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Sample records for complexes resembling serum

  1. Fetuin-A/albumin-mineral complexes resembling serum calcium granules and putative nanobacteria: demonstration of a dual inhibition-seeding concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yeu Wu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend

  2. 'Hair-on-end' skull changes resembling thalassemia caused by marrow expansion in uncorrected complex cyanotic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walor, David M.; Berdon, Walter E. [Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Radiology Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    ''Hair-on-end'' skull changes resembling thalassemia were rarely described in the 1950s and 1960s in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases; these changes were described almost entirely in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or D-transposition of the great arteries. As these lesions have become correctable, the osseous changes, never common, seem now only to exist in a small number of patients with uncorrectable complex cyanotic congenital heart disease who survive in a chronic hypoxic state. We present two cases: a case of marked marrow expansion in the skull of a 5-year-old boy with uncorrectable cyanotic heart disease studied by CT, and a second case of an 8-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia studied by plain skull radiographs. The true incidence of these findings is unknown. (orig.)

  3. 'Hair-on-end' skull changes resembling thalassemia caused by marrow expansion in uncorrected complex cyanotic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walor, David M.; Berdon, Walter E.; Westra, Sjirk J.

    2005-01-01

    ''Hair-on-end'' skull changes resembling thalassemia were rarely described in the 1950s and 1960s in children with cyanotic congenital heart diseases; these changes were described almost entirely in patients with tetralogy of Fallot or D-transposition of the great arteries. As these lesions have become correctable, the osseous changes, never common, seem now only to exist in a small number of patients with uncorrectable complex cyanotic congenital heart disease who survive in a chronic hypoxic state. We present two cases: a case of marked marrow expansion in the skull of a 5-year-old boy with uncorrectable cyanotic heart disease studied by CT, and a second case of an 8-year-old with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia studied by plain skull radiographs. The true incidence of these findings is unknown. (orig.)

  4. Mutations in ORC1, encoding the largest subunit of the origin recognition complex, cause microcephalic primordial dwarfism resembling Meier-Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Louise S; Walker, Sarah; Klingseisen, Anna; Stiff, Tom; Leitch, Andrea; Kerzendorfer, Claudia; Martin, Carol-Anne; Yeyati, Patricia; Al Sanna, Nouriya; Bober, Michael; Johnson, Diana; Wise, Carol; Jackson, Andrew P; O'Driscoll, Mark; Jeggo, Penny A

    2011-02-27

    Studies into disorders of extreme growth failure (for example, Seckel syndrome and Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II) have implicated fundamental cellular processes of DNA damage response signaling and centrosome function in the regulation of human growth. Here we report that mutations in ORC1, encoding a subunit of the origin recognition complex, cause microcephalic primordial dwarfism resembling Meier-Gorlin syndrome. We establish that these mutations disrupt known ORC1 functions including pre-replicative complex formation and origin activation. ORC1 deficiency perturbs S-phase entry and S-phase progression. Additionally, we show that Orc1 depletion in zebrafish is sufficient to markedly reduce body size during rapid embryonic growth. Our data suggest a model in which ORC1 mutations impair replication licensing, slowing cell cycle progression and consequently impeding growth during development, particularly at times of rapid proliferation. These findings establish a novel mechanism for the pathogenesis of microcephalic dwarfism and show a surprising but important developmental impact of impaired origin licensing.

  5. Polyacrylic acids–bovine serum albumin complexation: Structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohamed; Aschi, Adel; Gharbi, Abdelhafidh

    2016-01-01

    The study of the mixture of BSA with polyacrylic acids at different masses versus pH allowed highlighting the existence of two regimes of weak and strong complexation. These complexes were studied in diluted regime concentration, by turbidimetry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta-potential measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We have followed the pH effect on the structure and properties of the complex. This allowed refining the interpretation of the phase diagram and understanding the observed phenomena. The NMR measurements allowed probing the dynamics of the constituents versus the pH. The computational method was used to precisely determine the electrostatic potential of BSA and how the polyelectrolyte binds to it at different pH. - Highlights: • Influence of physico-chemical parameters on the electrostatic interactions in the complex system (polyelectrolyte/protein). • Stabilization and encapsulation of biological macromolecules solution by mean of polyelectrolyte. • Properties and structure of mixture obtained by screening the charges of globular protein and at different masses of polyacrylic acids. • Dynamic of the constituents formed by complexes particles. • Evaluation of the electrostatic properties of bovine serum albumin versus pH through solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  6. [Liesegang's rings resembling helminthiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámecník, M; Riedl, I

    1996-12-01

    So called Liesegang's rings are lamellar corpuscles which develop after periodical precipitation of oversaturated solutions in gel medium. They can occur in cysts, closed cavities, inflammatory exudates and necroses. They resemble parasitic eggs, larvae or adult forms. A case of 28-year-old woman is presented with many Liesegang's rings in a stuff from dilated renal calyx. Their preliminary evaluation considered helminths, especially Dioctophyma renale.

  7. Familial Resemblance for Serum Metabolite Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, H.H.M.; Beekman, M.; Pool, R.; van Ommen, G.J.B; Vaarhorst, A.A.M.; de Craen, A.J.; Willemsen, G.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of metabolites, which are the substrates, intermediate, and end products of cellular metabolism. The heritability of the concentrations of circulating metabolites bears relevance for evaluating their suitability as biomarkers for disease. We report aspects of

  8. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  9. The PD-1/PD-L1 complex resembles the antigen-binding Fv domains of antibodies and T cell receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, David Yin-wei; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Iwasaki, Masashi; Gittis, Apostolos G.; Su, Hua-Poo; Mikami, Bunzo; Okazaki, Taku; Honjo, Tasuku; Minato, Nagahiro; Garboczi, David N. (NIH); (Kyoto)

    2008-07-29

    Signaling through the programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitory receptor upon binding its ligand, PD-L1, suppresses immune responses against autoantigens and tumors and plays an important role in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance. Release from PD-1 inhibitory signaling revives 'exhausted' virus-specific T cells in chronic viral infections. Here we present the crystal structure of murine PD-1 in complex with human PD-L1. PD-1 and PD-L1 interact through the conserved front and side of their Ig variable (IgV) domains, as do the IgV domains of antibodies and T cell receptors. This places the loops at the ends of the IgV domains on the same side of the PD-1/PD-L1 complex, forming a surface that is similar to the antigen-binding surface of antibodies and T cell receptors. Mapping conserved residues allowed the identification of residues that are important in forming the PD-1/PD-L1 interface. Based on the structure, we show that some reported loss-of-binding mutations involve the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction but that others compromise protein folding. The PD-1/PD-L1 interaction described here may be blocked by antibodies or by designed small-molecule drugs to lower inhibitory signaling that results in a stronger immune response. The immune receptor-like loops offer a new surface for further study and potentially the design of molecules that would affect PD-1/PD-L1 complex formation and thereby modulate the immune response.

  10. A novel assay to quantitate MASP-2/ficolin-3 complexes in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csuka, Dorottya; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole

    2013-01-01

    in the circulation. The significance of lectin pathway complexes in the circulation is unknown. Thus, we established an assay for the measurement of circulating MASP-2/ficolin-3 complexes. A quantitative sandwich ELISA was developed for the measurement of the MASP-2/ficolin-3 complexes in serum based on monoclonal...

  11. Bovine Serum Albumin Metal Complexes for Mimic of SOD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Key Lab. Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Lab. ... scaffold and the metal complex functioned as the catalytic active center. ... small molecule.22 It is found that the antioxidative ... and absence, respectively, of the measured compound. ... monitor the interaction of metal ions with BSA.

  12. Resemblance and investment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them.

  13. Polymorphism complexity and handedness inversion in serum albumin amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Ivan; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2013-12-23

    Protein-based amyloid fibrils can show a great variety of polymorphic structures within the same protein precursor, although the origins of these structural homologues remain poorly understood. In this work we investigate the fibrillation of bovine serum albumin--a model globular protein--and we follow the polymorphic evolution by a statistical analysis of high-resolution atomic force microscopy images, complemented, at larger length scales, by concepts based on polymer physics formalism. We identify six distinct classes of coexisting amyloid fibrils, including flexible left-handed twisted ribbons, rigid right-handed helical ribbons and nanotubes. We show that the rigid fibrils originate from flexible fibrils through two diverse polymorphic transitions, first, via a single-fibril transformation when the flexible left-handed twisted ribbons turn into the helical left-handed ribbons, to finally evolve into nanotube-like structures, and second, via a double-fibril transformation when two flexible left-handed twisted ribbons wind together resulting in a right-handed twisted ribbon, followed by a rigid right-handed helical ribbon polymorphic conformation. Hence, the change in handedness occurs with an increase in the level of the fibril's structural organization.

  14. Labeling of human serum albumin with 105Rh-cysteine complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, J.M.; Pillai, M.R.A.; John, C.S.; Troutner, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The conjugation of a complex formed by reacting RhCl 3 with cysteine to human serum albumin has been investigated. Approximately 50% of the rhodium (labelled with 105 Rh) was converted to the complex. Conjugation of the complex to HSA via the ECDI method resulted in yields of ∼ 40% of the total rhodium or ∼ 80% of the Rh-cysteine complex. No conjugation was observed in the absence of the ECDI. At approximately equal molar concentrations of rhodium and HSA, an average of ∼ 0.4 rhodium atoms per HSA molecule was achieved. (author)

  15. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC

  16. Ternary complex formation of lanthanides and radiolanthanides with phosphate and serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, B.; Roesch, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radioyttrium was recently reported to form ternary complexes with phosphate and serum proteins in blood. In the present work it was investigated whether the trivalent radiolanthanides react in a chemically similar way. In systematic binding studies using gel filtration a ternary complex formation between different lanthanides, phosphate and serum proteins could be identified. The tendency to build a ternary compound of the type Ln III - phosphate - serum protein, however, is dependent on the ionic radii of the lanthanides. Whereas the light and transition lanthanides have a strong inclination to build a ternary complex, this tendency is weaker for the heavier ones. Taking into account the high content of phosphate in human blood, the corresponding ternary complexes of radiolanthanides represent an important transport form of these elements in blood. This finding may contribute to an understanding of the nuclear medical observation on the biodistribution of radiolanthanides. The heavy radiolanthanides can be classified as bone seeking metals, whereas the light and transition lanthanide elements accumulate mainly in the liver and the spleen. For the lighter radiolanthanides the corresponding ternary complexes thus represent an important transport form in blood. This physicochemical form of lanthanides mainly results in reticulo endothelial accumulation; on the other hand, the lower tendency of heavier lanthanides leads to preferential skeletal deposition. (orig.)

  17. Complexity of Complement Resistance Factors Expressed by Acinetobacter baumannii Needed for Survival in Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Larrayoz, Amaro F; Elhosseiny, Noha M; Chevrette, Marc G; Fu, Yang; Giunta, Peter; Spallanzani, Raúl G; Ravi, Keerthikka; Pier, Gerald B; Lory, Stephen; Maira-Litrán, Tomás

    2017-10-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterial pathogen with increasing impact in healthcare settings, due in part to this organism's resistance to many antimicrobial agents, with pneumonia and bacteremia as the most common manifestations of disease. A significant proportion of clinically relevant A. baumannii strains are resistant to killing by normal human serum (NHS), an observation supported in this study by showing that 12 out of 15 genetically diverse strains of A. baumannii are resistant to NHS killing. To expand our understanding of the genetic basis of A. baumannii serum resistance, a transposon (Tn) sequencing (Tn-seq) approach was used to identify genes contributing to this trait. An ordered Tn library in strain AB5075 with insertions in every nonessential gene was subjected to selection in NHS. We identified 50 genes essential for the survival of A. baumannii in NHS, including already known serum resistance factors, and many novel genes not previously associated with serum resistance. This latter group included the maintenance of lipid asymmetry genetic pathway as a key determinant in protecting A. baumannii from the bactericidal activity of NHS via the alternative complement pathway. Follow-up studies validated the role of eight additional genes identified by Tn-seq in A. baumannii resistance to killing by NHS but not by normal mouse serum, highlighting the human species specificity of A. baumannii serum resistance. The identification of a large number of genes essential for serum resistance in A. baumannii indicates the degree of complexity needed for this phenotype, which might reflect a general pattern that pathogens rely on to cause serious infections. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Archaic artifacts resembling celestial spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    We present several bronze artifacts from the Archaic Age in Greece (750-480 BC) that resemble celestial spheres or forms of other astronomical significance. They are studied in the context of the Dark Age transition from Mycenaean Age astronomical themes to the philosophical and practical revival of astronomy in the Classical Age with its plethora of astronomical devices. These artifacts, mostly votive in nature are spherical in shape and appear in a variety of forms their most striking characteristic being the depiction of meridians and/or an equator. Most of those artifacts come from Thessaly, and more specifically from the temple of Itonia Athena at Philia, a religious center of pan-Hellenic significance. Celestial spheres, similar in form to the small artifacts presented in this study, could be used to measure latitudes, or estimate the time at a known place, and were thus very useful in navigation.

  19. Serum and plasma fibronectin binds to complement reacted immune complexes primarily via Clq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Svehag, S E

    1986-01-01

    The binding of fibronectin to human Clq, C3b, and complement-reacted immune complexes (IC) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Microplates were coated with BSA followed by incubation with rabbit-anti-BSA IgG or F(ab')2 fragments of rabbit anti-BSA. Incubation of the solid phase...... with serum at 37 degrees C caused attachment of Clq and C3b. Addition of EDTA to the serum inhibited the binding of C3b, but not Clq, whereas substitution of the anti-BSA IgG on the solid phase with the F(ab')2 fragments abrogated the Clq, but not the C3b binding. Fibronectin binding was observed after...

  20. Crystal structure of equine serum albumin in complex with cetirizine reveals a novel drug binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handing, Katarzyna B; Shabalin, Ivan G; Szlachta, Karol; Majorek, Karolina A; Minor, Wladek

    2016-03-01

    Serum albumin (SA) is the main transporter of drugs in mammalian blood plasma. Here, we report the first crystal structure of equine serum albumin (ESA) in complex with antihistamine drug cetirizine at a resolution of 2.1Å. Cetirizine is bound in two sites--a novel drug binding site (CBS1) and the fatty acid binding site 6 (CBS2). Both sites differ from those that have been proposed in multiple reports based on equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence studies for mammalian albumins as cetirizine binding sites. We show that the residues forming the binding pockets in ESA are highly conserved in human serum albumin (HSA), and suggest that binding of cetirizine to HSA will be similar. In support of that hypothesis, we show that the dissociation constants for cetirizine binding to CBS2 in ESA and HSA are identical using tryptophan fluorescence quenching. Presence of lysine and arginine residues that have been previously reported to undergo nonenzymatic glycosylation in CBS1 and CBS2 suggests that cetirizine transport in patients with diabetes could be altered. A review of all available SA structures from the PDB shows that in addition to the novel drug binding site we present here (CBS1), there are two pockets on SA capable of binding drugs that do not overlap with fatty acid binding sites and have not been discussed in published reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gold nanoparticles as a factor of influence on doxorubicin-bovine serum albumin complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharenko, N. A.; Pavlenko, O. L.; Dmytrenko, O. P.; Kulish, M. P.; Lopatynskyi, A. M.; Chegel, V. I.

    2018-04-01

    The interaction between doxorubicin (Dox) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) complex with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated by optical spectroscopy. The optical absorption of Dox and BSA solutions was studied. The formation of Dox-BSA complexes with a binding constant K = 7.56 × 106 M-2 and the number of binding sites n = 2 was found out. With pH 6.9, the concentration of complexes is an order of magnitude lower than the concentration of unbound antibiotic molecules. Optical absorption in solutions of Dox-BSA conjugates in the presence of AuNPs undergoes a significant rearrangement, which manifests the changes in the magnitude of the hydrophobic interaction of BSA with Dox, changes in the conformational state of antibiotic, and, as a consequence, a plasmon-induced change in the mechanism of complex formation. The aggregation of the Dox-AuNPs conjugate depends on the presence and concentration of BSA and in the case of formation of the Dox-BSA complex is minimal.

  2. Spectroscopic investigation on the interaction of some surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes with serum albumins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignesh, Gopalaswamy; Nehru, Selvan; Manojkumar, Yesaiyan; Arunachalam, Sankaralingam, E-mail: arunasurf@yahoo.com

    2014-01-15

    The interaction of HSA/BSA with single and double chain surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes, cis-[Co(phen){sub 2}(UA)Cl](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (1), cis-[Co(phen){sub 2}(UA){sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O (2), cis-[Co(en){sub 2}(UA)Cl](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (3), cis-[Co(en){sub 2}(UA){sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O (4), were investigated by steady state fluorescence, UV–vis absorption, synchronous, three dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results reveal that the quenching of HSA/BSA by all the four complexes takes place through static mechanism. The binding constant, binding sites and thermodymamic parameter were calculated. The results illustrate that the double chain surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes bind more strongly than the corresponding single chain complexes. The distance between donor (HSA/BSA) and acceptor (surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes) was obtained according to FRET. The results of synchronous, three dimensional and circular dichroism spectroscopy studies show that all the complexes caused considerable amount of conformational and some amount of environment changes in HSA/BSA. -- Highlights: • Binding of single and double chain surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes with serum albumins. • Hydrophobic attraction plays a major role in the binding process. • Binding induces considerable amount of conformational changes in the protein.

  3. Assessment of serum copper, iron and immune complexes in potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu TIWARI

    Full Text Available Abstract Potentially malignant disorders (PMDs of oral cavity and oral cancer remain a cause of serious concern despite intensive research and development. Diet and immunity have been identified to play a crucial role as modifying factors in these diseases. Our study intended to explore this relationship by estimating and comparing the serum levels of copper, iron and circulating immune complexes (CICs in patients diagnosed with PMDs and oral cancer and normal healthy individuals. In this study, 40 histopathologically diagnosed cases of PMDs and oral cancer were included along with 30 healthy controls and 5 ml of venous blood was drawn using venipuncture. Serum estimation of copper, iron and CIC then followed using the colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation Test. The mean serum copper level was measured as 138.98 ± 10.13µg/100ml in the PMD group and 141.99 ± 21.44 µg/100ml in the oral cancer as compared to 105.5 + 18.81µ/100ml in the controls. The mean serum CIC levels was highest in the oral cancer (9.65 ± 0.16OD470 followed by the PMD group (0.18 + 0.21 OD470 and least in the control group (0.048 ± 0.02OD470. Whereas, the serum levels of iron showed a significant decrease in the PMD group (110.9 ± 10.54 µg/100ml and the oral cancer group (114.29 ± 25.83 µg/100ml as compared with the control group (136.85 ± 14.48 µg/100ml. There was no positive correlation obtained between the three groups with respect to the chosen parameters indicating that the variables were independent of each other. It can be thus be ascertained that trace elements like copper and iron as well as humoral responses (CICs have a close relationship with PMDs and oral cancers.

  4. Spectrofluorimetric quantification of bilirubin using yttrium-norfloxacin complex as a fluorescence probe in serum samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Alam, Al-Mahmnur [Department of Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hak Lee, Sang, E-mail: shlee@knu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ho Kim, Young, E-mail: youngkim@knu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Advanced Energy Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyu-Man [School of Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyub Oh, Sang [Center for Gas Analysis, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed to determine trace amounts of bilirubin (BR) using yttrium (Y{sup 3+})-norfloxacin (NFLX) complex as a fluorescence (FL) probe. NFLX can form a stable binary complex with Y{sup 3+} and markedly enhances the weak FL signal of the NFLX. The FL intensity of the Y{sup 3+}-NFLX complex decreased significantly in the presence of BR in a buffer solution at pH=7.2. Under optimal conditions, the FL intensity decreased according to the BR concentration and showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0.03-2.3 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of BR with a correlation coefficient of 0.9988. The limit of detection for the determination of BR was 2.8 ng mL{sup -1} with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.55% for five replicate determination of 0.05 {mu}g mL{sup -1} BR. The presented method offers higher sensitivity with simple instrumentation and was applied successfully in detecting BR at low concentrations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak FL signal of NFLX was enhanced at 419 nm by forming binary complex with Y{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The FL intensity of Y{sup 3+}-NFLX complex was quenched markedly in the presence of ATP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NFLX can transfer energy to Y{sup 3+} and BR and form the Y{sup 3+}-NFLX-ATP ternary complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reduced FL intensity of the system was correlated with the concentration of BR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is applied to determine BR at low concentration (2.8 ng mL{sup -1}) in serum.

  5. Crystal structure analysis of human serum albumin complexed with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kawai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB is an orphan drug for the treatment of urea cycle disorders. It also inhibits the development of endoplasmic reticulum stress, the action of histone deacetylases and as a regulator of the hepatocanalicular transporter. PB is generally considered to have the potential for use in the treatment of the diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases. In a previous study, we reported that PB is primarily bound to human serum albumin (HSA in plasma and its binding site is drug site 2. However, details of the binding mode of PB to HSA remain unknown. To address this issue, we examined the crystal structure of HSA with PB bound to it. The structure of the HSA–PB complex indicates that the binding mode of PB to HSA is quite similar to that for octanoate or drugs that bind to drug site 2, as opposed to that for other medium-chain length of fatty acids. These findings provide useful basic information related to drug–HSA interactions. Moreover, the information presented herein is valuable in terms of providing safe and efficient treatment and diagnosis in clinical settings. Keywords: Human serum albumin, X-ray crystallography, Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, Drug interaction, Drug site 2

  6. Changes of serum contents of LPO, SOD after treatment with vita. E-C complex in patients with liver spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Feng Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum contents of LPO, SOD and therapeutic efficacy after treatment with Vita. E-C complex in patients with liver spot. Methods: Serum LPO and SOD contents were measured both before and after treatment with Vita E-C complex (Vita. E l00mg, Vita. C 200mg x 3/d for 3 months) in 30 patients with liver spot as well as in 10 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum LPO contents in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls. After treatment, the LPO contents dropped markedly, being significantly lower than the values before treatment. However, the SOD contents were about the same as those in controls and changes little after treatment. Conclusion: Vita. E-C complex was of definite therapeutic value for the treatment of liver spot. (authors)

  7. Application of human erythrocytes to a radioimmune assay of immune complexes in serum. [Lupus erythematosus, type B hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, F; Miyakawa, Y; Mayumi, M [Tokyo Metropolitan Lab. of Public Health (Japan)

    1979-07-01

    An immune adherence receptor exists on the surface of primate erythrocytes, and has been characterized as a receptor for the activated third component of complement (C3b). Human red blood cells (RCBs, blood group O) were applied to a sensitive determination of complement-fixing, soluble immune complexes in serum. The method involved the binding of immune complexes with RBCs in the presence of complement and the detection of cell-bound IgG molecules by radiolabelled anti-human IgG antibodies. Since the binding of RBCs with monomeric IgG was minimal, cell bound IgG molecules were taken as representing immune complexes. When aggregated human gammaglobulin (AHG) was used as a model of immune complexes, as little as 5 ..mu..g dissolved in 1 ml of normal human serum were detected. The binding of RBCs with AHG was inhibited in EDTA solution where the classical complement pathway could not be activated. The RBC radioimmune assay was successfully applied to the determination of soluble immune complexes in pathological serum samples obtained from the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and those with fulminant Type B hepatitis. False-positive results by autoantibodies against RBCs could be excluded by a Coombs test and by comparing the binding in the presence of complement with that in EDTA solution. The ubiquitous availability of RBCs coupled with a high sensitivity would allow the RBC radioimmune assay to be used as a further method of determining immune complexes in the serum.

  8. Complex nature of serum lysozyme activity: evidence of thermolability in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, M; Mitchell, W D; Eastwood, M [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK)

    1978-01-01

    In patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, alterations in serum storage temperature produced significant changes in serum lysozyme activity (SLA) as measured by the lysoplate method. This was not the case in healthy controls or in a group with other gastrointestinal disorders. Electrophoretic separation of serum revealed two components of lysozyme-type lytic activity but only one in extracts of gut mucosa, leucocytes, and egg white. The major lytic component of serum migrated towards the cathode and reacted with specific antilysozyme serum, but the minor component which migrated towards the anode did not. Although the cause of this anionic lytic activity is uncertain, it contributes to total serum activity as estimated by any method utilizing the lysis of Micrococcus lysodeikticus, and may possibly be related to the observed thermolability.

  9. Crystal structure analysis of human serum albumin complexed with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Akito; Yamasaki, Keishi; Enokida, Taisuke; Miyamoto, Shuichi; Otagiri, Masaki

    2018-03-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) is an orphan drug for the treatment of urea cycle disorders. It also inhibits the development of endoplasmic reticulum stress, the action of histone deacetylases and as a regulator of the hepatocanalicular transporter. PB is generally considered to have the potential for use in the treatment of the diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases. In a previous study, we reported that PB is primarily bound to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma and its binding site is drug site 2. However, details of the binding mode of PB to HSA remain unknown. To address this issue, we examined the crystal structure of HSA with PB bound to it. The structure of the HSA-PB complex indicates that the binding mode of PB to HSA is quite similar to that for octanoate or drugs that bind to drug site 2, as opposed to that for other medium-chain length of fatty acids. These findings provide useful basic information related to drug-HSA interactions. Moreover, the information presented herein is valuable in terms of providing safe and efficient treatment and diagnosis in clinical settings.

  10. Comparison and analysis on the serum-binding characteristics of aspirin-zinc complex and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-Xin; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Hong-Lin; Li, Li-Wei

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the protein-binding characteristics of aspirin-zinc complex (AZN) with those of aspirin itself. AZN was synthesized and interacted with a model transport protein, human serum albumin (HSA). Three-dimensional fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible and circular dichroism (CD) spectra were used to characterize the interaction of AZN with HSA under physiological conditions. The interaction mechanism was explored using a fluorescence quenching method and thermodynamic calculation. The binding site and binding locality of AZN on HSA were demonstrated using a fluorescence probe technique and Förster non-radiation energy transfer theory. Synchronous fluorescence and CD spectra were employed to reveal the effect of AZN on the native conformation of the protein. The HSA-binding results for AZN were compared with those for aspirin under consistent experimental conditions, and indicated that aspirin acts as a guide in AZN when binding to Sudlow's site I, in subdomain IIA of the HSA molecule. Moreover, compared with aspirin, AZN showed greater observed binding constants with, but smaller changes in the α-helicity of, HSA, which proved that AZN might be easier to transport and have less toxicity in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Complex association of serum alanine aminotransferase with the risk of future cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afarideh, Mohsen; Aryan, Zahra; Ghajar, Alireza; Noshad, Sina; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Baber, Usman; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to determine the prospective association between baseline serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with type 2 diabetes. In an open cohort setting, people with type 2 diabetes were followed for their first ever CVD presentation from 1995 to 2015. Statistical methods included Cox regression analysis for reporting of hazard ratios (HRs), artificial neural network modelings, and risk reclassification analyses. We found a nearly constant CVD hazard with baseline serum ALT levels below the 30 IU/L mark, whereas baseline serum ALT levels ≥ 30 IU/L remained an independent predictor of lower CVD rates in patients with type 2 diabetes in the final multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model (HR: 0.204, 95%CI [0.060-0.689], p for trend value = 0.006). Age, male gender and fasting plasma insulin levels independently predicted baseline serum ALT ≥ 30 IU/L among the population cohort. Augmentation of serum ALT into the weighted Framingham risk score resulted in a considerable net reclassification improvement (NRI) of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction in the study population (NRI = 9.05% (8.01%-10.22%), p value < 0.05). Serum ALT could successfully reclassify about 9% of the population with type 2 diabetes across the CHD-affected and CHD-free categories. Overall, our findings demonstrate a complex and nonlinear relationship for the risk of future CVD by baseline serum ALT levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further studies are warranted to confirm whether this complex association could be translated into a clearly visible U or J-shaped figure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of hyaluronic acid-combined ternary complexes for serum-resistant and targeted gene delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Woong-Gil; Jeong, Gyeong-Won; Nah, Jae-Woon

    2018-04-19

    Branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) was well known as high transfection agent, which has many amine group. However, utilization of bPEI was limited due to high toxicity. To solve these problems, bPEI was introduced to low molecular weight water-soluble chitosan (LMWSC) with coupling agent. In addition, hyaluronic acid (HA), one of natural anion polymer, was introduced to binary complex of pDNA/bPEI-grafted LMWSC (LMPEI) to target the specific cancer cell and impart the serum resistant. Ternary complexes of pDNA/LMPEI/HA were prepared by electrostatic charge interaction and their binding affinity and DNase protection assay were conducted by gel retardation assay. Particle size of ternary complexes showed that had each 482 ± 245.4 (pDNA/LMPEI2%/HA, 1:16:1, w/w/w) and 410 ± 78.5 nm (pDNA/LMPEI4%/HA, 1:16:2, w/w/w). Moreover, to demonstrate serum-resistant effect of ternary complexes, particle size of them was measured according to incubated time (0-10 h) under serum condition. Transfection assay of ternary complexes showed that their transfection efficiency in CD44-receptor overexpressed HCT116 cell was higher than CD44-receptor negative CT26 cell. Additionally, intracellular uptake of ternary complexes with propidium iodide (PI)-labeled pDNA was observed to confirm targeting effect and cellular internalization by fluorescence microscopy. These results suggest that ternary complexes are superb gene carrier with excellent serum-resistant and high gene transfection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Crystal structure of equine serum albumin in complex with cetirizine reveals a novel drug-binding site

    OpenAIRE

    Handing, Katarzyna B.; Shabalin, Ivan G.; Szlachta, Karol; Majorek, Karolina A.; Minor, Wladek

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin (SA) is the main transporter of drugs in mammalian blood plasma. Here, we report the first crystal structure of equine serum albumin (ESA) in complex with antihistamine drug cetirizine at a resolution of 2.1 ?. Cetirizine is bound in two sites ? a novel drug binding site (CBS1) and the fatty acid binding site 6 (CBS2). Both sites differ from those that have been proposed in multiple reports based on equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence studies for mammalian albumins as cetirizi...

  14. Characterization of the complex between native and reduced bovine serum albumin with aquacobalamin and evidence of dual tetrapyrrole binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereven'kov, Ilia A; Hannibal, Luciana; Makarov, Sergei V; Makarova, Anna S; Molodtsov, Pavel A; Koifman, Oskar I

    2018-05-02

    Serum albumin binds to a variety of endogenous ligands and drugs. Human serum albumin (HSA) binds to heme via hydrophobic interactions and axial coordination of the iron center by protein residue Tyr161. Human serum albumin binds to another tetrapyrrole, cobalamin (Cbl), but the structural and functional properties of this complex are poorly understood. Herein, we investigate the reaction between aquacobalamin (H 2 OCbl) and bovine serum albumin (BSA, the bovine counterpart of HSA) using Ultraviolet-Visible and fluorescent spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance. The reaction between H 2 OCbl and BSA led to the formation of a BSA-Cbl(III) complex consistent with N-axial ligation (amino). Prior to the formation of this complex, the reactants participate in an additional binding event that has been examined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Binding of BSA to Cbl(III) reduced complex formation between the bound cobalamin and free cyanide to form cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), suggesting that the β-axial position of the cobalamin may be occupied by an amino acid residue from the protein. Reaction of BSA containing reduced disulfide bonds with H 2 OCbl produces cob(II)alamin and disulfide with intermediate formation of thiolate Cbl(III)-BSA complex and its decomposition. Finally, in vitro studies showed that cobalamin binds to BSA only in the presence of an excess of protein, which is in contrast to heme binding to BSA that involves a 1:1 stoichiometry. In vitro formation of BSA-Cbl(III) complex does not preclude subsequent heme binding, which occurs without displacement of H 2 OCbl bound to BSA. These data suggest that the two tetrapyrroles interact with BSA in different binding pockets.

  15. Characterization and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and sulforaphane complex in different solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xueyan; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Hao, E-mail: h200521@cau.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sulforaphane (SFN) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated interaction mechanisms of BSA and SFN and associated antioxidant activity in three solvent systems of deionized water (dH{sub 2}O), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that SFN had ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in static modes, and to interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues, while the Trp residues were highly sensitive, which was demonstrated by fluorescence at 340 nm. Hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions were all involved in BSA and SFN interaction, which were not significantly changed by three solvents. The binding constant values and binding site numbers were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. The values of free energy change were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH, which indicated that the binding forces were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. There was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between SFN and BSA–SFN. Moreover, three solvents had not significant influence on antioxidant activity of SFN and BSA–SFN. -- Highlights: • We report interaction mechanisms of BSA and sulforaphane in three solvent systems. • We report antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane complex in three solvent systems. • Decreasing the solvent polarity will decrease the binding of BSA and sulforaphane. • Three solvents had not influence on antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane.

  16. Traumatic bone cyst resembling apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, D J; Ardekian, L; Machtei, E E; Peled, M; Manor, R; Laufer, D

    1997-10-01

    Among the pseudocysts of the jaws, the traumatic bone cyst is known as an asymptomatic lesion often noted unintentionally during routine radiographic examinations. The lesion neither devitalizes the teeth within its borders, nor does it cause resorption of their roots. The well-demarcated traumatic bone cyst often projects into the intraradicular septa and hence has been described as having scalloped borders. The following presentation is of a traumatic bone cyst that resembled periodontal pathology in its appearance.

  17. Inflammatory and Vasoactive Effects of Serum Following Inhalation of Varied Complex Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Mario J; Chrobak, Izabela; Brower, Jeremy; Roldan, Luis; Fredenburgh, Laura E; McDonald, Jacob D; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    Chronic cardiovascular disease is associated with air pollution exposure in epidemiology and toxicology studies. Inhaled toxicants can induce changes in serum bioactivity that impact endothelial inflammatory gene expression in vitro and impair vasorelaxation ex vivo, which are common precursors to atherosclerosis. Comparisons between single pollutants and common combustion mixtures, in terms of driving such serum inflammatory and vasoactive effects, have not been characterized. Healthy C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-h period of contrasting pollutant atmospheres: road dust, mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; a combination of gasoline and diesel engine emissions) particulate matter, mixed vehicle emissions gases, road dust plus ozone, road dust plus MVE, and hardwood smoke. Serum obtained from mice 24 h after these exposures was used as a stimulus to assess inflammatory potential in two assays: incubated with primary murine cerebrovascular endothelial cells for 4 h to measure inflammatory gene expression or applied to naïve aortic rings in an ex vivo myographic preparation. Road dust and wood smoke exposures were most potent at inducing inflammatory gene expression, while MVE atmospheres and wood smoke were most potent at impairing vasorelaxation to acetylcholine. Responses are consistent with recent reports on MVE toxicity, but reveal novel serum bioactivity related to wood smoke and road dust. These studies suggest that the compositional changes in serum and resultant bioactivity following inhalation exposure to pollutants may be highly dependent on the composition of mixtures.

  18. Ionization of tyrosine residues in human serum albumin and in its complexes with bilirubin and laurate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R

    1992-01-01

    Spectrophotometric titration of human serum albumin indicates that ionization of the 18 tyrosine residues takes place between pH 9 and 12.7. A Hill plot indicates that protons dissociate co-operatively from tyrosine residues, in pure albumin between pH 11.0 and 11.4 with a Hill coefficient 1.7, a...

  19. Fluorescent copper(II complexes: The electron transfer mechanism, interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinuclear copper(II complexes with formula [Cu2(L2(N32] (1 and [Cu2(L2(NCS2] (2 HL = (1-[(3-methyl-pyridine-2-ylimino-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol were synthesized by controlling the molar ratio of Cu(OAC2·6H2O, HL, sodium azide (1 and ammonium thiocyanate (2. The end on bridges appear exclusively in azide and thiocyanate to copper complexes. The electron transfer mechanism of copper(II complexes is examined by cyclic voltammetry indicating copper(II complexes are Cu(II/Cu(I couple. The interactions of copper(II complexes towards bovine serum albumin (BSA were examined with the help of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic tools. We report a superficial solution-based route for the synthesis of micro crystals of copper complexes with BSA. The antibacterial activity of the Schiff base and its copper complexes were investigated by the agar disc diffusion method against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that the antibacterial activity of all complexes is higher than the ligand.

  20. Design of magnetic gene complexes as effective and serum resistant gene delivery systems for mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Wu, Jia-He; Xu, Qian-Hao; Wang, Xia-Rong; Lu, Jingxiong; Hu, Ying; Jo, Jun-Ichiro; Yamamoto, Masaya; Ling, Daishun; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2017-03-30

    Gene engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as promising tools for their various applications in biomedicine. Nevertheless, the lack of an effective and safe way to genetically modify these stem cells is still a major obstacle in the current studies. Herein, we designed novel magnetic complexes by assembling cationized pullulan derivatives with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for delivering target genes to MSCs. Results showed that this complexes achieved effective gene expression with the assistance of external magnetic field, and resisted the adverse effect induced by serum proteins on the gene delivery. Moreover, neither significant cytotoxicity nor the interference on the osteogenic differentiation to MSCs were observed after magnetofection. Further studies revealed that this effective and serum resistant gene transfection was partly due to the accelerated and enhanced intracellular uptake process driven by external magnetic field. To conclude, the current study presented a novel option for genetic modification of MSCs in an effective, relatively safe and serum compatible way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Pandey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinstrasse or “stone street” is an expected complication after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with high stone burden. However, there are published reports of multiple ureterolithiasis resembling steinstrasse in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis. Here we report an uncommon case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with right renal calculi. Her right ureter was studded with multiple calculi up to the vesicoureteric junction. The affected right kidney was nonfunctional and was managed by nephroureterectomy.

  2. Sero-diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease using serum immunoglobulin A antibody against glycopeptidolipid antigen in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chung Shu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lung disease (LD due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an important clinical concern. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC is one of the most common causative agents but the diagnosis of MAC-LD remains challenging. Detection of serum IgA antibody against MAC glycopeptidolipid (GPL has recently been shown to improve the diagnosis of MAC-LD, but has yet to be validated worldwide. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral center in northern Taiwan and enrolled patients with MAC-LD, MAC contamination, other lung diseases, and control subjects. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA antibody against MAC-GPL was detected in the participants and its specificity and sensitivity was assessed. RESULTS: There were 56 patients with MAC-LD, 11 with MAC contamination, 13 M. kansasii-LD, 26 LD due to rapidly-growing mycobacteria (RGM, 48 pulmonary tuberculosis, and 42 household contacts of patients with TB. Patients with MAC-LD were older and 32% of them had an underlying co-morbidity. By logistic regression, serum MAC-GPL IgA level was an independent predictor of MAC-LD among the study subjects and those with culture-positive specimens for MAC. By the receiver operating characteristic curve, serum MAC-GPL IgA had a good power to discriminate MAC-LD from MAC contamination. Under the optimal cut-off value of 0.73 U/mL, its sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 91%, respectively. Among MAC-LD patients, presence of co-morbidity was associated with MAC-GPL <0.73 U/ml in logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of serum anti-MAC-GPL IgA level is useful for the diagnosis of MAC-LD. However, its implement in clinical practice for immuno-compromised hosts needs careful consideration.

  3. Effects of exogenous hyaluronic acid and serum on matrix organization and stability in the mouse cumulus cell-oocyte complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaioni, A; Hascall, V C; Yanagishita, M; Salustri, A

    1993-09-25

    Compact cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs) isolated from preovulatory mouse follicles undergo expansion in vitro when high levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) are synthesized and organized into an extracellular matrix. We studied the effects of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and of exogenous HA and HA-oligomers on the expansion process. Maximum retention of HA in the COC matrix, and hence complete COC expansion, occurs when 1% FBS is continuously present during the first 18 h of culture. Irrespective of the culture time, HA synthesized when serum is absent is primarily in the medium, whereas HA synthesized when serum is present is primarily in the cell matrix. These findings support the hypothesis that the serum factor, identified as an inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor by Chen et al. (Chen, L., Mao, S. J., and Larsen, W. J. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 12380-12386), is a structural component of the matrix. Addition of exogenous HA or of HA oligomers of decasaccharide size (GlcUA-GlcNAc)5 or larger effectively displaces endogenously synthesized HA from the matrix into the medium, thereby preventing COC expansion. Addition of exogenous chondroitin sulfate affects neither matrix organization nor COC expansion, thus indicating specificity of the binding of some structural component(s) to HA. Fully expanded COCs disassemble when cultured longer than 18 h, a process which occurs also in vivo and which correlates with loss of oocyte fertilizability both in vivo and in vitro. This process involves release of macromolecular HA from the matrix into the medium, with loss of 50% of the HA in the first 8 h of incubation after full expansion. The release is not facilitated when HA oligomers, long enough to prevent matrix formation, are added to the culture medium after the COCs are fully expanded. This suggests that cooperative binding to HA of either the serum factor, an endogenously synthesized factor(s), or both is required to stabilize the fully expanded COC matrix.

  4. Sero-Diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease Using Serum Immunoglobulin A Antibody against Glycopeptidolipid Antigen in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Jou, Ruwen; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Yu, Chong-Jen; Lee, Li-Na; Luh, Kwen-Tay

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung disease (LD) due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an important clinical concern. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is one of the most common causative agents but the diagnosis of MAC-LD remains challenging. Detection of serum IgA antibody against MAC glycopeptidolipid (GPL) has recently been shown to improve the diagnosis of MAC-LD, but has yet to be validated worldwide. Methods This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral center in northern Taiwan and enrolled patients with MAC-LD, MAC contamination, other lung diseases, and control subjects. Serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody against MAC-GPL was detected in the participants and its specificity and sensitivity was assessed. Results There were 56 patients with MAC-LD, 11 with MAC contamination, 13 M. kansasii-LD, 26 LD due to rapidly-growing mycobacteria (RGM), 48 pulmonary tuberculosis, and 42 household contacts of patients with TB. Patients with MAC-LD were older and 32% of them had an underlying co-morbidity. By logistic regression, serum MAC-GPL IgA level was an independent predictor of MAC-LD among the study subjects and those with culture-positive specimens for MAC. By the receiver operating characteristic curve, serum MAC-GPL IgA had a good power to discriminate MAC-LD from MAC contamination. Under the optimal cut-off value of 0.73 U/mL, its sensitivity and specificity were 60% and 91%, respectively. Among MAC-LD patients, presence of co-morbidity was associated with MAC-GPL <0.73 U/ml in logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Measurement of serum anti-MAC-GPL IgA level is useful for the diagnosis of MAC-LD. However, its implement in clinical practice for immuno-compromised hosts needs careful consideration. PMID:24260398

  5. Biophysical study on the interaction between two palladium(II) complexes and human serum albumin by Multispectroscopic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidifar, Maryam, E-mail: saeidifar@merc.ac.ir [Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansouri-Torshizi, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbar Saboury, Ali [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The interaction of [Pd(bpy)(n-pr-dtc)]Br (I) and ([Pd(phen)(n-pr-dtc)]Br (II) (bpy=2,2′-bipyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline and n-pr-dtc=n-propyldithiocarbamate) with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using fluorescence, UV–vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy techniques under simulative physiological conditions (pH=7.4). It was observed that the two complexes interact with HSA via static fluorescence quenching. The thermodynamic parameters indicate that the binding process was spontaneous and that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces play a major role in the association of the HSA–Pd(II) complexes. The activation energy (E{sub a}), binding constant (K{sub b}) and number of binding sites (n) of the HSA–Pd(II) complexes were calculated from fluorescence data at 293 K, 303 K and 311 K. The conformational alternations of protein secondary structure in the presence of Pd(II) complexes were demonstrated using synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, UV–vis absorption and circular dichroism techniques. Furthermore, the apparent distance between donor (HSA) and acceptor (Pd(II) complexes) was determined using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The binding studies between these complexes and HSA give us key insights into the transportation, distribution and toxicity of newly design antitumor Pd(II) complexes in human blood. - Highlights: • The HSA binding properties of two Palladium (II) complexes were studied. • Static quenching mechanism is effective in the interaction of HSA with Pd(II) complexes. • Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces were involved in the Pd(II) complexes–HSA interaction. • 3D fluorescence was used to study the interaction between two complexes and HSA.

  6. Competitive binding affinity of two lanthanum(III) macrocycle complexes toward DNA and bovine serum albumin in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, Zahra; Mosallaei, Hamta; Sedaghat, Moslem [Shiraz Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Yousefi, Reza [Shiraz Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Protein Chemistry Lab. (PCL)

    2017-11-15

    In the present study, two water-soluble lanthanum(III) hexaaza Schiff base complexes were synthesized and characterized and also theoretically investigated. The interactions of these complexes with DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied using different spectroscopic assessments and docking simulation analysis. The DNA docking studies suggested that these two complexes are able to interact with DNA through the minor groove, and also the binding affinity is in the order of La(L{sup 1}) > La(L{sup 2}). Furthermore, the spectral titration was carried out and viscosity measurements were taken. In this regard, protein-binding studies revealed that these complexes quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA, and indicated that the possible binding site is located on the vicinity of Trp 213, which is further validated by docking simulation analysis. The in vitro anticancer activities of these complexes indicated that the La(L{sup 1}) complex is more effective than the other one and also exhibits a better interaction with DNA.

  7. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction of human serum albumin with copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Bhargab; Pradhan, Ankur Bikash; Das, Suman; Bandyopadhyay, Nirmalya; Lu, Liping; Zhu, Miaoli; Naskar, Jnan Prakash

    2017-02-01

    Two osazone based ligands, butane-2,3-dione bis(2‧-pyridylhydrazone) (BDBPH) and hexane-3,4-dione bis(2‧-pyridylhydrazone) (HDBPH), were synthesized out of the 2:1 M Schiff base condensation of 2-hydrazino pyridine respectively with 2,3-butanedione and 3,4-hexanedione. The X-ray crystal structures of both the ligands have been determined. The copper(II) complex of HDBPH has also been synthesized and structurally characterized. HDBPH and its copper(II) complex have thoroughly been characterized through various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of the copper complex of HDBPH shows that it is a monomeric Cu(II) complex having 'N4O2' co-ordination chromophore. Interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with these ligands and their monomeric copper(II) complexes have been studied by various spectroscopic means. The experimental findings show that the ligands as well as their copper complexes are good HSA binders. Molecular docking investigations have also been done to unravel the mode of binding of the species with HSA.

  8. Serum complexed and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for the diagnosis of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Wheeler, Sarah; Mathew, Anu; Stengelin, Martin; Nikolenko, Galina; Glezer, Eli N; Brown, Marshall D; Zheng, Yingye; Chen, Yen-Hao; Wu, Hsiao-Li; Azziz, Ricardo

    2017-10-26

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may constitute a new biomarker for hyperandrogenism in PCOS. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 45 women with PCOS and 40 controls. Serum from these women was analyzed for androgenic steroids and for complexed PSA (cPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) with a novel fifth- generation assay with a sensitivity of ~10 fg/mL for cPSA and 140 fg/mL for fPSA. cPSA and fPSA levels were about three times higher in PCOS compared to controls. However, in PCOS, cPSA and fPSA did not differ according to waist-to-hip ratio, Ferriman-Gallwey score, or degree of hyperandrogenemia or oligo-ovulation. In PCOS and control women, serum cPSA and fPSA levels were highly correlated with each other, and with free and total testosterone levels, but not with other hormones. Adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) and race, cPSA was significantly associated with PCOS, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86, 22.0). The OR of PCOS for fPSA was 7.04 (95% CI: 1.65, 40.4). A multivariate model that included age, BMI, race and cPSA yielded an area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.89. Serum cPSA and fPSA are novel biomarkers for hyperandrogenism in PCOS and may have value for disease diagnosis.

  9. Body elimination attitude family resemblance in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Arikawa, Hiroko; Templer, Donald I; Hutton, Shane

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the family resemblance of attitude toward body elimination in Kuwaiti participants. This study was conceptualized in the context of the theories of moral development, importance of cleanliness in the Muslim religion, cross-cultural differences in personal hygiene practices, previous research reporting an association between family attitudes and body elimination attitude, and health implications. The 24-item Likert-type format Body Elimination Attitude Scale-Revised was administered to 277 Kuwaiti high school students and 437 of their parents. Females scored higher, indicating greater disgust, than the males. Moreover, sons' body elimination attitude correlated more strongly with fathers' attitude (r = .85) than with that of the mothers (r = .64). Daughters' attitude was similarly associated with the fathers' (r = .89) and the mothers' attitude (r = .86). The high correlations were discussed within the context of Kuwait having a collectivistic culture with authoritarian parenting style. The higher adolescent correlations, and in particular the boys' correlation with fathers than with mothers, was explained in terms of the more dominant role of the Muslim father in the family. Public health and future research implications were suggested. A theoretical formulation was advanced in which "ideal" body elimination attitude is relative rather than absolute, and is a function of one's life circumstances, one's occupation, one's culture and subculture, and the society that one lives in.

  10. Serum albumin forms a lactoferrin-like soluble iron-binding complex in presence of hydrogen carbonate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi M; Urazono, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Toshiya

    2014-02-15

    The iron-lactoferrin complex is a common food ingredient because of its iron-solubilizing capability in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. However, it is unclear whether the formation of a stable iron-binding complex is limited to lactoferrin. In this study, we investigated the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on iron solubility and iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. BSA could solubilize >100-fold molar equivalents of iron at neutral pH, exceeding the specific metal-binding property of BSA. This iron-solubilizing capability of BSA was impaired by thermally denaturing BSA at ≥ 70 °C for 10 min at pH 8.5. The resulting iron-BSA complex inhibited iron-catalyzed oxidation of soybean oil in a water-in-oil emulsion measured using the Rancimat test. Our study is the first to show that BSA, like lactoferrin, forms a soluble iron-binding complex in the presence of hydrogen carbonate ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on the interaction of a copper(II) complex containing the artificial sweetener aspartame with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh; Filli, Soraya Moradi

    2014-05-01

    A copper(II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied at physiological pH. Binding studies of this complex with HSA are useful for understanding the Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O-HSA interaction mechanism and providing guidance for the application and design of new and more efficient artificial sweeteners drive. The interaction was investigated by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment and circular dichroism. Hyperchromicity observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of HSA to Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O was observed and the binding constant (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (∆H) and entropy change (∆S) were calculated to be -458.67 kJ mol(-1) and -1,339 J mol(-1 )K(-1) respectively. According to the van't Hoff equation, the reaction is predominantly enthalpically driven. In conformity with experimental results, we suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2·2H2O interacts with HSA. In comparison with previous study, it is found that the Cu(II) complex binds stronger than aspartame.

  12. Cobinding of bilirubin and laurate to human serum albumin: spectroscopic characterization of stoichiometric complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Sato, H; Brodersen, R

    1988-01-01

    Light absorption and CD spectra of bound bilirubin and albumin fluorescence spectra have been recorded from mixtures containing albumin, A, bilirubin, B, and laurate, L, in Tris-NaCl buffer at pH 8.2, 25 degrees C. Concentrations of the corresponding stoichiometric complexes, ABiLj, for i = 0....../3 and j = 0/3, have been calculated from previously determined stoichiometric cobinding constants (H. Sato et al. (1988) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 260, 811-821). Spectral data of the complexes have finally been found by iterative computer fitting using the principle of several acceptable solutions (R...

  13. Role of zinc-protein complexes in the serum of human beings with reference to health and infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, S.; Sajjad, I.; Akram, W.; Viqar, N.; Iqbal, M.S.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Serum of one hundred thirty normal subjects and 100 patients of different infections were analysed by electrophoresis and atomic absorption flame spectrophotometric technique. It was found that about sixty percent of zinc is bound to albumin and thirty percent is bound to alpha 2-globulins with a variation of 2-5%, beta-globulins and gamma-globulins with a variation of 2-5% in different normal subjects. While the determination of zinc in patients of different infections shows 20-30% decrease in the concentration of albumin bound zinc. The concentration of zinc in alpha 2-globulins remains the same in normal subjects as well as in patients of different infections. The results indicate that in low nourished normal subjects, there is a low concentration of zinc complexes of albumin and a greater chance of different infectious diseases it was further known that albumin works for the transport of zinc and possibly, alpha 2-globulins plays on intermediate role for the attachment of zinc to different body organs. From the above determinations, it is clear that it is the low concentration of zinc in normal subjects which favours the attack of infectious disease. So higher levels of zinc in serum means more resistance towards the attack of infectious diseases. (author)

  14. Complexation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics with human serum albumin: A fluorescence quenching study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seedher, Neelam, E-mail: nseedher@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Agarwal, Pooja [Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Mechanism of interaction and detailed physico-chemical characterization of the binding of four fluoroquinolones: levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ciprofloxacin HCl and enrofloxacin with human serum albumin has been studied at physiological pH (7.4) using fluorescence spectroscopic technique. The stoichiometry of interaction was found to be 1:1 for all the drugs used. The association constants for the interaction were of the order of 10{sup 4} in most cases. At low drug:protein ratios, a significant fraction of the added drug was bound. The predominant interactions involved are hydrogen bonding and Van der Waal's interactions in the case of levofloxacin, hydrophobic interactions in the case of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and enrofloxacin and hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions in the case of sparfloxacin. The drug binding region did not coincide with that of the hydrophobic probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS). From the displacement of site-specific probes and site-marker drugs, it was concluded that ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is site II-specific while enrofloxacin is a site I-specific drug. Levofloxacin binds at both site I and site II with equal affinity. Sparfloxacin had higher affinity for site II than site I. It is also possible that sparfloxacin binds at the interface between site I and site II. Stern-Volmer analysis of the data showed that the quenching mechanism is predominantly collisional for the binding of ciprofloxacin HCl and enrofloxacin while both static and collisional quenching mechanisms are operative in the case of levofloxacin and sparfloxacin. High magnitude of the rate constant for quenching showed that the process is not entirely diffusion controlled. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies showed that the presence of drugs did not cause any major changes in the secondary structure of HSA.

  15. Complexation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics with human serum albumin: A fluorescence quenching study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedher, Neelam; Agarwal, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    Mechanism of interaction and detailed physico-chemical characterization of the binding of four fluoroquinolones: levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, ciprofloxacin HCl and enrofloxacin with human serum albumin has been studied at physiological pH (7.4) using fluorescence spectroscopic technique. The stoichiometry of interaction was found to be 1:1 for all the drugs used. The association constants for the interaction were of the order of 10 4 in most cases. At low drug:protein ratios, a significant fraction of the added drug was bound. The predominant interactions involved are hydrogen bonding and Van der Waal's interactions in the case of levofloxacin, hydrophobic interactions in the case of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and enrofloxacin and hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions in the case of sparfloxacin. The drug binding region did not coincide with that of the hydrophobic probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS). From the displacement of site-specific probes and site-marker drugs, it was concluded that ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is site II-specific while enrofloxacin is a site I-specific drug. Levofloxacin binds at both site I and site II with equal affinity. Sparfloxacin had higher affinity for site II than site I. It is also possible that sparfloxacin binds at the interface between site I and site II. Stern-Volmer analysis of the data showed that the quenching mechanism is predominantly collisional for the binding of ciprofloxacin HCl and enrofloxacin while both static and collisional quenching mechanisms are operative in the case of levofloxacin and sparfloxacin. High magnitude of the rate constant for quenching showed that the process is not entirely diffusion controlled. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies showed that the presence of drugs did not cause any major changes in the secondary structure of HSA.

  16. Structure dependent hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between nickel(II) Schiff base complexes and serum albumins: Spectroscopic and docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koley Seth, Banabithi; Ray, Aurkie; Banerjee, Mousumi; Bhattacharyya, Teerna [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay [Computational Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Basu, Samita, E-mail: samita.basu@saha.ac.in [Chemical Sciences Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2016-03-15

    A systematic and comparative binding study between serum-albumins (SA) and a series of monomeric nickel(II)-Schiff-base-complexes (NSCs), which might be imperative to investigate the function of SA behind nickel allergy, has been carried out through docking and different spectroscopic techniques. The initial docking studies indicate structure-dependent selective hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. The pyridine and phenyl containing NSCs, which are more aromatic, show better π–π staking compared to pyrrole one. Again all the NSCs bind with BSA though amino acid residues of IB domain affecting local environment of the Trp-134 surrounded by both hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues instead of the hydrophobically buried Trp-212. In HSA the hydophobically buried Trp-214 is influenced by NSCs. The experimental results nicely support the docking outcomes. The changes in Gibbs free energy, binding affinity and the nature of hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions of NSC–SA systems indicate greater accessibility of N{sub 2}O{sub 2} donor set complex compared to N{sub 4} one towards SA. Quantum chemical structure optimizations support the better planarity of NSC with N{sub 2}O{sub 2} which provides better binding. Therefore the structural variation of N{sub 2}O{sub 2} donor set complexes becomes much more useful compared to N{sub 4} one to search out the most compatible NSC towards SAs.

  17. Conformational changes in the bilirubin-human serum albumin complex at extreme alkaline pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Frandsen, P C

    1986-01-01

    Light-absorption, c.d. and fluorescence of the bilirubin-albumin complex were investigated at extreme alkaline pH. Above pH 11.1 albumin binds the bilirubin molecule, twisted oppositely to the configuration at more neutral pH. On the basis of light-absorption it is shown that two alkaline...... transitions occur. The first alkaline transition takes place at pH between 11.3 and 11.8, co-operatively dissociating at least six protons. The second alkaline transition takes place at pH between 11.8 and 12.0. It probably implies a reversible unfolding of the albumin molecule, increasing the distance...

  18. Application of on-line nanoLC-IT-TOF in the identification of serum β-catenin complex in mice scald model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-cai Huang

    Full Text Available Severe burn shock remains an unresolved clinical problem with an urgent need to explore novel therapeutic treatments. Intracellular β-catenin, through interaction with other proteins, has been reported to be able to regulate the size of cutaneous wounds. Higher expression of β-catenin is associated with larger sized wounds. However, the identification of serum β-catenin complex is difficult and has been rarely reported. The exploitation of more binding partners can contribute to uncovering the exact mechanisms behind serum β-catenin mediated biological effects. Here, we describe a method that consists of immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, in-gel digestion, and nanoLC coupled to LCMS-IT-TOF for the investigation of serum β-catenin complex in mice scald model. Among selected gel bands obtained from the protein gels, a total of 31 peptides were identified and sequenced with high statistical significance (p<0.01. Three proteins (alpha-2-marcoglobulin, serine protease inhibitor A3K, and serine protease inhibitor A1A were identified and validated with high reliability and high reproducibility. It was inferred that these proteins might interact with serum β-catenin, which could affect the wound healing resulting from burn shock. Our study demonstrated that the on-line coupling of nano-LC with a LCMS-IT-TOF mass spectrometer was capable of sensitive and automated characterization of the serum β-catenin complex in mice scald model.

  19. Deciphering the complexation process of a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, levofloxacin, with bovine serum albumin in the presence of additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Khan, Imran Ahmd; Banipal, Parampaul Kaur; Banipal, Tarlok Singh

    2018-02-01

    The current work aims to explore the thermodynamic and conformational aspects for the binding of fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug, levofloxacin (LFC), with bovine serum albumin (BSA) using calorimetric, spectroscopic (UV-visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and 1H NMR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and computational methods (molecular docking). The binding of LFC with BSA at two sequential sites with higher affinity ( 103 M- 1) at the first site has been explored by calorimetry whereas the binding at a single site with affinity of the order of 104 M- 1 has been observed from fluorescence spectroscopy. The calorimetric study in the presence of additives along with docking analysis reveals the significant role of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interactions in the association process. The slight conformational changes in protein as well as the changes in the water network structure around the binding cavity of protein have been observed from spectroscopic and DLS measurements. The LFC induced quenching of BSA fluorescence was observed to be initiated mainly through the static quenching process and this suggests the formation of ground state LFC-BSA association complex. The stronger interactions of LFC in the cavity of Sudlow site I (subdomain IIA) of protein have been explored from site marker calorimetric and molecular docking study.

  20. Serum high molecular weight complex of adiponectin correlates better with glucose tolerance than total serum adiponectin in Indo-Asian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, F F M; Trujillo, M E; Hanif, W; Barnett, A H; McTernan, P G; Scherer, P E; Kumar, S

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that total systemic adiponectin is reduced in type 2 diabetic subjects. To date most studies have been concerned with the singular full-length protein or proteolytically cleaved globular domain. It is, however, apparent that the native protein circulates in serum as a lower molecular weight hexamer and as larger multimeric structures of high molecular weight (HMW). In this study we address the clinical significance of each form of the protein with respect to glucose tolerance. Serum was obtained from 34 Indo-Asian male subjects (BMI 26.5+/-3.1; age 52.15+/-10.14 years) who had undertaken a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. An aliquot of serum was fractionated using velocity sedimentation followed by reducing SDS-PAGE. Western blots were probed for adiponectin, and HMW adiponectin as a percentage of total adiponectin (percentage of higher molecular weight adiponectin [S(A)] index) was calculated from densitometry readings. Total adiponectin was measured using ELISA; leptin, insulin and IL-6 were determined using ELISA. Analysis of the cohort demonstrated that total adiponectin (r = 0.625, p = 0.0001), fasting insulin (r = -0.354, p = 0.040) and age (r = 0.567, p = 0.0001) correlated with S(A). S(A) showed a tighter, inverse correlation with 2-h glucose levels (r = -0.58, p = 0.0003) than total adiponectin (r = -0.38, p = 0.0001). This study demonstrates the importance of the S(A) index as a better determinant of glucose intolerance than measurements of total adiponectin. Our findings suggest that HMW adiponectin is the active form of the protein.

  1. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels are correlated with the complexity and the severity of atherosclerosis in acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Korhan; Aksan, Gökhan; Nar, Gökay; Özdemir, Metin; Gülel, Okan; İnci, Sinan; Aksakal, Aytekin; İdil Soylu, Ayşegül; Yılmaz, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel inflammatory marker that is released from neutrophils. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between serum NGAL level and clinical and angiographic risk scores in patients diagnosed with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). Methods: Forty-seven random NSTE-ACS patients and 45 patients with normal coronary arteries (NCA) who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in the study. GRACE risk score and SYNTAX and Gensini risk scores were used, respectively, for the purpose of clinical risk assessment and angiographic risk scoring. Serum NGAL level was measured via ELISA in peripheral blood samples obtained from the patients at the time of admission. Results: Serum NGAL level was significantly higher in the NSTE-ACS group compared to the control group (112.3±49.6 ng/mL vs. 58.1±24.3 ng/mL, p22) group had statistically significantly higher serum NGAL levels compared to the low SYNTAX (≤22) group (143±29.5 ng/mL vs. 98.7±43.2 ng/mL, p=0.001). Conclusion: NGAL level was positively correlated with lesion complexity and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with NSTE-ACS. Serum NGAL levels on admission are associated with increased burden of atherosclerosis in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:25430410

  2. Pareidolia in Neuroendocrinology: A Pituitary Macroadenoma Resembling "Big Bird".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-04-01

    The MRI picture of a pituitary macroadenoma with supra- and perisellar expansion resembled a famous character from a children's television series demonstrating that pareidolia is also observed in neuro-endocrinology and -radiology.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of mononuclear copper(II complex of tetradentate N2S2 donor set and the study of DNA and bovine serum albumin binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Sarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One mononuclear copper(II complex, containing neutral tetradentate NSSN-type ligands, of formulation [Cu II(L 1Cl]ClO 4 (1, was synthesized and isolated in pure form [where L 1˭ 1,3-bis(3-pyridylmethylthiopropane]. Green-colored copper(II complex was characterized by physicochemical, spectroscopic methods and conductivity measurement. These experimental data matched well with the proposed structure of the complex. Biological activity of the complex (1 toward calf thymus DNA and bovine serum albumin has been examined systematically and groove-binding behavior of the Copper(II complex 1 with calf thymus DNA has been observed from the spectral study.

  4. Biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats treated with novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives or their complexes with polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kоbylinska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of new synthetic 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (potential anticancer compounds denoted as 3882, 3288 and 3833 and doxorubicin (positive control in free form and in their complexes with synthetic polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier on the biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats. The concentration of total protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and chloride was measured. It was found that after injection of the investigated compounds, the concentration of sodium cations and chloride anions in blood serum was increased compared with control (untreated animals. Doxorubicin’s injection was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of iron cations. The concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine decreased under the influence of the studied compounds. Complexation of these аntineoplastic substances with a synthetic polymeric nanocarrier lowered the concentration of the investigated metabolites substantially compared to the effect of these compounds in free form. The normalization of concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine in blood serum of rats treated with complexes of the studied compounds with the polymeric carrier comparing with increased concentration of these indicators at the introduction of such compounds in free form was found.

  5. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum as a modulator of lipoplex-mediated gene transfection : dependence of amphiphile, cell type and complex stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audouy, S; Molema, G; de Leij, L; Hoekstra, D

    2000-01-01

    Background Cationic liposomes belong to the family of non-viral vectors for gene delivery. Despite several drawbacks, such as low efficiency compared to viruses and inactivation by serum, cationic liposomes remain a promising tool for gene therapy. Therefore further investigation of the mechanism of

  7. PSA-alpha-2-macroglobulin complex is enzymatically active in the serum of patients with advanced prostate cancer and can degrade circulating peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Maya B; Brennen, William Nathaniel; Lopez, David; Anthony, Lizamma; Wang, Hao; Platz, Elizabeth; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2018-08-01

    Prostate cancer cells produce high levels of the serine protease Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA). PSA is enzymatically active in the tumor microenvironment but is presumed to be enzymatically inactive in the blood due to complex formation with serum protease inhibitors α-1-antichymotrypsin and α-2-macroglobulin (A2M). PSA-A2M complexes cannot be measured by standard ELISA assays and are also rapidly cleared from the circulation. Thus the exact magnitude of PSA production by prostate cancer cells is not easily measured. The PSA complexed to A2M is unable to cleave proteins but maintains the ability to cleave small peptide substrates. Thus, in advanced prostate cancer, sufficient PSA-A2M may be in circulation to effect total A2M levels, levels of cytokines bound to A2M and hydrolyze small circulating peptide hormones. Total A2M levels in men with advanced prostate cancer and PSA levels above 1000 ng/mL were measured by ELISA and compared to controls. Additional ELISA assays were used to measure levels of IL-6 and TGF-beta which can bind to A2M. The ability of PSA-A2M complexes to hydrolyze protein and peptide substrates was analyzed ± PSA inhibitor. Enzymatic activity of PSA-A2M in serum of men with high PSA levels was also assayed. Serum A2M levels are inversely correlated with PSA levels in men with advanced prostate cancer. Il-6 Levels are significantly elevated in men with PSA >1000 ng/mL compared to controls with PSA PSA-A2M complex in serum of men with PSA levels >1000 ng/mL can hydrolyze small fluorescently labeled peptide substrates but not large proteins that are PSA substrates. PSA can hydrolyze small peptide hormones like PTHrP and osteocalcin. PSA complexed to A2M retains the ability to degrade PTHrP. In advanced prostate cancer with PSA levels >1000 ng/mL, sufficient PSA-A2M is present in circulation to produce enzymatic activity against circulating small peptide hormones. Sufficient PSA is produced in advanced prostate cancer to alter

  8. The challenge of unravelling family resemblance related to illness behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardol, M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Dijk, L. van; Bosch, W. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2005-01-01

    Background: Efforts to promote health or prevent disease may conflict with patients’ habits at home. Irrespective of the national setting, families are important social contexts in which illness occurs and resolves. Family members resemble each other in their illness behaviour, even across

  9. Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables an...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of new unsymmetrical Schiff base Zn (II) and Co (II) complexes and study of their interactions with bovin serum albumin and DNA by spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighipoor, Maryam; Kianfar, Ali Hossein; Sabzalian, Mohammad R.; Abyar, Fatemeh

    2018-06-01

    Two novel tetra-coordinated Cobalt(II) and Zinc (II) chelate series with the general formula of [Co (L)·2H2O] (1) and [Zn (L)] (2) [L = N-2-hydroxyacetophenon-N‧-2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde-1,2 phenylenediimine)] with biologically active Schiff base ligands were synthesized and recognized by elemental analysis and multi-nuclear spectroscopy (IR and 1H and 13C NMR); then, their biological activities including DNA and protein interactions were studied. The interaction of the synthesized compounds with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated via fluorescence spectroscopy, showing the affinity of the complexes for these proteins with relatively high binding constant values and the changed secondary BSA structure in the presence of the complexes. The interaction of these compounds with CT-DNA was considered by UV-Vis technique, emission titration, viscosity measurements, helix melting methods, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, confirming that the complexes were bound to CT-DNA by the intercalation binding mode. Furthermore, the complexes had the capability to displace the DNA-bound MB, as shown by the competitive studies of these complexes with methylene blue (MB), thereby suggesting the intercalation mode for the competition. Finally, the theoretical studies carried out by the docking method were performed to calculate the binding constants and recognize the binding site of the BSA and DNA by the complexes. In addition, in vitro and in silico studies showed that the compounds were degradable by bacterial and fungal biodegradation activities.

  11. Complexes prepared from protein A and human serum, IgG, or Fc gamma fragments: characterization by immunochemical analysis of ultracentrifugation fractions and studies on their interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, J J; Das, C; Mainwaring, R; Shearer, W T

    1985-01-01

    Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus is an Fc receptor for IgG that has been used as a therapeutic reagent to treat cancer in humans and experimental animals. We used ultracentrifugation combined with analysis of isolated fractions by radioimmunoprecipitation and competitive radioimmunoassay with chicken antibodies that bind free protein A or protein A in complexes but do bind free immunoglobulin reagents to localize and characterize the types of complexes formed with different molar ratios of 125I-protein A and human 131I-IgG alone or in serum, and 131I-Fc gamma fragments. This approach offers a distinct advantage over direct counting of radioactivity in the fractions because resolution of complexes and free reagents is much improved. With excess 131I-IgG or 131I-Fc, all the 125I-protein A is present only in complexes that contained 4 molecules of immunoglobulin reagent and 2 molecules of protein A (4:2 complexes), whereas with excess 125I-protein A the stoichiometry of the complexes was 1:1. We have also shown the preformed 4:2 and 1:1 complexes will interconvert in the presence of added excess protein A or IgG, respectively, and that fresh IgG will exchange with IgG or Fc gamma in preformed complexes. Because protein A has been found to elute from an immobilized reagent used in serotherapy of human cancer and is present in a large excess of IgG, the 4:2 complexes may play an active role in the tumoricidal or toxic reactions observed.

  12. Circulating immune complexes in the serum in systemic lupus erythematosus and in carriers of hepatitis B antigen: quantitation by binding to radiolabeled Cl/sub q/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nydegger, U.E.; Lambert, P.H.; Gerber, H.; Miescher, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    A sensitive and reproducible procedure fr the detection of souble immune complexes in sera from patients with various immunopathological disorders is reported. Radiolabeled Clq is reacted with sera containing immune complexes. Separation of free from complex bound [ 125 I]Clq is achieved by selective precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The minimal amount of aggregated immunoglobulins thus detected is about 10 μg and that of soluble human IgG-anti-IgG complexes is about 3 μg of complexed antibody. Some immune complexes formed in large antigen excess (Ag 2 Ab) can still be detected by this radiolabeled Clq bining assay. In a second step, this radiolabeled Clq binding assay was applied to an experimental model of immune complex disease and was shown to be efficient for the detection of in vivo formed immune complexes. Finally, the technique could be applied to the study of sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or to carriers of the Hepatitis B antigen (HB-Ag). Particularly high values were seen in active disease, a finding which was confirmed by follow-up studies performed with four SLE patients. No increased [ 125 I]Clq binding was seen in 18 healthy carriers of the HB-Ag; whereas, sera from carriers with hepatitis appear to precipitate increased [ 125 I]Clq percentages: 7/24 cases with acute transient and 4/7 cases with chronic persistent hepatitis were found to increasingly bind [ 125 I]Clq. The results were also used for a correlative study of [ 125 I]Clq binding to IgG levels in the sera but increased [ 125 I]Clq binding could not be attributed to high serum IgG levels which are likely to account for the evaluation of immune complex diseases in human pathology. (U.S.)

  13. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  14. Serum complexed and free prostate specific antigen levels are lower in female elite athletes in comparison to control women [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Eklund

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesize that prostate specific antigen (PSA, a protein that it is under regulation by androgens, may be differentially expressed in female elite athletes in comparison to control women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 female athletes and 114 sedentary age-matched controls.  Serum from these women was analyzed for complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA, by fifth generation assays with limits of detection of around 6 and 140 fg/mL, respectively.  A panel of estrogens, androgens and progesterone in the same serum was also quantified by tandem mass spectrometry.  Results: Both components of serum PSA (cPSA and fPSA were lower in the elite athletes vs the control group (P=0.033 and 0.013, respectively.  Furthermore, estrone (p=0.003 and estradiol (p=0.004 were significantly lower, and dehydroepiandrosterone  (p=0.095 and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (p=0.084 tended to be higher in the athletes vs controls. Oral contraceptive use was similar between groups and significantly associated with increased cPSA and fPSA in athletes (p= 0.046 and 0.009, respectively.  PSA fractions were not significantly associated with progesterone changes. The Spearman correlation between cPSA and fPSA in both athletes and controls was 0.75 (P < 0.0001 and 0.64 (P < 0.0001, respectively.  Conclusions: Elite athletes have lower complexed and free PSA, higher levels of androgen precursors and lower levels of estrogen in their serum than sedentary control women. Abbreviations: cPSA, complexed PSA; fPSA, free PSA; PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome; E1, estrone; E2, estradiol; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone, Testo, testosterone; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; PROG, progesterone; Delta 4, androstenedione; Delta 5, androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol; BMD, body mineral density; LLOQ, lower limit of quantification; ULOQ, upper limit of quantification; LOD, limit of detection; ACT, α1-antichymotrypsin

  15. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sensitive and selective spectrophotometric assay of piroxicam in pure form, capsule and human blood serum samples via ion-pair complex formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Nina; Keyhanian, Fereshteh

    2014-09-01

    A simple, accurate and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the rapid determination of piroxicam (PX) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed method involves formation of stable yellow colored ion-pair complexes of the amino derivative (basic nitrogen) of PX with three sulphonphthalein acid dyes namely; bromocresol green (BCG), bromothymol blue (BTB), bromophenol blue (BPB) in acidic medium. The colored species exhibited absorption maxima at 438, 429 and 432 nm with molar absorptivity values of 9.400 × 103, 1.218 × 103 and 1.02 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 for PX-BCG, PX-BTB and PX-BPB complexes, respectively. The effect of optimum conditions via acidity, reagent concentration, time and solvent were studied. The reactions were extremely rapid at room temperature and the absorbance values remained constant for 48 h. Beer’s law was obeyed with a good correlation coefficient in the concentration ranges 1-100 μg mL-1 for BCG, BTB complexes and 1-95 μg mL-1 for BPB complex. The composition ratio of the ion-pair complexes were found to be 1:1 in all cases as established by Job’s method. No interference was observed from common additives and excipients which may be present in the pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PX in capsule and human blood serum samples with good accuracy and precision.

  17. Detecting analogical resemblance without retrieving the source analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M; Severin, Kaye; Miller, Samuel W

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether people can detect analogical resemblance to an earlier experimental episode without being able to recall the experimental source of the analogical resemblance. We used four-word analogies (e.g., robin-nest/beaver-dam), in a variation of the recognition-without-cued-recall method (Cleary, 2004). Participants studied word pairs (e.g., robin-nest) and were shown new word pairs at test, half of which analogically related to studied word pairs (e.g., beaver-dam) and half of which did not. For each test pair, participants first attempted to recall an analogically similar pair from the study list. Then, regardless of whether successful recall occurred, participants were prompted to rate the familiarity of the test pair, which was said to indicate the likelihood that a pair that was analogically similar to the test pair had been studied. Across three experiments, participants demonstrated an ability to detect analogical resemblance without recalling the source analogy. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential relevance to the study of analogical reasoning and insight, as well as to the study of familiarity and recognition memory.

  18. Long-Term Supplementation with Beta Serum Concentrate (BSC, a Complex of Milk Lipids, during Post-Natal Brain Development Improves Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that the supplementation of ganglioside-enriched complex-milk-lipids improves cognitive function and that a phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipid prevents age-related cognitive decline in rats. This current study evaluated the effects of post-natal supplementation of ganglioside- and phospholipid-enriched complex-milk-lipids beta serum concentrate (BSC on cognitive function in young rats. The diet of male rats was supplemented with either gels formulated BSC (n = 16 or blank gels (n = 16 from post-natal day 10 to day 70. Memory and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated using the Morris water maze, dark–light boxes, and elevated plus maze tests. Neuroplasticity and white matter were measured using immunohistochemical staining. The overall performance in seven-day acquisition trials was similar between the groups. Compared with the control group, BSC supplementation reduced the latency to the platform during day one of the acquisition tests. Supplementation improved memory by showing reduced latency and improved path efficiency to the platform quadrant, and smaller initial heading error from the platform zone. Supplemented rats showed an increase in striatal dopamine terminals and hippocampal glutamate receptors. Thus BSC supplementation during post-natal brain development improved learning and memory, independent from anxiety. The moderately enhanced neuroplasticity in dopamine and glutamate may be biological changes underlying the improved cognitive function.

  19. Development and clinical evaluation of a novel immunoassay for the binary complex of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 in human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frystyk, Jan; Højlund, Kurt; Rasmussen, Kirsten Nyborg

    2002-01-01

    Correlation studies have suggested that IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 is a dynamic regulator of free IGF-I. To further study this, we developed a monoclonal immunofluorometric assay specific for the binary complex of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in human serum. An IGFBP-1 antibody, which recognizes all...... phospho-forms of IGFBP-1, was used for coating. An europium-labeled IGF-I antibody served as tracer. Assay incubation was performed at conditions approaching those in vivo (i.e. pH 7.4, 37 C). The assay was highly specific: no signal was obtained unless both IGF-I and IGFBP-1 were present and neither...

  20. Pulse radiolytic study of the oxidation reaction of uric acid in presence of bovine serum albumin: evidence of possible complex formation in the transient state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.; Gopinathan, C.

    1996-01-01

    The pulse radiolytic and spectrophotometric study of uric acid in presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been carried out. In the spectrophotometric study there is no evidence for ground state interaction between BSA and uric acid. The reaction of CCl 3 OO . radical with uric acid produces a transient having absorption maximum at 330 nm and that with BSA produces transient having absorption maximum at 410 nm. In a composition of equal concentration of uric acid and BSA the CCl 3 OO . radical produces a transient absorption spectrum which shows two peaks at 330 nm and 350 nm and a shoulder at 410 nm. The peak at 350 nm is ascribed due to weak complex formation between BSA and uric acid radicals. The rate constant of CCl 3 OO . radical with uric acid increases with the increase in BSA concentration which is explained as protection of BSA by uric acid from radical attack. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Muscular dystrophy in a dog resembling human becker muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, A B; Abellonio, F; Pagano, T B; Esposito, I; Peirone, B; Papparella, S; Paciello, O

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year-old, male Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of progressive exercise intolerance, bilateral elbow extension, rigidity of the forelimbs, hindlimb flexion and kyphosis. Microscopical examination of muscle tissue showed marked variability in myofibre size, replacement of muscle with mature adipose tissue and degeneration/regeneration of muscle fibres, consistent with muscular dystrophy. Immunohistochemical examination for dystrophin showed markedly reduced labelling with monoclonal antibodies specific for the rod domain and the carboxy-terminal of dystrophin, while expression of β-sarcoglycan, γ-sarcoglycan and β-dystroglycan was normal. Immunoblotting revealed a truncated dystrophin protein of approximately 135 kDa. These findings supported a diagnosis of congenital canine muscular dystrophy resembling Becker muscular dystrophy in man. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutrophilic dermatosis resembling pyoderma gangrenosum in a dog with polyarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardagí, M; Lloret, A; Fondati, A; Ferrer, L

    2007-04-01

    This report describes a case of neutrophilic dermatosis in a dog, with a number of clinical and pathological similarities to human pyoderma gangrenosum. A seven-year-old, female German shepherd dog with a history of non-erosive idiopathic polyarthritis was presented with severe facial swelling, bilateral erosivoulcerative lesions on the muzzle and multiple, eroded, dermal-subcutaneous nodules on the cranial trunk. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a necrotising neutrophilic dermatitis. No infectious agents could be detected using specific stains, immunohistochemistry, serology and bacterial aerobic, anaerobic or fungal cultures. A sterile neutrophilic dermatosis resembling human pyoderma gangrenosum was presumptively diagnosed, and the patient showed an excellent response to treatment with prednisone and ciclosporin.

  3. Comparative solution equilibrium studies on pentamethylcyclopentadienyl rhodium complexes of 2,2'-bipyridine and ethylenediamine and their interaction with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyedy, Éva A; Mészáros, János P; Dömötör, Orsolya; Hackl, Carmen M; Roller, Alexander; Keppler, Bernhard K; Kandioller, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Complex formation equilibrium processes of the (N,N) donor containing 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and ethylenediamine (en) with (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) were investigated in aqueous solution via pH-potentiometry, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectrophotometry in the absence and presence of chloride ions. The structure of [RhCp*(en)Cl]ClO4 (Cp*, pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) was also studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. pKa values of 8.56 and 9.58 were determined for [RhCp*(bpy)(H2O)](2+) and [RhCp*(en)(H2O)](2+), respectively resulting in the formation of negligible amount of mixed hydroxido complexes at pH 7.4. Stability and the H2O/Cl(-) co-ligand exchange constants of bpy and en complexes considerably exceed those of the bidentate O-donor deferiprone. The strong affinity of the bpy and en complexes to chloride ions most probably contributes to their low antiproliferative effect. Interactions between human serum albumin (HSA) and [RhCp*(H2O)3](2+), its complexes formed with deferiprone, bpy and en were also monitored by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, ultrafiltration/UV-vis and spectrofluorometry. Numerous binding sites (≥ 8) are available for [RhCp*(H2O)3](2+); and the interaction takes place most probably via covalent bonds through the imidazole nitrogen of His. According to the various fluorescence studies [RhCp*(H2O)3](2+) binds on sites I and II, and coordination of surface side chain donor atoms of the protein is also feasible. The binding of the bpy and en complex is weaker and slower compared to that of [RhCp*(H2O)3](2+), and formation of ternary HSA-RhCp*-ligand adducts was proved. In the case of the deferiprone complex, the RhCp* fragment is cleaved off when HSA is loaded with low equivalents of the compound.

  4. The acid-labile subunit of human ternary insulin-like growth factor binding protein complex in serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Møller, S; Mosfeldt-Laursen, E

    1998-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is predominantly bound in the trimeric complex comprised of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and acid-labile subunit (ALS). Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and ALS are believed to reflect the GH secretory status, but the clinical use...... of ALS determination is not known. We therefore, determined the: 1) hepatosplanchnic release of ALS by liver vein catheterization (n=30); 2) 24-h diurnal variation of ALS (n=8); 3) normal age-related ranges of circulating ALS (n=1158); 4) diagnostic value of ALS in 108 patients with childhood-onset GH...... in adults; and 4) ALS levels were below -2 SD in 57 of 79 GHD patients (sensitivity 72%) and above 2 SD in 22 of 29 patients with normal GH response (specificity 76%), which was similar, compared with the diagnostic utility of IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Finally, our findings indicate that hepatic ALS production...

  5. pH Sensing Properties of Flexible, Bias-Free Graphene Microelectrodes in Complex Fluids: From Phosphate Buffer Solution to Human Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jinglei; Blum, Jacquelyn E; Vishnubhotla, Ramya; Vrudhula, Amey; Naylor, Carl H; Gao, Zhaoli; Saven, Jeffery G; Johnson, Alan T Charlie

    2017-08-01

    Advances in techniques for monitoring pH in complex fluids can have a significant impact on analytical and biomedical applications. This study develops flexible graphene microelectrodes (GEs) for rapid (pH of complex biofluids by measuring real-time Faradaic charge transfer between the GE and a solution at zero electrical bias. For an idealized sample of phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the Faradaic current is varied monotonically and systematically with the pH, with a resolution of ≈0.2 pH unit. The current-pH dependence is well described by a hybrid analytical-computational model, where the electric double layer derives from an intrinsic, pH-independent (positive) charge associated with the graphene-water interface and ionizable (negative) charged groups. For ferritin solution, the relative Faradaic current, defined as the difference between the measured current response and a baseline response due to PBS, shows a strong signal associated with ferritin disassembly and the release of ferric ions at pH ≈2.0. For samples of human serum, the Faradaic current shows a reproducible rapid (pH. By combining the Faradaic current and real-time current variation, the methodology is potentially suitable for use to detect tumor-induced changes in extracellular pH. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Development and clinical evaluation of a novel immunoassay for the binary complex of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 in human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frystyk, Jan; Højlund, Kurt; Rasmussen, Kirsten Nyborg

    2002-01-01

    Correlation studies have suggested that IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 is a dynamic regulator of free IGF-I. To further study this, we developed a monoclonal immunofluorometric assay specific for the binary complex of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in human serum. An IGFBP-1 antibody, which recognizes all...... phospho-forms of IGFBP-1, was used for coating. An europium-labeled IGF-I antibody served as tracer. Assay incubation was performed at conditions approaching those in vivo (i.e. pH 7.4, 37 C). The assay was highly specific: no signal was obtained unless both IGF-I and IGFBP-1 were present and neither...... IGFBP-2, -3, -4, nor IGF-II caused any cross-reaction. The linear standard curve covered 3 orders of magnitude, and within and in-between assay coefficients of variation were less than 5 and 15%, respectively. To study the dynamic relationship between free IGF-I and binary complex formation, seven...

  7. Atypical mycobacterial infection resembles sporotrichosis in elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurani Fauziah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atypical mycobacterial (AM infection is caused by Mycobacterium species other than M.tuberculosis. AM skin infection has clinical manifestations that resemble M. tuberculosis infection and deep fungal infection. Laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. An 83-year old female came with a painful lump and swelling on her right lower extremity since three months before admission. Physical examination revealed a plaque consisting, of multiple erythematous and hyperpigmented papules and nodules, diffuse erythematous lesion, and shallow ulcers partially covered with pus and crust. Histopathological features showed tuberculoid granuloma. Direct test and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS staining of the skin biopsy found no fungal element nor acid-fast bacilli (AFB. Culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR of M. tuberculosis were negative. The working diagnosis was atypical mycobacterial infection and treatment with 450 mg rifampicin and 100 mg minocycline daily were administered accordingly. In two months observation following the treatment, the pain was no longer exist, the ulcers were completely healed, and some nodules were in the process of healing Among other Mycobacterium spp, M.marinum is the most common cause of AM infrections. Clinical manifestation of M. marinum infection may present as solitary or multiple nodules on the hands, feet, elbows and knees with sporotrichoid spreading patern. The diagnosis of AM was established based on clinical and laboratory examination. The diagnosis was also confirmed by good clinical response to minocycline and rifampicin.

  8. Leprae reaction resembling rheumatologic disease as presenting feature of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Hazlyna; Taib, Tarita; Zain, Mollyza Mohd; Ch'ng, Shereen

    2016-10-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae with predominant involvement of skin and nerves. We present a 70-year-old man with leprosy whose initial presentation resembled rheumatologic disease, due to leprae reaction. He presented with an 8-week history of worsening neuropathic pain in the right forearm, associated with necrotic skin lesions on his fingers that had ulcerated. Physical examination revealed two tender necrotic ulcers at the tip of the right middle finger and the dorsal aspect of the left middle finger. The patient had right wrist tenosynovitis and right elbow bursitis. Apart from raised inflammatory markers, the investigations for infection, connective tissue disease, vasculitis, thromboembolic disease and malignancy were negative. During the fourth week of hospitalization, we noticed a 2-cm hypoesthetic indurated plaque on the right inner arm. Further examination revealed thickened bilateral ulnar, radial and popliteal nerves. A slit skin smear was negative. Two skin biopsies and a biopsy of the olecranon bursa revealed granulomatous inflammation. He was diagnosed with paucibacillary leprosy with neuritis. He responded well to multidrug therapy and prednisolone; his symptoms resolved over a few weeks. This case illustrates the challenges in diagnosing a case of leprosy with atypical presentation in a non-endemic country. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  10. A Para-Canalicular Abscess Resembling an Inflamed Chalazion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantis Almaliotis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lacrimal infections by Actinomyces are rare and commonly misdiagnosed for long periods of time. They account for 2% of all lacrimal diseases. Case Report. We report a case of a 70-year-old female patient suffering from a para-canalicular abscess in the medial canthus of the left eye, beside the lower punctum lacrimale, resembling a chalazion. Purulence exited from the punctum lacrimale due to inflammation of the inferior canaliculus (canaliculitis. When pressure was applied to the mass, a second exit of purulence was also observed under the palpebral conjunctiva below the lacrimal caruncle. A surgical excision was performed followed by administration of local antibiotic therapy. The histopathological examination of the extracted mass revealed the existence of actinomycosis. Conclusion. Persistent or recurrent infections and lumps of the eyelids should be thoroughly investigated. Actinomyces as a causative agent should be considered. Differential diagnosis is broad and should include canaliculitis, chalazion, and multiple types of neoplasias. For this reason, in nonconclusive cases, a histopathological examination should be performed.

  11. Autosomal dominant syndrome resembling Coffin-Siris syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Maureen A; Milunsky, Jeff M

    2006-06-15

    Coffin-Siris syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome with phenotypic variability [OMIM 135900]. The diagnosis is based solely on clinical findings, as there is currently no molecular, biochemical, or cytogenetic analysis available to confirm a diagnosis. Although typically described as an autosomal recessive disorder, autosomal dominant inheritance has also been infrequently reported. We describe a mother and her two daughters who all have features that resemble Coffin-Siris syndrome. However, this is not a completely convincing diagnosis given that hypertelorism is not a feature of Coffin-Siris syndrome and the family is relatively mildly affected. Yet, this family provides further evidence of an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance for a likely variant of Coffin-Siris syndrome (at least in some families). In addition, Sibling 1 had premature thelarche. She is the second reported individual within the spectrum of Coffin-Siris syndrome to have premature thelarche, indicating that it may be a rare clinical feature. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Extended retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis with genital involvement, resembling fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Motokazu; Matsuura, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Kayo, Munefumi; Ie, Tomotsugu

    2010-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection that originates in the subcutaneous tissues. Although many reports have been published about necrotizing infections of other anatomical sites, retroperitoneal necrotizing soft tissue infection is a rare entity that has been described in only a few case reports. The etiology and clinical course of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis can be variable and it is often difficult to identify the etiology of the infective process. We report a 58-year-old man with rapidly progressive, gas-producing, necrotizing inflammation in the retroperitoneum, complicated with genital involvement resembling Fournier gangrene. The patient was managed successfully by aggressive drainage, debridement, and sequential laparotomies to track and control the extensive necrosis of the retroperitoneum and perineum, in addition to systemic care to control sepsis. After his general condition stabilized, early rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma was identified and resected curatively. He remained well at follow up, six months after discharge. In retrospect, the trigger of the disease process was unclear. Although it was believed possibly to be due to the colon lesion, adenocarcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon was identified and the patient was managed successfully. Similar to necrotizing infections at other anatomical sites, early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention and systemic antimicrobial therapy are mandatory for treating patients with retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis.

  13. Growth hormone receptor-deficient pigs resemble the pathophysiology of human Laron syndrome and reveal altered activation of signaling cascades in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Arne; Kessler, Barbara; Kurome, Mayuko; Blutke, Andreas; Kemter, Elisabeth; Bernau, Maren; Scholz, Armin M; Rathkolb, Birgit; Renner, Simone; Bultmann, Sebastian; Leonhardt, Heinrich; de Angelis, Martin Hrabĕ; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Hoeflich, Andreas; Blum, Werner F; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Dahlhoff, Maik; Wolf, Eckhard

    2018-05-01

    of JAK2 was significantly increased, possibly due to the increased serum leptin levels and increased hepatic leptin receptor expression and activation in GHR-KO pigs. In addition, increased mTOR phosphorylation was observed in GHR-KO liver samples, and phosphorylation studies of downstream substrates suggested the activation of mainly mTOR complex 2. GHR-KO pigs resemble the pathophysiology of LS and are an interesting model for mechanistic studies and treatment trials. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth hormone receptor-deficient pigs resemble the pathophysiology of human Laron syndrome and reveal altered activation of signaling cascades in the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hinrichs

    2018-05-01

    significantly reduced. In contrast, phosphorylation of JAK2 was significantly increased, possibly due to the increased serum leptin levels and increased hepatic leptin receptor expression and activation in GHR-KO pigs. In addition, increased mTOR phosphorylation was observed in GHR-KO liver samples, and phosphorylation studies of downstream substrates suggested the activation of mainly mTOR complex 2. Conclusion: GHR-KO pigs resemble the pathophysiology of LS and are an interesting model for mechanistic studies and treatment trials. Keywords: Growth hormone receptor, Laron syndrome, Pig model, Dwarfism, Hypoglycemia, Insulin-like growth factor 1, Signaling

  15. Expression and clinical value of the soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A molecule in the serum of patients with renal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y-K; Jia, C-M; Yuan, G-J; Liu, W; Qiu, Y; Zhu, Q-G

    2015-06-29

    We investigated the expression and clinical value of the soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (sMICA) molecule in the serum of patients with renal tumors. Sixty patients diagnosed with renal tumors were enrolled in the experimental group, whereas 20 healthy volunteers served as the control group. The sMICA levels were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the results were analyzed in combination with data from pathol-ogy examination. The experimental group had a statistically significant higher sMICA level (P < 0.05) than the control group. The sMICA level was higher in patients with malignant tumors than in those with be-nign tumors. We also observed a positive relationship among different tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) pathological stages with more advanced diseases exhibiting higher sMICA levels. As a tumor-associated antigen, MICA has a close relationship with renal tumorigenesis and immune es-cape. Our results indicated that sMICA levels were related to tumor pathol-ogy, TNM stage, and metastasis. Therefore, sMICA might be a potential marker for tumor characteristics, prognosis, and recurrence prediction.

  16. Do general radiographic examinations resemble a person-centred environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayre, C.M.; Blackman, S.; Eyden, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: It is argued whether general radiographic examinations adhere to a person-centred approach within the direct digital radiography (DDR) environment. General radiographic examinations continue to increase and constitute approximately 90% of all examinations undertaken in the clinical environment. This study explored the potential impact patients experience whilst undergoing general imaging examinations. Method: An ethnographic methodology provided insight of two general radiography environments in the United Kingdom (UK) using participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Findings: The findings highlighted an ‘in and out’ culture whereby patients are ‘hurried’ and ‘rushed’ out of X-ray rooms in response to increasing time pressures experienced by diagnostic radiographers. In addition, this study challenged that patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other elements of radiographic care thus presenting new challenges for radiographers within the clinical environment. Conclusion: It is asserted that radiographers should remain holistic healthcare professionals and not begin to resemble operators on the production line. Further, it challenges whether patients are beginning to rank aspects of radiographic care within contemporary practices. Advances in knowledge: Few studies have explored the radiographer–patient relationship within the DDR environment, yet this study provides insight of person-centred practices within contemporary practices. - Highlights: • Challenges whether the use of DDR conforms to a person-centred approach. • Challenges whether radiographers are ‘treating patients as persons’ using DDR. • Patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other aspects of radiographic care.

  17. A Personalized Approach to Biological Therapy Using Prediction of Clinical Response Based on MRP8/14 Serum Complex Levels in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S C Nair

    Full Text Available Measurement of MRP8/14 serum levels has shown potential in predicting clinical response to different biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We aimed to develop a treatment algorithm based on a prediction score using MRP8/14 measurements and clinical parameters predictive for response to different biological agents.Baseline serum levels of MRP8/14 were measured in 170 patients starting treatment with infliximab, adalimumab or rituximab. We used logistic regression analysis to develop a predictive score for clinical response at 16 weeks. MRP8/14 levels along with clinical variables at baseline were investigated. We also investigated how the predictive effect of MRP8/14 was modified by drug type. A treatment algorithm was developed based on categorizing the expected response per drug type as high, intermediate or low for each patient and optimal treatment was defined. Finally, we present the utility of using this treatment algorithm in clinical practice.The probability of response increased with higher baseline MRP8/14 complex levels (OR = 1.39, differentially between the TNF-blockers and rituximab (OR of interaction term = 0.78, and also increased with higher DAS28 at baseline (OR = 1.28. Rheumatoid factor positivity, functional disability (a higher HAQ, and previous use of a TNF-inhibitor decreased the probability of response. Based on the treatment algorithm 80 patients would have been recommended for anti-TNF treatment, 8 for rituximab, 13 for another biological treatment (other than TNFi or rituximab and for 69 no recommendation was made. The predicted response rates matched the observed response in the cohort well. On group level the predicted response based on the algorithm resulted in a modest 10% higher response rate in our cohort with much higher differences in response probability in individual patients treated contrary to treatment recommendation.Prediction of response using MRP8/14 levels along with clinical predictors has

  18. The Complexities of Interpreting Reversible Elevated Serum Creatinine Levels in Drug Development: Does a Correlation with Inhibition of Renal Transporters Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaoyan; Bleasby, Kelly; Chan, Grace Hoyee; Nunes, Irene; Evers, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    In humans, creatinine is formed by a multistep process in liver and muscle and eliminated via the kidney by a combination of glomerular filtration and active transport. Based on current evidence, creatinine can be taken up into renal proximal tubule cells by the basolaterally localized organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and the organic anion transporter 2, and effluxed into the urine by the apically localized multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) and MATE2K. Drug-induced elevation of serum creatinine (SCr) and/or reduced creatinine renal clearance is routinely used as a marker for acute kidney injury. Interpretation of elevated SCr can be complex, because such increases can be reversible and explained by inhibition of renal transporters involved in active secretion of creatinine or other secondary factors, such as diet and disease state. Distinction between these possibilities is important from a drug development perspective, as increases in SCr can result in the termination of otherwise efficacious drug candidates. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with using creatinine as a marker for kidney damage. Furthermore, to evaluate whether reversible changes in SCr can be predicted prospectively based on in vitro transporter inhibition data, an in-depth in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) analysis was conducted for 16 drugs with in-house and literature in vitro transporter inhibition data for OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2K, as well as total and unbound maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and Cmax,u) data measured in the clinic. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Low serum magnesium concentrations are associated with a high prevalence of premature ventricular complexes in obese adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Gobbo Liana C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ventricular complexes (PVC predict cardiovascular mortality among several adult populations. Increased arrhythmia prevalence has been reported during controlled magnesium (Mg depletion studies in adults. We thus hypothesized that serum magnesium (sMg concentrations are inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in adults at high cardiovascular risk. Methods Anthropometric, demographic and lifestyle characteristics were assessed in 750 Cree adults, aged > 18 yrs, who participated in an age-stratified, cross-sectional health survey in Quebec, Canada. Holter electrocardiograms recorded heart rate variability and cardiac arrhythmias for two consecutive hours. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between sMg and PVC. Results PVC prevalence in adults with hypomagnesemia (sMg ≤ 0.70 mmol/L was more than twice that of adults without hypomagnesemia (50% vs. 21%, p = 0.015; results were similar when adults with cardiovascular disease history were excluded. All hypomagnesemic adults with PVC had type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Prevalence of PVC declined across the sMg concentration gradient in adults with T2DM only (p 0.70 mmol/L was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.06-0.98 p = 0.046 compared to those with sMg ≤ 0.70 mmol/L. Conclusions sMg concentrations were inversely associated with the prevalence of PVC in patients with T2DM in a dose response manner, indicating that suboptimal sMg may be a contributor to arrhythmias among patients with T2DM.

  20. Nitriles at Silica Interfaces Resemble Supported Lipid Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Bruce J; Fourkas, John T; Walker, Robert A; Weeks, John D

    2016-09-20

    Nitriles are important solvents not just for bulk reactions but also for interfacial processes such as separations, heterogeneous catalysis, and electrochemistry. Although nitriles have a polar end and a lipophilic end, the cyano group is not hydrophilic enough for these substances to be thought of as prototypical amphiphiles. This picture is now changing, as research is revealing that at a silica surface nitriles can organize into structures that, in many ways, resemble lipid bilayers. This unexpected organization may be a key component of unique interfacial behavior of nitriles that make them the solvents of choice for so many applications. The first hints of this lipid-bilayer-like (LBL) organization of nitriles at silica interfaces came from optical Kerr effect (OKE) experiments on liquid acetonitrile confined in the pores of sol-gel glasses. The orientational dynamics revealed by OKE spectroscopy suggested that the confined liquid is composed of a relatively immobile sublayer of molecules that accept hydrogen bonds from the surface silanol groups and an interdigitated, antiparallel layer that is capable of exchanging into the centers of the pores. This picture of acetonitrile has been borne out by molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) experiments. Remarkably, these simulations further indicate that the LBL organization is repeated with increasing disorder at least 20 Å into the liquid from a flat silica surface. Simulations and VSFG and OKE experiments indicate that extending the alkyl chain to an ethyl group leads to the formation of even more tightly packed LBL organization featuring entangled alkyl tails. When the alkyl portion of the molecule is a bulky t-butyl group, packing constraints prevent well-ordered LBL organization of the liquid. In each case, the surface-induced organization of the liquid is reflected in its interfacial dynamics. Acetonitrile/water mixtures are favored solvent systems for separations

  1. Paget's disease of bone resembling bone metastasis from gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kusano, Motoyasu; Shimoda, Yoko; Ishihara, Shingo; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ohno, Tetsuro; Mochiki, Erito; Sano, Takaaki; Hirato, Junko; Mori, Masatomo

    2011-08-01

    A 74-year-old man had an endoscopic type 0'-IIc tumor in the upper gastric body on the greater curvature and biopsy showed the tumor to be a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (Group 5). He was referred to us for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Endoscopy revealed fold convergency, fold swelling, and fusion of the fold, indicating tumor invasion into the submucosa, which was outside the indications for ESD. In addition, there was an increase of serum bone-type alkaline phosphatase (ALP-III and ALP-IV) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (a bone metabolism marker), while (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed increased uptake in the left pelvis and Th10, suggesting bone metastases. We first diagnosed gastric cancer with bone metastases; however, the symptoms suggested pathological bone fracture and no bone pain. Therefore, a computed tomography-guided aspiration bone biopsy was performed to exclude the possibility of Paget's disease of bone. Biopsy specimens revealed no tumor and a mosaic pattern. No increased uptake of (18)F-FAMT (L-[3-(18)F] α-methyltyrosine) supported a diagnosis of no bone metastases from gastric cancer. We finally diagnosed gastric cancer accompanied by Paget's disease of bone and performed a laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy. The pathological diagnosis was U less 0-IIb, and U post 0-IIc ypT1a (M) N0H0P0M0 yp stage IA. In gastric cancer patients with suspected bone metastasis, we also need to consider Paget's disease of bone.

  2. Interfacial behavior of N-nitrosodiethylamine/bovine serum albumin complexes at the air-water and the chloroform-water interfaces by axisymmetric drop tensiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, J; Galaz, J G; Machi, L; Burboa, M; Gutiérrez-Millán, L E; Goycoolea, F M; Valdez, M A

    2007-03-15

    Interfacial properties of N-nitrosodiethylamine/bovine serum albumin (NDA/BSA) complexes were investigated at the air-water interface. The interfacial behavior at the chloroform-water interface of the interaction product of phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), dissolved in the chloroform phase, and NDA/BSA complex, in the aqueous phase, were also analyzed by using a drop tensiometer. The secondary structure changes of BSA with different NDA concentrations were monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy at different pH and the NDA/BSA interaction was probed by fluorescence spectroscopy. Different NDA/BSA mixtures were prepared from 0, 7.5 x 10(-5), 2.2 x 10(-4), 3.7 x 10(-4), 5 x 10(-4), 1.6 x 10(-3), and 3.1 x 10(-3) M NDA solutions in order to afford 0, 300/1, 900/1, 1 500/1, 2 000/1, 6 000/1, and 12 500/1 NDA/BSA molar ratios, respectively, in the aqueous solutions. Increments of BSA alpha-helix contents were obtained up to the 2 000/1 NDA/BSA molar ratio, but at ratios beyond this value, the alpha-helix content practically disappeared. These BSA structure changes produced an increment of the surface pressure at the air-water interface, as the alpha-helix content increased with the concentration of NDA. On the contrary, when alpha-helix content decreased, the surface pressure also appeared lower than the one obtained with pure BSA solutions. The interaction of DPPC with NDA/BSA molecules at the chloroform-water interface produced also a small, but measurable, pressure increment with the addition of NDA molecules. Dynamic light scattering measurements of the molecular sizes of NDA/BSA complex at pH 4.6, 7.1, and 8.4 indicated that the size of extended BSA molecules at pH 4.6 increased in a greater proportion with the increment in NDA concentration than at the other studied pH values. Diffusion coefficients calculated from dynamic surface tension values, using a short-term solution of the general adsorption model of Ward and Tordai

  3. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  4. The Bordetella pertussis Type III Secretion System Tip Complex Protein Bsp22 Is Not a Protective Antigen and Fails To Elicit Serum Antibody Responses during Infection of Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino Romero, Rodrigo; Bibova, Ilona; Cerny, Ondrej; Vecerek, Branislav; Wald, Tomas; Benada, Oldrich; Zavadilova, Jana; Sebo, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) of pathogenic bordetellae employs a self-associating tip complex protein Bsp22. This protein is immunogenic during infections by Bordetella bronchiseptica and could be used as a protective antigen to immunize mice against B. bronchiseptica challenge. Since low-passage clinical isolates of the human pathogen Bordetella pertussis produce a highly homologous Bsp22 protein (97% homology), we examined its vaccine and diagnostic potential. No Bsp22-specific antibodies were, however, detected in serum samples from 36 patients with clinically and serologically confirmed whooping cough disease (pertussis syndrome). Moreover, although the induction of Bsp22 secretion by the laboratory-adapted 18323 strain in the course of mice lung infection was observed, the B. pertussis 18323-infected mice did not mount any detectable serum antibody response against Bsp22. Furthermore, immunization with recombinant Bsp22 protein yielded induction of high Bsp22-specific serum antibody titers but did not protect mice against an intranasal challenge with B. pertussis 18323. Unlike for B. bronchiseptica, hence, the Bsp22 protein is nonimmunogenic, and/or the serum antibody response to it is suppressed, during B. pertussis infections of humans and mice. PMID:23690400

  5. Guinea-pig interpubic joint (symphysis pubica relaxation at parturition: Underlying cellular processes that resemble an inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-de-Toro Mónica

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At term, cervical ripening in coordination with uterine contractions becomes a prerequisite for a normal vaginal delivery. Currently, cervical ripening is considered to occur independently from uterine contractions. Many evidences suggest that cervical ripening resembles an inflammatory process. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the increased flexibility of the pelvic symphysis that occurs in many species to enable safe delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the guinea-pig interpubic joint relaxation process observed during late pregnancy and parturition resembles an inflammatory process. Methods Samples of pubic symphysis were taken from pregnant guinea-pigs sacrificed along gestation, parturition and postpartum. Serial sections of paraffin-embedded tissues were used to measure the interpubic distance on digitalized images, stained with Giemsa to quantify leukocyte infiltration and to describe the vascular area changes, or studied by the picrosirius-polarization method to evaluate collagen remodeling. P4 and E2 serum levels were measured by a sequential immunometric assay. Results Data showed that the pubic relaxation is associated with an increase in collagen remodeling. In addition, a positive correlation between E2 serum levels and the increase in the interpubic distance was found. On the other hand, a leukocyte infiltration in the interpubic tissue around parturition was described, with the presence of almost all inflammatory cells types. At the same time, histological images show an increase in vascular area (angiogenesis. Eosinophils reached their highest level immediately before parturition; whereas for the neutrophilic and mononuclear infiltration higher values were recorded one day after parturition. Correlation analysis showed that eosinophils and mononuclear cells were positively correlated with E2 levels, but only eosinophilic infiltration was associated with collagen remodeling

  6. The Texas Adoption Project: adopted children and their intellectual resemblance to biological and adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, J M

    1983-04-01

    Intelligence test scores were obtained from parents and children in 300 adoptive families and compared with similar measures available for the biological mothers of the same adopted children. Results supported the hypothesis that genetic variability is an important influence in the development of individual differences for intelligence. The most salient finding was that adopted children resemble their biological mothers more than they resemble the adoptive parents who reared them from birth. A small subset of the oldest adopted children did not resemble their biological mothers. The suggestion that the influence of genes declines with age is treated with caution since other adoption studies report a trend in the opposite direction.

  7. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  8. The Effects of Curcumin and Curcumin-Phospholipid Complex on the Serum Pro-oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazimoradi, Maryam; Saberi-Karimian, Maryam; Mohammadi, Farzane; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tavallaie, Shima; Safarian, Hamideh; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Moohebati, Mohsen; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Ahmadinejad, Malihe

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined by a clustering of metabolic and anthropometric abnormalities and is associated by an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We have investigated the effect of curcumin supplementation on the serum pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) in patients with MetS. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted over 6 weeks. Subjects (n = 120) were randomly allocated to one of three groups (curcumin, phospholipidated curcumin, and placebo). The curcumin group received 1 g/day of simple curcumin, the phospholipidated curcumin group received 1 g/day of phospholipidated curcumin (containing 200 mg of pure curcumin), and the control group received 1 g/day of placebo. Serum PAB was measured before and after the intervention (at baseline and at 6 weeks). Data analyses were performed using spss software (version 16.0). Serum PAB increased significantly in the curcumin group (p curcumin group, elevation of PAB level was not significant (p = 0.053). The results of our study did not suggest any improvement of PAB following supplementation with curcumin in MetS subjects. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin’s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebayo Alade Adewole

    Spontaneous de novo vaginal adenosis resembling Bartholin's cyst: A case report ... 6 by 5 cm. The cervix, uterus, adnexa and Pouch of Douglas (POD) were normal. .... of vaginal cancer.2–4 Although, DES exposed daughters have an.

  10. A Two-pronged Binding Mechanism of IgG to the Neonatal Fc Receptor Controls Complex Stability and IgG Serum Half-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Schoch, Angela; Larraillet, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The success of recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulins (IgG) is rooted in their ability to target distinct antigens with high affinity combined with an extraordinarily long serum half-life, typically around 3 weeks. The pharmacokinetics of IgGs is intimately linked to the recycling mechanism...... half-life of ∼8 days. Here we dissect the molecular origins of excessive FcRn binding in therapeutic IgGs using a combination of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and FcRn affinity chromatography. We provide experimental evidence for a two-pronged IgG-FcRn binding mechanism involving direct...

  11. Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A/B (MICA/B) expression in tumor tissue and serum of pancreatic cancer: Role of uric acid accumulation in gemcitabine-induced MICA/B expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiulong; Rao, Geetha S; Groh, Veronika; Spies, Thomas; Gattuso, Paolo; Kaufman, Howard L; Plate, Janet; Prinz, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A and B (MICA/B) are two stress-inducible ligands that bind the immunoreceptor NKG2D and play an important role in mediating the cyotoxicity of NK and T cells. In this study, we sought to study MICA/B expression in pancreatic cancer and to determine whether and how genotoxic drugs such as gemcitabine can affect MICA/B expression and natural killer cytotoxity. Seven pancreatic cancer cell lines were analyzed for MICA/B expression by flow cytometry and for their sensitivity to NK-92 cell killing by a 51 Cr release assay. MICA/B expression in tumor tissues and sera of pancreatic cancer was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and ELISA, respectively. Two MICA/B-positive cell lines were sensitive to the cytotoxic activity of NK-92 cells. Other two MICA/B-positive cell lines and three MICA/B-negative cell lines were resistant to NK-92 cell killing. MICA/B expression was positive in 17 of 25 (68%) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas but not in normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Serum MICA/B levels were significantly elevated in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinomas but did not correlate with the stage of pancreatic cancer and patient survival. Gemcitabine therapy led to increased serum MICA levels in 6 of 10 patients with detectable serum MICA. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase that converts xanthine to uric acid, blocked uric acid production, MICA/B expression, and sensitivity to NK-92 cell killing toward a PANC-1 cancer cell line exposed to radiation and two genotoxic drugs, gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. The levels of MICA/B expression in serum and tissue of pancreatic cancer are elevated. DNA damage-induced MICA/B expression is mediated through increased uric acid production

  12. Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A/B (MICA/B expression in tumor tissue and serum of pancreatic cancer: Role of uric acid accumulation in gemcitabine-induced MICA/B expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufman Howard L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A and B (MICA/B are two stress-inducible ligands that bind the immunoreceptor NKG2D and play an important role in mediating the cyotoxicity of NK and T cells. In this study, we sought to study MICA/B expression in pancreatic cancer and to determine whether and how genotoxic drugs such as gemcitabine can affect MICA/B expression and natural killer cytotoxity. Methods Seven pancreatic cancer cell lines were analyzed for MICA/B expression by flow cytometry and for their sensitivity to NK-92 cell killing by a 51Cr release assay. MICA/B expression in tumor tissues and sera of pancreatic cancer was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining (IHC and ELISA, respectively. Results Two MICA/B-positive cell lines were sensitive to the cytotoxic activity of NK-92 cells. Other two MICA/B-positive cell lines and three MICA/B-negative cell lines were resistant to NK-92 cell killing. MICA/B expression was positive in 17 of 25 (68% pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas but not in normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Serum MICA/B levels were significantly elevated in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinomas but did not correlate with the stage of pancreatic cancer and patient survival. Gemcitabine therapy led to increased serum MICA levels in 6 of 10 patients with detectable serum MICA. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase that converts xanthine to uric acid, blocked uric acid production, MICA/B expression, and sensitivity to NK-92 cell killing toward a PANC-1 cancer cell line exposed to radiation and two genotoxic drugs, gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. Conclusions The levels of MICA/B expression in serum and tissue of pancreatic cancer are elevated. DNA damage-induced MICA/B expression is mediated through increased uric acid production.

  13. Study of the interaction between two newly synthesized cyclometallated platinum (II) complexes and human serum albumin: Spectroscopic characterization and docking simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Reza, E-mail: ryousefi@shirazu.ac.ir [Protein Chemistry Laboratory (PCL), Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Roghayeh [Protein Chemistry Laboratory (PCL), Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri-Kafrani, Asghar [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagher Shahsavani, Mohammad [Protein Chemistry Laboratory (PCL), Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadkhah Aseman, Marzieh; Masoud Nabavizadeh, S.; Rashidi, Mehdi [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poursasan, Najmeh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali-Akbar [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IBB), the University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    This study describes HSA binding properties of two cyclometalated platinum (II) complexes with non-leaving lipophilic ligands; deprotonated 2-phenylpyridine (ppy): C{sub 1} and deprotonated benzo [h]quinolone (bhq): C{sub 2}, using UV–vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of HSA decreased in the presence of increasing concentration of these complexes, reflecting HSA structural alteration after drug's binding. Also the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) that obtained from Trp fluorescence study revealed that the interaction between these complexes and HSA were spontaneous. In addition, C{sub 1} with flexible chemical structure indicated significantly higher fluorescence quenching and binding affinity to HSA than C{sub 2} which possesses a higher structural rigidity. The ANS fluorescence results also indicated that two Pt (II) complexes were competing for binding to the hydrophobic regions of HSA. Moreover, CD results demonstrated that C{sub 2} complex induced alteration of HSA conformation to more significant extent compared to C{sub 1}. The molecular docking results revealed the involvement of π–π stacking and hydrophobic interaction between these complexes and the protein. Overall, this study may highlight the significance of structural flexibility in designing of future anticancer Pt (II) complexes with improved binding affinity for HSA. - Highlights: • HSA is a general transport carrier for a wide variety of ligands such as metabolites and pharmaceutical drugs. • The HSA binding properties of two structurally related cyclometallated platinum (II) complexes (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}) were studied. • The complexes can bind to HSA and induce structural alteration in this protein. • The thermodynamic parameters revealed that the interactions were spontaneous and mainly hydrophobic driven. • C{sub 1} with flexible chemical structure indicated a higher binding affinity for HSA than C{sub 2}.

  14. Fathers see stronger family resemblances than non-fathers in unrelated children's faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Dal Pos, Stefania

    2012-12-01

    Even after they have taken all reasonable measures to decrease the probability that their spouses cheat on them, men still face paternal uncertainty. Such uncertainty can lead to paternal disinvestment, which reduces the children's probability to survive and reproduce, and thus the reproductive success of the fathers themselves. A theoretical model shows that, other things being equal, men who feel confident that they have fathered their spouses' offspring tend to enjoy greater fitness (i.e., leave a larger number of surviving progeny) than men who do not. This implies that fathers should benefit from exaggerating paternal resemblance. We argue that the self-deceiving component of this bias could be concealed by generalizing this resemblance estimation boost to (1) family pairs other than father-child and (2) strangers. Here, we tested the prediction that fathers may see, in unrelated children's faces, stronger family resemblances than non-fathers. In Study 1, 70 men and 70 women estimated facial resemblances between children paired, at three different ages (as infants, children, and adolescents), either to themselves or to their parents. In Study 2, 70 men and 70 women guessed the true parents of the same children among a set of adults. Men who were fathers reported stronger similarities between faces than non-fathers, mothers, and non-mothers did, but were no better at identifying childrens' real parents. We suggest that, in fathers, processing of facial resemblances is biased in a manner that reflects their (adaptive) wishful thinking that fathers and children are related.

  15. Partners in health? Exploring resemblance in health between partners in married and cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan

    2007-04-01

    Sociological theories on family formation and families and health suggest that married and cohabiting partners will resemble each other in health status, positively or negatively. The family is often seen as a health-enhancing agent for individuals. However, there are large health differences among families. This study aims to answer the question whether it is the case that the healthy live with the healthy and individuals with poor health have partners who are also in poor health. Moreover, it examines whether resemblance in health is a consequence of partner choice--educational homogamy in particular--behaviour or shared circumstances. Younger and older couples are compared to investigate whether health resemblance increases over the lifecourse. Analyses of a nationally representative sample of almost 12,000 Dutch couples show that partners are indeed significantly alike with regard to several health indicators. Respondents whose partner reports poor health are almost three times more likely to report poor health than respondents whose partner is in good health. There is a strong accumulation of health problems within households. Partner selection with regard to education causes part of the partner resemblance in health. Less support is found for the hypotheses that risk behaviour, mutual influence or the effects of shared circumstances cause similarity between partners' health status. Surprisingly, partners in older couples, who have been together for a longer time, do not resemble each other significantly more than partners in younger couples. The implications of these findings for sociological theory and social inequalities in health are discussed.

  16. Family environment, not heredity, accounts for family resemblances in food preferences and attitudes: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Millman, L

    1987-04-01

    Monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs reported on their food preferences, the variety of foods of the same general category (e.g. types of soup) in their diet, and their concern about contact of their food with disgusting or other unacceptable substances (contamination sensitivity). Although there was substantial resemblance between siblings for many of these items, there was no clear evidence for a heritable component on any item. The only case for which there was an interpretable and significantly greater resemblance among monozygotic than among dizygotic twins (out of 23 questions) was preferred degree of hotness resulting from chili pepper in foods. These results confirm the prediction that in omnivorous animals, such as humans, genetic predispositions will be minimal with respect to food. The modest sibling resemblances on a number of measures are primarily attributable to a shared environment.

  17. Traumatic funicular phlebitis of the thoracic wall resembling Mondor's disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Takeshi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mondor's disease is a peculiar form of thrombophlebitis, involving a superficial vein in the subcutaneous fat of the breast or anterior chest wall. Case presentation The author presents a case of a 35-year-old male Japanese patient with cord-like induration in the right lateral thoracic wall. This lesion was diagnosed as traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease. Conclusion Traumatic funicular phlebitis, resembling Mondor's disease, is a clinical entity which may give suggestive insight to the etiology of Mondor's disease itself.

  18. MRI findings of uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Hyun Young; Hwang, In Taek; Kim, Ju Heon; Lee, Seung Yeon [Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor is a very rare uterine neoplasm that was first described by Clement and Scully in 1976. Since then, approximately 70 cases have been reported. However, these case reports have mainly described and discussed the pathologic and clinical features, and few radiologic findings have been presented. We experienced a case of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor, which was considered a uterine leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma upon initial impression at preoperative evaluation including transvaginal ultrasonography and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. Its diagnosis was pathologically confirmed after total abdominal hysterectomy.

  19. Influence of carbonate on the complexation of Cm(III) with human serum transferrin studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Nicole; Panak, Petra J.

    2015-01-01

    The complexation of Cm(III) with transferrin is investigated in the pH range from 3.5 to 11.0 in the absence of carbonate and at c(carbonate)(tot) = 25 mM. In the absence of carbonate two Cm(III) transferrin species I and II are formed depending on pH. An increase of the total carbonate concentration favors the formation of the Cm(III) transferrin species II with Cm(III) bound at the Fe(III) binding site of transferrin at significantly lower pH values. The spectroscopic results directly prove that carbonate acts as a synergistic anion for Cm(III) complexation at the binding site of transferrin. At c(carbonate)(tot) = 25 mM the formation of the nonspecific Cm(III) transferrin species I is suppressed completely. Instead, three Cm(III) carbonate species Cm(CO 3 ) + , Cm(CO 3 ) 2 - and Cm(CO 3 ) 3 3- are formed successively with increasing pH. The formation of Cm(III) carbonate species results in a decreased fraction of the Cm(III) transferrin species II at pH ≥ 7.4 which indicates that carbonate complexation is an important competition reaction for Cm(III) transferrin complexation at physiological carbonate concentration. (authors)

  20. Leflunomide and methotrexate reduce levels of activated matrix metalloproteinases in complexes with α2 macroglobulin in serum of rheumatoid arthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchetverikov, I.; Kraan, M.C.; El, B. van; Hanemaaijer, R.; Groot, J. de; Huizinga, T.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the effects of leflunomide and methotrexate treatment on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity levels in a2 macroglobulin/MMP (α2M/MMP) complexes in the systemic circulation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: A total of 102 RA patients from a prospective,

  1. Complement activation and formation of the membrane attack complex on serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in the presence or absence of serum bactericidal activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drogari-Apiranthitou, M.; Kuijper, E. J.; Dekker, N. [=Nick; Dankert, J.

    2002-01-01

    Encapsulated meningococci are complement sensitive only in the presence of bactericidal antibodies by yet-unexplored mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of major bacterial surface constituents on complement activation and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation

  2. The modifier effects of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distribution of "N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide-bovine serum albumin" complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyiğit, İbrahim Ethem; Karakuş, Emine; Pekcan, Önder

    2016-02-05

    Chymotrypsin and trypsin are the well known proteolytic enzymes, both of which are synthesized in the pancreas as their precursors - the inactive forms; chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen - and then are released into the duodenum to cut proteins into smaller peptides. In this paper, the effects of activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distributions of the substrat bovine serum albumin (BSA) modified with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (PM) were examined. In the labeling study of BSA with PM, it is aimed to attach PM to the single free thiol (Cys34) and to all the free amine groups in accessible positions in order to produce excimers of pyrene planes of the possible highest amount to form the lifetime distributions in the widest range, that may show specifically distinguishing changes resulting from the activities of the proteases. The time resolved spectrofluorometer was used to monitor fluorescence decays, which were analyzed by using the exponential series method (ESM) to obtain the changes of lifetime distributions. After the exposure of the synthesized substrat PM-BSA to the enzymes, the fluorescence lifetime distributions exhibited different structures which were attributed to the different activities of the proteases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The modifier effects of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distribution of "N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide-bovine serum albumin" complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyiğit, İbrahim Ethem; Karakuş, Emine; Pekcan, Önder

    2016-02-01

    Chymotrypsin and trypsin are the well known proteolytic enzymes, both of which are synthesized in the pancreas as their precursors - the inactive forms; chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen - and then are released into the duodenum to cut proteins into smaller peptides. In this paper, the effects of activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin enzymes on fluorescence lifetime distributions of the substrat bovine serum albumin (BSA) modified with N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (PM) were examined. In the labeling study of BSA with PM, it is aimed to attach PM to the single free thiol (Cys34) and to all the free amine groups in accessible positions in order to produce excimers of pyrene planes of the possible highest amount to form the lifetime distributions in the widest range, that may show specifically distinguishing changes resulting from the activities of the proteases. The time resolved spectrofluorometer was used to monitor fluorescence decays, which were analyzed by using the exponential series method (ESM) to obtain the changes of lifetime distributions. After the exposure of the synthesized substrat PM-BSA to the enzymes, the fluorescence lifetime distributions exhibited different structures which were attributed to the different activities of the proteases.

  4. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  5. Children and Adolescents' Understandings of Family Resemblance: A Study of Naive Inheritance Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide developmental data on two connected naive inheritance concepts and to explore the coherence of children's naive biology knowledge. Two tasks examined children and adolescents' (4, 7, 10, and 14 years) conceptions of phenotypic resemblance across kin (in physical characteristics, disabilities, and personality traits). The…

  6. Resemblances of Parents and Twins in Sport Participation and Heart Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; van den Bree, M.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    1989-01-01

    A model to analyze resemblances of twins and parents using LISREL is outlined and applied to sports participation and heart-rate data. Sports participation and heart rate were measured in 44 monozygotic and 46 dizygotic adolescent twin pairs and in their parents. Genetic factors influence variation

  7. Descriptive Understandings of the Nature of Science: Examining the Consensual and Family Resemblance Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Rocha, Maristela; Gurgel, Ivã

    2017-01-01

    This paper performs a critical analysis of the consensual and family resemblance approaches to the nature of science. Despite the debate that surrounds them, between a pragmatic consensus and a more comprehensive understanding, both approaches have in common the goal of helping students to "internalize" knowledge about science in a…

  8. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We

  9. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs : a study among three generations of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on

  10. Structural aspects of inotropic bipyridine binding. Crystal structure determination to 1.9 A of the human serum transthyretin-milrinone complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak, A; Luft, J R; Cody, V

    1993-03-25

    The crystal structure of human transthyretin (TTR) complexed with milrinone (2-methyl-5-cyano-3,4'-bipyridin-6(1H)-one), a positive inotropic cardiac agent, has been refined to R = 17.4% for 8-1.9-A resolution data. This report provides the first detailed description of protein interactions for an inotropic bipyridine agent which is an effective thyroid hormone binding competitor to transthyretin. Milrinone is bound along the 2-fold axis in the binding site with its substituted pyridone ring located deep within the channel of the two identical binding domains of the TTR tetramer. In this orientation the 5-cyano group occupies the same site as the 3'-iodine in the TTR complex with 3,3'-diiodothyronine (Wojtczak, A., Luft, J., and Cody, V. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 353-357), which is 3.5 A deeper in the channel than thyroxine (Blake, C. C. F., and Oately, S. J., (1977) Nature 268, 115-120). These structural results confirm computer modeling studies of milrinone structural homology with thyroxine and its TTR binding interactions and explain the effectiveness of milrinone competition for thyroxine binding to TTR. To understand the weaker binding affinity of the parent inotropic drug, amrinone (5-amino-3,4'-bipyridin-6(1H)-one), modeling studies of its TTR binding were carried out which indicate that the 5-amino group cannot participate in strong interactions with TTR and the lack of the 2-methyl further weakens amrinone binding.

  11. Effects of serum immunoglobulins from patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) on depolarisation-induced calcium transients in isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Joanne M; Dharmalingam, Backialakshmi; Marsh, Stephen J; Thompson, Victoria; Goebel, Andreas; Brown, David A

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is thought to have an auto-immune component. One such target recently proposed from the effects of auto-immune IgGs on Ca(2+) transients in cardiac myocytes and cell lines is the α1-adrenoceptor. We have tested whether such IgGs exerted comparable effects on nociceptive sensory neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia. Depolarisation-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients were generated by applying 30 mM KCl for 2 min and monitored by Fura-2 fluorescence imaging. No IgGs tested (including 3 from CRPS patients) had any significant effect on these [Ca(2+)]i transients. However, IgG from one CRPS patient consistently and significantly reduced the K(+)-induced response of cells that had been pre-incubated for 24h with a mixture of inflammatory mediators (1 μM histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin and PGE2). Since this pre-incubation also appeared to induce a comparable inhibitory response to the α1-agonist phenylephrine, this is compatible with the α1-adrenoceptor as a target for CRPS auto-immunity. A mechanism whereby this might enhance pain is suggested. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  13. Facial Resemblance Exaggerates Sex-Specific Jealousy-Based Decisions1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Platek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in reaction to a romantic partner's infidelity are well documented and are hypothesized to be attributable to sex-specific jealousy mechanisms which are utilized to solve adaptive problems associated with risk of extra-pair copulation. Males, because of the risk of cuckoldry become more upset by sexual infidelity, while females, because of loss of resources and biparental investment tend to become more distressed by emotional infidelity. However, the degree to which these sex-specific reactions to jealousy interact with cues to kin are completely unknown. Here we investigated the interaction of facial resemblance with decisions about sex-specific jealousy scenarios. Fifty nine volunteers were asked to imagine that two different people (represented by facial composites informed them about their romantic partner's sexual or emotional infidelity. Consistent with previous research, males ranked sexual infidelity scenarios as most upsetting and females ranked emotional infidelity scenarios most upsetting. However, when information about the infidelity was provided by a face that resembled the subject, sex-specific reactions to jealousy were exaggerated. This finding highlights the use of facial resemblance as a putative self-referent phenotypic matching cue that impacts trusting behavior in sexual contexts.

  14. The effect of industrial processing of salmon oil on its ability to reduce serum concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein- β2-glycoprotein-I complex in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Framroze

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circulating serum levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, β2-glycoprotein I complex (oxLDL-GP, have been previously correlated with adverse cardiovascular events and have been shown to be reduced by consumption of enzymatically liberated extra virgin salmon oil (EVSO. This mouse study measured the changes in the oxLDL-GP lowering effect when consuming EVSO with varying levels of EPA+DHA (eicosapentenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid as well as when consuming EVSO that was subjected to various processing treatments commonly carried out during fish oil production. Methods: Sprague Dawley mice were fed a diet containing eight different EVSO’s incorporated into a normal diet at the Human Equivalent Dose (HED of 1000 mg for 8 weeks. Serum was collected at the start and at the end of the trial and the oxLDL-GP concentrations were measured using an ELISA assay. Statistical analysis of the results was carried out using a 1-tail, paired Student t-Test. Results: In order to lower circulatory oxLDL-GP levels, the mice had to consume a minimum of 80 mg per day HED of EPA+DHA. Heat treatment of the EVSO did not affect this bioactivity but hydrolysis with acid or base and re-esterification to the triglyceride form or significant oxidation (rancidity rendered the oil inactive on this important cardio-vascular disease (CVD biomarker. Conclusions: This result shows that harsh processing conditions on fish oils can lead to the destruction of biological efficacy in spite of increasing the concentration of typical fish oil bioactive constituents such as EPA+DHA. It also lends support to the developing nutrition theory that eating highly-refined, processed or concentrated-ingredient supplements derived from functional foods may not be able to reproduce their full nutritive and health-benefiting effects

  15. Resembling a viper: implications of mimicry for conservation of the endangered smooth snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Janne K; Mappes, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of Batesian mimicry, where a palatable animal gains protection against predation by resembling an unpalatable model, has been a core interest of evolutionary biologists for 150 years. An extensive range of studies has focused on revealing mechanistic aspects of mimicry (shared education and generalization of predators) and the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems (co-operation vs. conflict) and revealed that protective mimicry is widespread and is important for individual fitness. However, according to our knowledge, there are no case studies where mimicry theories have been applied to conservation of mimetic species. Theoretically, mimicry affects, for example, frequency dependency of predator avoidance learning and human induced mortality. We examined the case of the protected, endangered, nonvenomous smooth snake (Coronella austriaca) that mimics the nonprotected venomous adder (Vipera berus), both of which occur in the Åland archipelago, Finland. To quantify the added predation risk on smooth snakes caused by the rarity of vipers, we calculated risk estimates from experimental data. Resemblance of vipers enhances survival of smooth snakes against bird predation because many predators avoid touching venomous vipers. Mimetic resemblance is however disadvantageous against human predators, who kill venomous vipers and accidentally kill endangered, protected smooth snakes. We found that the effective population size of the adders in Åland is very low relative to its smooth snake mimic (28.93 and 41.35, respectively).Because Batesian mimicry is advantageous for the mimic only if model species exist in sufficiently high numbers, it is likely that the conservation program for smooth snakes will fail if adders continue to be destroyed. Understanding the population consequences of mimetic species may be crucial to the success of endangered species conservation. We suggest that when a Batesian mimic requires protection, conservation planners should

  16. Chemistry of bifunctional photoprobes. 3 -- Correlation between the efficiency of CH insertion by photolabile chelating agents and lifetimes of singlet nitrenes by flash photolysis: First example of photochemical attachment of 99mTc-complex with human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandurangi, R.S.; Lusiak, P.; Kuntz, R.R.; Volkert, W.A.; Rogowski, J.; Platz, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Systematic functionalization of perfluoroaryl azides with chelating agents capable of complexing transition metals produces a new class of bifunctional photolabile chelating agents (BFPCAs). The strategy is shield the azide functionality from the electronic and steric influence of the electron-rich metal Pd through ester and amide bridges raised CH insertion efficiency to unprecedented levels (>92%) in a model solvent (cyclohexane). In contrast, perfluoroaryl azides attached to chelating agents via hydrazones show no significant CH insertion in cyclohexane upon photolysis. Measurements of the lifetimes of the singlet nitrenes derived from these agents by flash photolysis techniques correlate well with the efficiency of CH insertion by demonstrating longer lifetimes (10--50 times) for singlet nitrenes derived from azidotetrafluorinated esters and amides compared with the related hydrazones, which failed to yield significant CH insertion. A representative BFPCA 12 is chelated to diagnostic radionuclide 99m Tc and covalently attached to human serum albumin via photochemical activation extending the favorable bimolecular insertion characteristics of BFPCA to tracer level concentrations in buffer conditions. Flash photolysis experiments correlate singlet nitrene lifetimes with the efficiency of intermolecular insertion reactions. This work provides new photo-cross-linking technology, useful in radiodiagnostics and radiotherapy in nuclear medicine

  17. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human β-amyloid protein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human β-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

  18. Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Bernasco, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Post-aggression consolation is assumed to occur in humans as well as in chimpanzees. While consolation following peer aggression has been observed in children, systematic evidence of consolation in human adults is rare. We used surveillance camera footage of the immediate aftermath of nonfatal...... to be consoled. Furthermore, we show that high levels of threat during the robbery increased the likelihood of receiving consolation afterwards. These patterns resemble post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees and suggest that emotions of empathic concern are involved in consolation across humans...... and chimpanzees....

  19. Dermatitis and lymphadenitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in a four-year-old dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, A E; van den Broek, A H M; Brownstein, D; Thoday, K L; Hill, P B

    2004-05-01

    A four-year-old, entire male toy poodle was presented with a two-and-a-half-week history of ocular discharge progressing to periorbital alopecia, depigmentation, alopecia and ulceration around the muzzle. There was also a haemorrhagic discharge from the ears, pyrexia, lethargy and generalised lymphadenopathy. The clinical, cytological, bacteriological and histopathological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of dermatitis resembling juvenile cellulitis in an adult dog. Glucocorticoid therapy led to rapid resolution of the clinical signs and the dog has remained in remission for two years after cessation of treatment.

  20. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast...... density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population.METHODS:Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7years) film mammograms of a nested case-control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls...

  1. Combining different views of mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker of breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, S.; Karemore, Gopal; Chernoff, Konstantin

    the subsequent 4 years whereas 245 cases had a diagnosis 2-4 years post mammography. We employed the MTR supervised texture learning framework to perform risk evaluation from a single mammography view. In the framework 20,000 pixels were sampled and classified by a kNN pixel classifier. A feature selection step......PURPOSE Mammographic density is a well established breast cancer risk factor. Texture analysis in terms of the Mammographoc Texture Resemblance (MTR) marker has recently shown to add to risk segregation. Hitherto only single view MTR analysis has been performed. Standard mammography examinations...

  2. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the charge transfer complex of bovine serum albumin with quinone in aqueous medium and its influence on the ligand binding property of the protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheshkumar, Angupillai; Elango, Kuppanagounder P.

    2014-09-01

    The spectral techniques such as UV-Vis, 1H NMR and fluorescence and electrochemical experiments have been employed to investigate the interaction between 2-methoxy-3,5,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (MQ; a water soluble quinone) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous medium. The fluorescence of BSA was quenched by MQ via formation of a 1:1 BSA-MQ charge transfer adduct with a formation constant of 3.3 × 108 L mol-1. Based on the Forster’s theory the binding distance between them is calculated as 2.65 nm indicating high probability of binding. For the first time, influence of quinone on the binding property of various types of ligands such as aspirin, ascorbic acid, nicotinimide and sodium stearate has also been investigated. The results indicated that the strong and spontaneous binding existing between BSA and MQ, decreased the intensity of binding of these ligands with BSA. Since Tryptophan (Trp) is the basic residue present in BSA, a comparison between binding property of Trp-MQ adduct with that of BSA-MQ with these ligands has also been attempted. 1H NMR titration study indicated that the Trp forms a charge transfer complex with MQ, which reduces the interaction of Trp with the ligands. Molecular docking study supported the fact that the quinone interacts with the Trp212 unit of the BSA and the free energy change of binding (ΔG) for the BSA-MQ complex was found to be -46 kJ mol-1, which is comparable to our experimental free energy of binding (-49 kJ mol-1) obtained from fluorescence study.

  3. Extending the honey bee venome with the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin and a protein resembling wasp antigen 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, M; Cardoen, D; Formesyn, E M; Brunain, M; Van Driessche, G; Blank, S; Spillner, E; Verleyen, P; Wenseleers, T; Schoofs, L; Devreese, B; de Graaf, D C

    2013-04-01

    Honey bee venom is a complex mixture of toxic proteins and peptides. In the present study we tried to extend our knowledge of the venom composition using two different approaches. First, worker venom was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and this revealed the antimicrobial peptide apidaecin for the first time in such samples. Its expression in the venom gland was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and by a peptidomic analysis of the venom apparatus tissue. Second, genome mining revealed a list of proteins with resemblance to known insect allergens or venom toxins, one of which showed homology to proteins of the antigen 5 (Ag5)/Sol i 3 cluster. It was demonstrated that the honey bee Ag5-like gene is expressed by venom gland tissue of winter bees but not of summer bees. Besides this seasonal variation, it shows an interesting spatial expression pattern with additional production in the hypopharyngeal glands, the brains and the midgut. Finally, our immunoblot study revealed that both synthetic apidaecin and the Ag5-like recombinant from bacteria evoke no humoral activity in beekeepers. Also, no IgG4-based cross-reactivity was detected between the honey bee Ag5-like protein and its yellow jacket paralogue Ves v 5. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Familial resemblance of borderline personality disorder features: genetic or cultural transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn A Distel

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder is a severe personality disorder for which genetic research has been limited to family studies and classical twin studies. These studies indicate that genetic effects explain 35 to 45% of the variance in borderline personality disorder and borderline personality features. However, effects of non-additive (dominance genetic factors, non-random mating and cultural transmission have generally not been explored. In the present study an extended twin-family design was applied to self-report data of twins (N = 5,017 and their siblings (N = 1,266, parents (N = 3,064 and spouses (N = 939 from 4,015 families, to estimate the effects of additive and non-additive genetic and environmental factors, cultural transmission and non-random mating on individual differences in borderline personality features. Results showed that resemblance among biological relatives could completely be attributed to genetic effects. Variation in borderline personality features was explained by additive genetic (21%; 95% CI 17-26% and dominant genetic (24%; 95% CI 17-31% factors. Environmental influences (55%; 95% CI 51-60% explained the remaining variance. Significant resemblance between spouses was observed, which was best explained by phenotypic assortative mating, but it had only a small effect on the genetic variance (1% of the total variance. There was no effect of cultural transmission from parents to offspring.

  5. Augmented serum level of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) protein and reduced NKG2D expression on NK and T cells in patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arreygue-Garcia, Naela A; Delgado-Rizo, Vidal; Garcia-Iglesias, Trinidad; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Toro-Arreola, Susana del; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Toro-Arreola, Alicia del; Cid-Arregui, Angel; Gonzalez-Ramella, Oscar; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. NK and cytotoxic T cells play an important role in the elimination of virus-infected and tumor cells through NKG2D activating receptors, which can promote the lysis of target cells by binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) proteins. Increased serum levels of MICA have been found in patients with epithelial tumors. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of soluble MICA (sMICA) and NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in blood samples from patients with cervical cancer or precursor lesions with those from healthy donors. Peripheral blood with or without heparin was collected to obtain mononuclear cells or sera, respectively. Serum sMICA levels were measured by ELISA and NKG2D-expressing immune cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Also, a correlation analysis was performed to associate sMICA levels with either NKG2D expression or with the stage of the lesion. Significant amounts of sMICA were detected in sera from nearly all patients. We found a decrease in the number of NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in both cervical cancer and lesion groups when compared to healthy donors. Pearson analysis showed a negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D-expressing T cells; however, we did not find a significant correlation when the analysis was applied to sMICA and NKG2D expression on NK cells. Our results show for the first time that high sMICA levels are found in sera from patients with both cervical cancer and precursor lesions when compared with healthy donors. We also observed a diminution in the number of NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in the patient samples; however, a significant negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D expression was only seen in T cells

  6. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  8. Menstrual blood closely resembles the uterine immune micro-environment and is clearly distinct from peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, R.G. van der; Schutten, J.H.; Cranenbroek, B. van; Meer, M. ter; Donckers, J.; Scholten, R.R.; Heijden, O.W.H. van der; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Joosten, I.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is menstrual blood a suitable source of endometrial derived lymphocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mononuclear cells isolated from menstrual samples (menstrual blood mononuclear cells (MMC)) are clearly distinct from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and show a strong resemblance with

  9. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  10. Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G; Karemore, Gopal

    PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize...... as an independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program) of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. From an independent cohort study (S2, Mayo Mammography...... Health Study cohort) 226 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed through 2008 and 442 matched controls (on age) were used for scoring screening digitized mammograms that were ascertained years prior to diagnosis 1993-2006. Mammographic percent density (PD), using Cumulus, and other major risk factors were...

  11. A novel and automatic mammographic texture resemblance marker is an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Karemore, Gopal; Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether breast cancer is predicted by a breast cancer risk mammographic texture resemblance (MTR) marker. Methods: A previously published case-control study included 495 women of which 245 were diagnosed with breast cancer. In baseline mammograms, 2-4 years prior...... to diagnosis, the following mammographic parameters were analysed for relation to breast cancer risk: (C) categorical parenchymal pattern scores; (R) radiologist's percentage density, (P) computer-based percentage density; (H) computer-based breast cancer risk MTR marker; (E) computer-based hormone replacement...... treatment MTR marker; and (A) an aggregate of P and H. Results: Density scores, C, R, and P correlated (tau=0.3-0.6); no other pair of scores showed large (tau>0.2) correlation. For the parameters, the odds ratios of future incidence of breast cancer comparing highest to lowest categories (146 and 106...

  12. Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome Resembling Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex in a 10-Month-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kavaklieva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  13. Acral peeling skin syndrome resembling epidermolysis bullosa simplex in a 10-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaklieva, S; Yordanova, I; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Has, C

    2013-01-01

    The acral peeling skin syndrome (APSS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by asymptomatic desquamation of the skin limited to the hands and feet and histologically by cleavage at the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum level [Kiritsi et al.: J Invest Dermatol 2010;130:1741-1746]. We report on a 10-month-old boy with a history of skin peeling limited to the hands and feet since 2 months of age. Clinical examination revealed erythematous erosions with peripheral desquamation and flaccid blisters. DNA mutation analysis detected two heterozygous TGM5 mutations: c.2T>C, p.M1T in exon 1 and c.337G>T, p.G113C in exon 3 in keeping with the diagnosis of APSS. The clinical presentation of APSS alone might be confusing and strongly resemble epidermolysis bullosa simplex making the differential diagnosis difficult.

  14. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  15. Effect of Rat Medicated Serum Containing Zuo Gui Wan and/or You Gui Wan on the Differentiation of Stem Cells Derived from Human First Trimester Umbilical Cord into Oocyte-Like Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zuo Gui Wan (ZGW and You Gui Wan (YGW are two classic formulas used in clinical treatment of infertility in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, the actions of the formulas remain to be proven at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigate whether the two formulas have any effect on germ cell formation and differentiation by culturing rat medicated serums containing YGW or ZGW with stem cells derived from human first trimester umbilical cord. Our results showed that while the normal rat serums had no significant effects, the rat medicated serums had significant effects on the differentiation of the stem cells into oocyte-like cells (OLCs based on (1 cell morphological changes that resembled purative cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs; (2 expressions of specific markers that were indicative of germ cell formation and oocyte development; and (3 estradiol production by the COC-like cells. Furthermore, ZGW medicated serums exhibited more obvious effects on specific gene expressions of germ cells, whereas YGW medicated serums showed stronger effects on estradiol production. Accordingly, our study provides evidence demonstrating for the first time that one of molecular and cellular actions of YGW or ZGW in treating human reproductive dysfunctions may be through an enhancement of neooogenesis.

  16. White Feces Syndrome of Shrimp Arises from Transformation, Sloughing and Aggregation of Hepatopancreatic Microvilli into Vermiform Bodies Superficially Resembling Gregarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Hiranchan, Jindanan; Flegel, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultivated Asian shrimp has been an increasing prevalence of vermiform, gregarine-like bodies within the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and midgut. In high quantity they result in white fecal strings and a phenomenon called white feces syndrome (WFS). Light microscopy (LM) of squash mounts and stained smears from fresh HP tissue revealed that the vermiform bodies are almost transparent with widths and diameters proportional to the HP tubule lumens in which they occur. Despite vermiform appearance, they show no cellular structure. At high magnification (LM with 40-100x objectives), they appear to consist of a thin, outer membrane enclosing a complex of thicker, inter-folded membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the outer non-laminar membrane of the vermiform bodies bore no resemblance to a plasma membrane or to the outer layer of any known gregarine, other protozoan or metazoan. Sub-cellular organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes were absent. The internal membranes had a tubular sub-structure and occasionally enclosed whole B-cells, sloughed from the HP tubule epithelium. These internal membranes were shown to arise from transformed microvilli that peeled away from HP tubule epithelial cells and then aggregated in the tubule lumen. Stripped of microvilli, the originating cells underwent lysis. By contrast, B-cells remained intact or were sloughed independently and whole from the tubule epithelium. When sometimes engulfed by the aggregated, transformed microvilli (ATM) they could be misinterpreted as cyst-like structures by light microscopy, contributing to gregarine-like appearance. The cause of ATM is currently unknown, but formation by loss of microvilli and subsequent cell lysis indicate that their formation is a pathological process. If sufficiently severe, they may retard shrimp growth and may predispose shrimp to opportunistic pathogens

  17. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.

  18. The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsinger, H

    1977-01-01

    Published studies show that among identical twins, lower birthweight is associated with lower adult intelligence. However, no such relation between birthweight and adult IQ exists among fraternal twins. A likely explanation for the association between birthweight and intelligence among identical twins is the identical twin transfusion syndrome which occurs only between some monochorionic identical twin pairs. The IQ scores from separated identical twins were reanalysed to explore the consequences of identical twin transfusion syndrome for IQ resemblance and heritability. Among 129 published cases of identical twin pairs reared apart, 76 pairs contained some birthweight information. The 76 pairs were separated into three classes: 23 pairs in which there was clear evidence of a substantial birthweight differences (indicating the probable existence of the identical twin transfusion syndrome), 27 pairs in which the information on birthweight was ambiguous (?), and 26 pairs in which there was clear evidence that the twins were similar in birthweight. The reanalyses showed: (1) birthweight differences are positively associated with IQ differences in the total sample of separated identical twins; (2) within the group of 23 twin pairs who showed large birthweight differences, there was a positive relation between birthweight differences and IQ differences; (3) when heritability of IQ is estimated for those twins who do not suffer large birthweight differences, the resemblance (and thus, h2/b) of the separated identical twins' IG is 0-95. Given that the average reliability of the individual IQ test is around 0-95, these data suggest that genetic factors and errors of measurement cause the individual differences in IQ among human beings. Because of the identical twin transfusion syndrome, previous studies of MZ twins have underestimated the effect of genetic factors on IQ. An analysis of the IQs for heavier and lighter birthweight twins suggests that the main effect of the

  19. Conditions and limits of serum LH radioimmunoassay in normal, hypophysectomised or castred rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Boucher, D.; Thieblot, L.

    1976-01-01

    Serum LH was measured by radioimmunoassay (NIAMD Kits) free and linked hormones were separated by double antibodies method. Influence of concentration on antibody-hormone complex is studied. Hypophysectomised rats serum does not modify results. The standard (rat LH-RPl) has the same action as serum LH. Rat serum LH contents are measured in normal or castred rats [fr

  20. Epithelial proliferation in small ducts of salivary cystadenoma resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Lisa; Weinreb, Ilan; Alexander, Cherupushpam; Perez Ordoñez, Bayardo

    2008-09-01

    Salivary gland cystadenomas are cystic neoplasms with diverse architecture and cytology. Cystadenomas may have a considerable intracystic epithelial component, but an epithelial proliferation in small ducts and cysts resembling atypical ductal hyperplasia of breast has not been documented. The patient was a 68-year-old man with a slow growing right submandibular mass. He has no recurrence 13 months after resection. The tumor was polycystic and measured 3.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm. The epithelium of the larger cysts was composed of flat, cuboidal, columnar, and apocrine-like cells. Many of the larger cysts showed "Roman bridges", epithelial tufting, and papillae. The smaller cysts and ducts had apocrine-like cells forming secondary glandular lumens. The ductal cells were surrounded by clear myoepithelial cells. Nuclear pleomorphism and hyperchromasia was seen in the apocrine-like cells. Adjacent to the larger cysts, there was an adenomatoid proliferation of small ducts surrounded by myoepithelial cells. No mitotic activity, necrosis, or stromal invasion was identified. The ductal cells were diffusely positive for keratin 7 and androgen receptors with focal expression of keratin 19 and high-molecular weight keratin. S-100, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and BRST-2 were negative in the ductal cells. Recognition of a prominent intraductal epithelial component in cystadenomas is important to avoid a misdiagnosis of cystadenocarcinoma or low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Cystadenomas join the list of salivary gland lesions with microscopic similarities to primary lesions of the breast.

  1. Does the calcification of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma resemble the calcium deposition of osteogenesis/odontogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song-Tao, Qi; Xiao-Rong, Yan; Jun, Pan; Yong-Jian, Deng; Jin, Liang; Guang-Long, Huang; Yun-Tao, Lu; Jian, Ruan; Xiang-Zhao, Li; Jia-Ming, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Calcification in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is troublesome for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic proteins that play important roles in the calcium deposition of the odontogenic/osteogenic tissues in craniopharyngioma. Craniopharyngiomas (n = 89) were investigated for the presence and expression pattern of the osteoinductive/odontoinductive factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) and two osteoblastic differentiation makers, Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Our results showed that Bmp2, Runx2 and Osterix levels increased in cases with high calcification and correlated positively with the degree of calcification in ACP, whereas they showed little or no expression in squamous papillary craniopharyngioma. In ACP, Bmp2 was expressed primarily in the stellate reticulum and whorl-like array cells; Runx2 and Osterix tended to be expressed in calcification-related epithelia, including whorl-like array cells and epithelia in/around wet keratin and calcification lesions. Our study indicated, for the first time, that osteogenic factor Bmp2 may play an important role in the calcification of ACP via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Given the presence of osteogenic markers (Runx2 and Osterix), craniopharyngioma cells could differentiate into an osteoblast-like lineage, and the process of craniopharyngioma calcification resembles that which occurs in osteogenesis/odontogenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pulmonary Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Chronic Asthma Resembling Lung Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massood Hosseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is most often seen in reticuloendothelial organs specially spleen, liver, or lymph nodes, and it is rarely seen in lung parenchyma. Almost all reported cases of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis occurred following myeloproliferative disorders specially myelofibrosis. Other less common underlying causes are thalassemia syndromes and other hemoglobinopathies. There was not any reported case of pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis in asthmatic patients in the medical literature. Case. Here we reported a 65-year-old lady who was a known case of bronchial asthma with recent developed right lower lobe lung mass. Chest X-ray and CT studies showed an infiltrating mass resembling malignancy. Fine needle aspiration cytology of mass revealed pulmonary extramedullary hematopoiesis. The patient followed for 10 months with serial physical examination and laboratory evaluations which were unremarkable. Conclusion. Extramedullary hematopoiesis of lung parenchyma can be mistaken for lung cancer radiologically. Although previous reported cases occurred with myelofibrosis or hemoglobinopathies, we are reporting the first case of asthma-associated extramedullary hematopoiesis.

  3. Nuclear security culture in comparison with nuclear safety culture. Resemblances and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th, 2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since 'The Great East Japan Earthquake' in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture. (author)

  4. Prion disease resembling frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitrini Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features of a familial prion disease with those of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17. BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of FTDP-17, since familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, the most common inherited prion disease, often manifests as a rapidly progressive dementia. Conversely, FTDP-17 usually has an insidious onset in the fifth decade, with abnormal behavior and parkinsonian features. METHOD: We present the clinical features of 12 patients from a family with CJD associated with a point mutation at codon 183 of the prion protein gene. RESULTS: The mean age at onset was 44.0 ± 3.7; the duration of the symptoms until death ranged from two to nine years. Behavioral disturbances were the predominant presenting symptoms. Nine patients were first seen by psychiatrists. Eight patients manifested parkinsonian signs. CONCLUSION: These clinical features bear a considerable resemblance to those described in FTDP-17.

  5. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  6. The peptide NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes in the heart that resemble ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Anna; Lonati, Caterina; Sordi, Andrea; Leonardi, Patrizia; Carlin, Andrea; Gatti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptide that exerts multiple protective effects on host cells. Previous investigations showed that treatment with alpha-MSH or synthetic melanocortin agonists reduces heart damage in reperfusion injury and transplantation. The aim of this preclinical research was to determine whether melanocortin treatment induces preconditioning-like cardioprotection. In particular, the plan was to assess whether melanocortin administration causes phenotype changes similar to those induced by repetitive ischemic events. The idea was conceived because both ischemic preconditioning and melanocortin signaling largely depend on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Rats received single i.v. injections of 750microg/kg of the alpha-MSH analogue Nle(4),DPhe(7)-alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) or saline and were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, or 5h. Western blot analysis showed that rat hearts expressed melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) protein. Treatment with NDP-MSH was associated with early and marked increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA. This was followed by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). There were no changes in expression of other cytokines of the IL-6 family. Expression of IL-10, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha was likewise unaltered. In hearts of rats treated with NDP-MSH there was increased expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. The data indicate that NDP-MSH induces phenotype changes that closely resemble ischemic preconditioning and likely contribute to its established protection against reperfusion injury. In addition, the increased expression of Nur77 and SOCS3 could be part of a broader anti-inflammatory effect.

  7. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  8. Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Tse, Maric T; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related markers have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, a preclinical assessment of how suppression of prefrontal cortex GABA activity may reflect behavioral and cognitive pathologies observed in schizophrenia is forthcoming. We assessed the effects of pharmacologic blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors in rats on executive functions and other behaviors related to schizophrenia, as well as neural activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) did not affect working memory accuracy but did increase response latencies, resembling speed of processing deficits observed in schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex GABA(A) blockade did not impede simple discrimination or reversal learning but did impair set-shifting in a manner dependent on when these treatments were given. Reducing GABA activity before the set-shift impaired the ability to acquire a novel strategy, whereas treatment before the initial discrimination increased perseveration during the shift. Latent inhibition was unaffected by bicuculline infusions before the preexposure/conditioning phases, suggesting that reduced prefrontal cortex GABA activity does not impair "learned irrelevance." GABA(A) blockade increased locomotor activity and showed synergic effects with a subthreshold dose of amphetamine. Furthermore, reducing medial prefrontal cortex GABA activity selectively increased phasic burst firing of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, without altering the their overall population activity. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex GABA hypofunction may be a key contributing factor to deficits in speed of processing, cognitive flexibility, and enhanced phasic dopamine activity observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Image and Global Resemblance in the Light of Hadith “Who So Imitates other People Becomes One of Them”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERDAR DEMİREL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world, people from different countries, cities and institutions unprecedentedly resemble each other in every aspect of life. Likewise, the deeds and imagery aspirations of Oriental and Occidental people also resemble. In such an atmosphere, the local cultures rooted in history become accessories and lose their historical significance and metaphysical aspects in the edifice of the society. This study aims to analyze Prophet Muhammad’s (s.a.w. warning, “Who so imitates other people becomes one of them”, its layers of meaning and its relationship with “image and global resemblence”.

  10. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  11. Nonbilayer Phospholipid Arrangements Are Toll-Like Receptor-2/6 and TLR-4 Agonists and Trigger Inflammation in a Mouse Model Resembling Human Lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Wong-Baeza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by dysregulated activation of T and B cells and autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and, in some cases, lipid antigens. Liposomes with nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements induce a disease resembling human lupus in mice, including IgM and IgG antibodies against nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements. As the effect of these liposomes on the innate immune response is unknown and innate immune system activation is necessary for efficient antibody formation, we evaluated the effect of these liposomes on Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling, cytokine production, proinflammatory gene expression, and T, NKT, dendritic, and B cells. Liposomes induce TLR-4- and, to a lesser extent, TLR-2/TLR-6-dependent signaling in TLR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Mice with the lupus-like disease had increased serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, C3a and C5a; they also had more TLR-4-expressing splenocytes, a higher expression of genes associated with TRIF-dependent TLR-4-signaling and complement activation, and a lower expression of apoptosis-related genes, compared to healthy mice. The percentage of NKT and the percentage and activation of dendritic and B2 cells were also increased. Thus, TLR-4 and TLR-2/TLR-6 activation by nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements triggers an inflammatory response that could contribute to autoantibody production and the generation of a lupus-like disease in mice.

  12. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Natália Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the long-term effects of alloxan-induced diabetes in rat liver. Methods. Thirty nondiabetic control rats (NC and 30 untreated diabetic (UD rats were divided into three subgroups sacrificed after 6, 14, or 26 weeks. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. Fresh liver weight and its relationship with body weight were obtained, and liver tissue was analyzed. Results. UD rats showed sustained hyperglycemia, high glycosylated hemoglobin, and low plasma insulin. High serum levels of AST and ALT were observed in UD rats after 2 weeks, but only ALT remained elevated throughout the experiment. Fresh liver weight was equal between NC and UD rats, but the fresh liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher in UD rats after 14 and 26 weeks. UD rats showed liver morphological changes characterized by hepatic sinusoidal enlargement and micro- and macrovesicular hepatocyte fatty degeneration with progressive liver structure loss, steatohepatitis, and periportal fibrosis. Ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes, such as a decrease in the number of intracytoplasmic organelles and degeneration of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclei, were also observed. Conclusion. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggered liver morphological and ultrastructural changes that closely resembled human disease, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.

  13. What's in a child's face? : effects of facial resemblance, love withdrawal, empathy and context on behavioral and neural responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckendorf, E.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of individual differences in the neural processing and appraisal of children’s faces that differ in their degree of resemblance with the participant’s face. Chapter 2 focuses on participants’ neural responses to child faces that differ in

  14. Imaging manifestations of acquired elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, Harish; Cheng, Ken; Lau, Ken; Harish, Radhika; Bowden, Donald K.

    2016-01-01

    Development of an acquired systemic elastopathy resembling pseudoxanthoma elasticum in patients with chronic haemoglobinopathies such as beta thalassaemia major and sickle cell disease is well documented. There is paucity of any comprehensive literature on the radiological manifestations of this entity. This pictorial review aims to describe and illustrate the multi system and multi modality imaging findings of this condition.

  15. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Palumbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have

  16. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  17. Case Report of a Satin Guinea Pig with Fibrous Osteodystrophy That Resembles Human Pseudohypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a 2-year-old female satin guinea pig with a history of dental overgrowth and lameness and radiological lesions of fibrous osteodystrophy is presented. The most relevant clinical findings were bone demineralization, high level of parathyroid hormone (PTH, normophosphatemia, normal ionized calcium, and low total thyroxine (tT4 with a normal renal function. Long-term treatment was based on teeth coronal reduction and maintaining a balanced diet. PTH measurement was performed with a kit suitable for rats to test 4 different paired samples of guinea pigs and resulted in similar results for each pair of measurements. Two kits routinely employed in dogs and cats failed in measuring PTH in guinea pig serum samples. The ionized calcium, PTH, and tT4 values, not previously reported in similar cases, were obtained. The determination of tT4 could be useful in the diagnosis of fibrous osteodystrophy in guinea pigs. The observed findings show similarity with human pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia, a disease caused by an inactivating heterozygous mutation of the stimulatory G protein α subunit from the maternal genome that induces multiple hormone resistance and that courses with a syndrome called Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. Naturally occurring pseudohypoparathyroidism in animals has been reported previously only in a ferret.

  18. Clinical Presentation Resembling Mucosal Disease Associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a Field Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M N; Mósena, A C S; Simões, S V D; Almeida, L L; Pessoa, C R M; Budaszewski, R F; Silva, T R; Ridpath, J F; Riet-Correa, F; Driemeier, D; Canal, C W

    2016-02-01

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Adaptive Stress Response in Segmental Progeria Resembles Long-Lived Dwarfism and Calorie Restriction in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Valerie B; von Lindern, Marieke; Jong, Willeke M. C; Zeeuw, Chris I. De; Suh, Yousin; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J; Mitchell, James R

    2006-01-01

    How congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a likely contributing mechanism. Contrary to expectations, neither accelerated senescence nor acute oxidative stress hypersensitivity was detected in primary fibroblast or erythroblast cultures from multiple progeroid mouse models for defects in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway, which share premature aging features including postnatal growth retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and death before weaning. Instead, we report a prominent phenotypic overlap with long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction during postnatal development (2 wk of age), including reduced size, reduced body temperature, hypoglycemia, and perturbation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 neuroendocrine axis. These symptoms were also present at 2 wk of age in a novel progeroid nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model (XPDG602D/R722W/XPA−/−) that survived weaning with high penetrance. However, despite persistent cachectic dwarfism, blood glucose and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels returned to normal by 10 wk, with hypoglycemia reappearing near premature death at 5 mo of age. These data strongly suggest changes in energy metabolism as part of an adaptive response during the stressful period of postnatal growth. Interestingly, a similar perturbation of the postnatal growth axis was not detected in another progeroid mouse model, the double-strand DNA break repair deficient Ku80 −/− mouse. Specific (but not all) types of genome instability may thus engage a conserved response to stress that evolved to cope with environmental pressures such as food shortage. PMID:17173483

  20. Adaptive stress response in segmental progeria resembles long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Marieke; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Holcomb, Valerie B; von Lindern, Marieke; Jong, Willeke M C; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Suh, Yousin; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Mitchell, James R

    2006-12-15

    How congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a likely contributing mechanism. Contrary to expectations, neither accelerated senescence nor acute oxidative stress hypersensitivity was detected in primary fibroblast or erythroblast cultures from multiple progeroid mouse models for defects in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway, which share premature aging features including postnatal growth retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and death before weaning. Instead, we report a prominent phenotypic overlap with long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction during postnatal development (2 wk of age), including reduced size, reduced body temperature, hypoglycemia, and perturbation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 neuroendocrine axis. These symptoms were also present at 2 wk of age in a novel progeroid nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model (XPD(G602D/R722W)/XPA(-/-)) that survived weaning with high penetrance. However, despite persistent cachectic dwarfism, blood glucose and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels returned to normal by 10 wk, with hypoglycemia reappearing near premature death at 5 mo of age. These data strongly suggest changes in energy metabolism as part of an adaptive response during the stressful period of postnatal growth. Interestingly, a similar perturbation of the postnatal growth axis was not detected in another progeroid mouse model, the double-strand DNA break repair deficient Ku80(-/-) mouse. Specific (but not all) types of genome instability may thus engage a conserved response to stress that evolved to cope with environmental pressures such as food shortage.

  1. Adaptive stress response in segmental progeria resembles long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke van de Ven

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available How congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a likely contributing mechanism. Contrary to expectations, neither accelerated senescence nor acute oxidative stress hypersensitivity was detected in primary fibroblast or erythroblast cultures from multiple progeroid mouse models for defects in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway, which share premature aging features including postnatal growth retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and death before weaning. Instead, we report a prominent phenotypic overlap with long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction during postnatal development (2 wk of age, including reduced size, reduced body temperature, hypoglycemia, and perturbation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 neuroendocrine axis. These symptoms were also present at 2 wk of age in a novel progeroid nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model (XPD(G602D/R722W/XPA(-/- that survived weaning with high penetrance. However, despite persistent cachectic dwarfism, blood glucose and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels returned to normal by 10 wk, with hypoglycemia reappearing near premature death at 5 mo of age. These data strongly suggest changes in energy metabolism as part of an adaptive response during the stressful period of postnatal growth. Interestingly, a similar perturbation of the postnatal growth axis was not detected in another progeroid mouse model, the double-strand DNA break repair deficient Ku80(-/- mouse. Specific (but not all types of genome instability may thus engage a conserved response to stress that evolved to cope with environmental pressures such as food shortage.

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously (s.c. for all 20 days of pregnancy (Group A, or for the first 10 days (Group B, or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C. Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2 ml/day s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D. The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P  Conclusions Our results indicate that androgen excess during pregnancy can decrease rat fertility. Excess androgen at the early stage of pregnancy causes high reproductive toxicity, leading to abnormality of ovarian morphology and functions in female offspring.

  3. Household and familial resemblance in risk factors for type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic diseases in rural Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Whyte, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    prevention and screening, we investigated the resemblance of T2D risk factors at household level and by type of familial dyadic relationship in a rural Ugandan community. Methods: This cross-sectional household-based study included 437 individuals ≥13 years of age from 90 rural households in south......-western Uganda. Resemblance in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness status and sitting time were analysed using a general mixed model with random effects (by household or dyad) to calculate household intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and dyadic regression coefficients...... (ICC=0.24), HbA1c (ICC=0.18) and systolic blood pressure (ICC=0.11). Regarding dyadic resemblance, the highest standardised regression coefficient was seen in fitness status for spouses (0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.76), parent–offspring (0.41, 95% CI 0.28 0.54) and siblings (0.41, 95% CI 0.25 to 0...

  4. How Preclinical Models Evolved to Resemble the Diagnostic Criteria of Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin-Rauscent, Aude; Fouyssac, Maxime; Bonci, Antonello; Belin, David

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that affects a subset of the individuals who take drugs. It is characterized by maladaptive drug-seeking habits that are maintained despite adverse consequences and intense drug craving. The pathophysiology and etiology of addiction is only partially understood despite extensive research because of the gap between current preclinical models of addiction and the clinical criteria of the disorder. This review presents a brief overview, based on selected methodologies, of how behavioral models have evolved over the last 50 years to the development of recent preclinical models of addiction that more closely mimic diagnostic criteria of addiction. It is hoped that these new models will increase our understanding of the complex neurobiological mechanisms whereby some individuals switch from controlled drug use to compulsive drug-seeking habits and relapse to these maladaptive habits. Additionally, by paving the way to bridge the gap that exists between biobehavioral research on addiction and the human situation, these models may provide new perspectives for the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for drug addiction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Determination of Non-Transferrin Bound Iron, Transferrin Bound Iron, Drug Bound Iron and Total Iron in Serum in a Rats after IV Administration of Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex by Simple Ultrafiltration Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali K. Matta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and specific ultrafiltration inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI, transferrin bound iron (TBI, drug bound iron (DI and total iron (TI in the same rat serum sample after intravenous (IV administration of iron gluconate nanoparticles in sucrose solution (Ferrlecit®. Ultrafiltration with a 30 kDa molecular cut-off filter was used for sample cleanup. Different elution solvents were used to separate each form of iron from sample serum. Isolated fractions were subjected to inductively-coupled mass spectrometric analysis after microwave digestion in 4% nitric acid. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by precision and accuracy. The calibration curve demonstrated linearity from 5–500 ng/mL with a regression (r2 of more than 0.998. This method was effectively implemented to quantify rat pharmacokinetic study samples after intravenous administration of Ferrlecit®. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK study of Ferrlecit in rats. The colloidal iron followed first order kinetics with half-life of 2.2 h and reached background or pre-dose levels after 12 h post-dosing. The drug shown a clearance of 0.31 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution of 0.05 L/kg. 19.4 ± 2.4 mL/h/kg.

  6. Net (ERP/SAP2) one of the Ras-inducible TCFs, has a novel inhibitory domain with resemblance to the helix-loop-helix motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maira, S M; Wurtz, J M; Wasylyk, B

    1996-11-01

    The three ternary complex factors (TCFs), Net (ERP/ SAP-2), ELK-1 and SAP-1, are highly related ets oncogene family members that participate in the response of the cell to Ras and growth signals. Understanding the different roles of these factors will provide insights into how the signals result in coordinate regulation of the cell. We show that Net inhibits transcription under basal conditions, in which SAP-1a is inactive and ELK-1 stimulates. Repression is mediated by the NID, the Net Inhibitory Domain of about 50 amino acids, which autoregulates the Net protein and also inhibits when it is isolated in a heterologous fusion protein. Net is particularly sensitive to Ras activation. Ras activates Net through the C-domain, which is conserved between the three TCFs, and the NID is an efficient inhibitor of Ras activation. The NID, as well as more C-terminal sequences, inhibit DNA binding. Net is more refractory to DNA binding than the other TCFs, possibly due to the presence of multiple inhibitory elements. The NID may adopt a helix-loop-helix (HLH) structure, as evidenced by homology to other HLH motifs, structure predictions, model building and mutagenesis of critical residues. The sequence resemblance with myogenic factors suggested that Net may form complexes with the same partners. Indeed, we found that Net can interact in vivo with the basic HLH factor, E47. We propose that Net is regulated at the level of its latent DNA-binding activity by protein interactions and/or phosphorylation. Net may form complexes with HLH proteins as well as SRF on specific promotor sequences. The identification of the novel inhibitory domain provides a new inroad into exploring the different roles of the ternary complex factors in growth control and transformation.

  7. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  8. [The National Serum Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magos-López, C; Sánchez-Villarreal, F; Gutiérrez, G; Tapia-Conyer, R

    1992-01-01

    A National Serum Bank was established to store sera obtained during the National Seroepidemiological Survey performed in Mexico in 1987. More than 70,000 serum samples were obtained from subjects of either sex 1-99 years of age in each of the 32 states of the country. The current collection of sera includes 28,704 male samples and 40,629 female samples. This paper describes the procedures for handling serum samples, including reception registry, storage and distribution to several laboratories for detection of measles, rubella, poliomyelitis, AIDS, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, brucella, salmonella, amoeba, toxoplasma, American trypanosomiasis and cysticercus. Determinations of total cholesterol were also made in order to describe its distribution and to identify the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia.

  9. From FRA to RFN, or How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to…

  10. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of haloperidol in human serum: correlation of serum haloperidol with serum prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poland, R.E.; Rubin, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of serum haloperidol is described. Compared to gaschromatography (GC), RIA vaues average 40% higher. However, a simple organic extraction of serum yields statistically equivalent RIA and GC haloperidol determinations. For both men and women combined, there was a positive correlation between dose (mg/kg/day) and steady-state serum haloperidol level (r = +0.86) and between steady-state serum haloperidol and serum prolactin (PRL) concentration

  12. Altered social behaviours in neurexin 1α knockout mice resemble core symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Mary Grayton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Copy number variants have emerged as an important genomic cause of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. These usually change copy number of multiple genes, but deletions at 2p16.3, which have been associated with autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation, affect only the neurexin 1 gene, usually the alpha isoform. Previous analyses of neurexin 1α (Nrxn1α knockout (KO mouse as a model of these disorders have revealed impairments in synaptic transmission but failed to reveal defects in social behaviour, one of the core symptoms of autism. METHODS: We performed a detailed investigation of the behavioural effects of Nrxn1α deletion in mice bred onto a pure genetic background (C57BL/6J to gain a better understanding of its role in neurodevelopmental disorders. Wildtype, heterozygote and homozygote Nrxn1α KO male and female mice were tested in a battery of behavioural tests (n = 9-16 per genotype, per sex. RESULTS: In homozygous Nrxn1α KO mice, we observed altered social approach, reduced social investigation, and reduced locomotor activity in novel environments. In addition, male Nrxn1α KO mice demonstrated an increase in aggressive behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first experimental data that associate a deletion of Nrxn1α with alterations of social behaviour in mice. Since this represents one of the core symptom domains affected in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in humans, our findings suggest that deletions within NRXN1 found in patients may be responsible for the impairments seen in social behaviours, and that the Nrxn1α KO mice are a useful model of human neurodevelopmental disorder.

  13. Altered Social Behaviours in Neurexin 1α Knockout Mice Resemble Core Symptoms in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayton, Hannah Mary; Missler, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background Copy number variants have emerged as an important genomic cause of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. These usually change copy number of multiple genes, but deletions at 2p16.3, which have been associated with autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation, affect only the neurexin 1 gene, usually the alpha isoform. Previous analyses of neurexin 1α (Nrxn1α) knockout (KO) mouse as a model of these disorders have revealed impairments in synaptic transmission but failed to reveal defects in social behaviour, one of the core symptoms of autism. Methods We performed a detailed investigation of the behavioural effects of Nrxn1α deletion in mice bred onto a pure genetic background (C57BL/6J) to gain a better understanding of its role in neurodevelopmental disorders. Wildtype, heterozygote and homozygote Nrxn1α KO male and female mice were tested in a battery of behavioural tests (n = 9–16 per genotype, per sex). Results In homozygous Nrxn1α KO mice, we observed altered social approach, reduced social investigation, and reduced locomotor activity in novel environments. In addition, male Nrxn1α KO mice demonstrated an increase in aggressive behaviours. Conclusions These are the first experimental data that associate a deletion of Nrxn1α with alterations of social behaviour in mice. Since this represents one of the core symptom domains affected in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in humans, our findings suggest that deletions within NRXN1 found in patients may be responsible for the impairments seen in social behaviours, and that the Nrxn1α KO mice are a useful model of human neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:23840597

  14. Serum YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne K; Abildgaard, Niels; Johansen, Julia S

    2015-01-01

    to clinical progression, i.e. skeletal-related events (SREs), in 230 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma receiving intravenous bisphosphonates. Serum concentrations of YKL-40 and biochemical bone markers (CTX-MMP, CTX-I, PINP) were measured at diagnosis. Patients were evaluated every third month...

  15. 79 - 81_Wali - Serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... SERUM ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE. CELL ANAEMIA IN ... play a role in the development of sickle cell anaemic complications. In the current study, ... vaso-occlusive episodes, acute chest syndrome and impaired ... frequency of sickling crises accompanied by tissue or.

  16. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  17. 2.6. Sorption of serum albumin by ethynyl-piperidol hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalikov, D.Kh.

    2012-01-01

    The sorption of serum albumin by ethynyl-piperidol hydrogels was studied in this article. Albumins adsorption on the surface of solids was considered. The capacity of cross-linked ethynyl piperidol polymers to the serum albumin was considered as well. The kinetic curves of sorption of human serum albumin by triple copolymer of isopropenyl trimethyl ethynyl piperidol were constructed. Sorption activity of ethynyl-piperidol polymers depending on ph of solution of human serum albumin were defined. Influence of solution ionic strength on sorption of human serum albumin was defined as well. The desorption of human serum albumin from the complexes with hydrogels was examined.

  18. Narcissism Guides Mate Selection: Humans Mate Assortatively, as Revealed by Facial Resemblance, following an Algorithm of “Self Seeking Like”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies suggest that mating and pair formation is not likely to be random. Computer simulations suggested that sex among genetically complex organisms requires mate choice strategies for its evolutionary maintenance, to reduce excessive genetic variance produced by out-crossing. One strategy achieving this aim efficiently in computer simulations is assortative mating modeled as “self seeking like”. Another one is selection of “good genes”. Assortative mating increases the probability of finding a genetically similar mate, without fomenting inbreeding, achieving assortative mating without hindering the working of other mate selection strategies which aim to maximize the search for “good genes”, optimizing the working of sex in evolutionary terms. Here we present indirect evidence that in a significant proportion of human reproductive couples, the partners show much higher facial resemblances than can be expected by random pair formation, or as the outcome of “matching for attractiveness” or the outcome of competition for the most attractive partner accessible, as had been previously assumed. The data presented is compatible with the hypothesis derived from computer simulations, that human mate selection strategies achieve various aims: “self seeking like” (including matching for attractiveness and mating with the best available genes.

  19. Discrimination of artificial categories structured by family resemblances: a comparative study in people (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Jitsumori, Masako

    2007-02-01

    Adult humans (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to discriminate artificial categories that the authors created by mimicking 2 properties of natural categories. One was a family resemblance relationship: The highly variable exemplars, including those that did not have features in common, were structured by a similarity network with the features correlating to one another in each category. The other was a polymorphous rule: No single feature was essential for distinguishing the categories, and all the features overlapped between the categories. Pigeons learned the categories with ease and then showed a prototype effect in accord with the degrees of family resemblance for novel stimuli. Some evidence was also observed for interactive effects of learning of individual exemplars and feature frequencies. Humans had difficulty in learning the categories. The participants who learned the categories generally responded to novel stimuli in an all-or-none fashion on the basis of their acquired classification decision rules. The processes that underlie the classification performances of the 2 species are discussed.

  20. Resemblance in dietary intakes between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers: The HEALTH-KIDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers. Methods Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago in Fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, and logistic regression models. Results Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal weight- than overweight or obese mothers. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (p<0.05). Conclusions Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association. PMID:19103323

  1. Vaginal Microbiota of Adolescent Girls Prior to the Onset of Menarche Resemble Those of Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L.; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Shew, Marcia L.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. PMID:25805726

  2. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  3. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    OpenAIRE

    DELANAYE, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDM...

  4. The Human Serum Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  5. Admission levels of serum Gc-globulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiødt, F V; Bondesen, S; Petersen, I

    1996-01-01

    Gc-globulin scavenges actin released from necrotic hepatocytes to the extracellular space. In 77 patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) (excluding patients treated with liver transplantation), admission levels of serum Gc-globulin and degree of complexing with monomeric actin (complex ratio...... in the same range as the KCH criteria. An advantage of Gc-globulin is that it gives an estimate of the outcome already on admission. Acute liver transplantation should be considered in FHF patients with Gc-globulin less than 100 mg/L....

  6. An analysis on equal width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding-based discretization and its performance resemblances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Meng-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biometric discretization extracts a binary string from a set of real-valued features per user. This representative string can be used as a cryptographic key in many security applications upon error correction. Discretization performance should not degrade from the actual continuous features-based classification performance significantly. However, numerous discretization approaches based on ineffective encoding schemes have been put forward. Therefore, the correlation between such discretization and classification has never been made clear. In this article, we aim to bridge the gap between continuous and Hamming domains, and provide a revelation upon how discretization based on equal-width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding could affect the classification performance in the Hamming domain. We further illustrate how such discretization can be applied in order to obtain a highly resembled classification performance under the general Lp distance and the inner product metrics. Finally, empirical studies conducted on two benchmark face datasets vindicate our analysis results.

  7. Family Resemblances: Human Reproductive Cloning as an Example for Reconsidering the Mutual Relationships between Bioethics and Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Solveig L

    2018-03-08

    In the traditions of narrative ethics and casuistry, stories have a well-established role. Specifically, illness narratives provide insight into patients' perspectives and histories. However, because they tend to see fiction as an aesthetic endeavour, practitioners in these traditions often do not realize that fictional stories are valuable moral sources of their own. In this paper I employ two arguments to show the mutual relationship between bioethics and fiction, specifically, science fiction. First, both discourses use imagination to set a scene and determine a perspective. Second, bioethics and science fiction share the family resemblance of expressing moral beliefs. I then consider how understanding bioethics and science fiction as interrelated discourses can be the basis of a methodology for inquiry into relational autonomy in the context of biotechnologies and medicine. As an example of this methodology, I analyse Fay Weldon's novel The Cloning of Joanna May (1989).

  8. Nonparenchymal cells cultivated from explants of fibrotic liver resemble endothelial and smooth muscle cells from blood vessel walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, B.; Rauterberg, J.; Pott, G.; Brehmer, U.; Allam, S.; Lehmann, R.; von Bassewitz, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Tissue specimens from human fibrotic liver obtained by needle biopsy were cultured. Two cell types emerged from the tissue explants. From their morphology and biosynthetic products they resembled smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells from blood vessel walls. In the endothelial cells, factor VIII-associated protein was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. Synthesis of collagen types I and III, basement membrane collagen types IV and V, and fibronectin by both cell types was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Homogeneous cultures of smooth muscle cells were observed in subcultures. After incubation with [ 14 C]glycine, collagen was isolated and characterized by CM cellulose chromatography, and consisted mainly of types I and III. These data suggest involvement of mesenchymal cells in hepatic fibrosis; they presumably originate from blood vessel or sinusoidal walls

  9. Lynch Syndrome Associated Colon Adenocarcinoma Resembling Lymphoma on Fluoro-Deoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Win, Aung Zaw

    2015-01-01

    The patient was a 46-year-old Asian male diagnosed with lynch syndrome associated colon adenocarcinoma in the right ascending colon. A presurgical staging 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) found increased metabolic activity in the cervical, axillary, mediastinal, supraclavicular, para-aortic and mesenteric lymph nodes. This pattern of metastasis was very unusual for lynch syndrome associated colon adenocarcinoma and the involvement of those lymph nodes resembles the pattern of spread of lymphoma. He underwent right hemicolectomy and he was subsequently treated with 12 cycles of folinic acid (leucovorin), fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan. A restaging FDG-PET/CT at the end of the chemotherapy showed interval decrease in size and metabolic activity in the affected lymph nodes. FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging modality in following-up the treatment response in colon adenocarcinoma

  10. Biodegradable nanoporous nanoparticles for human serum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujia, A.; De Angelis, F.; Scumaci, D.; Gaspari, M.; Liberale, C.; Candeloro, P.; Cuda, G.; Di Fabrizio, E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern medicine and biology search for new powerful tool for biomarkers discovery, appears one of the most promising approaches for early cancer diagnosis. Nowadays, the low molecular weight fraction of human serum is the most informative source of biomarkers, but their study and identification are very difficult due to the incredible complexity of the raw human serum. In this work we describe a novel tool for the filtration of crude human serum or other bio-fluid based on water soluble nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a pore size of about 2-3 nm, and diameters of 200 nm were obtained by ultrasonication of nanoporous silicon. The porous nanoparticles act as a nanosieve able to exclusively harvest the low molecular weight fraction of the fluid thanks to a controllable pore size. After a short incubation, the infiltrated nanosieves can be extracted from the starting fluid by means of centrifugation, and dissolved in water in a few minutes to give the captured molecules back in their native state, without degradation and contamination. The raw fluid is so split in two components of high and low molecular weight, that are both available for further analyses with any other investigation technique. Here, fluorescence spectroscopy, 2D-gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry are exploited to show the split of different bio-fluids under physiological condition. A cut-off (or split level) of 13 kDa is demonstrated also for human serum.

  11. Pathogenesis of Candida albicans infections in the alternative chorio-allantoic membrane chicken embryo model resembles systemic murine infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse D Jacobsen

    Full Text Available Alternative models of microbial infections are increasingly used to screen virulence determinants of pathogens. In this study, we investigated the pathogenesis of Candida albicans and C. glabrata infections in chicken embryos infected via the chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM and analyzed the virulence of deletion mutants. The developing immune system of the host significantly influenced susceptibility: With increasing age, embryos became more resistant and mounted a more balanced immune response, characterized by lower induction of proinflammatory cytokines and increased transcription of regulatory cytokines, suggesting that immunopathology contributes to pathogenesis. While many aspects of the chicken embryo response resembled murine infections, we also observed significant differences: In contrast to systemic infections in mice, IL-10 had a beneficial effect in chicken embryos. IL-22 and IL-17A were only upregulated after the peak mortality in the chicken embryo model occurred; thus, the role of the Th17 response in this model remains unclear. Abscess formation occurs frequently in murine models, whereas the avian response was dominated by granuloma formation. Pathogenicity of the majority of 15 tested C. albicans deletion strains was comparable to the virulence in mouse models and reduced virulence was associated with significantly lower transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. However, fungal burden did not correlate with virulence and for few mutants like bcr1Δ and tec1Δ different outcomes in survival compared to murine infections were observed. C. albicans strains locked in the yeast stage disseminated significantly more often from the CAM into the embryo, supporting the hypothesis that the yeast morphology is responsible for dissemination in systemic infections. These data suggest that the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections in the chicken embryo model resembles systemic murine infections but also differs in some aspects. Despite

  12. Adult family members and their resemblance of coronary heart disease risk factors: The Cardiovascular Disease Study in Finnmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenn, Tormod

    1997-01-01

    Coronary heart disease tends to run in families, and the familial resemblance of major risk factors for the disease was examined among various types of adult family members. Family units were assembled from a total of 4,738 men and women who took part in a cross sectional health survey in four Norwegian municipalities where all inhabitants between 20 and 52 years of age were invited. After adjusting for age and other confounders, correlation coefficients were derived as a measure of the degree of resemblance. Viewed across all types of investigated familial relationships, similarity was found to be stronger for total cholesterol than for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and also stronger for systolic than for diastolic blood pressure. Between husbands and wives (3,060 subjects), correlations were small (between 0.02 and 0.06), except for 0.11 for total cholesterol. Lipid and blood pressure correlations ranged from 0.13 to 0.27 for parents and their offspring (471 subjects, p < 0.05) and from 0.11 to 0.22 among siblings (2,166 subjects, p < 0.01). Sibling correlations were consistent across age groups. Furthermore, reports from each individual on daily smoking (yes or no) revealed that husbands and wives had similar habits in 63.5% of all marriages as compared with the expected 49.4% had no smoking similarity at all been present. Smoking concordance was also demonstrated among siblings (p < 0.01). The persistent pattern of lipid and blood pressure aggregation among genetically related individuals from 20 to 52 years of age and the much weaker such similarity between husbands and wives, point towards genes or commonly shared environment at early ages as a major reason why coronary heart disease runs in families

  13. Resemblance profiles as clustering decision criteria: Estimating statistical power, error, and correspondence for a hypothesis test for multivariate structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilborn, Joshua P; Jones, David L; Peebles, Ernst B; Naar, David F

    2017-04-01

    Clustering data continues to be a highly active area of data analysis, and resemblance profiles are being incorporated into ecological methodologies as a hypothesis testing-based approach to clustering multivariate data. However, these new clustering techniques have not been rigorously tested to determine the performance variability based on the algorithm's assumptions or any underlying data structures. Here, we use simulation studies to estimate the statistical error rates for the hypothesis test for multivariate structure based on dissimilarity profiles (DISPROF). We concurrently tested a widely used algorithm that employs the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) to estimate the proficiency of clustering with DISPROF as a decision criterion. We simulated unstructured multivariate data from different probability distributions with increasing numbers of objects and descriptors, and grouped data with increasing overlap, overdispersion for ecological data, and correlation among descriptors within groups. Using simulated data, we measured the resolution and correspondence of clustering solutions achieved by DISPROF with UPGMA against the reference grouping partitions used to simulate the structured test datasets. Our results highlight the dynamic interactions between dataset dimensionality, group overlap, and the properties of the descriptors within a group (i.e., overdispersion or correlation structure) that are relevant to resemblance profiles as a clustering criterion for multivariate data. These methods are particularly useful for multivariate ecological datasets that benefit from distance-based statistical analyses. We propose guidelines for using DISPROF as a clustering decision tool that will help future users avoid potential pitfalls during the application of methods and the interpretation of results.

  14. Meningiomas with conventional MRI findings resembling intraaxial tumors: can perfusion-weighted MRI be helpful in differentiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakyemez, Bahattin; Yildirim, Nalan; Erdogan, Cueneyt; Parlak, Mufit; Kocaeli, Hasan; Korfali, Ender

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of perfusion-weighted MRI to the differentiation of meningiomas with atypical conventional MRI findings from intraaxial tumors. We retrospectively analyzed 54 meningiomas, 12 glioblastomas and 13 solitary metastases. We detected 6 meningiomas with atypical features on conventional MRI resembling intraaxial tumors. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBV) ratios of all tumors were calculated via perfusion-weighted MRI. The signal intensity-time curves were plotted and three different curve patterns were observed. The type 1 curve resembled normal brain parenchyma or the postenhancement part was minimally below the baseline, the type 2 curve was similar to the type 1 curve but with the postenhancement part above the baseline, and the type 3 curve had the postenhancement part below the baseline accompanied by widening of the curve. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. On CBV images meningiomas were hypervascular and the mean rCBV ratio was 10.58±2.00. For glioblastomas and metastatic lesions, the rCBV ratios were 5.02±1.40 and 4.68±1.54, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in rCBV ratios between meningiomas and glioblastomas and metastases (P<0.001). Only one of the meningiomas displayed a type 2 curve while five showed a type 3 curve. Glioblastomas and metastases displayed either a type 1 or a type 2 curve. None of the meningiomas showed a type 1 curve and none of the glioblastomas or metastases showed a type 3 curve. (orig.)

  15. Meningiomas with conventional MRI findings resembling intraaxial tumors: can perfusion-weighted MRI be helpful in differentiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakyemez, Bahattin [Uludag University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Bursa State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Yildirim, Nalan; Erdogan, Cueneyt; Parlak, Mufit [Uludag University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Bursa (Turkey); Kocaeli, Hasan; Korfali, Ender [Uludag University Medical School, Department of Neurosurgery, Bursa (Turkey)

    2006-10-15

    To investigate the contribution of perfusion-weighted MRI to the differentiation of meningiomas with atypical conventional MRI findings from intraaxial tumors. We retrospectively analyzed 54 meningiomas, 12 glioblastomas and 13 solitary metastases. We detected 6 meningiomas with atypical features on conventional MRI resembling intraaxial tumors. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBV) ratios of all tumors were calculated via perfusion-weighted MRI. The signal intensity-time curves were plotted and three different curve patterns were observed. The type 1 curve resembled normal brain parenchyma or the postenhancement part was minimally below the baseline, the type 2 curve was similar to the type 1 curve but with the postenhancement part above the baseline, and the type 3 curve had the postenhancement part below the baseline accompanied by widening of the curve. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. On CBV images meningiomas were hypervascular and the mean rCBV ratio was 10.58{+-}2.00. For glioblastomas and metastatic lesions, the rCBV ratios were 5.02{+-}1.40 and 4.68{+-}1.54, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in rCBV ratios between meningiomas and glioblastomas and metastases (P<0.001). Only one of the meningiomas displayed a type 2 curve while five showed a type 3 curve. Glioblastomas and metastases displayed either a type 1 or a type 2 curve. None of the meningiomas showed a type 1 curve and none of the glioblastomas or metastases showed a type 3 curve. (orig.)

  16. Synthesis, characterization and biological application of four novel metal-Schiff base complexes derived from allylamine and their interactions with human serum albumin: Experimental, molecular docking and ONIOM computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Zahra; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Sahihi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Gharaghani, Sajjad

    2016-09-01

    Novel metal-based drug candidate including VOL2, NiL2, CuL2 and PdL2 have been synthesized from 2-hydroxy-1-allyliminomethyl-naphthalen ligand and have been characterized by means of elemental analysis (CHN), FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies. In addition, (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques were employed for characterization of the PdL2 complex. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique was utilized to characterise the structure of the complexes. The Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pd(II) complexes show a square planar trans-coordination geometry, while in the VOL2, the vanadium center has a distorted tetragonal pyramidal N2O3 coordination sphere. The HSA-binding was also determined, using fluorescence quenching, UV-vis spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) titration method. The obtained results revealed that the HSA affinity for binding the synthesized compounds follows as PdL2>CuL2>VOL2>NiL2, indicating the effect of metal ion on binding constant. The distance between these compounds and HSA was obtained based on the Förster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer. Furthermore, computational methods including molecular docking and our Own N-layered Integrated molecular Orbital and molecular Mechanics (ONIOM) were carried out to investigate the HSA-binding of the compounds. Molecular docking calculation indicated the existence of hydrogen bond between amino acid residues of HSA and all synthesized compounds. The formation of the hydrogen bond in the HSA-compound systems leads to their stabilization. The ONIOM method was utilized in order to investigate HSA binding of compounds more precisely in which molecular mechanics method (UFF) and semi empirical method (PM6) were selected for the low layer and the high layer, respectively. The results show that the structural parameters of the compounds changed along with binding to HSA, indicating the strong interaction between the compounds and HSA. The value of binding constant depends on the extent of the resultant changes. This

  17. Free serum thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, O.J.; Altschuler, Noe; Cabrejas, M.L. de; Pinkas, Mirta; Garcia del Rio, Hernan

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiommunoassay (RIA) tehcniques has increased the diagnosis of thyroid functional alterations. A solid phase RIA method for free thyroxine (FT4) measurement was tested. Serum FT4, Total T4, T3 and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay in 179 subjects. One hundred twenty two patients were normal (8 to 75 years old); FT4 was 1.42 +- 0.03 ng/100 ml (avg. value and std. error). In 27 cases of thyrotoxicosis the values were 4.66 +- 0.48 ng/100 ml and in 15 cases of hypothyroidism 0.50 +- 0.06 ng/100 ml (statistics probability [es

  18. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin (CIT is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3 and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I. In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  19. Serum Creatinine: Not So Simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Measuring serum creatinine is cheap and commonly done in daily practice. However, interpretation of serum creatinine results is not always easy. In this review, we will briefly remind the physiological limitations of serum creatinine due notably to its tubular secretion and the influence of muscular mass or protein intake on its concentration. We mainly focus on the analytical limitations of serum creatinine, insisting on important concept such as reference intervals, standardization (and IDMS traceability), analytical interferences, analytical coefficient of variation (CV), biological CV and critical difference. Because the relationship between serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate is hyperbolic, all these CVs will impact not only the precision of serum creatinine but still more the precision of different creatinine-based equations, especially in low or normal-low creatinine levels (or high or normal-high glomerular filtration rate range). © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Serum reactome induced by Bordetella pertussis infection and Pertussis vaccines: qualitative differences in serum antibody recognition patterns revealed by peptide microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Davide; Ferrara, Giovanni; Advani, Reza; Hallander, Hans O; Maeurer, Markus J

    2015-07-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough) remains a public health problem despite extensive vaccination strategies. Better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and the detailed B. pertussis (Bp) target recognition pattern will help in guided vaccine design. We characterized the specific epitope antigen recognition profiles of serum antibodies ('the reactome') induced by whooping cough and B. pertussis (Bp) vaccines from a case-control study conducted in 1996 in infants enrolled in a Bp vaccine trial in Sweden (Gustafsson, NEJM, 1996, 334, 349-355). Sera from children with whooping cough, vaccinated with Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTP) whole-cell (wc), acellular 5 (DPTa5), or with the 2 component (a2) vaccines and from infants receiving only DT (n=10 for each group) were tested with high-content peptide microarrays containing 17 Bp proteins displayed as linear (n=3175) peptide stretches. Slides were incubated with serum and peptide-IgG complexes detected with Cy5-labeled goat anti-human IgG and analyzed using a GenePix 4000B microarray scanner, followed by statistical analysis, using PAM (Prediction Analysis for Microarrays) and the identification of uniquely recognized peptide epitopes. 367/3,085 (11.9%) peptides were recognized in 10/10 sera from children with whooping cough, 239 (7.7%) in DTPwc, 259 (8.4%) in DTPa5, 105 (3.4%) DTPa2, 179 (5.8%) in the DT groups. Recognition of strongly recognized peptides was similar between whooping cough and DPTwc, but statistically different between whooping cough vs. DTPa5 (p<0.05), DTPa2 and DT (p<0.001 vs. both) vaccines. 6/3,085 and 2/3,085 peptides were exclusively recognized in (10/10) sera from children with whooping cough and DTPa2 vaccination, respectively. DTPwc resembles more closely the whooping cough reactome as compared to acellular vaccines. We could identify a unique recognition signature common for each vaccination group (10/10 children). Peptide microarray technology allows detection of subtle differences in

  1. Serum gonadotropins levels in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertogh, R. De; Vankrieken, L.; Wolter, R.; Vliet, G. Van

    1989-01-01

    The complex changes in serum LH and FSH levels from infancy to adulthood are diversely evaluated by radioimmunoassays or bioassays. The relative lack of sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunoassay, using polyclonal antibodies, could possibly be overcome by new immunoradiometric assays, using specific antibodies to LH and FSH. Significant differences were indeed observed between radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. During the prepubertal period, LH levels, measured by the immunoradiometric assays, were below the sensitivity of the method in the majority of the samples. LH levels were, however, well detectable when measured with radioimmunoassay, showing the heterogeneity of circulating LH structures. At the onset of puberty, LH levels increased at least 3 to 4 times in both sexes, when measured with immunoradiometric assays, whereas their increase was only 20 to 60% with the radioimmunoassays. FSH levels remained well detectable in the prepubertal period whether measured by immunoradiometric or radioimmunoassays. At pubertal onset, FSH increase in both sexes was more important in the immunoradiometric assays. The results obtained with immunoradiometric assays give a better insight into the quantitative and qualitative function of the gonadotropes during childhood. The almost complete absence of LH during the prepubertal period and the steep increase at the onset of puberty better reflects the reported data obtained with bioassays. The persistance of significant levels of FSH in the prepubertal ages, and the lesser increase at the onset of puberty, when compared with LH, illustrates that the individual regulation of LH and FSH secretion vary over time and is influenced by developmental factors. (author)

  2. Muscle-type nicotinic receptor modulation by 2,6-dimethylaniline, a molecule resembling the hydrophobic moiety of lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Alberola-Die

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To identify the molecular determinants responsible for lidocaine blockade of muscle-type nAChRs, we have studied the effects on this receptor of 2,6-dimethylaniline (DMA, which resembles lidocaine’s hydrophobic moiety. Torpedo marmorata nAChRs were microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes and currents elicited by ACh (IACh, either alone or co-applied with DMA, were recorded. DMA reversibly blocked IACh and, similarly to lidocaine, exerted a closed-channel blockade, as evidenced by the enhancement of IACh blockade when DMA was pre-applied before its co-application with ACh, and hastened IACh decay. However, there were marked differences among its mechanisms of nAChR inhibition and those mediated by either the entire lidocaine molecule or diethylamine (DEA, a small amine resembling lidocaine’s hydrophilic moiety. Thereby, the IC50 for DMA, estimated from the dose-inhibition curve, was in the millimolar range, which is one order of magnitude higher than that for either DEA or lidocaine. Besides, nAChR blockade by DMA was voltage-independent in contrast to the increase of IACh inhibition at negative potentials caused by the more polar lidocaine or DEA molecules. Accordingly, virtual docking assays of DMA on nAChRs showed that this molecule binds predominantly at intersubunit crevices of the transmembrane-spanning domain, but also at the extracellular domain. Furthermore, DMA interacted with residues inside the channel pore, although only in the open-channel conformation. Interestingly, co-application of ACh with DEA and DMA, at their IC50s, had additive inhibitory effects on IACh and the extent of blockade was similar to that predicted by the allotopic model of interaction, suggesting that DEA and DMA bind to nAChRs at different loci. These results indicate that DMA mainly mimics the low potency and non-competitive actions of lidocaine on nAChRs, as opposed to the high potency and voltage-dependent block by lidocaine, which is emulated by the

  3. Vaginal microbiota of adolescent girls prior to the onset of menarche resemble those of reproductive-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Roxana J; Zhou, Xia; Settles, Matthew L; Erb, Julie; Malone, Kristin; Hansmann, Melanie A; Shew, Marcia L; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Forney, Larry J

    2015-03-24

    Puberty is an important developmental stage wherein hormonal shifts mediate the physical and physiological changes that lead to menarche, but until now, the bacterial composition of vaginal microbiota during this period has been poorly characterized. We performed a prospective longitudinal study of perimenarcheal girls to gain insight into the timing and sequence of changes that occur in the vaginal and vulvar microbiota during puberty. The study enrolled 31 healthy, premenarcheal girls between the ages of 10 and 12 years and collected vaginal and vulvar swabs quarterly for up to 3 years. Bacterial composition was characterized by Roche 454 pyrosequencing and classification of regions V1 to V3 of 16S rRNA genes. Contrary to expectations, lactic acid bacteria, primarily Lactobacillus spp., were dominant in the microbiota of most girls well before the onset of menarche in the early to middle stages of puberty. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected at appreciable levels in approximately one-third of subjects, a notable finding considering that this organism is commonly associated with bacterial vaginosis in adults. Vulvar microbiota closely resembled vaginal microbiota but often exhibited additional taxa typically associated with skin microbiota. Our findings suggest that the vaginal microbiota of girls begin to resemble those of adults well before the onset of menarche. This study addresses longitudinal changes in vaginal and vulvar microbial communities prior to and immediately following menarche. The research is significant because microbial ecology of the vagina is an integral aspect of health, including resistance to infections. The physiologic changes of puberty and initiation of cyclic menstruation are likely to have profound effects on vaginal microbiota, but almost nothing is known about changes that normally occur during this time. Our understanding has been especially hampered by the lack of thorough characterization of microbial communities using techniques

  4. An Investigation into the Mechanics of Windblown Dust Entrainment from Nickel Slag Surfaces Resembling Armoured Desert Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Robert Steven

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the dynamics of PM 10 emission from a nickel slag stockpile that closely resembles a desert pavement in physical characteristics. In the field, it was observed that slag surfaces develop by natural processes into a well-armoured surface over some period of time. The surface then consists of two distinct layers; a surficial armour layer containing only non-erodible gravel and cobble-sized clasts, and an underlying dust-laden layer, which contains a wide size range of slag particles, from clay-sized to cobble-sized. This surficial armour layer protects the underlying fines from wind entrainment, at least under typical wind conditions; however, particle emissions still do occur under high wind speeds. The dynamics of particle entrainment from within these surfaces are investigated herein. It is shown that the dynamics of the boundary layer flow over these lag surfaces are influenced by the inherent roughness and permeability of the surficial armour layer, such that the flow resembles those observed over and within vegetation canopies, and those associated with permeable gravel-bed river channels. Restriction of air flow within the permeable surface produces a high-pressure zone within the pore spaces, resulting in a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability, which triggers coherent motions in the form of repeating burst-sweep cycles. Using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA), it is demonstrated that the lower boundary layer is characterized by both Q4 sweeping motions and Q2 bursting motions, while the upper boundary layer is dominated by Q2 bursts. Pore air motions within the slag material were measured using buried pressure ports. It is shown that the mean pressure gradient which forms within the slag material results in net upward displacement of air, or wind pumping. However, this net upward motion is a result of rapid oscillatory motions which are directly driven by coherent boundary layer motions. It is also demonstrated that

  5. Radioimmunoassay of cholylglycine in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakushima, Tadashi; Yamanishi, Yasuhito; Hirayama, Chisato

    1979-01-01

    Serum levels of cholylglycines (CG) were determined by radioimmunoassay and that of total bile acids (TBA) by enzymatic method. In normal subjects, serum levels of CG, TBA and CG/TBA ratio were 0.6 +- 0.4 μM, 7 +- 2 μM, and 0.08 +- 0.06, respectively. They were increased markedly in acute hepatitis and moderately in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Thus, measurement of serum CG as compared with serum TBA appears to be a sensitive liver test. (author)

  6. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Carter James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the η5- and the η1(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The 77Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of η1(S)-bound thiophenes, η1(S)-benzothiophene and η1(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the η1(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh3)Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O3SCF3 was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the η1(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  7. Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between serum total magnesium and serum potassium in emergency surgical patients in a tertiary hospital in Ghana. Robert Djagbletey, Brenda Phillips, Frank Boni, Christian Owoo, Ebenezer Owusu-Darkwa, Papa Kobina Gyakye deGraft-Johnson, Alfred E. Yawson ...

  8. Studies on the pathogenesis of Aleutian disease of mink. X. demonstration of immune complexes by the /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding test after experimental infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Peddinghaus, R [Kali-Chemie Pharma G.m.b.H., Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Pathologie; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, H [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Klinische Immunologie und Bluttransfusionswesen; Kalden, J R [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Klinische Immunologie; Trautwein, G; Ueberschaer, S [Tieraerztliche Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pathologie

    1980-01-01

    Aleutian disease (AD) of mink most closely resembles systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in man; both are immune complex disease. In experimental AD serum immune complexes are determined by the /sup 125/J-C 1 q-binding test using human C 1 q. Mink (n = 12) infected intraperitoneally with Aleutian disease virus (ADV), grown in fetal mink kidney cells, developed during the course of infection a mean of /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding equivalent to 3.62 +- 1.68 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. (aggregated human immunoglobulin). Sera of mink (n = 8) which were infected with ADV grown in L-cells showed a less marked /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding with a mean equivalent to 2.52 +- 1.43 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In contrast control animals (n = 8) treated with non-ADV-infected mink epidermal fibroblasts or Eagle's minimal essential medium substituted with fetal calf serum only bound /sup 125/I-C 1 q equivalent to 1.02 +- 0.99 mg./ml. aggr. HGG. In mink infected with ADV propagated in fetal mink kidney cells a constant increase in the /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding occurred from the 4th to the 7th and 13th week after ADV infection. Mink which were infected with ADV propagated in mouse L-cells exhibited a different pattern of the /sup 125/I-C 1 q serum binding capacity with a sharp increase from the 4th to the 7th week, followed by a decline towards the 13th week post infection. The serum /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding capacity of all experimental animal groups exhibited at different times of the experiment a significant correlation with the presence of hypergammaglobulinaemia and raised ADV-antibody titers. From the data obtained it appears that the /sup 125/I-C 1 q binding test, utilizing human C 1 q, is a suitable method for the detection of circulating serum immune complexes in mink during the course of ADV-infection.

  9. Calpain 1 inhibitor BDA-410 ameliorates α-klotho-deficiency phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Yoko; Washida, Miwa; Tamura, Masaru; Maeno, Akiteru; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Imura, Akihiro; Razzaque, M Shawkat; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Taking good care of elderly is a major challenge of our society, and thus identification of potential drug targets to reduce age-associated disease burden is desirable. α-klotho(-/-) (α-kl) is a short-lived mouse model that displays multiple phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes. Such ageing phenotype of α-kl(-/-) mice is associated with activation of a proteolytic enzyme, Calpain-1. We hypothesized that uncontrolled activation of calpain-1 might be causing age-related phenotypes in α-kl-deficient mice. We found that daily administration of BDA-410, a calpain-1 inhibitor, strikingly ameliorated multiple aging-related phenotypes. Treated mice showed recovery of reproductive ability, increased body weight, reduced organ atrophy, and suppression of ectopic calcifications, bone mineral density reduction, pulmonary emphysema and senile atrophy of skin. We also observed ectopic expression of FGF23 in calcified arteries of α-kl(-/-) mice, which might account for the clinically observed association of increased FGF23 level with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. These findings allow us to propose that modulation of calpain-1 activity is a potential therapeutic option for delaying age-associated organ pathology, particularly caused by the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis.

  10. Test of 134Cs, 85,89Sr leaching rate in a resemble vitrifiable cement waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Meiqiong; Wei Feng; Yin Qi; Fan Xianhua; Xu Shengli; Li Yongde

    2003-01-01

    A novel material--resemble vitrifiable cement for conditioning low and mediate level radioactive waste has been developed. Waste form has been characterized for their physical and chemical performance, phase composition. The cement formulation has been patented. In this experiment the cement is mixed with simulated wastes spiked with 134 Cs and 85,89 Sr by 5 min at least. The Ratio of the waste to the cement is 0.45-0.55. The mixture is packed into cylindrical molds which has the same dimension of diameter and height . The grouts are cured for a period of 28 d in a room temperature curing chamber at an atmospheric pressure. The cured waste form is then completely immersed into deionized water. According to standard GB7023-86, leaching rate of 134 Cs and 85,89 Sr are measured. The result shows that the leaching rate of the species 134 Cs and 85,89 Sr is to be on the order 10 -4 and 10 -5 on the 42 d immersion, respectively and is better than that of commercial cement

  11. Solution structures of the linear leaderless bacteriocins enterocin 7A and 7B resemble carnocyclin A, a circular antimicrobial peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; McKay, Ryan T; van Belkum, Marco J; McMullen, Lynn M; Vederas, John C

    2013-06-11

    Leaderless bacteriocins are a class of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are produced by certain Gram-positive bacteria without an N-terminal leader section. These bacteriocins are of great interest due to their potent inhibition of many Gram-positive organisms, including food-borne pathogens such as Listeria and Clostridium spp. We now report the NMR solution structures of enterocins 7A and 7B, leaderless bacteriocins recently isolated from Enterococcus faecalis 710C. These are the first three-dimensional structures to be reported for bacteriocins of this class. Unlike most other linear Gram-positive bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B are highly structured in aqueous conditions. Both peptides are primarily α-helical, adopting a similar overall fold. The structures can be divided into three separate α-helical regions: the N- and C-termini are both α-helical, separated by a central kinked α-helix. The overall structures bear an unexpected resemblance to carnocyclin A, a 60-residue peptide that is cyclized via an amide bond between the C- and N-termini and has a saposin fold. Because of synergism observed for other two-peptide leaderless bacteriocins, it was of interest to probe possible binding interactions between enterocins 7A and 7B. However, despite synergistic activity observed between these peptides, no significant binding interaction was observed based on NMR and isothermal calorimetry.

  12. Tectonic resemblance of the Indian Platform, Pakistan with the Moesian Platform, Romania and strategy for exploration of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    There is a remarkable tectonic resemblance between the indian Platform (Pakistan) and the Moesian Platform (Romania). As viewed in global tectonic perspective Moeslan and Indian Plates have played important role in Alpine Himalayan Orogeny; Moesian and Indian Platforms are extension of these respective plates. Characteristics features of both the platforms are block faulting which has effected not only the general tectonic framework but has also played important role in oil accumulation. Main producing rocks in the Moesian platform are Jurassic sandstones and cretaceous limestones while in the indian platform cretaceous sandstones are important reservoirs. The average geothermal gradient in the indian platform is 2.45 C/100m with the higher gradients in the central gas producing region. Geothermal gradients in the Moesian platform have an average value of 3 C/100m with higher gradients in the northern in the northern part. Some of the producing structures in both the platforms are remarkably similar, traps associated with normal faults are very important. Extensive exploration carried in the Moesian Platform makes it very important oil producing region of Romania. After the discovery of oil lower Sindh, serious exploration is being carried in the Indian platform. The paper deals with the similarities between these two important platforms. In the light of the studies of the Moesian platform, strategies or exploration of oil and gas in the Indian Platform are suggested. (author)

  13. Fetal mesenchymal stromal cells differentiating towards chondrocytes acquire a gene expression profile resembling human growth plate cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy A van Gool

    Full Text Available We used human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hfMSCs differentiating towards chondrocytes as an alternative model for the human growth plate (GP. Our aims were to study gene expression patterns associated with chondrogenic differentiation to assess whether chondrocytes derived from hfMSCs are a suitable model for studying the development and maturation of the GP. hfMSCs efficiently formed hyaline cartilage in a pellet culture in the presence of TGFβ3 and BMP6. Microarray and principal component analysis were applied to study gene expression profiles during chondrogenic differentiation. A set of 232 genes was found to correlate with in vitro cartilage formation. Several identified genes are known to be involved in cartilage formation and validate the robustness of the differentiating hfMSC model. KEGG pathway analysis using the 232 genes revealed 9 significant signaling pathways correlated with cartilage formation. To determine the progression of growth plate cartilage formation, we compared the gene expression profile of differentiating hfMSCs with previously established expression profiles of epiphyseal GP cartilage. As differentiation towards chondrocytes proceeds, hfMSCs gradually obtain a gene expression profile resembling epiphyseal GP cartilage. We visualized the differences in gene expression profiles as protein interaction clusters and identified many protein clusters that are activated during the early chondrogenic differentiation of hfMSCs showing the potential of this system to study GP development.

  14. A wolf in sheep's clothing: The description of a fly resembling jumping spider of the genus Scoturius Simon, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Huriini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Robert; Rubio, Gonzalo D

    2018-01-01

    Fly resemblance in arthropods is much less common than e.g., resemblance to ants or wasps, and has been mainly observed in beetles. Putative fly mimicry in arachnids has been reported only from the jumping spider genus Saitis. However, recent literature has attributed the fly-resembling characteristics in Saitis to sexual signalling during courtship. The lack of observation of fly mimicry in spiders is not surprising as flies belong to the most important prey item group of spiders. In this study, a new fly-resembling species of the jumping spider tribe Huriini, Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov., from the pre-Andean Chiquitano forest at the Bolivian orocline is described and illustrated. The new species was tentatively placed into Scoturius because the epigynum has a single large elliptical opening. Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of this tribe by a combination of following characteristics: epigynum with a large anterior elliptical atrium and initial portion of the copulation ducts dilated as a chamber (shared with Urupuyu); relatively joined copulation openings and short copulation ducts; kidney-shaped spermathecae, advanced at the atrium level. Several somatic features, two of them found exclusively in S. dipterioides sp. nov., increase the resemblance to flies. The Huriini are currently the only spider tribe that is suggested to feature fly mimics.

  15. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  16. Acetylene Resembling Effect of Ethylene on Seed Germination: Evaluating the Effect of Acetylene Released from Calcium Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz MASHAYEKHI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some vegetable seeds need a very long time to germinate. In these kinds of seeds the second phase of germination is very long. As acetylene’s chemical structure is almost similar to the gaseous hormone ethylene, its’ physiological effect on seed germination should be very similar as well. Therefore, an experiment was established in order to enhance seed germination, by treating seeds with acetylene released from interaction of calcium carbide (CaC2 with water (H2O. A simple system was designed for efficient and proper use of gaseous acetylene resulted from the two substrates interaction, which conducted the produced gas obtained inside the interaction chamber into a sealed container wherein seeds were floating in water. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of one concentration of acetylene with different exposure periods (between 1 to 8 hours on parsley, celery and Swees chard seeds’ germination (chosen as late germinating vegetables. The effect of acetylene on seed germination speed and percent was investigated. There were significant differences in both percent and speed of germination within the various treatments. By floating for 3, 5 and 3 hours for parsley, celery and Swiss chard respectively, the highest germination rates were observed. The highest germination speed was achieved by 5, 5 and 3 hours floating respectively for parsley, celery and Swiss chard. Based on the results obtained, the current experiment suggests that acetylene has positive effect on enhancing seed germination of named vegetables, and played the role of ethylene, its effects resembling in regard to seed germination process.

  17. Altered synaptic phospholipid signaling in PRG-1 deficient mice induces exploratory behavior and motor hyperactivity resembling psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Patrick; Petzold, Sandra; Sommer, Angela; Nitsch, Robert; Schwegler, Herbert; Vogt, Johannes; Roskoden, Thomas

    2018-01-15

    Plasticity related gene 1 (PRG-1) is a neuron specific membrane protein located at the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. PRG-1 modulates signaling pathways of phosphorylated lipid substrates such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Deletion of PRG-1 increases presynaptic glutamate release probability leading to neuronal over-excitation. However, due to its cortical expression, PRG-1 deficiency leading to increased glutamatergic transmission is supposed to also affect motor pathways. We therefore analyzed the effects of PRG-1 function on exploratory and motor behavior using homozygous PRG-1 knockout (PRG-1 -/- ) mice and PRG-1/LPA 2 -receptor double knockout (PRG-1 -/- /LPA 2 -/- ) mice in two open field settings of different size and assessing motor behavior in the Rota Rod test. PRG-1 -/- mice displayed significantly longer path lengths and higher running speed in both open field conditions. In addition, PRG-1 -/- mice spent significantly longer time in the larger open field and displayed rearing and self-grooming behavior. Furthermore PRG-1 -/- mice displayed stereotypical behavior resembling phenotypes of psychiatric disorders in the smaller sized open field arena. Altogether, this behavior is similar to the stereotypical behavior observed in animal models for psychiatric disease of autistic spectrum disorders which reflects a disrupted balance between glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. These differences indicate an altered excitation/inhibition balance in neuronal circuits in PRG-1 -/- mice as recently shown in the somatosensory cortex [38]. In contrast, PRG-1 -/- /LPA 2 -/- did not show significant changes in behavior in the open field suggesting that these specific alterations were abolished when the LPA 2 -receptor was lacking. Our findings indicate that PRG-1 deficiency led to over-excitability caused by an altered LPA/LPA 2 -R signaling inducing a behavioral phenotype typically observed in animal models for psychiatric disorders. Copyright

  18. Lymphoid Aggregates That Resemble Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Define a Specific Pathological Subset in Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Francesca; Hardie, Debbie L.; Matharu, Gulraj S.; Davenport, Alison J.; Martin, Richard A.; Grant, Melissa; Mosselmans, Frederick; Pynsent, Paul; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P.; Addison, Owen; Revell, Peter A.; Buckley, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) has been used to describe the histological lesion associated with metal-on-metal (M-M) bearings. We tested the hypothesis that the lymphoid aggregates, associated with ALVAL lesions resemble tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). Histopathological changes were examined in the periprosthetic tissue of 62 M-M hip replacements requiring revision surgery, with particular emphasis on the characteristics and pattern of the lymphocytic infiltrate. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to study the classical features of TLOs in cases where large organized lymphoid follicles were present. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements were undertaken to detect localisation of implant derived ions/particles within the samples. Based on type of lymphocytic infiltrates, three different categories were recognised; diffuse aggregates (51%), T cell aggregates (20%), and organised lymphoid aggregates (29%). Further investigation of tissues with organised lymphoid aggregates showed that these tissues recapitulate many of the features of TLOs with T cells and B cells organised into discrete areas, the presence of follicular dendritic cells, acquisition of high endothelial venule like phenotype by blood vessels, expression of lymphoid chemokines and the presence of plasma cells. Co-localisation of implant-derived metals with lymphoid aggregates was observed. These findings suggest that in addition to the well described general foreign body reaction mediated by macrophages and a T cell mediated type IV hypersensitivity response, an under-recognized immunological reaction to metal wear debris involving B cells and the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs occurs in a distinct subset of patients with M-M implants. PMID:23723985

  19. Rhythmicity in mice selected for extremes in stress reactivity: behavioural, endocrine and sleep changes resembling endophenotypes of major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadi Touma

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, including hyper- or hypo-activity of the stress hormone system, plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as major depression (MD. Further biological hallmarks of MD are disturbances in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Applying a translational approach, an animal model has recently been developed, focusing on the deviation in sensitivity to stressful encounters. This so-called 'stress reactivity' (SR mouse model consists of three separate breeding lines selected for either high (HR, intermediate (IR, or low (LR corticosterone increase in response to stressors.In order to contribute to the validation of the SR mouse model, our study combined the analysis of behavioural and HPA axis rhythmicity with sleep-EEG recordings in the HR/IR/LR mouse lines. We found that hyper-responsiveness to stressors was associated with psychomotor alterations (increased locomotor activity and exploration towards the end of the resting period, resembling symptoms like restlessness, sleep continuity disturbances and early awakenings that are commonly observed in melancholic depression. Additionally, HR mice also showed neuroendocrine abnormalities similar to symptoms of MD patients such as reduced amplitude of the circadian glucocorticoid rhythm and elevated trough levels. The sleep-EEG analyses, furthermore, revealed changes in rapid eye movement (REM and non-REM sleep as well as slow wave activity, indicative of reduced sleep efficacy and REM sleep disinhibition in HR mice.Thus, we could show that by selectively breeding mice for extremes in stress reactivity, clinically relevant endophenotypes of MD can be modelled. Given the importance of rhythmicity and sleep disturbances as biomarkers of MD, both animal and clinical studies on the interaction of behavioural, neuroendocrine and sleep parameters may reveal molecular pathways that ultimately lead to the discovery of new

  20. Zic deficiency in the cortical marginal zone and meninges results in cortical lamination defects resembling those in type II lissencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Masaharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Aruga, Jun

    2008-04-30

    The formation of the highly organized cortical structure depends on the production and correct placement of the appropriate number and types of neurons. The Zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors plays essential roles in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors in the medial forebrain and the cerebellum. Examination of the expression of Zic genes demonstrated that Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 were expressed by the progenitor cells in the septum and cortical hem, the sites of generation of the Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed that Zic proteins were abundantly expressed in the meningeal cells and that the majority of the CR cells distributed in the medial and dorsal cortex also expressed Zic proteins in the mid-late embryonic and postnatal cortical marginal zones. During embryonic cortical development, Zic1/Zic3 double-mutant and hypomorphic Zic2 mutant mice showed a reduction in the number of CR cells in the rostral cortex, whereas the cell number remained unaffected in the caudal cortex. These mutants also showed mislocalization of the CR cells and cortical lamination defects, resembling the changes noted in type II (cobblestone) lissencephaly, throughout the brain. In the Zic1/3 mutant, reduced proliferation of the meningeal cells was observed before the thinner and disrupted organization of the pial basement membrane (BM) with reduced expression of the BM components and the meningeal cell-derived secretory factor. These defects correlated with the changes in the end feet morphology of the radial glial cells. These findings indicate that the Zic genes play critical roles in cortical development through regulating the proliferation of meningeal cells and the pial BM assembly.

  1. Young Children's Reasoning About Physical & Behavioural Family Resemblance: Is There a Place for a Precursor Model of Inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Alexaki, Aspa; Papadopoulou, Chrysa; Kalpakiori, Marieleni

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims at exploring (a) whether preschoolers recognize that offspring share physical traits with their parents due to birth and behavioural ones due to nurture, and (b) whether they seem ready to explain shared physical traits with a `pre-biological' causal model that includes the contribution of both parents and a rudimentary notion of genes. This exploration is supposed to provide evidence for our next step, which is the development of an early years' learning environment about inheritance. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 90 preschoolers (age 4.5-5.5) of four public kindergartens in Patras, we attempted to trace their reasoning about (a) whether and why offspring share physical and behavioural traits with parents and (b) which mechanism could better explain the shared physical traits. The probes were a modified six-case version of Solomon et al. (Child Dev 67:151-171, 1996) `adoption task, as well as a three-case task based on Springer's (Child Dev 66:547-558, 1995) `mechanism task' and on Solomon and Johnson's (Br J Dev Psychol 18(1):81-96, 2000) idea of genes as a `conceptual placeholder'. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interviews showed overlapping reasoning about the origin of physical and behavioural family resemblance. Nevertheless, we did trace the `birth-driven' argument for the attribution of the offspring's physical traits to the biological parents, as well as a preference for the `pre-biological' model that introduces a rudimentary idea of genes in order to explain shared physical traits between parents and offspring. The findings of the study and the educational implications are thoroughly discussed.

  2. White spot syndrome virus induces metabolic changes resembling the warburg effect in shrimp hemocytes in the early stage of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Tung; Aoki, Takashi; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Hirono, Ikuo; Chen, Tsan-Chi; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Han-Ching

    2011-12-01

    The Warburg effect is an abnormal glycolysis response that is associated with cancer cells. Here we present evidence that metabolic changes resembling the Warburg effect are induced by a nonmammalian virus. When shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), changes were induced in several metabolic pathways related to the mitochondria. At the viral genome replication stage (12 h postinfection [hpi]), glucose consumption and plasma lactate concentration were both increased in WSSV-infected shrimp, and the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), showed increased activity. We also found that at 12 hpi there was no alteration in the ADP/ATP ratio and that oxidative stress was lower than that in uninfected controls. All of these results are characteristic of the Warburg effect as it is present in mammals. There was also a significant decrease in triglyceride concentration starting at 12 hpi. At the late stage of the infection cycle (24 hpi), hemocytes of WSSV-infected shrimp showed several changes associated with cell death. These included the induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), increased oxidative stress, decreased glucose consumption, and disrupted energy production. A previous study showed that WSSV infection led to upregulation of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is known to be involved in both the Warburg effect and MMP. Here we show that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of the VDAC reduces WSSV-induced mortality and virion copy number. For these results, we hypothesize a model depicting the metabolic changes in host cells at the early and late stages of WSSV infection.

  3. Optimizing cationic and neutral lipids for efficient gene delivery at high serum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chia-Ling; Ewert, Kai K; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Liang, Keng S; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential application in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for application is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of a high serum content on TE, even though this may provide design guidelines for application in vivo. We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol], the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, particularly at a high serum content. Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We propose guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Solution behaviour of Human Serum Albumin and GLP-1variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Pernille

    interaction is critical for the long term stability of a pharmaceutical. Protein complex formation is important for extended half-life in vivo and is essential to cellular communication such as the induction of the insulin response. This thesis focuses on human serum albumin (HSA) as a central player...

  5. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  6. Al cation induces aggregation of serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-07-15

    Al cation is known to induce protein fibrillation and causes several neurodegenerative disorders. We report the spectroscopic, thermodynamic analysis and AFM imaging for the Al cation binding process with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Hydrophobicity played a major role in Al-protein interactions with more hydrophobic b-LG forming stronger Al-protein complexes. Thermodynamic parameters ΔS, ΔH and ΔG showed Al-protein bindings occur via hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts for b-LG, while van der Waals and H-bonding interactions prevail in HSA and BSA adducts. AFM clearly indicated that aluminum cations are able to force BSA and b-LG into larger or more robust aggregates than HSA, with HSA 4±0.2 (SE, n=801) proteins per aggregate, for BSA 17±2 (SE, n=148), and for b-LG 12±3 (SE, n=151). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced major alterations of protein conformations with the order of perturbations b-LG>BSA>HSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human serum albumin unfolding pathway upon drug binding: A thermodynamic and spectroscopic description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, Mohammad Arif; Taboada, Pablo; Barbosa, Silvia; Juarez, Josue; Gutierrez-Pichel, Manuel; Siddiq, Mohammad; Mosquera, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The interest on phenothiazine drugs has been increased during last years due to their proved utility in the treatment of several diseases and biomolecular processes. In the present work, the binding of the amphiphilic phenothiazines promazine and thioridazine hydrochlorides to the carrier protein human serum albumin (HSA) has been examined by ζ-potential, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), fluorescence and circular dichorism (CD) spectroscopies, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) at physiological pH with the aim of analyzing the role of the different interactions in the drug complexation process with this protein. The ζ-potential results were used to check the existence of complexation. This is confirmed by a progressive screening of the protein charge up to a reversal point as a consequence of drug binding. On the other hand, binding causes alterations on the tertiary and secondary structures of the protein, which were observed by fluorescence and CD spectroscopies, involving a two-step, three-state transition. The thermodynamics of the binding process was derived from ITC results. The binding enthalpies were negative, which reveal the existence of electrostatic interactions between protein and drug molecules. In addition, increases in entropy are consistent with the predominance of hydrophobic interactions. Two different classes of binding sites were detected, viz. Binding to the first class of binding sites is dominated by an enthalpic contribution due to electrostatic interactions whereas binding to a second class of binding sites is dominated by hydrophobic bonding. In the light of these results, protein conformational change resembles the acid-induced denaturation of HSA with accumulation of an intermediate state. Binding isotherms were derived from microcalorimetric results by using a theoretical model based on the Langmuir isotherm. On the other hand, the population distribution of the different species in solution and their sizes were determined

  8. Human serum albumin unfolding pathway upon drug binding: A thermodynamic and spectroscopic description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheema, Mohammad Arif [Grupo de Fisica de Coloides y Polimeros, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Taboada, Pablo [Grupo de Fisica de Coloides y Polimeros, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: pablo.taboada@usc.es; Barbosa, Silvia; Juarez, Josue; Gutierrez-Pichel, Manuel [Grupo de Fisica de Coloides y Polimeros, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Siddiq, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mosquera, Victor [Grupo de Fisica de Coloides y Polimeros, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-04-15

    The interest on phenothiazine drugs has been increased during last years due to their proved utility in the treatment of several diseases and biomolecular processes. In the present work, the binding of the amphiphilic phenothiazines promazine and thioridazine hydrochlorides to the carrier protein human serum albumin (HSA) has been examined by {zeta}-potential, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), fluorescence and circular dichorism (CD) spectroscopies, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) at physiological pH with the aim of analyzing the role of the different interactions in the drug complexation process with this protein. The {zeta}-potential results were used to check the existence of complexation. This is confirmed by a progressive screening of the protein charge up to a reversal point as a consequence of drug binding. On the other hand, binding causes alterations on the tertiary and secondary structures of the protein, which were observed by fluorescence and CD spectroscopies, involving a two-step, three-state transition. The thermodynamics of the binding process was derived from ITC results. The binding enthalpies were negative, which reveal the existence of electrostatic interactions between protein and drug molecules. In addition, increases in entropy are consistent with the predominance of hydrophobic interactions. Two different classes of binding sites were detected, viz. Binding to the first class of binding sites is dominated by an enthalpic contribution due to electrostatic interactions whereas binding to a second class of binding sites is dominated by hydrophobic bonding. In the light of these results, protein conformational change resembles the acid-induced denaturation of HSA with accumulation of an intermediate state. Binding isotherms were derived from microcalorimetric results by using a theoretical model based on the Langmuir isotherm. On the other hand, the population distribution of the different species in solution and their sizes were

  9. Novel animal defenses against predation: a snail egg neurotoxin combining lectin and pore-forming chains that resembles plant defense and bacteria attack toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Sebastián Dreon

    Full Text Available Although most eggs are intensely predated, the aerial egg clutches from the aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata have only one reported predator due to unparalleled biochemical defenses. These include two storage-proteins: ovorubin that provides a conspicuous (presumably warning coloration and has antinutritive and antidigestive properties, and PcPV2 a neurotoxin with lethal effect on rodents. We sequenced PcPV2 and studied whether it was able to withstand the gastrointestinal environment and reach circulation of a potential predator. Capacity to resist digestion was assayed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, fluorescence spectroscopy and simulated gastrointestinal proteolysis. PcPV2 oligomer is antinutritive, withstanding proteinase digestion and displaying structural stability between pH 4.0-10.0. cDNA sequencing and protein domain search showed that its two subunits share homology with membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF-like toxins and tachylectin-like lectins, a previously unknown structure that resembles plant Type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins and bacterial botulinum toxins. The protomer has therefore a novel AB toxin combination of a MACPF-like chain linked by disulfide bonds to a lectin-like chain, indicating a delivery system for the former. This was further supported by observing PcPV2 binding to glycocalix of enterocytes in vivo and in culture, and by its hemaggutinating, but not hemolytic activity, which suggested an interaction with surface oligosaccharides. PcPV2 is able to get into predator's body as evidenced in rats and mice by the presence of circulating antibodies in response to sublethal oral doses. To our knowledge, a lectin-pore-forming toxin has not been reported before, providing the first evidence of a neurotoxic lectin in animals, and a novel function for ancient and widely distributed proteins. The acquisition of this unique neurotoxic/antinutritive/storage protein may confer the eggs a survival advantage

  10. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Tsujimura

    2017-09-01

    Tsujimura A, Kiuchi H, Soda T, et al. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169–e174.

  11. [Synchronous Double Cancer Involving Gastric Cancer Resembling a Submucosal Tumor with Stenosis in the Pylorus and Ascending Colon Cancer - A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Tatsuomi; Miyaki, Akira; Ida, Arika; Kishibe, Saki; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Usui, Takebumi; Kuhara, Kotaro; Kono, Teppei; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-11-01

    An 82-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a complaint of frequent vomiting. She was admitted for intensive examination and treatment. Abdominal computed tomography revealed that her stomach was severely expanded, and the wall of the ascending colon was thickened throughout its circumference. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy uncovered severe stenosis in the pylorus and an elevated lesion resembling a submucosal tumor on the posterior wall of the pylorus. Biopsies of the lesion revealed that it was of Group 1. On colonoscopy, type 2 cancer was found in the ascending colon throughout the circumference, and the biopsies revealed that it was of Group 5. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was repeated, and the same result was obtained. The possibility of malignancy could not be excluded; therefore, distal gastrectomy and right colectomy were performed. In terms of histopathology, both resected specimens displayed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma; however, immunohistochemical studies revealed differences in staining at the two sites. The case was diagnosed as synchronous double cancer involving gastric cancer resembling a submucosal tumor with stenosis in the pylorus and ascending colon cancer. Gastric cancer resembling a submucosal tumor is usually difficult to diagnose on biopsy. If the endoscopic findings reveal an elevated lesion resembling a submucosal tumor with stenosis, then the possibility of carcinoma should be considered, and the most suitable treatment should be selected.

  12. Does My Baby Really Look Like Me? Using Tests for Resemblance between Parent and Child to Teach Topics in Categorical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Amy G.; Nettleton, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a study to test whether neutral observers perceive a resemblance between a parent and a child. We demonstrate the general approach for two separate parent/ child pairs using survey data collected from introductory statistics students serving as neutral observers. We then present ideas for incorporating the study design…

  13. A CRPS-IgG-transfer-trauma model reproducing inflammatory and positive sensory signs associated with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékus, Valéria; Hajna, Zsófia; Borbély, Éva; Markovics, Adrienn; Bagoly, Teréz; Szolcsányi, János; Thompson, Victoria; Kemény, Ágnes; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Goebel, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The aetiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a highly painful, usually post-traumatic condition affecting the limbs, is unknown, but recent results have suggested an autoimmune contribution. To confirm a role for pathogenic autoantibodies, we established a passive-transfer trauma model. Prior to undergoing incision of hind limb plantar skin and muscle, mice were injected either with serum IgG obtained from chronic CRPS patients or matched healthy volunteers, or with saline. Unilateral hind limb plantar skin and muscle incision was performed to induce typical, mild tissue injury. Mechanical hyperalgesia, paw swelling, heat and cold sensitivity, weight-bearing ability, locomotor activity, motor coordination, paw temperature, and body weight were investigated for 8days. After sacrifice, proinflammatory sensory neuropeptides and cytokines were measured in paw tissues. CRPS patient IgG treatment significantly increased hind limb mechanical hyperalgesia and oedema in the incised paw compared with IgG from healthy subjects or saline. Plantar incision induced a remarkable elevation of substance P immunoreactivity on day 8, which was significantly increased by CRPS-IgG. In this IgG-transfer-trauma model for CRPS, serum IgG from chronic CRPS patients induced clinical and laboratory features resembling the human disease. These results support the hypothesis that autoantibodies may contribute to the pathophysiology of CRPS, and that autoantibody-removing therapies may be effective treatments for long-standing CRPS. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Menstrual blood closely resembles the uterine immune micro-environment and is clearly distinct from peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, R G; Schutten, J H F; van Cranenbroek, B; ter Meer, M; Donckers, J; Scholten, R R; van der Heijden, O W H; Spaanderman, M E A; Joosten, I

    2014-02-01

    Is menstrual blood a suitable source of endometrial derived lymphocytes? Mononuclear cells isolated from menstrual samples (menstrual blood mononuclear cells (MMC)) are clearly distinct from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and show a strong resemblance with biopsy-derived endometrial mononuclear cells. A critical event in the onset of pregnancy is the implantation of the embryo in the uterine wall. The immune cell composition in the endometrium at the time of implantation is considered pivotal for success. Despite advancing knowledge on the composition of the immune cell population in the uterus, the role of endometrial immune cells in reproductive disorders is still not fully resolved, mainly due to the fact that this type of research requires invasive techniques. Here, we collected menstrual fluid and validated this unique non-invasive technique to obtain and study the endometrium-derived immune cells which would be present around the time of implantation. Five healthy non-pregnant females with regular menstruation cycles and not using oral contraceptives collected their menstrual blood using a menstrual cup in five consecutive cycles. Sampling took place over the first 3 days of menses, with 12 h intervals. Peripheral blood samples, taken before and after each menstruation, were obtained for comparative analysis. MMC and PBMC samples were characterized for the different lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry, with emphasis on NK cells and T cells. Next, the functional capacity of the MMC-derived NK cells was determined by measuring intracellular production of IFN-γ, granzyme B and perforin after culture in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15. In support of their endometrial origin, MMC samples contained the typical composition of mononuclear cells expected of endometrial tissue, were phenotypically similar to the reported phenotype for biopsy-derived endometrial cells, and were distinct from PBMC. Increased percentages of NK cells and decreased percentages

  15. Radioimmunossay of hormones and metabolites in blood serum and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    Hormones or metabolites which are capable of producing antibodies can be detected and precisely quantitated by this method. Antibodies, to various hormones or metabolites whose assay is desired, are adsorbed onto commercially available imitation or cultured pearls. These pearls coated with antibody are contacted with a buffered reaction mixture containing blood serum or plasma specimen and respective radioactive antigen. The entire reaction is allowed to proceed for a time sufficient to form antigen (radioactive or non-radioactive)-antibody complex. These complexes on the pearls are washed and the total amount of radioactivity emanating from the complex is measured. This is indicative of the extent of binding of radioactive antigen and provides an indirect correlation of the amount of non-radioactive antigen present in the serum or plasma sample

  16. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  17. Sex Differences in Genetic Architecture of Complex Phenotypes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; van Dongen, J.; van Beek, J.H.D.A.; Distel, M.A.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Smit, D.J.A.; Minica, C.C.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Geels, L.M.; Abdellaoui, A.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Hottenga, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    We examined sex differences in familial resemblance for a broad range of behavioral, psychiatric and health related phenotypes (122 complex traits) in children and adults. There is a renewed interest in the importance of genotype by sex interaction in, for example, genome-wide association (GWA)

  18. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  19. Treatment of Refractory Filamentary Keratitis With Autologous Serum Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sarah P; Rodriguez, Marianeli; Dubovy, Sander; Karp, Carol L; Galor, Anat

    2017-09-01

    To report a case of filamentary keratitis (FK) successfully treated with autologous serum tears and to review the pathogenesis and management of FK. Case report including high-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography and filament histopathology. A 61-year-old Hispanic man presented with pain and photophobia of the right eye. He was found to have a corneal epithelial defect and a small peripheral infiltrate 4 months after Laser Assisted in situ Keratomileusis. After resolution of the epithelial defect, he developed FK. Over a 4-month period, conservative management with aggressive lubrication, lid hygiene, topical corticosteroids, topical cyclosporine, bandage contact lenses, and oral doxycycline failed to resolve the corneal filaments. Notably, treatment with 20% autologous serum tears, four times daily, led to a sustained resolution of the FK within 1 week. This case demonstrates the complexity of FK management and introduces autologous serum tears as a viable management option when conservative approaches to this condition fail.

  20. Fluorescent investigation of the interactions between N-(p-chlorophenyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl) thiourea and serum albumin: Synchronous fluorescence determination of serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Fengling [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control Technology of Henan Province, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Hennan 453007 (China)]. E-mail: fenglingcui@hotmail.com; Wang Junli [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control Technology of Henan Province, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Hennan 453007 (China); Cui Yanrui [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control Technology of Henan Province, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Hennan 453007 (China); Li Jianping [School of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control Technology of Henan Province, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Hennan 453007 (China)

    2006-07-07

    The interactions between N-(p-chlorophenyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl) thiourea and serum albumin were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectrum under physiological conditions. The results of spectroscopic measurements suggested that N-(p-chlorophenyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl) thiourea should have a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of both bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin through static quenching procedure, and the hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular force stabilizing the complex. Thermodynamic parameter enthalpy changes ({delta}H) and entropy changes ({delta}S) were calculated according to the Vant'Hoff equation. The binding distances between N-(p-chlorophenyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl) thiourea and the proteins were evaluated on the basis of the theory of Foester energy transfer. In addition, the effects of other ions on the binding constants of complexes were also discussed. Synchronous fluorescence technology was successfully applied to the determination of serum albumins added to the CPNT solution.

  1. Fluorescent investigation of the interactions between N-(p-chlorophenyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl) thiourea and serum albumin: Synchronous fluorescence determination of serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengling; Wang Junli; Cui Yanrui; Li Jianping

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between N-(p-chlorophenyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl) thiourea and serum albumin were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectrum under physiological conditions. The results of spectroscopic measurements suggested that N-(p-chlorophenyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl) thiourea should have a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of both bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin through static quenching procedure, and the hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular force stabilizing the complex. Thermodynamic parameter enthalpy changes (ΔH) and entropy changes (ΔS) were calculated according to the Vant'Hoff equation. The binding distances between N-(p-chlorophenyl)-N'-(1-naphthyl) thiourea and the proteins were evaluated on the basis of the theory of Foester energy transfer. In addition, the effects of other ions on the binding constants of complexes were also discussed. Synchronous fluorescence technology was successfully applied to the determination of serum albumins added to the CPNT solution

  2. From FRA to RFN, or How the Family Resemblance Approach Can Be Transformed for Science Curriculum Analysis on Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-12-01

    The inclusion of Nature of Science (NOS) in the science curriculum has been advocated around the world for several decades. One way of defining NOS is related to the family resemblance approach (FRA). The family resemblance idea was originally described by Wittgenstein. Subsequently, philosophers and educators have applied Wittgenstein's idea to problems of their own disciplines. For example, Irzik and Nola adapted Wittgenstein's generic definition of the family resemblance idea to NOS, while Erduran and Dagher reconceptualized Irzik and Nola's FRA-to-NOS by synthesizing educational applications by drawing on perspectives from science education research. In this article, we use the terminology of "Reconceptualized FRA-to-NOS (RFN)" to refer to Erduran and Dagher's FRA version which offers an educational account inclusive of knowledge about pedagogical, instructional, curricular and assessment issues in science education. Our motivation for making this distinction is rooted in the need to clarify the various accounts of the family resemblance idea.The key components of the RFN include the aims and values of science, methods and methodological rules, scientific practices, scientific knowledge as well as the social-institutional dimensions of science including the social ethos, certification, and power relations. We investigate the potential of RFN in facilitating curriculum analysis and in determining the gaps related to NOS in the curriculum. We analyze two Turkish science curricula published 7 years apart and illustrate how RFN can contribute not only to the analysis of science curriculum itself but also to trends in science curriculum development. Furthermore, we present an analysis of documents from USA and Ireland and contrast them to the Turkish curricula thereby illustrating some trends in the coverage of RFN categories. The results indicate that while both Turkish curricula contain statements that identify science as a cognitive-epistemic system, they

  3. Antioxidant flavonoids bind human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    2006-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.

  4. Lecithin intake and serum cholesterol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuiman, J.T.; Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    To find out whether the consumption of lecithin has a more beneficial effect on serum cholesterol than does the consumption of equivalent amounts of polyunsaturated oils, we scrutinized 24 studies on the effect of supplementary lecithin intakes ranging from 1 to 54 mg/d. Most of the studies lacked

  5. Serum transferrin receptor in polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteiga, R; Remacha, A F; Sardà, M P; Ubeda, J

    1998-10-01

    We measured serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels in 22 patients with polycythemia vera and in 26 cases of secondary polycythemia. In our study, raised sTfR levels in both polycythemia groups were related to iron deficiency.

  6. Serum zinc level in thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keikhaei, B.; Badavi, M.; Pedram, M.; Zandian, K.

    2010-01-01

    To compare serum zinc level between Thalassemia Major (TM) patients and normal population at Shafa Hospital in South West of Iran. A total of 25 male and 36 female of TM patients were enrolled in this study. Out of 61 patients thirty were treated by deferroxamine (DFO) and 31 were on the combination of DFO and deferiprone (DEF) protocol therapy. Sixty normal subjects of the matching age and gender were recruited as controls. From each patient and control group 2 ml of blood was taken in fasting condition. Cell blood count and serum zinc were carried out for both thalassemia patients and normal subjects. The mean age of patients and control group was 15+- 5 years. Mean serum zinc level was 68.97+- 21.12 mu g/dl, 78.10-28.50 mu g/dl, and 80.16+- 26.54 mu g/dl in the TM with DFO, TM with DFO + DEF combination protocol and control group respectively. There was no significant correlation between patients and control group. However 50 percent of TM with DFO, 38.7 percent of TM with DFO + DEF and 32.8 percent of control group had hypozincemia. Nearly 40 to 50 percent of TM patients and one third of normal subjects are suffering from hypozincemia. This study shows that low level of serum zinc is a health problem in both thalassemia patients and normal population in South West of Iran. (author)

  7. Enacting cultural boundaries in French and German diphtheria serum research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöppel, Ulrike

    2008-06-01

    The experimental development of a therapeutic serum against diphtheria between 1891 and 1894 was characterized by a scientific competition that pitted Emil Behring from the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin against Emile Roux and Elie Metschnikoff from the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In general, their competition can be regarded as an extension of the fundamental differences that separated the research schools of Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur. However, to characterize the competition for a diphtheria-serum as "national rivalry" fails to account adequately for the mutual adoption of experimental practices by the Berlin and Parisian protagonists, whose contributions to the development of a therapeutic serum were intertwined in complex ways. Nor can it be characterized as "cooperation," given their fierce public disputes over scientific concepts and the fact that these disputes also shaped the peculiarities of the experimental procedures in Berlin and Paris. A close analysis reveals a complex picture of the dynamic interaction between the conceptual and experimental activities of Behring, Roux, and Metschnikoff- interaction that defined as well as bridged the "French" and "Prussian" experimental systems of diphtheria-serum research.

  8. Comparison of microcalorimetry and haze formation to quantify the association of B-type procyanidins to poly-L-proline and bovine serum albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Watrelot, Aude; Renard, Catherine; Le Bourvellec, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Though many different methods have been applied to protein-tannin interactions, divergent results are often reported. To better understand the origin of these differences, we compare here haze/aggregates formation and thermodynamic parameters occurring for protein-procyanidin interactions. Proteins well referenced for interaction with polyphenols, namely a polypeptide of extended structure that resembles salivary proteins (poly-L-proline (PLP) and a standard globular protein (bovine serum alb...

  9. A reduced-amide inhibitor of Pin1 binds in a conformation resembling a twisted-amide transition state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoyan G; Zhang, Yan; Mercedes-Camacho, Ana Y; Etzkorn, Felicia A

    2011-11-08

    The mechanism of the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase), Pin1, was investigated using reduced-amide inhibitors designed to mimic the twisted-amide transition state. Inhibitors, R-pSer-Ψ[CH(2)N]-Pro-2-(indol-3-yl)ethylamine, 1 [R = fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)] and 2 (R = Ac), of Pin1 were synthesized and bioassayed. Inhibitor 1 had an IC(50) value of 6.3 μM, which is 4.5-fold better for Pin1 than our comparable ground-state analogue, a cis-amide alkene isostere-containing inhibitor. The change of Fmoc to Ac in 2 improved aqueous solubility for structural determination and resulted in an IC(50) value of 12 μM. The X-ray structure of the complex of 2 bound to Pin1 was determined to 1.76 Å resolution. The structure revealed that the reduced amide adopted a conformation similar to the proposed twisted-amide transition state of Pin1, with a trans-pyrrolidine conformation of the prolyl ring. A similar conformation of substrate would be destabilized relative to the planar amide conformation. Three additional reduced amides, with Thr replacing Ser and l- or d-pipecolate (Pip) replacing Pro, were slightly weaker inhibitors of Pin1.

  10. Reduced-Amide Inhibitor of Pin1 Binds in a Conformation Resembling a Twisted-Amide Transition State†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Zhang, Yan; Mercedes-Camacho, Ana Y.; Etzkorn, Felicia A.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase), Pin1, was investigated using reduced-amide inhibitors designed to mimic the twisted-amide transition state. Inhibitors, R–pSer–Ψ[CH2N]–Pro–2-(indol-3-yl)-ethylamine, 1 (R = fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl, Fmoc), and 2 (R = Ac), of Pin1 were synthesized and bioassayed. Inhibitor 1 had an IC50 value of 6.3 μM, which is 4.5-fold better inhibition for Pin1 than our comparable ground state analogue, a cis-amide alkene isostere containing inhibitor. The change of Fmoc to Ac in 2 improved aqueous solubility for structural determination, and resulted in an IC50 value of 12 μM. The X-ray structure of the complex of 2 bound to Pin1 was determined to 1.76 Å resolution. The structure revealed that the reduced amide adopted a conformation similar to the proposed twisted-amide transition state of Pin1, with a trans-pyrrolidine conformation of the prolyl ring. A similar conformation of substrate would be destabilized relative to the planar amide conformation. Three additional reduced amides, with Thr replacing Ser, and l- or d-pipecolate (Pip) replacing Pro, were slightly weaker inhibitors of Pin1. PMID:21980916

  11. Pioneer round of translation occurs during serum starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Nara; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Choe, Junho; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2007-01-01

    The pioneer round of translation plays a role in translation initiation of newly spliced and exon junction complex (EJC)-bound mRNAs. Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 binds to those mRNAs at the 5'-end, recruiting translation initiation complex. As a consequence of the pioneer round of translation, the bound EJCs are dissociated from mRNAs and CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. Steady-state translation directed by eIF4E allows for an immediate and rapid response to changes in physiological conditions. Here, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which restricts only to the pioneer round of translation but not to steady-state translation, efficiently occurs even during serum starvation, in which steady-state translation is drastically abolished. Accordingly, CBP80 remains in the nucleus and processing bodies are unaffected in their abundance and number in serum-starved conditions. These results suggest that mRNAs enter the pioneer round of translation during serum starvation and are targeted for NMD if they contain premature termination codons

  12. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  13. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  14. Serum tumor markers in pediatric osteosarcoma: a summary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitskaya Yulia A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common primary high-grade bone tumor in both adolescents and children. Early tumor detection is key to ensuring effective treatment. Serum marker discovery and validation for pediatric osteosarcoma has accelerated in recent years, coincident with an evolving understanding of molecules and their complex interactions, and the compelling need for improved pediatric osteosarcoma outcome measures in clinical trials. This review gives a short overview of serological markers for pediatric osteosarcoma, and highlights advances in pediatric osteosarcoma-related marker research within the past year. Studies in the past year involving serum markers in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma can be assigned to one of four categories, i.e., new approaches and new markers, exploratory studies in specialized disease subsets, large cross-sectional validation studies, and longitudinal studies, with and without an intervention. Most of the studies have examined the association of a serum marker with some aspect of the natural history of pediatric osteosarcoma. As illustrated by the many studies reviewed, several serum markers are emerging that show a credible association with disease modification. The expanding pool of informative osteosarcoma-related markers is expected to impact development of therapeutics for pediatric osteosarcoma positively and, it is hoped, ultimately clinical care. Combinations of serum markers of natural immunity, thyroid hormone homeostasis, and bone tumorigenesis may be undertaken together in patients with pediatric osteosarcoma. These serum markers in combination may do better. The potential effect of an intrinsic dynamic balance of tumor angiogenesis residing within a single hormone (tri-iodothyronine is an attractive concept for regulation of vascularization in pediatric osteosarcoma.

  15. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  16. Analysis of nanoparticle biomolecule complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Stefán B; Bernfur, Katja; Mikkelsen, Anders; Cedervall, Tommy

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticles exposed to biological fluids adsorb biomolecules on their surface forming a biomolecular corona. This corona determines, on a molecular level, the interactions and impact the newly formed complex has on cells and organisms. The corona formation as well as the physiological and toxicological relevance are commonly investigated. However, an acknowledged but rarely addressed problem in many fields of nanobiotechnology is aggregation and broadened size distribution of nanoparticles following their interactions with the molecules of biological fluids. In blood serum, TiO 2 nanoparticles form complexes with a size distribution from 30 nm to more than 500 nm. In this study we have separated these complexes, with good resolution, using preparative centrifugation in a sucrose gradient. Two main apparent size populations were obtained, a fast sedimenting population of complexes that formed a pellet in the preparative centrifugation tube, and a slow sedimenting complex population still suspended in the gradient after centrifugation. Concentration and surface area dependent differences are found in the biomolecular corona between the slow and fast sedimenting fractions. There are more immunoglobulins, lipid binding proteins, and lipid-rich complexes at higher serum concentrations. Sedimentation rate and the biomolecular corona are important factors for evaluating any experiment including nanoparticle exposure. Our results show that traditional description of nanoparticles in biological fluids is an oversimplification and that more thorough characterisations are needed.

  17. Unusually large erupted complex odontoma: A rare case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagewadi, Shivanand B.; Kukreja, Rahul; Suma, Gundareddy N.; Yadav, Bhawn; Sharma, Havi [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, ITS Centre for Dental Studies and Research, Murad Nagar (India)

    2015-03-15

    Odontomas are nonaggressive, hamartomatous developmental malformations composed of mature tooth substances and may be compound or complex depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or on their resemblance to normal teeth. Among them, complex odontomas are relatively rare tumors. They are usually asymptomatic in nature. Occasionally, these tumors become large, causing bone expansion followed by facial asymmetry. Odontoma eruptions are uncommon, and thus far, very few cases of erupted complex odontomas have been reported in the literature. Here, we report the case of an unusually large, painless, complex odontoma located in the right posterior mandible.

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of the riboflavin-serum albumins interaction on silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voicescu, Mariana, E-mail: voicescu@icf.ro; Angelescu, Daniel G. [Institute of Physical Chemistry ' Ilie Murgulescu' , Romanian Academy (Romania); Ionescu, Sorana [University of Bucharest, Department of Physical Chemistry (Romania); Teodorescu, Valentin S. [Institute of Atomic Physics, National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania)

    2013-04-15

    Spectrophotometric behavior of riboflavin (RF) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles as well as its interaction with two serum albumins, BSA and HSA, respectively, has been evidenced. The time evolution of the plasmonic features of the complexes formed by RF/BSA/HSA and Ag(0) nanoparticles having an average diameter of 10.0 {+-} 2.0 nm have been investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, the structure, stability, and dynamics of the serum albumins have been studied. The efficiency of energy transfer process between RF and serum albumins on silver nanoparticles has been estimated. A reaction mechanism of RF with silver nanoparticles is also proposed and the results are discussed with relevance to the involvement of the silver nanoparticles to the redox process of RF and to the RF-serum albumins interaction into a silver nanoparticles complex.

  19. Spectroscopic analysis of the riboflavin—serum albumins interaction on silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicescu, Mariana; Angelescu, Daniel G.; Ionescu, Sorana; Teodorescu, Valentin S.

    2013-04-01

    Spectrophotometric behavior of riboflavin (RF) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles as well as its interaction with two serum albumins, BSA and HSA, respectively, has been evidenced. The time evolution of the plasmonic features of the complexes formed by RF/BSA/HSA and Ag(0) nanoparticles having an average diameter of 10.0 ± 2.0 nm have been investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, the structure, stability, and dynamics of the serum albumins have been studied. The efficiency of energy transfer process between RF and serum albumins on silver nanoparticles has been estimated. A reaction mechanism of RF with silver nanoparticles is also proposed and the results are discussed with relevance to the involvement of the silver nanoparticles to the redox process of RF and to the RF-serum albumins interaction into a silver nanoparticles complex.

  20. Probing cocaine-antibody interactions in buffer and human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available Despite progress in cocaine immunotherapy, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of antibodies which bind to cocaine and its metabolites are not well understood. It is also not clear how the interactions between them differ in a complex matrix such as the serum present in the human body. In the present study, we have used microscale thermophoresis (MST, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR we have evaluated the affinity properties of a representative mouse monoclonal (mAb08 as well as those of polyclonal antibodies purified from vaccinated mouse and human patient serum.MST analysis of fluorescently tagged mAb08 binding to cocaine reveals an approximately 15 fold decrease in its equilibrium dissociation constant in 20-50% human serum compared with that in saline buffer. A similar trend was also found using enriched polyclonal antibodies purified from vaccinated mice and patient serum, for which we have used fluorescently tagged bovine serum albumin conjugated to succinyl norcocaine (BSA-SNC. This conjugate closely mimics both cocaine and the hapten used to raise these antibodies. The ITC data also revealed that cocaine has a moderate affinity of about 2 µM to 20% human serum and very little interaction with human serum albumin or nonspecific human IgG at that concentration range. In a SPR inhibition experiment, the binding of mAb08 to immobilized BSA-SNC was inhibited by cocaine and benzoylecgonine in a highly competitive manner, whereas the purified polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated humans and mice, revealed preferential selectivity to pharmacologically active cocaine but not to the inactive metabolite benzoylecgonine. We have also developed a simple binding model to simulate the challenges associated with cocaine immunotherapy using the variable quantitative and kinetic properties of the antibodies.High sensitivity calorimetric determination of antibody binding to cocaine and its metabolites provide

  1. Delayed growth in two German shepherd dog littermates with normal serum concentrations of growth hormone, thyroxine, and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, J F; Miller, C L; Cummings, J F; Lothrop, C D

    1990-01-01

    Four German Shepherd Dogs from a litter of 10 were evaluated because of postnatal onset of proportionate growth stunting that clinically resembled well-documented hypopituitary dwarfism in that breed. Although 2 pups had histologic evidence of hypopituitarism, the remaining 2 pups had normal serum growth hormone concentration and adrenocorticotropin secretory capability, and normal adrenal function test and thyroid function study results. Furthermore, the initially stunted German Shepherd Dogs grew at a steady rate until at 1 year, body weight and shoulder height approximated normal measurements. Seemingly, delayed growth in these pups may represent one end of a clinical spectrum associated with hypopituitarism in German Shepherd Dogs.

  2. Lipoplex size determines lipofection efficiency with or without serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almofti, Mohamad Radwan; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Shinohara, Yasuo; Almofti, Ammar; Li, Wenhao; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    In order to identify factors affecting cationic liposome-mediated gene transfer, the relationships were examined among cationic liposome/DNA complex (lipoplex)-cell interactions, lipoplex size and lipoplex-mediated transfection (lipofection) efficiency. It was found that lipofection efficiency was determined mainly by lipoplex size, but not by the extent of lipoplex-cell interactions including binding, uptake or fusion. In addition, it was found that serum affected mainly lipoplex size, but not lipoplex-cell interactions, which effect was the major reason behind the inhibitory effect of serum on lipofection efficiency. It was concluded that, in the presence or absence of serum, lipoplex size is a major factor determining lipofection efficiency. Moreover, in the presence or absence of serum, lipoplex size was found to affect lipofection efficiency by controlling the size of the intracellular vesicles containing lipoplexes after internalization, but not by affecting lipoplex-cell interactions. In addition, large lipoplex particles showed, in general, higher lipofection efficiency than small particles. These results imply that, by controlling lipoplex size, an efficient lipid delivery system may be achieved for in vitro and in vivo gene therapy.

  3. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Serum Antibody Biomarkers for ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    typically developing control. US, unaffected sibling control. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...typically developing (TD) children (e.g., Warren et al., 1990; Singh, 2009). The goal of this study is to identify a serum antibody biomarker for ASD using...50% less IgG1 antibody in ASD boys vs . TD boys (p=0.0096). The level of ASD1 binding to the AM group was the same as to the ASD boys. These data

  5. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  6. Binding of properdin to solid-phase immune complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, A; Baatrup, G; Svehag, S E

    1998-01-01

    The capacity of serum to support deposition of C3, properdin and factor B was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using solid-phase immune complexes (IC) for activation of complement. Deposition of C3 and properdin occurred in fairly dilute normal human serum (NHS), but factor B uptake...... fixed to IC was the principal ligand for properdin in the assay. The findings could have biological implications relating to complement-mediated modification of immune complexes in disease....

  7. Secondary syphilis lesions resembling pityriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, N.R.; Ali, L.; Nawaz, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes a male patient who presented with generalized, centrally-ulcerated papules with crusts and hypopigmented macules. Initially, differential diagnostic considerations included pityriasis lichenoides but the serology for syphilis was positive and there was a rapid response to penicillin with clearing of the lesions at the end of three weeks treatment. (author)

  8. Advances in bioanalytical techniques to measure steroid hormones in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Steroid hormones are measured clinically to determine if a patient has a pathological process occurring in the adrenal gland, or other hormone responsive organs. They are very similar in structure making them analytically challenging to measure. Additionally, these hormones have vast concentration differences in human serum adding to the measurement complexity. GC-MS was the gold standard methodology used to measure steroid hormones clinically, followed by radioimmunoassay, but that was replaced by immunoassay due to ease of use. LC-MS/MS has now become a popular alternative owing to simplified sample preparation than for GC-MS and increased specificity and sensitivity over immunoassay. This review will discuss these methodologies and some new developments that could simplify and improve steroid hormone analysis in serum.

  9. Serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakiewicz, Beata; Kozielec, Tadeusz; Brodowski, Jacek; Chlubek, Dariusz; Noceń, Iwona; Starczewski, Andrzej; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2007-03-01

    Drug addiction is a complex problem which leads to many somatic, psychic and social diseases. It is accompanied by the disturbed metabolism of various macro and micronutrients. The aim of this study was to assess serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients and analyze whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and methadone treatment affect the level of serum magnesium in these patients. The examination was conducted in a group of 83 people - patients of Szczecin-Zdroje Psychiatric Hospital (Poland). They were 21 to 49 years old, and the mean age was 32 +/- 7 years. The control group consisted of 81 healthy individuals. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry method was used to determine the magnesium concentration. The total serum magnesium concentration was calculated for the whole patient group, subgroups of women and men, a subgroup of people infected with HIV, and a subgroup receiving methadone substitution treatment. How magnesium behaves depending on age and addiction period, was checked. The mean concentration of magnesium in blood serum of the patients examined was 0.57 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than in the control group. In the subgroup of men it was 0.57 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of women - 0.55 mmol/L; the differences were not statistically significant. In the patient group nobody had the appropriate magnesium concentration in blood serum. No significant correlation was found between the magnesium concentration, age of the patients and addiction period. In the subgroup of seropositive people the mean concentration of magnesium was 0.55 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of non-infected patients - 0.58 mmol/L; the difference was not statistically significant. The mean concentration of magnesium in the subgroup treated with methadone was 0.59 mmol/L, and in the subgroup not involved in this type of therapy - 0.55 mmol/L; it was not a statistically significant difference.

  10. Serum lysozyme determinations, April-June 1961

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Lamphere, J P; Jablon, S

    1963-04-18

    Serum lysozyme levels were determined on 670 consecutive subjects seen for regularly scheduled clinic examinations of the Adult Health Study in Hiroshima. Serum lysozyme levels were found to vary significantly with the absolute peripheral granulocyte count, age, sex, and month of study. A high level of correlation also was noted between serum lysozyme and diabetes mellitus. This was at least in part attributable to greater average age in patients with diabetes. Suggestive relationship was established between serum lysozyme levels, respiratory diseases, and tuberculosis. These changes are believed to reflect active inflammation with excessive destruction of granulocytes and parenchymal tissues in those patients with the more acute processes. No relationship was found between serum lysozyme and previous exposure to ionizing radiation. These studies indicate that the serum lysozyme level may be useful in the study of the kinetics of leukopoiesis, the aging process, and in the detection of subtle inflammatory processes. 21 references, 5 tables.

  11. 125I Radioimmunoassay of serum ursodeoxycholyl conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.; Ross, P.E.; Bouchier, I.A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum ursodeoxycholic conjugates using an iodine-125 ligand has been developed. The bile acid was present in normal fasting serum (0.19 +- SD 0.19 μmol/l, n=24) and 2-hour post-prandial serum (0.8 +- SD 0.8 μmol/l, n=16). Gallstone patients undergoing oral ursodeoxycholic acid therapy had significantly higher post-prandial serum levels (21.5 +- SD 14.0 μmol/l, n=15) by radioimmunoassay. Gas liquid chromatography analysis indicated that in normal serum ursodeoxycholic acid was totally conjugated, whereas sera from gallstone patients contained a proportion as the free bile acid (10.2 +- SD 8.1 μmol/l, n=15). Following an oral dose of ursodeoxycholic acid, both unconjugated and conjugated forms of the bile acid appeared in the serum of healthy individuals. (Auth.)

  12. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  13. Immunosignature: Serum Antibody Profiling for Cancer Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapoval, Andrei I; Legutki, J Bart; Stafford, Philip; Trebukhov, Andrey V; Johnston, Stephen A; Shoikhet, Yakov N; Lazarev, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for preclinical diagnosis of cancer are valuable tools for detection of malignant tumors at early stages in groups at risk and screening healthy people, as well as monitoring disease recurrence after treatment of cancer. However the complexity of the body's response to the pathological processes makes it virtually impossible to evaluate this response to the development of the disease using a single biomarker that is present in the serum at low concentrations. An alternative approach to standard biomarker analysis is called immunosignature. Instead of going after biomarkers themselves this approach rely on the analysis of the humoral immune response to molecular changes associated with the development of pathological processes. It is known that antibodies are produced in response to proteins expressed during cancer development. Accordingly, the changes in antibody repertoire associated with tumor growth can serve as biomarkers of cancer. Immunosignature is a highly sensitive method for antibody repertoire analysis utilizing high density peptide microarrays. In the present review we discuss modern methods for antibody detection, as well as describe the principles and applications of immunosignature in research and clinical practice.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin concentrated from serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisula, B.C.; Louvet, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for concentrating human TSH (hTSH) from serum for use in RIAs is described. The method takes advantage of the affinity of the plant lectin, concanavalin A, for the carbohydrate portion of the hTSH molecule. The hTSH from 2.5 ml serum was adsorbed to concanavalin A covalently linked to sepharose and then radioimmunoassayed using the hTSH antiserum and hTSH for iodination distributed by the National Pituitary Agency. For the RIA standard curve, the hTSH reference preparation was concentrated from a serum wwith undetectable hTSH in order to correct for recovery and to control for nonspecific effects. The percentage of serum hTSH extracted from 2.5 ml serum with the concentration procedure was 76.6 +- 3.4% (mean +- SD). The coefficient of correlation between serum hTSH, determined with the concentration procedure, and serum hTSH determined without was 0.979 (P < 0.001). Over 95% of normal adult men and women had detectable levels of serum hTSH, ranging from < 0.56 to 4.0 μU/ml. The mean of detectable serum hTSH levels in normal adult women (n = 11) was 1.54 +- 1.03 μU/ml (mean +- SD) and in normal men (n = 9) was 2.02 +- 1.15 μU/ml (mean +- SD). Clinically hyperthyroid patients with diffuse and nodular toxic goiters (n = 8) and patients with hypothyroidism secondary to pituitary disease (n = 6), four of whom were taking replacement doses of thyroid hormone, had undetectable serum hTSH levels. Serum hTSH in patients with primary hypothyroidism uniformly exceeded the normal range. This hTSH concentrating procedure enhances the effective sensitivity and, therefore, the clinical utility of the RIA for hTSH in serum

  15. Generalization of the Activated Complex Theory of Reaction Rates. I. Quantum Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R. A.

    1964-01-01

    In its usual form activated complex theory assumes a quasi-equilibrium between reactants and activated complex, a separable reaction coordinate, a Cartesian reaction coordinate, and an absence of interaction of rotation with internal motion in the complex. In the present paper a rate expression is derived without introducing the Cartesian assumption. The expression bears a formal resemblance to the usual one and reduces to it when the added assumptions of the latter are introduced.

  16. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total chol...

  17. Softball Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Parks and Recreation Department of Montgomery, Alabama, has developed a five-field softball complex as part of a growing community park with facilities for camping, golf, aquatics, tennis, and picnicking. (MJB)

  18. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Xinyang College of Agriculture and ... Results: The UV and IR spectra of the complex showed an additive effect of polydatin-lecithin, in which .... Monochromatic Cu Ka radiation (wavelength =.

  19. Radioimmunoassay procedure using a stabilized complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanian, I.V.; Irani, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay procedure involves the use of a stabilized complex of labelled antigen and antibody which has an extended shelf life as compared to the same complex absent the stabilizers. Since the time needed to incubate the mixture of labelled antigen and antibody is eliminated, the time for completing the assay is considerably shortened and simplified. The components for carrying out the procedure are packaged in a kit basically including standard antigen for generation of a standard curve, a stabilized labelled antigen-antibody complex and reference serum, if used. A plurality of stabilizers are used in the complex to provide a shelf life of six weeks or more. 10 claims

  20. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible mimicking complex composite odontome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Hitesh Sudarshan; Dewan, Sudarshan Kumar; Bahl, Sumit; Tushar Parekh, Parth

    2016-10-19

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a fibro-osseous lesion or non-odontogenic tumour that affects craniofacial bones. These lesions are included in the spectrum of fibro-osseous lesions arising from periodontal ligament cells, which can deposit combination of cementum and bone surrounded by fibrous tissue. It clinically, macroscopically and radiologically resembles complex composite odontome and can be differentiated only on the basis of histopathology. They usually occur solitarily as a painless and expansile spherical or ovoid jawbone mass that may displace the roots of adjacent teeth. They predominantly occur in females in third and fourth decades of life. We present a case report of a 20-year-old man, with a mildly painful swelling in the mandible which was successfully treated with enucleation and diagnosed as COF. Its resemblance to complex composite odontome and unique surgical approach are highlighted in this paper. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver and relations with body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Young Deog; Lee, S. H.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, K. H.; Kim, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic fatty infiltration appears as an area of increased echogenicity. And many factors concerned to fatty infiltration. With 65 cases of fatty liver and 42 cases of normal group, we analyzed fatty liver with grading and attempt to find relations between grade of fatty liver and levels of body index, serum triglyceride, and serum lipid. And compared fatty liver with normal control group. Patients with fatty liver are higher percentage of supra-normal value in body index, serum lipid, and serum triglyceride than normal control group. As fatty infiltration progressed, serum lipid, serum trig-lyceride and body index are also increased. Conclusively ultrasonographic examination of liver with serum triglyceride, serum lipid, and body index are simple method, useful follow-up examination of fatty liver, and preventive routine check-up of chronic liver disease

  2. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p mineral content was not associated with mean serum alkaline...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone mineral...

  3. A Routine 'Top-Down' Approach to Analysis of the Human Serum Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Arlene M; Hyett, Jon A; Coorssen, Jens R

    2017-06-06

    Serum provides a rich source of potential biomarker proteoforms. One of the major obstacles in analysing serum proteomes is detecting lower abundance proteins owing to the presence of hyper-abundant species (e.g., serum albumin and immunoglobulins). Although depletion methods have been used to address this, these can lead to the concomitant removal of non-targeted protein species, and thus raise issues of specificity, reproducibility, and the capacity for meaningful quantitative analyses. Altering the native stoichiometry of the proteome components may thus yield a more complex series of issues than dealing directly with the inherent complexity of the sample. Hence, here we targeted method refinements so as to ensure optimum resolution of serum proteomes via a top down two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) approach that enables the routine assessment of proteoforms and is fully compatible with subsequent mass spectrometric analyses. Testing included various fractionation and non-fractionation approaches. The data show that resolving 500 µg protein on 17 cm 3-10 non-linear immobilised pH gradient strips in the first dimension followed by second dimension resolution on 7-20% gradient gels with a combination of lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) detergents markedly improves the resolution and detection of proteoforms in serum. In addition, well established third dimension electrophoretic separations in combination with deep imaging further contributed to the best available resolution, detection, and thus quantitative top-down analysis of serum proteomes.

  4. Sex differences in genetic architecture of complex phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Vink

    Full Text Available We examined sex differences in familial resemblance for a broad range of behavioral, psychiatric and health related phenotypes (122 complex traits in children and adults. There is a renewed interest in the importance of genotype by sex interaction in, for example, genome-wide association (GWA studies of complex phenotypes. If different genes play a role across sex, GWA studies should consider the effect of genetic variants separately in men and women, which affects statistical power. Twin and family studies offer an opportunity to compare resemblance between opposite-sex family members to the resemblance between same-sex relatives, thereby presenting a test of quantitative and qualitative sex differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits. We analyzed data on lifestyle, personality, psychiatric disorder, health, growth, development and metabolic traits in dizygotic (DZ same-sex and opposite-sex twins, as these siblings are perfectly matched for age and prenatal exposures. Sample size varied from slightly over 300 subjects for measures of brain function such as EEG power to over 30,000 subjects for childhood psychopathology and birth weight. For most phenotypes, sample sizes were large, with an average sample size of 9027 individuals. By testing whether the resemblance in DZ opposite-sex pairs is the same as in DZ same-sex pairs, we obtain evidence for genetic qualitative sex-differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits for 4% of phenotypes. We conclude that for most traits that were examined, the current evidence is that same the genes are operating in men and women.

  5. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  6. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  7. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  8. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  9. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  10. Serum bicarbonate and dehydration severity in gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Narchi, H.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of bicarbonate was measured in serum samples from 106 children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. A concentration less than 22 mmol/l was more common in children with severe dehydration, but the magnitude of bicarbonate reduction was not significantly different with increasing degrees of dehydration. Doctors should not rely on the serum bicarbonate concentration when assessing fluid deficit.



  11. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l [fr

  12. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l.

  13. Biomolecular Interaction Study of Cyclolinopeptide A with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rempel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics, energetics, and structure of Cyclolinopeptide A binding with Human Serum Albumin were investigated with surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. The complex is formed through slow recognition kinetics that is temperature sensitive in the range of 20°C–37°C. The overall reaction was observed to be endothermic (ΔH=204 kJ mol−1 and entropy driven (ΔS=746 J mol−1K−1 with overall small changes to the tertiary structure.

  14. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  15. Serum lipids in hypothyroidism: Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Archana; Lal, Ashok Kumar

    2006-09-01

    In order to determine whether the screening of lipid profile is justified in patients with hypothyroidism we estimated serum lipids in cases having different levels of serum TSH. 60 patients of hypothyroidism in the age group of 20 to 60 yrs were studied for thyroid profile over a period of one year. On the basis of serum TSH level the cases were divided into three groups: In the first group TSH concentration was 8.8±2.99 μlU/ml, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 8.8±1.07, whereas serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol levels were 196±37.22 and 126±29.17 mg/dl respectively. The statistical analysis of these two groups showed a significant correlation between raised TSH levels and serum total cholesterol and LDL-chol (Phypothyrodism is associated with changes in lipid profile.

  16. Subgroup complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an overview of a research area that combines geometries for groups (such as Tits buildings and generalizations), topological aspects of simplicial complexes from p-subgroups of a group (in the spirit of Brown, Quillen, and Webb), and combinatorics of partially ordered sets. The material is intended to serve as an advanced graduate-level text and partly as a general reference on the research area. The treatment offers optional tracks for the reader interested in buildings, geometries for sporadic simple groups, and G-equivariant equivalences and homology for subgroup complexes.

  17. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  18. Development of optical immunosensors for detection of proteins in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyprianou, Dimitris; Chianella, Iva; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-01-15

    The detection of proteins in biological samples such as blood, serum or plasma by biosensors is very challenging due to the complex nature of the matrix, which contains a high level of many interfering compounds. Here we show the application of a novel polymeric immobilisation matrix that helps in the detection of specific protein analytes in biological samples by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensors. This polymer matrix contains thioacetal functional groups included in the network, and these groups do not require any further activation in order to react with proteins, making it attractive for sensor fabrication. The protein prostate specific antigen (PSA) was selected as a model target analyte. A sandwich format with two primary antibodies recognising different parts (epitopes) of the analyte was used for the detection of PSA in serum. The efficiency of the reduction of non-specific binding achieved with novel polymer was compared with those of other techniques such as coating of sensor surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG), use of charged hydrophilic aspartic acid and surfactants such as Tween20. The detection limit of the polymer based immunosensor was 0.1 ng ml(-1) for free form PSA (f-PSA) in buffer and 5 ng ml(-1) in 20% serum. This is an improvement compared with similar devices reported on literature, indicating the potential of the immunosensor developed here for the analysis of real samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  20. Serum depletion induces changes in protein expression in the trophoblast-derived cell line HTR-8/SVneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Herran, Susana; Umaña-Perez, Adriana; Canals, Francesc; Sanchez-Gomez, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    serum depletion induces specific changes in protein expression concordant with main cell metabolic adaptations and EMT, resembling the progression to a malignant phenotype.

  1. A naturally derived gastric cancer cell line shows latency I Epstein-Barr virus infection closely resembling EBV-associated gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sang Taek; Seo, Jung Seon; Moon, Uk Yeol; Kang, Kyeong Hee; Shin, Dong-Jik; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim; Kim, Woo Ho; Park, Jae-Gahb; Lee, Suk Kyeong

    2004-01-01

    In a process seeking out a good model cell line for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancer, we found that one previously established gastric adenocarcinoma cell line is infected with type 1 EBV. This SNU-719 cell line from a Korean patient expressed cytokeratin without CD19 or CD21 expression. In SNU-719, EBNA1 and LMP2A were expressed, while LMP1 and EBNA2 were not. None of the tested lytic EBV proteins were detected in this cell line unless stimulated with phorbol ester. EBV infection was also shown in the original carcinoma tissue of SNU-719 cell line. Our results support the possibility of a CD21-independent EBV infection of gastric epithelial cells in vivo. As the latent EBV gene expression pattern of SNU-719 closely resembles that of the EBV-associated gastric cancer, this naturally derived cell line may serve as a valuable model system to clarify the precise role of EBV in gastric carcinogenesis

  2. Uterine Tumor Resembling Ovarian Sex Cord Tumor (UTROSCT) Commonly Exhibits Positivity With Sex Cord Markers FOXL2 and SF-1 but Lacks FOXL2 and DICER1 Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Sabrina; de Kock, Leanne; Boshari, Talia; Hostein, Isabelle; Velasco, Valerie; Foulkes, William D; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2016-07-01

    Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) is a rare neoplasm which morphologically and immunohistochemically exhibits overlap with an ovarian sex cord tumor. Although many of these neoplasms are positive with markers of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, staining is often limited and the pathogenesis of UTROSCT is unknown. To further explore the sex cord lineage of UTROSCT, we studied 19 of these neoplasms and examined the expression of 2 recently described markers of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, FOXL2, and steroidogenic factor-1. We also undertook FOXL2 and DICER1 mutation analysis in these cases; a somatic missense mutation in codon C134W (402C→G) of FOXL2 gene has been demonstrated in the vast majority (>95%) of ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors and somatic DICER1 mutations are found in approximately 60% of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. Ten of 19 cases (53%) exhibited nuclear immunoreactivity with FOXL2 and 11 of 19 (58%) exhibited nuclear staining with steroidogenic factor-1. Neither FOXL2 nor DICER1 mutations were identified in any case where there was sufficient tumor tissue for analysis (18 and 9 cases, respectively). Despite exhibiting an immunophenotype characteristic of a sex cord-stromal tumor, mutations in FOXL2 and DICER1, the 2 most common mutations hitherto reported in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, are not a feature of UTROSCT.

  3. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  4. Expression patterns of Xenopus FGF receptor-like 1/nou-darake in early Xenopus development resemble those of planarian nou-darake and Xenopus FGF8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shuichi; Itoh, Mari; Taira, Sumiko; Agata, Kiyokazu; Taira, Masanori

    2004-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) mediate many cell-to-cell signaling events during early development. Nou-darake (ndk), a gene encoding an FGF receptor (FGFR)-like molecule, was found to be highly and specifically expressed in the head region of the planarian Dugesia japonica, and its functional analyses provided strong molecular evidence for the existence of a brain-inducing circuit based on the FGF signaling pathway. To analyze the role of ndk during vertebrate development, we isolated the Xenopus ortholog of ndk, the vertebrate FGFR-like 1 gene (XFGFRL1). Expression of XFGFRL1/Xndk was first detected in the anterior region at the late gastrula stage and dramatically increased at the early neurula stage in an overall anterior mesendodermal region, including the prechordal plate, paraxial mesoderm, anterior endoderm, and archenteron roof. This anterior expression pattern resembles that of ndk in planarians, suggesting that the expression of FGFRL1/ndk is conserved in evolution between these two distantly diverged organisms. During the tail bud stages, XFGFRL1/Xndk expression was detected in multiple regions, including the forebrain, eyes, midbrain-hindbrain boundary, otic vesicles, visceral arches, and somites. In many of these regions, XFGFRL1/Xndk was coexpressed with XFGF8, indicating that XFGFRL1/Xndk is a member of the XFGF8 synexpression group, which includes sprouty, sef, and isthmin. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Abnormal fatty acid pattern in the superior temporal gyrus distinguishes bipolar disorder from major depression and schizophrenia and resembles multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K; Rider, Therese; Jandacek, Ronald; Tso, Patrick

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated the fatty acid composition of the postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG), a cortical region implicated in emotional processing, from normal controls (n=15) and patients with bipolar disorder (BD, n=15), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=15), and schizophrenia (SZ, n=15). For comparative purposes, STG fatty acid composition was determined in a separate cohort of multiple sclerosis patients (MS, n=15) and normal controls (n=15). Compared with controls, patients with BD, but not MDD or SZ, exhibited abnormal elevations in the saturated fatty acids (SFA) palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and reductions in the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid (18:1n-9). The total MUFA/SFA and 18:1/18:0 ratios were lower in the STG of BD patients and were inversely correlated with total PUFA composition. MS patients exhibited a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities similar to that observed in BD patients including elevated PUFA and a lower 18:1/18:0 ratio. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BD patients exhibit a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities in the STG that is not observed in MDD and SZ patients and closely resembles MS patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  7. Correlation of Serum Magnesium with Serum Parathormone Levels in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradaran Azar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT is a common, important, and treatable complication of end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to investigate the role of serum magnesium (Mg in regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH by the parathyroid gland in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Pre-dialysis serum levels of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, Mg, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, intact serum PTH (iPTH, serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25-OH Vit D and plasma bicarbonate (HCO3 were measured. The Urea Reduction Rate as well as duration and dosage of HD treatment were noted. Our study did not show any significant correlation between serum Mg levels and duration of HD treatment, levels of serum ALP, and plasma HCO3, Ca and P. An inverse correlation, albeit insignificant, was found between the serum Mg levels and iPTH (r=-0.30 p=0.079; also, a significant positive correlation was found between serum Mg levels and serum 25-OH Vit D levels (r= 0.40 p= 0.009. Our findings are in agreement with previous data, which suggest that factors other than serum Mg are more important in the regulation of PTH secretion in HD patients. A positive and strong association between serum Mg with 25-OH Vit D needs to be studied in greater detail.

  8. Site-specific RNase A activity was dramatically reduced in serum from multiple types of cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan Huang

    Full Text Available Potent RNase activities were found in the serum of mammals but the physiological function of the RNases was never well illustrated, largely due to the caveats in methods of RNase activity measurement. None of the existing methods can distinguish between RNases with different target specificities. A systematic study was recently carried out in our lab to investigate the site-specificity of serum RNases on double-stranded RNA substrates, and found that serum RNases cleave double-stranded RNAs predominantly at 5'-U/A-3' and 5'-C/A-3' dinucleotide sites, in a manner closely resembling RNase A. Based on this finding, a FRET assay was developed in the current study to measure this site-specific serum RNase activity in human samples using a double stranded RNA substrate. We demonstrated that the method has a dynamic range of 10(-5 mg/ml- 10(-1 mg/ml using serial dilution of RNase A. The sera of 303 cancer patients were subjected to comparison with 128 healthy controls, and it was found that serum RNase activities visualized with this site-specific double stranded probe were found to be significantly reduced in patients with gastric cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, ovary cancer, cervical cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer and lung cancer, while only minor changes were found in breast and colon cancer patients. This is the first report using double stranded RNA as probe to quantify site-specific activities of RNase A in a serum. The results illustrated that RNase A might be further evaluated to determine if it can serve as a new class of biomarkers for certain cancer types.

  9. Site-Specific RNase A Activity Was Dramatically Reduced in Serum from Multiple Types of Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiyan; Zhao, Mei; Wei, Na; Wang, Xiaoxia; Cao, Huqing; Du, Quan; Liang, Zicai

    2014-01-01

    Potent RNase activities were found in the serum of mammals but the physiological function of the RNases was never well illustrated, largely due to the caveats in methods of RNase activity measurement. None of the existing methods can distinguish between RNases with different target specificities. A systematic study was recently carried out in our lab to investigate the site-specificity of serum RNases on double-stranded RNA substrates, and found that serum RNases cleave double-stranded RNAs predominantly at 5′-U/A-3′ and 5′-C/A-3′ dinucleotide sites, in a manner closely resembling RNase A. Based on this finding, a FRET assay was developed in the current study to measure this site-specific serum RNase activity in human samples using a double stranded RNA substrate. We demonstrated that the method has a dynamic range of 10−5 mg/ml- 10−1 mg/ml using serial dilution of RNase A. The sera of 303 cancer patients were subjected to comparison with 128 healthy controls, and it was found that serum RNase activities visualized with this site-specific double stranded probe were found to be significantly reduced in patients with gastric cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, ovary cancer, cervical cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer and lung cancer, while only minor changes were found in breast and colon cancer patients. This is the first report using double stranded RNA as probe to quantify site-specific activities of RNase A in a serum. The results illustrated that RNase A might be further evaluated to determine if it can serve as a new class of biomarkers for certain cancer types. PMID:24805924

  10. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha Gadicherla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Serum paraoxonase is an enzyme synthesised in the liver. It is known to prevent atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidation of lowdensity lipoprotein. Renal transplant recipients have increased tendency for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Reduced activity of serum paraoxonase contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular complications in these patients. The aim of this study was to estimate serum paraoxonase activity in renal transplant recipients and compare it with healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 renal transplant recipients and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls were taken for the study. Serum paraoxonase activity, blood urea, serum creatinine and uric acid were estimated in these groups. The serum paraoxonase activity was correlated with urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. RESULTS Serum paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to healthy controls. There was a negative correlation between paraoxonase activity and the levels of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels. CONCLUSION In this study, the paraoxonase activity was reduced in renal transplant recipients compared to controls. The increased cardiovascular disease in these patients could be due to reduced paraoxonase activity.

  11. Serum homocystein level in patients with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Shams, Mesbah; Kamali Sarvestani, Eskandar; Shenavande, Saeede; Khademalhosseini, Maryam; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. In this study, we compared the serum Homocystein (Hcy) level between patients with SSc and normal control group. The current study was conducted to determine whether serum Hcy levels are elevated in SSc patients and whether there is any correlation between Hcy levels and RP, Gastro intestinal and lung involvement. Forty one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SSc (39 females and 5 males) and Forty four community-based healthy individuals (sex and age matched) were enrolled in to the study. Serum Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels were determined. Thirty three patients (70.45%) had GI involvement, twenty two patients (50%) had lung involvement and twenty seven patients (61.36%) had Raynaud's phenomena. Mean serum Hcy level in control group was 22.78 ± 6.018 μmol/L and in case group was 19.43 ± 7.205 μmol/L, shows that the serum Hcy level in control group was significantly higher than patients (P = 0.020). Serum Hcy level is significantly lower in SSc patients than in control group. There is no statistically significant correlation between serum Hcy level and organ involvements.

  12. [Serum glycosaminoglycans in Graves' disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna B; Olczyk, Krystyna Z; Koźma, Ewa M; Komosińska-Vassev, Katarzyna B; Wisowski, Grzegorz R; Marcisz, Czesław

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the blood serum sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration of Graves' disease patients before treatment and after attainment of the euthyroid state. The study was carried out on the blood serum obtained from 17 patients with newly recognised Graves' disease and from the same patients after attainment of the euthyroid state. Graves' patients had not any clinical symptoms neither of ophthalmopathy nor pretibial myxedema. GAGs were isolated from the blood serum by the multistage extraction and purification using papaine hydrolysis, alkali elimination, as well as cetylpyridium chloride binding. Total amount of GAGs was quantified by the hexuronic acids assay. HA content in obtained GAGs sample was evaluated by the ELISA method. Increased serum concentration of sulfated GAGs in non-treated Graves' disease patients was found. Similarly, serum HA level in untreated patients was significantly elevated. The attainment of euthyroid state was accompanied by the decreased serum sulfated GAGs level and by normalization of serum HA concentration. In conclusion, the results obtained demonstrate that the alterations of GAGs metabolism connected with Graves' disease can lead to systemic changes of the extracellular matrix properties.

  13. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Maternal Serum α-Fetoprotein Levels During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Grove, Jakob; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies have been trying to disentangle the complex pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In our study, we explored the potential role of maternal serum (MS) α-fetoprotein (AFP) in the prediction and the pathophysiology of ASD. Methods: A total of 112 patients...

  15. The role of albumin conformation in the binding of diazepam to human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, J.; Hart, B.J. 't; Gier, J.J. de

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen, chloride and calcium ions on the binding of diazepare to human serum albumin has been studied by circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis. In all cases the molar ellipticity of the diazepam-albumin complex increases with pH over the pH range 5 to 9. Under these

  16. Soluble serum Klotho levels in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise Mariager; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Brasen, Claus Lohman

    2013-01-01

    Klotho concentrations were determined in 120 healthy adults aged 19-66years. Blood samples were collected, and stored sera were assayed for Klotho according to age and gender. In addition several other clinical and laboratory characteristics were determined in the cohort and compared to the levels...... genders. Concentrations of serum Klotho were independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and body weight using TRF whereas serum Klotho concentrations were associated with age using the ELISA. CONCLUSION: Comparison of two different immunoassays for serum Klotho indicate...

  17. Modeling Serum Creatinine in Septic ICU Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Cortese, Giuliana; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2004-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a metabolite assumed to be constantly produced by the normally functioning muscle mass and is a good measure for monitoring daily renal function in the intensive care unit (ICU). High serum creatinine levels or an abnormal departure from normal pre-disease basal levels....... The present work details the structure of a model describing observed creatinine serum concentration (CSC) variations, depending on the time-varying septic insult to renal function in ICU patients, as well as the estimation of its parameters. CSC determinations were routinely obtained from 12 patients...

  18. Leptin in first trimester pregnancy serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula; Pihl, Kasper; Krebs, Lone

    2009-01-01

    and its relation to fetal growth disturbances were examined in this study. The study is a case-control study with 36 small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (pregnancies and 108 appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) (> or =5th percentile) pregnancies. The groups were matched by maternal age...... maternal BMI. There was no significant difference in maternal serum leptin concentrations between SGA and AGA pregnancies. In conclusion, SGA pregnancies are not associated with a lower maternal serum leptin concentration in first trimester. The maternal serum leptin concentration is largely determined...

  19. Membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium decrease in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnkennedy Nnodim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women who have had pre-eclampsia have a greater risk of developing hypertension, stroke and ischemic heart disease in later life. The etiology of pre-eclampsia remains unclear. Placental insufficiency plays a key role in the progression of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels in preeclampsia subjects in Owerri.   Methods A case control study involving 200 primigravida (100 preeclamptic and 100 apparently healthy between the ages of 20 and 32 years attending General Hospital Owerri. Fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of serum selenium and serum calcium while membrane potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. The serum calcium was estimated using Randox Kit and serum selenium by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Independent Student t test was used for statistical analysis.   Results The results revealed that membrane potential and serum selenium as well as serum calcium were significantly decreased in preeclampsia when compared with the controls, at p<0.05.   Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the decrease in membrane potential, serum calcium and serum selenium levels may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. There may be a need for increasing the dietary intake of these essential trace metals during pregnancy to prevent pre-eclampsia in Owerri.

  20. Serum amyloid beta peptides in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented controls as detected by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; van Campen, Jos P C M; Tulner, Linda R; Beijnen, Jos H

    2008-09-01

    By using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionisation- time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) an amyloid beta (Abeta) profile was shown in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with dementia. To investigate the Abeta-profile in serum with SELDI-TOF MS, to evaluate if this profile resembles CSF profiles and to investigate the correlation between intensity of Abeta-peptide-peaks in serum and clinical, demographical and genetic variables. Duplicate profiling of Abeta by an SELDI-TOF MS immunocapture assay was performed in 106 patients, suffering from Alzheimer's Disease or Vascular Dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. Linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the intensities of four selected Abeta peaks as dependent variables in relation to the independent clinical, demographic or genetic variables. Abeta37, Abeta38 and Abeta40 were found among additional unidentified Abeta peptides, with the most pronounced Abeta peak at a molecular mass of 7752. This profile partly resembled the CSF profile. The clinical diagnosis was not a predictive independent variable, however ABCB1 genotypes C1236T, G2677T/A, age and creatinine level showed to be related to Abeta peak intensities in multivariate analyses. We found an Abeta profile in serum that partly resembled the CSF profile in demented patients. Age, creatinine levels, presence of the APOE epsilon4 allele and ABCB1 genotypes (C1236T and G2677T/A) were correlated with the Abeta serum profile. The role of P-gp as an Abeta transporter and the role of ABCB1 genotypes deserves further research. The investigated serum Abeta profile is probably not useful in the diagnosis of dementia.

  1. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting, E-mail: BTZhu@kumc.edu

    2012-07-15

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K{sub 3}) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ∼ 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ► Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ► Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid depletion of

  2. Production and Distribution of {sup 44}Ti and {sup 56}Ni in a Three-dimensional Supernova Model Resembling Cassiopeia A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongwathanarat, Annop [RIKEN, Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Janka, Hans-Thomas; Müller, Ewald; Pllumbi, Else [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wanajo, Shinya, E-mail: annop.wongwathanarat@riken.jp [Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Sophia University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)

    2017-06-10

    The spatial and velocity distributions of nuclear species synthesized in the innermost regions of core-collapse supernovae can yield important clues about explosion asymmetries and the operation of the still disputed explosion mechanism. Recent observations of radioactive {sup 44}Ti with high-energy satellite telescopes ( Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array [ NuSTAR ], INTEGRAL ) have measured gamma-ray line details, which provide direct evidence of large-scale explosion asymmetries in SN 1987A and in Cassiopeia A (Cas A) even by mapping of the spatial brightness distribution ( NuSTAR ). Here we discuss a 3D simulation of a neutrino-driven explosion, using a parameterized neutrino engine, whose {sup 44}Ti distribution is mostly concentrated in one hemisphere pointing opposite to the neutron star (NS) kick velocity. Both exhibit intriguing resemblance to the observed morphology of the Cas A remnant, although neither the progenitor nor the explosion was fine-tuned for a perfect match. Our results demonstrate that the asymmetries observed in this remnant can, in principle, be accounted for by a neutrino-driven explosion, and that the high {sup 44}Ti abundance in Cas A may be explained without invoking rapid rotation or a jet-driven explosion, because neutrino-driven explosions generically eject large amounts of high-entropy matter. The recoil acceleration of the NS is connected to mass ejection asymmetries and is opposite to the direction of the stronger explosion, fully compatible with the gravitational tugboat mechanism. Our results also imply that Cas A and SN 1987A could possess similarly “one-sided” Ti and Fe asymmetries, with the difference that Cas A is viewed from a direction with large inclination angle to the NS motion, whereas the NS in SN 1987A should have a dominant velocity component pointing toward us.

  3. A rare case of primary clear cell sarcoma of the pubic bone resembling small round cell tumor: an unusual morphological variant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shoko; Tsuji, Motomu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki; Yokote, Taiji; Iwaki, Kazuki; Akioka, Toshikazu; Miyoshi, Takuji; Hirata, Yuji; Takayama, Ayami; Nishiwaki, Uta; Masuda, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) and malignant melanoma share overlapping immunohistochemistry with regard to the melanocytic markers HMB45, S100, and Melan-A. However, the translocation t(12; 22)(q13; q12) is specific to CCS. Therefore, although these neoplasms are closely related, they are now considered to be distinct entities. However, the translocation is apparently detectable only in 50%–70% of CCS cases. Therefore, the absence of a detectable EWS/AFT1 rearrangement may occasionally lead to erroneous exclusion of a translocation-negative CCS. Therefore, histological assessment is essential for the correct diagnosis of CCS. Primary CCS of the bone is exceedingly rare. Only a few cases of primary CCS arising in the ulna, metatarsals, ribs, radius, sacrum, and humerus have been reported, and primary CCS arising in the pubic bone has not been reported till date. We present the case of an 81-year-old man with primary CCS of the pubic bone. Histological examination of the pubic bone revealed monomorphic small-sized cells arranged predominantly as a diffuse sheet with round, hyperchromatic nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli. The cells had scant cytoplasm, and the biopsy findings indicated small round cell tumor (SRCT). Immunohistochemical staining revealed the tumor cells to be positive for HMB45, S100, and Melan-A but negative for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of primary CCS of the pubic bone resembling SRCT. This ambiguous appearance underscores the difficulties encountered during the histological diagnosis of this rare variant of CCS. Awareness of primary CCS of the bone is clinically important for accurate diagnosis and management when the tumor is located in unusual locations such as the pubic bone and when the translocation t(12; 22)(q13; q12) is absent

  4. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2013-01-01

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K3) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ~12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. PMID:22575170

  5. Rapid generation of mitochondrial superoxide induces mitochondrion-dependent but caspase-independent cell death in hippocampal neuronal cells that morphologically resembles necroptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2012-01-01

    Studies in recent years have revealed that excess mitochondrial superoxide production is an important etiological factor in neurodegenerative diseases, resulting from oxidative modifications of cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Hence, it is important to understand the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress causes neuronal death. In this study, the immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22) in culture were used as a model and they were exposed to menadione (also known as vitamin K 3 ) to increase intracellular superoxide production. We found that menadione causes preferential accumulation of superoxide in the mitochondria of these cells, along with the rapid development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular ATP depletion. Neuronal death induced by menadione is independent of the activation of the MAPK signaling pathways and caspases. The lack of caspase activation is due to the rapid depletion of cellular ATP. It was observed that two ATP-independent mitochondrial nucleases, namely, AIF and Endo G, are released following menadione exposure. Silencing of their expression using specific siRNAs results in transient suppression (for ∼ 12 h) of mitochondrial superoxide-induced neuronal death. While suppression of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression markedly sensitizes neuronal cells to mitochondrial superoxide-induced cytotoxicity, its over-expression confers strong protection. Collectively, these findings showed that many of the observed features associated with mitochondrial superoxide-induced cell death, including caspase independency, rapid depletion of ATP level, mitochondrial release of AIF and Endo G, and mitochondrial swelling, are distinctly different from those of apoptosis; instead they resemble some of the known features of necroptosis. -- Highlights: ► Menadione causes mitochondrial superoxide accumulation and injury. ► Menadione-induced cell death is caspase-independent, due to rapid depletion of ATP

  6. Three new species of the Indo-Pacific fish genus Hime (Aulopidae, Aulopiformes), all resembling the type species H. japonica (Günther 1877).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomon, Martin F; Struthers, Carl D

    2015-11-19

    Descriptions of three new species of the aulopid genus Hime from the central and western Pacific and presumably the easternmost Indian Ocean are presented. Hime surrubea sp. nov., confined to the Hawaiian Island region, has been misidentified in species accounts and faunal lists as H. japonica and although resembling it is separable from that species by its shorter caudal peduncle, slightly larger head, larger eye, especially relative to head size, and slightly smaller pectoral and pelvic fins. Hime capitonis sp. nov. is known conclusively only from seamounts off the southern tip of New Caledonia and Vanuatu, and is distinguishable by its distinctively large head (32.3-35.6% SL) and eyes (orbital diameter 10.8-13.0% SL) and relatively few scales between the anus and anal fin origin (7-9). The Indonesian H. caudizoma sp. nov. is so far known from only 8 specimens, acquired in markets in southeastern Lombok and presumably caught nearby in what would be regarded the eastern reaches of the Indian Ocean. The species is recognisable by its dorsal fin of rather uniform moderate height with nearly straight distal margin and 17 rather than 16 rays, none of which is filamentous in either sex, the second penultimate ray rather than anterior rays the longest in males. Like the other two described here, H. caudizoma has among the largest head and eyes of the family. Observations on the dorsal fin form and other features of H. microps Parin & Kotlyar, 1989 are provided based on a large male specimen collected at Rapa Iti, Austral Islands and a re-evaluation of the original description.

  7. Human CD4+ T cell responses to the dog major allergen Can f 1 and its human homologue tear lipocalin resemble each other.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino L K Liukko

    Full Text Available Lipocalin allergens form a notable group of proteins, as they contain most of the significant respiratory allergens from mammals. The basis for the allergenic capacity of allergens in the lipocalin family, that is, the development of T-helper type 2 immunity against them, is still unresolved. As immunogenicity has been proposed to be a decisive feature of allergens, the purpose of this work was to examine human CD4+ T cell responses to the major dog allergen Can f 1 and to compare them with those to its human homologue, tear lipocalin (TL. For this, specific T cell lines were induced in vitro from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Can f 1-allergic and healthy dog dust-exposed subjects with peptides containing the immunodominant T cell epitopes of Can f 1 and the corresponding TL peptides. We found that the frequency of Can f 1 and TL-specific T cells in both subject groups was low and close to each other, the difference being about two-fold. Importantly, we found that the proliferative responses of both Can f 1 and TL-specific T cell lines from allergic subjects were stronger than those from healthy subjects, but that the strength of the responses within the subject groups did not differ between these two antigens. Moreover, the phenotype of the Can f 1 and TL-specific T cell lines, determined by cytokine production and expression of cell surface markers, resembled each other. The HLA system appeared to have a minimal role in explaining the allergenicity of Can f 1, as the allergic and healthy subjects' HLA background did not differ, and HLA binding was very similar between Can f 1 and TL peptides. Along with existing data on lipocalin allergens, we conclude that strong antigenicity is not decisive for the allergenicity of Can f 1.

  8. Monomeric Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 Peptides in Solution Adopt Very Similar Ramachandran Map Distributions That Closely Resemble Random Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the aggregation and fibrillation of amyloid peptides Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 into amyloid plaques. Despite strong potential therapeutic interest, the structural pathways associated with the conversion of monomeric Aβ peptides into oligomeric species remain largely unknown. In particular, the higher aggregation propensity and associated toxicity of Aβ1–42 compared to that of Aβ1–40 are poorly understood. To explore in detail the structural propensity of the monomeric Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 peptides in solution, we recorded a large set of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters, including chemical shifts, nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), and J couplings. Systematic comparisons show that at neutral pH the Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 peptides populate almost indistinguishable coil-like conformations. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectra collected at very high resolution remove assignment ambiguities and show no long-range NOE contacts. Six sets of backbone J couplings (3JHNHα, 3JC′C′, 3JC′Hα, 1JHαCα, 2JNCα, and 1JNCα) recorded for Aβ1–40 were used as input for the recently developed MERA Ramachandran map analysis, yielding residue-specific backbone ϕ/ψ torsion angle distributions that closely resemble random coil distributions, the absence of a significantly elevated propensity for β-conformations in the C-terminal region of the peptide, and a small but distinct propensity for αL at K28. Our results suggest that the self-association of Aβ peptides into toxic oligomers is not driven by elevated propensities of the monomeric species to adopt β-strand-like conformations. Instead, the accelerated disappearance of Aβ NMR signals in D2O over H2O, particularly pronounced for Aβ1–42, suggests that intermolecular interactions between the hydrophobic regions of the peptide dominate the aggregation process. PMID:26780756

  9. Monomeric Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) Peptides in Solution Adopt Very Similar Ramachandran Map Distributions That Closely Resemble Random Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Julien; Shen, Yang; Lee, Jung Ho; Ying, Jinfa; Bax, Ad

    2016-02-09

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the aggregation and fibrillation of amyloid peptides Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) into amyloid plaques. Despite strong potential therapeutic interest, the structural pathways associated with the conversion of monomeric Aβ peptides into oligomeric species remain largely unknown. In particular, the higher aggregation propensity and associated toxicity of Aβ(1-42) compared to that of Aβ(1-40) are poorly understood. To explore in detail the structural propensity of the monomeric Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) peptides in solution, we recorded a large set of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters, including chemical shifts, nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), and J couplings. Systematic comparisons show that at neutral pH the Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) peptides populate almost indistinguishable coil-like conformations. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectra collected at very high resolution remove assignment ambiguities and show no long-range NOE contacts. Six sets of backbone J couplings ((3)JHNHα, (3)JC'C', (3)JC'Hα, (1)JHαCα, (2)JNCα, and (1)JNCα) recorded for Aβ(1-40) were used as input for the recently developed MERA Ramachandran map analysis, yielding residue-specific backbone ϕ/ψ torsion angle distributions that closely resemble random coil distributions, the absence of a significantly elevated propensity for β-conformations in the C-terminal region of the peptide, and a small but distinct propensity for αL at K28. Our results suggest that the self-association of Aβ peptides into toxic oligomers is not driven by elevated propensities of the monomeric species to adopt β-strand-like conformations. Instead, the accelerated disappearance of Aβ NMR signals in D2O over H2O, particularly pronounced for Aβ(1-42), suggests that intermolecular interactions between the hydrophobic regions of the peptide dominate the aggregation process.

  10. Observation of freakish-asteroid-discovered-resembles support my idea that many dark comets were arrested and lurked in the solar system after every impaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong

    2014-03-01

    New observations show that some asteroids are looked like comets. http://www.astrowatch.net/2013/11/freakish-asteroid-discovered-resembles.html, http://www.astrowatch.net/2013/11/astronomers-puzzle-over-newfound.html. It supports my idea that ``many dark comets with very special tilted orbits were arrested and lurked in the solar system'' - ``Sun's companion-dark hole seasonal took its dark comets belt and much dark matter to impact near our earth. And some of them probability hit on our earth. So this model kept and triggered periodic mass extinctions on our earth every 25 to 27 million years. After every impaction, many dark comets with very special tilted orbits were arrested and lurked in the solar system. Because some of them picked up many solar matter, so it looked like the asteroids. When the dark hole-Tyche goes near the solar system again, they will impact near planets.'' The idea maybe explains why do the asteroid looks like the comet? Where are the asteroids come from? What relationship do they have with the impactions and extinctions? http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2011.CAL.C1.7, http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/CAL12/Event/181168, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2013.MAR.H1.267. During 2009 to 2010, I had presented there are many dark comets like dark Asteroids near the orbit of Jupiter in ASP Meetings. In 2010, NASA's WISE found them. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2011.APR.K1.17, http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/WISE/news/wise20100122.html Avoid Earth Extinction Associ.

  11. beta-Glucuronidase-resistant bilirubin glucuronide isomers in cholestatic liver disease--determination of bilirubin metabolites in serum by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    "Direct reacting bilirubin" in serum of patients with cholestatic liver disease and in serum of bile duct-ligated rats consists of a complex mixture of bilirubin metabolites. These metabolites were studied by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography. Bilirubin glucuronides in normal bile are

  12. Maternal serum leptin concentration in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Soheilykhah

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Our data showed that serum leptin level was higher in GDM and had a positive correlation with insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that high leptin levels might be a risk factor for GDM and IGT in pregnant women.

  13. Autologous serum therapy in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous serum therapy is a promising therapy for treatment resistant urticaria. This is useful in developing countries as this is economical option. Minimum instruments like centrifuge, syringe and needles are required for the procedure.

  14. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Metabonomics offers a distinct advantage over other tests as it can be ... Metabolic profiling in heart disease has also been successfully ... resonances of the small metabolites showing fingerprints of serum metabolomic profile (Figure. 3).

  15. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-02-03

    Feb 3, 2014 ... The effect of Trypanosoma brucei infection on changes in concentration of some serum electrolytes and the ... the modulatory responses of the autonomic nervous system ..... Concurrent hyponatremia and hypocalcemia have.

  16. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Alteration of serum adropin level in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihua; Gao, Bo; Wu, Zaigui; Wang, Hanzhi; Dong, Minyue

    2017-04-01

    To clarify the alterations in serum adropin and preptin concentrations in preeclampsia, we determined serum adropin and preptin levels in 29 women with normal pregnancy and 32 women with preeclampsia. We found that maternal age, body mass index and fetal gender were not significantly different between two groups; however, blood pressure, gestational age and neonatal birth weight were significantly different. Serum adropin levels were significantly increased in women with preeclampsia compared with those with normal pregnancy but there were no significant differences in preptin levels. An increase in maternal serum adropin level was found in preeclampsia, and this may be a compensation for pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L.; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S. Bilasini; Singh, W. Gyaneshwar

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum h...

  19. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  20. Impact of a western diet on the ovarian and serum metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Suraj; Carlson, James E; Pathmasiri, Wimal; McRitchie, Susan; Davis, Matt; Sumner, Susan; Appt, Susan E

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine differences in the profiles of endogenous metabolites (metabolomics) among ovaries and serum derived from Old World nonhuman primates fed prudent or Western diets. A retrospective, observational study was done using archived ovarian tissue and serum from midlife cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fasicularis). Targeted and broad spectrum metabolomics analysis was used to compare ovarian tissue and serum from monkeys that had been exposed to a prudent diet or a Western diet. Monkeys in the prudent diet group (n=13) were research naïve and had been exposed only to a commercial monkey chow diet (low in cholesterol and saturated fats, high in complex carbohydrates). Western diet monkeys (n=8) had consumed a diet that was high in cholesterol, saturated animal fats and soluble carbohydrates for 2 years prior to ovarian tissue and serum collection. Metabolomic analyses were done on extracts of homogenized ovary tissue samples, and extracts of serum. Targeted analysis was conducted using the Biocrates p180 kit and broad spectrum analysis was conducted using UPLC-TOF-MS, resulting in the detection of 3500 compound ions. Using metabolomics methods, which capture thousands of signals for metabolites, 64 metabolites were identified in serum and 47 metabolites were identified in ovarian tissue that differed by diet. Quantitative targeted analysis revealed 13 amino acids, 6 acrylcarnitines, and 2 biogenic amines that were significantly (pmetabolome, and demonstrated perturbation in carnitine, lipids/fatty acid, and amino acid metabolic pathways. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Serum leptin levels correlation with high blood pressure in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Shahid, K.U.; Mazahir, I.; Lakho, G.R.; Nafees, M.

    2006-01-01

    To measure serum leptin levels and compare them in lean and obese subjects and to identify correlation between serum leptin levels, heart rate and hypertension in lean and obese subjects among adult females. Seventy female subjects with different body mass indices were selected from OPD of Jinnah Medical and Dental College Hospital (OPD), Karachi. Heart rate was counted manually; blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer while serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The outcomes hypertension and heart rate were correlated to risk factor leptin. Mean heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum leptin levels of obese people were 90+-1, 142+-2, 89+-1 and 24.13+-1.7 respectively, which were significantly higher as compared to lean subjects (p<0.05). All the parameters correlated positively and significantly with increasing BMI. There was a relationship of tachycardia and hypertension with high serum leptin levels in obesity. Serum leptin levels increase with the level of obesity. Hyper-leptinemia is associated with tachycardia and increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obesity via complex mechanisms. (author)

  2. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Technetium-99m-Labeled Autologous Serum Albumin: A Personal-Exclusive Source of Serum Component

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chen, Yi-Chun; Li, Dian-Kun; Chuang, Mei-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Technetium-99m human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical required in nuclear medicine studies. However, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains a major safety concern. Autopreparation of serum component acquired from patient provides a “personal-exclusive” source for radiolabeling. This paper is to evaluate the practicality of on-site elusion and subsequent radiolabeling efficacy for serum albumin. Results showed that the autologous elute contained more...

  4. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  5. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis with abomasal ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Tajik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the serum concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp and serum amyloid A (SAA in water buffaloes with abomasal ulcers, the abomasums of 100 randomly selected water buffaloes were examined after slaughter. Type I abomasal ulcers were found in 56 out of 100 buffaloes. Serum concentrations of Hp and SAA were measured. There was no significant difference between affected and non-affected buffaloes in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA. The serum concentrations of Hp and SAA had no significant correlation with age and the serum SAA revealed no significant correlation with the number of abomasal ulcers. A significant correlation was found between the serum Hp and the number of abomasal ulcers (r =0.29, p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the serum concentrations of Hp and SAA between buffaloes with different ulcer locations in the abomasums. Although more work on a larger number of animals is required in this area, it seems that the measurement of the serum Hp can be used to predict the abundance of type I abomasal ulcers.

  6. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  7. Reliable clinical serum analysis with reusable electrochemical sensor: Toward point-of-care measurement of the antipsychotic medication clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mijeong; Kim, Eunkyoung; Winkler, Thomas E; Banis, George; Liu, Yi; Kitchen, Christopher A; Kelly, Deanna L; Ghodssi, Reza; Payne, Gregory F

    2017-09-15

    Clozapine is one of the most promising medications for managing schizophrenia but it is under-utilized because of the challenges of maintaining serum levels in a safe therapeutic range (1-3μM). Timely measurement of serum clozapine levels has been identified as a barrier to the broader use of clozapine, which is however challenging due to the complexity of serum samples. We demonstrate a robust and reusable electrochemical sensor with graphene-chitosan composite for rapidly measuring serum levels of clozapine. Our electrochemical measurements in clinical serum from clozapine-treated and clozapine-untreated schizophrenia groups are well correlated to centralized laboratory analysis for the readily detected uric acid and for the clozapine which is present at 100-fold lower concentration. The benefits of our electrochemical measurement approach for serum clozapine monitoring are: (i) rapid measurement (≈20min) without serum pretreatment; (ii) appropriate selectivity and sensitivity (limit of detection 0.7μM); (iii) reusability of an electrode over several weeks; and (iv) rapid reliability testing to detect common error-causing problems. This simple and rapid electrochemical approach for serum clozapine measurements should provide clinicians with the timely point-of-care information required to adjust dosages and personalize the management of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lung cancer induced in mice by the envelope protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV closely resembles lung cancer in sheep infected with JSRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York Denis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6 vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to determine if Env expression alone in mice can account for the disease features observed in sheep, or whether additional aspects of virus replication in sheep are important, such as oncogene activation following retrovirus integration into the host cell genome. Results We have generated mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mab against JSRV Env and have used these to study mouse and sheep lung tumor histology. These Mab detect Env expression in tumors in sheep infected with JSRV from around the world with high sensitivity and specificity. Mouse and sheep tumors consisted mainly of well-differentiated adenomatous foci with little histological evidence of anaplasia, but at long times after vector exposure some mouse tumors did have a more malignant appearance typical of adenocarcinoma. In addition to epithelial cell tumors, lungs of three of 29 sheep examined contained fibroblastic cell masses that expressed Env and appeared to be separate neoplasms. The Mab also stained nasal adenocarcinoma tissue from one United States sheep, which we show was due to expression of Env from ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV, a virus closely related to JSRV. Systemic administration of the AAV6 vector encoding JSRV Env to mice produced numerous hepatocellular tumors, and some hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas, showing that the Env protein can induce tumors in multiple cell types. Conclusion Lung cancers induced by JSRV infection in sheep and by JSRV Env expression in mice have similar histologic features and are primarily characterized by adenomatous proliferation of peripheral lung epithelial cells. Thus it is

  9. The Pattern of Sexual Interest of Female-to-Male Transsexual Persons With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Iwasa, Atsushi; Nonomura, Norio; Miyagawa, Yasushi

    2017-09-01

    With Gender Identity Disorder Does Not Resemble That of Biological Men: An Eye-Tracking Study. Sex Med 2017;5:e169-e174. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. mRNA decay proteins are targeted to poly(A+ RNA and dsRNA-containing cytoplasmic foci that resemble P-bodies in Entamoeba histolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel López-Rosas

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, mRNA degradation and RNA-based gene silencing occur in cytoplasmic foci referred to as processing bodies (P-bodies. In protozoan parasites, the presence of P-bodies and their putative role in mRNA decay have yet to be comprehensively addressed. Identification of P-bodies might provide information on how mRNA degradation machineries evolved in lower eukaryotes. Here, we used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy assays to investigate the cellular localization of mRNA degradation proteins in the human intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica and found evidence of the existence of P-bodies. Two mRNA decay factors, namely the EhXRN2 exoribonuclease and the EhDCP2 decapping enzyme, were localized in cytoplasmic foci in a pattern resembling P-body organization. Given that amoebic foci appear to be smaller and less rounded than those described in higher eukaryotes, we have named them "P-body-like structures". These foci contain additional mRNA degradation factors, including the EhCAF1 deadenylase and the EhAGO2-2 protein involved in RNA interference. Biochemical analysis revealed that EhCAF1 co-immunoprecipitated with EhXRN2 but not with EhDCP2 or EhAGO2-2, thus linking deadenylation to 5'-to-3' mRNA decay. The number of EhCAF1-containing foci significantly decreased after inhibition of transcription and translation with actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively. Furthermore, results of RNA-FISH assays showed that (i EhCAF1 colocalized with poly(A(+ RNA and (ii during silencing of the Ehpc4 gene by RNA interference, EhAGO2-2 colocalized with small interfering RNAs in cytoplasmic foci. Our observation of decapping, deadenylation and RNA interference proteins within P-body-like foci suggests that these structures have been conserved after originating in the early evolution of eukaryotic lineages. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the localization of mRNA decay proteins within P

  11. Formation of toxic peptides in irradiated rats and binding thereof with blood serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomatin, V.V.; Efimenko, G.P.; Lifshits, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    Whole-body γ-irradiation of rats with a dose of 9.0 Gy caused a 1.5-fold and a 5-fold increase in excretion of bas peptides (molecular mass of 500-2000) in urea on the 2nd and 5th postirradiation days, respectively. These peptides possessed toxic activity and ability to form complexes with macroglobulins, immunoglobulins, and blood serum albumins, in particular. Irradiation decreased binding ability of serum proteins, and preliminary washing thereof by ultrafiltration increased it

  12. Assessment of lectin and HILIC based enrichment protocols for characterization of serum glycoproteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2008-01-01

    glycosylation profiles are associated with certain human ailments. Glycoprotein analysis by mass spectrometry of biological samples, such as blood serum, is hampered by sample complexity and the low concentration of the potentially informative glycopeptides and -proteins. We assessed the utility of lectin...... of 63 glycosylation sites in 38 proteins were identified by both methods, demonstrating distinct differences and complementarity. Serial application of custom-made microcolumns of mixed, immobilized lectins proved efficient for recovery and analysis of glycopeptides from serum samples of breast cancer...

  13. Serum prolactin level in patients taking olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olanzapine is a commonly used antipsychotic. Prolactin elevation is a common adverse effect of anstipsychotics, and serum prolactin elevation is seen in about 30% patients treated with olanzapine. There are confounding results about dose dependency of olanzapine and prolactin elevation, and also the duration of treatment. Method: Fifty six patients, 36 male and 20 female, who were taking olanzapine for any condition for more than a month at a constant dose were enrolled in the study. Patients’ age, weight, body mass index (BMI, serum prolactin levels, and some biochemical values were recorded. Patients were taken from the review outpatient department (OPD after due consent. Results: Five each in male and female groups showed elevation of serum prolactin (estimated to be high if >20 ng/dl for males, and >25 ng/dl for females. In females, the elevation was found at lesser dose of olanzapine (13 mg/day, in males 18 mg/day and early in the treatment (2.4 months vs. 9.7 months in males. Males tended to show raised prolactin with higher doses of olanzapine (mean 18 mg/day. Females (26.31% also showed higher prevalence of prolactin elevation compared to males (13.51%. No other parameter was found to modify the prolactin levels. Conclusion: Olanzapine causes elevation of serum prolactin, though lesser degree than some other antipsychotics. Females are more prone to have raised serum prolactin with olanzapine compared to males. However, the elevation seems to be transient. Higher doses of olanzapine tend to cause elevation of serum prolactin. Serum prolactin estimation in patients taking olanzapine may be undertaken to maintain quality life, particularly in females.

  14. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugard, J; Kew, M C; Da Fonseca, M; Levin, J [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1982-08-21

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations in 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1,650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35.5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2,179 pg/ml). If 1,000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugard, J.; Kew, M.C.; Da Fonseca, M.; Levin, J.

    1982-01-01

    Having found raised serum calcitonin concentrations is 94% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma when using a dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay, we have now repeated the study, using a double-antibody radio-immunoassay, in 102 further patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and 35 matched controls. Serum immunoreactive calcitonin concentrations (iCT) in the controls ranged from 10 to 310 pg/ml (mean 154,6 pg/ml). Values in the tumour patients ranged from 10 to 1 650 pg/ml (mean 302,6 pg/ml). The mean figures were significantly higher in the tumour patients (P smaller than 0,001), 35,5% of them having values above 310 pg/ml. In 65 of the patients serum iCT concentrations were also determined by dextran-coated-charcoal radio-immunoassay. Values ranged from 10 to 10780 pg/ml (mean 2 179 pg/ml). If 1 000 pg/ml is taken as the upper limit of normal, 69% of the patients had raised iCT concentrations. There was a good correlation (r=0,67; P smaller than 0,001) between serum iCT values measured with both methods in 50 patients. If measured by the double-antibody radio-immunoassay method, the serum calcitonin value is not useful as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma

  16. Maternal serum levels of adiponectin in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosrowbeygi, A.; Ahmadvand, H.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the serum levels of adiponectin in pre eclamptic patients are conflicting. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess serum levels of adiponectin in women with pre eclampsia compared with healthy pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed. The case group consisted of women with pre eclampsia (n=30). The control group consisted of 30 matched normal pregnant women. Serum levels of adiponectin were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: Serum levels of adiponectin were significantly higher in the pre eclamptic group than those in the normal control group. In the pre eclamptic patients serum levels of adiponectin showed a significant negative correlation with body mass index while no correlation was found in the normal pregnant women. In women with pre eclampsia, levels of adiponectin were decreased significantly in the overweight women compared with normal weight women, while in the control group no significant difference was observed. Conclusion: In conclusion, elevation of adiponectin levels might be a physiological feedback response to minimize endothelial dysfunction in pre eclamptic patients. (author)

  17. Radioimmunoassay for erytropoetin serum level in polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, K.; Vassileva, D.

    2003-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is the first well studied hemopoietic growth factor. The pathological levels of its serum concentration show deviations in the specific mechanisms for some diseases such as polycythemia. Objective of this work is the assessment of the diagnostic value of the Epo in the serum for the differentiation of the main form of polycythemia - true and symptomatic. Material and methods: 47 patients are studied (21 women and 26 men), 23 of them are with polycythemia vera and 24 with polycythemia symptomatica. The following has been determined: the serum level of Erythropoietin, hemoglobin, the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes, myelogram. The serum level of Epo is quantitatively determined b using of radioimmunological method, through Epo-Trac kit. Results: The diagnosis is also confirmed in all patients by other laboratory tests. The normal values of Epo in healthy persons are 17.0±7.0 mU/ml. The average Epo level in patients with polycythemia vera is 20.4±3.0 mU/ml. In one patient the Epo level is supposedly connected with an accompanying kidney disease. Conclusions: The obtained data show that the Epo serum level is an accurate criterion in the diagnosing of true and symptomatic polycythemia. The true polycythemia is connected with an independent erythrocyte production. In the symptomatic polycythemia the tissue hypoxia stimulated the Epo production

  18. Immunoradiometric assay for ferritin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyland, M.J.; Ganguli, P.C.; Blower, D.; Delamore, I.W.

    1975-01-01

    A sensitiv specific and precise immunoradiometric assay for ferritin has been developed. Ferritin was measured in the serum of 160 hospital controls, 101 females (118 plus/minus 9 μg/l) and 59 males (189 plus/minus 16 μg/l). This difference was statistically significant. In 28 patients with untreated iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin concentration (6.1plus/minus 0.7 μg/l) was significantly lower than in the controls, but it was within the normal range in 14 cases of polycythaemia vera treated by repeated phlebotomy. In 4 patients with primary haemachromatosis (2884 plus/minus 56 μg/l), 25 with secondary iron overload states (5702 plus/minus 1235 μg/l) and 8 with haemolytic anaemia (1612 plus/minus 605 μg/l), serum ferritin levels were markedly elevated. In 14 cases of transfusional siderosis there was a highly significant correlation between serum ferritin concentration and units of blood transfused. A circadian rhythmin serum ferritin concentration was observed in 7 healthy subjects. (author)

  19. Serum zinc level in children with malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mahmood, M.T.; Baluch, G.R.; Bhatti, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Serum zinc level amongst children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was evaluated in a control study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Twenty-five children with PEM and 25 healthy children as control from the community were screened. Mean serum zinc level was found to be 54.48 -+ 18.91 mg/dl in children with PEM while it was 72.72 -+ 8.21 mg/dl in control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in zinc level was noted between both sexes in each group. Marasmic 16 children revealed mean serum zinc level of 57.55 -+ 18.16 mg/dl while in Kwashiorkor it was 44.57 -+ 13.66 mg/dl. Serum zinc was significantly low in Kwashiorkor than in marasmus (P < 0.001). It was also significantly low in children with acute or chronic diarrhea associated with malnutrition (44.66 -+ 16.0 mg/dl). Acute respiratory infections in these children were not associated with low serum zinc level (71.66 -+ 16.51 mg/dl). (author)

  20. Serum iron parameters in liver cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Maail, W.

    2018-03-01

    The liver plays a fundamental role in iron homeostasis. Iron parameters change, especially ferritin, need to be evaluated in patients with liver cirrhosis. Serum ferritin could predict the prognosis of patients with decompensated cirrhosis since it reflects immunemediated and infectious stimuli. Ferritin could express the severity of liver disease and possible subsequent complications. Finally, it might reflect an iron overload condition resulting in significant morbidity and early mortality. 70 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis divided into three Child-Pugh subgroups. Serum iron parameters include serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and ferritin was measured in these groups. From these 70 patients, 30 (42.9%) with HbsAg positive, 26 (37.1%) with anti-HCV positive and 14 (20%) with both HbsAg and anti-HCV positive. Of the 70 patients, 14 (20%) had CTP Class A cirrhosis, 17 (24.3%) had CTP Class B cirrhosis, and 39 (55.7%) had CTP C cirrhosis. The median (range) value of serum iron was 36 (10-345) μg/dl, TIBC was 160 (59-520) μg/dl, Ferritin was 253.5 (8-6078) ng/ml and the transferrin saturation was 22.9 (3.65-216.98) %.We found a significant difference in serum ferritin level with CTP score. Ferritin levels increased as Child-Pugh class progressed (p<0.001).

  1. Elemental analysis of human serum and serum protein fractions by thermal neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woittiez, J.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Some applications of thermal neutron activation for the determination of elemental contents in human serum and human serum protein fractions are presented. Firstly total serum is dealt with, secondly serum protein fractions obtained by gel filtration are described. A brief review on the role of (trace) elements in human health and disease and a compilation of literature data for elemental contents in human serum, as obtained by neutron activation techniques, are given. The most important sources of statistical and systematic errors are evaluated. Results for the contents of sodium, potassium, magnesium, bromine, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, rubidium, cesium and antimony in serum are given, with emphasis on control of accuracy and precision. The possible relation between selenium in blood and cancer occurrence in humans is discussed. The results of elemental analyses from cancer patients and from a patient receiving a cytostatic treatment are presented. A survey of literature results for the determination of protein-bound elemental contents in serum is presented. Subsequently, results from a study on the behaviour of elements during gel filtration are discussed. Gel-element and protein-element interactions are studied. Finally the protein-bound occurrence of trace elements in human serum is determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis. Results for both desalting and fractionation are given, for the elements bromine, copper, manganese, vanadium, selenium, zinc, rubidium, iron and iodine. (Auth.)

  2. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FETAL SERUM, AMNIOTIC-FLUID, AND MATERNAL SERUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLOON, AJ; MANTINGH, A; DEWOLF, BTHM; BREED, ASPM

    In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three

  3. Serum proteinase inhibitors and other serum proteins in protein-energy malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelp, F.P.; Migasena, P.; Pongpaew, P.; SCHREURS W.H.P

    1977-01-01

    1. The concentrations of serum protein albumin, prealbumin and transferrin were determined in twenty-eight cases of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) with infection, together with the levels of serum proteinase inhibitors (PI), alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), alpha1-antichymotrypsin (Ach),

  4. Association between serum interleukin-6 and serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in nonthyroidal illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, M. C.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Increased serum concentrations of FFA, bilirubin, and carboxyl-methyl-propyl-furanpropionic acid, accumulating in chronic renal failure in direct relationship with serum creatinine, have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of the low T3 syndrome during illness. Cytokines may also be involved in

  5. Association of serum uric acid with blood urea and serum creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.U.; Ahmad, Z.; Rehman, J.U.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia can cause serious health problems including renal insufficiency. Hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases including Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertriglyceridemia and Obesity. Objective of the present study was to study the Association of Serum Uric Acid with Blood Urea and Serum Creatinine. Methods: Eighty subjects, aged above 40, having blood urea more than 40 mg/dl and serum Creatinine more than 1.3 mg/dl were selected. 52.5 % subjects were male. Eighty subjects were selected as control group matching the age and sex with study group with normal blood urea and serum Creatinine. Results: Serum Uric Acid was found to be raised in 33 patients. Mean Serum Uric Acid value was 6.98+-2.021 in males (p<0.05) and 5.054+-2.324 in females (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum Uric Acid is raised in patients with impaired renal function (p<0.05). Levels of increased Serum Uric Acid were not significantly associated with the cause of renal disease. (author)

  6. Zinc in human serum. Biochemical and clinical aspects. Zink i humant serum. Biokemiske og kliniske aspekter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiilerich, S

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 percent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of protein binding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a ..cap alpha../sup 2/-macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 percent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 percent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 percent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 percent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin.

  7. HIV and other predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, E; Kæstel, Pernille

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folate and iron status and hemoglobin concentrations are important to maternal and infant health. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify predictors of serum folate, serum ferritin, and hemoglobin. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of 1669 pregnant women (22-35 wk of gestation) in ...

  8. Serum cardiac troponin I in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Christensen, Anders Fogh

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific marker of myocardial injury related to in-patient fatality and cardiac injury in acute stroke. We investigated whether cTnI in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol, acute inflammatory response, and insular damage. We also investigated whether c...

  9. DNA repair and ultraviolet mutagenesis in cells from a new patient with xeroderma pigmentosum group G and Cockayne syndrome resemble xeroderma pigmentosum cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-I. Moriwaki; M. Stefanini (Miria); A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); J.H. Robbins; I. Rapin; E. Botta (Elena); B. Tanganelli; W. Vermeulen (Wim); B.C. Broughton; K.H. Kraemer (Kenneth)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractXeroderma pigmentosum (XP)/Cockayne syndrome (CS) complex is a combination of clinical features of two rare genetic disorders in one individual. A sun-sensitive boy (XP20BE) who had severe symptoms of CS, with dwarfism, microcephaly, retinal degeneration, and mental impairment, had

  10. Serum diamine oxidase activity in patients with histamine intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzotti, G; Breda, D; Di Gioacchino, M; Burastero, S E

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance to various foods, excluding bona fide coeliac disease and lactose intolerance, represents a growing cause of patient visits to allergy clinics.Histamine intolerance is a long-known, multifaceted clinical condition triggered by histamine-rich foods and alcohol and/or by drugs that liberate histamine or block diamine oxidase (DAO), the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of ingested histamine. Histamine limitation diets impose complex, non-standardized restrictions that may severely impact the quality of life of patients. We retrospectively evaluated 14 patients who visited allergy outpatient facilities in northern Italy with a negative diagnosis for IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity, coeliac disease, conditions related to gastric hypersecretion, and systemic nickel hypersensitivity, and who previously underwent a histamine limitation diet with benefits for their main symptoms. Serum diamine oxidase levels and the clinical response to diamine oxidase supplementation were investigated. We found that 10 out of 14 patients had serum DAO activityintolerance. Moreover, 13 out of 14 patients subjectively reported a benefit in at least one of the disturbances related to food intolerances following diamine oxidase supplementation. The mean value (±SD) of diamine oxidase activity in the cohort of patients with histamine intolerance symptoms was 7.04±6.90 U/mL compared to 39.50±18.16 U/mL in 34 healthy controls (P=0.0031). In patients with symptoms triggered by histamine-rich food, measuring the serum diamine oxidase activity can help identify subjects who can benefit from a histamine limitation diet and/or diamine oxidase supplementation.Properly designed, controlled studies investigating histamine intolerance that include histamine provocation are indispensable for providing insights into the area of food intolerances, which are currently primarily managed with non-scientific approaches in Italy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults.

  12. Spatially Distributed Social Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Frasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bare-bones stochastic model that takes into account both the geographical distribution of people within a country and their complex network of connections. The model, which is designed to give rise to a scale-free network of social connections and to visually resemble the geographical spread seen in satellite pictures of the Earth at night, gives rise to a power-law distribution for the ranking of cities by population size (but for the largest cities and reflects the notion that highly connected individuals tend to live in highly populated areas. It also yields some interesting insights regarding Gibrat’s law for the rates of city growth (by population size, in partial support of the findings in a recent analysis of real data [Rozenfeld et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 18702 (2008.]. The model produces a nontrivial relation between city population and city population density and a superlinear relationship between social connectivity and city population, both of which seem quite in line with real data.

  13. Spatially Distributed Social Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasco, Gerald F.; Sun, Jie; Rozenfeld, Hernán D.; ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a bare-bones stochastic model that takes into account both the geographical distribution of people within a country and their complex network of connections. The model, which is designed to give rise to a scale-free network of social connections and to visually resemble the geographical spread seen in satellite pictures of the Earth at night, gives rise to a power-law distribution for the ranking of cities by population size (but for the largest cities) and reflects the notion that highly connected individuals tend to live in highly populated areas. It also yields some interesting insights regarding Gibrat's law for the rates of city growth (by population size), in partial support of the findings in a recent analysis of real data [Rozenfeld et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 18702 (2008).]. The model produces a nontrivial relation between city population and city population density and a superlinear relationship between social connectivity and city population, both of which seem quite in line with real data.

  14. New lethal disease involving type I and III collagen defect resembling geroderma osteodysplastica, De Barsy syndrome, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukkola, A; Kauppila, S; Risteli, L; Vuopala, K; Risteli, J; Leisti, J; Pajunen, L

    1998-06-01

    We describe the clinical findings and biochemical features of a male child suffering from a so far undescribed lethal connective tissue disorder characterised by extreme hypermobility of the joints, lax skin, cataracts, severe growth retardation, and insufficient production of type I and type III procollagens. His features are compared with Ehlers-Danlos type IV, De Barsy syndrome, and geroderma osteodysplastica, as these disorders show some symptoms and signs shared with our patient. The child died because of failure of the connective tissue structures joining the skull and the spine, leading to progressive spinal stenosis. The aortic valve was translucent and insufficient. The clinical symptoms and signs, together with histological findings, suggested a collagen defect. Studies on both skin fibroblast cultures and the patient's serum showed reduced synthesis of collagen types I and III at the protein and RNA levels. The sizes of the mRNAs and newly synthesised proteins were normal, excluding gross structural abnormalities. These findings are not in accordance with any other collagen defect characterised so far.

  15. Radioimmunological determination of digoxin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, G.; Sorger, D.

    1979-01-01

    The tested quality signs of the digoxin-RIA (Medica) correspond to other RIA-test methods. The digoxin-RIA (Medica) is, therefore, well suited for clinical examinations. In the dilanacin-(digoxin-) long-term therapy with the maintenance dose of 0.5 mg digoxin a day 75.4% of the patients examined (n = 65) were within the therapeutic field. In each case 12.3% were underdigitalised or overdigitalised, respectively. In the 8 patients in the toxic region only the half showed signs of digoxin intoxication. It is referred to the importance of creatinine and potassium in the serum, to the digoxin creatinene and potassium in the serum, to the digoxin clearance depending on age, to the body weight and the body surface, respectively, in very obese patients for the height of the serum digoxin level and for the compatibility of this heart glycoside. (author)

  16. Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in unextracted serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, S.P.; Corcoran, J.M.; Eastman, C.J.; Doy, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid, precise radioimmunoassay for progesterone in 25 μL of unextracted serum is described. Progesterone is released from its binding protein by adding an optimal amount of cortisol, which binds to the same protein (cortisol binding globulin) as progesterone. The amount of cortisol required does not cross react with the specific progesterone antibody used. This approach considerably shortens assay time and removes a tedious and imprecise stage in the conventional assay of serum progesterone. Results correlated well (r = 0.97) with a method involving organic solvent extraction of progesterone from serum. During the two years we have used this mehod in a busy diagnostic endocrine laboratory, the between-assay precision (CV) for low-, medium-, and high-concentration quality control sera was 12, 7, and 9%, respectively. Data from participation in an independent external quality-control program verified the adequacies of the method

  17. Compound-complex odontoma: A case report of a rare variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishath Khanum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The odontoma is a benign tumor containing all the various component tissues of the teeth. It is the most common odontogenic tumor representing 67% of all odontogenic tumors. Odontomas are considered to be developmental anomalies (hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Based on the degree of morphodifferentiation or on the basis of their resemblance to normal teeth, they are divided into compound and complex odontomas. The compound odontoma is composed of multiple, small tooth-like structures. The complex odontoma consists of a conglomerate mass of enamel and dentin, which bears no anatomic resemblance to a tooth. They are usually diagnosed on routine radiological examinations in the second decade of life and are often slow growing and non-aggressive in nature. Here, we report a case of rare, unusually large, compound-complex odontoma, located in the left anterior maxilla of a 13-year-old male patient.

  18. Preparation of the low molecular weight serum proteome for mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waybright, Timothy J; Chan, King C; Veenstra, Timothy D; Xiao, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of viable biomarkers or indicators of disease states is complicated by the inherent complexity of the chosen biological specimen. Every sample, whether it is serum, plasma, urine, tissue, cells, or a host of others, contains thousands of large and small components, each interacting in multiple ways. The need to concentrate on a group of these components to narrow the focus on a potential biomarker candidate becomes, out of necessity, a priority, especially in the search for immune-related low molecular weight serum biomarkers. One such method in the field of proteomics is to divide the sample proteome into groups based on the size of the protein, analyze each group, and mine the data for statistically significant items. This chapter details a portion of this method, concentrating on a method for fractionating and analyzing the low molecular weight proteome of human serum.

  19. Identification of low-frequency variants associated with gout and serum uric acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulem, Patrick; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Walters, G Bragi

    2011-01-01

    ,506 individuals for whom serum uric acid measurements were available. We identified a low-frequency missense variant (c.1580C>G) in ALDH16A1 associated with gout (OR = 3.12, P = 1.5 × 10(-16), at-risk allele frequency = 0.019) and serum uric acid levels (effect = 0.36 s.d., P = 4.5 × 10(-21)). We confirmed.......48 s.d., P = 4.5 × 10(-16)). This variant is close to a common variant previously associated with serum uric acid levels. This work illustrates how whole-genome sequencing data allow the detection of associations between low-frequency variants and complex traits....

  20. Experiments on the radioimmunological determination of the triiodothyronine binding capacity of human blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, H.W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Bovine serum antibodies have been obtained from rabbits. Constant amounts of antibodies have been incubated with increasing amounts of antigens. The maximum value found for T 3 binding to the antigen-antibody complex was 66 μg RA/mg antigen. Human serum samples containing 0,05 ng 125 J-T 3 /μl were incubated with 600 μg RA, and the antigen was precipitated with 8,4 mg anti-RA. The mean value obtained for 30 enthyreotic test persons was a binding to RA of 7.9 +- 0,52% 125 J-T 3 . Comparative measurements of patient and standard serum samples shared only slight differences. This means that the measured data do not reflect the thyroid function. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Prozone effect of serum IgE levels in a case of plasma cell leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talamo Giampaolo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe a case of multiple myeloma (MM and secondary plasma cell leukemia (PCL secreting IgE-kappa immunoglobulin. To our knowledge, only 2 cases of IgE-producing secondary PCL have been reported in the medical literature. In our patient, the only tumor marker available for monitoring the therapeutic response to chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation was the quantitative M component at serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP, because serum free light chains were in the normal range, Bence-Jones proteinuria was absent, and quantitative serum IgE levels provided inaccurate and erratic results, due to the prozone effect. This is a laboratory phenomenon that occurs when antigen excess interferes with antibody-based methods requiring immune complex formation for detection. It is important to recognize the presence of a prozone effect, because it can produce falsely normal results, and therefore it could lead clinicians to incorrect assessment of the response to therapy.

  2. Prozone effect of serum IgE levels in a case of plasma cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Giampaolo; Castellani, William; Dolloff, Nathan G

    2010-09-10

    We describe a case of multiple myeloma (MM) and secondary plasma cell leukemia (PCL) secreting IgE-kappa immunoglobulin. To our knowledge, only 2 cases of IgE-producing secondary PCL have been reported in the medical literature. In our patient, the only tumor marker available for monitoring the therapeutic response to chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation was the quantitative M component at serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP), because serum free light chains were in the normal range, Bence-Jones proteinuria was absent, and quantitative serum IgE levels provided inaccurate and erratic results, due to the prozone effect. This is a laboratory phenomenon that occurs when antigen excess interferes with antibody-based methods requiring immune complex formation for detection. It is important to recognize the presence of a prozone effect, because it can produce falsely normal results, and therefore it could lead clinicians to incorrect assessment of the response to therapy.

  3. Spectrometric determination of clinically relevant fatty acids in the blood serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Krasheninnikov, V. N.; Sviridov, A. P.; Titov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    The content of fatty acid (FA) triglycerides in food and biological media is predicting traditionally using gas and liquid chromatographic methods. Named techniques aren't available for clinical labs due to their complexity. So, our objective was to develop the method and apparatus for rapid assay of a few clinically important FA as the saturated palmitic, mono unsaturated oleic and others in serum using near infrared spectrometer. As a result, the applicability of the FT spectrometer in the wavelength range of 0.9 -1.8 μ to analyze these FA in serum without sample preparation was confirmed. Besides, measurement specifications were determined and a correlations of the absorption spectra and contents of total triglycerides and cholesterol, palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic FA in serum were established

  4. Characterizing the Interaction between tartrazine and two serum albumins by a hybrid spectroscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xingren; Qin, Pengfei; Liu, Rutao; Wang, Jing

    2011-06-22

    Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in food products. The present study evaluated the interaction of tartrazine with two serum albumins (SAs), human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), under physiological conditions by means of fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. The fluorescence data showed that tartrazine could bind to the two SAs to form a complex. The binding process was a spontaneous molecular interaction procedure, in which van der Waals and hydrogen bond interactions played a major role. Additionally, as shown by the UV-vis absorption, three-dimensional fluorescence, and CD results, tartrazine could lead to conformational and some microenvironmental changes of both SAs, which may affect the physiological functions of SAs. The work provides important insight into the mechanism of toxicity of tartrazine in vivo.

  5. Complement fixation by solid phase immune complexes. Reduced capacity in SLE sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Jonsson, H; Sjöholm, A

    1988-01-01

    We describe an ELISA for assessment of complement function based on the capacity of serum to support fixation of complement components to solid phase immune complexes (IC). Microplates were coated with aggregated bovine serum albumin (BSA) followed by rabbit anti-BSA IgG. The solid phase IC were...

  6. Serum ferritin in recurrent oral ulceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challacombe, S.J.; Scully, C.; Keevil, B.; Lehner, T.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radio-assay for ferritin was developed and used to examine serum ferritin levels in 105 patients with recurrent oral ulceration (ROU), 41 patients with Behcet's syndrome (BS), 42 with other ulcerative oral lesions, 35 patients with non-ulcerative oral lesions and in 78 controls. Ferritin levels increased with age and were significantly higher in males than females. The mean ferritin concentrations in male patients with ROU, BS or with other oral ulcers were significantly reduced in comparison with controls, and in female patients were significantly reduced in those with major aphthous ulcers. The prevalence of low serum ferritin levels was about 8% in patients with ROU, 15% in BS and 9.5% in patients with other ulcerative oral lesions, compared with less than 3% in patients with non-ulcerative oral disorders and in controls. Most of the iron-deficient patients were female. Serum ferritin levels did not directly correlate with serum iron levels and may be a more accurate indicator of iron deficiency. Furthermore, serum ferritin can distinguish between patients with true iron deficiency and those with secondary sideropenia. It is suggested that in a small number of patients, oral ulceration may be a presenting sign of iron deficiency, and that in a further small proportion of patients, ROU already present will be exacerbated by concurrent iron deficiency. Both groups will show a therapeutic response to correction of the iron deficiency. The results suggest that serum ferritin levels are a useful part of the haematological investigatons in patients with ROU. (author)

  7. Ex-post evaluation by bibliometric method. Institutional comparison among 9 resembled foreign research institutes by using the energy citation database (ECD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki

    2007-09-01

    From a viewpoint of ex-post evaluation, research papers published from nine resembled nuclear research institutes located in Japan, the U.S.A., Germany and France were compared by a bibliometric method. A research database used was the Energy Citation Database (ECD) owned by USDOE. ECD is a database run by USDOE and has a high frequency of research paper acquisition assembled in the U.S. Response speed of ECD on the Website is quick and all logged data can be handled easily. INIS database is run by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and contains a lot of nuclear research papers collected from the member countries such as the U.S.A., Japan, Germany and France. INIS underestimates about 20% of the U.S.A. data than that of ECD. I. Institutional Comparison. (1) ECD shows that a total number of research papers published during 25 years (1978-2002) was of the order of the ORNL (34, 149 papers)>SNL>ANL>BNL>Idaho (>Karlsruhe>JAERI>Jeulich>Cadarache). Where, INIS shows it as ORNL>JAERI. (2) ECD can show a long-term data comparison with a time span more than 50 years (1953-2002). Disclosed research papers were of the order of the ORNL (55,857)>ANL (37,129)>SNL (24,628)>BNL (24,829)> Idaho (2,398). There were many records loaded without publication dates-over 50,000. Because of this, any searches which use dates are not finding these documents. Typically, the author found over 5,000 SNL items in the NSA range of records. SNL also kept a lot of defense reports, those are not disclosed yet. One had better know a historical background of each cite as to the case for long-range dates comparison. (3) ECD founds that research papers at a five-year period varied those numbers. At past (10), thus 1988-1922, paper reduction occurred sharply at most US-institutes. This might be attributed to lay-offs, funding shifts or complete elimination of programs, a policy change in reporting requirements for contract reporting deliverables. Definitions of what constituted STI (science

  8. Surface imprinted beads for the recognition of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Francesca; Piletsky, Sergey; Turner, Anthony P F; Speghini, Adolfo; Bossi, Alessandra

    2007-04-15

    The synthesis of poly-aminophenylboronic acid (ABPA) imprinted beads for the recognition of the protein human serum albumin (HSA) is reported. In order to create homogeneous recognition sites, covalent immobilisation of the template HSA was exploited. The resulting imprinted beads were selective for HSA. The indirect imprinting factor (IF) calculated from supernatant was 1.6 and the direct IF, evaluated from the protein recovered from the beads, was 1.9. The binding capacity was 1.4 mg/g, which is comparable to commercially available affinity materials. The specificity of the HSA recognition was evaluated with competitive experiments, indicating a molar ratio 4.5/1 of competitor was necessary to displace half of the bound HSA. The recognition and binding of the imprinted beads was also tested with a complex sample, human serum and targeted removal of HSA without a loss of the other protein components was demonstrated. The easy preparation protocol of derivatised beads and a good protein recognition properties make the approach an attractive solution to analytical and bio-analytical problems in the field of biotechnology.

  9. Embryogenesis-promoting factors in rat serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M; Kimura, R; Shoji, R

    1998-06-15

    Regarding whole rat embryo cultures in vitro, rat serum as a culture medium is known to support the normal growth of rat embryos in the organogenesis phase. The purpose of the present study was to isolate the embryogenesis-promoting factors from rat serum as a first step in the development of a defined serum-free medium for a whole embryo culture system. Pooled rat serum after heat inactivation was fractionated into three major peaks (frA, containing a region of void volume, frB, and frC) by gel filtration. The 9.5-day rat embryos that were cultivated for 48 hr in essential salt medium containing frB (with a molecular size range of 100-500 kDa) revealed normal growth. Three proteins (27 kDa, 76 kDa, and 190 kDa) that had the embryogenesis-promoting effects were isolated from 3-hr delayed centrifuged rat serum by the ion exchange chromatography. The 76-kDa protein was found to be rat transferrin by immunoblotting. The 27-kDa protein was identified as apo-AI (the major apoprotein of high-density lipoprotein) by immunoblotting. High-density lipoprotein obtained from pooled rat serum by a NaBr density gradient ultracentrifugation was found to have a positive effect on embryogenesis. The 10-kDa protein was also identified as alpha 1-inhibitor 3 by immunoblotting. In addition, the embryogenesis-promoting effect of the fraction containing 27-kDa and 190-kDa proteins declined within a short period of storage at -20 degrees C. This decrease was countered by supplementing its fraction (D-2) with albumin isolated from rat serum. These results in the present study suggest that transferrin, high-density lipoprotein, and alpha 1-inhibitor 3 in rat serum may be embryogenesis-promoting factors, and that albumin appeared to play a role in the embryogenesis of rat embryos in whole embryo cultures.

  10. Study of Serum Magnesium in Surgical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip D. Lambe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A deficiency of magnesium is of clinical importance in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of hypomagnesaemia is high in critically ill patients. Knowing the important role of magnesium in surgical cases, it is necessary to anticipate and diagnose magnesium deficiency prior to surgery and in the immediate postoperative period to correct it. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse serum magnesium levels in patients undergoing emergency surgical procedures, planned surgical procedures and normal healthy matched controls and to compare the serum magnesium levels in all the three groups. Materials and Methods: The study participants were divided into three groups: i Group I: patients undergoing emergency major surgery ii Group II: patients undergoing planned major surgery iii Group III: normal healthy controls. Serum Magnesium investigation was done by Xylidyl Blue Method using UV-1800/Shimadzu UV-Spectrophotometer. Results: The mean serum Magnesium in control group was found to be 2.16 ± 0.30 mg/dl. In patients undergoing planned surgery, pre-operative serum magnesium was normal (2.16 ± 0.22 mg/dl but decreased significantly on postoperative day 3 (1.63 ± 0.27 mg/dl and day 6 (1.97 ± 0.12 mg/dl and returned to normal level by post-operative day 9 (2.14 ± 0.14 mg/dl compared to controls. In patients undergoing emergency surgery, serum magnesium was decreased pre-operatively (1.90 ± 0.48 mg/dl.Further significant reduction was found at post-operative day 3 (1.38 ± 0.28 mg/dl, day 6 (1.59 ± 0.30 mg/dl and day 9 (1.88 ± 0.46 mg/dl compared to controls. Mean serum Magnesium overall in emergency surgery patients was reduced significantly compared to planned surgery patients. Conclusion: A transient fall in the serum Magnesium as compared to its pre-operative level was seen in every patient undergoing surgical procedure due to surgical stress. In patients undergoing emergency surgical procedure, the decrease was

  11. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three......YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been...

  12. Competitive radioimmunoassay of digoxin in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oslapas, Raymond; Herrin, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    The process described is for determining the digoxin level of a serum. To do so a mixture is made by adding to the serum sample an antidigoxin antibody and a suitable labelling quantity of O 3 -(hydroxy-4 phenethylcarbamoyl)digoxigenin for radioactive labelling. The mixture is allowed to incubate so that the digoxin of the sample and the radioactive labelling reagent joint to the antidigoxin antibody. A precipitating agent is added to the mixture to help the formation of a precipitate and thus separate the labelled digoxin taken up from the precipitate free digoxin. The liquid is separated from the precipitate formed and the residual radioactivity of the precipitate is measured [fr

  13. Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin in neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askmark, H; Osterman, P O; Roxin, L E; Venge, P [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin was performed in 85 patients with muscular symptoms. Elevated levels were found in 93% of patients with myogenic myopathy, in 54% with myasthenia gravis and in 50% with neurogenic myopathy. All 11 patients with polymyositis had elevated myoglobin concentrations. In six of seven patients with polymyositis, who were followed up with repeated determinations, a clear relationship between myoglobin levels and clinical course was found. In general serum myoglobin seemed to be a more sensitive indicator of muscle disease than creatine kinase.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askmark, H.; Osterman, P.O.; Roxin, L.-E.; Venge, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin was performed in 85 patients with muscular symptoms. Elevated levels were found in 93% of patients with myogenic myopathy, in 54% with myasthenia gravis and in 50% with neurogenic myopathy. All 11 patients with polymyositis had elevated myoglobin concentrations. In six of seven patients with polymyositis, who were followed up with repeated determinations, a clear relationship between myoglobin levels and clinical course was found. In general serum myoglobin seemed to be a more sensitive indicator of muscle disease than creatine kinase. (author)

  15. HYPOLIPEMIC THERAPY AND LOW SERUM CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentration of plasma lipoproteins (hypolipoproteinemia presents decreasing concentrations of all or particular lipids components. Classification of hypolipoproteinemia (hypoLP divides them into: primary (hereditary and secondary. Primary hipoLP are rare diseases and their main characteristic is disorder of apolipoproteins synthesis, which leads to low serum cholesterol concentration. Secondary hipoLP are presented in many diseases. They have diagnostic, prognostic significance and present good therapeutic marker. However, modern therapeutic approaches for aggressive lipid lowering pointed out many questions about physiological limits for cholesterol lowering. These approaches, also, open many questions about consequences of low serum concentration of total cholesterol and triglicerides.

  16. Analysis of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, B R

    2002-09-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels are influenced by genetic polymorphism. Interpretation of serum levels with the appropriate genotypic reference range improves the diagnostic sensitivity of the assay for sarcoidosis. SACE assays are performed by a large number of routine clinical laboratories. However, there is no external quality assessment (EQA) for SACE other than an informal regional scheme. This showed analytical performance of SACE assays to be poor, with a diversity of reference ranges, leading to widely disparate clinical classification of EQA samples. Genetic polymorphism combined with poor analytical performance suggest that perhaps SACE assays should revert to being the province of specialized laboratories.

  17. Encapsulation of atmospheric CO2 by a self-assembled decanuclear cadmium complex via unfamiliar perchlorato and carbonato bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Deibe, Ana M; Portela-García, Cristina; Fondo, Matilde; Mota, Antonio J; Sanmartín-Matalobos, Jesús

    2012-10-11

    A decanuclear Cd complex has been found as a carbonate-containing capsule. The structure strongly resembles a ten-blade waterwheel with a central carbonate ligand surrounded by two superimposed Cd(5)O(5) crowns with a pentagonal antiprism-like disposition. The capsule is doubly capped by two pentadentate perchlorate anions.

  18. Partial 2p deletion in a girl with a complex chromosome rearrangement involving chromosomes 2, 6, 11, and 21.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, R S; Medrano, M A; Hansen, K L

    1985-01-01

    We describe the clinical and cytogenetic findings of a 9 1/2 month old girl with a complex chromosome rearrangement resulting in a probable deletion of band 2p14. She does not resemble other reported cases of del(2p).

  19. Validation of ultraviolet method to determine serum phosphorus level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Borges, Lisandra; Perez Prieto, Teresa Maria; Valdes Diez, Lilliam

    2009-01-01

    Validation of a spectrophotometry method applicable in clinic labs was proposed to analytical assessment of serum phosphates using a kit UV-phosphorus of domestic production from 'Carlos J. Finlay' Biologics Production Enterprise (Havana, Cuba). Analysis method was based on phosphorus reaction to ammonium molybdenum to acid pH to creating a measurable complex to 340 nm. Specificity and precision were measured considering the method strength, linearity, accuracy and sensitivity. Analytical method was linear up to 4,8 mmol/L, precise (CV 30 .999) during clinical interest concentration interval where there were not interferences by matrix. Detection limit values were of 0.037 mmol/L and of quantification of 0.13 mmol/L both were satisfactory for product use

  20. Effects of radiographic contrast media on the serum complement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirone, P.; Boldrini, E.

    1983-01-01

    The authors explored the activation of the complement system produced by a nonionic organic iodine compound, namely iopamidol, which is proposed as a contrast medium for radiographic examination by intravenous and intra-arterial injection. The study was conducted in vitro versus established ionic contrasts (diatrizoate, iothalamate, acetrizoate) and a nonionic compound (metrizamide). The adopted experimental model was the immunohemolytic detector system, in which the immune complex consisted of goat erythrocytes sensitized with the corresponding antibody (hemolysin), and complement (C') was supplied by guinea pig serum. All the products caused complement activation. The results show that nonionic contrast media produce less activation of the complement system than the traditional ionic contrast. Thus the use of nonionic contrast for radiological procedures necessitating the introduction of contrast material into the blood compartment would imply a reduced risk of anaphylactoid reactions. (orig.)

  1. Comprehensive identification of Vibrio vulnificus genes required for growth in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda-Diéguez, M; Silva-Hernández, F X; Hubbard, T P; Chao, M C; Waldor, M K; Amaro, C

    2018-12-31

    Vibrio vulnificus can be a highly invasive pathogen capable of spreading from an infection site to the bloodstream, causing sepsis and death. To survive and proliferate in blood, the pathogen requires mechanisms to overcome the innate immune defenses and metabolic limitations of this host niche. We created a high-density transposon mutant library in YJ016, a strain representative of the most virulent V. vulnificus lineage (or phylogroup) and used transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) screens to identify loci that enable the pathogen to survive and proliferate in human serum. Initially, genes underrepresented for insertions were used to estimate the V. vulnificus essential gene set; comparisons of these genes with similar TIS-based classification of underrepresented genes in other vibrios enabled the compilation of a common Vibrio essential gene set. Analysis of the relative abundance of insertion mutants in the library after exposure to serum suggested that genes involved in capsule biogenesis are critical for YJ016 complement resistance. Notably, homologues of two genes required for YJ016 serum-resistance and capsule biogenesis were not previously linked to capsule biogenesis and are largely absent from other V. vulnificus strains. The relative abundance of mutants after exposure to heat inactivated serum was compared with the findings from the serum screen. These comparisons suggest that in both conditions the pathogen relies on its Na + transporting NADH-ubiquinone reductase (NQR) complex and type II secretion system to survive/proliferate within the metabolic constraints of serum. Collectively, our findings reveal the potency of comparative TIS screens to provide knowledge of how a pathogen overcomes the diverse limitations to growth imposed by serum.

  2. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for corticosterone and deoxycortisol in human serum: Sex differences in the mean serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneshoefer, M.; Harendt, H.; Vecsei, P.

    1977-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay is described which allows the simultaneous determination of serum corticosterone and deoxycortisol. The normal serum concentration of both steroids were found to be dependent on sex and menstrual cycle. Mean concentrations (+-S.D.) in males, females (follicular phase) and females (luteal phase) were 4210 +- 2170 ng/l, 2410 +- 1480 ng/l and 4390 +- 2320 ng/l for corticosterone and 499 +- 273 ng/l, 207 +- 152 ng/l and 335 +- 182 ng/l for deoxycortisol. After adrenal stimulation by corticotropin itself or by insulin induced hypoglycemia, the serum concentrations of corticosterone became significantly higher than those of deoxycortisol. After oral administration of dexamethasone serum concentrations of both steroids were suppressed to levels below the limit of the normal range. One hour after oral metyrapone administration at midnight, serum corticosterone decreased, while serum deoxycortisol increased by a factor of about five. After eight hours serum concentrations of both steroids were increased considerably. Corticosterone attained levels slightly higher than the normal range and deoxycortisol rose to levels which were higher than the normal mean concentrations by a factor of about 500. (orig./AS) [de

  3. Radioimmunological determination of soluble immune complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, P; Meffert, H; Diezel, W; Schmidt, E; Soennichsen, N [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite)

    1979-04-01

    Soluble immune complexes were determined in sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, using /sup 125/I-labelled anti-Ig-antibody and plastics-fixed C1q (component of complement). The detection limit of the method is 0.1 ..mu..g of aggregated human IgG and the range is between 0.1 ..mu..g and 10 ..mu..g per 0.5 ml serum. In 58% of the sera tested an increase of the number of immune complexes was found.

  4. Quantitating Iron in Serum Ferritin by Use of ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Gillman, Patricia L.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory method has been devised to enable measurement of the concentration of iron bound in ferritin from small samples of blood (serum). Derived partly from a prior method that depends on large samples of blood, this method involves the use of an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Ferritin is a complex of iron with the protein apoferritin. Heretofore, measurements of the concentration of serum ferritin (as distinguished from direct measurements of the concentration of iron in serum ferritin) have been used to assess iron stores in humans. Low levels of serum ferritin could indicate the first stage of iron depletion. High levels of serum ferritin could indicate high levels of iron (for example, in connection with hereditary hemochromatosis an iron-overload illness that is characterized by progressive organ damage and can be fatal). However, the picture is complicated: A high level of serum ferritin could also indicate stress and/or inflammation instead of (or in addition to) iron overload, and low serum iron concentration could indicate inflammation rather than iron deficiency. Only when concentrations of both serum iron and serum ferritin increase and decrease together can the patient s iron status be assessed accurately. Hence, in enabling accurate measurement of the iron content of serum ferritin, the present method can improve the diagnosis of the patient s iron status. The prior method of measuring the concentration of iron involves the use of an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer with a graphite furnace. The present method incorporates a modified version of the sample- preparation process of the prior method. First, ferritin is isolated; more specifically, it is immobilized by immunoprecipitation with rabbit antihuman polyclonal antibody bound to agarose beads. The ferritin is then separated from other iron-containing proteins and free iron by a series of centrifugation and wash steps. Next, the ferritin is digested with nitric acid

  5. Discovery and fine mapping of serum protein loci through transethnic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Nora; van Rooij, Frank J A; Prins, Bram P; Feitosa, Mary F; Karakas, Mahir; Eckfeldt, John H; Folsom, Aaron R; Kopp, Jeffrey; Vaez, Ahmad; Andrews, Jeanette S; Baumert, Jens; Boraska, Vesna; Broer, Linda; Hayward, Caroline; Ngwa, Julius S; Okada, Yukinori; Polasek, Ozren; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wang, Ying A; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Glazer, Nicole L; Kapur, Karen; Kema, Ido P; Lopez, Lorna M; Schillert, Arne; Smith, Albert V; Winkler, Cheryl A; Zgaga, Lina; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bergmann, Sven; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Chen, Y D; Davies, Gail; Dehghan, Abbas; Ding, Jingzhong; Doering, Angela; Durda, J Peter; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Franke, Lude; Gunjaca, Grog; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraja, Aldi; Kubo, Michiaki; Lackner, Karl J; Launer, Lenore; Loehr, Laura R; Li, Guo; Meisinger, Christa; Nakamura, Yusuke; Schwienbacher, Christine; Starr, John M; Takahashi, Atsushi; Torlak, Vesela; Uitterlinden, André G; Vitart, Veronique; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wild, Philipp S; Kirin, Mirna; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zhang, Qunyuan; Ziegler, Andreas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B; Campbell, Harry; Deary, Ian J; Frayling, Timothy M; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Hicks, Andrew A; Koenig, Wolfgang; O' Donnell, Christopher J; Fox, Caroline S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rotter, Jerome I; Rudan, Igor; Snieder, Harold; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wilson, James F; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Alan F; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yongmei; Jenny, Nancy S; North, Kari E; Felix, Janine F; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Cupples, L Adrienne; Perry, John R B; Morris, Andrew P

    2012-10-05

    Many disorders are associated with altered serum protein concentrations, including malnutrition, cancer, and cardiovascular, kidney, and inflammatory diseases. Although these protein concentrations are highly heritable, relatively little is known about their underlying genetic determinants. Through transethnic meta-analysis of European-ancestry and Japanese genome-wide association studies, we identified six loci at genome-wide significance (p Japanese individuals) and three loci for total protein (TNFRS13B, 6q21.3, and ELL2, in up to 25,539 European-ancestry and 10,168 Japanese individuals). We observed little evidence of heterogeneity in allelic effects at these loci between groups of European and Japanese ancestry but obtained substantial improvements in the resolution of fine mapping of potential causal variants by leveraging transethnic differences in the distribution of linkage disequilibrium. We demonstrated a functional role for the most strongly associated serum albumin locus, HPN, for which Hpn knockout mice manifest low plasma albumin concentrations. Other loci associated with serum albumin harbor genes related to ribosome function, protein translation, and proteasomal degradation, whereas those associated with serum total protein include genes related to immune function. Our results highlight the advantages of transethnic meta-analysis for the discovery and fine mapping of complex trait loci and have provided initial insights into the underlying genetic architecture of serum protein concentrations and their association with human disease. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association Of Serum Total Bilirubin Level With Diabetic Retinopathy In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Tahir; Marwat, Zahid Irfan; Ullah, Fahim; Khan, Salman; Hassan Aamir, Aziz Ul

    2016-01-01

    Serum bilirubin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunological properties. It is considered a protective substance against atherosclerotic and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was designed to find the association between total serum bilirubin concentration and diabetic retinopathy (DR). This case control study was conducted in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. Type-2 DM patients more than 18 years of age of either gender with duration of T2DM more than 6 months were included and sub categorized in two groups. Cases (DM with DR) and Controls (DM without DR) while patients with acute and chronic liver diseases, haemolytic anaemia, history of chronic alcohol consumption, use of hepatotoxic drugs (anti-tuberculous, anti-epileptic), women on oral contraceptive pills were excluded. All participants underwent ophthalmic examination at diabetic retinopathy screening clinic followed by pre designed set of investigations. A total of 152 patients, 76 cases and 76 controls were included. Serum bilirubin concentration was found inversely and independently (p 0.000) associated and inversely co related (r -0.345and p 0.000) with prevalence of DR. Cases were concentrated in the lower quartiles of serum bilirubin concentration and vice versa. Low haemoglobin (p 0.00) and longer duration of DM (0.003) were independently and directly associated with prevalence of DR. Serum bilirubin concentration is inversely and independently associated and inversely correlated with the prevalence of DR and may predict progression of DR over time.

  7. A discussion of serum albumin level in advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: a medical oncologist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Ozgur

    2014-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, and it is particularly prevalent in East and Southeast Asia. With surgical and/or local interventional treatment methods, survival rates for early-stage hepatocellular cancers have increased. However, it is not yet clear which staging systems are more applicable in hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum albumin level is already being used as a criterion in most staging systems. Albumin is an important serum protein in human bodily functions, but only 5 % of the daily amount needed is synthesized by the liver. The serum albumin level is affected by multifactorial situations, including capillary permeability, drugs, liver insufficiency, inflammation and/or infections, dehydration or overhydration, protein loosing disorders, and decreased nutrition intake in anorexia-malnutrition syndrome and cancer cachexia. Because of this complex situation, serum albumin level may affect many staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma by leading to false-negative results. In this paper, the statuses of current staging systems are reviewed, and possible negative events regarding the serum albumin levels found in these staging systems are discussed.

  8. Collectin-11/MASP complex formation triggers activation of the lectin complement pathway--the fifth lectin pathway initiation complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ying Jie; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Collectins and ficolins are important in the clearance of endogenous and exogenous danger materials. A new human collectin-11 was recently identified in low concentration in serum in complex with mannose-binding lectin (MBL)/ficolin-associated serine proteases. Collectin-11 binds to carbohydrate...... complement complex on C. albicans. Moreover, spiking collectin-11-depleted serum, which did not mediate complement activation, with recombinant collectin-11 restored the complement activation capability. These results define collectin-11 as the fifth recognition molecule in the lectin complement pathway...

  9. Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Weanling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on hematology and serum biochemistry in weanling dogs. Nine healthy local dogs between 12 to 14 weeks of age were randomly assigned to three treatments: control, 150mg/kg and 300mg/kg of medroxyprogesterone ...

  10. Serum and urine trace metals in ketosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, R.E.; Hiner, C.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1974-01-01

    Three groups of male rats were housed in metabolic cages. The control group was fed ad libitum, a second group was fasted and diabetes was induced in the third group by the subcutaneous injection of alloxan. After 48 hours all animals were bled and livers, which were quick-frozen in situ, were obtained. Fasted and diabetic animals were ketotic as manifested by lowering urinary pH and elevated urinary and blood acetoacetate and ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate. Blood and hepatic content of acetate was elevated in diabetic versus control rats. Blood and hepatic content of acetate was not increased in fasted animals. In fasted rats total urinary Zn and Cu were decreased and Mg and Ca did not differ significantly from control values. In diabetic rats total urinary excretion of Mg was increased whereas urinary Zn, Cu and Ca levels did not differ significantly from control values. In fasted animals only serum Zn was diminished. In diabetic rats serum Cu and Ca were decreased and serum Mg was increased while serum Zn was unchanged. Thus, the ketosis of fasting differs from the ketosis of diabetes in several of its metabolic manifestations. 11 references, 9 figures.

  11. PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS (PFCs) IN SERUM OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PFCs have been used in a wide range of consumer, including residential, products (e.g., stain-resistant coatings for carpets and upholstery). Carbon-fluoride bonds are highly stable, mak-ing PFCs extremely resistant to biodegradation. Thus, PFCs have become globally distributed and are ubiquitously present in serum of wildlife and people. Despite this, comparatively little is known as to how people are primarily exposed, and what (if any) health risk is associated with chronic, low-level exposure. It is hypothesized that house dust may represent a significant exposure route because PFCs can slough or volatilize from products used indoors, subsequently adsorbing to and accumulating within house dust. The purpose of this study was to determine if PFC serum levels in domestic cats tended to increase in proportion to time spent indoors and whether analyte patterns reflected that of food sources [e.g., fish products with high perfluoro-octane sulfonate (PFOS) but low perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS)] or with house dust (PFOS + PFHxS + perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) ─ with high PFHxS levels in the most contaminated dust). In 2008, serum was obtained from feral and pet cats presenting to shelters and clinics in the Raleigh, NC area, including the NCSU VTH. PFC serum levels were measured using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Data on housing status was available for 50 cats. From least to greatest indoor residential exposure, cats were grouped as

  12. Serum chromium levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Sundararaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure serum chromium level in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM from Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with gestational diabetes, 60 age matched controls. Inclusion criteria: Gestational age 22-28 weeks, age group 20-35 years. Exclusion Criteria: Gestational age beyond 28 weeks, malnutrition or presence of infection. Serum chromium was measured using inductive couple plasma emission spectrometer. Results: Serum chromium levels of women with GDM, 1.59+/-0.02 ng/ml (range: 0.16-4.0 ng/ml were lower than in controls (4.58+/-0.62 ng/ml; range 0.82-5.33 ng/ml (P < 0.001. However, there were no significant differences among cases and controls when subdivided by parity. Conclusions: Women with GDM from a South Indian city had lower levels of serum chromium compared to pregnant women without GDM. Studies may be done whether chromium supplementation is useful in this group of women.

  13. Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cintin, C; Johansen, J S; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    1999-01-01

    related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three...

  14. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  15. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of ...

  16. Serum Metabonomics of Mild Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongmin; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Huan; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Jie; Liu, Shuye

    2016-11-01

    Mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) is a common acute abdominal disease, and exhibits rising incidence in recent decades. As an important component of systemic biology, metabonomics is a new discipline developed following genomics and proteomics. In this study, the objective was to analyze the serum metabonomics of patients with MAP, aiming to screen metabolic markers with potential diagnostic values. An analysis platform with ultra performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to screen the difference metabolites related to MAP diagnosis and disease course monitoring. A total of 432 endogenous metabolites were screened out from 122 serum samples, and 49 difference metabolites were verified, among which 12 difference metabolites were identified by nonparametric test. After material identification, eight metabolites exhibited reliable results, and their levels in MAP serum were higher than those in healthy serum. Four metabolites exhibited gradual downward trend with treatment process going on, and the differences were statistically significant (P Metabonomic analysis has revealed eight metabolites with potential diagnostic values toward MAP, among which four metabolites can be used to monitor the disease course. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C-peptide (CP), connecting the A and B chains in proinsulin, has been considered to possess physiological effects in diabetes. In order to prolong the half-life of CP in vivo, a long acting CP analog [human serum albumin (HSA-CP)] was obtained by direct gene fusion of a single-chain CP to HSA and expressed in host ...

  18. Preliminary Studies on Some Haematological and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean serum values of sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate, as well as urea, creatinine and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) enzyme did not differ from the normal values, while the mean aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme value appeared to be lower than the normal range.In conclusion, the RBC, PCV ...

  19. gene polymorphism and its serum lev

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    polymorphisms and its serum level with the risk of MetS as well as their ... population for quantifying insulin resistance and β-cell function (Matthews et al. 1985). .... of IL-10 -819 C >T gene polymorphism (Co-dominant model) was significantly.

  20. Haematology, serum biochemistry and growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High performing does have the tendency of producing healthy kids with reasonable weight at birth compared to least performing does. A study was conducted to investigate the haematology, serum biochemistry and growth performance of grazing pregnant Kalahari Red does fed concentrate diets at three protein levels.

  1. Serum Iron Protects from Renal Postischemic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaugier, Céline; Amano, Mariane T; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Dussiot, Michael; Berrou, Claire; Matignon, Marie; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Wang, Pamella H M; Fricot, Aurélie; Maciel, Thiago T; Grapton, Damien; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Beaumont, Carole; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Peyssonnaux, Carole; Mesnard, Laurent; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Monteiro, Renato C; Hermine, Olivier; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Benhamou, Marc; Camara, Niels O S; Flamant, Martin; Moura, Ivan C

    2017-12-01

    Renal transplants remain a medical challenge, because the parameters governing allograft outcome are incompletely identified. Here, we investigated the role of serum iron in the sterile inflammation that follows kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a retrospective cohort study of renal allograft recipients ( n =169), increased baseline levels of serum ferritin reliably predicted a positive outcome for allografts, particularly in elderly patients. In mice, systemic iron overload protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury-associated sterile inflammation. Furthermore, chronic iron injection in mice prevented macrophage recruitment after inflammatory stimuli. Macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions had reduced responses to Toll-like receptor-2, -3, and -4 agonists, which associated with decreased reactive oxygen species production, increased nuclear localization of the NRF2 transcription factor, increased expression of the NRF2-related antioxidant response genes, and limited NF- κ B and proinflammatory signaling. In macrophage-depleted animals, the infusion of macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions did not reconstitute AKI after ischemia-reperfusion, whereas macrophages cultured in physiologic iron conditions did. These findings identify serum iron as a critical protective factor in renal allograft outcome. Increasing serum iron levels in patients may thus improve prognosis of renal transplants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... results suggest that supplementing broilers' diet with 5 g/kg thyme can indicate favorable influences of antibiotic growth promoter on performance without any detrimental impacts on immune responses and blood parameters. Key words: Broiler, thyme, growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry, hematology.

  3. Hypoxemia increases serum interleukin-6 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Poulsen, T D

    1997-01-01

    Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined in ten healthy men at sea level and during four days of altitude hypoxia (4350m above sea level). The mean (SD) arterial blood...

  4. METABOLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN SERUM SAMPLES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    fasting 10 mL of blood sample from each individual was taken and was allowed to clot in plastic tube for 2 h at room temperature. The serum was collected by centrifugation. The samples were stored under liquid nitrogen for NMR analysis. Before NMR analysis, 600 µL of the samples were taken in a 5 mm high quality NMR ...

  5. Serum irisin levels in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Anna; Myśliwiec, Hanna; Kiluk, Paulina; Świderska, Magdalena; Flisiak, Iwona

    2017-06-01

    Irisin has been proposed to regulate metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes or metabolic syndrome which are common comorbidities in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum irisin level in psoriasis and elucidate possible associations with disease activity, inflammatory or metabolic parameters and topical treatment. Thirty-seven individuals with active plaque-type psoriasis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were collected before and after two weeks of therapy. Serum irisin concentrations were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body mass index (BMI), inflammatory and biochemical markers, lipid profile and effectiveness of topical treatment. Irisin serum levels were insignificantly increased in psoriatic patients in comparison to the controls (p = 0.38). No significant correlations between investigated adipokine and several indicators of metabolic disorders, nor BMI (p = 0.37) or PASI (p = 0.5) were found. Significant positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP) (0.009), lipocalin-2 (p = 0.02), age (p = 0.02) and disease duration (p = 0.008) were noted. After topical treatment, serum irisin level did not significantly change (p = 0.31), despite clinical improvement. Irisin might be a marker of inflammation in psoriatic patients, but may not be a reliable indicator of metabolic conditions, severity of psoriasis nor efficacy of antipsoriatic treatment.

  6. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  7. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  8. Serum erythropoietin levels by radioimmunoassay in polycythaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgegaard, G.; Miller, O.; Caro, J.; Erslev, A. (Cardeza Foundation for Hematological Research, Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pa.)

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for erythropoietin (Epo) was developed and validated against the polycythaemic mouse assay. The correlation was good, with a r=0.94. Several other criteria of specificity were also filled by the RIA, which had a lower detection limit of 5 mU/ml. The mean serum-Epo level in 6 patients with secondary polycythaemia, 50.2 +- 26.2 mU/ml, was significantly higher than in a group of 11 normal subjects, 28.7 +- 7.2 mU/ml (P<0.0002). However, the Epo level in 31 polycythaemia vera (PV) patients, M = 21.9 +- 6.6 mU/ml, was not significantly different from normal (P = 0.006). Since previous studies with bioassay of heat-treated and concentrated plasma samples have shown a decreased serum-Epo level in PV, Epo levels were measured before and after heat treatment and concentration of samples from normals and polycythaemics. It was found that the levels of immunoreactive material increased after heat treatment and 40 times concentration in samples from normals and patients with secondary polycythaemias, but decreased in PV. We conclude that the Epo levels in serum in the low range measured by our and previous RIA:s probably are not true Epo levels but are partly due to an unspecific serum effect, that was removed by heat treatment.

  9. Immunoreactive somatomedin A in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, K.; Brandt, J.; Enberg, G.; Fryklund, L.

    1979-01-01

    A RIA has been developed for somatomedin A (SM-A) utilizing Sepharose-bound antibodies. This assay, measuring SM-A, the insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, and somatomedin C, allows determination in serum samples. In comparison with a serum standard, the mean serum levels in patients with acromegaly or GH deficiency and healthy subjects were 8.7 +- 0.7 (n=25), 0.24 +- 0.02 (n=25), and 1.15 +- 0.11 U/ml, respectively. The correlation coefficient between immunoreactive SM-A and SM-A by radioreceptor assay was highly significant (r=0.93), although the potency ratio of SM-A between the two groups of patients was higher in the RIA than in the radioreceptor assay. Gel chromatography revealed that SM-A in acromegalic serum is bound to a carrier protein which is absent in patients with GH deficiency. After gel chromatography at low pH, 90% of applied immunoreactive SM-A was recovered in the low molecular weight fraction and consisted mainly of neutral polypeptides

  10. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  11. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... C-peptide (CP), connecting the A and B chains in proinsulin, has been considered to possess physiological effects in diabetes. In order to prolong the half-life of CP in vivo, a long acting CP analog. [human serum albumin (HSA-CP)] was obtained by direct gene fusion of a single-chain CP to HSA and.

  12. Comparative serum biochemistry of captive mugger crocodiles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard serum biochemical parameters were determined for 28 mugger crocodiles (Crocodylus palustris) using Supra-occipital plexus technique and/or Cardiocentesis technique at the Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Vandalur, Chennai, Guindy Snake Park Trust and Amaravathy Crocodile farm, Tamilnadu, India (13° 0´ N; ...

  13. Maternal serum fructosamine values after delivery ofmacrosomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expl.anation for this discrepancy is that the half-lives of these. 1. Brudenell M, Wilds PLo Medical and Surgical Problems in Obstetrics. Bristol: John Wright, 1984: 120-124. 2. Baker JR, O'Connor JP, Metcalf P, Lawson MR, Johnson RN. Oinical usefulness of estimation of serum frucrosamine concentration as a screening.

  14. Radioassay for serum and red cell folate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, D.L.; Herbert, V.

    1976-01-01

    A simple, reliable assay for serum and red cell folate is described. It uses plain untreated liquid or powdered milk, requiring no special handling or purification, as binder. Such milk makes it possible to ignore endogenous serum folate binder, since crude (but not purified) milk contains a factor which releases folate from serum binder. It simplifies counting radioactivity by employing a gamma emitting isotope of pteroylglutamic acid (PGA), namely the 125 I-tyramide of PGA. Like the 3 H-PGA assay of Givas and Gutcho, it permits the use of stable PGA rather than unstable methyltetrahydrofolic acid (MeTHFA) standards, because it is carried out at pH 9.3, a pH at which milk folate binder is unable to distinguish PGA from MeTHFA, which is the predominant folate in human tissues. The equipment required to do the radioassay is present in most diagnostic chemistry laboratories. Results are essentially identical to the generally accepted Lactobacillus casei microbiologic method of folate assay, except that false low results are not produced in the radioassay by antibiotics, tranquilizers, and chemotherapeutic agents. Three caveats in its use are the relative instability of 125 I-PGA as compared to 3 H-PGA, the fact that various powdered milks differ widely in folate-binding capacity, and that only about 60 percent of commercially obtained skim or powdered milk preparations appear to contain the substance which splits folate from serum binder

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and biomarkers of serum and urine wile diagnostics of kidney cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolsky Yu.Ye.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: improvement of differential diagnostics of benign and malignant renal tumors basing on complex estimation of the results of MRTand the level of such biomarkers as vascular endothelial growth factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in blood serum and urine. Material and Methods. A total of 106 patients including the main group of 60 patients with renal cancer (RC, the group of comparison of 16 patients with benign renal tumors and the control group of 30 practically healthy persons were examined. ELISA was employed for detection of the biomarkers in blood serum and urine. The tumors were diagnosed by MRT Results. The increase of the level of the biomarkers in blood serum and urine was registered independently of the character of neoplastic process; more significant increase was observed in patients with RC, especially at the early stages of the disease. Some peculiarities of changing of the level of the biomarkers depending on the dimensions of malignant tumors were found. Conclusion. At the early stages of RC complex detection of the abovementioned biomarkers in blood serum and urine can serve an additional clinical diagnostic and prognostic criterion.

  16. The haptoglobin promoter polymorphism rs5471 is the most definitive genetic determinant of serum haptoglobin level in a Ghanaian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Mikiko; Teye, Kwesi; Koda, Yoshiro

    2018-08-01

    The serum haptoglobin (HP) level varies in various clinical conditions and among individuals. Recently, the common HP alleles, rs5472, and rs2000999 have been reported to associate with serum HP level, but no studies have been done on Africans. Here, we explored the relationship of not only these polymorphisms but also rs5470 and rs5471 to the serum HP level in 121 Ghanaians. Genotyping of rs2000999 was performed by PCR using hydrolysis probes, while the other polymorphisms have been already genotyped. Serum HP level was measured by a sandwich ELISA. We observed a significant association between rs5471 and the serum HP level (p = 0.026). It was also observed within the subgroups of HP 2 /HP 2 and HP 2 /HP 1 . In addition, we detected a trend toward lower HP levels for individuals with the A allele of rs2000999 than those without A, but it was not statistically significant (p = 0.156). However, we did not observe the clear associations between other polymorphisms and serum HP level that were observed for Europeans and Asians because of the small sample size and the complexity of SNPs affecting the HP level. We suggest that rs5471 is a strong genetic determinant of HP levels in Ghanaians, and this seems to be characteristic of Africans. Further investigation using large scale samples will help in understanding the genetic background of individual variability of the serum HP level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is DTPA a good competing chelating agent for Th(IV) in human serum and suitable in targeted alpha therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Du, Alicia; Sabatié-Gogova, Andrea; Morgenstern, Alfred; Montavon, Gilles

    2012-04-01

    The interaction between thorium and human serum components was studied using difference ultraviolet spectroscopy (DUS), ultrafiltration and high-pressure-anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with external inductively conducted plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Experimental data are compared with modelling results based on the law of mass action. Human serum transferrin (HSTF) interacts strongly with Th(IV), forming a ternary complex including two synergistic carbonate anions. This complex governs Th(IV) speciation under blood serum conditions. Considering the generally used Langmuir-type model, values of 10(33.5) and 10(32.5) were obtained for strong and weak sites, respectively. We showed that trace amounts of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) cannot complex Th(IV) in the blood serum at equilibrium. Unexpectedly this effect is not related to the competition with HSTF but is due to the strong competition with major divalent metal ions for DTPA. However, Th-DTPA complex was shown to be stable for a few hours when it is formed before addition in the biological medium; this is related to the high kinetic stability of the complex. This makes DTPA a potential chelating agent for synthesis of (226)Th-labelled biomolecules for application in targeted alpha therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognostic significance of serum bilirubin in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, A.; Ismail, M.; Khan, F.; Khan, A.; Khattak, M.B.; Anwar, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oxidative injury is an important cause of the neurologic lesion in stroke. Serum bilirubin is considered a natural antioxidant that may affect the prognosis of stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of bilirubin in stroke patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medical Units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Inpatients admitted with acute attack of stroke were included in this study. Data regarding serum bilirubin and concurrent cerebrovascular risk factors were collected. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to analyse stroke's severity and functional outcomes, respectively. Results: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart diseases were the most common risk factors. Patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of serum bilirubin, i.e., =0.6 mg/dl (Group-1), 0.7-0.9 mg/dl (Group-2), and =1.0 mg/dl (Group-3). The mean pre-hospitalisation NIHSS score for Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 5.62, 11.66 and 25.33, respectively; and post-hospitalisation score was 0.875, 3.76 and 16.26, respectively. The pre-hospitalisation mRS score was 4 for Group-1, 4.52 for Group-2 and 4.93 for Group-3; while post-hospitalisation Mrs Score was 1.50, 2.38 and 4.26, respectively. Average serum bilirubin level was significantly higher in patients with poor outcomes as compared with good outcomes (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with increased stroke severity, longer hospitalisation and poor prognosis. (author)

  19. False positive acetaminophen concentrations in icteric serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Jong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serum concentrations of acetaminophen are measured to predict the risk of hepatotoxicity in cases of acetaminophen overdose and to identify acetaminophen use in patients with acute liver injury without a known cause. The acetaminophen concentration determines if treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, the antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, is warranted. Description: A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hepatic encephalopathy and a total serum bilirubin concentration of 442 µmol/l. The acetaminophen concentration of 11.5 mg/l was measured with an enzymatic-colorimetric assay, thus treatment with N-acetyl cysteine was started. Interestingly, the acetaminophen concentration remained unchanged (11.5–12.3 mg/l during a period of 4 consecutive days. In contrast, the acetaminophen concentration measured by HPLC, a chromatographic technique, remained undetectable Discussion: In the presented case, elevated bilirubin was the most likely candidate to interfere with acetaminophen assay causing false positive results. Bilirubin has intense absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and for that reason it causes interference in an enzymatic-colorimetric assay. Conclusion: False positive acetaminophen laboratory test results may be found in icteric serum, when enzymatic-colorimetric assays are used for determination of an acetaminophen concentration. Questionable acetaminophen results in icteric serum should be confirmed by a non-enzymatic method, by means of ultrafiltration of the serum, or by dilution studies. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Enzymatic-colorimetric assays, HPLC, Bilirubin, Interference, Paracetamol, Liver failure, Jaundice

  20. Investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Jonathan O; Fitzsimons, Edward J; Griffiths, William Jh; Tsochatzis, Emmanouil; Thomas, D Wayne

    2018-05-01

    Serum ferritin level is one of the most commonly requested investigations in both primary and secondary care. Whilst low serum ferritin levels invariably indicate reduced iron stores, raised serum ferritin levels can be due to multiple different aetiologies, including iron overload, inflammation, liver or renal disease, malignancy, and the recently described metabolic syndrome. A key test in the further investigation of an unexpected raised serum ferritin is the serum transferrin saturation. This guideline reviews the investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin level. The investigation and management of genetic haemochromatosis is not dealt with however and is the subject of a separate guideline. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Extending the half-life of a fab fragment through generation of a humanized anti-human serum albumin Fv domain: An investigation into the correlation between affinity and serum half-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ralph; Griffin, Laura; Compson, Joanne E; Jairaj, Mark; Baker, Terry; Ceska, Tom; West, Shauna; Zaccheo, Oliver; Davé, Emma; Lawson, Alastair Dg; Humphreys, David P; Heywood, Sam

    2016-10-01

    We generated an anti-albumin antibody, CA645, to link its Fv domain to an antigen-binding fragment (Fab), thereby extending the serum half-life of the Fab. CA645 was demonstrated to bind human, cynomolgus, and mouse serum albumin with similar affinity (1-7 nM), and to bind human serum albumin (HSA) when it is in complex with common known ligands. Importantly for half-life extension, CA645 binds HSA with similar affinity within the physiologically relevant range of pH 5.0 - pH 7.4, and does not have a deleterious effect on the binding of HSA to neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). A crystal structure of humanized CA645 Fab in complex with HSA was solved and showed that CA645 Fab binds to domain II of HSA. Superimposition with the crystal structure of FcRn bound to HSA confirmed that CA645 does not block HSA binding to FcRn. In mice, the serum half-life of humanized CA645 Fab is 84.2 h. This is a significant extension in comparison with Fab variant. The Fab-HSA structure was used to design a series of mutants with reduced affinity to investigate the correlation between the affinity for albumin and serum half-life. Reduction in the affinity for MSA by 144-fold from 2.2 nM to 316 nM had no effect on serum half-life. Strikingly, despite a reduction in affinity to 62 µM, an extension in serum half-life of 26.4 h was still obtained. CA645 Fab and the CA645 Fab-HSA complex have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with accession codes, 5FUZ and 5FUO, respectively.

  2. Serum apolipoprotein E concentration and polymorphism influence serum lipid levels in Chinese Shandong Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, ShuYi; Xu, YiHui; Gao, MeiHua; Wang, YunShan; Wang, Jun; Liu, YanYan; Wang, Min; Zhang, XiaoQian

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which has been shown to influence serum lipid parameters, can bind to multiple types of lipids and plays an important role in the metabolism and homeostasis of lipids and lipoproteins. A previous study showed that ApoE concentration significantly affects serum lipid levels independently of ApoE polymorphism. The serum lipid levels were also closely correlated with dietary habits, and Shandong cuisine is famous for its high salt and oil contents, which widely differ among the different areas in China. Therefore, studying the effect of ApoE polymorphism on ApoE concentration and serum lipid levels in Shandong province is very important.A total of 815 subjects including 285 men and 530 women were randomly selected and studied from Jinan, Shandong province. In order to evaluate the association of ApoE polymorphism and serum level on lipid profiles, the ApoE genotypes, as well as levels of fasting serum ApoE and other lipid parameters, were detected in all subjects.The frequency of the ApoE E3 allele was highest (83.1%), while those of E2 and E4 were 9.4% and 7.5%, respectively, which are similar to those in other Asian populations. ApoE2 allele carriers showed significantly increased ApoE levels but lower levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and Apolipoprotein B (ApoB).We found that ApoE level is influenced by ApoE polymorphism in a gene-dependent manner. The ApoE polymorphism showed different influences on serum lipid parameters with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) in our Shandong Han population.

  3. Direct 125I-radioligand assays for serum progesterone compared with assays involving extraction of serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, W.A.; Corrie, J.E.T.; Dalziel, A.H.; Macpherson, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two direct radioimmunoassays for progesterone in 50 μL of unextracted serum or plasma with assays involving extraction of serum were compared. The direct assays include the use of either danazol at pH 7.4 or 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid at pH 4.0 to displace progesterone from serum binding-proteins. Progesterone is then assayed by using an antiserum to a progesterone 11α-hemisuccinyl conjugate and the radioligand 125 I-labeled progesterone 11α-glucuronyl tyramine, with separation by double-antibody techniques. Direct assays with either displacing agent gave good analytical recovery of progesterone added to human serum, and progesterone values for patients' specimens correlated well (r > 0.96) with results of assays involving extraction of serum. Precision was similar with each displacing agent over the working range 2.5-100 nmol/L and superior to that of extraction assays. We conclude that these direct assays of progesterone are analytically valid and more robust, precise, and technically convenient than many conventional methods involving extraction of serum

  4. Association between serum soluble CD30 and serum creatinine before and after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoyos, M; San Segundo, D; Benito, M J; Fernández-Fresnedo, G; Ruiz, J C; Rodrigo, E; Gómez-Alamillo, C; Benito, A; Arias, M

    2008-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that circulating levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) may represent a biomarker for outcome in kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to measure the pre- and posttransplantation serum levels of sCD30 in cadaveric kidney transplant recipients and correlate them with serum creatinine. Serum sCD30 was measured by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from prospective samples of 38 kidney allograft recipients serially transplanted at our center. Samples were collected at day 0 pretransplantation and at months 6, 12, 18, and 24 posttransplantation. We also studied sera from 29 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at different stages of the K/DOQI guidelines, as a control group. Serum levels of sCD30 decreased significantly in samples posttransplantation compared with pretransplantation. The significant decrease after transplantation may be related to the improvement in renal function since we observed a significant correlation between serum levels of sCD30 and creatinine (sCr) at all times of the study. In addition, the patients with chronic renal failure showed a significant association between serum sCD30 and sCr (r = .454; P = .013). Our results did not suggest that the measurement of sCD30 may be used as a valuable biomarker in renal transplantation. Increased levels may be related to a decrease in its renal elimination.

  5. A low percentage of autologous serum can replace bovine serum to engineer human nasal cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Wolf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For the generation of cell-based therapeutic products, it would be preferable to avoid the use of animal-derived components. Our study thus aimed at investigating the possibility to replace foetal bovine serum (FBS with autologous serum (AS for the engineering of cartilage grafts using expanded human nasal chondrocytes (HNC. HNC isolated from 7 donors were expanded in medium containing 10% FBS or AS at different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10% and cultured in pellets using serum-free medium or in Hyaff®-11 meshes using medium containing FBS or AS. Tissue forming capacity was assessed histologically (Safranin O, immunohistochemically (type II collagen and biochemically (glycosaminoglycans -GAG- and DNA. Differences among experimental groups were assessed by Mann Whitney tests. HNC expanded under the different serum conditions proliferated at comparable rates and generated cartilaginous pellets with similar histological appearance and amounts of GAG. Tissues generated by HNC from different donors cultured in Hyaff®-11 had variable quality, but the accumulated GAG amounts were comparable among the different serum conditions. Staining intensity for collagen type II was consistent with GAG deposition. Among the different serum conditions tested, the use of 2% AS resulted in the lowest variability in the GAG contents of generated tissues. In conclusion, a low percentage of AS can replace FBS both during the expansion and differentiation of HNC and reduce the variability in the quality of the resulting engineered cartilage tissues.

  6. Studies on interaction between flavonoids and bovine serum albumin by spectral methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xiaolei; Li Xuwen; Gui Mingyu; Zhou Hongyu; Yang Ruijie; Zhang Hanqi; Jin Yongri

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between three kinds of flavonoids and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectrometry. The results indicated that flavonoids have strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA by forming complexes. The binding constants, number of binding sites, thermodynamic parameters and energy transfer mechanisms were also investigated. Conformation change of BSA was observed from synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence and circular dichroism spectrum.

  7. Kinetics of human serum amyloid A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, C.J.; Martin, M.E.; Solomon, N.

    1986-01-01

    In order to better understand the pathogenetic role of serum amyloid A (SAA) we studied the kinetics of 131 I radiolabelled pure SAA, extracted from 400 ml serum of a human volunteer. 50 microCi of 131 I SAA and 15 microCi 125 I labelled sodium iodide were administered i.v. on two occasions at 6 month intervals. Serum and plasma samples were collected at 10-20 min intervals x 10, then once daily x 10; lymphocytes were separated from monocytes and granulocytes. Counts per minute of 131 I and 125 I were measured in each sample in the serum, in serum precipitates resulting after addition of a rabbit anti-SAA antibody and of TCA and in various cell subpopulations as well as in the whole urine and TCA precipitated urine from each micturition. The 131 I disappearance curves from the plasma and serum precipitates were semilogarithmically plotted; cumulative 131 I cpm in plasma, cells and urine at various intervals were determined. Body scanning was performed at 2, 16, and 48 h. The results of the two experiments were very similar. The curve of 131 I SAA in plasma TCA precipitates indicated the existence of 4 compartments likely due to uptake of 131 I SAA by some plasma proteins, circulating cells and other tissues; later release from tissues started at 6 h. The 131 I SAA half-life time in these compartments was found to be 35, 170, 255, and 550 min, respectively. Tissue binding of 131 I was also suggested by a rising of the 125 I: 131 I ratio with time and by a 26% release of 131 I in the urine at 15 h which could not account for its plasma disappearance. Scanning, except for 131 I uptake in the spleen at 2 h likely due to blood activity, showed no organ concentration. 92% of the injected 131 I was found in the urine but only 6.2% of 131 I SAA was accounted for in urine precicipitates

  8. Evaluation of serum angiopoietin-II in HCV related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoda A. Abd-El-Moety

    2011-08-30

    Aug 30, 2011 ... blood urea, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, ALT, AST, total and direct bilirubin ... factor, cryoglobulins31–33 and urinary albumin creatinine ratio ..... reported that VEGF stimulates increased synthesis of collage- nase by ...

  9. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum biochemistry concentrations (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, and cortisol and insulin concentration) and blood hematology (red blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and percentage neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophiles, eosinophils and ratio of neutrophils to ...

  10. Integration of growth factor signals at the c-fos serum response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M A; Hill, C; Treisman, R

    1996-04-29

    A transcription factor ternary complex composed of serum response factor (SRF) and a second factor, ternary complex factor (TCF), mediates the response of the c-fos Serum Response Element to growth factors and mitogens. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, TCF binding is required for transcriptional activation by the SRE in response to activation of the Ras-Raf-ERK pathway. We compared the properties of three members of the TCF family, Elk-1, SAP-1 and SAP-2 (ERP/NET). Although all the proteins contain sequences required for ternary complex formation with SRF, only Elk-1 and SAP-1 appear to interact with the c-fos SRE efficiently in vivo. Each TCF contains a C-terminal activation domain capable of transcriptional activation in response to activation of the Ras-Raf-ERK pathway, and this is dependent on the integrity of S/T-P motifs conserved between all the TCF family members. In contrast, activation of the SRE by whole serum and the mitogenic phospholipid LPA requires SRF binding alone. Constitutively activated members of the Rho subfamily of Ras-like GTPases are also capable of inducing activation of the SRE in the absence of TCF; unlike activated Ras itself, these proteins do not activate the TCFs in NIH3T3 cells. At the SRE, SRF- and TCF-linked signalling pathways act synergistically to potentiate transcription.

  11. ESR spectroscopy of blood serum in thalassemia: computer simulation of methemalbumin spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E.A.; Duliu, O.G.; Grecu, V.V.; Schianchi, G.; Giori, D.C.; Pedrazzi, G.

    1997-01-01

    In pathological states with severe hemolysis such as homozygous β-thalassemia, human serum albumin (HSA) binds ferric heme to form the methemalbumin (MHA) molecular complex. Low-temperature X-band ESR monitored MHA in patients' serum, while in vitro studies prompted a molecular model for the complex. On the assumption of axial symmetry with small rhombic distortion for high spin Fe (III) in MHA, we used a simulation program written in FORTRAN V for ESR spectra of vitreous samples containing subsystems with effective electronic spin S' = 1/2 and nuclear spin I ≥ 0. We have take also into account the individual resonance line shape and half-width, and the magnetic field dependence of the transition probability. Two distinct forms of MHA were found in patients' serum, the second one showing a stronger rhombic distortion around Fe (III) as compared to the in-vitro complex. This suggested a conformational change of HSA around heme binding site, possibly produced by free radicals occurring in thalassemia intense oxidative stress; these could generate more forms of MHA. (authors)

  12. Dynamics of interaction between complement-fixing antibody/dsDNA immune complexes and erythrocytes. In vitro studies and potential general applications to clinical immune complex testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.P.; Horgan, C.; Hooper, M.; Burge, J.

    1985-01-01

    Soluble antibody/ 3 H-double-stranded PM2 DNA (dsDNA) immune complexes were briefly opsonized with complement and then allowed to bind to human erythrocytes (via complement receptors). The cells were washed and subsequently a volume of autologous blood in a variety of media was added, and the release of the bound immune complexes from the erythrocytes was studied as a function of temperature and time. After 1-2 h, the majority of the bound immune complexes were not released into the serum during blood clotting at either 37 degrees C or room temperature, but there was a considerably greater release of the immune complexes into the plasma of blood that was anticoagulated with EDTA. Similar results were obtained using various conditions of opsonization and also using complexes that contained lower molecular weight dsDNA. Thus, the kinetics of release of these antibody/dsDNA immune complexes differed substantially from the kinetics of release of antibody/bovine serum albumin complexes that was reported by others. Studies using the solution phase C1q immune complex binding assay confirmed that in approximately half of the SLE samples that were positive for immune complexes, there was a significantly higher level of detectable immune complexes in plasma vs. serum. Freshly drawn erythrocytes from some SLE patients exhibiting this plasma/serum discrepancy had IgG antigen on their surface that was released by incubation in EDTA plasma. Thus, the higher levels of immune complexes observed in EDTA plasma vs. serum using the C1q assay may often reflect the existence of immune complexes circulating in vivo bound to erythrocytes

  13. Experience with radioimmunoassay of serum parathormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokrouhlicka, O.; Huskova, M.; Erben, J.; Base, J.

    1978-01-01

    The working procedure is described used for the assessment of immunoreactive parathormone in serum (iPTH) using a Calbiochem kit and a kit produced by Cambridge Nuclear Radiopharmaceuticals Corporation (CNRC). Using the Calbiochem kit usable results were not obtained because the antiserum was of low standard and undefinable, and because of the difficult labelling of antigen (bovine PTH). The CNRC kit which contains antiserum against -COOH terminals is suited for the assessment of chronic hypersecretion of PTH. Using this set, concentrations of iPTH in the serum of 19 patients with urolithiasis (of which 3 patients were with hyperparathyroidism) were assessed as well as of one patient with late rickets and hyperparathyroidism, 23 dialyzed patients with chronic renal failure and 14 healthy subjects. The results can be considered so far from the clinical aspect as preliminary; from the methodological aspect very valuable experience was gained. (author)

  14. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S Bilasini; Singh, W Gyaneshwar

    2008-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum homocysteine levels were estimated by ELISA method using Axis homocysteine EIA kit manufactured by Ranbaxy Diagnostic Ltd. India. The finding suggests that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with cerebrovascular accident with male preponderance, which increases with advancing age. However, whether hyperhomocysteinemia is the cause or the result of cerebrovascular accidents needs further investigations.

  15. Gamma radiation effects on liofilized human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron Soler, E.; Romay Penabad, Z.; Chavez Ardanza, A.; Hernandez Gonzalez, C.; Martin Gonzalez, O.; Garcia Gonzalez, I.; Prieto Miranda, E.

    1995-01-01

    Human freeze dried serum was artificially contaminated with Flavobacterium sp. for studying the effects of gamma radiation of it. The radiobiological parameters of the contaminator were determined and the sterilization dose was set. The quality of the product irradiated at both, calculated sterilization dose (8.5 kGy) an another one about 25 kGy was determined. It was made according to: sterility testing, total proteins, pH enzymes (alanina-aminotransferase, aspartato-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase), protein electrophoresis, fast performance liquid chromatographic and effect on the cellular growth. From the latter was concluded that the calculated sterilization dose was adequate form keeping the biological properties and viability of the irradiated serum. Nevertheless, the dose of 25 k Gy was not adequate because of its dangerous effects on the cell culture

  16. Cytotoxic evaluation upon cis-platinum aminodiacetic acid complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almah binti Awaluddin; Parsons, Peter G.; Lean, Jenny M.; Jacobs, Jeffrey J.

    1990-01-01

    Cytoxic study of cis-platinum aminodiacetic acid complexes. Three novel platinum complexes have been synthesised and characterised by Awaluddin et. al (1987). This introduces a new area of radiopharmaceuticals based on technician and platinum. Cytotoxic studies were conducted on these complexes using four different types of cell lines. The para amina was found to be highly active against multi-resistant ovarian tumor cells compared to normal cells (fibroblast) and other tumor cells. The chemical structure of para-amina appears to be devoid of any functional group resembling current antitumor drugs except for a distant similarity to metotrexate with respect to the p-aminobenzoic type structure. However cell lines such as Hela and MM 253c-1, which is sensitive to metotrexate, were not sensitive to the para amina. Preliminary studies have shown that cells are blocked in the G phase of the cell cycle, suggesting an antimetabolite effect

  17. Calumenin interacts with serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Jacobsen, Christian; Honoré, Bent

    2000-01-01

    with calumenin in the presence of Ca(2+). Amino acid sequencing identified this protein as serum amyloid P component (SAP). Furthermore, we verified and characterized the calumenin-SAP interaction by the surface plasmon resonance technique. The findings indicate that calumenin may participate...... in the immunological defense system and could be involved in the pathological process of amyloidosis that leads to formation of amyloid deposits seen in different types of tissues. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Jan-14...

  18. Serum leptin and insulin tests in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Jiang Xiaojin; Leng Xiumei

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance and the relations of leptin and insulin on obesity group. Methods: Leptin and insulin were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in pre-obesity group and obesity group respectively. Results: Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly elevated in obesity group compare with the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changing with insulin, the elevation of leptin in obesity group has been identified as an important agent of diabetes mellitus (DM)

  19. Measurement of theophylline in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetten, O. von; Zech, K.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunological (RIA-matsup(R) Theophylline) and a HPLC method for the determination of theophylline concentrations in human serum are compared. HPLC as most specific and precise method is not suitable for greater numbers of analyses due to time needed for chromatography. Theophylline-RIA yields excellent results regarding precision, specificity and recovery with excellent correlation and considerable time savings compared to HPLC. (orig.) [de

  20. Serum antinuclear antibody in adult Thais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapinjumrune, Chanwit; Prucktrakul, Chalakorn; Sooktonglarng, Trakarn; Thongprasom, Kobkan

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the presence of antinuclear antibody (ANA) in older Thais compared with middle-age and younger participants. Antinuclear antibody represents the first step in the diagnostic testing for lupus erythematosus (LE) and other autoimmune diseases. Due to the lack of reference ANA levels in older, middle-age and younger Thais healthy participants, this study will be useful for determining the proper diagnostic and treatment criteria. There were 28 older (60-76 years), 17 middle-age (41-59 years) and 13 younger (24-40 years) participants in this study. Immunofluorescence was performed to analyse the ANA staining pattern and titre levels in the participants' blood samples. The presence of serum ANA was found in 18 of 28 cases (64.3%), four of 17 (23.5%) and one of 13 cases (7.7%) of the older, middle-age and younger participants, respectively. The difference in the number of serum ANA-positive participants between the older, middle-age and younger groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the ANA positive in older participants presented more than one staining pattern. The speckled pattern was the most commonly detected ANA staining pattern in the older group, being found in 12 cases followed by cytoplasmic pattern (10 cases), homogeneous pattern (nine cases) and nucleolar pattern (five cases). In the middle-age group, the speckled pattern was found in four cases, whereas one younger participant presented a nucleolar pattern. Serum ANA positive was significantly higher in the older group compared with the middle-age and younger groups. There were variations of the serum ANA staining patterns in the older group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Development of Periodontal Microflora on Human Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Steeg, P. F.; Van Der Hoeven, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the ecological niches of members of subgingival microflora. The succession of species during enrichment batch growth of subgingival plaque organisms in serum was monitored. Three phases could be distinguished during growth, firstly carbohydrate consumption by rapidly growing saccharolytic bacteria such as Eubacterium saburreum or Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Streptococcus spp. leading to lactic and formic acid production. Secondly a later phase in whi...

  2. Kadar Asam Urat Serum sebagai Biomarker Preeklamsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli Sumanti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia remains a health problem that becomes one of the causes of maternal deaths besides bleeding and infection. The etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia are unclear. Increased serum uric acid levels is seen simultaneously with the increase of blood pressure and occurred before the onset of proteinuria. Therefore, the uric acid can be used as a biomarker. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum uric acid levels between normal and preeclampsia pregnancies. The study was conducted in Dr.Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung between March and May 2011, using cross sectional study design. Subjects were 45 inpartu normal pregnant women as control and 44 in partu pregnant women with preeclampsia accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Levels of uric acid in normal pregnancy are 3,43 ±0.14 mg/dL. In this study uric acid levels resulting in cut-off levels of 4,8 mg/dL with a sensitivity value of 93%, and specificity 80%. Conclusions: uric acid levels in at term preeclampsia are higher compared with normal pregnancies. Increased levels of uric acid can be considered as one of biomarkers of preeclampsia, hence the serum uric acid levels used as serial examinations in pregnant women during antenatal care.

  3. Serum Adiponectin in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue adipokin that may contribute to obesity and insulin resistantance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance in gestational diabetes (GDM.Materials & Methods: Serum adiponectin levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C, insulin levels and blood lipids were measured in 66 women with GDM and 70 pregnant women without GDM. The associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA–IR and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI.Results: There were statistically significant between-group differences in FBS, HbA1C and HOMA–IR. Adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different in GDM women in comparison with the control group. However, GDM women above the age of 30 have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than those without GDM. Adiponectin was positively associated with QUICKI (r = 0.268, P < 0.03 and inversely related to HOMA–IR (r = 0.238, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Adiponectin is significantly decreased in older women with GDM. Deficiency of adiponectin may correlate with insulin resistance in GDM.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of serum digoxin levels. Clinical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galland, F.; Geslin, P.; Kerjean, J.; Six, P.; Tadei, A.; Jallet, P.

    1982-01-01

    This work undertakes, in a second part, the clinical exploration of 947 serum digoxin levels of 281 hospitalized patients on a cardiology ward. Our results, which coincide with those of other researchers, have led us to draw certain practical conclusions: the posology is determined first of all according to kidney function, weight and age of the patient. When the treatment is insufficient or, on the other hand, poorly tolerated, a serum digoxin level is performed permitting thus: in the case of ineffective treatment: to be sure of the patient's cooperation, to increase the posology if the serum digoxin level is not in the toxic zone, to discover an eventual pharmacokinetic problem; to establish the responsability of digitalis (when there are signs of intolerance or of intoxication), in case of arrhythmia, in patients with pacemakers, when associated drugs are capable of causing similar adverse effects; to better manage a digitalis treatment in a high risk patient (unstable renal function, advanced myocardial disease, chronic obstructive disease) [fr

  5. Serum albumin: accuracy and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infusino, Ilenia; Panteghini, Mauro

    2013-04-18

    Albumin is the major plasma protein and its determination is used for the prognostic assessment of several diseases. Clinical guidelines call for monitoring of serum albumin with specific target cut-offs that are independent of the assay used. This requires accurate and equivalent results among different commercially available methods (i.e., result standardization) through a consistent definition and application of a reference measurement system. This should be associated with the definition of measurement uncertainty goals based on medical relevance of serum albumin to make results reliable for patient management. In this paper, we show that, in the current situation, if one applies analytical goals for serum albumin measurement derived from its biologic variation, the uncertainty budget derived from each step of the albumin traceability chain is probably too high to fulfil established quality levels for albumin measurement and to guarantee the accuracy needed for clinical usefulness of the test. The situation is further worsened if non-specific colorimetric methods are used for albumin measurement as they represent an additional random source of uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlations Between Macular, Skin, and Serum Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrady, Christopher D.; Bell, James P.; Besch, Brian M.; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Farnsworth, Kelliann; Ermakov, Igor; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakova, Maia; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ocular and systemic measurement and imaging of the macular carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin have been employed extensively as potential biomarkers of AMD risk. In this study, we systematically compare dual wavelength retinal autofluorescence imaging (AFI) of macular pigment with skin resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) and serum carotenoid levels in a clinic-based population. Methods Eighty-eight patients were recruited from retina and general ophthalmology practices from a tertiary referral center and excluded only if they did not have all three modalities tested, had a diagnosis of macular telangiectasia (MacTel) or Stargardt disease, or had poor AFI image quality. Skin, macular, and serum carotenoid levels were measured by RRS, AFI, and HPLC, respectively. Results Skin RRS measurements and serum zeaxanthin concentrations correlated most strongly with AFI macular pigment volume under the curve (MPVUC) measurements up to 9° eccentricity relative to MPVUC or rotationally averaged macular pigment optical density (MPOD) measurements at smaller eccentricities. These measurements were reproducible and not significantly affected by cataracts. We also found that these techniques could readily identify subjects taking oral carotenoid-containing supplements. Conclusions Larger macular pigment volume AFI and skin RRS measurements are noninvasive, objective, and reliable methods to assess ocular and systemic carotenoid levels. They are an attractive alternative to psychophysical and optical methods that measure MPOD at a limited number of eccentricities. Consequently, skin RRS and MPVUC at 9° are both reasonable biomarkers of macular carotenoid status that could be readily adapted to research and clinical settings. PMID:28728169

  7. Identification of rat serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme by means of wheat germ agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, H; Niwa, N; Hayakawa, T; Tsuge, H

    1997-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) precipitates bone type serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP) isoenzyme specifically. The precipitates are composed of the macromolecules of WGA and "bone type sALP" (WGA-ALP complex). In order to use bone type sALP as a marker in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), a method to separate "bone type sALP" from the "WGA-ALP complex" was established by using N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-Sepharose 6E column chromatography. It was concluded that this method is useful for clinical examination in the rat.

  8. Spectroscopic exploration of interaction between PEG-functionalized Ag2S nanoparticles with bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanth, S.; RitheshRaj, D.; Vineeshkumar, T. V.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

    2018-05-01

    The introduction of nanoparticles into biological fluids often leads to the formation of biocorona over the surface of nanoparticles. For the effective use of nanoparticles in biological applications it is very essential to understand their interactions with proteins. Herein, we investigated the interactions of Poly ethylene glycol capped Ag2S nanoparticles with Bovine Serum Albumin by spectroscopic techniques. By the addition of Ag2S nanoparticles, a ground state complex is formed. The CD spectroscopy reveals that the secondary structure of BSA is altered by complexation with PEG-Ag2S nanoparticles, while the overall tertiary structure remains closer to that of native BSA.

  9. Aspects of the Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Sahel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of year, age, season and breeds on aspects of the hematology and serum biochemical indices of Sahel and Sokoto red bucks in Mubi, Adamawa state, Nigeria. Blood and serum samples were used to determine PCV, Hb, RBC and WBC, and while serum protein (BSP) and ...

  10. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  11. Serum ferritin, serum nitric oxide, and cognitive function in pediatric thalassemia major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septiana Nur Qurbani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Hemolysis and repeated blood transfusions in children with thalassemia major cause iron overload in various organs, including the brain, and may lead to neurodegeneration. Hemolysis also causes decreased levels of nitric oxide, which serves as a volume transmitter and slow dynamic modulation, leading to cognitive impairment. Objective To assess for correlations between serum ferritin as well as nitric oxide levels and cognitive function in children with thalassemia major.  Methods This analytical study with cross-sectional design on 40 hemosiderotic thalassemia major patients aged 6−14 years, was done at the Thalassemia Clinic in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, West Java, from May to June 2015. Serum ferritin measurements were performed by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay; serum nitric oxide was assayed by a colorimetric procedure based on Griess reaction; and cognitive function was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children test. Statistical analysis was done using Spearman’s Rank correlation, with a significance value of 0.05. Results Abnormal values in verbal, performance, and full scale IQ were found in 35%, 57.5% and 57.5%, respectively. Serum nitric oxide level was significantly correlated with performance IQ (P=0.022, but not with verbal IQ (P=0.359 or full scale IQ (P=0.164. There were also no significant correlations between serum ferritin level and full scale, verbal, or performance IQ (P=0.377, 0.460, and 0.822, respectively. Conclusion Lower serum nitric oxide level is significantly correlated to lower cognitive function, specifically in the performance IQ category. However, serum ferritin level has no clear correlation with cognitive function.

  12. An analysis of the relationship between serum cortisol and serum sodium in routine clinical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor McLaughlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Adrenal insufficiency is an uncommon cause of hyponatraemia that should not be overlooked due to the severe consequences of an Addisonian crisis. Using the laboratory database of a large teaching hospital, we have explored the relationship between serum sodium and serum cortisol, and have estimated the frequency of hypoadrenalism in severely hyponatraemic patients. Design and methods: Data were gathered over a 23 month period from the Laboratory Information Management System at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust for instances where serum sodium and cortisol had been measured on a single sample. Data were also gathered over the same time period for all patients with severe hyponatraemia (serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L in order to determine the frequency of cortisol requesting and the incidence of adrenal insufficiency. Results: Analysis of the data (n=3268 patients revealed a trend showing higher cortisol concentrations in patients who were severely hypo- or hypernatraemic. The median cortisol concentration for patients with sodium ≤110 mmol/L was 856 nmol/L, and there was a gradual decrease in cortisol over the sodium range ≤110–150 mmol/L (Rs =−0.323, p<0.0001. Patients with sodium ≥151 mmol/L had a median cortisol of 725 nmol/L. 42% of the 978 patients with serum sodium ≤120 mmol/L had serum cortisol measured within two weeks, of whom 1.7% were diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency. Conclusions: This dataset shows rising cortisol in response to hypo- or hypernatraemia, in keeping with the stress response to illness. The data show that adrenal insufficiency is a rare cause of hyponatraemia which may be overlooked. Keywords: Serum, Sodium, Cortisol, Adrenal insufficiency

  13. Effect of Ramadan fasting on serum heat shock protein 70 and serum lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, A; Hajhashemi, M; Hassan, Z M; Zarrin, S; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M; Salarilak, S; Masudi, S; Shahabi, S

    2011-07-01

    Ramadan, the holy month for the Islamic world, is a period every year when food and fluid intake is restricted to the pre-sunrise and post-sunset hours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on the serum concentration of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and serum lipid profile in healthy men. A total of 32 male volunteers with a mean age of 28.5 (range 23-37) years were selected for the study. Blood samples were obtained one day prior to Ramadan and on the 3rd and 25th days of fasting. Serum HSP70, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (Chol), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), LDL/HDL and Chol/HDL ratios were investigated. It was observed that the mean concentrations of serum HSP70 and HDL on the 25th day of Ramadan were significantly higher than those recorded one day before Ramadan and on the 3rd day of Ramadan, and the levels on the 3rd day of Ramadan was significantly higher than those recorded one day before Ramadan. Mean concentrations of serum TG, Chol, LDL, and LDL/HDL and Chol/HDL ratios on the 25th day of Ramadan were significantly lower than those recorded one day before Ramadan and on the 3rd day of Ramadan, and the levels found on the 3rd day of Ramadan were also significantly lower than those recorded one day before Ramadan. Ramadan fasting increases serum HSP70 and improves serum lipid profile.

  14. Assessment of range of uric and serum biomarkers in determination of bladder cancer severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to establish efficiency of a range of uric and serum biomarkers of bladder cancer for diagnostics and the prognosis of risk of development of disease recurrence. Material and methods: TPA and TPS, VEGF level research in blood serum, UBC in urine in 176 people, among which 135 patients with bladder cancer (RMP have been conducted. Group of comparison has included16 patients (patients with cystitis. The control group has been made of 25 almost healthy men. 75 patients had non-muscle invasive RMP (Ta-1N0M0. Results. It has been statistically determined that reliable growth of of TPA, TPS in blood serum and UBC in urine in patients with non-muscle invasive RMP in comparison with patients in groups of control and comparison has been established. The increase of UBC in urine of patients of this group with recurrence of tumoral growth within a year has been noted. In comparison with cytological research of urine sedimentation, molecular markers of RMP (the uric UBC and serum TPA, TPS possess diagnostic sensitivity, allow to confirm the presence of disease, to carry out diagnostics of stages of organ and extra invasion. RMP is possible to consider as an additional prognostic serum marker increase in the VEGF level in blood serum. Conclusion. Inclusion in diagnostic process in the clinical research of biomarkers showed that identification of NMIRMP increased from 18,1% in 2006 to 55,6% in 2011. The chosen volume of complex treatment allowed to reduce recurrence and lethality in the first two years from 32 to 15,5%.

  15. Synthesis and characterisation of 8-hydroxyquinoline-bovine serum albumin conjugates as metal ion chelating proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudi, G.; Baggiani, C.; Giovannoli, C.; Marletto, C.; Vanni, A.

    1999-01-01

    A derivative of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-quinolinol, oxine) with a linking bridge containing a carboxylic group was covalently coupled to bovine serum albumin by the N-hydroxysuccinimide method to obtain stable monomeric conjugates with oxine to protein mole ratios up to 37. These conjugates were characterised spectrophotometrically and their complexation properties were confirmed by spectral analysis with and without the addition of Al(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), V(IV), U(VI) and Zn(II) ions added. The maximum number of ions bound by these chelating proteins was determined spectrophotometrically by titration with metal ions at pH 6.0. The conjugates with a substitution ratio (moles of 8-hydroxyquinoline bound/mole of albumin) less than about 8 showed 1:1 binding with metal ions, while conjugates with higher substitution ratios were able to complex with 2:1 ratio of 8-hydroxyquinoline to metal ion. Association and dissociation kinetics of complexation with copper(II) ions showed a complex mechanism. The spectral and binding properties of these metal ion-binding proteins confirm that the coupling of the 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative to bovine serum albumin gives stable, water soluble, macromolecular chelating agents that retain the complexing ability of the original ligand. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Using Tc-Re chemical analogy to synthesize and identify new 99mTc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, D.; Kremer, C.; Cartesio, S.; Leon, A.; Kremer, E.

    1989-01-01

    The strong chemical resemblance between Tc and Re is applied to design and evaluate experiments with 99m Tc complexes. A combination of spectrophotometric and electrophoretic techniques allows to propose the formula [TcO 2 (amine) 2 ] + for compounds prepared by reduction of 99m TcO 4 - with Zn (solid phase) in presence of several (bidentate) amines. (author) 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Metabolic changes in serum metabolome in response to a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Aahana; Müllner, Elisabeth; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu; Moazzami, Ali A

    2017-03-01

    The change in serum metabolic response from fasting state to postprandial state provides novel insights into the impact of a single meal on human metabolism. Therefore, this study explored changes in serum metabolite profile after a single meal. Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. They received a meal consisting of refined wheat bread (50 g carbohydrates, 9 g protein, 4.2 g fat and 2.7 g dietary fibre), 40 g cucumber and 300 mL noncaloric orange drink. Blood samples were collected at fasting and five postprandial time points. Metabolic profile was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Changes over time were assessed with multivariate models and ANOVA, with baseline as control. The metabolomic analyses demonstrated alterations in phospholipids, amino acids and their breakdown products, glycolytic products, acylcarnitines and ketone bodies after a single meal. More specifically, phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines and citrate displayed an overall declining pattern, while leucine, isoleucine, methionine and succinate increased initially but declined thereafter. A sharp decline in acylcarnitines and ketone bodies and increase in glycolytic products postprandially suggest a switch in the body's energy source from β-oxidation to glycolysis. Moreover, individuals with relatively high postprandial insulin responses generated a higher postprandial leucine responses compared to participants with lower insulin responses. The study demonstrated complex changes from catabolic to anabolic metabolism after a meal and indicated that the extent of postprandial responses is different between individuals with high and low insulin response.

  18. Origin of DNA in human serum and usefulness of serum as a material for DNA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, T; Yamada, S; Watanabe, Y; Hirata, K; Nagai, A; Nakamura, I; Bunai, Y; Ohya, I

    2001-06-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the origin of DNA in human serum and to investigate whether serum is a material available for DNA typing in routine forensic practice. Blood was donated from 10 healthy adult volunteers and stored for up to 8 days, at 4 degrees C and at room temperature. The serum DNA concentration at zero time was in the range of 5.6 to 21.8 ng/ml with a mean of 12.2+/-1.6 ng/ml. The concentrations increased with storage time. On agarose gel electrophoresis, all serum samples showed ladder patterns and the size of each band was an integer multiple of approximately 180 bp considered to be characteristic of apoptosis. DNA typing from DNA released by apoptosis was possible. Exact DNA typing of D1S80, HLA DQA1, PM, CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01 and vWA was possible for each sample. These results indicate that serum contains fragmented DNA derived from apoptosis of leukocytes, especially neutrophils, and that fragmented DNA is an appropriate material for DNA typing.

  19. A novel rasopathy caused by recurrent de novo missense mutations in PPP1CB closely resembles Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripp, Karen W; Aldinger, Kimberly A; Bennett, James T; Baker, Laura; Tusi, Jessica; Powell-Hamilton, Nina; Stabley, Deborah; Sol-Church, Katia; Timms, Andrew E; Dobyns, William B

    2016-09-01

    Noonan syndrome is a rasopathy caused by mutations in multiple genes encoding components of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Despite its variable phenotype, limited genotype-phenotype correlations exist. Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS-LAH) is characterized by its distinctive hair anomalies, developmental differences, and structural brain abnormalities and is caused by a single recurrent missense SHOC2 mutation. SHOC2 forms a complex with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1C). Protein phosphatases counterbalance kinases and control activation of signaling proteins, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Here we report four patients with de novo missense mutations in protein phosphatase one catalytic subunit beta (PPP1CB), sharing a recognizable phenotype. Three individuals had the recurrent PPP1CB c.146G>C, p.Pro49Arg mutation, the fourth had a c.166G>C, p.Ala56Pro change. All had relative or absolute macrocephaly, low-set and posteriorly angulated ears, and developmental delay. Slow growing and/or sparse hair and/or an unruly hair texture was present in all. Three individuals had feeding difficulties requiring feeding tubes. One of two males had cryptorchidism, another had pectus excavatum. Short stature was present in three. A female with the recurrent mutation had a Dandy-Walker malformation and optic nerve hypoplasia. Mild ventriculomegaly occurred in all, cerebellar tonsillar ectopia was seen in two and progressed to Chiari 1 malformation in one individual. Based on the combination of phenotypic findings and PPP1CB's effect on RAF dephosphorylation within the RAS/MAPK pathway, this novel condition can be considered a rasopathy, most similar to NS-LAH. Collectively, these mutations meet the standardized criteria for pathogenicity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Serum cholinesterases are differentially regulated in normal and dystrophin-deficient mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Durrant

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cholinesterases, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (pseudocholinesterase, are abundant in the nervous system and in other tissues. The role of acetylcholinesterase in terminating transmitter action in the peripheral and central nervous system is well understood. However, both knowledge of the function(s of the cholinesterases in serum, and of their metabolic and endocrine regulation under normal and pathological conditions, is limited. This study investigates acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in sera of dystrophin-deficient mdx mutant mice, an animal model for the human Duchenne muscular dystrophy and in control healthy mice. The data show systematic and differential variations in the concentrations of both enzymes in the sera, and specific changes dictated by alteration of hormonal balance in both healthy and dystrophic mice. While acetylcholinesterase in mdx-sera is elevated, butyrylcholinesterase is markedly diminished, resulting in an overall cholinesterase decrease compared to sera of healthy controls. The androgen testosterone (T is a negative modulator of butyrylcholinesterase, but not of acetylcholinesterase, in male mouse sera. T-removal elevated both butyrylcholinesterase activity and the butyrylcholinesterase/acetylcholinesterase ratio in mdx male sera to values resembling those in healthy control male mice. Mechanisms of regulation of the circulating cholinesterases and their impairment in the dystrophic mice are suggested, and clinical implications for diagnosis and treatment are considered.