of the preliminary-definitive-executive steps of the restoration design project (2013-14-15). Five years later, this paper tries to make a synthesis of the different lessons learnt, in addition to the positive and critical aspects relating HBIM feasibility, sustainability and usefulness to the challenging restoration work. In particular, the Collemaggio BIM experience anticipated the new Italian Public Procurement Legislation (D.Lgs 50/2016, Nuovo Codice degli Appalti pubblici) aligned with to the EUPPD 24/2014: the EU Directive on Public Procurement asked all the 28 EU countries to adopt building informative modelling by February 2016 in order to support the whole LCM (Life Cycle Management), starting from the project and the intervention, through rewarding scores or mandatory regulations. Many analyses foresees to save from around 5% to 15% of the overall investment by adopting mature BIM (Level 3 to 5), particularly 4D remotely

  19. Inadequate description of educational interventions in ongoing randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Cécile

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The registration of clinical trials has been promoted to prevent publication bias and increase research transparency. Despite general agreement about the minimum amount of information needed for trial registration, we lack clear guidance on descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions in trial registries. We aimed to evaluate the quality of registry descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions assessed in ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs of patient education. Methods On 6 May 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the 10 trial registries accessible through the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We included trials evaluating an educational intervention (that is, designed to teach or train patients about their own health and dedicated to participants, their family members or home caregivers. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data related to the description of the experimental intervention, the centers, and the caregivers. Results We selected 268 of 642 potentially eligible studies and appraised a random sample of 150 records. All selected trials were registered in 4 registers, mainly ClinicalTrials.gov (61%. The median [interquartile range] target sample size was 205 [100 to 400] patients. The comparator was mainly usual care (47% or active treatment (47%. A minority of records (17%, 95% CI 11 to 23% reported an overall adequate description of the intervention (that is, description that reported the content, mode of delivery, number, frequency, duration of sessions and overall duration of the intervention. Further, for most reports (59%, important information about the content of the intervention was missing. The description of the mode of delivery of the intervention was reported for 52% of studies, the number of sessions for 74%, the frequency of sessions for 58%, the duration of each session for 45% and the overall duration for 63

  20. Ongoing Space Nuclear Systems Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Werner; S. Johnson; Michael G. Houts; Donald T. Palac; Lee S. Mason; David I. Poston; A. Lou Qualls

    2011-10-01

    Reliable, long-life power systems are required for ambitious space exploration missions. Nuclear power and propulsion options can enable a bold, new set of missions and introduce propulsion capabilities to achieve access to science destinations that are not possible with more conventional systems. Space nuclear power options can be divided into three main categories: radioisotope power for heating or low power applications; fission power systems for non-terrestrial surface application or for spacecraft power; and fission power systems for electric propulsion or direct thermal propulsion. Each of these areas has been investigated in the United States since the 1950s, achieving various stages of development. While some nuclear systems have achieved flight deployment, others continue to be researched today. This paper will provide a brief overview of historical space nuclear programs in the U.S. and will provide a summary of the ongoing space nuclear systems research, development, and deployment in the United States.

  1. Ongoing therapeutic trials and outcome measures for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Alessandra; Magri, Francesca; Brajkovic, Simona; Zanetta, Chiara; Faravelli, Irene; Corti, Stefania; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P

    2013-12-01

    Muscular dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterised by progressive muscle tissue degeneration. No effective treatment has been discovered for these diseases. Preclinical and clinical studies aimed at the development of new therapeutic approaches have been carried out, primarily in subjects affected with dystrophinopathies (Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy). In this review, we outline the current therapeutic approaches and past and ongoing clinical trials, highlighting both the advantages and limits of each one. The experimental designs of these trials were based on different rationales, including immunomodulation, readthrough strategies, exon skipping, gene therapy, and cell therapy. We also provide an overview of available outcome measures, focusing on their reliability in estimating meaningful clinical improvement in order to aid in the design of future trials. This perspective is extremely relevant to the field considering the recent development of novel therapeutic approaches that will result in an increasing number of clinical studies over the next few years.

  2. Bioresorbable scaffolds: current evidence and ongoing clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourantas, Christos V; Zhang, Yaojun; Farooq, Vasim; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W

    2012-10-01

    Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) represent a novel approach in coronary stent technology. In contrast to the metallic stents, they provide transient scaffolding, thereby safeguarding early vessel patency and acute gain. Subsequently a process of "decomposition" occurs, that results in the complete absorption of the scaffold. This reduces the risk of late complications, allowing the vessel to maintain its integrity and physiological function. This unique ability has attracted interest and nowadays several BRS are available. The aim of this review article is to describe the advances in the field, present the evidence from the preclinical and clinical evaluation of these devices, and provide an overview of the ongoing clinical trials that were designed to examine the effectiveness of BRS in the clinical setting.

  3. Energy Colonialism Powers the Ongoing Unnatural Disaster in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina M. de Onís

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 20, 2017, Hurricane María made landfall in Puerto Rico. Blasting the Caribbean archipelago with 155-mile/h winds, this, in many ways, unnatural disaster exposed the brutal consequences of energy colonialism and an extractivist economy, as well as ongoing and increasing advocacy for decentralized solar infrastructure by many local residents and other renewables supporters. This paper argues that acknowledging colonial power relations and their consequences is essential for studying the interplay of energy systems, environments, and actors. To support this claim, this essay outlines Puerto Rico’s history as a US colony by focusing on key policies and their implications; examines openings for and barriers to decentralized, community solar in Puerto Rico; and concludes by discussing future research directions on just energy transitions and the imperative of uprooting colonialism and agitating for community self-determination and energy justice in these transformations.

  4. Evidence-Responsiveness and the Ongoing Autonomy of Treatment Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Steven

    2017-06-14

    To be an autonomous agent is to determine one's own path in life. However, this cannot plausibly be seen as a one-off affair. An autonomous agent does not merely set herself on a particular course and then lock the steering wheel in place, so to speak, but must maintain some form of ongoing control over her direction in life-must keep her eyes on the road and her hands on the wheel. Circumstances often change in important and unexpected ways, after all, and it is reasonable to think that a crucial part of autonomy consists of the ability and disposition to recognize and properly respond to such changes. This implies, I contend, that a patient whose initial decision to undergo a given treatment satisfied plausible requirements of autonomy, but who is now unable to recognize that available evidence indicates the need to reconsider her medical situation and options has come to lack autonomy with respect to her desire to continue that treatment. However, and despite its importance with respect to both theoretical understandings of autonomy and applications of the concept to clinical ethics, this ongoing aspect of autonomy has received little attention. This paper aims to go some way toward remedying that. I first critically review two of the few theories of autonomy that do address "evidence-responsiveness" so as to identify and elaborate what I take to be the most promising way in which to account for this aspect of autonomy. After considering and responding to a possible objection to the evidence-responsiveness condition I propose, I conclude by discussing its clinical implications. That condition, I argue, is not merely theoretically sound, but can and should be applied to clinical practice.

  5. Planned and ongoing projects (pop) database: development and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Claudia; Erdös, Judit; Warmuth, Marisa; Hinterreiter, Gerda; Krämer, Peter; Chalon, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to present the development, structure and results of a database on planned and ongoing health technology assessment (HTA) projects (POP Database) in Europe. The POP Database (POP DB) was set up in an iterative process from a basic Excel sheet to a multifunctional electronic online database. The functionalities, such as the search terminology, the procedures to fill and update the database, the access rules to enter the database, as well as the maintenance roles, were defined in a multistep participatory feedback loop with EUnetHTA Partners. The POP Database has become an online database that hosts not only the titles and MeSH categorizations, but also some basic information on status and contact details about the listed projects of EUnetHTA Partners. Currently, it stores more than 1,200 planned, ongoing or recently published projects of forty-three EUnetHTA Partners from twenty-four countries. Because the POP Database aims to facilitate collaboration, it also provides a matching system to assist in identifying similar projects. Overall, more than 10 percent of the projects in the database are identical both in terms of pathology (indication or disease) and technology (drug, medical device, intervention). In addition, approximately 30 percent of the projects are similar, meaning that they have at least some overlap in content. Although the POP DB is successful concerning regular updates of most national HTA agencies within EUnetHTA, little is known about its actual effects on collaborations in Europe. Moreover, many non-nationally nominated HTA producing agencies neither have access to the POP DB nor can share their projects.

  6. Outcomes in registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials of patient education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Pino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, patient education is becoming important to strengthen disease prevention and control. We aimed to systematically determine the extent to which registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluated an educational intervention focus on patient-important outcomes (i.e., outcomes measuring patient health status and quality of life. METHODS: On May 6, 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data and determined whether the outcomes assessed were 1 patient-important outcomes such as clinical events, functional status, pain, or quality of life or 2 surrogate outcomes, such as biological outcome, treatment adherence, or patient knowledge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 268 of the 642 potentially eligible studies and assessed a random sample of 150. Patient-important outcomes represented 54% (178 of 333 of all primary outcomes and 46% (286 of 623 of all secondary outcomes. Overall, 69% of trials (104 of 150 used at least one patient-important outcome as a primary outcome and 66% (99 of 150 as a secondary outcome. Finally, for 31% of trials (46 of 150, primary outcomes were only surrogate outcomes. The results varied by medical area. In neuropsychiatric disorders, patient important outcomes represented 84% (51 of 61 of primary outcomes, as compared with 54% (32 of 59 in malignant neoplasm and 18% (4 of 22 in diabetes mellitus trials. In addition, only 35% assessed the long-term impact of interventions (i.e., >6 months. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve the relevance of outcomes and to assess the long term impact of educational interventions in RCTs.

  7. Technological advances in pediatrics: challenges for parents and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Gwen R

    2004-02-01

    Ongoing technological advances in pediatrics are improving the survival rates among babies born with life-threatening anomalies. For these neonates, surgeries like brain shunts, trachea, gut and heart reconstruction, and organ transplants are replacing palliative care. Although parents and health care professionals alike are celebrating the successes, advancing technology also raises issues for everyone involved. This paper incorporates Dunst and Trivette's Effective Helpgiving framework and the Calgary Family Intervention Model to recommend nursing care that moves beyond life-saving highly technical surgical procedures and responds to the challenges parents face with their children with complex congenital heart disease, for example, who have "beat the odds."

  8. How we conduct ongoing programmatic evaluation of our medical education curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpa, Kelly; Abendroth, Catherine S

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of undergraduate medical education programs is necessary to meet accreditation standards; however, implementation and maintenance of an adequate evaluation process is challenging. A curriculum evaluation committee (CEC) was established at the Penn State University College of Medicine in 2000 to complement the already established activities of the Office of the Vice Dean for Medical Education and the Committee on Undergraduate Medical Education. Herein, we describe the methodology used by the CEC at our academic medical center and outcomes attributable to the curriculum evaluation process that was enacted. Strengths of our process include ongoing, regular assessments that guarantee a course is reviewed at least every two years and a feedback loop whereby course directors are held accountable for implementing changes when necessary. Our evaluative process has proven effective, sustainable, and has identified additional areas for curricular improvements.

  9. Continuously on-going hindcast simulations for impact applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Ivonne; Geyer, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Observations for e.g. temperature, precipitation, radiation, or wind are often used as meteorological forcing for different impact models, like e.g. crop models, urban models, economic models and energy system models. To assess a climate signal, the time period covered by the observation is often too short, they have gaps in between, and are inhomogeneous over time, due to changes in the measurements itself or in the near surrounding. Thus output from global and regional climate models can close the gap and provide homogeneous and physically consistent time series of meteorological parameters. CORDEX evaluation runs performed for the IPCC-AR5 provide a good base for the regional scale. However, with respect to climate services, continuously on-going hindcast simulations are required for regularly updated applications. In this study two projects are presented where hindcast-simulations optimized for a region of interest are performed continuously. The hindcast simulation performed by HZG covering Europe includes the EURO-CORDEX domain with a wider extend to the north to cover the ice edge. The simulation under consideration of the coastDat-experiences is available for the period of 1979 - 2015, prolonged ongoing and fulfills the customer's needs with respect of output variables, levels, intervals and statistical measures. CoastDat - customers are dealing e.g. with naval architecture, renewable energies, offshore wind farming, shipping emissions, coastal flood risk and others. The evaluation of the hindcast is done for Europe by using the EVAL-tool of the CCLM community and by comparison with HYRAS - data for Germany and neighbouring countries. The Climate Research group at the national Austrian weather service, ZAMG, is focusing on high mountain regions and, especially on the Alps. The hindcast-simulation is forced by ERA-interim and optimized for the Alpine Region. One of the main tasks is to capture strong precipitation events which often occur during summer when

  10. Genome analysis of yellow fever virus of the ongoing outbreak in Brazil reveals polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna C Bonaldo

    Full Text Available The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil is the most severe one in the country in recent times. It has rapidly spread to areas where YF virus (YFV activity has not been observed for more than 70 years and vaccine coverage is almost null. Here, we sequenced the whole YFV genome of two naturally infected howler-monkeys (Alouatta clamitans obtained from the Municipality of Domingos Martins, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These two ongoing-outbreak genome sequences are identical. They clustered in the 1E sub-clade (South America genotype I along with the Brazilian and Venezuelan strains recently characterised from infections in humans and non-human primates that have been described in the last 20 years. However, we detected eight unique amino acid changes in the viral proteins, including the structural capsid protein (one change, and the components of the viral replicase complex, the NS3 (two changes and NS5 (five changes proteins, that could impact the capacity of viral infection in vertebrate and/or invertebrate hosts and spreading of the ongoing outbreak.

  11. Continuous Traumatic Situations in the Face of Ongoing Political Violence: The Relationship Between CTS and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit; Shoval-Zuckerman, Yael

    2016-12-01

    This article presents a literature review of the concept of continuous traumatic situations (CTS), which relates to residents living in ongoing situations of political violence and national security threats. The first aim of this review is to narrow the gap regarding knowledge about the concept of CTS by presenting findings from studies that have assessed the effects of CTS on civilian populations. The second aim is to describe CTS in a way that highlights the differences and similarities between posttraumatic stress disorder and responses to CTS. This distinction is a necessary precondition for examining CTS, as is a careful clinical analysis of the development and course of symptoms. This literature review also highlights the importance of adopting a supplementary perspective for understanding the psychological impact of ongoing exposure to real threats, which can be used as a basis for developing intervention strategies that are appropriate for coping with life in the context of persistent violence. CTS can be manifested as emotions, behaviors, and perceptions among individuals, families, communities, and societies. The nature of the proposed model of CTS is a circular one, combining past and future perceptions and emotional reactions that have resulted from continuous and repeated traumatic experiences over an extended period of time. This wider understanding reflects the complexity of the CTS phenomenon. Various micro and macro interventions relating to CTS as the result of political violence situations and national security threats are presented, and recommendations for practice, policy, and future research are offered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Scottish Nuclear's advertising campaign: 'The on-going task'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    During the past year the Scottish Nuclear had been working to win increased public acceptance of nuclear power in Scotland. Since then it has stepped up the PR campaign activities - and has had a very successful year. But much has still to be done. The programme 'Come and See' which was introduced in the Spring of 1991. was developed and extended introducing a Talks Service and a mobile exhibition as two new features. At the same time the Torness Power Station Visitors' Centre was opened. In 1992 a visitor's centre was opened at Hunterston Power Station. By the end of November 1992, there was almost 28,000 visitors - an increase of 48% compared to the previous year. An extensive 1.9 million pound television and newspaper advertising campaign was also mounted during the summer months. So it has been a particularly busy year and more than modestly successful. Another arm of Come and See is 'Talkabout' - the Talks Service. In 1992 members of staff gave 187 talks all over Scotland - to over 5,000 people. In the Spring of 1992 a Mobile Exhibition was also introduced. It tours the whole of Scotland. In all there have been 62 venues, a large variety of events. Over 30,000 people have visited the exhibition since March. To enhance all these Programmes a variety of literature, videos, promotional items, and static exhibition material are prepared. These have all been developed since 1990 and are kept updated on an on-going basis

  13. Boxwood blight: an ongoing threat to ornamental and native boxwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Nicholas; Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Crouch, Jo Anne

    2018-04-02

    Boxwood blight is an emerging disease of ornamental and native boxwood plants in the family Buxaceae. First documented in the 1990s at a single location in England, the disease is now reported throughout Europe, Asia, New Zealand, and North America. To address the growing concern over boxwood blight, ongoing research focuses on multiple biological and genetic aspects of the causal pathogens and susceptible host plants. Characterization of genetic variation among the Calonectria fungi that cause boxwood blight shows that two unique sister species with different geographic distributions incite the disease. Studies of the pathogen life cycle show the formation of long-lived survival structures and that host infection is dependent on inoculum density, temperature, and humidity. Host range investigations detail high levels of susceptibility among boxwood as well as the potential for asymptomatic boxwood infection and for other plants in the family Buxaceae to serve as additional hosts. Multiple DNA-based diagnostic assays are available, ranging from probe-based quantitative PCR assays to the use of comparative genomics to develop robust diagnostic markers or provide whole genome-scale identifications. Though many questions remain, the research that continues to address boxwood blight demonstrates the importance of applying a multidisciplinary approach to understand and control emerging plant diseases.

  14. Failure Modes in Concrete Repair Systems due to Ongoing Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Luković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It can result in cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. After the damaged cover is repaired, reinforcement corrosion might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion cell is difficult to control, the damage can be possibly delayed and controlled by use of a suitable repair material. The lattice fracture model is used in this paper to investigate the performance of strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC in concrete repair systems exposed to ongoing corrosion. Numerical results were verified by experimental tests when SHCC, nonreinforced material (repair mortar, and commercial repair mortar are used as repair materials. In experiments, reinforcement bars (surrounded by a repair material were exposed to accelerated corrosion tests. The influence of the substrate surface preparation, the type of repair material, the interface, and the substrate strength on the resulting damage and failure mode of repair systems are discussed. In general, SHCC repair enables distributed cracking with small crack widths, up to several times smaller compared to repair mortar. Furthermore, more warning signs prior to the final failure are present in the SHCC repair system.

  15. Fetal tissue research: an ongoing story of professionally responsible success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelber, Shari E; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A

    2015-12-01

    Therapies derived from fetal tissue research are some of the greatest success stories in medicine. Research using fetal tissue has allowed for development of vaccines for numerous diseases including polio, rubella, and measles. These vaccines have saved countless lives, improved quality of life, and decreased the need for induced abortion secondary to congenital infection. Research using cell lines derived from fetal tissue has assisted in better understanding disease pathogenesis and has served to produce human proteins as research reagents and therapies. Ongoing research points to the potential for fetal tissue to be used to cure debilitating diseases such as Parkinson disease. These scientific and medical advances are dependent on the use of fetal tissue from aborted fetuses. While the practice of induced abortion despite societal benefit may be theologically objectionable to some, these practices are professionally responsible. Federal regulations exist to discourage patients from being influenced by the societal benefit of fetal research in arriving at the decision to terminate as well as to prevent researchers from influencing a patient's decision. After a patient has chosen termination of pregnancy, it is consistent with professional responsibility to allow her to choose the disposition of the cadaveric fetal tissue. While some may view induced abortion and societal benefit from this practice as an ethical burden, the principle of justice makes it ethically obligatory to bear this ethical burden. The success story of cadaveric fetal tissue research and treatment should continue unhindered, to fulfill professional responsibility to current and future patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Geoengineering: Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering (also called climate engineering, which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geoengineering can be broadly divided into two categories: solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM, which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR, which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues: 1 climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2 climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep understanding of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  17. Combating antibiotic resistance, mitigating future threats and ongoing initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Roseann; Sloand, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    To emphasise the impact of antibiotic resistance as a persistent, global health threat and highlight efforts to improve this complex problem. Political agendas, legislation, development of therapies and educational initiatives are essential to mitigate the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance. Original manuscript. Prescribers, policymakers and researchers are charged with the complex task of mitigating antibiotic resistance in an era when new treatments for bacterial infections are limited. Monitoring, surveillance and incentivising of practice, policy and new treatments provide solutions to antibiotic resistance in both the human and agricultural sectors. This article emphasises the complexity of antibiotic resistance and highlights the need for a multifaceted approach to improve health care outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prevention and control of rheumatic heart disease: Overcoming core challenges in resource-poor environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Dougherty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatic heart disease (RHD has long receded as a significant threat to public health in high-income countries. In low-resource settings, however, the specter of RHD remains unabated, as exemplified by recent data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study. There are many complex reasons for this ongoing global disparity, including inadequate data on disease burden, challenges in effective advocacy, ongoing poverty and inequality, and weak health systems, most of which predominantly affect developing nations. In this review, we discuss how each of these acts as a core challenge in RHD prevention and control. We then examine key lessons learnt from successful control programs in the past and highlight resources that have been developed to help create strong national RHD control programs.

  19. National Security Challenges: Insights from Social, Neurobiological, and Complexity Sciences. Topical Strategic Multi-Layer Assessment (SMA) and U.S. Army ERDC Multi-Agency/Multi-Disciplinary White Papers in Support of National Security Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    facing the infidel ” or “the life of a martyr.” Remember that norms are social constructions of shared beliefs, and as such are meaningless until a...other tribal section; my tribe against the other tribe; Muslims against infidels .” See also, for example, Montgomery McFate’s, “The “Memory of War...visual image, and this tendency emerges across four distinct domains: sexual , disgust, defense, National Security Challenges Approved for Public

  20. Genomic Infectious Disease Epidemiology in Partially Sampled and Ongoing Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Xavier; Fraser, Christophe; Gardy, Jennifer; Colijn, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Genomic data are increasingly being used to understand infectious disease epidemiology. Isolates from a given outbreak are sequenced, and the patterns of shared variation are used to infer which isolates within the outbreak are most closely related to each other. Unfortunately, the phylogenetic trees typically used to represent this variation are not directly informative about who infected whom-a phylogenetic tree is not a transmission tree. However, a transmission tree can be inferred from a phylogeny while accounting for within-host genetic diversity by coloring the branches of a phylogeny according to which host those branches were in. Here we extend this approach and show that it can be applied to partially sampled and ongoing outbreaks. This requires computing the correct probability of an observed transmission tree and we herein demonstrate how to do this for a large class of epidemiological models. We also demonstrate how the branch coloring approach can incorporate a variable number of unique colors to represent unsampled intermediates in transmission chains. The resulting algorithm is a reversible jump Monte-Carlo Markov Chain, which we apply to both simulated data and real data from an outbreak of tuberculosis. By accounting for unsampled cases and an outbreak which may not have reached its end, our method is uniquely suited to use in a public health environment during real-time outbreak investigations. We implemented this transmission tree inference methodology in an R package called TransPhylo, which is freely available from https://github.com/xavierdidelot/TransPhylo. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Climate niche differentiation between two passerines despite ongoing gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Pei-Jen L; Tsao, Tzu-Hsuan; Lin, Rong-Chien; Liang, Wei; Yeh, Chia-Fen; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Lei, Fu-Min; Zhou, Fang; Yang, Can-Chao; Hung, Le Manh; Hsu, Yu-Cheng; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2015-05-01

    Niche evolution underpins the generation and maintenance of biological diversity, but niche conservatism, in which niches remain little changed over time in closely related taxa, and the role of ecology in niche evolution are continually debated. To test whether climate niches are conserved in two closely related passerines in East Asia - the vinous-throated (Paradoxornis webbianus) and ashy-throated (P. alphonsianus) parrotbills - we established their potential allopatric and sympatric regions using ecological niche models and compared differences in their climate niches using niche overlap indices in background tests and multivariate statistical analyses. We also used polymorphism data on 44 nuclear genes to infer their divergence demography. We found that these two parrotbills occupy different climate niches, in both their allopatric and potential sympatric regions. Because the potential sympatric region is the area predicted to be suitable for both parrotbills based on the ecological niche models, it can serve as a natural common garden. Therefore, their observed niche differences in this potential sympatry were not simply rendered by phenotypic plasticity and probably had a genetic basis. Our genetic analyses revealed that the two parrotbills are not evolutionarily independent for the most recent part of their divergence history. The two parrotbills diverged c. 856,000 years ago and have had substantial gene flow since a presumed secondary contact c. 290,000 years ago. This study provides an empirical case demonstrating that climate niches may not be homogenized in nascent species in spite of substantial, ongoing gene flow, which in turn suggests a role for ecology in promoting and maintaining diversification among incipient species. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  2. Morphological stasis in an ongoing gastropod radiation from Lake Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Hunt, Gene

    2013-08-20

    Evolutionary processes leading to adaptive radiation regularly occur too fast to be accurately recorded in the fossil record but too slowly to be readily observed in living biota. The study of evolutionary radiations is thereby confronted with an epistemological gap between the timescales and approaches used by neontologists and paleontologists. Here we report on an ongoing radiation of extant Bellamya species (n = 4) from the African Rift Lake Malawi that provides an unusual opportunity to bridge this gap. The substantial molecular differentiation in this monophyletic Bellamya clade has arisen since Late Pleistocene megadroughts in the Malawi Basin caused by climate change. Morphological time-series analysis of a high-resolution, radiocarbon-dated sequence of 22 faunas spanning the Holocene documents stasis up to the middle Holocene in all traits studied (shell height, number of whorls, and two variables obtained from geometric morphometrics). Between deposition of the last fossil fauna (~5 ka) and the present day, a drastic increase in morphological disparity was observed (3.7-5.8 times) associated with an increase in species diversity. Comparison of the rates of morphological evolution obtained from the paleontological time-series with phylogenetic rates indicates that the divergence in two traits could be reconstructed with the slow rates documented in the fossils, that one trait required a rate reduction (stabilizing selection), and the other faster rates (divergent selection). The combined paleontological and comparative approach taken here allows recognition that morphological stasis can be the dominant evolutionary pattern within species lineages, even in very young and radiating clades.

  3. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes eRuge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one’s own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the common outcome control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are ‘actively’ integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  4. Populations and outcome measures used in ongoing research in sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Ordóñez, Gloria Gabriela; Bustamante Montes, Lilia Patricia; Ramírez Duran, Ninfa; Sánchez Castellano, Carmen; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia research may be hampered by the heterogeneity of populations and outcome measures used in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to describe the inclusion/exclusion criteria and outcome measures used in ongoing research in sarcopenia. All active intervention studies registered in the World Health Organization with the keyword sarcopenia were included. Study design, type of intervention, inclusion/exclusion criteria and outcome measures were registered and classified. In April 2014, 151 studies on sarcopenia were registered in the WHO database. One hundred twenty-three were intervention studies. Most trials (94.3 %) were single centre and randomized (93.5 %), 51.2 % were double blind. Nutritional interventions (36.6 %), physical exercise (12.2 %) or both (19.5 %) were the most common interventions tested. Only 54.4 % included subjects of both genders, and 46.3 % had an upper age limit. Definition of the target populations was heterogeneous, with 57.7 % including healthy subjects and none using recent definitions of sarcopenia. Lifestyle and the degree of physical activity of subjects were not described or considered in most cases (79.7 %). Subjects with cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric or metabolic disorders and those with physical disability were usually excluded. Muscle mass and muscle strength were the primary outcome variables in 28.5 and 29.5 % of studies and physical performance in 19.5 %, but only 4.1 % used the three variables used the three of them. An additional 26.8 % used biological outcome variables. Little information and agreement existed in the way muscle and physical performance parameters were measured. We found a large heterogeneity in trial design, definition of populations and outcome measures in present research.

  5. Ongoing River Capture in the Amazon via Secondary Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S. L.; Stokes, M.; Perron, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Rio Casiquiare in South America is a secondary channel that originates as a distributary of the Rio Orinoco and flows into the Rio Negro as a tributary to form a perennial connection between the Amazon and Orinoco basins, the largest and fourth-largest rivers on Earth by discharge. This unusual configuration is the result of an incomplete and ongoing river capture in which the Rio Negro is actively capturing the upper Rio Orinoco. This rarely observed intermediate stage of capture illuminates important mechanisms that drive river capture in lowland settings, both in the Amazon basin and elsewhere. In particular, we show that the capture of the Rio Orinoco by the Rio Casiquiare is driven by a combination of headward incision of a rapidly eroding tributary of the Rio Negro, sedimentation in the Rio Orinoco downstream of the bifurcation, and seasonal inundation of a low-relief divide. The initiation of the bifurcation by headward erosion caused an increase in discharge to the Rio Casiquiare while the corresponding loss of discharge to the downstream Rio Orinoco has led to observable sedimentation within the main channel. Unlike most ephemeral secondary channels, the Rio Casiquiare appears to be growing, suggesting that the present bifurcation is an unstable feature that will eventually lead to the complete capture of the upper Rio Orinoco by the Rio Casiquiare. This capture is the latest major event in the late Cenozoic drainage evolution of South America in response to Andean tectonism, and is an example of the lateral expansion of the Amazon basin through river capture following integration and entrenchment of the transcontinental Amazon River. The Rio Casiquiare provides a snapshot of an intermediate, transient state of bifurcation and inter-basin flow via a secondary channel during lowland river capture.

  6. Recurrences and Ongoing Complaints of Diverticulitis; Results of a Survey among Gastroenterologists and Surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, M. A W; Draaisma, W. A.; Consten, E. C J; Broeders, I. A M J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the current opinion of gastroenterologists and surgeons on treatment strategies for patients, with recurrences or ongoing complaints of diverticulitis. Background: Treatment of recurrences and ongoing complaints remains a point of debate. No randomized

  7. Great excavations refitting an existing tunnel ring at CERN for a new, more complex particle accelerator challenged designers to succeed under extraordinary conditions

    CERN Multimedia

    Wallis, S

    2001-01-01

    Caverns up to 35 m wide, 42 m high and 82 m long are now under construction at CERN to house the detectors which will be used for the LHC. The size and difficult geological conditions have made this a very challenging project (8 pages).

  8. Complex challenges of maintaining whitebark pine in Greater Yellowstone under climate change: A call for innovative research, management, and policy approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Hansen; Kathryn Ireland; Kristin Legg; Robert Keane; Edward Barge; Martha Jenkins; Michiel Pillet

    2016-01-01

    Climate suitability is projected to decline for many subalpine species, raising questions about managing species under a deteriorating climate. Whitebark pine (WBP) (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) crystalizes the challenges that natural resource managers of many high mountain ecosystems will likely face in the coming decades. We...

  9. Radical university-industry innovation – research design and preliminary findings from an on-going qualitative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    This paper reports from an on-going pilot project investigating university-industry collaboration on the development of radical innovation. There is evidence in the literature that such collaboration increases the likelihood of radical innovation. A conceptual framework is presented and it is arg......This paper reports from an on-going pilot project investigating university-industry collaboration on the development of radical innovation. There is evidence in the literature that such collaboration increases the likelihood of radical innovation. A conceptual framework is presented....... Some preliminary findings are presented and briefly discussed, including the role of the university’s formal set-up to deal with IPR/commercialisation and the researchers’ personal networking with industry as well as challenges concerning the sharing of IPR/commercialisation outcomes....

  10. M-CAFE 1.0: Motivating and Prioritizing Ongoing Student Feedback During MOOCs and Large on-Campus Courses using Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mo; Cliff, Alison; Krishnan, Sanjay; Nonnecke, Brandie; Crittenden, Camille; Uchino, Kanji; Goldberg, Ken

    2015-01-01

    During MOOCs and large on-campus courses with limited face-toface interaction between students and instructors, assessing and improving teaching effectiveness is challenging. In a 2014 study on course-monitoring methods for MOOCs [30], qualitative (textual) input was found to be the most useful. Two challenges in collecting such input for ongoing course evaluation are insuring student confidentiality and developing a platform that incentivizes and manages input from many students. To collect ...

  11. ISO 9000: The challenge of Camacari petrochemical complex, Bahia State - Northeast Brazil; ISO 9000: o desafio do polo petroquimico de Camacari, BA, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio Lima de; Carvalho Neto, Jose

    1992-12-31

    The petrochemical complex of Camacari, BA, Brazil, involves 40 companies, responsible for 55% of brazilian production. The companies were installed using the most modern techniques related to quality available at that time, strongly centered in quality control. The new industrial policy towards reducing import taxes and allowing the entrance of foreign products at competitive prices, besides the quality exigencies of international market, induced the companies to develop new techniques for quality management based in the ISO 9000 standards. The paper shows the stage of implementation of these standards in 30 companies, corresponding to 90% of global sales of all the complex. (author)

  12. Beyond patient reported pain: perfusion magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates reproducible cerebral representation of ongoing post-surgical pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Howard

    Full Text Available Development of treatments for acute and chronic pain conditions remains a challenge, with an unmet need for improved sensitivity and reproducibility in measuring pain in patients. Here we used pulsed-continuous arterial spin-labelling [pCASL], a relatively novel perfusion magnetic-resonance imaging technique, in conjunction with a commonly-used post-surgical model, to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow [rCBF] associated with the experience of being in ongoing pain. We demonstrate repeatable, reproducible assessment of ongoing pain that is independent of patient self-report. In a cross-over trial design, 16 participants requiring bilateral removal of lower-jaw third molars underwent pain-free pre-surgical pCASL scans. Following extraction of either left or right tooth, repeat scans were acquired during post-operative ongoing pain. When pain-free following surgical recovery, the pre/post-surgical scanning procedure was repeated for the remaining tooth. Voxelwise statistical comparison of pre and post-surgical scans was performed to reveal rCBF changes representing ongoing pain. In addition, rCBF values in predefined pain and control brain regions were obtained. rCBF increases (5-10% representing post-surgical ongoing pain were identified bilaterally in a network including primary and secondary somatosensory, insula and cingulate cortices, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain and brainstem (including trigeminal ganglion and principal-sensory nucleus, but not in a control region in visual cortex. rCBF changes were reproducible, with no rCBF differences identified across scans within-session or between post-surgical pain sessions. This is the first report of the cerebral representation of ongoing post-surgical pain without the need for exogenous tracers. Regions of rCBF increases are plausibly associated with pain and the technique is reproducible, providing an attractive proposition for testing interventions for on-going pain that

  13. Long-term recovery trajectory after stroke: an ongoing negotiation between body, participation and self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Cathrine; Borg, Tove; Hamran, Torunn

    2015-01-01

    Research has mainly focused on the first year of recovery trajectory after stroke, but there is limited knowledge about how stroke survivors manage their long-term everyday lives. This study seeks to fill this gap by exploring the long-term (1-13 years) negotiations of stroke survivors when they experience progress, wellbeing and faith in the future. Repeated in-depth interviews were conducted with nine people living with moderate impairment after stroke and their closest relatives. Concepts from phenomenology and critical psychology constituted the frame of reference of the study. The long-term stroke recovery trajectory can be understood as a process of struggling to overcome tensions between three phenomena under ongoing change: the lived body, participation in everyday life and sense of self. During the recovery process, stroke survivors experience progress, well-being and faith in the future when moving towards renewed relationships, characterised by (1) a modified habitual body, (2) repositioned participation in specific everyday life contexts and (3) a transformed sense of self. This study stresses the importance of developing new forms of professional support during the long-term recovery trajectory, to stimulate and increase interaction and coherence in the relationship between the stroke survivor's bodily perception, participation in everyday life and sense of self. The study deepening how the long-term recovery trajectory after stroke is about ongoing embodied, practical and socially situated negotiations. The study demonstrates that the recovery trajectory is a long term process of learning where the stroke survivor, as an embodied agent, gradually modifies new bodily habits, re-position participation and transforming of the self. Health personnel are usually available in the acute and early rehabilitation period. The three phenomenons under ongoing change; "body", "participation" and "self" are at this point just about being moved toward a renewed and

  14. The ongoing quest for biomarkers in Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danve, Abhijeet; O'Dell, James

    2015-11-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis poses significant challenges in terms of early diagnosis, assessment of disease activity, predicting response to the treatment and monitoring radiographic progression. With better understanding of underlying immunopathogenesis, effective targeted therapies are available which improve symptoms, quality of life and possibly slow the radiographic progression. There has been a growing interest in the discovery of biomarkers for defining various aspects of disease assessment and management in Ankylosing Spondylitis. The C-reactive protein and HLA-B27 are most commonly used biomarkers. This review describes many other newer biomarkers which have potential clinical applications in this chronic inflammatory disease. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Why society is a complex problem? A review of Philip Ball’s book – Meeting Twenty-first Century Challenges with a New Kind of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Tampu

    2013-03-01

    Human awareness and intelligence demand a more responsible approach to all operations and steps should be made in determining the consequences and their impact. The goal of this paper is not restricted to providing a review but also to enforce certain ideas in relation to the complex interactions specific to society and economic activities.

  16. Deformation patterns on Kythnos, Western Cyclades; ongoing work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    footwall part of the exposed West Cycladic Detachment System in the extreme SW of the island. The cause of the change from BGM in the east to YBM in the west is enigmatic. A primary sedimentary variation is unlikely, as it is parallel to the stretching direction; syn-tectonic dissolution seems more likely, but implies a massive fluid flow through the rocks. The confusion between BGM and YBM is seen elsewhere, with, for example, the map showing BGM changing to YBM across a normal fault, with little apparent offset of the marble boundary. Clearly, the map of de Smeth (1975), although very good in general, needs careful reworking. More important, it is potentially obscuring significant large-scale structures by mapping the same marble as two different lithostratigraphic units. Work is ongoing in the area.

  17. Urbanization and the Carbon Cycle: Synthesis of Ongoing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Duren, R. M.; Hutyra, L.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Patarasuk, R.; Song, Y.; Huang, J.; Davis, K.; Kort, E. A.; Shepson, P. B.; Turnbull, J. C.; Lauvaux, T.; Rao, P.; Eldering, A.; Miller, C. E.; Wofsy, S.; McKain, K.; Mendoza, D. L.; Lin, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Given the explosive growth in urbanization and its dominant role in current and future global greenhouse gas emissions, urban areas have received increasing research attention from the carbon cycle science community. The emerging focus is driven by the increasingly dense atmospheric observing capabilities - ground and space-based - in addition to the rising profile of cities within international climate change policymaking. Dominated by anthropogenic emissions, urban carbon cycle research requires a cross-disciplinary perspective with contributions from disciplines such as engineering, economics, social theory, and atmospheric science. We review the recent results from a sample of the active urban carbon research efforts including the INFLUX experiment (Indianapolis), the Megacity carbon project (Los Angeles), Salt Lake City, and Boston. Each of these efforts represent unique approaches in pursuit of different scientific and policy questions and assist in setting priorities for future research. From top-down atmospheric measurement systems to bottom-up estimation, these research efforts offer a view of the challenges and opportunities in urban carbon cycle research.

  18. Sustainable Development, Architecture and Modernism: Aspects of an Ongoing Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Vandevyvere

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some discourses on sustainability, modernism in architecture is blamed for its technocratic beliefs that supposedly generated a lot of the social and environmental problems the world is facing today. At the same time, many architectural critics seem to be convinced that the present call for sustainability with its “green buildings”, is but another screen behind which well-known old power structures hide. In this paper, we react to these viewpoints in different ways. First we clarify the issues that are haunting current architectural discourses by unraveling the logics behind the viewpoints of the critics of the “environmental doctrine” on the one hand and the technical environmentalists on the other hand. We will offer, secondly, a new framing to these debates by relying upon the modal sphere theory of the Dutch philosopher Herman Dooyeweerd. This new framing will allow us to reconnect, thirdly, with the discourse of modernism, which, we will argue, is all too often conflated with a technocratic paradigm—a partial, incomplete and even misleading representation. In conclusion, we present a different framing of modernism, which allows understanding of it as a multilayered and multifaceted response to the challenges of modernity, a response that formulated a series of ideals that are not so far removed from the ideals formulated today by many advocates of sustainability. We are, thus, suggesting that the sustainability discourse should be conceived as a more mature and revised version of the paradigm of modernism, rather than its absolute counterpoint.

  19. The ongoing evolution of the core curriculum of a clinical fellowship in pathology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Andrew M; Klepeis, Veronica E; Mandelker, Diana L; Platt, Mia Y; Rao, Luigi K F; Riedlinger, Gregory; Baron, Jason M; Brodsky, Victor; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lane, William; Lee, Roy E; Levy, Bruce P; McClintock, David S; Beckwith, Bruce A; Kuo, Frank C; Gilbertson, John R

    2014-01-01

    The Partners HealthCare system's Clinical Fellowship in Pathology Informatics (Boston, MA, USA) faces ongoing challenges to the delivery of its core curriculum in the forms of: (1) New classes of fellows annually with new and varying educational needs and increasingly fractured, enterprise-wide commitments; (2) taxing electronic health record (EHR) and laboratory information system (LIS) implementations; and (3) increasing interest in the subspecialty at the academic medical centers (AMCs) in what is a large health care network. In response to these challenges, the fellowship has modified its existing didactic sessions and piloted both a network-wide pathology informatics lecture series and regular "learning laboratories". Didactic sessions, which had previously included more formal discussions of the four divisions of the core curriculum: Information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management, now focus on group discussions concerning the fellows' ongoing projects, updates on the enterprise-wide EHR and LIS implementations, and directed questions about weekly readings. Lectures are given by the informatics faculty, guest informatics faculty, current and former fellows, and information systems members in the network, and are open to all professional members of the pathology departments at the AMCs. Learning laboratories consist of small-group exercises geared toward a variety of learning styles, and are driven by both the fellows and a member of the informatics faculty. The learning laboratories have created a forum for discussing real-time and real-world pathology informatics matters, and for incorporating awareness of and timely discussions about the latest pathology informatics literature. These changes have diversified the delivery of the fellowship's core curriculum, increased exposure of faculty, fellows and trainees to one another, and more equitably distributed teaching responsibilities among the entirety of the

  20. The ongoing evolution of the core curriculum of a clinical fellowship in pathology informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Partners HealthCare system′s Clinical Fellowship in Pathology Informatics (Boston, MA, USA faces ongoing challenges to the delivery of its core curriculum in the forms of: (1 New classes of fellows annually with new and varying educational needs and increasingly fractured, enterprise-wide commitments; (2 taxing electronic health record (EHR and laboratory information system (LIS implementations; and (3 increasing interest in the subspecialty at the academic medical centers (AMCs in what is a large health care network. In response to these challenges, the fellowship has modified its existing didactic sessions and piloted both a network-wide pathology informatics lecture series and regular "learning laboratories". Didactic sessions, which had previously included more formal discussions of the four divisions of the core curriculum: Information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management, now focus on group discussions concerning the fellows′ ongoing projects, updates on the enterprise-wide EHR and LIS implementations, and directed questions about weekly readings. Lectures are given by the informatics faculty, guest informatics faculty, current and former fellows, and information systems members in the network, and are open to all professional members of the pathology departments at the AMCs. Learning laboratories consist of small-group exercises geared toward a variety of learning styles, and are driven by both the fellows and a member of the informatics faculty. The learning laboratories have created a forum for discussing real-time and real-world pathology informatics matters, and for incorporating awareness of and timely discussions about the latest pathology informatics literature. These changes have diversified the delivery of the fellowship′s core curriculum, increased exposure of faculty, fellows and trainees to one another, and more equitably distributed teaching responsibilities among

  1. Evolution and complexity of government policies to protect the health of undocumented/illegal migrants in Thailand – the unsolved challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Putthasri, Weerasak; Prakongsai, Phusit; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2017-01-01

    Background Of the 65 million residents in Thailand, >1.5 million are undocumented/illegal migrants from neighboring countries. Despite several policies being launched to improve access to care for these migrants, policy implementation has always faced numerous challenges. This study aimed to investigate the policy makers’ views on the challenges of implementing policies to protect the health of undocumented/illegal migrants in light of the dynamics of all of the migrant policies in Thailand. Methods This study used a qualitative approach. Data were collected by document review, from related laws/regulations concerning migration policy over the past 40 years, and from in-depth interviews with seven key policy-level officials. Thematic analysis was applied. Results Three critical themes emerged, namely, national security, economic necessity, and health protection. The national security discourse played a dominant role from the early 1900s up to the 1980s as Thailand attempted to defend itself from the threats of colonialism and communism. The economic boom of the 1990s created a pronounced labor shortage, which required a large migrant labor force to drive the growing economy. The first significant attempt to protect the health of migrants materialized in the early 2000s, after Thailand achieved universal health coverage. During that period, public insurance for undocumented/illegal migrants was introduced. The insurance used premium-based financing. However, the majority of migrants remained uninsured. Recently, the government attempted to overhaul the entire migrant registry system by introducing a new measure, namely the One Stop Service. In principle, the One Stop Service aimed to integrate the functions of all responsible authorities, but several challenges still remained; these included ambiguous policy messages and the slow progress of the nationality verification process. Conclusion The root causes of the challenges in migrant health policy are incoherent

  2. Evolution and complexity of government policies to protect the health of undocumented/illegal migrants in Thailand – the unsolved challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphanchaimat R

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeepong Suphanchaimat,1,2 Weerasak Putthasri,1 Phusit Prakongsai,1,3 Viroj Tangcharoensathien1 1International Health Policy Program (IHPP, The Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, 2Banphai Hospital, Khon Kaen, 3Bureau of International Health (BIH, The Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand Background: Of the 65 million residents in Thailand, >1.5 million are undocumented/illegal migrants from neighboring countries. Despite several policies being launched to improve access to care for these migrants, policy implementation has always faced numerous challenges. This study aimed to investigate the policy makers’ views on the challenges of implementing policies to protect the health of undocumented/illegal migrants in light of the dynamics of all of the migrant policies in Thailand. Methods: This study used a qualitative approach. Data were collected by document review, from related laws/regulations concerning migration policy over the past 40 years, and from in-depth interviews with seven key policy-level officials. Thematic analysis was applied. Results: Three critical themes emerged, namely, national security, economic necessity, and health protection. The national security discourse played a dominant role from the early 1900s up to the 1980s as Thailand attempted to defend itself from the threats of colonialism and communism. The economic boom of the 1990s created a pronounced labor shortage, which required a large migrant labor force to drive the growing economy. The first significant attempt to protect the health of migrants materialized in the early 2000s, after Thailand achieved universal health coverage. During that period, public insurance for undocumented/illegal migrants was introduced. The insurance used premium-based financing. However, the majority of migrants remained uninsured. Recently, the government attempted to overhaul the entire migrant registry system by introducing a new measure, namely the One Stop Service. In

  3. Food Insecurity Is an Ongoing National Concern123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Food insecurity is a leading public health challenge in the United States today. This is primarily due to the magnitude of the problem, ∼50 million persons are food insecure (i.e., they were uncertain of having, or unable to acquire, enough food because they had insufficient money or other resources), and the serious negative health and other outcomes associated with being food insecure. This paper defines the measure used to delineate whether a household is food insecure. The measure, the Core Food Security Module, is based on 18 questions about a household’s food situation. From the responses, a household is defined as food secure, low food secure, or very low food secure, with the latter 2 categories defined as “food insecure.” I next discuss the extent of food insecurity in the US across various dimensions and the key determinants of food insecurity. The key policy tool used to address food insecurity is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; formerly known as the Food Stamp Program). During the current economic downturn, >40 million persons are enrolled in SNAP, with total benefits of >$70 billion. This makes it the largest food assistance program and the largest near-cash assistance program in the US. After defining the eligibility criteria, I review the literature, which has demonstrated the effectiveness of SNAP in addressing its key goal, namely the alleviation of food insecurity in the US. I conclude with 4 suggestions for how SNAP can maintain and even improve its effectiveness in alleviating food insecurity. PMID:23319121

  4. Kyoto and liberalization ongoing transformation of the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minett, S.

    1998-01-01

    COGEN Europe believes that the single most important influence on the electricity sector in the future will be the policy response to climate change and that cogeneration offers one of the very best, prospects for cutting emissions in the power sector. In the EU, cogeneration was put at the head of the list of Policies and Measures laid down before Kyoto as the means of achieving its then progressive target of a 15% reduction in emissions by 2010 over 1990. COGEN Europe has estimated that EU-15 as a whole could reach a 30% cogeneration share of total electricity production by 2010. Indeed, three of the 15 countries have already reached 30% (Denmark, The Netherlands and Finland). On a conservative basis this would save 221 Mt of CO 2 /yr by 2010, or 46% of the EU 15% negotiating target agreed in 1997. This also represents 30% of the 'gap' between the achievement of the 15% target and the 8% increase in emissions anticipated for 2010 in the absence of abatement measures. Most, if not all, of these savings would be based on zero or negative cost investments. COGEN Europe supports the trend towards liberalization and the European Commission's efforts to introduce competition into electricity and gas markets for the simple reason that they provide the best means to remove market and monopoly barriers to the development of high efficiency cogeneration. This paper presents a COGEN Europe vision for meeting and overcoming the challenges of global climate change - and some suggestions for governments which can help them achieve that elusive double dividend: environmental improvement and economic competitiveness. Governments should: where possible use the market to achieve your environmental objectives; avoid detailed regulation; avoid subsidizing pollution; set clear and ambitious CO 2 objectives; redouble political pressure to achieve international consensus on internalization of environmental costs

  5. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual dysfunction ...

  6. The complex challenge of repairing the gantry steelwork on the first generation magnox storage pond at Sellafield: Legacy Waste Storage, First Generation Magnox Storage Pond - 59133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts into context the challenges that were faced when repairing the Gantry Steelwork of the First Generation Magnox Storage Pond (FGMSP). The First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond (FGMSP) provided fuel storage and de-canning capability from the early 1960's until 1986. A significant programme of work has been underway since the completion of operational activities to support the programmes strategic intent of retrieving and storing all legacy wastes, and remediating the structure of the plant to support decommissioning activities. A key enabler to the retrievals programme is the Pond Skip Handler Machine (SHM), removed from service in 2002 following the discovery of significant signs of corrosion and distress, an inevitable consequence of being located in a coastal, salt laden environment. The SHM provides sole capability to access and retrieve the inventory of over 1000 fuel skips. It is also fundamental to future operations and the deployment of de-sludging equipment to recover significant bulk sludge's from the pond floor. Failure of the SHM steelwork gantry at worst case could potentially result in the Skip Handler Machine being derailed. This has some potential to damage to the pond structure and at worst case may result in local radiological and environmental consequences. This paper will examine the challenges faced by the team as they successfully defined, planned and executed remedial work to a specific aspect of the civil structure, the SHM gantry rail system, using a purpose built refurbishment platform; the Gantry Refurbishment System. The paper will examine how an 'innovative' approach was adopted to resolve the related issues of: - Refurbishing an aged structure to meet extended future operational demands. - The application of pragmatic engineering solutions against current codes and standards including seismic performance; - Provision of safe access for the workforce to undertake the refurbishment work against significant radiological

  7. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of ongoing statin plus ezetimibe versus doubling the ongoing statin dose in hypercholesterolemic Taiwanese patients: an open-label, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chih-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with reduced risk for major coronary events. Despite statin efficacy, a considerable proportion of statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients fail to reach therapeutic LDL-C targets as defined by guidelines. This study compared the efficacy of ezetimibe added to ongoing statins with doubling the dose of ongoing statin in a population of Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparison study of ezetimibe 10 mg added to ongoing statin compared with doubling the dose of ongoing statin. Adult Taiwanese hypercholesterolemic patients not at optimal LDL-C levels with previous statin treatment were randomized (N = 83 to ongoing statin + ezetimibe (simvastatin, atorvastatin or pravastatin + ezetimibe at doses of 20/10, 10/10 or 20/10 mg or doubling the dose of ongoing statin (simvastatin 40 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg or pravastatin 40 mg for 8 weeks. Percent change in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides, and specified safety parameters were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks. Results At 8 weeks, patients treated with statin + ezetimibe experienced significantly greater reductions compared with doubling the statin dose in LDL-C (26.2% vs 17.9%, p = 0.0026 and total cholesterol (20.8% vs 12.2%, p = 0.0003. Percentage of patients achieving treatment goal was greater for statin + ezetimibe (58.6% vs doubling statin (41.2%, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.1675. The safety and tolerability profiles were similar between treatments. Conclusion Ezetimibe added to ongoing statin therapy resulted in significantly greater lipid-lowering compared with doubling the dose of statin in Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Studies to assess clinical outcome benefit are ongoing. Trial registration Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00652327

  8. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana C Tizioto

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent.

  9. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, Polyana C; Kim, JaeWoo; Seabury, Christopher M; Schnabel, Robert D; Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent.

  10. Overview of past, ongoing and future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Erwan; Kicklighter, David; Sokolov, Andrei; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John

    2016-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is both a major player in the global carbon budget (it includes roughly 70% of the Earth's boreal forest and more than two-thirds of the Earth's permafrost) and a region that has experienced dramatic climate change (increase in temperature, growing season length, floods and droughts) over the past century. Northern Eurasia has also undergone significant land-use change, both driven by human activity (including deforestation, expansion of agricultural lands and urbanization) and natural disturbances (such as wildfires and insect outbreaks). These large environmental and socioeconomic impacts have major implications for the carbon cycle in the region. Northern Eurasia is made up of a diverse set of ecosystems that range from tundra to forests, with significant areas of croplands and pastures as well as deserts, with major urban areas. As such, it represents a complex system with substantial challenges for the modeling community. In this presentation, we provide an overview of past, ongoing and possible future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia. We review the variety of existing modeling approaches to investigate specific components of Earth system dynamics in the region. While there are a limited number of studies that try to integrate various aspects of the Earth system (through scale, teleconnections or processes), we point out that there are few systematic analyses of the various feedbacks within the Earth system (between components, regions or scale). As a result, there is a lack of knowledge of the relative importance of such feedbacks, and it is unclear how policy relevant current studies are that fail to account for these feedbacks. We review the role of Earth system models, and their advantages/limitations compared to detailed single component models. We further introduce the human activity system (global trade, economic models, demographic model and so on), the need for coupled human/earth system models

  11. Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushuev F.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv.

  12. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  13. Preparing for family caregiving in specialized palliative home care: an ongoing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Maja; Henriksson, Anette; Carlander, Ida; Wengström, Yvonne; Öhlen, Joakim

    2015-06-01

    Family caregivers have been given increasing importance in palliative home care and face a great responsibility as caregivers for patients suffering from incurable illness. Preparedness for caregiving has been found to moderate negative effects and promote well-being in family caregivers. The aim of our study was to explore family caregivers' own experiences of preparing for caregiving in specialized palliative home care. An interpretive descriptive design was chosen. A strategic sampling method was applied with a focus on participants who rated their preparedness as high and low using a structured instrument. Qualitative interviews were completed with 12 family caregivers. They were analyzed using a constant-comparative technique. Family caregivers described their experience of preparing for caregiving as an ongoing process, rather than something done in advance. The process was illustrated through three subprocesses: "awaring" (realizing the seriousness of the situation), "adjusting" (managing a challenging situation), and "anticipating" (planning for the inevitable loss). Knowledge about the process of preparedness for caregiving and its subprocesses could be valuable to healthcare professionals, given the positive effects shown by preparedness in this context. Being able to recognize the different subprocesses of preparedness for caregiving could provide healthcare professionals with opportunities to support family caregivers in managing them. Preparedness for caregiving should be seen as a process to be supported and promoted continuously in palliative home care, not just at enrollment.

  14. Waterfront Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2007-01-01

    An overall view on the waterfront transformation and the planning challenges related to this process. It contributes to the specific challenges and potentials related to Aalborg Waterfront.......An overall view on the waterfront transformation and the planning challenges related to this process. It contributes to the specific challenges and potentials related to Aalborg Waterfront....

  15. What is obtained from ongoing projects and what is to be expected from new ones. Statoil's experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to the improvement program BRU (Cheaper and quicker development projects) which aims at raising the value of Norwegian Statoil projects. The strategy of the program is based on various principles being implemented into the organization for raising the value and for obtaining cost-beneficial developments of minor future fields with high complexity. The BRU program together with the goal-settings of NORSOK (Forum for development and operation) will raise the competitive position of the Norwegian shelf. Examples are given for ongoing development projects like the Gullfaks satellites, pipeline projects, the fields of Haltenbanken, and the Norne, Sleipner Vest, and Yme fields

  16. Science–policy challenges for biodiversity, public health and urbanization: examples from Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keune, H; De Blust, G; Van den Berge, K; Brosens, D; Van Herzele, A; Simoens, I; Kretsch, C; Gilbert, M; Linard, C; Flandroy, L; Versteirt, V; Hartig, T; De Keersmaecker, L; Eggermont, H; Dessein, J; Vanwambeke, S; Prieur-Richard, A H; Wittmer, H; Martens, P; Mathijs, E

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, the importance of a coordinated effort to protect both biodiversity and public health is more and more recognized. These issues are often concentrated or particularly challenging in urban areas, and therefore on-going urbanization worldwide raises particular issues both for the conservation of living natural resources and for population health strategies. These challenges include significant difficulties associated with sustainable management of urban ecosystems, urban development planning, social cohesion and public health. An important element of the challenge is the need to interface between different forms of knowledge and different actors from science and policy. We illustrate this with examples from Belgium, showcasing concrete cases of human–nature interaction. To better tackle these challenges, since 2011, actors in science, policy and the broader Belgian society have launched a number of initiatives to deal in a more integrated manner with combined biodiversity and public health challenges in the face of ongoing urbanization. This emerging community of practice in Belgium exemplifies the importance of interfacing at different levels. (1) Bridges must be built between science and the complex biodiversity/ecosystem–human/public health–urbanization phenomena. (2) Bridges between different professional communities and disciplines are urgently needed. (3) Closer collaboration between science and policy, and between science and societal practice is needed. Moreover, within each of these communities closer collaboration between specialized sections is needed. (letter)

  17. What if Things Get Worse? Really Grand Challenges for Modeling and Simulation in a Risky and Complex World or Modeling and Simulation for the "Greater Good"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifrey, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Today Modeling and Simulation-- ---as an important practice or industry or area of expertise ----- is at a complex crossroad - a sort of cyber-highway--where these complexities meet-technical, economic, environmental, geopolitical and cultural. They may converge or collide. Let's not kid ourselves. It is all too much for anyone person or organization Malcolm Gladwell said it. "We have constructed a world in which the potential for high tech catastrophe is embedded in the fabric of everyday life." We are surrounded by problems that scream at us from our television, Internet and social networks along with billboards and protest signs. We face not just high tech catastrophes but, also, landslides, earthquakes, tornados, floods and hurricanes and large-scale criminality. Evil, war, famine and pestilence have not gone away. It is all too much to think about. My friend, George Peabody, who taught me everything I know about power said that addressing such issues requires that we constantly build our network, information resources and the credibility and visibility of our work. That is how we will build the power of simulation so it can change the world --even maybe, save it. We need all the help we can get and give one another because our human early warning systems appear to be out of kilter. We seem to have trouble imagining how small failings can continue to lead to catastrophic disaster. Think about O-rings and blowout preventers. One is reminded of the old nursery rhyme, "For want of a nail, a shoe was lost! for want of a shoe the horse was lost! for want of a rider the battle was lost and so the kingdom fell." Although the investigation will take more time for real answers, it is worrisome that a rig worker reported to the BBC that-- weeks before the explosion of Deep Ocean Horizon. -he identified a leak in the oil rig's safety equipment -the Control Pod of the blowout preventer which has giant shears designed to cut and seal off the well's main pipe. With both

  18. Lessons Learned from Ongoing Field Tests of Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, B.; McColpin, G.; Rutledge, J.; Pawar, R.; Deo, M.; Rose, P.; Lee, S.; Han, W.; Lu, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present lessons learned - an attempt to describe what we know and do not know- based on ongoing field tests of geologic carbon sequestration. The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, is conducting three separate field tests of geologic sequestration that include extensive monitoring and analysis of the fate of injected CO2. The CO2 injection sites include the Aneth oilfield in southern Utah, the coalbed "fairway" in the San Juan basin in northern New Mexico, and the SACROC oilfield in the Permian basin of west Texas. Results of the ongoing sequestration field tests are both encouraging and problematic. At the San Juan basin coalbed injection test, we forecasted coalbed swelling following injection to be detectable at the surface. Tiltmeter results indicated subsidence, not uplift, and poroelastic models of the site suggest that swelling is likely occurring, but cleat compaction may be responsible for the net subsidence. In a similar context, initial poroelastic models of the Aneth, Utah injection site suggested minimal rock strain would be induced by the 100,000 tons of CO2 injected over the past year, but this forecast is belied by daily microearthquakes recorded at the site (albeit very small events: M -1 to 0 ). On the other hand, our initial multiphase flow models of the Aneth site provided forecasts of CO2 migration that turned out to be extremely consistent with observed tracer test results, suggesting that our estimated permeability distributions and other model parameters were effective to some extent. These field tests suggest that probably the greatest challenges are (1) verification or confirmation of trapping mechanisms, and (2) monitoring of processes in the "intermediate zone," the section of strata above the sequestration formation topseal unit and below the upper 100 m of the section, (3) developing meaningful geologic

  19. The challenge of complex drug use: Associated use of codeine-containing medicines and new psychoactive substances in a European cross-sectional online population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimergård, Andreas; Foley, Michelle; Davey, Zoe; Wadsworth, Elle; Drummond, Colin; Deluca, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Misuse of codeine-containing medicines in combination with new psychoactive substances (NPS) is inadequately described. This study characterises codeine consumption amongst NPS users and non-NPS users to provide warning of health issues. Online survey conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. Out of 340 respondents, residing in a country in Europe and using codeine recently, 63.8% were female. Mean age: 34.9 years (SD = 12.4). Substance use included NPS (18.5%) and illicit controlled drugs (55.9%). Factors relating to codeine use found to significantly predict NPS use were consuming codeine extracted from combination tablets (OR = 16.79, 95% CI [8.67, 32.51]), obtaining codeine from friends, family, and acquaintances (OR = 3.98, 95% CI [1.82, 8.7]), use of illicit controlled drugs (OR = 34.99, 95% CI [8.39, 145.94]) and use of codeine to experience euphoria (OR = 6.41, 95% CI [3.42, 12.04]). Amongst NPS users, codeine is less likely to be used daily but more likely to be used for recreational purposes. Smaller populations engaging in high-risk use exist who take multiple drugs in high doses. Combinations of misused codeine and NPS highlight the need for policy to respond to a more complex drug situation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A meta-review of evidence on heart failure disease management programs: the challenges of describing and synthesizing evidence on complex interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson David R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite favourable results from past meta-analyses, some recent large trials have not found Heart Failure (HF disease management programs to be beneficial. To explore reasons for this, we evaluated evidence from existing meta-analyses. Methods Systematic review incorporating meta-review was used. We selected meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials published after 1995 in English that examined the effects of HF disease management programs on key outcomes. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, DARE, NHS EED, NHS HTA, Ageline, AMED, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL; cited references, experts and existing reviews were also searched. Results 15 meta-analyses were identified containing a mean of 18.5 randomized trials of HF interventions +/- 10.1 (range: 6 to 36. Overall quality of the meta-analyses was very mixed (Mean AMSTAR Score = 6.4 +/- 1.9; range 2-9. Reporting inadequacies were widespread around populations, intervention components, settings and characteristics, comparison, and comparator groups. Heterogeneity (statistical, clinical, and methodological was not taken into account sufficiently when drawing conclusions from pooled analyses. Conclusions Meta-analyses of heart failure disease management programs have promising findings but often fail to report key characteristics of populations, interventions, and comparisons. Existing reviews are of mixed quality and do not adequately take account of program complexity and heterogeneity.

  1. Emerging molecular-targeted therapies—the challenging case of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Vasconcelos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer newly affects an estimated 54,870 women in the United States, being responsible for an estimated 10,170 deaths in 2015. It has demonstrated to harbor a complex carcinogenesis process, with limited treatment options for advanced or persistent disease. Identification and targeting of genetic alterations that lead to progressive disease and therapy resistance is not only challenging, but also often does not correlate with a clinical benefit. Targeted maintenance therapies in endometrial cancer have been largely disappointing. Nonetheless, targeted personalized treatment should be the main goal of treatment of advanced disease in the future. Due to the high variety of drugs being tested in early clinical trials, it is hard to keep pace with the latest developments and ongoing trials. This review aims to summarize the latest published and ongoing trials on targeted therapies in endometrial cancer.

  2. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  3. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support ... challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support ...

  4. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Overcoming challenges Breastfeeding has a long list of benefits for ... getting started. Hear how moms overcame common nursing challenges and stayed committed to breastfeeding. Common questions about ...

  5. It Takes Research to Build a Community: Ongoing Challenges for Scholars in Digitally-Supported Communicative Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an argument for closer multilateral alliances between the emergent and loosely-bound international community of educational researchers who are working in areas related to Digitally Supported Communicative Language Teaching and learning (herein DSCLT). By taking advantage of the communications revolution that is currently…

  6. Barcoding the largest animals on Earth: ongoing challenges and molecular solutions in the taxonomic identification of ancient cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Speller, Camilla; van den Hurk, Youri; Charpentier, Anne; Rodrigues, Ana; Gardeisen, Armelle; Wilkens, Barbara; McGrath, Krista; Rowsell, Keri; Spindler, Luke; Collins, Matthew; Hofreiter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    International audience; One contribution of 16 to a theme issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'. Over the last few centuries, many cetacean species have witnessed dramatic global declines due to industrial overharvesting and other anthropogenic influences, and thus are key targets for conservation. Whale bones recovered from archaeological and palaeontological contexts can provide essential baseline information on the past geographical distribution and abundance of species required for developi...

  7. Is Social Work Evidence-Based? Does Saying So Make It So? Ongoing Challenges in Integrating Research, Practice and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The integration of research and practice is of concern in all helping professions. Has social work become an evidence-based profession as some claim? Characteristics of current-day social work are presented that dispute this view, related continuing concerns are suggested, and promising developments (mostly outside social work) are described that…

  8. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Margaret

    2010-12-31

    Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  9. Ongoing changes in migration phenology and winter residency at Bracken Bat Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, Phillip M; Wainwright, Charlotte E

    2018-02-14

    Bats play an important role in agroecology and are effective bioindicators of environmental conditions, but little is known about their fundamental migration ecology, much less how these systems are responding to global change. Some of the world's largest bat populations occur during the summer in the south-central United States, when millions of pregnant females migrate from lower latitudes to give birth in communal maternity colonies. Despite a relatively large volume of research into these colonies, many fundamental questions regarding their abundance-including their intra- and interseasonal variability-remain unanswered, and even estimating the size of individual populations has been a long-running challenge. Overall, monitoring these bat populations at high temporal resolution (e.g., nightly) and across long time spans (e.g., decades) has been impossible. Here, we show 22 continuous years of nightly population counts at Bracken Cave, a large bat colony in south-central Texas, enabling the first climate-scale phenological analysis. Using quantitative radar monitoring, we found that spring migration and the summer reproductive cycle have advanced by approximately 2 weeks over the study period. Furthermore, we quantify the ongoing growth of a newly-established overwintering population that indicates a system-wide response to changing environmental conditions. Our observations reveal behavioral plasticity in bats' ability to adapt to changing resource availability, and provide the first long-term quantification of their response to a changing climate. As aerial insectivores, these changes in bat phenology and propensity for overwintering indicate probable shifts in prey availability, with clear implications for pest management across wider regional agrisystems. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  11. The relation of ongoing brain activity, evoked neural responses, and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sadaghiani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing brain activity has been observed since the earliest neurophysiological recordings and is found over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. It is characterized by remarkably large spontaneous modulations. Here, we review evidence for the functional role of these ongoing activity fluctuations and argue that they constitute an essential property of the neural architecture underlying cognition. The role of spontaneous activity fluctuations is probably best understood when considering both their spatiotemporal structure and their functional impact on cognition. We first briefly argue against a ‘segregationist’ view on ongoing activity, both in time and space, countering this view with an emphasis on integration within a hierarchical spatiotemporal organization of intrinsic activity. We then highlight the flexibility and context-sensitivity of intrinsic functional connectivity that suggest its involvement in functionally relevant information processing. This role in information processing is pursued by reviewing how ongoing brain activity interacts with afferent and efferent information exchange of the brain with its environment. We focus on the relationship between the variability of ongoing and evoked brain activity, and review recent reports that tie ongoing brain activity fluctuations to variability in human perception and behavior. Finally, these observations are discussed within the framework of the free-energy principle which – applied to human brain function - provides a theoretical account for a non-random, coordinated interaction of ongoing and evoked activity in perception and behaviour.

  12. 78 FR 10167 - Pollinator Summit: Status of Ongoing Collaborative Efforts To Protect Pollinators; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, in conjunction with the United States Department of Agriculture... techniques associated with commercial agriculture and bees. This summit complements EPA's on-going work with...

  13. Living donor hepatectomy in female donors with ongoing menstruation: Safety and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Ren Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study shows safety of right lobe living donation in female donors with ongoing menstruation with no increased risk of intraoperative excessive bleeding and postoperative physiological impact on their general health.

  14. 77 FR 26674 - Enhancement of Electricity Market Surveillance and Analysis Through Ongoing Electronic Delivery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... RTOs and ISOs. 17. EEI/EPSA's joint comments touch on a range of issues regarding the ongoing delivery... market monitoring and surveillance screens will result in error. Thus, electronic delivery of this data...

  15. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  16. Eight challenges in phylodynamic inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D.W. Frost

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of phylodynamics, which attempts to enhance our understanding of infectious disease dynamics using pathogen phylogenies, has made great strides in the past decade. Basic epidemiological and evolutionary models are now well characterized with inferential frameworks in place. However, significant challenges remain in extending phylodynamic inference to more complex systems. These challenges include accounting for evolutionary complexities such as changing mutation rates, selection, reassortment, and recombination, as well as epidemiological complexities such as stochastic population dynamics, host population structure, and different patterns at the within-host and between-host scales. An additional challenge exists in making efficient inferences from an ever increasing corpus of sequence data.

  17. A formidable synthetic challenge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isolation and characterization of maoecrystal V, a C19 terpenoid, having potent and selective cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells was recently reported. Unusually complex pentacyclic molecular structure, presence of spirofused rings and several stereogenic centres posed a great synthetic challenge. In this short review, efforts ...

  18. Prospective memory in young and older adults: the effects of task importance and ongoing task load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed

    2014-01-01

    Remembering to perform an action in the future, called prospective memory, often shows age-related differences in favor of young adults when tested in the laboratory. Recently Smith, Horn, and Bayen (2012; Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19, 495) embedded a PM task in an ongoing color-matching task and manipulated the difficulty of the ongoing task by varying the number of colors on each trial of the task. Smith et al. found that age-related differences in PM performance (lower PM performance for older adults relative to young adults) persisted even when older adults could perform the ongoing task as well or better than the young adults. The current study investigates a possible explanation for the pattern of results reported by Smith et al. by including a manipulation of task emphasis: for half of the participants the prospective memory task was emphasize, while for the other half the ongoing color-matching task was emphasized. Older adults performed a 4-color version of the ongoing color-matching task, while young adults completed either the 4-color or a more difficult 6-color version of the ongoing task. Older adults failed to perform as well as the young adults on the prospective memory task regardless of task emphasis, even when older adults were performing as well or better than the young adults on the ongoing color-matching task. The current results indicate that the lack of an effect of ongoing task load on prospective memory task performance is not due to a perception that one or the other task is more important than the other.

  19. Meeting Complex Challenges Through National Security Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Nation. There- fore, some type of facilitation pro- cess—whether led by the White House or a high envoy–led inter- agency team—must be developed and...ian and military efforts must be integrated with a focus on how best to support efforts in the field through all phases, from conflict and crisis ...financial crisis makes these rela- tionships even more critical as the United States and other countries have to do more with less. Nontra- ditional

  20. Renewable energy governance complexities and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Michalena, Evanthie

    2013-01-01

    A boon for planners and policy makers, this book deploys a range of case studies and contributions from around the world to provide profound and radical insights into RE transitions, governmental policies, and financial tools such as feed-in tariffs.

  1. The time course of ongoing activity during neuritis and following axonal transport disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkeviciute, Ieva; Goodwin, George; Bove, Geoffrey M; Dilley, Andrew

    2018-02-21

    Local nerve inflammation (neuritis) leads to ongoing activity and axonal mechanical sensitivity (AMS) along intact nociceptor axons, and disrupts axonal transport. This phenomenon forms the most feasible cause of radiating pain, such as sciatica. We have previously shown that axonal transport disruption without inflammation or degeneration also leads to AMS, but does not cause ongoing activity at the time point when AMS occurs, despite causing cutaneous hypersensitivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of ongoing activity during neuritis or non-inflammatory axonal transport disruption. In this study, we present the time course of ongoing activity from primary sensory neurons following neuritis and vinblastine-induced axonal transport disruption. Whereas 24% of C/slow Aδ-fiber neurons had ongoing activity during neuritis, few (disruption of axonal transport without inflammation does not lead to ongoing activity in sensory neurons, including nociceptors, but does cause a rapid and transient development of AMS. Since it is proposed that AMS underlies mechanically-induced radiating pain, and a transient disruption of axonal transport (as previously reported) leads to transient AMS, it follows that processes that disrupt axonal transport, such as neuritis, must persist to maintain AMS and the associated symptoms.

  2. Rapid Mission Design for Dynamically Complex Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Designing trajectories in dynamically complex environments is very challenging and easily becomes an intractable problem. More complex planning implies potentially...

  3. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  4. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  5. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  6. Competitiveness Through Innovation: Successes and Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores and discusses innovation for competitiveness scenario based on an ongoing research in Morogoro Canvas Mill using cross sectional case study design. The objective of the research was, and is, to identify and assess innovative practices and challenges facing the Canvas Mill in the process of striving ...

  7. Ongoing evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 sublines complicates studies of DNA damage repair and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, Julia; Jatsenko, Tatjana; Kivisaar, Maia

    2017-03-01

    Sublines of the major P. aeruginosa reference strain PAO1 are derivatives of the original PAO1 isolate, which are maintained in laboratories worldwide. These sublines display substantial genomic and phenotypic variation due to ongoing microevolution. Here, we examined four sublines, MPAO1, PAO1-L, PAO1-DSM and PAO1-UT, originated from different laboratories, and six DNA polymerase-deficient mutants from the P. aeruginosa MPAO1 transposon library for their employment in elucidation of DNA damage repair and tolerance mechanisms in P. aeruginosa. We found that PAO1 subline PAO1-UT carries a large deletion encompassing the DNA damage inducible imuA-imuB-imuC cassette (PA0669-PA0671), which is implied in mutagenesis in several species. Furthermore, the genetic changes leading to variation in the functionality of the MexEF-OprN efflux system contributed largely to the phenotypic discordance between P. aeruginosa PAO1 sublines. Specifically, we identified multiple mutations in the mexT gene, which encodes a transcriptional regulator of the mexEF-oprN genes, mutations in the mexF, and complete absence of these genes. Of the four tested sublines, MPAO1 was the only subline with the functional MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux system. Active efflux through MexEF-OprN rendered MPAO1 highly resistant to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Moreover, the functions of specialized DNA polymerase IV and nucleotide excision repair (NER) in 4-NQO-induced DNA damage tolerance appeared to be masked in MPAO1, while were easily detectable in other sublines. Finally, the frequencies of spontaneous and MMS-induced Rif r mutations were also significantly lower in MPAO1 in comparison to the PAO1 sublines with impaired MexEF-OprN efflux system. The MexEF-OprN-attributed differences were also observed between MPAO1 and MPAO1-derived transposon mutants from the two-allele transposon mutant collection. Thus, the accumulating mutations and discordant phenotypes of the PAO1 derivatives challenge the

  8. The epidemiology of lethal violence in Darfur: using micro-data to explore complex patterns of ongoing armed conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, Alex; Hazlett, Chad; Davenport, Christian; Kennedy, Joshua

    2014-11-01

    This article describes and analyzes patterns of lethal violence in Darfur, Sudan, during 2008-09, drawing upon a uniquely detailed dataset generated by the United Nations-African Union hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID), combined with data generated through aggregation of reports from open-source venues. These data enable detailed analysis of patterns of perpetrator/victim and belligerent groups over time, and show how violence changed over the four years following the height of armed conflict in 2003-05. During the reference period, violent incidents were sporadic and diverse and included: battles between the major combatants; battles among subgroups of combatant coalitions that were ostensibly allied; inter-tribal conflict; incidents of one-sided violence against civilians by different parties; and incidents of banditry. The conflict as a whole defies easy categorization. The exercise illustrates the limits of existing frameworks for categorizing armed violence and underlines the importance of rigorous microlevel data collection and improved models for understanding the dynamics of collective violence. By analogy with the use of the epidemiological data for infectious diseases to help design emergency health interventions, we argue for improved use of data on lethal violence in the design and implementation of peacekeeping, humanitarian and conflict resolution interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. UBF complexes with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in nucleolar organizer regions regardless of ongoing RNA polymerase I activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobol, Margaryta; Yildirim, Sukriye; Philimonenko, Vlada; Marášek, Pavel; Castano, Enrique; Hozák, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6 (2013), 478–486 ISSN 1949-1034 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA MŠk LD12063; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : PIP2 * mitosis * transcription * nucleolus * RNA polymerase I * UBF * fibrillarin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.148, year: 2013

  10. Recurrences and Ongoing Complaints of Diverticulitis; Results of a Survey among Gastroenterologists and Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, M A W; Draaisma, W A; Consten, E C J; Broeders, I A M J

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the current opinion of gastroenterologists and surgeons on treatment strategies for patients, with recurrences or ongoing complaints of diverticulitis. Treatment of recurrences and ongoing complaints remains a point of debate. No randomized trials have been published yet and guidelines are not uniform in their advice. A web-based survey was conducted among gastroenterologists and GE-surgeons. Questions were aimed at the treatment options for recurrent diverticulitis and ongoing complaints. In total, 123 surveys were filled out. The number of patients with recurrent or ongoing diverticulitis who were seen at the outpatient clinic each year was 7 (0-30) and 5 (0-115) respectively. Surgeons see significantly more patients on an annual basis 20 vs. 15% (p = 0.00). Both surgeons and gastroenterologists preferred to treat patients in a conservative manner using pain medication and lifestyle advise (64.4 vs. 54.0, p = 0.27); however, gastroenterologists would treat patients with mesalazine medication, which is significantly more (28%, p = 0.04) than in the surgical group. Surgeons are inclined more towards surgery (31.5%, p = 0.02). Both surgeons and gastroenterologists prefer to treat recurrent diverticulitis and ongoing complaints in a conservative manner. Quality of life, the risk of complications and the viewpoint of the patient are considered important factors in the decision to resect the affected colon. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  12. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  13. Statistical Challenges in Modeling Big Brain Signals

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhaoxia

    2017-11-01

    Brain signal data are inherently big: massive in amount, complex in structure, and high in dimensions. These characteristics impose great challenges for statistical inference and learning. Here we review several key challenges, discuss possible solutions, and highlight future research directions.

  14. Incertidumbre y complejidad: Reflexiones acerca de los retos y dilemas de la pedagogía contemporánea / Uncertainty and complexity: reflections about the challenges and dilemmas of the contemporary pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Hernández, Rodrigo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo desarrolla una reflexión acerca de los retos y dilemas que suponen para la pedagogía contemporánea la presencia de la incertidumbre y de la complejidad como condiciones en que debe desenvolverse la actividad científica en la socio-cultura actual. Interesa destacar cómo, frente a estas realidades inciertas y complejas, se impone la necesidad de revisar sustancialmente el quehacer pedagógico para responder a las múltiples demandas del nuevo entorno que supone la llamada sociedad del conocimiento. El artículo no pretende agotar el tema, sino, por el contrario, abrir espacios de discusión que contribuyan con el proceso de renovación pedagógica tan necesaria en estos momentos para la sociedad costarricense. En este sentido, nuestra principal propuesta parte de la tesis de Morin acerca de que lo que está en juego en este momento no es una reforma programática de la pedagogía, que podría dar origen a nuevos planes de estudio, sino una reforma paradigmática que reconozca el carácter sistémico, transdisciplinar y complejo del conocimiento. Ya que sólo desde esta perspectiva será posible diseñar, desarrollar e innovar el quehacer curricular y didáctico en nuestro sistema educativo.Abstract: This article analyzes the challenges and dilemmas that contemporary pedagogy faces when considering primordial conditions such as the uncertainty and complexity principles in the development of the scientific activity in present day socio-culture. It is important to highlight the need to review the pedagogical practice when confronted with these uncertain and complex realities while trying to respond to the multiple demands of the new surroundings that constitute the so-called knowledge society.The article is not intended to be exhaustive, on the contrary, is meant to open spaces for discussion, which will contribute to renew necessary pedagogical perspectives in the Costa Rican society. It is in this sense that our main

  15. Observed response of vulnerable forest ecosystems to ongoing site condition changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, András; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála; Horváth, Adrienn

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades, several symptoms of drought damages have been observed in the Hungarian forests (e.g. sparse canopy, leaf drop, top drying, fungal diseases). Forest responses are also influenced by other factors beyond climate (e.g. available water content, soil conditions, biotic damages, adaptive capacity, etc.). Our aim was to prepare a complex analysis of the change of all site conditions, that could lead to the observed health status decline of the forest tree species. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) precipitation and temperature tendencies as well as the frequency of extreme dry summers have been determined for the period 1961-2100. Soil conditions have been investigated in 9 profiles and soil mapping analysis has been carried out including 100 sites with hand soil auger. For the investigation of the water-balance we used the modified Thornthwaite-type monthly model and determined water stress when the relative extractable water (REW) decreased below 40% (Granier et al., 1999). In the last 30 years three severe droughts have been detected when duration of extremely dry and hot periods exceeded 3-4 years. Not only orographic and microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance in the case study area. On rendzina with shallow topsoil layer thickness, low water holding capacity, black pine was planted. Brown earth with medium and brown forest soils with deep topsoil layer thickness is favourable for oak (sessile or Turkey) and beech. These microscale differences between the three site condition types resulted different available water contents quantified by the modified Thornthwaite-type monthly water-balance model. Our results show the different sensitivity of the studied sites to water stress. It means that the local scale orographic and soil conditions can enhance the projected drought risk of the region. However, the favourable microclimatic effects of

  16. Introduction. New Challenges for the EU in the Arab Mediterranean and the Revision of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter; Shteiwi, Musa

    2017-01-01

    . The review emphasizes that ongoing transition processes are affecting the Mediterranean states, leading to a complex and differentiated Middle Eastern reality, which challenges the EU and calls for a rethinking of European foreign and security policies. A key notion of the review is the term ‘stabilization......This Introduction presents a conceptual framework for the Thematic Issue of European Foreign Affairs Review and sets the analytical scene for the contributions. The point of departure for the articles is the launching of a comprehensive review of the European Neighbourhood Policy 18 November 2015...

  17. Ongoing Relative Performance Evaluation for a CO2 EOR Asset in a Worldwide Peer Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. F.; Li, X. S.; Wang, G. H.; Li, L.

    2017-10-01

    Abstract. Operators of a CO2 EOR asset need to know the relative performance level of their asset against its peers. The ongoing relative performance evaluation method is appropriate for this purpose. We first choose 52 CO2 assets around the world as the peer group, and then define the four ranking levels in terms of CO2consumption ratio. Only the final values of CO2consumption ratio for the group are obtained, and therefore cannot be used for an ongoing evaluation during a CO2 EOR asset’s life circle. Consequently, numerical reservoir simulation is employed to quantify the process values corresponding to the four ranking levels. Type curve plots are generated on the basis of the process values and utilized for the ongoing relative performance evaluation of a CO2 EOR asset in China.

  18. Ongoing EEG phase as a trial-by-trial predictor of perceptual and attentional variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufin eVanRullen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Even in well-controlled laboratory environments, apparently identical repetitions of an experimental trial can give rise to highly variable perceptual outcomes and behavioral responses. This variability is generally discarded as a reflection of intrinsic noise in neuronal systems. However, part of this variability may be accounted for by trial-by-trial fluctuations of the phase of ongoing oscillations at the moment of stimulus presentation. For example, the phase of an EEG oscillation reflecting the rapid waxing and waning of sustained attention can predict the perception of a subsequent visual stimulus at threshold. Similar ongoing periodicities account for a portion of the trial-by-trial variability of visual reaction times. We review the available experimental evidence linking ongoing EEG phase to perceptual and attentional variability, and the corresponding methodology. We propose future tests of this relation, and discuss the theoretical implications for understanding the neuronal dynamics of sensory perception.

  19. Communicating actionable nutrition messages: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jeanne P; Sliwa, Sarah A

    2011-02-01

    As long as health communications have existed in the USA, Americans have faced the task of sorting the agenda of the source from the advice it provides. That task has become more complicated as advances in the science of nutrition and the technology used to present it have heightened the complexity of nutrition communications. Getting consumers to adopt a healthier diet has been a protracted undertaking with limited successes along the way. The obesity epidemic has added urgency to this discourse: not only do we need to eat better, but most of us also need to eat less. This paper reviews the dynamics that have made the communication of accurate and actionable health behaviour information an ongoing challenge, and outlines strategies for moving ahead. It considers the interplay of four sets of factors: the evolutionary nature of the science on which recommendations are based; the many sources of communication about that science; the agendas or motivations of each source; and finally the multifaceted nature of consumers, the recipients of these communications. Communication alone has not been, and will not be, sufficient for consumers to adopt the behavioural changes endorsed by experts. Broad environmental interventions coupled with individual skills development will need to be part of the process. Ultimately, it is the consumer who decides what is for dinner. Media literacy will play a critical role in building consumer efficacy in sorting fact from fiction in order to select food for a healthful diet.

  20. Challenges in conducting research after family presence during resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, Jane S; McAndrew, Natalie S; Evans, Crystal-Rae Dawn; Garcia, Annette E; Brasel, Karen J

    2012-01-01

    Family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) is an option occurring in clinical practice. National clinical guidelines on providing the option of FPDR are available from the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, American Heart Association, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society of Critical Care Medicine. The FPDR option currently remains controversial, underutilized, and not the usual practice with trauma patients. This article is based on the methodological and practical research challenges associated with an ongoing study to examine the effects of the FPDR option on family outcomes in patients experiencing critical injury after motor vehicle crashes and gunshot wounds. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of the FPDR option on family outcomes of anxiety, stress, well-being, and satisfaction and compare those outcomes in families who participate in FPDR to those families who do not participate in FPDR. Examples of real clinical challenges faced by the researchers are described throughout this article. Research challenges include design, sampling, inclusion/exclusion criteria, human subjects, and procedures. Recruitment of family members who participated in the FPDR option is a complex process, especially after admission to the critical care unit.

  1. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    and LF 59,60 . These complexes are then taken up by a clatherin dependent mechanism where changes in pH cause pore formation and entry of EF and LF...in Ac-DEX nano/ mico -particles (particles). Mice were inoculated at 20 µg lysate /mouse. Mice were challenged day 21, 26 and 33 i.p with 232-402...due to the complex immune response that is necessary to protect against highly virulent strains94. Furthermore, in the development of a rapid response

  2. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social......, cultural, and political practices. Notions of national identity and national politics are challenged by European integration, as well as by increasing demographic heterogeneity due to migration, and migrants experience conflicts of identification stemming from clashes between cultural heritage...

  3. The Google Online Marketing Challenge and Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Larry; Treiblmaier, Horst; Henderson, Vani; Hunter, Lee; Hudson, Karen; Murphy, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    The Google Online Marketing Challenge is an ongoing collaboration between Google and academics, to give students experiential learning. The Challenge gives student teams US$200 in AdWords, Google's flagship advertising product, to develop online marketing campaigns for actual businesses. The end result is an engaging in-class exercise that…

  4. 24 CFR 35.1220 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-based paint maintenance activities into regular building operations in accordance with § 35.1355(a). ... maintenance activities. 35.1220 Section 35.1220 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... STRUCTURES Tenant-Based Rental Assistance § 35.1220 Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance activities...

  5. 24 CFR 35.825 - Ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... maintenance and reevaluation. 35.825 Section 35.825 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... maintenance and reevaluation. HUD shall incorporate ongoing lead-based paint maintenance and reevaluation, in accordance with § 35.1355, into regular building operations if HUD retains ownership of the residential...

  6. Self-Leadership Change Project: The Continuation of an Ongoing Experiential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James I.; Kern, Dave; Tewari, Jitendra; Jones, Kenneth E.; Beemraj, Eshwar Prasad; Ettigi, Chaitra Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The self-leadership change project (SLCP) is an ongoing program for senior level students at a regional university designed to provide hands-on experience in building self-management skills, which is considered a pre-requisite by many leaders and scholars (e.g. Drucker, 1996; Schaetti et al., 2008). The paper aims to discuss this issue.…

  7. A systems view and lessons from the ongoing Ebola Virus disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the on-going (2014) Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa from a systems perspective; and draws out lessons for West Africa in general and Ghana in particular. Keywords: Ebola Virus Disease, West Africa , Ghana , Systems , Prevention and Control ...

  8. Quality Matters™: An Educational Input in an Ongoing Design-Based Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Deborah; Shattuck, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Quality Matters (QM) has been transforming established best practices and online education-based research into an applicable, scalable course level improvement process for the last decade. In this article, the authors describe QM as an ongoing design-based research project and an educational input for improving online education.

  9. Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

  10. A Collaborative, Ongoing University Strategic Planning Framework: Process, Landmines, and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Susan E. Kogler; Thomas, Edward G.; Keller, Lawrence F.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the strategic planning process at Cleveland State University, a large metropolitan state university in Ohio. A faculty-administrative team used a communicative planning approach to develop a collaborative, ongoing, bottom-up, transparent strategic planning process. This team then spearheaded the process through plan…

  11. Ongoing unraveling of a continental fauna: Decline and extinction of Australian mammals since European settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Woinarski, John C. Z.; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Harrison, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    The island continent of Australia harbors much of the world’s most distinctive biodiversity, but this review describes an extent of recent and ongoing loss of its mammal fauna that is exceptionally high and appreciably greater than previously recognized. The causes of loss are dissimilar to those responsible for most biodiversity decline elsewhere in the world.

  12. 10 CFR 51.12 - Application of subpart to ongoing environmental work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application of subpart to ongoing environmental work. 51.12 Section 51.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act...

  13. Presentation and Representation: Youth Participation in Ongoing Public Decision-Making Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on material from a case study of a group of young people involved in ongoing public decision-making in a local authority. The group of young people is compared to a political interest group and insights from the literature applied. It is argued that two of the strongest resources the group had to offer adult decision-makers were…

  14. Crisis Nursery Services: Responding to Ongoing Family Crises. ARCH Factsheet Number 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landdeck-Sisco, Jeanne

    The use of crisis nursery care as a viable alternative for the consumer experiencing chronic and ongoing family crises calls for consideration of various programmatic and staffing issues. Combinations of family problems, including homelessness, substance abuse, incarceration, family violence, and chronic illness of a family member, may precipitate…

  15. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  16. Evidence for ongoing introduction of non-native earthworms in the Washington, DC metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Bruce A. Snyder; Samuel W. James; Erik T. Oberg

    2016-01-01

    Earthworm introductions and invasions are ongoing, with significant consequences for ecological characteristics and function where populations of invasive species reach high densities. In North America the influx of people, goods and materials to coastal cities has long been recognized to be related to introduction and establishment of...

  17. Challenges in paediatric neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Ganjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in technique, knowledge and expertise have brought about rapid advances in the fields of paediatric neurosurgery and anaesthesia, and many procedures limited earlier to adults are now being increasingly attempted in neonates and small children, with good outcomes. This article highlights the challenges faced by the operating team while handling some of the technically complex procedures like awake craniotomy, interventional neuroradiology, minimally invasive neurosurgery, procedures in intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging suites, and neonatal emergencies in the paediatric population.

  18. EDMS implementation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Marta

    2002-08-01

    The challenges faced by facilities wishing to implement an electronic medical record system are complex and overwhelming. Issues such as customer acceptance, basic computer skills, and a thorough understanding of how the new system will impact work processes must be considered and acted upon. Acceptance and active support are necessary from Senior Administration and key departments to enable this project to achieve measurable success. This article details one hospital's "journey" through design and successful implementation of an electronic medical record system.

  19. Transient inflammation-induced ongoing pain is driven by TRPV1 sensitive afferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercado Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue injury elicits both hypersensitivity to evoked stimuli and ongoing, stimulus-independent pain. We previously demonstrated that pain relief elicits reward in nerve-injured rats. This approach was used to evaluate the temporal and mechanistic features of inflammation-induced ongoing pain. Results Intraplantar Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA produced thermal hyperalgesia and guarding behavior that was reliably observed within 24 hrs and maintained, albeit diminished, 4 days post-administration. Spinal clonidine produced robust conditioned place preference (CPP in CFA treated rats 1 day, but not 4 days following CFA administration. However, spinal clonidine blocked CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia at both post-CFA days 1 and 4, indicating different time-courses of ongoing and evoked pain. Peripheral nerve block by lidocaine administration into the popliteal fossa 1 day following intraplantar CFA produced a robust preference for the lidocaine paired chamber, indicating that injury-induced ongoing pain is driven by afferent fibers innervating the site of injury. Pretreatment with resiniferatoxin (RTX, an ultrapotent capsaicin analogue known to produce long-lasting desensitization of TRPV1 positive afferents, fully blocked CFA-induced thermal hypersensitivity and abolished the CPP elicited by administration of popliteal fossa lidocaine 24 hrs post-CFA. In addition, RTX pretreatment blocked guarding behavior observed 1 day following intraplantar CFA. In contrast, administration of the selective TRPV1 receptor antagonist, AMG9810, at a dose that reversed CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia failed to reduce CFA-induced ongoing pain or guarding behavior. Conclusions These data demonstrate that inflammation induces both ongoing pain and evoked hypersensitivity that can be differentiated on the basis of time course. Ongoing pain (a is transient, (b driven by peripheral input resulting from the injury, (c dependent on TRPV1 positive

  20. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  1. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  2. Behavioral and neurochemical analysis of ongoing bone cancer pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeniuk, Bethany; Sukhtankar, Devki; Okun, Alec; Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Y; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain is described as dull, aching ongoing pain. Ongoing bone cancer pain was characterized after intratibial injection of breast cancer cells in rats. Cancer produced time-dependent bone remodeling and tactile hypersensitivity but no spontaneous flinching. Conditioned place preference (CPP) and enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell was observed after peripheral nerve block (PNB) selectively in tumor-bearing rats revealing nociceptive-driven ongoing pain. Oral diclofenac reversed tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity but did not block PNB-induced CPP or NAc DA release. Tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity, and PNB-induced CPP and NAc DA release, was blocked by prior subcutaneous implantation of a morphine pellet. In sham rats, morphine produced a modest but sustained increase in NAc DA release. In contrast, morphine produced a transient 5-fold higher NAc DA release in tumor bearing rats compared with sham morphine rats. The possibility that this increased NAc DA release reflected the reward of pain relief was tested by irreversible blockade of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) μ-opioid receptors (MORs). The rACC MOR blockade prevented the morphine-induced transient increased NAc DA release in tumor bearing rats but did not affect morphine-induced effects in sham-operated animals. Consistent with clinical experience, ongoing cancer pain was controlled by morphine but not by a dose of diclofenac that reversed evoked hypersensitivity. Additionally, the intrinsic reward of morphine can be dissociated from the reward of relief of cancer pain by blockade of rACC MOR. This approach allows mechanistic and therapeutic assessment of ongoing cancer pain with likely translation relevance.

  3. Satisfaction amid professional challenges: International medical graduates in rural Tasmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Terry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background At the time of recruitment, migration, and placement, international medical graduates (IMGs encounter professional challenges. These challenges may include a loss of status and professional identity, professional isolation in rural practice, restrictions on medical practice, and social isolation. Understanding the nature of these challenges may facilitate the recruitment, placement, and success of international medical graduates within rural Tasmania. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences, challenges,and barriers that IMGs encounter as they work and live in rural Tasmania. Methods The study used a mixed-methods design where data were collected using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews across the south, north, and northwest of Tasmania. IMGs were recruited through purposive snowball and convenience sampling. Results A total of 105 questionnaires were returned (response rate 30.0per cent and 23semi-structured interviews were conducted with IMGs across Tasmania. Questionnaire participants indicated that the majority of IMGs are satisfied in their current employment; however, interview participants indicated there were a number of barriers to practising medicine in Tasmania as well as factors that would influence ongoing employment in the state. Despite these challenges, professional support was recognised as a key contributor to professional satisfaction, particularly among IMGs who had just arrived. Conclusion The study contributes to the current knowledge and understanding of IMGs who live and work in rural areas. The study shows that there are high levels of satisfaction among IMGs with their current position; however, the research also provides insight into the complexities and factors that impact IMGs as they work and live within rural areas such as Tasmania. This study offers an understanding for policy to improve greater retention of IMGs across rural areas.

  4. Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, F.; Kaliuzhnyi, M.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Shulga, O.; Moskalenko, S.; Balagura, O.; Kulishenko, V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East) are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC) of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv. The equipment of each station allows synchronous recording (by the GPS) of fragments of DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of the satellite television receiver. Samples of the complex signal are archived and sent to the data processing center through the Internet. Here three linearly independent slant range differences (Δr) for three pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. Every second measured values of Δr are used to calculate Cartesian coordinates (XYZ) of the satellite in the coordinate system WGS84 by multilateration method. The time series of Δr, X, Y and Z obtained during continuous observations from March to May 2015 are presented in the article. Single-measurement errors of Δr, X, Y and Z are equal to 2.6 m, 3540 m, 705 m and 455 m, respectively. The complex is compared with known analogues. Ways of reduction of measurement errors of satellite coordinates are considered. The radio engineering complex could be considered a prototype of a system of independent ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellites.

  5. Health Literacy as a Complex Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Hunter

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As attention to health literacy grows as an area for policy intervention, policy discourse continues to draw on skills deficit and patient compliance, buttressed by the dominant political discourse of individual responsibility. But for patients, the health domain is interwoven with linguistic challenges, significant affective issues, underlying cultural dimensions, political and economic exigencies, variable access to resources, and cognitive and situated complexity. From these perspectives, this article reports on findings of an ongoing study of health literacy demands in the Midlands region of the North Island of New Zealand, an area of high ethnic and socio-economic diversity. The study focuses on patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease - two chronic areas strongly associated with ‘failure to care’ and identifed as having reached epidemic proportions. It analyses work to date: health professionals’ conceptions of and responses to perceived patients’ health literacy needs, and health information documents for patients. Implications of the study support the need for improvement in language and literacy skills among patients, but also the recognition of complexity and a collective responsibility for effective health communication.

  6. Ongoing outbreak with well over 4,000 measles cases in Italy from January to end August 2017 - what is making elimination so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; Del Manso, Martina; Baggieri, Melissa; Magurano, Fabio; Rota, Maria Cristina

    2017-09-14

    We report an ongoing measles outbreak in Italy, with over 4,400 cases reported in 20 Regions from January to August 2017. Median age was 27 years, 88% of the cases were unvaccinated. The highest incidence was in infants below one year of age and 7% of cases occurred among healthcare workers. Three deaths occurred and two cases of encephalitis were reported. Wide immunity gaps and nosocomial transmission are major challenges to measles elimination in Italy. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  7. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notion...... depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social......, cultural, and political practices. Notions of national identity and national politics are challenged by European integration, as well as by increasing demographic heterogeneity due to migration, and migrants experience conflicts of identification stemming from clashes between cultural heritage...

  8. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  9. Living with uncertainty: from the precautionary principle to the methodology of ongoing normative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, J.P.; Grinbaum, A.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of our epistemic situation regarding singular events, such as abrupt climate change, shows essential limitations in the traditional modes of dealing with uncertainty. Typical cognitive barriers lead to the paralysis of action. What is needed is taking seriously the reality of the future. We argue for the application of the methodology of ongoing normative assessment. We show that it is, paradoxically, a matter of forming a project on the basis of a fixed future which one does not want, and this in a coordinated way at the level of social institutions. Ongoing assessment may be viewed as a prescription to live with uncertainty, in a particular sense of the term, in order for a future catastrophe not to occur. The assessment is necessarily normative in that it must include the anticipation of a retrospective ethical judgment on present choices (notion of moral luck). (authors)

  10. EndoVascular and Hybrid Trauma Management (EVTM) for Blunt Innominate Artery Injury with Ongoing Extravasation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilos, Linda, E-mail: linda.bilos@regionorebrolan.se; Pirouzram, Artai; Toivola, Asko; Vidlund, Mårten; Cha, Soon Ok; Hörer, Tal [Örebro University Hospital and Örebro University, Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health (Sweden)

    2017-01-15

    Innominate artery (IA) traumatic injuries are rare but life-threatening, with high mortality and morbidity. Open surgical repair is the treatment of choice but is technically demanding. We describe a case of blunt trauma to the IA with ongoing bleeding, treated successfully by combined (hybrid) endovascular and open surgery. The case demonstrates the immediate usage of modern endovascular and surgical tools as part of endovascular and hybrid trauma management.

  11. Ongoing mumps outbreak in Novi Sad, the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia, January to April 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, S; Seguljev, Z; Petrovic, V; Medić, S; Nedelijković, J; Milosević, V; Turo, L; Ristić, M

    2012-05-10

    From 16 January to 30 April 2012, a total of 119 cases of mumps were notified in Novi Sad, Serbia. Of these cases, 89 (75%), were among students. The average age of cases was 22 years-old (range 3-37). The outbreak is still ongoing in Novi Sad and is spreading to other parts of the Vojvodina province. As of 30 April, 209 cases have been notified in the province among those 119 from Novi Sad.

  12. Ongoing or previous mental disorders predispose to adverse mood reporting during combined oral contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsdotter, Hanna; Lundin, Cecilia; Gemzell Danielsson, Kristina; Bixo, Marie; Baumgart, Juliane; Marions, Lena; Brynhildsen, Jan; Malmborg, Agota; Lindh, Ingela; Sundström Poromaa, Inger

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have emphasised that women with pre-existing mood disorders are more inclined to discontinue hormonal contraceptive use. However, few studies have examined the effects of combined oral contraceptives (COC) on mood in women with previous or ongoing mental disorders. This is a supplementary analysis of an investigator-initiated, double-blinded, randomised clinical trial during which 202 women were treated with either a COC (1.5 mg estradiol and 2.5 mg nomegestrolacetate) or placebo during three treatment cycles. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to collect information on previous or ongoing mental disorders. The primary outcome measure was the total change score in five mood symptoms on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) scale in the intermenstrual phase of the treatment cycle. Women with ongoing or previous mood, anxiety or eating disorders allocated to COC had higher total DRSP Δ-scores during the intermenstrual phase of the treatment cycle in comparison with corresponding women randomised to placebo, mean difference 1.3 (95% CI 0.3-2.3). In contrast, among women without mental health problems, no difference in total DRSP Δ-scores between COC- and placebo users was noted. Women with a risk use of alcohol who were randomised to the COC had higher total DRSP Δ-scores than women randomised to placebo, mean difference 2.1 (CI 95% 1.0-3.2). Women with ongoing or previous mental disorders or risk use of alcohol have greater risk of COC-induced mood symptoms. This may be worth noting during family planning and contraceptive counselling.

  13. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear Research Center in agriculture and animal science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprise nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going main projects involving several sub-projects with the above subjects were summarized for possible future collaborations. (author)

  14. Ongoing large measles outbreak with nosocomial transmission in Milan, northern Italy, March-August 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena R; Ciceri, Giulia; Faccini, Marino; Senatore, Sabrina; Colzani, Daniela; Lamberti, Anna; Baggieri, Melissa; Cereda, Danilo; Gramegna, Maria; Nicoletti, Loredana; Magurano, Fabio; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2017-08-17

    A large measles outbreak has been ongoing in Milan and surrounding areas. From 1 March to 30 June 2017, 203 measles cases were laboratory-confirmed (108 sporadic cases and 95 related to 47 clusters). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the co-circulation of two different genotypes, D8 and B3. Both genotypes caused nosocomial clusters in two hospitals. The rapid analysis of epidemiological and phylogenetic data allowed effective surveillance and tracking of transmission pathways. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  15. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A. Kyle; Geiser, William; Heintz, Philip; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-01-01

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography

  16. Differential effects of ongoing EEG beta and theta power on memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Sebastian; Schneider, Signe Luisa; Rose, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Recently, elevated ongoing pre-stimulus beta power (13-17 Hz) at encoding has been associated with subsequent memory formation for visual stimulus material. It is unclear whether this activity is merely specific to visual processing or whether it reflects a state facilitating general memory formation, independent of stimulus modality. To answer that question, the present study investigated the relationship between neural pre-stimulus oscillations and verbal memory formation in different sensory modalities. For that purpose, a within-subject design was employed to explore differences between successful and failed memory formation in the visual and auditory modality. Furthermore, associative memory was addressed by presenting the stimuli in combination with background images. Results revealed that similar EEG activity in the low beta frequency range (13-17 Hz) is associated with subsequent memory success, independent of stimulus modality. Elevated power prior to stimulus onset differentiated successful from failed memory formation. In contrast, differential effects between modalities were found in the theta band (3-7 Hz), with an increased oscillatory activity before the onset of later remembered visually presented words. In addition, pre-stimulus theta power dissociated between successful and failed encoding of associated context, independent of the stimulus modality of the item itself. We therefore suggest that increased ongoing low beta activity reflects a memory promoting state, which is likely to be moderated by modality-independent attentional or inhibitory processes, whereas high ongoing theta power is suggested as an indicator of the enhanced binding of incoming interlinked information.

  17. Differential effects of ongoing EEG beta and theta power on memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Scholz

    Full Text Available Recently, elevated ongoing pre-stimulus beta power (13-17 Hz at encoding has been associated with subsequent memory formation for visual stimulus material. It is unclear whether this activity is merely specific to visual processing or whether it reflects a state facilitating general memory formation, independent of stimulus modality. To answer that question, the present study investigated the relationship between neural pre-stimulus oscillations and verbal memory formation in different sensory modalities. For that purpose, a within-subject design was employed to explore differences between successful and failed memory formation in the visual and auditory modality. Furthermore, associative memory was addressed by presenting the stimuli in combination with background images. Results revealed that similar EEG activity in the low beta frequency range (13-17 Hz is associated with subsequent memory success, independent of stimulus modality. Elevated power prior to stimulus onset differentiated successful from failed memory formation. In contrast, differential effects between modalities were found in the theta band (3-7 Hz, with an increased oscillatory activity before the onset of later remembered visually presented words. In addition, pre-stimulus theta power dissociated between successful and failed encoding of associated context, independent of the stimulus modality of the item itself. We therefore suggest that increased ongoing low beta activity reflects a memory promoting state, which is likely to be moderated by modality-independent attentional or inhibitory processes, whereas high ongoing theta power is suggested as an indicator of the enhanced binding of incoming interlinked information.

  18. Ongoing Evaluation of Clinical Ethics Consultations as a Form of Continuous Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing evaluation of a clinical ethics consultation service (ECS) allows for continuous quality improvement, a process-based, data-driven approach for improving the quality of a service. Evaluations by stakeholders involved in a consultation can provide real-time feedback about what is working well and what might need to be improved. Although numerous authors have previously presented data from research studies on the effectiveness of clinical ethics consultation, few ECSs routinely send evaluations as an ongoing component of their everyday clinical activities. The primary purpose of this article is to equip and encourage others to engage in ongoing evaluation of their own ECS. Toward that end, the following resources are shared: (1) the survey tool used to gather the evaluation data, (2) the procedure used to elicit and collate responses, and (3) how the resulting data are used to support continuous quality improvement and justify the continued financial support of the ECS to hospital administration. Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  19. Control of HIV-1 in Elite Suppressors despite Ongoing Replication and Evolution in Plasma Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Karen A.; Brennan, Timothy P.; Bailey, Justin R.; Ray, Stuart C.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Blankson, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    A subset of HIV-1-infected patients known as elite controllers or suppressors (ES) control the virus naturally. We have previously demonstrated sequence discordance between proviral and plasma gag clones in ES, much of which can be attributed to selective pressure from the host (J. R. Bailey, T. M. Williams, R. F. Siliciano, and J. N. Blankson, J. Exp. Med. 203:1357-1369, 2006). However, it is not clear whether ongoing viral replication continues in ES once the control of viremia has been established or whether selective pressure impacts this evolution. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in ES often targets Gag and frequently is superior to that of HIV-1 progressors, partially due to the HLA class I alleles B*57/5801 and B*27, which are overrepresented in ES. We therefore examined longitudinal plasma and proviral gag sequences from HLA-B*57/5801 and -B*27 ES. Despite the highly conserved nature of gag, we observed clear evidence of evolution in the plasma virus, largely due to synonymous substitutions. In contrast, evolution was rare in proviral clones, suggesting that ongoing replication in ES does not permit the significant reseeding of the latent reservoir. Interestingly, there was little continual evolution in CTL epitopes, and we detected de novo CTL responses to autologous viral mutants. Thus, some ES control viremia despite ongoing replication and evolution. PMID:20444904

  20. Ontario's primary care reforms have transformed the local care landscape, but a plan is needed for ongoing improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Brian; Glazier, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Primary care in Ontario, Canada, has undergone a series of reforms designed to improve access to care, patient and provider satisfaction, care quality, and health system efficiency and sustainability. We highlight key features of the reforms, which included patient enrollment with a primary care provider; funding for interprofessional primary care organizations; and physician reimbursement based on varying blends of fee-for-service, capitation, and pay-for-performance. With nearly 75 percent of Ontario's population now enrolled in these new models, total payments to primary care physicians increased by 32 percent between 2006 and 2010, and the proportion of Ontario primary care physicians who reported overall satisfaction with the practice of medicine rose from 76 percent in 2009 to 84 percent in 2012. However, primary care in Ontario also faces challenges. There is no meaningful performance measurement system that tracks the impact of these innovations, for example. A better system of risk adjustment is also needed in capitated plans so that groups have the incentive to take on high-need patients. Ongoing investment in these models is required despite fiscal constraints. We recommend a clearly articulated policy road map to continue the transformation.

  1. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  2. The Complexity Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    fundamental challenge for the millennial genera- tion. Complexity, it appears, is all the rage. We challenge these declarations and assumptions—not...pan- opticism: surveillance creates “a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power.”38 States do not...Oxford University Press, 1997), 124-125. 20. Ibid., 4, 246, 252. 21. Richard Price and Nina Tannenwald, “Norms and Deterrence: The Nuclear and Chemical

  3. Teoria, determinação, complexidade: desafios da reflexão sobre educação Theory, determination, complexity: challenging issues in the reflection on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian do Valle

    2003-09-01

    answers, the old concepts, the logic and the explicative theories that fall under the weight of the everyday evidences of their exhaustion; on the other, the demand to mistrust all answers and the childish pleasure in deconstructing - how could we be surprised by the huge success being obtained by analyses that - under new clothing - offer to education the model of the natural world as a parameter and as a tool to help its understanding of the "human complexity"? How can we apprehend through our understanding something that, in its being, reveals its igneous character or, as it is usually said, its complexity? The present text looks at these issues and proposes, as a sort of challenge, that, in order to reflect upon the way of being that is peculiar to human beings, we should start with the human being him/herself.

  4. Educational Leadership: Key Challenges and Ethical Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    "Educational Leadership" is a major research book on contemporary leadership challenges for educational leaders. In this groundbreaking new work, educational leaders in schools, including teachers, are provided with ways of analysing and resolving common but complex leadership challenges. Ethical tensions inherent in these challenges are…

  5. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  6. Data Challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N A

    Some two years ago we planned a series of Data Challenges starting at the end of 2001. At the time, that seemed to be comfortingly far in the future... Well, as the saying goes, doesn't time fly when you are having fun! ATLAS Computing is now deep in the throes of getting the first Data Challenge (DC0) up and running. One of the main aims of DC0 is to have a software 'release' in which we can generate full physics events, track all particles through the detector, simulate the detector response, reconstruct the event, and study it, with appropriate data storage en route. As all software is "always 95% ready" (!), we have been able to do most of this, more or less, for some time. But DC0 forces us to have everything working, together, at the same time: a reality check. DC0 should finish early next year, and it will be followed almost immediately afterwards by DC1 (DC0 was foreseen as the 'check' for DC1). DC1 will last into the middle of 2002, and has two major goals. The first is generation, simulation, and r...

  7. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Rose

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800’s that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950’s, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  8. Can NMR solve some significant challenges in metabolomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR's excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact bio-specimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer unique strengths for metabolomics applications. However, NMR's limited sensitivity and resolution continue to pose a major challenge and have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of metabolites analyzed by NMR. Further, the analysis of highly complex biological samples has increased the demand for new methods with improved detection, better unknown identification, and more accurate quantitation of larger numbers of metabolites. Recent efforts have contributed significant improvements in these areas, and have thereby enhanced the pool of routinely quantifiable metabolites. Additionally, efforts focused on combining NMR and MS promise opportunities to exploit the combined strength of the two analytical platforms for direct comparison of the metabolite data, unknown identification and reliable biomarker discovery that continue to challenge the metabolomics field. This article presents our perspectives on the emerging trends in NMR-based metabolomics and NMR's continuing role in the field with an emphasis on recent and ongoing research from our laboratory.

  9. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  10. Hierarchical structure of ecological and non-ecological processes of differentiation shaped ongoing gastropod radiation in the Malawi Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bocxlaer, Bert

    2017-09-13

    Ecological processes, non-ecological processes or a combination of both may cause reproductive isolation and speciation, but their specific roles and potentially complex interactions in evolutionary radiations remain poorly understood, which defines a central knowledge gap at the interface of microevolution and macroevolution. Here I examine genome scans in combination with phenotypic and environmental data to disentangle how ecological and non-ecological processes contributed to population differentiation and speciation in an ongoing radiation of Lanistes gastropods from the Malawi Basin. I found a remarkable hierarchical structure of differentiation mechanisms in space and time: neutral and mutation-order processes are older and occur mainly between regions, whereas more recent adaptive processes are the main driver of genetic differentiation and reproductive isolation within regions. The strongest differentiation occurs between habitats and between regions, i.e. when ecological and non-ecological processes act synergistically. The structured occurrence of these processes based on the specific geographical setting and ecological opportunities strongly influenced the potential for evolutionary radiation. The results highlight the importance of interactions between various mechanisms of differentiation in evolutionary radiations, and suggest that non-ecological processes are important in adaptive radiations, including those of cichlids. Insight into such interactions is critical to understanding large-scale patterns of organismal diversity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Extended reviewing or the role of potential siting cantons in the ongoing Swiss site selection procedure ('Sectoral Plan')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueeler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The disposition of nuclear waste in Switzerland has a long-standing and sinuous history reflecting its complex socio-technical nature (Flueeler, 2006). Upon the twofold failure to site a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste at Wellenberg during the 1990's and 2000's, it was recognised that the respective site selections had not been fully transparent. The Swiss government, the Federal Council, accepted the lesson and, after an extensive nationwide consultation at that, established a new site selection process 'from scratch': a systematic, stepwise, traceable, fair and binding procedure with a safety-first approach, yet extensively participatory. The so-called Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories guarantees the inclusion of the affected and concerned cantons and communities, as well as the relevant authorities in neighbouring countries from an early stage (Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, 2003; BFE, 2008). This contribution shares experience and insights in the ongoing procedure from a cantonal point of view that is an intermediate position between national needs and regional concerns, and with technical regulatory expertise between highly specialised experts and involved publics. (authors)

  12. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  13. On-going and some future safety related activities of the OECD/NEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frescura, G.

    2001-01-01

    The CSNI and CNRA structures and current activities of direct relevance to WWERs are presented. The nuclear regulatory challenges arising from economic deregulation like: direct safety challenges, infrastructure issues, increased pressure on regulatory bodies etc. are given. The OECD/NEA initiatives on assuring nuclear safety competence are mentioned

  14. An ongoing Game of Tetris: Integrating Trusted Computing in Java, block-by-block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegl, Ronald; Pirker, Martin

    Trusted Computing is a promising approach to improve the security of computer systems. However, current releases of the Java platform do not provide support to utilize the Trusted Platform Module (TPM). This paper presents several building-blocks that lead to the integration of TC into Java. It outlines the issues that arise with multiple TPM-virtualizations in the context of managed environments. Further, it summarizes the design and implementation of Java TC-libraries that support the major operating systems on TPM-enabled platforms, while still considering alternative architectures. The final aspect covered is the ongoing standardization process of a future Trusted Computing API for Java.

  15. Measuring data quality for ongoing improvement a data quality assessment framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian-Coleman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The Data Quality Assessment Framework shows you how to measure and monitor data quality, ensuring quality over time. You'll start with general concepts of measurement and work your way through a detailed framework of more than three dozen measurement types related to five objective dimensions of quality: completeness, timeliness, consistency, validity, and integrity. Ongoing measurement, rather than one time activities will help your organization reach a new level of data quality. This plain-language approach to measuring data can be understood by both business and IT and provides pra

  16. Ongoing evaluation of sources and factors affecting emissions from engineered wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, S.L.; Martin, C.B.; Sheldon, L.S.; Baskir, J.N.; Howard, E.M.

    1998-09-01

    The paper describes an ongoing evaluation of sources and factors affecting emissions from engineered wood products. It summarizes early results from emissions testing of engineered wood products. These tests have shown the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the alcohol, aldehyde/ketone, ester, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon, monoterpene, sesquiterpene, indene, and alkyl ether chemical families from engineered wood samples. This information will be used to target pollution prevention approaches, such as alternate materials and production technologies for raw board and engineered wood products, for reducing VOC emissions.

  17. Diabetes education and self-management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Carey, Marian E.; Cradock, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of a structured education program on illness beliefs, quality of life and physical activity in people newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Individuals attending a diabetes education and self-management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) program...... in 12 Primary Care Trusts completed questionnaire booklets assessing illness beliefs and quality of life at baseline and 3-month follow-up, metabolic control being assessed through assay of HbA1c. Results: Two hundred and thirty-six individuals attended the structured self-management education sessions...

  18. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  19. Challenges in data science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, M.; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    The ability to process and manage large data volumes has been proven to be not enough to tackle the current challenges presented by "Big Data". Deep insight is required for understanding interactions among connected systems, space- and time-dependent heterogeneous data structures. Emergence...... can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ". Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking "What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?" These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection...... of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. sTREM-1 is a potential useful biomarker for exclusion of ongoing infection in patients with secondary peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Determann, Rogier M.; Olivier van Till, J. W.; van Ruler, Oddeke; van Veen, Suzanne Q.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2009-01-01

    identification of patients with ongoing abdominal infection after emergency surgery for abdominal sepsis is difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether plasma and abdominal fluid sTREM-1 levels can adequately select patients with ongoing abdominal infection. In a single center

  1. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12–2...

  2. 5 CFR 2641.203 - One-year restriction on any former employee's representations, aid, or advice concerning ongoing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employee's representations, aid, or advice concerning ongoing trade or treaty negotiation. 2641.203 Section... CONFLICT OF INTEREST RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions § 2641.203 One-year restriction on any former employee's representations, aid, or advice concerning ongoing trade or treaty negotiation. (a) Basic prohibition of 18 U.S.C...

  3. 77 FR 15818 - License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-05: Ongoing Review of Operating Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...-05: Ongoing Review of Operating Experience AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Interim... License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2011-05, ``Ongoing Review of Operating Experience... industry-wide operating experience as an attribute of aging management programs used at nuclear power...

  4. 76 FR 72725 - Draft License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-05: Ongoing Review of Operating Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ...-2011-05: Ongoing Review of Operating Experience AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Revision... Experience.'' This LR-ISG provides guidance and clarification concerning ongoing review of plant-specific and industry-wide operating experience as an attribute of aging management programs used at nuclear power...

  5. 76 FR 58311 - Draft License Renewal Interim Staff Guidance LR-ISG-2011-05; Ongoing Review of Operating Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ...-2011-05; Ongoing Review of Operating Experience AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Operating Experience.'' This LR-ISG provides guidance and clarification concerning ongoing review of plant-specific and industry-wide operating experience as an attribute of aging management programs used at...

  6. Commissioning guidance for weight assessment and management in adults and children with severe complex obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourn, R; Hopkins, J; Dixon, J B; Finer, N; Hughes, C; Viner, R; Wass, J

    2018-01-01

    The challenge of managing the epidemic of patients with severe and complex obesity disease in secondary care is largely unmet. In England, the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence and the National Health Service England have published guidance on the provision of specialist (non-surgical) weight management services. We have undertaken a systematic review of 'what evidence exists for what should happen in/commissioning of: primary or secondary care weight assessment and management clinics in patients needing specialist care for severe and complex obesity?' using an accredited methodology to produce a model for organization of multidisciplinary team clinics that could be developed in every healthcare system, as an update to a previous review. Additions to the previous guidance were multidisciplinary team pathways for children/adolescent patients and their transition to adult care, anaesthetic assessment and recommendations for ongoing shared care with general practitioners, as a chronic disease management pathway. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  8. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  9. Ongoing phenotypic and genomic changes in experimental coevolution of RNA bacteriophage Qβ and Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kashiwagi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Red Queen hypothesis or arms race dynamics, coevolution drives continuous adaptation and counter-adaptation. Experimental models under simplified environments consisting of bacteria and bacteriophages have been used to analyze the ongoing process of coevolution, but the analysis of both parasites and their hosts in ongoing adaptation and counter-adaptation remained to be performed at the levels of population dynamics and molecular evolution to understand how the phenotypes and genotypes of coevolving parasite-host pairs change through the arms race. Copropagation experiments with Escherichia coli and the lytic RNA bacteriophage Qβ in a spatially unstructured environment revealed coexistence for 54 days (equivalent to 163-165 replication generations of Qβ and fitness analysis indicated that they were in an arms race. E. coli first adapted by developing partial resistance to infection and later increasing specific growth rate. The phage counter-adapted by improving release efficiency with a change in host specificity and decrease in virulence. Whole-genome analysis indicated that the phage accumulated 7.5 mutations, mainly in the A2 gene, 3.4-fold faster than in Qβ propagated alone. E. coli showed fixation of two mutations (in traQ and csdA faster than in sole E. coli experimental evolution. These observations suggest that the virus and its host can coexist in an evolutionary arms race, despite a difference in genome mutability (i.e., mutations per genome per replication of approximately one to three orders of magnitude.

  10. Pulsed Out of Awareness: EEG Alpha oscillations represent a pulsed inhibition of ongoing cortical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Elliott Mathewson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Alpha oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain, but their role in cortical processing remains a matter of debate. Recently, evidence has begun to accumulate in support of a role for alpha oscillations in attention selection and control. Here we first review evidence that 8-12 Hz oscillations in the brain have a general inhibitory role in cognitive processing, with an emphasis on their role in visual processing. Then, we summarize the evidence in support of our recent proposal that alpha represents a pulsed inhibition of ongoing neural activity. The phase of the ongoing EEG can influence evoked activity and subsequent processing, and we propose that alpha exerts its inhibitory role through alternating microstates of inhibition and excitation. Finally, we discuss evidence that this pulsed inhibition can be entrained to rhythmic stimuli in the environment, such that preferential processing occurs for stimuli at predictable moments. The entrainment of preferential phase may provide a mechanism for temporal attention in the brain. This pulsed inhibitory account of alpha has important implications for many common cognitive phenomena, such as the attentional blink, and seems to indicate that our visual experience may at least some times be coming through in waves.

  11. An ongoing collaborative teacher training through action research. A way of changing classroom practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Barba-Martín

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing education training for teachers can be done through different models that could only report or also accompany the process of implementing innovations. The training through reflection processes is presented as essential to make changes in the classroom; also, if it is done collectively with other teachers or between centers, transformations will not only occur in the classroom, but in the whole context. One way leading to a collaborative ongoing education is through action research groups, considering a set of ethical practices whose characteristics allow participants to be trained according to their needs, and through support with other teachers, in order to transform the context. The research we present here is framed in a Teaching Innovation Project, University of Valladolid, through which teachers from three schools that have been trained in inclusive education through action research implementing in their classrooms interactive groups. This collaborative process played by teachers themselves has changed the thinking of teachers, their classroom and their educational contexts in which they work.

  12. Tipping Points and the Accommodation of the Abuser: Ongoing Incestuous Abuse during Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Middleton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the widespread reality of ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood had attracted no systematic research. The scientific literature was limited to the occasional case study and brief anecdotal references. This minimal literature was supplemented by biographical works written by or about victims of this form of abuse, and by press reports. With the advent of the Josef Fritzl case there was a very marked increase in the press reporting of such abuse, which in turn provided a reference point for more fine-grained data collection and scientific reporting. This paper introduces the subject of prolonged incest via the lens of organised abuse, summarises research on incestuous abuse and draws on multiple clinical examples to elucidate the mechanisms by which such abuse merges with, or develops into, variations of organised abuse, including that centred on the family, on prostitution, or on that involving abuse networks. The abuse practices, the net-working, and the ploys used to avoid prosecution practiced by the father perpetrating ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood have much in common with other variants of organised sexual abuse.

  13. The ongoing charity of organ donation. Contemporary English Sunni fatwas on organ donation and blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2011-03-01

    Empirical studies in Muslim communities on organ donation and blood transfusion show that Muslim counsellors play an important role in the decision process. Despite the emerging importance of online English Sunni fatwas, these fatwas on organ donation and blood transfusion have hardly been studied, thus creating a gap in our knowledge of contemporary Islamic views on the subject. We analysed 70 English Sunni e-fatwas and subjected them to an in-depth text analysis in order to reveal the key concepts in the Islamic ethical framework regarding organ donation and blood transfusion. All 70 fatwas allow for organ donation and blood transfusion. Autotransplantation is no problem at all if done for medical reasons. Allotransplantation, both from a living and a dead donor, appears to be possible though only in quite restricted ways. Xenotransplantation is less often mentioned but can be allowed in case of necessity. Transplantation in general is seen as an ongoing form of charity. Nearly half of the fatwas allowing blood transfusion do so without mentioning any restriction or problem whatsoever. The other half of the fatwas on transfusion contain the same conditional approval as found in the arguments pro organ transplantation. Our findings are very much in line with the international literature on the subject. We found two new elements: debates on the definition of the moment of death are hardly mentioned in the English Sunni fatwas and organ donation and blood transfusion are presented as an ongoing form of charity. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Epilepsy, scuba diving and risk assessment. Near misses and the need for ongoing vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Lippmann, John

    2013-03-01

    There is ongoing debate about the safety of scuba diving for individuals with a history of epilepsy. An in-water seizure is highly likely to be fatal. Recommendations for fitness to dive vary with some regarding epilepsy as an absolute contraindication to diving (South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society) and others permitting diving under strict criteria (United Kingdom Sport Diving Medical Committee) with diving to be postponed for a period of three to five years without seizures. Long-term follow up of people with epilepsy shows that at least one-third will have a recurrence and that the risk remains elevated for many years. We present three cases where individuals with a history of epilepsy (or likely epilepsy) almost fell through the cracks of health risk assessment, two with near-fatal consequences. These cases inform the on-going debate about fitness to dive for those with current or past epilepsy, and highlight the importance of education for doctors, dive professionals and divers about the risks associated with epilepsy and diving.

  15. Equality in Healthcare: The Formation and Ongoing Legacy of an LGBT Advisory Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, William; Fullerton, Chelsea; Keller, Ronald

    2015-12-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the literature on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) health disparities and workplace discrimination, as well as the context that led to the formation of an institutional LGBT Advisory Council. The Council was developed in order to demonstrate our ongoing commitment to LGBT inclusion and to improve the lived experiences for both LGBT patients and staff. A retrospective approach is utilized to explore the LGBT Advisory Council's journey to spearhead advocacy efforts at our institution. The Council's accomplishments include taking a leadership role in obtaining nationally recognized designations such as the Healthcare Equality Index and the Magnet Exemplar for Cultural Sensitivity, as well as adding sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression fields to our institution's electronic medical record system. Additionally, the Council guides and promotes ongoing house-wide cultural sensitivity staff training efforts. Most recently, the Council marched as a contingency in the world's largest Pride March for the first time in institutional history. It is our hope that our Council will become an inspiration and exemplar for similar groups to form at healthcare institutions and organizations across the nation. Allowing LGBT members of each individual healthcare community the agency to determine the direction of advocacy efforts is incredibly important; however, this must be coupled with an organizational commitment on behalf of leadership to follow through on these initiatives and to provide them with the resources they need in order to be successful.

  16. Ongoing development of high-efficiency and high-reliability laser diodes at Spectra-Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanxuan; Chyr, Irving; Brown, Denny; Jin, Xu; Reinhardt, Frank; Towe, Terry; Nguyen, Touyen; Srinivasan, Raman; Berube, Myra; Miller, Robert; Kuppuswamy, Kiran; Hu, Yongdan; Crum, Trevor; Truchan, Tom; Harrison, James

    2007-02-01

    Ongoing optimization of epitaxial designs, MOCVD growth processes, and device engineering at Spectra-Physics has yielded significant improvement in both power conversion efficiency (PCE) and reliable power, without compromising manufacturability in a high-volume production environment. Maximum PCE of 72.2% was measured at 25 °C for 976- nm single-emitter devices with 3-mm cavity length. 928 W continuous-wave (CW) output power has been demonstrated from a high-efficiency (65% maximum PCE) single laser bar with 5-mm cavity length and 77% fill factor. Eight-element laser bars (976 nm) with 100μm-wide emitters have been operated at >148 W CW, corresponding to linear power densities at the facet >185 mW/μm. Ongoing life-testing, in combination with stepped stress tests, indicate rates of random failure and wear-out are well below those of earlier device designs. For operation near 800 nm, the design has been optimized for high-power, high-temperature applications. The highest PCE for water-cooled stacks was 54.7% at 35°C coolant temperature.

  17. Challenges to the Transdisciplinarity of Climate Services: A Coffee Farming Case from Jamaica's Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Climate information is heralded as helping to build adaptive capacity, improve resource management, and contribute to more effective risk management. However, decision makers often find it challenging to use climate information for reasons attributed to a disconnect between technical experts who produce the information and end users. Consequently, many climate service projects are now applying an end-to-end approach that links information users and producers in the design, development, and delivery of services. This collaboration confronts obstacles that can undermine the objectives of the project. Despite this, few studies in the burgeoning field of climate services have assessed the challenges. To address this gap, I provide a reflective account and analysis of the collaborative challenges experienced in an ongoing, complex four-year project developing climate services for small-scale coffee producers in Jamaica. The project has involved diverse activities, including social data collection, research and development of information tools, periodic engagement with coffee sector representatives, and community-based trainings. Contributions to the project were made routinely by 18 individuals who represent 9 institutions located in three countries. These individuals work for academic and governmental organizations and bring expertise in anthropology, plant pathology, and climatology, among others. In spanning diverse disciplines, large geographic distances, and different cultures, the project team has navigated challenges in communication, problem framing, organizational agendas, disciplinary integration, and project management. I contextualize these experiences within research on transdisciplinary and team science, and share some perspectives on strategies to lessen their impact.

  18. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  19. Challenges and Opportunities for Tribal Waters: Addressing Disparities in Safe Public Drinking Water on the Crow Reservation in Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John T; Kindness, Larry; Realbird, James; Eggers, Margaret J; Camper, Anne K

    2018-03-21

    Disparities in access to safe public drinking water are increasingly being recognized as contributing to health disparities and environmental injustice for vulnerable communities in the United States. As the Co-Directors of the Apsaálooke Water and Wastewater Authority (AWWWA) for the Crow Tribe, with our academic partners, we present here the multiple and complex challenges we have addressed in improving and maintaining tribal water and wastewater infrastructure, including the identification of diverse funding sources for infrastructure construction, the need for many kinds of specialized expertise and long-term stability of project personnel, ratepayer difficulty in paying for services, an ongoing legacy of inadequate infrastructure planning, and lack of water quality research capacity. As a tribal entity, the AWWWA faces additional challenges, including the complex jurisdictional issues affecting all phases of our work, lack of authority to create water districts, and additional legal and regulatory gaps-especially with regards to environmental protection. Despite these obstacles, the AWWWA and Crow Tribe have successfully upgraded much of the local water and wastewater infrastructure. We find that ensuring safe public drinking water for tribal and other disadvantaged U.S. communities will require comprehensive, community-engaged approaches across a broad range of stakeholders to successfully address these complex legal, regulatory, policy, community capacity, and financial challenges.

  20. EDITORIAL: Ongoing climatic change in Northern Eurasia: justification for expedient research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    A brief overview of the ongoing climatic and environmental changes in Northern Eurasia serves as an editorial introduction to this, the second, special Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) focus issue of Environmental Research Letters. Climatic changes in Northern Eurasia over the last hundred years are reflected in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial variables. Many of these are noticeably significant above the confidence level for 'weather' or other (fire regime, ecosystem change) noise and thus should be further investigated in order to adapt to their impacts. In this focus issue, we introduce assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change in Northern Eurasia. Most of these have been presented at one of the NEESPI workshops (for more information see neespi.org) and/or American Geophysical Union and European Geosciences Union NEESPI open sessions during the past year. These studies are diverse, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia. Some of these are focused on smaller spatial scales and/or address only specific aspects of the global change implications across the subcontinent. But the feeling (and observational evidence) that these changes have already been quite rapid and can have global implications inspires us to bring this suite of papers to the readers' attention. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia Contents Preface Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja Editorial Siberia integrated regional study: Multidisciplinary investigations of interrelation between Siberia environment dynamics and global climate change E P Gordov and E A Vaganov Studies of the energy and water cycles in Northern Eurasia Comparison and evaluation of gridded radiation products across northern Eurasia T J Troy and E F Wood Reanalysis data underestimate significant changes in growing

  1. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  2. High resolution pollutant measurements in complex urban ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring air pollution in real-time using an instrumented vehicle platform has been an emerging strategy to resolve air pollution trends at a very fine spatial scale (10s of meters). Achieving second-by-second data representative of urban air quality trends requires advanced instrumentation, such as a quantum cascade laser utilized to resolve carbon monoxide and real-time optical detection of black carbon. An equally challenging area of development is processing and visualization of complex geospatial air monitoring data to decipher key trends of interest. EPA’s Office of Research and Development staff have applied air monitoring to evaluate community air quality in a variety of environments, including assessing air quality surrounding rail yards, evaluating noise wall or tree stand effects on roadside and on-road air quality, and surveying of traffic-related exposure zones for comparison with land-use regression estimates. ORD has ongoing efforts to improve mobile monitoring data collection and interpretation, including instrumentation testing, evaluating the effect of post-processing algorithms on derived trends, and developing a web-based tool called Real-Time Geospatial Data Viewer (RETIGO) allowing for a simple plug-and-play of mobile monitoring data. Example findings from mobile data sets include an estimated 50% in roadside ultrafine particle levels when immediately downwind of a noise barrier, increases in neighborhood-wide black carbon levels (3

  3. The Challenges of Digital Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Because digital devices and online environments can simultaneously be transformatively empowering and maddeningly disruptive, the work of integrating digital learning tools into schools is usually difficult and complex. Common challenges arise, however, and can be thoughtfully addressed by proactive leadership. In the end, technology change in…

  4. Comparative genomics of eukaryotic small nucleolar RNAs reveals deep evolutionary ancestry amidst ongoing intragenomic mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeppner Marc P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small nucleolar (snoRNAs are required for posttranscriptional processing and modification of ribosomal, spliceosomal and messenger RNAs. Their presence in both eukaryotes and archaea indicates that snoRNAs are evolutionarily ancient. The location of some snoRNAs within the introns of ribosomal protein genes has been suggested to belie an RNA world origin, with the exons of the earliest protein-coding genes having evolved around snoRNAs after the advent of templated protein synthesis. Alternatively, this intronic location may reflect more recent selection for coexpression of snoRNAs and ribosomal components, ensuring rRNA modification by snoRNAs during ribosome synthesis. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins of this genetic organization, we examined the antiquity of snoRNA families and the stability of their genomic location across 44 eukaryote genomes. Results We report that dozens of snoRNA families are traceable to the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA, but find only weak similarities between the oldest eukaryotic snoRNAs and archaeal snoRNA-like genes. Moreover, many of these LECA snoRNAs are located within the introns of host genes independently traceable to the LECA. Comparative genomic analyses reveal the intronic location of LECA snoRNAs is not ancestral however, suggesting the pattern we observe is the result of ongoing intragenomic mobility. Analysis of human transcriptome data indicates that the primary requirement for hosting intronic snoRNAs is a broad expression profile. Consistent with ongoing mobility across broadly-expressed genes, we report a case of recent migration of a non-LECA snoRNA from the intron of a ubiquitously expressed non-LECA host gene into the introns of two LECA genes during the evolution of primates. Conclusions Our analyses show that snoRNAs were a well-established family of RNAs at the time when eukaryotes began to diversify. While many are intronic, this association is not

  5. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  6. The Ongoing Rediscovery of Après-Coup as a Central Freudian Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Après-coup, Freud's Nachträglichkeit, is an essential psychoanalytic concept structuring each of four concepts, four mental processes that lie at the foundation of Freud's thinking: psychic trauma, repression, the creation of the unconscious, and the creation of infantile sexuality. It is argued here that infantile sexual drives, in contrast to the self-preservative instincts, arise from a two-step process of translation and repression in which the residues of failed translation become source-objects of the drives. These residues of failed translation have an associative resonance with adult sexuality, and the child is driven to ongoing attempts to translate them, to make them meaningful après coup. Thus, après-coup is at the heart of the human subject as a sexual creature who requires, desires, and creates meaning.

  7. Enterprise SRS: leveraging ongoing operations to advance nuclear fuel cycles research and development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.; Marra, J.E.; Wilmarth, W.R.; McGuire, P.W.; Wheeler, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is re-purposing its vast array of assets (including H Canyon - a nuclear chemical separation plant) to solve issues regarding advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies, nuclear materials processing, packaging, storage and disposition. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into SRS facilities but also in other facilities in conjunction with on-going missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research has been established in SRS

  8. A Kenyan Cloud School. Massive Open Online & Ongoing Courses for Blended and Lifelong Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Jobe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the predicted outcomes of a Kenyan Cloud School (KCS, which is a MOOC that contains all courses taught at the secondary school level in Kenya. This MOOC will consist of online, ongoing subjects in both English and Kiswahili. The KCS subjects offer self-testing and peer assessment to maximize scalability, and digital badges to show progress and completion to recognize and validate non-formal learning. The KCS uses the Moodle LMS with responsive web design to increase ubiquitous access from any device. Access is free and open, and the KCS intends to be a contextualized open educational resource for formal secondary institutions to support blended learning and a free source of non-formal education for lifelong learning. The expected outcomes are that this effort will reduce secondary school dropout rates, improve test scores, become a quality resource for blended learning, as well as validate and recognize lifelong learning in Kenya.

  9. Detecting and quantifying ongoing decay of organic archaeological remains - a discussion of different approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    In situ preservation is increasingly a preferred option for managing archaeological remains, as there is a wish to preserve some undisturbed remains for later generations to investigate using new methods and asking new questions. However, in situ preservation is only a viable option if the remains...... are well protected and are not undergoing rapid decay, and it requires a detailed knowledge of decay processes and rates. For instance it is well established that the presence of water is of paramount importance for the preservation of organic material, and there are several examples where archaeological....... Thus, for the management of archaeological sites it is necessary to develop tools and methods that allow us to discover ongoing decay as fast as possible. Furthermore, in order to prioritize between excavation, in situ preservation and mitigation the decay rate should be evaluated on a quantitative...

  10. Constraining Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking Framework via Ongoing Muon g-2 Experiment at Brookhaven

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, U; Roy, S; PH; Chattopadhyay, Utpal; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Roy, Sourov

    2000-01-01

    The ongoing high precision E821 Brookhaven National Laboratory experiment on muon g-2 is promising to probe a theory involving supersymmetry. We have studied the constraints on minimal Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB) model using the current data of muon g-2 from Brookhaven. A scenario of seeing no deviation from the Standard Model is also considered, within $2\\sigma$ limit of the combined error from the Standard Model result and the Brookhaven predicted uncertainty level. The resulting constraint is found to be complementary to what one obtains from $b \\to s+ \\gamma$ bounds within the AMSB scenario, since only a definite sign of $\\mu$ is effectively probed via $b \\to s+ \\gamma$. A few relevant generic features of the model are also described for disallowed regions of the parameter space.

  11. Overview of ongoing and planned R/D works on delayed releases and FCVS efficiencies - 15426

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrel, L.; Albiol, T.; Mun, C.; Jacquemain, D.; Herranz, L.; Guieu, S.; Collet, R.; Lind, T.; Karkela, T.; Chebbi, M.

    2015-01-01

    In link with the Fukushima post-accident management and possible improvement of mitigation actions for such severe accidents (SA), some international works have been launched and/or extended on two specific points which are long-term releases and Filtered Containment Venting Systems (FCVS) efficiencies. This paper deals with ongoing and planned research/development works. It includes a state of the art of delayed releases and we put the emphasis on the PASSAM (Passive and Active Systems on Severe Accident source term Mitigation) project objectives and structure (Grant agreement n323217 - Euratom 7. Framework Programme), of the MIRE (Mitigation of outside Releases in the Environment) French ANR programme as well as the planned OECD projects devoted to source term. Special attention is paid to iodine behaviour, and it is extended to ruthenium behaviour, due to their ability to form volatile forms and because they are significant in terms of radiological consequences in case of outside releases. (authors)

  12. Missed opportunities: poor linkage into ongoing care for HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Watson-Jones

    Full Text Available Global coverage of prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT services reached 53% in 2009. However the number of pregnant women who test positive for HIV in antenatal clinics and who link into long-term HIV care is not known in many resource-poor countries. We measured the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza city, Tanzania, who completed the cascade of care from antenatal HIV diagnosis to assessment and engagement in care in adult HIV clinics.Thirty antenatal and maternity ward health workers were interviewed about PMTCT activities. Nine antenatal HIV education sessions were observed. A prospective cohort of 403 HIV-positive women was enrolled by specially-trained clinicians and nurses on admission to delivery and followed for four months post-partum. Information was collected on referral and attendance at adult HIV clinics, eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and reasons for lack of attendance.Overall, 70% of PMTCT health workers referred HIV-positive pregnant women to the HIV clinic for assessment and care. Antenatal HIV education sessions did not cover on-going care for HIV-infected women. Of 310 cohort participants tested in pregnancy, 51% had received an HIV clinic referral pre-delivery. Only 32% of 244 women followed to four months post-partum had attended an HIV clinic and been assessed for HAART eligibility. Non-attendance for HIV care was independently associated with fewer antenatal visits, poor PMTCT prophylaxis compliance, non-disclosure of HIV status, and non-Sukuma ethnicity.Most women identified as HIV-positive during pregnancy were not assessed for HAART eligibility during pregnancy or in the first four months post-partum. Initiating HAART at the antenatal clinic, improved counselling and linkages to care between PMTCT and adult HIV treatment services and reducing stigma surrounding disclosure of HIV results would benefit on-going care of HIV-positive pregnant women.

  13. Ongoing myocardial damage relates to cardiac sympathetic nervous disintegrity in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Takanori; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Niizeki, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) has been used to assess the integrity and function of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system in patients with heart failure. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is released into the circulation when the myocardium is injured, and H-FABP has been recently used as a novel marker for the diagnosis of ongoing myocardial damage. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiac sympathetic nervous activity assessed by 123 I-MIBG imaging with serum levels of H-FABP in patients with heart failure. Fifty patients with chronic heart failure were studied. 123 I-MIBG imaging was carried out at 30 min (early) and 240 min (delayed) after the tracer injection. We measured serum levels of H-FABP using a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratios of 123 I-MIBG decreased and washout rate increased with higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. H-FABP, norepinephrine and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels increased as the severity of NYHA class advanced. Delayed H/M ratio was significantly correlated with H-FABP (r=-0.296, p=0.029) and BNP (r=-0.335, p=0.0213). Myocardial washout rate of 123 I-MIBG was also correlated with H-FABP (r=0.469, p 123 I-MIBG imaging is an appropriate approach to evaluate non-invasively not only cardiac sympathetic nervous activity, but also latent ongoing myocardial damage in the failing heart. (author)

  14. Genesis of anxiety, depression, and ongoing abdominal discomfort in ulcerative colitis-like colon inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinghong; Winston, John H; Fu, Yu; Guptarak, Jutatip; Jensen, Kathryn L; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Green, Thomas A; Sarna, Sushil K

    2015-01-01

    Psychological disorders are prevalent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease; the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that ulcerative colitis-like inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) exacerbates the ongoing spontaneous activity in colon-projecting afferent neurons that induces abdominal discomfort and anxiety, and depressive-like behaviors in rats. In this study, we used the conditioned place preference and standard tests for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. DSS rats developed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors 10 to 20 days after the start of inflammation. Single-fiber recordings showed an increase in the frequency of spontaneous activity in L6-S1 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) roots. Prolonged desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing colonic afferents by resiniferatoxin (RTX) suppressed the spontaneous activity, as well as the anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Reduction in spontaneous activity in colon afferents by intracolonic administration of lidocaine produced robust conditioned place preference (CPP) in DSS rats, but not in control rats. Patch-clamp studies demonstrated a significant decrease in the resting membrane potential, lower rheobase, and sensitization of colon-projecting L6-S1 DRG neurons to generate trains of action potentials in response to current injection in DSS rats. DSS inflammation upregulated the mRNA levels of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and TRPV1 channels and downregulated that of Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 channels. Ulcerative colitis-like inflammation in rats induces anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, as well as ongoing abdominal discomfort by exacerbating the spontaneous activity in the colon-projecting afferent neurons. Alterations in the expression of voltage- and ligand-gated channels are associated with the induction of mood disorders following colon inflammation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. No effect of mercury exposure on kidney function during ongoing artisanal gold mining activities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luz Helena Sánchez; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Fiallo, Yolanda Vargas; Ordoñez, Álvaro; Gutiérrez, Myriam Del Carmen

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined whether people who are exposed to mercury (Hg) vapours in ongoing artisanal gold mining activities have alteration in kidney function monitoring parameters. The study enrolled 164 miners and 127 participant controls. The Hg concentrations for miners and control participants were measured in blood (B-Hg; median 7.0 vs. 2.5 µg/L), urine (U-Hg; median 3.9 vs. 1.5 µg/g creatinine) and hair (H-Hg; median 0.8 vs. 0.4 µg/g hair). The biomarkers of renal function were creatinine, albumin and excretion of β-2 microglobulin. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equation. Significant statistical differences were found in Hg concentrations and eGFR levels between the two study groups ( p < 0.01) but not with the other biomarkers of renal function. A multiple regression model was applied to explore the relationship of eGFR levels and Hg concentrations. However, no association was found between the prevalence of reduced eGFR (<71.96 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and the B-Hg or U-Hg levels after adjustment for covariates. Nevertheless, it was observed that having B-Hg levels above 10 µg Hg/L decreased the eGFR by 1.7 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (confidence interval 95% -5.1 to 1.7) compared to having levels below 2.0 µg Hg/L. Our results found no support for kidney damage associated with Hg vapour exposure in ongoing artisanal gold mining, whose population has a level of Hg exposure from low to moderate (B-Hg from 3.4 to 11.0 µg/L and U-Hg from 1.3 to 9.6 µg/g creatinine).

  16. Investigation of change in cardinal symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis after surgical or ongoing medical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeConde, Adam S.; Mace, Jess C.; Alt, Jeremiah A.; Soler, Zachary M.; Orlandi, Richard R.; Smith, Timothy L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been defined as inflammation of the paranasal sinuses lasting at least 12-weeks with corresponding two or more “cardinal symptoms” that includes: 1) nasal obstruction, 2) thick nasal discharge, 3) facial pain/pressure, and 4) reduction or loss of sense of smell. Although prior studies have investigated symptoms of CRS after sinus surgery, none have compared the outcomes of these specific symptoms to on-going medical therapy. Methods Patients with CRS were prospectively enrolled into a multi-institutional, comparative effectiveness, cohort study. Subjects elected either continued medical management or endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Baseline characteristics and objective clinical findings were collected. Cardinal symptoms of CRS were operationalized by four questions on the 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). Symptom improvement was evaluated in subjects with at least 6-month follow-up. Results 342 subjects were enrolled with 69 (20.2%) electing continued medical management while 273 (79.8%) elected ESS. Subjects electing surgical therapy were more likely to have a higher baseline aggregate SNOT-22 score (44.3(18.9) vs. 53.6(18.8); p<0.001). All subjects improved across all cardinal symptoms; however, subjects undergoing ESS were significantly more likely (p<0.013) to experience improvement in thick nasal discharge (OR=4.36), facial pain/pressure (OR=3.56), and blockage/congestion of nose (OR=2.76). Subjects with nasal polyposis were significantly more likely to report complete resolution of smell/taste following ESS compare to medical management (23.8% vs. 4.0%; p=0.026). Conclusions Across a large population, surgical management is more effective at resolving the cardinal symptoms of CRS than ongoing medical management with the exception of sense of smell/taste. PMID:25236780

  17. Ongoing adverse mental health impact of the earthquake sequence in Christchurch, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittlehouse, Janet K; Joyce, Peter R; Vierck, Esther; Schluter, Philip J; Pearson, John F

    2014-08-01

    In September 2010 Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by a 7.1 magnitude earthquake, followed by a prolonged sequence of significant aftershocks including a fatal aftershock in February 2011. Christchurch City has experienced widespread damage, ongoing disruption and building demolitions resulting in many difficulties for the residents of the Christchurch area. We explore what impact the earthquakes have had on the mental and physical health of a random sample of 50-year-olds who live in the Christchurch area. The 295 participants were selected from the electoral rolls for participation in the CHALICE study, a longitudinal study of ageing. Self-reported health status was assessed using the standardised Short Form 36 version 2 health survey (SF-36v2), a 36-item questionnaire, and results from the eight subscales compared to a national health survey. Mood disorders were assessed and the results were compared to other local and national studies. Since the onset of the earthquakes and throughout the study period, participating middle-aged Christchurch residents have mean SF-36v2 scores significantly lower than population norms in the mental health, vitality, social functioning and role-emotional subscales (Cohen's d ranged from -0.270 to -0.357, all p earthquake survivors compared to 5.1% and 3.7% in other historical, local and national surveys. Similarly, bipolar disorder prevalence was 2.8% in the earthquake survivors compared to 2.2% and 1.4% in other studies. Eighteen months after the first earthquake the significant adverse impact on mental health clearly continues. The ongoing provision of additional mental health services and consideration of these adverse mental health effects in relation to other social policies remains necessary and fundamental. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  18. Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride: Synthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of the ongoing research for more effective antimalarial drug, Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride (antimalarial drug) was synthesized using template method. Mefloquine was tentatively found to have coordinated through the hydroxyl and the two nitrogen atoms in the quinoline and piperidine in the structure, ...

  19. Assessing the Possibility of Biological Complexity on Other Worlds, with an Estimate of the Occurrence of Complex Life in the Milky Way Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis N. Irwin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rational speculation about biological evolution on other worlds is one of the outstanding challenges in astrobiology. With the growing confirmation that multiplanetary systems abound in the universe, the prospect that life occurs redundantly throughout the cosmos is gaining widespread support. Given the enormous number of possible abodes for life likely to be discovered on an ongoing basis, the prospect that life could have evolved into complex, macro-organismic communities in at least some cases merits consideration. Toward that end, we here propose a Biological Complexity Index (BCI, designed to provide a quantitative estimate of the relative probability that complex, macro-organismic life forms could have emerged on other worlds. The BCI ranks planets and moons by basic, first-order characteristics detectable with available technology. By our calculation only 11 (~1.7% of the extrasolar planets known to date have a BCI above that of Europa; but by extrapolation, the total of such planets could exceed 100 million in our galaxy alone. This is the first quantitative assessment of the plausibility of complex life throughout the universe based on empirical data. It supports the view that the evolution of complex life on other worlds is rare in frequency but large in absolute number.

  20. Maasai Mara - the Challenges of a World Unique Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report describes the complex challenges of the Maasai Mara in Kenya. The report is based on stakeholder and research inputs from the Maasai Mara Science and Development Summit in April 2015 at the Maasai Mara University, arranged by the Maasai Mara Science and Development Initiative. The emer....... The emerging challenges are categorized into: (1) land use and climate challenges: (2) ecosystem challenges; (3) political and economic challenges; (4) human and cultural challenges....

  1. The operational challenge of remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsythe, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. With the declining supply of fossil fuels that are used in power stations today, and the ongoing concern over climate change, nuclear fusion is one of the most promising options for generating large amounts of carbon-free energy in the future. Fuel supplies for fusion will be available for millions of years, with 1 kg of fusion fuel providing the same amount of energy as 10 thousand tonnes of fossil fuel. Unlike conventional fission reactors, the radioactive waste produced from fusion is short-lived, and will be safe to dispose of conventionally within 100 years. Although fusion has the huge advantage of being a carbon free energy source, there are complexities when it comes to maintaining the machine. Due to the nature of the fusion reaction, the components within the area of the reactor vacuum vessel become radioactive, which requires maintenance and modifications to be conducted remotely to protect human operators. Remote maintenance is the use of manipulators to carry out tasks in challenging or hostile environments, which would otherwise cause harm to humans. Remote handling slave manipulators do the work of a human by mimicking the movements from a master robotic manipulator that is controlled by a human operator. This means that remote handling can be used in many other areas other too, such as space; fission power plants; sub-sea; and nuclear material handling or in adverse environments such as: low or high temperature; chemically contaminated; combustible and low oxygen environments. Remote maintenance requires specialist engineers to take into consideration many aspects normally taken for granted when carrying out a task manually. Constraints such as the space around us; viewing and lighting; the human body's dexterity and flexibility; the weight and centre of gravity of tools and components, and how we securely grip and handle them; and access to fixings and fastenings. All these are factors that require careful

  2. Perception and estimation challenges for humanoid robotics: DARPA Robotics Challenge and NASA Valkyrie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Maurice

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes ongoing work at the University of Edinburgh's Humanoid Robotics Project. University of Edinburgh have formed a collaboration with the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) around their R5 humanoid robot commonly known as Valkyrie. Also involved are MIT, Northeastern University and the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) as part of NASA's Space Robotics Challenge. We will outline the development of state estimation and localization algorithms being developed for Valkyrie.

  3. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  4. phenanthroline complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHRANIL DE

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... complex in a unique binding motif and provide additional stability to the compound in the solid state. This iron(II) complex is able to catalyze the cleavage of aromatic C-C linkage of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Gentisic acid,. GA) in oxygen environment. The iron(II) complex in the presence of two equivalent ...

  5. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  6. Exploring Challenges of Self-Monitoring for Senior Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Grönvall, Erik; Vincentz, Sofie

    In this paper we discuss some of the challenges and opportunities for the implementation of self-monitoring technologies in senior adults everyday lives. We present our experiences from a self-monitoring case study. We further describe our design process as part of the ongoing Lev Vel Project...

  7. Challenges of technological trends in nursing and coping strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Technology in nursing has been shown to reduce redundancy and improve efficiency of work. Information Communication and technology (ICT) incorporation in nursing at Kenyatta national Hospital (KNH) has been ongoing for some years yet the uptake seemingly is slow. Challenges that could be associated ...

  8. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  9. Ectopic lymphoid structures support ongoing production of class-switched autoantibodies in rheumatoid synovium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Humby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular structures resembling germinal centres (GCs that are characterized by follicular dendritic cell (FDC networks have long been recognized in chronically inflamed tissues in autoimmune diseases, including the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, it is debated whether these ectopic structures promote autoimmunity and chronic inflammation driving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA are highly specific markers of RA, predict a poor prognosis, and have been suggested to be pathogenic. Therefore, the main study objectives were to determine whether ectopic lymphoid structures in RA synovium: (i express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, the enzyme required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination (CSR of Ig genes; (ii support ongoing CSR and ACPA production; and (iii remain functional in a RA/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID chimera model devoid of new immune cell influx into the synovium.Using immunohistochemistry (IHC and quantitative Taqman real-time PCR (QT-PCR in synovial tissue from 55 patients with RA, we demonstrated that FDC+ structures invariably expressed AID with a distribution resembling secondary lymphoid organs. Further, AID+/CD21+ follicular structures were surrounded by ACPA+/CD138+ plasma cells, as demonstrated by immune reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen. Moreover, we identified a novel subset of synovial AID+/CD20+ B cells outside GCs resembling interfollicular large B cells. In order to gain direct functional evidence that AID+ structures support CSR and in situ manufacturing of class-switched ACPA, 34 SCID mice were transplanted with RA synovium and humanely killed at 4 wk for harvesting of transplants and sera. Persistent expression of AID and Igamma-Cmu circular transcripts (identifying ongoing IgM-IgG class-switching was observed in synovial grafts expressing FDCs/CD21L. Furthermore, synovial mRNA levels of AID

  10. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  11. Becoming Embedded: Incorporating Instant Messaging and the Ongoing Evolution of a Virtual Reference Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The creation of an instant messaging (IM) service is described. The challenges encountered in developing, launching, and maintaining the project are examined and include technical support, archiving, balancing different formats, privacy, assessment, training, and the effectiveness of the IM channel. The process of choosing an aggregator and a…

  12. Handling non-functional requirements in model-driven development: an ongoing industrial survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ameller, David; Franch, Xavier; Gómez, Cristina; Araújo, João; Berntsson Svensson, Richard; Biffle, Stefan; Cabot, Jordi; Cortelessa, Vittorio; Daneva, Maia; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Moreira, Ana; Muccini, Henry; Vallecillo, Antonio; Wimmer, Manuel; Amaral, Vasco; Brunelière, Hugo; Burgueño, Loli; Goulão, Miguel; Schätz, Bernard; Teufl, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Model-Driven Development (MDD) is no longer a novel development paradigm. It has become mature from a research perspective and recent studies show its adoption in industry. Still, some issues remain a challenge. Among them, we are interested in the treatment of non-functional requirements (NFRs) in

  13. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  14. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in camelids: old problems, current solutions and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J; Bezos, J; Juan, L de; Vordermeier, M; Rodriguez, S; Fernandez-de-Mera, I G; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L

    2012-02-01

    In spite of great efforts for its control and eradication, tuberculosis remains one of the most important zoonosis worldwide. Its causative agents, the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, have a wide host range that complicates the epidemiology of this disease. Among susceptible species to these pathogens, camelids from the New World (llama, alpaca and vicuña) and Old World (Bactrian camel and dromedary) are acquiring an increasing importance in several European countries because of its growing number and could act as reservoirs of the disease for livestock and humans in their natural habitat. In addition, tuberculosis caused by a number of M. tuberculosis complex members is a life-threatening disease in these animal species. Although tuberculosis has been known to affect camelids for a long time, ante-mortem diagnosis is still challenging because of the lack of standardized diagnostic techniques and the limited sensitivity and specificity of the most widely applied tests. However, in recent years, several techniques that can at least partially overcome these limitations have been developed. This paper reviews the results and advances achieved in tuberculosis diagnosis in camelids in the last decade as well as the progresses on ongoing investigations, with special attention to the remaining challenges that still have to be faced to assure the availability of reliable tools for the detection of tuberculosis-infected animals and herds. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Hydropower Modeling Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Andrade, Juan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Hydropower facilities are important assets for the electric power sector and represent a key source of flexibility for electric grids with large amounts of variable generation. As variable renewable generation sources expand, understanding the capabilities and limitations of the flexibility from hydropower resources is important for grid planning. Appropriately modeling these resources, however, is difficult because of the wide variety of constraints these plants face that other generators do not. These constraints can be broadly categorized as environmental, operational, and regulatory. This report highlights several key issues involving incorporating these constraints when modeling hydropower operations in terms of production cost and capacity expansion. Many of these challenges involve a lack of data to adequately represent the constraints or issues of model complexity and run time. We present several potential methods for improving the accuracy of hydropower representation in these models to allow for a better understanding of hydropower's capabilities.

  16. Ongoing spontaneous activity controls access to consciousness: a neuronal model for inattentional blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislas Dehaene

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden "ignition" of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of "inattentional blindness," in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness.

  17. Conscious access is linked to ongoing brain state: electrophysiological evidence from the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincham, Hannah L; Szucs, Dénes

    2012-10-01

    Neuroscience explanations of conscious access focus on neural events elicited by stimuli. In contrast, here, we used the attentional blink paradigm in combination with event-related brain potentials to examine whether the ongoing state of the brain before a stimulus can determine both conscious access and the poststimulus neural events associated with consciousness. Participants were required to detect 2 target letters from digit distractors while their brain activity was being recorded. Trials were classified based on whether the secondcritical target (T2) was detected. We found that T2-detection was predetermined by brain activity prior to the onset of the stimulation stream. Specifically, T2-detected trials were predicated by a frontocentral positive going deflection that started more than 200 ms before the stream began. Accurate T2 detection was also accompanied by enhanced poststimulus neural activity, as reflected by a larger P3b component. Furthermore, prestimulus and poststimulus markers of T2-detection were highly correlated with one another. We therefore argue that conscious experiences are shaped by potentially random fluctuations in neural activity. Overall, the results reveal that conscious access is underpinned by an important relationship involving predictive prestimulus neural activity and responsive poststimulus brain activity.

  18. Ongoing spontaneous activity controls access to consciousness: a neuronal model for inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene, Stanislas; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2005-05-01

    Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden "ignition" of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of "inattentional blindness," in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness.

  19. Elderly Patients with Ongoing Migraine Show Reduced Gray Matter Volume in Second Somatosensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celle, Sébastien; Créac'h, Christelle; Boutet, Claire; Roche, Frédéric; Chouchou, Florian; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Peyron, Roland

    To identify structural changes in gray matter in suspected migraine generators (the hypothalamus and/or brainstem nuclei) and pain pathways and to evaluate whether structural changes in migraine are definitive or resolve with age. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess differences in gray matter between 39 healthy controls (HC), 25 episodic migraine (EM) subjects, and 37 subjects with a history of migraine (HM). In addition, morphometric changes were specifically investigated in suspected migraine generators and/or pain pathways. For statistical analyses, t tests between the groups were performed, and a correction for multiple comparisons was used. Whole-brain analysis did not reveal any gray or white matter changes. However, when the analysis was limited to the pain matrix, a lower gray matter volume was observed in the left second somatosensory (SII) cortex in EM subjects compared to HC subjects. This volume was significantly reduced in the EM group compared to the HC group and to the HM group, but not in the HM group compared to the HC group. Morphometric abnormalities in the SII in subjects with ongoing migraine but not in subjects with a resolved migrainous disease are likely to characterize a migrainous state rather than be a marker of brain susceptibility to migraine.

  20. Balancing emotional processing with ongoing cognitive activity: the effects of task modality on intrusions and rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Soleti, Emanuela; Lanciano, Tiziana; Doria, Valentina; Rimé, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we aimed to show that competition for resources between post-emotional processes and the execution of a cognitive task will result in two possible effects: (1) an impairment of the cognitive task in the short run and (2) an elongation of intrusions and rumination in the long run. The outcome of this competition is influenced by the interaction of the modality (verbal vs. visuospatial) of cognitive tasks run in the aftermath of an emotional experience and the nature (verbal vs. visuospatial) of the same experience. Non-clinical participants were given a working memory task (OSPAN vs. an analog Visual task) before and after the presentation of negative vs. neutral material (a novel excerpt in Experiment 1 and a video clip in Experiment 2). Intrusions and rumination were measured after a 24-h delay. Rumination was also assessed immediately after the experimental induction. Results showed that exposure to verbal negative material impaired verbal performance (Experiment 1); by contrast, exposure to visual negative material impaired both verbal and visuospatial performance (Experiment 2). Intrusions were only affected by the emotional valence of the original experience, while performing a visuospatial task resulted in enhanced rumination only after exposure to verbal emotional material. The findings of both experiments suggest that emotional processing spreads over time in balance with ongoing cognitive activities, and, in such a balance, the visuospatial processing mode tends to prevail over verbal engagements.

  1. Influence of Ongoing Task Difficulty and Motivation Level on Children's Prospective Memory in a Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pi-Guo; Han, Lei; Bian, Yu-Long; Tian, Yu; Xu, Min-Xia; Gao, Feng-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children's PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM. Moreover, delayed retrieval was more likely to occur in tbPM task than in ebPM task. In Experiment 2, the influence of ongoing task (OT) difficulty on PM performance was investigated with a sample of 5-year-old children. Results revealed no significant effect of OT difficulty on PM performance. In Experiment 3, we improved children's motivation level to complete the OT, then explored the influence of OT difficulty on children's PM performance. Results revealed that the effect of OT difficulty on PM performance became significant after increasing the children's motivation to complete the OT. These results provide insights into the mechanism of attentional resource allocation in PM tasks and have crucial educational and social implications.

  2. Multifactorial effects of vildagliptin added to ongoing metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strózik, Agnieszka; Stęposz, Arkadiusz; Basiak, Marcin; Drożdż, Magdalena; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of a vildagliptin and metformin combination therapy to a metformin monotherapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Sixty-one patients with diabetes inadequately controlled by a metformin monotherapy were randomized to treatment with a combination therapy of vildagliptin 100mg and a metformin versus metformin monotherapy. This was a 12-week randomized parallel group study. During the study we assessed parameters of glycemic and lipid metabolism as well as the treatment effects on the release of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines. Compared with baseline values we observed a significant improvement of glycaemic parameters such as HbA1c, FPG, PPG, FPI, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β index as well as decrease of TCh, TG and LDL and an increase of HDL with the greatest extent of vildagliptin plus a low-dose metformin therapy group. A metformin combination therapy significantly decreased such inflamation parameters as hs-CRP, ox-LDL, TNF-α and IL-1β levels relative to monotherapies. All treatments were well tolerated and there was no incidence of hypoglycaemia. Vildagliptin added to an ongoing metformin therapy allows to achieve better metabolic control parameters in comparison with a metformin monotherapy and the combination treatment is well tolerated and has a low risk of serious adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Ongoing cell death and immune influences on regeneration in the vestibular sensory organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchol, M. E.; Matsui, J. I.; Simkus, E. L.; Ogilive, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Hair cells in the vestibular organs of birds have a relatively short life span. Mature hair cells appear to die spontaneously and are then quickly replaced by new hair cells that arise from the division of epithelial supporting cells. A similar regenerative mechanism also results in hair cell replacement after ototoxic damage. The cellular basis of hair cell turnover in the avian ear is not understood. We are investigating the signaling pathways that lead to hair cell death and the relationship between ongoing cell death and cell production. In addition, work from our lab and others has demonstrated that the avian inner ear contains a resident population of macrophages and that enhanced numbers of macrophages are recruited to sites of hair cells lesions. Those observations suggest that macrophages and their secretory products (cytokines) may be involved in hair cell regeneration. Consistent with that suggestion, we have found that treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone reduces regenerative cell proliferation in the avian ear, and that certain macrophage-secreted cytokines can influence the proliferation of vestibular supporting cells and the survival of statoacoustic neurons. Those results suggest a role for the immune system in the process of sensory regeneration in the inner ear.

  4. Early discharge care with ongoing follow-up support may reduce hospital readmissions in COPD.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lawlor, Maria

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Early discharge care and self-management education, although effective in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), do not typically reduce hospital re-admission rates for exacerbations of the disease. We hypothesized that a respiratory outreach programme that comprises early discharge care followed by continued rapid-access out-patient support would reduce the need for hospital readmission in these patients. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six patients, acutely admitted with exacerbations of COPD, were recruited to the respiratory outreach programme that included early discharge care, follow-up education, telephone support and rapid future access to respiratory out-patient clinics. Sixty of these patients received self-management education also. Emergency department presentations and admission rates were compared at six and 12 months after, compared to prior to, participation in the programme for the same patient cohort. RESULTS: The frequency of both emergency department presentations and hospital admissions was significantly reduced after participation in the programme. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of a respiratory outreach service that includes early discharge care, followed by education, telephone support and ongoing rapid access to out-patient clinics is associated with reduced readmission rates in COPD patients.

  5. Evidence for regular ongoing introductions of mosquito disease vectors into the Galapagos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cedeño, Virna; Cruz, Marilyn; Eastwood, Gillian; Fonseca, Dina M; Causton, Charlotte E; Azuero, Ronal; Loayza, Jose; Martinez, Jose D Cruz; Goodman, Simon J

    2009-11-07

    Wildlife on isolated oceanic islands is highly susceptible to the introduction of pathogens. The recent establishment in the Galápagos Islands of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, a vector for diseases such as avian malaria and West Nile fever, is considered a serious risk factor for the archipelago's endemic fauna. Here we present evidence from the monitoring of aeroplanes and genetic analysis that C. quinquefasciatus is regularly introduced via aircraft into the Galápagos Archipelago. Genetic population structure and admixture analysis demonstrates that these mosquitoes breed with, and integrate successfully into, already-established populations of C. quinquefasciatus in the Galápagos, and that there is ongoing movement of mosquitoes between islands. Tourist cruise boats and inter-island boat services are the most likely mechanism for transporting Culex mosquitoes between islands. Such anthropogenic mosquito movements increase the risk of the introduction of mosquito-borne diseases novel to Galápagos and their subsequent widespread dissemination across the archipelago. Failure to implement and maintain measures to prevent the human-assisted transport of mosquitoes to and among the islands could have catastrophic consequences for the endemic wildlife of Galápagos.

  6. Incorporating person centred care principles into an ongoing comprehensive cancer management program: An experiential account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallath Nandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates a definite positive impact on treatment outcomes when an integrative approach that focuses on symptom control and quality of life is provided along with the standard therapeutic regimens. However implementation or practice of this approach is not seen widely due to the culture of medical training and practice. This article presents the initial development of a program for incorporating integrative care principles into an ongoing comprehensive cancer care program at a tertiary centre. The key purpose of the program being to develop, facilitate, and establish comprehensive and holistic processes including palliative care principles, that would positively enhance the quantity and quality of life of the person with disease, as well as create an environment that reflects and sustains this approach. The vision, objectives, goals, strategies, activities and results within the 7 months of implementation are documented. The new learnings gained during the process have also been noted in the hope that the model described may be used to conceptualize similar care giving facilities in other centres.

  7. The Ongoing Growth of the M87 Halo through Accretion Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Longobardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Planetary nebulas (PNs offer a unique tool to investigate the outer regions of massive galaxies because their strong [OIII]λ5007Å emission line makes them detectable out to several effective radii from the galaxy’s centre. We use a deep and extended spectroscopic survey of PNs (∼300 objects to study the spatial distribution, the kinematics and the stellar populations in the extended outer halo of the bright elliptical galaxy M87 (NGC 4486 in the Virgo cluster. We show that in the Virgo core, M87 stellar halo and the intracluster light are two distinct dynamical components, with different velocity distributions. Moreover the synergy of the PN kinematical information and the deep V/B-band photometry revealed an ongoing accretion event in the outer regions of M87. This satellite accretion represents a non-negligible perturbation of the halo properties: beyond 60 kpc the M87 halo is still growing with 60% of its light being added by the accretion event at the distance where it is detected.

  8. Ischaemic memory imaging using metabolic radiopharmaceuticals: overview of clinical settings and ongoing investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Naya, Masanao; Shiga, Tohru; Suzuki, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara

    2014-01-01

    ''Ischaemic memory'' is defined as a prolonged functional and/or biochemical alteration remaining after a particular episode of severe myocardial ischaemia. The biochemical alteration has been reported as metabolic stunning. Metabolic imaging has been used to detect the footprint left by previous ischaemic episodes evident due to delayed recovery of myocardial metabolism (persistent dominant glucose utilization with suppression of fatty acid oxidation). β-Methyl-p-[ 123 I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracer widely used for metabolic imaging in clinical settings in Japan. In patients with suspected coronary artery disease but no previous myocardial infarction, BMIPP has shown acceptable diagnostic accuracy. In particular, BMIPP plays an important role in the identification of prior ischaemic insult in patients arriving at emergency departments with acute chest pain syndrome. Recent data also show the usefulness of 123 I-BMIPP SPECT for predicting cardiovascular events in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Similarly, SPECT or PET imaging with 18 F-FDG injected during peak exercise or after exercise under fasting conditions shows an increase in FDG uptake in postischaemic areas. This article will overview the roles of ischaemic memory imaging both under established indications and in ongoing investigations. (orig.)

  9. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Silent and Ongoing Myocardial Damage in Normal Subjects: The Takahata Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insulin resistance (IR is part of the metabolic syndrome (Mets that develops after lifestyle changes and obesity. Although the association between Mets and myocardial injury is well known, the effect of IR on myocardial damage remains unclear. Methods and Results. We studied 2200 normal subjects who participated in a community-based health check in the town of Takahata in northern Japan. The presence of IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment ratio, and the serum level of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was measured as a maker of silent and ongoing myocardial damage. H-FABP levels were significantly higher in subjects with IR and Mets than in those without metabolic disorder regardless of gender. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the presence of IR was independently associated with latent myocardial damage (odds ratio: 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.3 similar to the presence of Mets. Conclusions. In a screening of healthy subjects, IR and Mets were similarly related to higher H-FABP levels, suggesting that there may be an asymptomatic population in the early stages of metabolic disorder that is exposed to myocardial damage and might be susceptible to silent heart failure.

  10. The role of anger and ongoing stressors in mental health following a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Alkemade, Nathan; Waters, Elizabeth; Gibbs, Lisa; Gallagher, Colin; Pattison, Phillipa; Lusher, Dean; MacDougall, Colin; Harms, Louise; Block, Karen; Snowdon, Elyse; Kellet, Connie; Sinnott, Vikki; Ireton, Greg; Richardson, John; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-08-01

    Research has established the mental health sequelae following disaster, with studies now focused on understanding factors that mediate these outcomes. This study focused on anger, alcohol, subsequent life stressors and traumatic events as mediators in the development of mental health disorders following the 2009 Black Saturday Bushfires, Australia's worst natural disaster in over 100 years. This study examined data from 1017 (M = 404, F = 613) adult residents across 25 communities differentially affected by the fires and participating in the Beyond Bushfires research study. Data included measures of fire exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, alcohol abuse, anger and subsequent major life stressors and traumatic events. Structural equation modeling assessed the influence of factors mediating the effects of fire exposure on mental health outcomes. Three mediation models were tested. The final model recorded excellent fit and observed a direct relationship between disaster exposure and mental health outcomes (b = .192, p disaster exposure and development of mental health problems. The findings have significant implications for the assessment of anger post disaster, the provision of targeted anger-focused interventions and delivery of government and community assistance and support in addressing ongoing stressors in the post-disaster context to minimize subsequent mental health consequences. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. On-Going Laboratory Efforts to Quantitatively Address Clay Abundance on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.; Bishop, Janice L.; Brown, Adrian J.; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Data obtained at visible and near-infrared wavelengths by OMEGA on MarsExpress and CRISM on MRO provide definitive evidence for the presence of phyllosilicates and other hydrated phases on Mars. A diverse range of both Fe/Mg-OH and Al-OH-bearing phyllosilicates were identified including the smectites, nontronite, saponite, and montmorillonite. In order to constrain the abundances of these phyllosilicates spectral analyses of mixtures are needed. We report on our on-going effort to enable the quantitative evaluation of the abundance of hydrated-hydroxylated silicates when they are contained in mixtures. We include two component mixtures of hydrated/hydroxylated silicates with each other and with two analogs for other martian materials; pyroxene (enstatite) and palagonitic soil (an alteration product of basaltic glass). For the hydrated-hydroxylated silicates we include saponite and montmorillonite (Mg- and Al- rich smectites). We prepared three size separates of each end-member for study: 20-45, 63-90, and 125-150 µm. As the second phase of our effort we used scanning electron microscopy imaging and x-ray diffraction to characterize the grain size distribution, and structural nature, respectively, of the mixtures. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of the 63-90 micrometers grain size of the mixture samples are shown in Figure 1. We discuss the results of our measurements of these mixtures.

  12. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2017-07-25

    The population extinction pulse we describe here shows, from a quantitative viewpoint, that Earth's sixth mass extinction is more severe than perceived when looking exclusively at species extinctions. Therefore, humanity needs to address anthropogenic population extirpation and decimation immediately. That conclusion is based on analyses of the numbers and degrees of range contraction (indicative of population shrinkage and/or population extinctions according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature) using a sample of 27,600 vertebrate species, and on a more detailed analysis documenting the population extinctions between 1900 and 2015 in 177 mammal species. We find that the rate of population loss in terrestrial vertebrates is extremely high-even in "species of low concern." In our sample, comprising nearly half of known vertebrate species, 32% (8,851/27,600) are decreasing; that is, they have decreased in population size and range. In the 177 mammals for which we have detailed data, all have lost 30% or more of their geographic ranges and more than 40% of the species have experienced severe population declines (>80% range shrinkage). Our data indicate that beyond global species extinctions Earth is experiencing a huge episode of population declines and extirpations, which will have negative cascading consequences on ecosystem functioning and services vital to sustaining civilization. We describe this as a "biological annihilation" to highlight the current magnitude of Earth's ongoing sixth major extinction event.

  13. Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eLópez-Madrigal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae, Candidatus Tremblaya princeps and Candidatus Moranella endobia cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae this function is performed by its single endosymbiont Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola. However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species.

  14. Treatment of maladaptive aggression in youth: CERT guidelines II. Treatments and ongoing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto Rosato, Nancy; Correll, Christoph U; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Chait, Alanna; Crystal, Stephen; Jensen, Peter S

    2012-06-01

    To develop guidelines for management and treatment of maladaptive aggression in youth in the areas of psychosocial interventions, medication treatments, and side-effect management. Evidence was assembled and evaluated in a multistep process, including systematic reviews of published literature; an expert survey of recommended practices; a consensus conference of researchers, policymakers, clinicians, and family advocates; and review by the steering committee of successive drafts of the recommendations. The Center for Education and Research on Mental Health Therapeutics Treatment of Maladaptive Aggression in Youth guidelines reflect a synthesis of the available evidence, based on this multistep process. This article describes the content, rationale, and evidence for 11 recommendations. Key treatment principles include considering psychosocial interventions, such as evidence-based parent and child skills training as the first line of treatment; targeting the underlying disorder first following evidence-based guidelines; considering individual psychosocial and medical factors, including cardiovascular risk in the selection of agents if medication treatment (ideally with the best evidence base) is initiated; avoiding the use of multiple psychotropic medications simultaneously; and careful monitoring of treatment response, by using structured rating scales, as well as close medical monitoring for side effects, including metabolic changes. Treatment of children with maladaptive aggression is a "moving target" requiring ongoing assimilation of new evidence as it emerges. Based on the existing evidence, the Treatment of Maladaptive Aggression in Youth guidelines provide a framework for management of maladaptive aggression in youth, appropriate for use by primary care clinicians and mental health providers.

  15. PARP inhibition and gynecologic malignancies: A review of current literature and on-going trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crafton, S M; Bixel, K; Hays, J L

    2016-09-01

    The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of enzymes is important in several DNA repair pathways. Drugs that inhibit these enzymes have been investigated in many types of cancer, but their application in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies has rapidly evolved - as manifested by the 2014 FDA approval for olaparib in the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer associated with a germline BRCA mutation (gBRCA). In efforts to broaden their efficacy, current clinical trials have demonstrated benefit of olaparib, and other PARP inhibitors (PARPi), as single agents and in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy and biologic agents, in wide ranging populations. Although the majority of data for PARPi in gynecologic malignancies has been specifically regarding ovarian cancer, their role in the treatment of uterine and cervical cancer is currently being investigated. This review will serve as a synopsis of seminal trials to date, summarize the breadth of clinical application in on-going studies, query how these results may change future practice, and reflect on questions yet to be answered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing laboratory research techniques for an ongoing research program in a high school classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adornato, Philip

    Incorporating research into a high school classroom is an excellent way to teach students fundamental concepts in science. One program that incorporates this approach is the Waksman Student Scholar Program (WSSP), which allows high school students, teachers and Rutgers professors to work side by side on an ongoing molecular biology research program. Students in the program first isolated plasmid clones from bacteria that contain cDNA fragments of genes from the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana. They then determined the size of the DNA by performing molecular biology experiments. Students then analyzed the DNA sequence and after review from WSSP staff and high school teachers, the student's sequences were published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. This was often the last step in the project the students performed. However, if the project were being conducted in a research lab instead of a high school, the cDNA clone would often be further analyzed. In the past, safety, convenience, and affordability have limited the availability of these experiments in a high school setting. Although additional bioinformatic experiments could easily be performed in the high school, there is a strong need for additional "wet lab" experiments to keep the students engaged and motivated to work on the project. I have worked on developing three experimental modules that can be performed in a high school setting. These experiments were tested with the students and teachers of the WSSP. This work will expand the scope of experiments that can be performed in a high school environment.

  17. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear research center in agriculture and animal science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  18. Attenuated geophysical signatures associated with ongoing remediation efforts at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Alota, V.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sauck, W. A.; Nolan, J. T.; Slater, L. D.

    2007-12-01

    Previous geophysical investigations (1996, 1997, 2003, and 2004) conducted at the decommissioned Wurtsmith Air Force Base former Fire Training Cell (FT-02) showed a clearly defined high conductivity anomaly associated with hydrocarbon contaminants in the vadose zone and ground water near the source area. The source of the geophysical anomalies was attributed to biogeochemical modifications of the contaminated zone resulting from intrinsic bioremediation. During these previous surveys, ground penetrating radar (GPR) data showed a zone of attenuated GPR reflections extending from the vadose zone to below the water table. Self potential data (SP) data defined a positive anomaly coincident with the hydrochemically defined plume, while electrical resistivity data showed anomalously high conductivity within the zone of impact. In 2007, another integrated geophysical study of the site was conducted. GPR, SP, electrical resistivity, and induced polarization surveys were conducted with expectations of achieving similar results as the past surveys. However, preliminary assessment of the data shows a marked decrease in electrical conductivity and SP response over the plume. GPR data still showed the attenuated signals, but the zone of attenuation was only observed below the water table. We attribute the attenuation of the observed geophysical anomalies to ongoing soil vapor extraction initiated in 2003. Significant removal of the contaminant mass by the vapor extraction system has altered the subsurface biogeochemical conditions and these changes were documented by the 2007 geophysical and geochemical data. The results of this study show that the attenuation of the contaminant plume is detectable with geophysical methods.

  19. Online Teaching Efficacy: A Product of Professional Development and Ongoing Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sally; Idleman, Lynda

    2017-08-22

    The purpose of the pilot study was to investigate the perceptions of online teaching efficacy of nursing faculty who teach courses in which 51% or more of the content is offered online. Bandura's psychological construct of self-efficacy served as the conceptual framework. The research survey was administered to nursing faculty in a state university system located in the southeastern United States of America, plus two private universities. The Michigan Nurse Educator's Sense of Efficacy for Online Teaching Scale, which contains 32 items that measure how nurse educators judge their current capabilities for teaching online nursing courses, was used to gather data. Overall, the scores reflected that faculty perceived themselves as quite a bit efficacious on a scale that ranged from 1 to 9. As nursing educators received more support in designing and implementing online courses, their efficacy increased. It is critical that faculty are supported on an ongoing basis to increase and develop online teaching skills in order to teach high-quality courses in online programs. Faculty members must also be recognized for their work, time, and commitment required to be effective online educators. The findings of this study revealed those participants who had a number of professional development supports and release time to develop online courses have a greater sense of efficacy.

  20. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  1. The Touchstone Process: an ongoing critical evaluation of reiki in the scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ann L; Vitale, Anne; Brownell, Elise; Scicinski, Jan; Kearns, Mary; Rand, William

    2010-01-01

    Reiki is used by a growing number of people but little is known about the scientific basis for its use. The Touchstone Process was developed as an ongoing process to systematically analyze published, peer-reviewed studies of Reiki, the results being made accessible to the public online. Thirteen scientifically qualified experts in the field of Reiki were assembled into 3 teams to retrieve, evaluate, and summarize articles using standardized, piloted evaluation forms. Summaries of 26 Reiki articles, including strengths and weaknesses, were posted on a newly developed Web site (www.centerforreikiresearch.org), together with an overall summary of the status of Reiki research and guidelines for future research: The Touchstone Process determined that only 12 articles were based on a robust experimental design and utilized well-established outcome parameters. Of these articles, 2 provided no support, 5 provided some support, and 5 demonstrated strong evidence for the use of Reiki as a healing modality. There is a need for further high-quality studies in this area.

  2. The health benefits following regular ongoing exercise lifestyle in independent community-dwelling older Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Wang, Chia-Wei; Wang, Chun-Feng; Lin, Yen-Ling

    2011-03-01

    To examine the effect of regular ongoing exercise lifestyle on mental and physical health in a group of independent community-dwelling Taiwanese older adults over a 2-year period. 197 older adults (mean age 72.5 years; 106 men and 91 women) who were independent in walking, instrumental and basic activities of daily living completed the baseline and a 2-year follow-up assessment. Older adults regularly performing exercises during the 2-year study period were grouped into regular exercise group; otherwise in the irregular exercise group. Baseline and follow-up assessments included a face-to-face interview and a battery of performance tests. The regular exercise group showed significantly less depression (P = 0.03) and tended to regress less on the performance tests (P = 0.025-0.410) across 2 years compared to the irregular exercise group. Regular exercise is important for maintaining or even improving mental and functional health, even for independent community-dwelling older adults. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  3. Transitional Justice in Ongoing Conflicts and Post-War Reconstruction: Reintegrating Donbas into Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Lachowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to analyse the potential transitional justice mechanisms, directed at reintegration of Donbas, a territory temporarily occupied by pro-Russian separatists, being under the combination of a direct and indirect control of Kremlin, with Ukraine. In the aftermath of the Revolution of Dignity and a remove of ex-President Viktor Yanukovych as a consequence of Euromaidan protests held in Kyiv, in the Winter 2013/14, Ukraine became a state involved in the international armed conflict covering its Eastern provinces as a result of an external aggression of the Russian Federation. Furthermore, since early-2014, Moscow is continuously using pro-Russian militants to form and uphold unrecognised, de facto regimes of the so-called ‘Donetsk’ and ‘Luhansk People’s Republic(s’ affecting the territorial integrity of the Ukrainian state. It is argued that Kyiv shall take into consideration some of the peace and restoration models applied in similar conflict or post-conflict environments, such as the United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES or the experience of numerous disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR programs, filled with the transitional justice component. Moreover, by emphasising the context of a military (semifrozen conflict in Eastern Ukraine, the paper is going to shed more light on the possible application of transitional justice tool-kit in the ongoing conflicts scenarios and its potential contribution to the shift from a conflict to the postwar environment.

  4. Ischaemic memory imaging using metabolic radiopharmaceuticals: overview of clinical settings and ongoing investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Naya, Masanao [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Sapporo (Japan); Shiga, Tohru; Suzuki, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    ''Ischaemic memory'' is defined as a prolonged functional and/or biochemical alteration remaining after a particular episode of severe myocardial ischaemia. The biochemical alteration has been reported as metabolic stunning. Metabolic imaging has been used to detect the footprint left by previous ischaemic episodes evident due to delayed recovery of myocardial metabolism (persistent dominant glucose utilization with suppression of fatty acid oxidation). β-Methyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracer widely used for metabolic imaging in clinical settings in Japan. In patients with suspected coronary artery disease but no previous myocardial infarction, BMIPP has shown acceptable diagnostic accuracy. In particular, BMIPP plays an important role in the identification of prior ischaemic insult in patients arriving at emergency departments with acute chest pain syndrome. Recent data also show the usefulness of {sup 123}I-BMIPP SPECT for predicting cardiovascular events in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Similarly, SPECT or PET imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG injected during peak exercise or after exercise under fasting conditions shows an increase in FDG uptake in postischaemic areas. This article will overview the roles of ischaemic memory imaging both under established indications and in ongoing investigations. (orig.)

  5. Business Associations, Conservative Networks, and the Ongoing Republican War over Medicaid Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander; Skocpol, Theda; Lynch, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    A major component of the Affordable Care Act involves the expansion of state Medicaid programs to cover the uninsured poor. In the wake of the 2012 Supreme Court decision upholding and modifying reform legislation, states can decide whether to expand Medicaid-and twenty states are still not proceeding as of August 2015. What explains state choices about participation in expansion, including governors' decisions to endorse expansion or not as well as final state decisions? We tackle this puzzle, focusing closely on outcomes and battles in predominantly Republican-led states. Like earlier scholars, we find that partisan differences between Democrats and Republicans are central, but we go beyond earlier analyses to measure added effects from two dueling factions within the Republican coalition: statewide business associations and cross-state networks of ideologically conservative organizations. Using both statistical modeling and case studies, we show that GOP-leaning or GOP-dominated states have been most likely to embrace the expansion when organized business support outweighs pressures from conservative networks. Our findings help make sense of ongoing state-level debates over a core part of health reform and shed new light on mounting policy tensions within the Republican Party. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  6. CHALLENGES FACING THE ESP PRACTITIONER

    OpenAIRE

    SIMION MINODORA OTILIA

    2015-01-01

    The ESP teacher has to face certain challenges in his profession: One of the biggest challenges of the ESP teacher is the fact that he/she lacks the necessary knowledge of the subject to teach Business English, for instance, some researchers believing that such courses should be taught by subject teachers. The task of teaching ESP by ESL teachers is not an easy one. Dudley- Evans and St. John pointed out its complexity, identifying five key roles of the ESP practitioner: teacher, cou...

  7. Challenges in anaesthesia for elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Camilla; Rasmussen, L S

    2014-01-01

    The segment of elderly individuals comprises a growing proportion of the global population. Health care systems and health care providers worldwide need to understand the specific challenges related to treatment of this heterogeneous patient population. The process of ageing is complex and under...... constant influence by numerous factors, for which reason the way human age is extremely individual. It is important to understand and acknowledge how elderly differ from younger adults, and how management needs to be modified and tailored to the individual patient in order to improve outcomes. The goal...... of the challenges, when dealing with the aged surgical population with emphasis on postoperative cognitive changes....

  8. Ethical challenges in FASD prevention: Scientific uncertainty, stigma, and respect for women's autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzo, Natalie; Racine, Eric

    2017-11-09

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading form of neurodevelopmental delay in Canada, affecting an estimated 3000 babies per year. FASD involves a range of disabilities that entail significant costs to affected individuals, families, and society. Exposure to alcohol in utero is a necessary factor for FASD development, and this has led to FASD being described as "completely preventable". However, there are significant ethical challenges associated with FASD prevention. These challenges revolve around 1) what should be communicated about the risks of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, given some ongoing scientific uncertainty about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, and 2) how to communicate these risks, given the potential for stigma against women who give birth to children with FASD as well as against children and adults with FASD. In this paper, we share initial thoughts on how primary care physicians can tackle this complex challenge. First, we recommend honest disclosure of scientific evidence to women and the tailoring of information offered to pregnant women. Second, we propose a contextualized, patient-centred, compassionate approach to ensure that appropriate advice is given to patients in a supportive, non-stigmatizing way.

  9. Telerehabilitation Clinical and Vocational Applications for Assistive Technology: Research, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Schmeler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation service providers in rural or underserved areas are often challenged in meeting the needs of their complex patients due to limited resources in their geographical area. Recruitment and retention of the rural clinical workforce are beset by the ongoing problems associated with limited continuing education opportunities, professional isolation, and the challenges inherent in coordinating rural community healthcare. People with disabilities who live in rural communities also face challenges accessing healthcare. Traveling long distances to a specialty clinic for necessary expertise may be troublesome due to inadequate or unavailable transportation, disability specific limitations, and financial limitations. Distance and lack of access are just two threats to quality of care that now being addressed by the use of videoconferencing, information exchange, and other telecommunication technologies that facilitate telerehabilitation. This white paper illustrates and summarizes clinical and vocational applications of telerehabilitation. We provide definitions related to the fields of telemedicine, telehealth, and telerehabilitation, and consider the impetus for telerehabilitation. We review the telerehabilitation literature for assistive technology applications; pressure ulcer prevention; virtual reality applications; speech-language pathology applications; seating and wheeled mobility applications; vocational rehabilitation applications; and cost effectiveness. We then discuss external telerehabilitation influencers, such as the positions of professional organizations. Finally, we summarize clinical and policy issues in a limited context appropriate to the scope of this paper. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehealth, Telemedicine, Telepractice

  10. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  11. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Integrating MBSE into Ongoing Projects: Requirements Validation and Test Planning for the ISS SAFER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Herbert A.; Williams, Antony; Pierce, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Simplified Aid for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) is the spacewalking astronaut's final safety measure against separating from the ISS and being unable to return safely. Since the late 1990s, the SAFER has been a standard element of the spacewalking astronaut's equipment. The ISS SAFER project was chartered to develop a new block of SAFER units using a highly similar design to the legacy SAFER (known as the USA SAFER). An on-orbit test module was also included in the project to enable periodic maintenance/propulsion system checkout on the ISS SAFER. On the ISS SAFER project, model-based systems engineering (MBSE) was not the initial systems engineering (SE) approach, given the volume of heritage systems engineering and integration (SE&I) products. The initial emphasis was ensuring traceability to ISS program standards as well as to legacy USA SAFER requirements. The requirements management capabilities of the Cradle systems engineering tool were to be utilized to that end. During development, however, MBSE approaches were applied selectively to address specific challenges in requirements validation and test and verification (T&V) planning, which provided measurable efficiencies to the project. From an MBSE perspective, ISS SAFER development presented a challenge and an opportunity. Addressing the challenge first, the project was tasked to use the original USA SAFER operational and design requirements baseline, with a number of additional ISS program requirements to address evolving certification expectations for systems operating on the ISS. Additionally, a need to redesign the ISS SAFER avionics architecture resulted in a set of changes to the design requirements baseline. Finally, the project added an entirely new functionality for on-orbit maintenance. After initial requirements integration, the system requirements count was approaching 1000, which represented a growth of 4x over the original USA SAFER system

  13. Complexity of the Ephemeral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    This brief article presents the everyday cultural use of the Snapchat instant messaging application for video chats as an exemplary case of the challenges confronting studies of cinematics in an epoch marked by the rise in network societies of ubiquitous mobile and social media and technics. It p....... It proffers and begins to detail the argument that snap video chats cannot be denigrated as mere ‘shorts’ but must be approached as spatiotemporally and experientally complex....

  14. An innovative methodology for the transmission of information, using Sensor Web Enablement, from ongoing research vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorribas, Jordi; Sinquin, Jean Marc; Diviacco, Paolo; De Cauwer, Karien; Danobeitia, Juanjo; Olive, Joan; Bermudez, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Research vessels are sophisticated laboratories with complex data acquisition systems for a variety of instruments and sensors that acquire real-time information of many different parameters and disciplines. The overall data and metadata acquired commonly spread using well-established standards for data centers; however, the instruments and systems on board are not always well described and it may miss significant information. Thus, important information such as instrument calibration or operational data often does not reach to the data center. The OGC Sensor Web Enablement standards provide solutions to serve complex data along with the detailed description of the process used to obtain them. We show an innovative methodology on how to use Sensor Web Enablement standards to describe and serve information from the research vessels, the data acquisition systems used onboard, and data sets resulting from the onboard work. This methodology is designed to be used in research vessels, but also applies to data centers to avoid loss of information in between The proposed solution considers (I) the difficulty to describe a multidisciplinary and complex mobile sensor system, (II) it can be easily integrated with data acquisition systems onboard, (III) it uses the complex and incomplete typical vocabulary in marine disciplines, (IV) it provides contacts with the data and metadata services at the Data Centers, and (V) it manages the configuration changes with time of the instrument.

  15. Measurements of very large deformations in potash salt in conjunction with an ongoing mining operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, A.R.; Christensen, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Room and pillar deformation were measured in conjunction with a relatively new type of mining operation in a southeastern New Mexico potash mine. The extraction ration was approximately 90 percent in a first mining operation. Due to severe deformations encountered, instrumentation had to be developed/modified for these measurements. This paper concentrates on experiment design, design of special instrumentation, field installation of equipment, and presentation of the data. Measurements made include extensometers in the pillar, in the floor and ceiling in the room between pillars, absolute level measurements, floor ceiling closure, and stress (strain) measurements. Associated laboratory rock mechanics measurements of samples from the mine are being done separately. Two separate room pillar complexes were instrumented. In the first complex, floor-ceiling deformations of approximately 1 inch/day and pillar deformations around 1/2 inch/day were measured. In the second complex, instrumentation was installed while the pillar was a part of a long wall and the subsequent sequential mining (long wall-pillar with only one adjoining room on one side - pillar in the middle of room pillar complex) was observed. Data return from this operation was good

  16. Enhancing Safety Culture in Complex Nuclear Industry Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotcheva, N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an on-going research project “Management principles and safety culture in complex projects” (MAPS), supported by the Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2015-2018. The project aims at enhancing safety culture and nuclear safety by supporting high quality execution of complex projects in the nuclear industry. Safety-critical industries are facing new challenges, related to increased outsourcing and complexity in technology, work tasks and organizational structures (Milch and Laumann, 2016). In the nuclear industry, new build projects, as well as modernisation projects are temporary undertakings often carried out by networks of companies. Some companies may have little experience in the nuclear industry practices or consideration of specific national regulatory requirements. In large multinational subcontractor networks, the challenge for assuring nuclear safety arises partly from the need to ensure that safety and quality requirements are adequately understood and fulfilled by each partner. Deficient project management practices and unsatisfactory nuclear safety culture in project networks have been recognised as contributing factors to these challenges (INPO, 2010). Prior evidence indicated that many recent major projects have experienced schedule, quality and financial challenges both in the nuclear industry (STUK, 2011) and in the non-nuclear domain (Ahola et al., 2014; Brady and Davies, 2010). Since project delays and quality issues have been perceived mainly as economic problems, project management issues remain largely understudied in safety research. However, safety cannot be separated from other performance aspects if a systemic view is applied. Schedule and quality challenges may reflect deficiencies in coordination, knowledge and competence, distribution of roles and responsibilities or attitudes among the project participants. It is increasingly understood that the performance of the project network in all

  17. Information Visualization, Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction and Sampling for Large and Complex Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenson, Meyer Z.; Pesenson, I. Z.; McCollum, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent and forthcoming increases in the amount and complexity of astronomy data are creating data sets that are not amenable to the methods of analysis with which astronomers are familiar. Traditional methods are often inadequate not merely because the data sets are too large and too complex to fully be analyzed "manually", but because many conventional algorithms and techniques cannot be scaled up enough to work effectively on the new data sets. It is essential to develop new methods for organization, scientific visualization (as opposed to illustrative visualization) and analysis of heterogeneous, multiresolution data across application domains. Scientific utilization of highly complex and massive data sets poses significant challenges, and calls for some mathematical approaches more advanced than are now generally available. In this paper, we both give an overview of several innovative developments that address these challenges, and describe a few specific examples of algorithms we have developed, as well as the ones we are developing in the course of this ongoing work. These approaches will enhance scientific visualization and data analysis capabilities, thus facilitating astronomical research and enabling discoveries. This work was carried out with partial funding from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency University Research Initiative (NURI), grant HM1582-08-1-0019.

  18. Enterprise SRS: leveraging ongoing operations to advance radioactive waste management technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Alice M.; Wilmarth, William; Marra, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is re-purposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, strategic view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with ongoing missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The DOE Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key objective of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear materials management advancements and large-scale deployment of the technology by using SRS assets (e.g. facilities, staff, and property) for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R and D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R and D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the R and D team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform R and D demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact

  19. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I.; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A.; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Úbeda, 18–22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes. PMID:20015858

  20. Living on the edge: timing of Rand Flora disjunctions congruent with ongoing aridification in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Lisa; Riina, Ricarda; Mairal, Mario; Meseguer, Andrea S; Culshaw, Victoria; Cendoya, Jon; Serrano, Miguel; Carbajal, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Santiago; Heuertz, Myriam; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Rand Flora is a well-known floristic pattern in which unrelated plant lineages show similar disjunct distributions in the continental margins of Africa and adjacent islands-Macaronesia-northwest Africa, Horn of Africa-Southern Arabia, Eastern Africa, and Southern Africa. These lineages are now separated by environmental barriers such as the arid regions of the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts or the tropical lowlands of Central Africa. Alternative explanations for the Rand Flora pattern range from vicariance and climate-driven extinction of a widespread pan-African flora to independent dispersal events and speciation in situ. To provide a temporal framework for this pattern, we used published data from nuclear and chloroplast DNA to estimate the age of disjunction of 17 lineages that span 12 families and nine orders of angiosperms. We further used these estimates to infer diversification rates for Rand Flora disjunct clades in relation to their higher-level encompassing lineages. Our results indicate that most disjunctions fall within the Miocene and Pliocene periods, coinciding with the onset of a major aridification trend, still ongoing, in Africa. Age of disjunctions seemed to be related to the climatic affinities of each Rand Flora lineage, with sub-humid taxa dated earlier (e.g., Sideroxylon) and those with more xeric affinities (e.g., Campylanthus) diverging later. We did not find support for significant decreases in diversification rates in most groups, with the exception of older subtropical lineages (e.g., Sideroxylon, Hypericum, or Canarina), but some lineages (e.g., Cicer, Campylanthus) showed a long temporal gap between stem and crown ages, suggestive of extinction. In all, the Rand Flora pattern seems to fit the definition of biogeographic pseudocongruence, with the pattern arising at different times in response to the increasing aridity of the African continent, with interspersed periods of humidity allowing range expansions.

  1. A Widespread, Clumpy Starburst in the Isolated Ongoing Dwarf Galaxy Merger dm1647+21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privon, G. C. [Instituto de Astrofśica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stierwalt, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Liss, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Patton, D. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9L 0G2 (Canada); Besla, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pearson, S.; Putman, M., E-mail: gprivon@astro.puc.cl [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Collaboration: TiNy Titans

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between pairs of isolated dwarf galaxies provide a critical window into low-mass hierarchical, gas-dominated galaxy assembly and the build-up of stellar mass in low-metallicity systems. We present the first Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE) optical integral field unit (IFU) observations of the interacting dwarf pair dm1647+21 selected from the TiNy Titans survey. The H α emission is widespread and corresponds to a total unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of 0.44 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which is 2.7 times higher than the SFR inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The implied specific SFR (sSFR) for the system is elevated by more than an order of magnitude above non-interacting dwarfs in the same mass range. This increase is dominated by the lower-mass galaxy, which has a sSFR enhancement of >50. Examining the spatially resolved maps of classic optical line diagnostics, we find that the interstellar medium (ISM) excitation can be fully explained by star formation. The velocity field of the ionized gas is not consistent with simple rotation. Dynamical simulations indicate that the irregular velocity field and the stellar structure is consistent with the identification of this system as an ongoing interaction between two dwarf galaxies. The widespread, clumpy enhancements in the star formation in this system point to important differences in the effect of mergers on dwarf galaxies, compared to massive galaxies; rather than the funneling of gas to the nucleus and giving rise to a nuclear starburst, starbursts in low-mass galaxy mergers may be triggered by large-scale ISM compression, and thus may be more distributed.

  2. Multiple sites and actions of gabapentin-induced relief of ongoing experimental neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Qu, Chaoling; Navratilova, Edita; Oyarzo, Janice; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Dickenson, Anthony H; Porreca, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Gabapentin (GBP) is a first-line therapy for neuropathic pain, but its mechanisms and sites of action remain uncertain. We investigated GBP-induced modulation of neuropathic pain following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Intravenous or intrathecal GBP reversed evoked mechanical hypersensitivity and produced conditioned place preference (CPP) and dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) selectively in SNL rats. Spinal GBP also significantly inhibited dorsal horn wide-dynamic-range neuronal responses to a range of evoked stimuli in SNL rats. By contrast, GBP microinjected bilaterally into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), produced CPP, and elicited NAc DA release selectively in SNL rats but did not reverse tactile allodynia and had marginal effects on wide-dynamic-range neuronal activity. Moreover, blockade of endogenous opioid signaling in the rACC prevented intravenous GBP-induced CPP and NAc DA release but failed to block its inhibition of tactile allodynia. Gabapentin, therefore, can potentially act to produce its pain relieving effects by (a) inhibition of injury-induced spinal neuronal excitability, evoked hypersensitivity, and ongoing pain and (b) selective supraspinal modulation of affective qualities of pain, without alteration of reflexive behaviors. Consistent with previous findings of pain relief from nonopioid analgesics, GBP requires engagement of rACC endogenous opioid circuits and downstream activation of mesolimbic reward circuits reflected in learned pain-motivated behaviors. These findings support the partial separation of sensory and affective dimensions of pain in this experimental model and suggest that modulation of affective-motivational qualities of pain may be the preferential mechanism of GBP's analgesic effects in patients.

  3. GAPS IN THE HD 169142 PROTOPLANETARY DISK REVEALED BY POLARIMETRIC IMAGING: SIGNS OF ONGOING PLANET FORMATION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanz, Sascha P.; Avenhaus, Henning; Garufi, Antonio; Schmid, Hans Martin [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Buenzli, Esther [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wolf, Sebastian, E-mail: sascha.quanz@astro.phys.ethz.ch [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 15, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2013-03-20

    We present H-band Very Large Telescope/NACO polarized light images of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 169142 probing its protoplanetary disk as close as {approx}0.''1 to the star. Our images trace the face-on disk out to {approx}1.''7 ({approx}250 AU) and reveal distinct substructures for the first time: (1) the inner disk ({approx}<20 AU) appears to be depleted in scattering dust grains; (2) an unresolved disk rim is imaged at {approx}25 AU; (3) an annular gap extends from {approx}40 to 70 AU; (4) local brightness asymmetries are found on opposite sides of the annular gap. We discuss different explanations for the observed morphology among which ongoing planet formation is a tempting, but yet to be proven, one. Outside of {approx}85 AU the surface brightness drops off roughly {proportional_to}r {sup -3.3}, but describing the disk regions between 85-120 AU and 120-250 AU separately with power laws {proportional_to}r {sup -2.6} and {proportional_to}r {sup -3.9} provides a better fit hinting toward another discontinuity in the disk surface. The flux ratio between the disk-integrated polarized light and the central star is {approx}4.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}. Finally, combining our results with those from the literature, {approx}40% of the scattered light in the H band appears to be polarized. Our results emphasize that HD 169142 is an interesting system for future planet formation or disk evolution studies.

  4. District nurses' knowledge development in wound management: ongoing learning without organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Anne; Wahlberg, Anna Carin; Mattiasson, Anne-Cathrine; Ebbeskog, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe district nurses' (DNs') experiences of their knowledge development in wound management when treating patients with different types of wounds at healthcare centers. In primary healthcare, DNs are mainly responsible for wound management. Previous research has focused on DNs' level of expertise regarding wound management, mostly based on quantitative studies. An unanswered question concerns DNs' knowledge development in wound management. The present study therefore intends to broaden understanding and to provide deeper knowledge in regard to the DNs' experiences of their knowledge development when treating patients with wounds. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Subjects were a purposeful sample of 16 DNs from eight healthcare centers in a metropolitan area in Stockholm, Sweden. The study was conducted with qualitative interviews and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. The content analysis resulted in three categories and 11 sub-categories. The first category, 'ongoing learning by experience,' was based on experiences of learning alongside clinical practice. The second category 'searching for information,' consisted of various channels for obtaining information. The third category, 'lacking organizational support,' consisted of experiences related to the DNs' work organization, which hindered their development in wound care knowledge. The DNs experienced that they were in a constant state of learning and obtained their wound care knowledge to a great extent through practical work, from their colleagues as well as from various companies. A lack of organizational structures and support from staff management made it difficult for DNs to develop their knowledge and skills in wound management, which can lead to inadequate wound management.

  5. Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Roland A.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Vrendenburg, Vance T.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth’s amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National Park over a 20-y period, we show that, after decades of decline and despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors, including introduced fish, the recently emerged disease chytridiomycosis, and pesticides, R. sierrae abundance increased sevenfold during the study and at a rate of 11% per year. These increases occurred in hundreds of populations throughout Yosemite, providing a rare example of amphibian recovery at an ecologically relevant spatial scale. Results from a laboratory experiment indicate that these increases may be in part because of reduced frog susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. The disappearance of nonnative fish from numerous water bodies after cessation of stocking also contributed to the recovery. The large-scale increases in R. sierrae abundance that we document suggest that, when habitats are relatively intact and stressors are reduced in their importance by active management or species’ adaptive responses, declines of some amphibians may be partially reversible, at least at a regional scale. Other studies conducted over similarly large temporal and spatial scales are critically needed to provide insight and generality about the reversibility of amphibian declines at a global scale.

  6. Evidence for Young Lunar Wrinkle Ridges: Ongoing Tectonic Activity on the Surface of the Moon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantinas, A.; Kinch, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The conventional understanding of the Moon states that it is a differentiated but currently a geologically `dead' body. Most of the lunar mare volcanism took place 4-3 Ga ago and basin related extensional tectonics ended 3.6 Ga ago [1]. There is evidence for much younger (0.9Ga -1.2 Ga) volcanic units [2,3] and some degree of contractional tectonics up to 1.2 Ga [4]. Other studies, however, identified evidence for ongoing tectonics based on narrow fractures and several young wrinkle ridges crossing the highlands and small craters [5]. In addition, there is evidence for young (debated [6,7]. More recently high resolution images provided by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter revealed a number of surface tectonic expressions such as small graben and lobate scarps were found to be populations are obliterated by meteorite bombardment in 300 Ma [11,12]. [1] Basaltic Volcanism Study Project, Basaltic volcanism on the terrestrial planets, 948-974, 1981. [2] Schultz, P. H. & Spudis, P. D., Nature, 302, 184-186, 1983. [3] Hiesinger, H. et al., Geological Society of America Special Papers, 477, 2011.[4] Watters, T. R. & Johnson, C. L., Planetary Tectonics, 121-182, 2010. [5] Schultz, P. H., Moon Morphology, 1976. [6] Schultz, P. H. et al., Nature, 444, 184-186, 2006. [7] Braden, S. E. et al., Nature Geosci., 7, 787-791, 2014. [8] Watters, T. R. et al., Nature Geosci, 5, 181-185, 2012. [9] Clark, J. D. et al., LPSC XLVI, #1730, 2015. [10] Yue, Z. et al., J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 120, 978-994, 2015. [11] Basilevsky, A. T. et al., Planet. Space Sci., 89, 118-126, 2013. [12] Ghent, R. R. et al., Geology, 42, 1059-1062, 2014.

  7. Clinical characteristics of persistent ectopic pregnancy after salpingostomy and influence on ongoing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli; Chen, Jinhong; Lu, Wen; Li, Bilan; Du, Guiqiang; Wan, Xiaoping

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assay the clinical characteristics of persistent ectopic pregnancy (PEP) and its influence on ongoing pregnancy. We retrospectively reviewed 2498 patients who received salpingostomies as primary management for ectopic pregnancies from January 2004 to December 2009, using medical records and telephone inquiries. Clinical characteristics of the 52 patients (2.08%) who were diagnosed with PEP after salpingostomy were compared with those who received satisfactory treatment. The odds ratios and 95% confidential intervals were calculated for each variable by univariate and (for significantly different factors) multivariate analysis. Preoperatively, patients with PEP after salpingostomy significantly differed from the non-PEP patients in gestational age, mass size and pelvic adhesiolysis. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in PEP patients were monitored after surgery, which had declined by 28.31% on postoperative day (POD) 4, 40.22% on POD 7, 51.46% on POD 10 and 53.43% on POD 21. Repeat ectopic pregnancy (REP) tended to occur more frequently in PEP patients (PEP: 5 cases, 10.20%; non-PEP: 4 cases, 2.80%; P = 0.034). Multivariate analysis showed that pelvic adhesions and PEP were the strongest independent predictors of REP. Gestational age, mass size and pelvic adhesions were significantly correlated with PEP. PEP was an independent prognostic factor for REP. However, a multicenter study is needed to support and extend our findings. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. The EU legislation on "GMOs" between nonsense and protectionism: An ongoing Schumpeterian chain of public choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-01-02

    The EU regulation of agricultural biotechnology is botched and convoluted: the pseudo-concept of "Genetically Modified Organisms" has no coherent semantic or scientific content. The reasons of the paradox by which the cultivation of "GMOs" is substantially banned in Europe, while enormous quantities of recombinant-DNA cereals and legumes are imported to be used as feedstuff, are explained. The Directive 2015/412, giving Member states the choice to refuse the cultivation of genetically engineered crops at a national or local level, paves the way for a mosaic-like, Harlequinesque form of protectionism: nothing resembling a well-regulated free market. In the meantime, importation of "GMO" feed goes on at full speed all over Europe. A proposal by the Commission to adjust the rules on importation according to those for cultivation has been rejected by the Parliament.This dynamics may be seen as an ongoing "Schumpeterian" chain of public choices: the calculus of consent drives politicians more than a science-based approach to law-making.  The EU should restart from scratch with the right concept, i.e. the careful examination of the pros and cons, the costs and benefits of each new agricultural product ("GMO" or otherwise), freely cultivated and/or imported, assessed case by case, at last acknowledging that the biotech processes used to create new varieties are of no practical or legal relevance. In doing so, the EU would pursue its stated "better regulation" approach, cancelling any sectoral and sectarian regulation.

  9. Underwater glider observations of the ongoing El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, D. L.; Owens, B.; Johnston, S.; Karnauskas, K.

    2016-02-01

    We report on observations by underwater gliders in the equatorial current system along 93°W and 95°W between 2°S and 2°N starting in October 2013 and continuing through the present. The project Repeat Observations by Gliders in the Equatorial Region (ROGER) was conceived with the intention of using underwater gliders to make repeat sections across equatorial system to quantify the location and strength of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) and the equatorial front. ROGER serendipitously started near the beginning of a series of events that have led to the El Niño currently ongoing. We use Spray underwater gliders equipped with CTDs and ADCPs to measure pressure, temperature, salinity, velocity and chlorophyll fluorescence in a series of deployments from the Galapagos Islands. At the time of writing of this abstract, we have completed 15 glider missions, with 3 currently underway. Gliders have completed 7300 dives to as deep as 1000 m, traveling 27,000 km in 1600 glider-days. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive glider data set ever collected in the equatorial current system. With 6-km horizontal spacing between profiles, these more than 30 sections across the equator allow a finely-resolved look at the passage of Kelvin waves that establish El Niño. The Kelvin waves are manifest as deepening of the thermocline, warming of the surface, strengthening of the EUC, and northward migration of the equatorial front. We will present an up-to-date account of the continuing glider observations of El Niño.

  10. Pathway to 2022: The Ongoing Modernization of the United States National Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.; Caccamise, D.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) mission is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." The NSRS is an assemblage of geophysical and geodetic models, tools, and data, with the most-visible components being the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), which together provide a consistent spatial reference framework for myriad geospatial applications and positioning requirements throughout the United States. The NGS is engaged in an ongoing and comprehensive multi-year project of modernizing the NSRS, a makeover necessitated by technological developments and user accuracy requirements, all with a goal of providing a modern, accurate, accessible, and globally aligned national positioning framework exploiting the substantial power and utility of the Global Navigation Satellite System - of both today and tomorrow. The modernized NSRS will include four new-generation geometric terrestrial reference frames (replacing NAD83) and a technically unprecedented geopotential datum (replacing NAVD88), all to be released in 2022 (anticipated). This poster/presentation will describe the justification for this modernization effort and will update the status and planned evolution of the NSRS as 2022 draws ever closer. Also discussed will be recent developments, including the publication of "blueprint" documents addressing technical details of various facets of the modernized NSRS and a continued series of public Geospatial Summits. Supporting/ancillary projects such as Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D), which will result in the generation of a highly accurate gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential datum, and Geoid Slope Validation Surveys (GSVS), which are exploring the achievable

  11. Rapid ongoing decline of Baird's tapir in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCANN, Niall P; Wheeler, Phil M; Coles, Tim; Bruford, Michael W

    2012-12-01

    During the International Tapir Symposium 16-21 Oct 2011, the conservation of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in Honduras received a boost with the signing of a memorandum of understanding between the Minister Director of the Honduran Institute of Conservation and Forestry (ICF) and the Tapir Specialist Group (TSG). Despite this agreement, accelerating levels of hunting and habitat loss continue to pose a threat to Baird's tapir in Honduras. An ongoing study in Cusuco National Park in northwestern Honduras has been monitoring changes in population dynamics of Baird's tapir since 2006 through the collection of occupancy data. The study has identified an increase in hunting pressure, coinciding with a drastic decline in the encounter rate with Baird's tapir spoor. Here, we examine the significance of a range of demographic variables on Baird's tapir occupancy in Cusuco National Park using the software PRESENCE, and simulate the effects of different management strategies on the future dynamics of the population using the stochastic simulation software VORTEX. The predictions of the theoretical population models are compared to observed changes in occupancy levels. We found that non-intervention resulted in the local extinction of Baird's tapir within a very short time frame, but that various intervention models enabled the population to recover to near carrying capacity. Occupancy and extinction probability were shown to respond markedly to the increase in hunting pressure; and occupancy models supported the future population predictions generated by VORTEX. Our study suggests that immediate intervention is required to reduce hunting pressure to near historical levels to prevent the imminent local extinction of the species. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  12. LIVING ON THE EDGE: TIMING OF RAND FLORA DISJUNCTIONS CONGRUENT WITH ONGOING ARIDIFICATION IN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa ePokorny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rand Flora is a well-known floristic pattern in which unrelated plant lineages show similar disjunct distributions in the continental margins of Africa and adjacent islands —Macaronesia-northwest Africa, Horn of Africa-Southern Arabia, Eastern Africa, and Southern Africa. These lineages are now separated by environmental barriers such as the arid regions of the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts or the tropical lowlands of Central Africa. Alternative explanations for the Rand Flora pattern range from vicariance and climate-driven extinction of a widespread pan-African flora to independent dispersal events and speciation in situ. To provide a temporal framework for this pattern, we used published data from nuclear and chloroplast DNA to estimate the age of disjunction of 17 lineages that span 12 families and 9 orders of angiosperms. We further used these estimates to infer diversification rates for Rand Flora disjunct clades in relation to their higher-level encompassing lineages. Our results indicate that most disjunctions fall within the Miocene and Pliocene periods, coinciding with the onset of a major aridification trend, still ongoing, in Africa. Age of disjunctions seemed to be related to the climatic affinities of each Rand Flora lineage, with subtropical taxa dated earlier (e.g., Sideroxylon and those with more xeric affinities (e.g., Campylanthus diverging later. We did not find support for significant decreases in diversification rates in most groups, with the exception of older subtropical lineages (e.g., Sideroxylon, Hypericum, or Canarina, but some lineages (e.g., Cicer, Campylanthus showed a long temporal gap between stem and crown ages, suggestive of extinction. In all, the Rand Flora pattern seems to fit the definition of biogeographic pseudocongruence, with the pattern arising at different times in response to the increasing aridity of the African continent, with interspersed periods of humidity allowing range expansions.

  13. Modeling of HABs and eutrophication: Status, advances, challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glibert, P.M.; Allen, J.I.; Bouwman, A.F.; Brown, C.W.; Flynn, K.J.; Lewitus, A.J.; Madden, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are often associated with eutrophication of coastal waters and estuaries. However, identifying quantitative relationships between nutrient input and proliferation of specific algal species is very challenging and complex. The complexity arises from the diversity of

  14. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  15. NAFTA and Beyond: Challenges in Free Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Soto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA increasingly looks like a “one shot” deal with little of the ongoing deepening of economic relationship expected at the time of its negotiation and no provisions for ongoing negotiations. As a result, alternative-trading arrangements may provide an opportunity to move the North American Trade agenda forward. The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA is one alternative, however, it is an extremely ambitious undertaking bringing together a large number of very divergent economies in terms of size, stage of economic development, economic performance and economic philosophy. This increases the complexity of negotiations and the probability of failure. The paper outlines the major areas where negotiations are likely to be difficult and provides suggestions regarding what has been learned from the NAFTA experience that is relevant to the FTAA.

  16. Complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  17. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  18. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  19. A LEXICOGRAPHER’S REMARKS ON SOME OF THE VOCABULARY DIFFICULTIES AND CHALLENGES THAT LEARNERS OF ENGLISH HAVE TO COPE WITH – AND A FEW SUGGESTIONS CONCERNING A SERIES OF COMPLEX DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Manea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at stressing the need for applied linguistics in dealing with didactic and lexicographical instruments, not only in the traditional manner, but also – or mainly – in the novel modalities suggested and allowed by the new information and communication technologies, concepts and devices. Proceeding from the contrastive and didactic view of the lexicon and the lexicographer’s task, and also taking advantage of the various models that good learner’s dictionaries in use have already set, the author presents the main aspects involved by compiling a complex, grammaticized Romanian-English dictionary – in fact, one of a larger series projected. In such a complex / grammaticized Romanian-English dictionary, meant as a polyfunctional, flexible, ready-to-use tool of learning, based on an interconnective approach blending the semantic description proper and the grammatical regimen, every relevant item is explained in terms of grammatical usage, and relevant diverging data about morphological markers and irregularities, collocation and syntactic rules, pronunciation, spelling are provided, as well as a number of frequent Romanian proper names with their English equivalents. To do that, an accessible code-system was used. The material that was used as illustrations in the present approach was provided by the author’s experience as a lexicographer and teacher. Similarly, the development is proposed of interactive, software implements usable by advanced students, and also by translators and teachers of ESL; such devices can be a valuable help, a kind of learn-while-working instruments, combining the classical dictionary and the grammar manual, plus the efficiency and rapidity of modern ICT. After mentioning and illustrating the main problems related to the lexicon within the field of TEFL (viz. contrastive semantics, collocation, anomalous grammatical forms, divergent spelling and pronunciation, divergent phraseological and

  20. MDP challenges from a software provider's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shuichiro

    2014-10-01

    This industry faces new challenges every day. It gets tougher as process nodes shrink and the data complexity and volume increase. We are a mask data preparation (MDP) software provider, and have been providing MDP systems to mask shops since 1990. As the industry has, MDP software providers also have been facing new challenges over time, and the challenges get tougher as process nodes shrink and the data complexity and volume increase. We discuss such MDP challenges and solutions in this paper from a MDP software provider's perspective. The data volume continuously increases, and it is caused by shrinking the process node. In addition, resolution enhancement techniques (RET) such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and inverse lithography technique (ILT) induce data complexity, and it contributes considerably to the increase in data volume. The growth of data volume and complexity brings challenges to MDP system, such as the computing speed, shot count, and mask process correction (MPC). New tools (especially mask writers) also bring new challenges. Variable-shaped E-beam (VSB) mask writers demand fracturing less slivers and lower figure counts for CD accuracy and write time requirements respectively. Now multibeam mask writers are under development and will definitely bring new challenges.

  1. The ongoing challenge of restorative justice in South Africa: How and why wealthy suburban congregations are responding to poverty and inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine F. Bowers du Toit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa remains one of the most unequal societies in the world and any discussion around poverty and the church’s response cannot exclude this reality. This article attempts to analyse the response of wealthy, ‘majority white’ suburban congregations in the southern suburbs of Cape Town to issues of poverty and inequality. This is attempted through the lense of restorative justice, which is broadly explored and defined through a threefold perspective of reconciliation, reparations and restitution. The first part explores a description of the basic features of poverty and inequality in South Africa today, followed by a discussion on restorative justice. This is followed by the case study, which gives the views of clergy and lay leaders with regard to their congregations’ perspectives and responses to poverty and inequality within the context of restorative justice. Findings from the case study begin to plot a tentative ‘way forward’ as to how our reality can more constructively be engaged from the perspective of congregational involvement in reconstruction of our society.

  2. A Preliminary Introduction to the OTAM: Exploring Users’ Perceptions of their on-going Interaction with Adopted Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirlee-ann Knight

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A common criticism directed at Davis’ (1986; 1989 Technology Acceptance Model relates to its failure to adequately frame the “experienced” user’s ongoing adoption and exploitation of information technologies. Given the pervasive nature of technology into individual users’ ongoing, everyday communication and information interactions, along with the “new adopter” becoming an increasingly rare entity, the TAM is in danger of becoming a somewhat obsolete framework for investigating user-technology interaction. Presented is a critical analysis of the development and current state of the TAM, followed by a proposed addition to the existing Perceived Usefulness (PU and Perceived Ease of Use (PEoU TAM constructs. The paper contends that the inclusion of a Perception of Interaction (PoI construct allows researchers to develop an investigative framework which facilitates an exploration of users’ ongoing perceptions of the predictability of their technology interaction processes.

  3. Respiratory challenge MRI: Practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C. Moreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory challenge MRI is the modification of arterial oxygen (PaO2 and/or carbon dioxide (PaCO2 concentration to induce a change in cerebral function or metabolism which is then measured by MRI. Alterations in arterial gas concentrations can lead to profound changes in cerebral haemodynamics which can be studied using a variety of MRI sequences. Whilst such experiments may provide a wealth of information, conducting them can be complex and challenging. In this paper we review the rationale for respiratory challenge MRI including the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the cerebral circulation. We also discuss the planning, equipment, monitoring and techniques that have been used to undertake these experiments. We finally propose some recommendations in this evolving area for conducting these experiments to enhance data quality and comparison between techniques.

  4. Biological network extraction from scientific literature: state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Liakata, Maria; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2014-09-01

    Networks of molecular interactions explain complex biological processes, and all known information on molecular events is contained in a number of public repositories including the scientific literature. Metabolic and signalling pathways are often viewed separately, even though both types are composed of interactions involving proteins and other chemical entities. It is necessary to be able to combine data from all available resources to judge the functionality, complexity and completeness of any given network overall, but especially the full integration of relevant information from the scientific literature is still an ongoing and complex task. Currently, the text-mining research community is steadily moving towards processing the full body of the scientific literature by making use of rich linguistic features such as full text parsing, to extract biological interactions. The next step will be to combine these with information from scientific databases to support hypothesis generation for the discovery of new knowledge and the extension of biological networks. The generation of comprehensive networks requires technologies such as entity grounding, coordination resolution and co-reference resolution, which are not fully solved and are required to further improve the quality of results. Here, we analyse the state of the art for the extraction of network information from the scientific literature and the evaluation of extraction methods against reference corpora, discuss challenges involved and identify directions for future research. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Work-life balancing: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittenden, Eva H; Ritchie, Christine S

    2011-07-01

    Balancing the personal and the professional is an ongoing struggle for most professionals, and palliative care clinicians are no exception. A sustained lack of balance can lead to feelings of frustration, inadequacy, and guilt. Palliative care physicians may find this balance particularly difficult due to the nature of their work: caring for patients and families who are often suffering and in crisis. In this article, we describe challenges to work-life balancing and strategies that may promote balance, including "timeshifting," goal setting, cognitive reframing, and self-care. We argue that the search for balance is a lifelong endeavor that entails self-reflection and continuing examination of one's values and goals.

  6. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  7. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  8. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  9. Comparison of ongoing compound field potentials in the brains of invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, T H; Basar, E

    1988-01-01

    (1) Ongoing compound field potential fluctuations of higher brain centers (the micro-EEG of some authors) are considered as a biological phenomenon, a sign of the activity in the organized assemblage of cells. Such activity has been compared in several taxa with quite different brain structure to look for possible evolution in the form of the field potentials and for possible explanations of differences and similarities. (2) Recordings were made with semimicroelectrodes in the neuropile of the cerebral ganglion of the mollusc, Aplysia, with comparative observations on Helix, and the arthropods Limulus, Melanoplus, and Cambarus, and in or on the cerebral cortex and optic tectum of rays, cats and rabbits, with comparative observations on sharks, bony fish, turtles and geckos in unstimulated resting or generalized arousal states. Manipulations of state did not alter the main findings. (3) Power spectra in the cerebral ganglia of various higher invertebrates are similar; activity is fast and spikey (with the exception of Octopus). Integrated energy above 50 Hz exceeds that from 2-50 Hz and falls slowly with frequency; in Aplysia the power spectrum falls less than 10 dB between 10 and 300 Hz. In vertebrates from fish to mammals activity is similar in being mainly slow (less than 40 Hz); it commonly falls greater than 20 dB between 10 and 50 Hz. (4) Amplitude is low in invertebrates and lower vertebrates. RMS voltage in Aplysia (3-300 Hz, reference electrode remote) is typically less than 10 microV; in the ray optic tectum less than 25 microV (2-50 Hz); in the dorsal cortex of the gecko less than 30 microV, in the cat cortex greater than 85 microV. In the vertebrates amplitude does not change greatly with small shifts in electrode position, as it does in invertebrates. (5) Coherence decline with distance, measured tangentially at different electrode separations in the millimeter range, is used as an estimator of synchrony. Averaged coherence between loci 1 mm apart is

  10. Ongoing nursing training influence on the completion of electronic pressure ulcer records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María; Jiménez, José María; Peña, Isabel; Cao, María José; Simarro, María; Castro, María José

    2017-05-01

    Pressure ulcer (PU) care in nursing at the Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid (HCUV) in Spain includes basic care and its registration through the electronic GACELA Care tool. To assess and evaluate the nursing intervention in PU evolution, a training programme was carried out to unify criteria on PU assessment, treatment, evaluation and monitoring. To assess the influence of training on the completion of PU records in the GACELA Care application, and identify the level of satisfaction of the nurses after its use. A quasi-experimental prospective study consisting of a specific training programme assessed pre- and post-training was carried out on the records of PU documentation at the HCUV. The PU records included in the study were collected using the electronic nursing healthcare management computer tool GACELA Care and belonged to patients admitted for >48h, excluding venous, arterial and stage I PUs. The pre-training sample consisted of 65 records collected between 1 April and 30 June 2014, and there were 57 post-training records, completed from 1 January to 31 March 2015. The training programme consisted of thirty-minute theoretical and practice training sessions. The study variables were ulcer type, location, stage, length and diameter, perilesional skin, cure type, products used and cure frequency, in addition to the number of actions taken in the records in correlation to the days of hospitalisation. To identify the nurses' opinions, a satisfaction survey about the management platform of ongoing Castilla y León training was administered. The variations from the pre- to the post-training PU-sample completion rates were the following: from 23% to 40% for PU diameter, from 11% to 38% for PU length and from 57% to 79% for perilesional skin condition records. There was also a significant increase in the number of form updates after the training activity. The nurses' level of satisfaction with the training activity showed a positive outcome, with an

  11. The Aftershock Risk Index - quantification of aftershock impacts during ongoing strong-seismic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence and impact of strong earthquakes often triggers the long-lasting impact of a seismic sequence. Strong earthquakes are generally followed by many aftershocks or even strong subsequently triggered ruptures. The Nepal 2015 earthquake sequence is one of the most recent examples where aftershocks significantly contributed to human and economic losses. In addition, rumours about upcoming mega-earthquakes, false predictions and on-going cycles of aftershocks induced a psychological burden on the society, which caused panic, additional casualties and prevented people from returning to normal life. This study shows the current phase of development of an operationalised aftershock intensity index, which will contribute to the mitigation of aftershock hazard. Hereby, various methods of earthquake forecasting and seismic risk assessments are utilised and an integration of the inherent aftershock intensity is performed. A spatio-temporal analysis of past earthquake clustering provides first-hand data about the nature of aftershock occurrence. Epidemic methods can additionally provide time-dependent variation indices of the cascading effects of aftershock generation. The aftershock hazard is often combined with the potential for significant losses through the vulnerability of structural systems and population. A historical database of aftershock socioeconomic effects from CATDAT has been used in order to calibrate the index based on observed impacts of historical events and their aftershocks. In addition, analytical analysis of cyclic behaviour and fragility functions of various building typologies are explored. The integration of many different probabilistic computation methods will provide a combined index parameter which can then be transformed into an easy-to-read spatio-temporal intensity index. The index provides daily updated information about the probability of the inherent seismic risk of aftershocks by providing a scalable scheme fordifferent aftershock

  12. COMPLEXITY and the QGCW Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2014-06-01

    The following sections are included: * Seven definitions of Complexity * Complexity exists at all scales * AFB phenomena from Beethoven to the Superworld * UEEC events, from Galilei up to SM&B * The two asymptotic limits: History and Science * The basic points on the correlation between Complexity and Predictions * The lesson needed for the future * From Planck to Complexity * Consequences for LHC: the QGCW project * Conclusions * The Platonic Grand Unification * The Platonic Supersymmetry * Examples of UEEC events in the construction of the SM&B * Open Problems in Subnuclear Physics * The ten challenges of Subnuclear Physics * References

  13. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  14. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....

  15. Sharing is caring. Sharing and documenting complex participatory projects to enable generative participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Schoffelen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on how sharing documentation of subjective viewpoints on complex participatory projects can contribute to end-user development in or generativity of projects. We will discuss the documentation approaches of some participatory projects that combine the development of software and hardware in a cultural, social or health context with groups of participants with an eye on generating ongoing participation. We will also describe how we, inspired by these projects, developed 1. a “thick documentation” approach, based on a collaborative mapping method called MAP-it 2. that provides a dynamic view, revealing the diverse subjective perspectives on the project; 3. that motivates different types of makers and participants to participate in documenting; 4. that aims for generativity. We evaluated our approach on these 4 goals and propose future challenges.

  16. SHARING AND DEPLOYING INNOVATIVE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS TO MANAGE WASTE ACROSS THE DOE COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crolley, R.; Thompson, M.

    2011-01-31

    There has been a need for a faster and cheaper deployment model for information technology (IT) solutions to address waste management needs at US Department of Energy (DOE) complex sites for years. Budget constraints, challenges in deploying new technologies, frequent travel, and increased job demands for existing employees have prevented IT organizations from staying abreast of new technologies or deploying them quickly. Despite such challenges, IT organizations have added significant value to waste management handling through better worker safety, tracking, characterization, and disposition at DOE complex sites. Systems developed for site-specific missions have broad applicability to waste management challenges and in many cases have been expanded to meet other waste missions. Radio frequency identification (RFID) and global positioning satellite (GPS)-enabled solutions have reduced the risk of radiation exposure and safety risks. New web-based and mobile applications have enabled precision characterization and control of nuclear materials. These solutions have also improved operational efficiencies and shortened schedules, reduced cost, and improved regulatory compliance. Collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) complex sites is improving time to delivery and cost efficiencies for waste management missions with new information technologies (IT) such as wireless computing, global positioning satellite (GPS), and radio frequency identification (RFID). Integrated solutions developed at separate DOE complex sites by new technology Centers of Excellence (CoE) have increased material control and accountability, worker safety, and environmental sustainability. CoEs offer other DOE sister sites significant cost and time savings by leveraging their technology expertise in project scoping, implementation, and ongoing operations.

  17. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  18. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Alice and Bob are randomized agents. They exchange messages in order to compute a function f(x, y). We allow a small probability of error. Goal: minimize the total number of bits transmitted. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  19. Leadership Strategies, An Interdisciplinary Team, and Ongoing Nurse Feedback: Ingredients For a Successful BCMA Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderboom, Catherine E; Scherb, Cindy A; Kirchner, Robert B; Kohler, Christopher M; Ferrier, Jennifer J; Stancl, Marie A; Suther, Thomas W; Cox, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Barcode medication administration (BCMA) implementation represents a change in a complex process requiring significant modifications in the work of nurses. Nurses' voices are critical for successfully implementing BCMA technology to support this change in nursing practice. Feedback from nurses who administered medications was critical to selecting and refining a BCMA system that supported their practice needs. Feedback regarding implementation status was critical for keeping key stakeholders across the institution informed of the progress and initial impact of the implementation. Nursing leadership engagement throughout the process supported the successful adoption of new workflow processes and technology.

  20. Maize-Pathogen Interactions: An Ongoing Combat from a Proteomics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechanova, Olga; Pechan, Tibor

    2015-11-30

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a host to numerous pathogenic species that impose serious diseases to its ear and foliage, negatively affecting the yield and the quality of the maize crop. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to elucidate mechanisms of maize-pathogen interactions with a major goal to identify defense-associated proteins. In this review, we summarize interactions of maize with its agriculturally important pathogens that were assessed at the proteome level. Employing differential analyses, such as the comparison of pathogen-resistant and susceptible maize varieties, as well as changes in maize proteomes after pathogen challenge, numerous proteins were identified as possible candidates in maize resistance. We describe findings of various research groups that used mainly mass spectrometry-based, high through-put proteomic tools to investigate maize interactions with fungal pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp., and Curvularia lunata, and viral agents Rice Black-streaked Dwarf Virus and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus.

  1. Maize-Pathogen Interactions: An Ongoing Combat from a Proteomics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pechanova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is a host to numerous pathogenic species that impose serious diseases to its ear and foliage, negatively affecting the yield and the quality of the maize crop. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to elucidate mechanisms of maize-pathogen interactions with a major goal to identify defense-associated proteins. In this review, we summarize interactions of maize with its agriculturally important pathogens that were assessed at the proteome level. Employing differential analyses, such as the comparison of pathogen-resistant and susceptible maize varieties, as well as changes in maize proteomes after pathogen challenge, numerous proteins were identified as possible candidates in maize resistance. We describe findings of various research groups that used mainly mass spectrometry-based, high through-put proteomic tools to investigate maize interactions with fungal pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp., and Curvularia lunata, and viral agents Rice Black-streaked Dwarf Virus and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus.

  2. Integration of power to gas/power to liquid in the ongoing transformation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purr, Katja; Osiek, Dirk; Lange, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this position paper is to assess from the current level of knowledge of the Federal Environment Agency the role and perspective of power to gas / power to Liquid (PtG / PtL) in a fully renewable energy system and in particular to appoint the challenges of integration and further development of this technique in the current transformation process in the next few years. Here also the comparison to other Power to X-options and their greenhouse gas reduction effect is shown. The geographic focus of the considerations is on Germany, knowing that a full renewable energy supply in Germany must be especially for economic reasons embedded in a long term international energy policy. [de

  3. From Individuals to International Policy: Achievements and Ongoing Needs in Diabetes Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Oser, Sean M; Close, Kelly L; Liu, Nancy F; Hood, Korey K; Anderson, Barbara J

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes impacts tens of millions of people in the United States of America and 9 % of the worldwide population. Given the public health implications and economic burden of diabetes, the needs of people with diabetes must be addressed through strategic and effective advocacy efforts. Diabetes advocacy aims to increase public awareness about diabetes, raise funds for research and care, influence policy impacting people with diabetes, and promote optimal individual outcomes. We present a framework for diabetes advocacy activities by individuals and at the community, national, and international levels and identify challenges and gaps in current diabetes advocacy. Various groups have organized successful diabetes advocacy campaigns toward these goals, and lessons for further advancing diabetes advocacy can be learned from other health-related populations. Finally, we discuss the role of healthcare providers and mental/behavioral health professionals in advocacy efforts that can benefit their patients and the broader population of people with diabetes.

  4. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  5. Mainstreaming Climate Change: Recent and Ongoing Efforts to Understand, Improve, and Expand Consideration of Climate Change in Federal Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, I. M.; McGuire, M.; Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is a Federal agency tasked with developing and managing water supply and hydropower projects in the Western U.S. Climate and hydrologic variability and change significantly impact management actions and outcomes across Reclamation's programs and initiatives, including water resource planning and operations, infrastructure design and maintenance, hydropower generation, and ecosystem restoration, among others. Planning, design, and implementation of these programs therefore requires consideration of future climate and hydrologic conditions will impact program objectives. Over the past decade, Reclamation and other Federal agencies have adopted new guidelines, directives, and mandates that require consideration of climate change in water resources planning and decision making. Meanwhile, the scientific community has developed a large number of climate projections, along with an array of models, methods, and tools to facilitate consideration of climate projections in planning and decision making. However, water resources engineers, planners, and decision makers continue to face challenges regarding how best to use the available data and tools to support major decisions, including decisions regarding infrastructure investments and long-term operating criteria. This presentation will discuss recent and ongoing research towards understanding, improving, and expanding consideration of climate projections and related uncertainties in Federal water resources planning and decision making. These research efforts address a variety of challenges, including: How to choose between available climate projection datasets and related methods, models, and tools—many of which are considered experimental or research tools? How to select an appropriate decision framework when design or operating alternatives may differ between climate scenarios? How to effectively communicate results of a climate impacts analysis to decision makers? And, how to improve

  6. Towards efficient use of research resources: a nationwide database of ongoing primary care research projects in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortekaas, Marlous F; van de Pol, Alma C; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Burgers, Jako S; Slort, Willemjan; de Wit, Niek J

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE. Although in the last decades primary care research has evolved with great success, there is a growing need to prioritize the topics given the limited resources available. Therefore, we constructed a nationwide database of ongoing primary care research projects in the Netherlands, and we assessed if the distribution of research topics matched with primary care practice. We conducted a survey among the main primary care research centres in the Netherlands and gathered details of all ongoing primary care research projects. We classified the projects according to research topic, relation to professional guidelines and knowledge deficits, collaborative partners and funding source. Subsequently, we compared the frequency distribution of clinical topics of research projects to the prevalence of problems in primary care practice. We identified 296 ongoing primary care research projects from 11 research centres. Most projects were designed as randomized controlled trial (35%) or observational cohort (34%), and government funded mostly (60%). Thematically, most research projects addressed chronic diseases, mainly cardiovascular risk management (8%), depressive disorders (8%) and diabetes mellitus (7%). One-fifth of the projects was related to defined knowledge deficits in primary care guidelines. From a clinical primary care perspective, research projects on dermatological problems were significantly underrepresented (P = 0.01). This survey of ongoing projects demonstrates that primary care research has a firm basis in the Netherlands, with a strong focus on chronic disease. The fit with primary care practice can improve, and future research should address knowledge deficits in professional guidelines more.

  7. Failure of available scoring systems to predict ongoing infection in patients with abdominal sepsis after their initial emergency laparotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, Oddeke; Kiewiet, Jordy J. S.; Boer, Kimberly R.; Lamme, Bas; Gouma, Dirk J.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Reitsma, Johannes B.

    2011-01-01

    To examine commonly used scoring systems, designed to predict overall outcome in critically ill patients, for their ability to select patients with an abdominal sepsis that have ongoing infection needing relaparotomy. Data from a RCT comparing two surgical strategies was used. The study population

  8. Dealing with Prospective Memory Demands While Performing an Ongoing Task: Shared Processing, Increased On-Task Focus, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Jan; Smeekens, Bridget A.; Kane, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the cognitive ability to remember to fulfill intended action plans at the appropriate future moment. Current theories assume that PM fulfillment draws on attentional processes. Accordingly, pending PM intentions interfere with other ongoing tasks to the extent to which both tasks rely on the same processes. How do people…

  9. Effect of triceps surae and quadriceps muscle fatigue on the mechanics of landing in stepping down in ongoing gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, F.A.; Gobbi, L.T.; Lee, Y.J.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue of triceps surae and quadriceps muscles in stepping down in ongoing gait. We expected that the subjects would compensate for muscle fatigue to prevent potential loss of balance in stepping down. A total of 10 young participants

  10. The efficacy of psychosocial interventions for adults in contexts of ongoing man-made violence - A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleber, Rolf; de Jong, K; Knipscheer, Jeroen; Ford, N.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to psychosocial programs implemented in post-conflict settings those executed in areas of ongoing conflicts may have different effects. Their evidence of efficacy has never been systematically reviewed. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo and the Dutch Tropical Institute Literature Portal from

  11. Mass Flux of Tephra Sampled Frequently During the Ongoing Halema`uma`u Eruption (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, D.; Wooten, K.; Orr, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    The ongoing summit eruption of Kilauea provides an unparalleled opportunity to track, almost daily, the production of tephra. The eruption began on 19 March 2008, and tephra has been erupted every day since then to the end of August 2009. Most of the time, tephra is ejected quasi-continuously from the vent accompanied by a light gray to white gas plume, occasionally broken by a more vigorous pulse (“brown plume”) richer in ejecta. In early April 2008, an array of 10 plastic buckets was placed within 400 m of the new vent in Halema`uma`u down the prevailing NE wind direction. The configuration of the array, spanning an area of about 73,000 m2, has not changed since then. Buckets are emptied frequently, initially every day and, since summer 2008, on all weekdays. The contents are dried and weighed, and an “average network accumulation rate” is calculated in g/m2/hour. In addition, componentry analyses are made of the >0.5-mm size fraction from a bucket near the vent, in order to categorize the tephra into juvenile and lithic fractions. To estimate the total mass of tephra ejected from the vent for a given collection, we first drew isomass contours for several daily collections and plotted isomass versus square root of area to obtain the total mass of the deposit. From this, we developed an empirical multiplication factor that allows us to estimate, within ~25 percent, the total ejected mass per day in kilograms from the total collected mass in grams. The tephra is a mix of vitric and lithic pyroclasts, mostly ash in size. The vitric clasts, interpreted as juvenile, include Pele’s hair and tears, hollow spherules, dumbbells, pumice, and bits of coarsely vesicular glass. All these clasts were probably produced by weak spattering at the top of the lava column, which has rarely been seen. Especially since fall 2008, some vitric clasts are partly coated with secondary minerals or rock dust. We interpret such clasts as recycled, first erupted during spattering

  12. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations To Advance Nuclear Fuel Cycles Research And Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Alice M.; Marra, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Mcguire, Patrick W.; Wheeler, Vickie B.

    2013-07-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is repurposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for ''all things nuclear'' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with on-going missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key proposition of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear fuel cycle processing discoveries and large commercial-scale-technology deployment by leveraging SRS assets as facilities for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R&D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R&D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the research team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform research demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact

  13. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - Many Mechanisms for On-Going Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    number of software tools tailored to their respective user communities. Web services play an important part in improved access to data products including some basic analysis and visualization capabilities. A coherent view into all capabilities available from EOSDIS is evolving through the "Coherent Web" effort. Data are being made available in near real-time for scientific research as well as time-critical applications. On-going community inputs for infusion for maintaining vitality of EOSDIS come from technology developments by NASA-sponsored community data system programs - Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS), Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) and Applied Information System Technology (AIST), as well as participation in Earth Science Data System Working Groups, the Earth Science Information Partners Federation and other interagency/international activities. An important source of community needs is the annual American Customer Satisfaction Index survey of EOSDIS users. Some of the key areas in which improvements are required and incremental progress is being made are: ease of discovery and access; cross-organizational interoperability; data inter-use; ease of collaboration; ease of citation of datasets; preservation of provenance and context and making them conveniently available to users.

  14. Application de la spectroscopie de fluorescence a l'étude du pétrole : le défi de la complexité Application of Fluorescence Spectroscopy to the Study of Petroleum: Challenging Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellingsen G.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Grâce à sa sensibilité et à sa sélectivité, la spectroscopie de fluorescence est de plus en plus employée dans l'étude du pétrole. Dans un premier temps, les principes fondamentaux de cette technique sont rappelés, en mettant l'accent sur les difficultés inhérentes à la complexité du milieu et sur les développements récents comme la spectroscopie de fluorescence par excitation synchrone et la détection à distance. Par la suite, les principaux domaines d'application de la fluorescence à la technologie du pétrole sont successivement passés en revue, en particulier la détection de la pollution, la caractérisation rapide des bruts, l'information pour l'exploration et le forage, et enfin l'analyse fine des constituants. Les réactifs fluorogéniques ne sont utilisés qu'après minéralisation de l'échantillon et essentiellement pour détecter les traces de métaux. Due to its sensitivity and selectivity, fluorescence spectroscopy is increasingly used in petroleum technology. Firstly, the fundamentals of fluorescence are briefly presented, emphasizing the many difficulties encountered because of the medium complexity and the recent developments of methods like synchronously excited fluorescence spectroscopy and remote detection. Then, the main application fields are successively reviewed, that is identification of pollutant sources, crude oils fingerprinting, information for drilling and exploration and finally the analysis of petroleum constituents. Fluorogenic reactants are only used for trace metal detection after sample mineralization.

  15. Central Sensitization and Neuropathic Features of Ongoing Pain in a Rat Model of Advanced Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelin, Joshua; Imbert, Ian; Cormier, Jennifer; Allen, Joshua; Porreca, Frank; King, Tamara

    2016-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) pain is most commonly characterized by movement-triggered joint pain. However, in advanced disease, OA pain becomes persistent, ongoing and resistant to treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The mechanisms underlying ongoing pain in advanced OA are poorly understood. We recently showed that intra-articular (i.a.) injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the rat knee joint produces concentration-dependent outcomes. Thus, a low dose of i.a. MIA produces NSAID-sensitive weight asymmetry without evidence of ongoing pain and a high i.a. MIA dose produces weight asymmetry and NSAID-resistant ongoing pain. In the present study, palpation of the ipsilateral hind limb of rats treated 14 days previously with high, but not low, doses of i.a. MIA produced expression of the early oncogene, FOS, in the spinal dorsal horn. Inactivation of descending pain facilitatory pathways using a microinjection of lidocaine within the rostral ventromedial medulla induced conditioned place preference selectively in rats treated with the high dose of MIA. Conditioned place preference to intra-articular lidocaine was blocked by pretreatment with duloxetine (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally at -30 minutes). These observations are consistent with the likelihood of a neuropathic component of OA that elicits ongoing, NSAID-resistant pain and central sensitization that is mediated, in part, by descending modulatory mechanisms. This model provides a basis for exploration of underlying mechanisms promoting neuropathic components of OA pain and for the identification of mechanisms that might guide drug discovery for treatment of advanced OA pain without the need for joint replacement. Difficulty in managing advanced OA pain often results in joint replacement therapy in these patients. Improved understanding of mechanisms driving NSAID-resistant ongoing OA pain might facilitate development of alternatives to joint replacement therapy. Our findings suggest

  16. COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar": ongoing research activities and third-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Loizos, Andreas; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at disseminating the ongoing research activities and third-year results of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." About 350 experts are participating to the Action, from 28 COST Countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Malta, Macedonia, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom), and from Albania, Armenia, Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Hong Kong, Jordan, Israel, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Ukraine, and United States of America. In September 2014, TU1208 has been recognised among the running Actions as "COST Success Story" ("The Cities of Tomorrow: The Challenges of Horizon 2020," September 17-19, 2014, Torino, IT - A COST strategic workshop on the development and needs of the European cities). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of GPR techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Moreover, the Action is oriented to the following specific objectives and expected deliverables: (i) coordinating European scientists to highlight problems, merits and limits of current GPR systems; (ii) developing innovative protocols and guidelines, which will be published in a handbook and constitute a basis for European standards, for an effective GPR application in civil- engineering tasks; safety, economic and financial criteria will be integrated within the protocols; (iii) integrating competences for the improvement and merging of electromagnetic scattering techniques and of data- processing techniques; this will lead to a novel freeware tool for the localization of

  17. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  18. The sources of 14th century Italian texts of Abacus: the echoes of an ongoing debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Caianiello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common opinion among historians of mathematics is that Fibonacci’s Liber Abaci – or at least the first eleven chapters – was the precursor of the Italian textual tradition of the Abacus and, with respect to the origin of Abacus algebra in Italian, the Libro di ragioni from Paolo Gerardi (1328 was the oldest text on algebra so far known. These ideas have been challenged by many works of J. Høyrup. He maintains that Fibonacci was not a precursor, but only an important exponent of pre-existing Abacus tradition and that the first algebra text in Italian was the Tractatus Algorismi by Jacopo da Firenze. In particular, he articulated all his positions in his book, Jacopo da Firenze’s Tractatus Algorismi Abbacus and Early Italian Culture, which has been the subject of a debate. The author of this article tries to summarize the central theses of Høyrup and explain the different positions taken by the participants in the debate. She will also explain her position in a few cases and her final point of view.

  19. Canada's ongoing role in global medical isotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Canada has been a leader in the production of medical isotopes, most notably Molybednum-99 (Mo-99) and Cobalt-60 (Co-60) used for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease, since the inception of the technology in the 1950s. These products have become critical components of healthcare, impacting the daily lives of millions of people around the world. The technological, political, social and commercial climate for production of these isotopes has changed dramatically over the many decades since their use began. Canada's role in assuring long-term stability of supply continues to evolve, and at Nordion we are identifying ways to meet the new and significant challenges associated with these changes. As a supplier to this global industry, Canada is presented with not only high expectations, but also unique opportunities for advancement of policy, science and technology in support of the longevity of the medical isotope and gamma sterilization industries. This paper will examine the current drivers for change in the global medical isotope supply chain, provide an overview of new and enhanced technology options, and identify the steps necessary for Canada to maintain and expand its strong position in this critical industry. (author)

  20. Complex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2009-01-01

    With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m