WorldWideScience

Sample records for complexes conducting salts

  1. Variation in viscosity and ion conductivity of a polymer–salt complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ion conductivity shows a strong increase for an irradiation of. 35 kGy. DSC studies indicate a decrease in crystallinity with gamma dose. Keywords. Gamma irradiation; polymer electrolyte; viscosity; ion conductivity. PACS Nos 61.82.Pv; 66.30.Dn; 47.57.Ng; 81.70.Pg. 1. Introduction. When polymers are exposed to high ...

  2. Effect of complexing salt on conductivity of PVC/PEO polymer blend ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    composite polymer, a blend-based polymer electrolyte, composed of two conductive ... LiClO4 electrolytes with various methacrylic and acrylic polymers used as additives .... Z real vs Z imaginary plot for PVC : PEO : LiBF4 at room temperature.

  3. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  4. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  5. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  6. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  7. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...

  8. Conduction anisotropy of the Bechgaard salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kezsmarki, I.; Zamborszky, F.; Mihaly, G.; Montgomery, L.K.; Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of a systematic study on the temperature dependence of the normal state conductivity, measured along the a, b', and c * axis, in a representative set of Bechgaard salts. The anisotropic electron transport of four compounds are compared: (TMTSF) 2 ClO 4 , (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 , (TMTTF) 2 Br and (TMTTF) 2 PF 6 . We analyze the tendency, following this order of the compounds, of the metallic ab' plane conductivity change to a semiconductor like behavior, and we discuss the mechanism of inter- and intra-chain transport. The c * -direction conduction is determined by the nature of the counter-ion and seems to be irrelevant in this comparison. (orig.)

  9. Conductivities of poly(ethylene oxide)-alkali salts with aromatic and heterocyclic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, J P [Dept. of Engineering Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, S V [Dept. of Engineering Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Patel, J P [Dept. of Engineering Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wright, P V [Dept. of Engineering Materials, Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1993-03-01

    Complexes of PEO with the sodium salts of imidazole, benzimidazole, 2-methylbenzimidazole, 4-phenylphenol and a mesogenic ester of benzimidazole-5-carboxylic acid have been prepared. The latter forms a mixed organised phase with its uncharged analogue. Highest conductivities (ca. 5x10[sup -4] cm[sup -1] at 100 C) are observed with the sodium salt of benzimidazole; the corresponding complex with the lithium salt has a lower conductivity (5x10[sup -5] S cm[sup -1]). (orig.)

  10. Dye-Sensitized Molecular Charge Transfer Complexes: Magnetic and Conduction Properties in the Photoexcited States of Ni(dmit2 Salts Containing Photosensitive Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma Yamamoto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitive dyes often induce charge transfer (CT between adjacent chemical species and themselves under irradiation of appropriate wavelengths. Because of the reversibility and selectivity of such CT, it is considered to be interesting to utilize such dyes as optically controllable trigger components for conduction and magnetism in the photoexcited states of organic materials. Based on this idea, such a type of new salts, i.e., γ- and δ-DiCC[Ni(dmit2] in addition to DiCC2[Ni(dmit2]3 have been prepared, characterized and their physical and structural properties have been examined both under dark and irradiated conditions (dmit2− = 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate, DiCC+ = 3,3′-Dihexyloxacarbocyanine monocation. Among them, under UV (254–450 nm irradiation, δ-DiCC[Ni(dmit2] exhibited photoconductivity being six times as high as its dark conductivity at room temperature. The electron spin resonance (ESR spectra have demonstrated that there are photoexcited spins on both DiCC and [Ni(dmit2] species as a result of the CT transition between them, serving as localized spins (DiCC and carriers ([Ni(dmit2], respectively. The results obtained in this work have indicated that the strategy mentioned above is effective in developing organic photoresponsive semiconductors with paramagnetism.

  11. Displacement of Drugs From Cyclodextrin Complexes by Bile Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, Rene

    2016-01-01

    of drug from the cyclodextrin cavity by bile salts present in the small intestine. As bile salts in the intestine are present at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration, an understanding of the interaction between cyclodextrins and bile salts at such supramicellar concentrations (SMC......) is required for a better biopharmaceutical understanding of the release mechanism from orally dosed cyclodextrin complexes. To address this, experiments were conducted by isothermal titration calorimetry to determine how various b-cyclodextrins and bile salt interacts at SMC. Combined analysis of the current...... results and earlier data demonstrated that direct interactions between bile salt micelles and cyclodextrin were negligible. From this knowledge, an extended form of the UCD was suggested to describe the concentration of cyclodextrins to achieve full drug solubilization in the intestine where bile salts...

  12. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J [Livermore, CA; Tichenor, Mark S [San Diego, CA; Artau, Alexander [Humacao, PR

    2009-11-17

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  13. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  14. Complex electric conductivity of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, B.R.P. da.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of complex conductivity were made on 28 drill-core samples from area MM1-Prospect 1 of the Carajas Mining District. The objective of this research was to help interpret field geophysical survey of the area using Induced Polarization and AFMAG methods. A petrographic study of the samples was done, using thin sections, polished sections and X-ray diffraction. Copper content, in the form of sulfides, was determined using atomic absorption. As a result of the petrographic study, the samples were classified in five distinct groups: granite, biotite schist, amphibolite and magnetite quartzite-iron formation. The grade of Cu was variable in the five groups, ranging from 50 ppm to 6000 ppm. In conclusion, these measurements show that the field Induced Polarization and AFMAG anomalies near these three drill holes (F1, F2 and F3) are due primarily to the magnetic iron formation, and secondarily due to associated low-grade chalcopyrite mineralization. (author) [pt

  15. Supramolecular Complexes Formed in Systems Bile Salt-Bilirubin-Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, N. N.; Severinovskaya, O. V.; Golovkova, L. P.

    The formation of supramolecular complexes between bilirubin and primary micelles of bile salts has been studied. The association constants of bile salts and binding of bilirubin with these associates have been determined. The adsorption of bilirubin and bile salts from individual and mixed aqueous solutions onto hydrophobic silica surfaces has been investigated. The interaction of bilirubin with primary bile salt micelles and the strong retention in mixed micelles, which are supramolecular complexes, result in the adsorption of bilirubin in free state only.

  16. Hybrid molecular materials based upon organic pi-electron donors and inorganic metal complexes. Conducting salts of bis(ethylenediseleno)tetrathiafulvalene (BEST) with the octahedral anions hexacyanoferrate(III) and nitroprusside

    CERN Document Server

    Clemente-Leon, M; Galan-Mascaros, J R; Giménez-Saiz, C; Gómez-García, C J; Fabre, J M; Mousdis, G A; Papavassiliou, G C

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis, structure and physical characterization of three new radical salts formed by the organic donor bis(ethylenediseleno)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDS-TTF or BEST) and the paramagnetic hexacyanoferrate(III) anion [Fe(CN) sub 6] sup 3 sup - or the photochromic nitroprusside anion [Fe(CN) sub 5 NO] sup 2 sup - are reported: (BEST) sub 4 [Fe(CN) sub 6] (1), (BEST) sub 3 [Fe(CN) sub 6] sub 2 centre dot H sub 2 O (2) and (BEST) sub 2 [Fe(CN) sub 5 NO] (3). Salts 1 and 3 show a layered structure with alternating organic (beta-type packing) and inorganic slabs. Salt 2 shows an original interpenetrated structure probably due to the unprecedented presence of (BEST) sup 2 sup + dications. The three salts are semiconductors although salt 1 exhibits a high room temperature conductivity and a semiconducting-semiconducting transition at ca. 150 K which has been attributed to a dimerization in the organic sublattice.

  17. Influence of complexing on physicochemical properties of polymer-salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroushko, A.A.; Yushkova, S.M.; Koridze, N.V.; Skobkoreva, N.V.; Zhuravleva, L.I.; Palitskaya, T.A.; Antropova, S.V.; Ostroushko, I.P.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1993-01-01

    Using the methods of spectrophotometry, viscosimetry, conductometry the influence of salt-polymer complexing processes on physicochemical prperties of aqueous solutions of yttrium, barium, copper nitrates and formates with polyvinyl alcohol was studied. Change of dynamic viscosity, specific electric conductivity of solutions in the process of complexing was shown. Thermal effects of salt-polymer interaction were measured. It is shown that decrease of transition temperature of polymer to plastic state in films, temperature and effective activation energy of salt decomposition is also connected with complexing. Effective values of surface tension on the boundary with air are measured. Coefficients of cation diffusion in polymer-salt solutions are estimated

  18. Ionic Conductance, Thermal and Morphological Behavior of PEO-Graphene Oxide-Salts Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films composites of poly(ethylene oxide-graphene oxide were fabricated with and without lithium salts by solvent cast method. The ionic conductivity of these composites was studied at various concentrations of salt polymer-GO complexes and at different temperatures. The effects of temperature and graphene oxide concentration were measured from Arrhenius conductance plots. It is shown that the addition of salts in pure PEO increases conductance many times. The graphene oxide addition has enhanced the conductance approximately 1000 times as compared to that of pure PEO. The activation energies were determined for all the systems which gave higher values for pure PEO and the value decreased with the addition of LiClO4 and LiCl salts and further decreases with the addition of graphene oxide. The composite has also lowered the activation energy values which mean that incorporation of GO in PEO has decreased crystallinity and the amorphous region has increased the local mobility of polymer chains resulting in lower activation energies. SEM analysis shows uniform distribution of GO in polymer matrix. The thermal stability studies reveal that incorporation of GO has somewhat enhanced the thermal stability of the films.

  19. Ionic conductivity and complexation in liquid dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhakin, Anatolii I

    2003-01-01

    Electronic and ionic conductivity in nonpolar liquids is reviewed. Theoretical results on ionic complexation (formation of ion pairs and triplets, dipole-dipole chains, ion-dipole clusters) in liquid dielectrics in an intense external electric field are considered, and the relation between the complexation process and ionic conductivity is discussed. Experimental results supporting the possibility of complexation are presented and compared with theoretical calculations. Onsager's theory about the effect of an intense external electric field on ion-pair dissociation is corrected for the finite size of ions. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Complex conductivity of organic-rich shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, W. F.; Revil, A.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    2013-12-01

    We can accurately determine the intrinsic anisotropy and material properties in the laboratory, providing empirical evidence of transverse isotropy and the polarization of the organic and metallic fractions in saturated and unsaturated shales. We develop two distinct approaches to obtain the complex conductivity tensor from spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements. Experimental results indicate clear anisotropy, and characterize the effects of thermal maturation, TOC, and pyrite, aiding in the calibration and interpretation of geophysical data. SIP is a non-intrusive measurement, sensitive to the surface conductance of mineral grains, frequency-dependent polarization of the electrical double layer, and bulk conductivity of the pore water. The in-phase and quadrature components depend upon parameters of principal importance in unconventional shale formation evaluation (e.g., the distribution of pore throat sizes, formation factor, permeability, salinity and cation exchange capacity (CEC), fluid saturation and wettability). In addition to the contribution of the electrical double layer of non-conducting minerals to surface conductivity, we have observed a clear relaxation associated with kerogen pyrolysis, pyrite distribution, and evidence that the CEC of the kerogen fraction may also contribute, depending on thermal maturation history. We utilize a recent model for anisotropic complex conductivity, and rigorous experimental protocols to quantify the role of kerogen and pyrolysis on surface and quadrature conductivity in mudrocks. The complex conductivity tensor σ* describes the directional dependence of electrical conduction in a porous medium, and accounts for both conduction and polarization. The complex-valued tensor components are given as σ*ij , where σ'ij represents in-phase and σ"ij denotes quadrature conductivities. The directional dependence of the complex conductivity tensor is relegated to the textural properties of the material. The

  1. Making Complex Electrically Conductive Patterns on Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew; Fink, Patrick W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.; Scully, Robert C.; Trevino, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A method for automated fabrication of flexible, electrically conductive patterns on cloth substrates has been demonstrated. Products developed using this method, or related prior methods, are instances of a technology known as 'e-textiles,' in which electrically conductive patterns ar formed in, and on, textiles. For many applications, including high-speed digital circuits, antennas, and radio frequency (RF) circuits, an e-textile method should be capable of providing high surface conductivity, tight tolerances for control of characteristic impedances, and geometrically complex conductive patterns. Unlike prior methods, the present method satisfies all three of these criteria. Typical patterns can include such circuit structures as RF transmission lines, antennas, filters, and other conductive patterns equivalent to those of conventional printed circuits. The present method overcomes the limitations of the prior methods for forming the equivalent of printed circuits on cloth. A typical fabrication process according to the present method involves selecting the appropriate conductive and non-conductive fabric layers to build the e-textile circuit. The present method uses commercially available woven conductive cloth with established surface conductivity specifications. Dielectric constant, loss tangent, and thickness are some of the parameters to be considered for the non-conductive fabric layers. The circuit design of the conductive woven fabric is secured onto a non-conductive fabric layer using sewing, embroidery, and/or adhesive means. The portion of the conductive fabric that is not part of the circuit is next cut from the desired circuit using an automated machine such as a printed-circuit-board milling machine or a laser cutting machine. Fiducials can be used to align the circuit and the cutting machine. Multilayer circuits can be built starting with the inner layer and using conductive thread to make electrical connections between layers.

  2. Electrolytic conductivity of synthetic organomineral complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksiezopolska Alicja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the formation of organomineral complexes in soils is very complex and still little known. Examination of the complexes in unaltered form, as isolated from the soil, is very difficult due to the dispersing effect of all extraction agents which break the complexes up, destroying their natural properties. It is much easier to perform most of the tests on preparations of organomineral complexes obtained under laboratory conditions. This paper is concerned with model research on the formation of synthetic complexes of humic acids with minerals: Na-montmorillonite, mica, kaolinite at various pH values (3-7 and in the presence of aluminum ions. The aim of the research was to develop an optimum reaction of suspension for the synthesis of organomineral complexes, to study the role of aluminum ions, and to attempt to determine the degree of their complexity on the basis of the electrolytic conductivity (EC. An important influence of the suspension pH value on the value of EC was observed. The greatest correlation was found in the organomineral preparations with kaolinite and with aluminum (r = 0.93***. Generally, it can be stated that the degree of reaction of humic acids with minerals depended most of all on the type of mineral, on the pH value, and on the presence of aluminum.

  3. Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of Zinc Mixed Ligand Complexes in Salt Water Systems. ... method has been used to study heavy metal interaction in model lake water in KNO3 ... is of no consequential effect because in its normal state, the [OH-] of the lake water is ...

  4. A study on conductivity, density, and viscosity of molten salt systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kangjo

    1976-01-01

    A relation between the equivalent conductivity and density for molten salts is deduced with the aid of significant structures theory, and the solid state density at melting point is evaluated approximately for some rare-earth metal chlorides and the other chlorides. Furthermore, the relation among the equivalent conductivity, density, and viscosity for some molten salts is discussed. (auth.)

  5. Complex conductivity response to silver nanoparticles in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increase in the use of nanoscale materials in consumer products has resulted in a growing concern of their potential hazard to ecosystems and public health from their accidental or intentional introduction to the environment. Key environmental, health, and safety research needs include knowledge and methods for their detection, characterization, fate, and transport. Specifically, techniques available for the direct detection and quantification of their fate and transport in the environment are limited. Their small size, high surface area to volume ratio, interfacial, and electrical properties make metallic nanoparticles, such as silver nanoparticles, good targets for detection using electrical geophysical techniques. Here we measured the complex conductivity response to silver nanoparticles in sand columns under varying moisture conditions (0–30%), nanoparticle concentrations (0–10 mg/g), lithology (presence of clay), pore water salinity (0.0275 and 0.1000 S/m), and particle size (35, 90–210 and 1500–2500 nm). Based on the Cole-Cole relaxation models we obtained the chargeability and the time constant. We demonstrate that complex conductivity can detect silver nanoparticles in porous media with the response enhanced by higher concentrations of silver nanoparticles, moisture content, ionic strength, clay content and particle diameter. Quantification of the volumetric silver nanoparticles content in the porous media can also be obtained from complex co

  6. Synthesis of Backfunctionalized Imidazolinium Salts and NHC Carbene Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-02

    Backfunctionalized Imidazolinium salts and NHC carbene complexes – Initial Research – Unintended Discovery – Survey chemistry of aromatic systems – Expansion of...survey chemistry to aliphatics • Conclusions and Future Directions Introduction 3 Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited...AFRL – Tenant of Edwards AFB since late ‘50s – Full scale testing of the Atlas rockets (Gemini missions) – Initial testing of the F-1 engine (Apollo

  7. Conductivity studies of Chitosan doped with different ammonium salts: Effect of ion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C. Raja; Senthilkumar, M.; Jayakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    In the present investigation influence of ion size on the electrical properties of various ammonium salts of various concentrations doped with Chitosan liquid electrolyte has been studied. The attachment of ammonium salts with Chitosan has been confirmed through FTIR Spectrum. Polarizability is calculated from the refractive index data. Addition of ammonium salts increases the conductivity. It is also observed that increase in ion size, increases the ionic conductivity due to increase in amorphous nature of the material. Increase in concentration leads to increase in conductivity due to the presence of more number of free ions.

  8. Thermal conductivity measurements in relation to the geothermal exploration of the Gorleben salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopietz, J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of thermal conductivity measurements on rock salt and associated structures are presented in this paper. Thermal conductivity data obtained from laboratory measurements on the core material are compared with high-precision temperature gradient logs from the exploration boreholes. This work is part of an extensive investigation into the suitability of the Gorleben salt done in northern Germany as a radioactive waste disposal site

  9. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This research on proton-containing (protic) salts directly addresses proton conduction at high and low temperatures. This research is unique, because no water is used for proton ionization nor conduction, so the properties of water do not limit proton fuel cells. A protic salt is all that is needed to give rise to ionized proton and to support proton mobility. A protic salt forms when proton transfers from an acid to a base. Protic salts were found to have proton conductivities that are as high as or higher than the best aqueous electrolytes at ambient pressures and comparable temperatures without or with water present. Proton conductivity of the protic salts occurs providing two conditions exist: i) the energy difference is about 0.8 eV between the protic-salt state versus the state in which the acid and base are separated and 2) the chemical constituents rotate freely. The physical state of these proton-conducting salts can be liquid, plastic crystal as well as solid organic and inorganic polymer membranes and their mixtures. Many acids and bases can be used to make a protic salt which allows tailoring of proton conductivity, as well as other properties that affect their use as electrolytes in fuel cells, such as, stability, adsorption on catalysts, environmental impact, etc. During this project, highly proton conducting (~ 0.1S/cm) protic salts were made that are stable under fuel-cell operating conditions and that gave highly efficient fuel cells. The high efficiency is attributed to an improved oxygen electroreduction process on Pt which was found to be virtually reversible in a number of liquid protic salts with low water activity (< 1% water). Solid flexible non-porous composite membranes, made from inorganic polymer (e.g., 10%indium 90%tin pyrophosphate, ITP) and organic polymer (e.g., polyvinyl pyridinium phosphate, PVPP), were found that give conductivity and fuel cell performances similar to phosphoric acid electrolyte with no need for hydration at

  10. Influence of complexing on physicochemical properties of polymer-salt solutions. Vliyanie kompleksoobrazovaniya na fiziko-khimicheskie svojstva polimerno-solevykh rastvorov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroushko, A A; Yushkova, S M; Koridze, N V; Skobkoreva, N V; Zhuravleva, L I; Palitskaya, T A; Antropova, S V; Ostroushko, I P [Ural' skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Sverdlovsk (Russian Federation) AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1993-06-01

    Using the methods of spectrophotometry, viscosimetry, conductometry the influence of salt-polymer complexing processes on physicochemical prperties of aqueous solutions of yttrium, barium, copper nitrates and formates with polyvinyl alcohol was studied. Change of dynamic viscosity, specific electric conductivity of solutions in the process of complexing was shown. Thermal effects of salt-polymer interaction were measured. It is shown that decrease of transition temperature of polymer to plastic state in films, temperature and effective activation energy of salt decomposition is also connected with complexing. Effective values of surface tension on the boundary with air are measured. Coefficients of cation diffusion in polymer-salt solutions are estimated.

  11. The material combining conducting polymer and ionic liquid: hydrogen bonding interactions between polyaniline and imidazolium salt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Trchová, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 197, November (2014), s. 168-174 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * conductivity * imidazolium salt Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.252, year: 2014

  12. Structure and ionic conductivity of block copolymer electrolytes over a wide salt concentration range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Le, Thao; Venkatesan, Naveen; Thelen, Jacob; Rojas, Adriana; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising materials for safe, long-lasting lithium batteries because of their favorable mechanical and ion transport properties. The morphology, phase behavior, and ionic conductivity of a block copolymer electrolyte, SEO mixed with LiTFSI was studied over a wide, previously unexplored salt concentration range using small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and ac impedance spectroscopy, respectively. SEO exhibits a maximum in ionic conductivity at twice the salt concentration that PEO, the homopolymer analog of the ion-containing block, does. This finding is contrary to prior studies that examined a more limited range of salt concentrations. In SEO, the phase behavior of the PEO block and LiTFSI closely resembles the phase behavior of homopolymer PEO and LiTFSI. The grain size of the block copolymer morphology was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, and the ionic conductivity of SEO correlates with decreasing grain size. Structural effects impact the ionic conductivity-salt concentration relationship in block copolymer electrolytes. SEO: polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide); also PS-PEO LiTFSI: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide

  13. Rare Earth Electrochemical Property Measurements and Phase Diagram Development in a Complex Molten Salt Mixture for Molten Salt Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo; Guo, Shaoqiang

    2018-03-30

    Pyroprocessing is a promising alternative for the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) that uses electrochemical methods. Compared to the hydrometallurgical reprocessing method, pyroprocessing has many advantages such as reduced volume of radioactive waste, simple waste processing, ability to treat refractory material, and compatibility with fast reactor fuel recycle. The key steps of the process are the electro-refining of the spent metallic fuel in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, which can be integrated with an electrolytic reduction step for the reprocessing of spent oxide fuels. During the electro-refining process, actinides and active fission products such rare earth (RE) elements are dissolved into the molten salt from the spent fuel at an anode basket. Then U and Pu are electro-deposited on the cathodes while REs with relatively negative reduction potentials are left in the molten salt bath. However, with the accumulation of lanthanides in the salt, the reduction potentials of REs will approach the values for U and Pu, affecting the recovery efficiency of U and Pu. Hence, RE drawdown is necessary to reduce salt waste after uranium and minor actinides recovery, which can also be performed by electrochemical separations. To separate various REs and optimize the drawdown process, physical properties of REs in LiCl-KCl salt and their concentration dependence are essential. Thus, the primary goal of present research is to provide fundamental data of REs and deduce phase diagrams of LiCl-KCl-RECl3 based complex molten salts. La, Nd and Gd are three representative REs that we are particularly interested in due to the high ratio of La and Nd in UNF, highest standard potential of Gd among all REs, and the existing literature data in dilute solution. Electrochemical measurements are performed to study the thermodynamics and transport properties of LaCl3, GdCl3, NdCl3, and NdCl2 in LiCl-KCl eutectic in the temperature range 723-823 K. Test are conducted in LiCl-KCl melt

  14. Thermal stability and ionic conductivity of polymeric complexes Pva-KHSO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, R.A.; Vargas, M.A.; Garcia, A

    1996-01-01

    Its had synthesized highly conductive thin films of polymeric electrolytes, based on commercial glue (BASF's colbon) and KHSO4 salt, by means the solving casting method, using H3PO2 as common solvent. By high resolution thermal analysis and impedance spectroscopy we found that these complexes are highly amorphous and thermally stable in the 160 - 450 K temperature range. The glass transition temperature, Tg, varies with the salt concentration. The highest electrical conductivity at ambient temperature is obtained for x=0.16 salt concentration (on the higher concentrations range) and its value is around 10-2 (gamma cm)-1 , one of the highest reported in the literature for this type of compounds

  15. The role of the salt electrolyt on the electrical conductive properties of a polymeric bipolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcaraz, Antonio; Wilhelm, F.G.; Wessling, Matthias; Ramirez, Patricio

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the contribution of the salt electrolyte to the electrical conductive characteristics of a bipolar membrane. We present first a critical analysis of previous theoretical approaches, and discuss the limits of validity. Experimental current-voltage curves of several commercial bipolar

  16. Seasonal variation in apparent conductivity and soil salinity at two Narragansett Bay salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement of the apparent conductivity of salt marsh sediments using electromagnetic induction (EMI) is a rapid alternative to traditional methods of salinity determination that can be used to map soil salinity across a marsh surface. Soil salinity measures can provide informat...

  17. Preparation of Conductive Organometallic Complexes and Their Pastes or Inks Using the Electron Beam Apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Ja Min; Lee, Hyosun; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Ji Hyun

    2011-01-01

    We have synthesized the silver and copper complexes using the ligands, amine derivatives Ν-methylhydantoin amine, Ν-triethanol amine, the copper complexes are prepared depending on the equivalents of starting materials, however the silver complexes failed. In case of terephthalic acid, glutaric acid, we have synthesized silver and copper complexes successfully. We have measured conductivity of silver and copper complexes paste and ink themselves by thermal reduction using PULSE UV method. A couple of synthesized copper complex's paste have shown some resistance which is not enough for the conductive materials. Commercially silver pastes composed of silver oxide and silver salt of carboxylic acid, applied to the printed transistor circuits with suitable process, i. e. thermal reduction. This process substituted for electron beam brings a simplification of process, economical, environmental friendly process and a development of in the application of flexible substrate

  18. Synthesis, Characterization and Conductivity Study of Poly(vinyl 4-HYDROXY-3-METHOXY Benzal) and its Sodio Salt in Solid State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, P.; Hussain, S.; Dutta, A.

    Among the various ion-conducting materials, polymer salt complexes are of current interest due to their possible application as solid electrolyte as well as their physical nature in advanced high-energy electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic display devices, photo electro-chemical solar cells52-55 etc. The main advantages of polymeric electrolytes are their mechanical properties, ease of fabrication of thin films of desired sizes and their ability to form proper electrode-electrolyte contact. Polymer electrolyte usually consists of a polymer and a salt and is considered to be solid solutions in which the polymer functions as solvent. In the present paper the synthesis, characterization and the conductivity study of the polymer poly (vinyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzal) (PV-HMB) and its sodio salt (PV-HMB-Na) have been reported. The polymer was prepared by carrying out homogenous acetalization between the prepolymer poly vinylalcohol (PVA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde (vanilline). PVA was dissolved in dimethyl formamide (DMF) and lithium chloride (LiCl) system i.e., in non-aqueous medium. The sodio salt was prepared by alkalization. The polymer and its salt were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and DSC. Frequency and temperature dependence of ac conductivity has been studied to learn about the electrical conduction behaviour in this material. The electrical conductivity of the new polymeric salt was found to be in the range 10-4 to 10-6 Scm-1. There is about 103 to 104 fold increase in the conductivity of the new polymer salt. Apparent activation energy of the polymer and its salt were found to be 0.139 and 0.08998 ev respectively.

  19. A study of salt effects on the complexation between beta-cyclodextrins and bile salts based on the Hofmeister series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rene; Schonbeck, Christian; Somprasirt, Pitchayanun

    2014-01-01

    bound drug molecules. The influence of Hofmeister ions on the binding constants of complexes between CDs (β-CD and hydroxypropylated β-CD) and bile salts (glycocholate and glycochenodeoxycholate) were examined by isothermal titration calorimetry. The chaotropic anions tended to weaken these inclusion...

  20. The determination of the conduction mechanism and optical band gap of fluorescein sodium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin; Sekerci, Memet; Evin, Ertan

    2006-01-01

    The electrical conductivity and optical properties of fluorescein sodium salt in the temperature range of 295-370 K have been investigated. Various conduction models described in the literature were used to elucidate the charge transport mechanism of the compound. It is found that the charge transfer mechanism of the compound is understood in terms of grain boundary scattering. It can be evaluated that the obtained electronic parameters such as mobility, conductivity at room temperature, activation energy and optical band gap suggest that the compound is an organic semiconductor

  1. Thin, Conductive Permafrost Surrounding Lake Fryxell Indicates Salts From Past Lakes, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Gooseff, M. N.; Myers, K. F.; Doran, P. T.; Auken, E.; Dugan, H. A.; Mikucki, J.; Virginia, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), permafrost should be thick and liquid water rare. However, despite the well below zero mean annual temperature in this cryospheric desert, liquid water can be found in lakes, summer melt streams, subglacial outflow, and - recent work has shown - underneath anomalously thin permafrost. In part, this niche hydrosphere is maintained by the presence of salts, which depress the freezing point of water to perhaps as cold as -10° Celsius. We detected widespread salty water across the MDV in lakes and at depth using a helicopter-borne Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) sensor. By using the presence of brines to mark the transition from frozen permafrost (near the surface) to unfrozen ground (at depth), we have created a map of permafrost thickness in Lower Taylor Valley (LTV), a large MDV with a complex history of glaciation and occupation by lakes. Our results show that permafrost is thinner ( 200m) than would be expected based on geothermal gradient measurements (up to 1000m), a result of the freezing point depression caused by salt and potentially enhanced by an unfinished transient freezing process. Near Lake Fryxell, a large, brackish lake in the center of LTV, permafrost is very thin (about 30-40m) and notably more electrically conductive than more distal permafrost. This thin ring of conductive permafrost surrounding the lake basin most likely reflects the high presence of salts in the subsurface, preventing complete freezing. These salts may be a remnant of the salty bottom waters of a historic larger lake (LGM glacially dammed Lake Washburn) or the remnant of salty basal water from a past advance of Taylor Glacier, which now sits many km up-valley but is known to contain brines which currently flow onto the surface and directly into the subsurface aquifer.

  2. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar Paes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  3. Salt fluxes in a complex river mouth system of Portugal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Vaz

    Full Text Available Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey, currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%. An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months.

  4. A new thermal conductivity probe for high temperature tests for the characterization of molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Pistacchio, S.

    2018-05-01

    A new thermal conductivity probe for high temperature (HT-TCP) has been built and tested. Its design and construction procedure are adapted from the ambient temperature thermal conductivity probe (AT-TCP) due to good performance of the latter device. The construction procedure and the preliminary tests are accurately described. The probe contains a Pt wire as a heater and a type K thermocouple (TC) as a temperature sensor, and its size is so small (0.6 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length) as to guarantee a length to diameter ratio of about 100. Calibration tests with glycerol for temperatures between 0 °C and 60 °C have shown good agreement with literature data, within 3%. Preliminary tests were also carried on a ternary molten salt for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) (18% in mass of NaNO3, 52% KNO3, and 30% LiNO3) at 120 °C and 150 °C. Obtained results are within λ range of the Hitec® salt (53% KNO3, 7% NaNO3, 40% NaNO2). Unfortunately, at the higher temperature tested (200 °C), the viscosity of the salt highly decreases, and free convection starts, making the measurements unreliable.

  5. Recovery of metal chlorides from their complexes by molten salt displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a process for recovering zirconium or hafnium chloride from a complex of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and phosphorus oxychloride. The process comprising: introducing liquid complex of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and phosphorus oxychloride into an upper portion of a feed column containing zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and phosphorus oxychloride vapor. The liquid complex absorbing zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and producing a bottoms liquid and also producing a phosphorus oxychloride vapor stripped of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride; introducing the bottoms liquid into a molten salt containing displacement reactor, the reactor containing molten salt comprising at least 30 mole percent lithium chloride and at least 30 mole percent of at least one other alkali metal chloride, the reactor being heated to 30-450 0 C to displace phosphorus oxychloride from the complex and product zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and phosphorus oxychloride vapor and zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride-containing molten salt; introducing the zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and the phosphorus oxychloride vapor into the feed column below the point of introduction of the liquid stream; introducing the zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride containing-molten salt into a recovery vessel where zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride is removed from the molten salt to produce zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride product and zirconium or hafnium chloride-depleted molten salt; and recycling the zirconium or hafnium tetachloride-depleted molten salt to the displacement reactor

  6. Thermal conductivity, diffusivity and expansion of Avery Island salt at pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, W.B.; Abey, A.E.; Trimmer, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary data on the thermal propertes of a course-grained rock salt from Avery Island, Louisiana, indicate that hydrostatic pressure to 50 MPa has little effect on the thermal conductivity, diffusivity and linear expansion at temperatures from 300 to 573 K. The measurements were made in a new apparatus under conditions of true hydrostatic loading. At room temperature and effective confining pressure increasing from 10 to 50 MPa, thermal conductivity and diffusivity are constant at roughly 7 W/mK and 3.6 x 10 -6 m 2 /s, respectively. At 50 MPa and temperature increasing from 300 to 573 K, both conductivity and diffusivity drop by a factor of 2. Thermal linear expansion at 0 MPa matches that at 50 MPa, increasing from roughly 4.2 x 10 -5 /K at 300 K to 5.5 x 10 -5 /K at 573 K. The lack of a pressure effect on all three properties is confirmed by previous work. Simple models of microcracking suggest that among common geological materials the lack of pressure dependence is unique to rock salt

  7. Thermal conductivity, diffusivity and expansion of Avery Island salt at pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, W.B.; Abey, A.E.; Trimmer, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Preliminary data on the thermal properties of a coarse-grained rock salt from Avery Island, Louisiana, indicates that hydrostatic pressure to 50 MPa has little effect on the thermal conductivity, diffusivity and linear expansion at temperatures from 300 to 573 K. The measurements were made in a new apparatus under conditions of true hydrostatic loading. At room temperature and effective confining pressure increasing from 10 to 50 MPa, thermal conductivity and diffusivity are constant at roughly 7W/mK and 3.6 x 10 -6 m 2 /s, respectively. At 50 MPa and temperature increasing from 300 to 573K, both conductivity and diffusivity drop by a factor of 2. Thermal linear expansion at 0 MPa matches that at 50 MPa, increasing from roughly 4.2 x 10 -5 /K at 300 K to 5.5 x 10 -5 at 573 K. The lack of a pressure effect on all three properties is confirmed by previous work. Simple models of microcracking suggest that among common geological materials the lack of pressure dependence is unique to rock salt

  8. Stochastic joint inversion of hydrogeophysical data for salt tracer test monitoring and hydraulic conductivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.; Dupont, J. P.

    2013-02-01

    The assessment of hydraulic conductivity of heterogeneous aquifers is a difficult task using traditional hydrogeological methods (e.g., steady state or transient pumping tests) due to their low spatial resolution. Geophysical measurements performed at the ground surface and in boreholes provide additional information for increasing the resolution and accuracy of the inverted hydraulic conductivity field. We used a stochastic joint inversion of Direct Current (DC) resistivity and self-potential (SP) data plus in situ measurement of the salinity in a downstream well during a synthetic salt tracer experiment to reconstruct the hydraulic conductivity field between two wells. The pilot point parameterization was used to avoid over-parameterization of the inverse problem. Bounds on the model parameters were used to promote a consistent Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling of the model parameters. To evaluate the effectiveness of the joint inversion process, we compared eight cases in which the geophysical data are coupled or not to the in situ sampling of the salinity to map the hydraulic conductivity. We first tested the effectiveness of the inversion of each type of data alone (concentration sampling, self-potential, and DC resistivity), and then we combined the data two by two. We finally combined all the data together to show the value of each type of geophysical data in the joint inversion process because of their different sensitivity map. We also investigated a case in which the data were contaminated with noise and the variogram unknown and inverted stochastically. The results of the inversion revealed that incorporating the self-potential data improves the estimate of hydraulic conductivity field especially when the self-potential data were combined to the salt concentration measurement in the second well or to the time-lapse cross-well electrical resistivity data. Various tests were also performed to quantify the uncertainty in the inverted hydraulic conductivity

  9. Complex permittivity and conductivity of poly (p-phenylenediazo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conducting polymer composites were prepared by in situ polymerization of glyoxal and -phenylenediamine in different solvents containing different amounts of PVC, and silica. The microwave conductivity and complex permittivity of each sample was measured. The effect of dopants like HClO4 and HCl on these dielectric ...

  10. New glyme-cyclic imide lithium salt complexes as thermally stable electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takashi; Hachida, Takeshi; Yoshida, Kazuki; Tachikawa, Naoki; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    New glyme-Li salt complexes were prepared by mixing equimolar amounts of a novel cyclic imide lithium salt LiN(C 2F 4S 2O 4) (LiCTFSI) and a glyme (triglyme (G3) or tetraglyme (G4)). The glyme-Li salt complexes, [Li(G3)][CTFSI] and [Li(G4)][CTFSI], are solid and liquid, respectively, at room temperature. The thermal stability of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is much higher than that of pure G4, and the vapor pressure of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is negligible at temperatures lower than 100 °C. Although the viscosity of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is high (132.0 mPa s at 30 °C), because of its high molar concentration (ca. 3 mol dm -3), its ionic conductivity at 30 °C is relatively high, i.e., 0.8 mS cm -1, which is slightly lower than that of a conventional organic electrolyte solution (1 mol dm -3 LiTFSI dissolved in propylene carbonate). The self-diffusion coefficients of a Li + cation, a CTFSI - anion, and a glyme molecule were measured by the pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR method (PGSE-NMR). The ionicity (dissociativity) of [Li(G4)][CTFSI] at 30 °C is ca. 0.5, as estimated from the PGSE-NMR diffusivity measurements and the ionic conductivity measurements. Results of linear sweep voltammetry revealed that [Li(G4)][CTFSI] is electrochemically stable in an electrode potential range of 0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li +. The reversible deposition-stripping behavior of lithium was observed by cyclic voltammetry. The [LiCoO 2|[Li(G4)][CTFSI]|Li metal] cell showed a stable charge-discharge cycling behavior during 50 cycles, indicating that the [Li(G4)][CTFSI] complex is applicable to a 4 V class lithium secondary battery.

  11. 3D Gravity Modeling of Complex Salt Features in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Nava-Flores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a three-dimensional (3D gravity modeling and inversion approach and its application to complex geological settings characterized by several allochthonous salt bodies embedded in terrigenous sediments. Synthetic gravity data were computed for 3D forward modeling of salt bodies interpreted from Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM seismic images. Density contrasts for the salt bodies surrounded by sedimentary units are derived from density-compaction curves for the northern Gulf of Mexico’s oil exploration surveys. By integrating results from different shape- and depth-source estimation algorithms, we built an initial model for the gravity anomaly inversion. We then applied a numerically optimized 3D simulated annealing gravity inversion method. The inverted 3D density model successfully retrieves the synthetic salt body ensemble. Results highlight the significance of integrating high-resolution potential field data for salt and subsalt imaging in oil exploration.

  12. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of Permian Basin bedded salt at elevated pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, W.B.; Boro, C.O.; Beiriger, J.M.; Montan, D.N.

    1983-10-01

    Measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity were made on five core samples of bedded rock salt from the Permian Basin in Texas to determine its suitability as an underground nuclear waste repository. The sample size was 100 mm in diameter by 250 mm in length. Measurements were conducted under confining pressures ranging from 3.8 to 31.0 MPa and temperatures from room temperature to 473 K. Conductivity showed no dependence on confining pressure but evidenced a monotonic, negative temperature dependence. Four of the five samples showed conductivities clustered in a range of 5.6 +- 0.5 W/m.K at room temperature, falling to 3.6 +- 0.3 W/m.K at 473 K. These values are approximately 20% below those for pure halite, reflecting perhaps the 5 to 20%-nonhalite component of the samples. Diffusivity also showed a monotonic, negative temperature dependence, with four of the five samples clustered in a range of 2.7 +- 0.4 x 10 -6 m 2 /s at room temperature, and 1.5 +- 0.3 x 10 -6 m 2 /s at 473 K, all roughly 33% below the values for pure halite. One sample showed an unusually high conductivity (it also had the highest diffusivity), about 20% higher than the others; and one sample showed an unusually low diffusivity (it also had the lowest conductivity), roughly a factor of 2 lower than the others. 27 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  13. A general access to organogold(iii) complexes by oxidative addition of diazonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long; Rominger, Frank; Rudolph, Matthias; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2016-05-11

    At room temperature under mild photochemical conditions, namely irradiation with a simple blue light LED, gold(i) chloro complexes of both phosphane and carbene ligands in combination with aryldiazonium salts afford arylgold(iii) complexes. With chelating P,N-ligands cationic six- or five-membered chelate complexes were isolated in the form of salts with weakly coordinating counter anions that were brought in from the diazonium salt. With monodentate P ligands or N-heterocyclic carbene ligands and diazonium chlorides neutral arylgold(iii) dichloro complexes were obtained. The coordination geometry was determined by X-ray crystal structure analyses of representative compounds, a cis arrangement of the aryl and the phosphane ligand at the square planar gold(iii) center is observed.

  14. Influence of a solvent on thermodynamics of electrolytic dissociation of simple and complex rare earth salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorodyskij, A.V.; Fialkov, Yu.Ya.; Chernyj, D.B. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii; Kievskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1982-03-01

    Influence of the double mixed solvent on thermodynamic characteristics of ionic migration of lanthanum, neodymium, europium and dysprosium chlorides as well as their phenanthroline complexes is considered. Decrease of lambdasub(c) of simple and complex rare earth salts in the lanthanum, neodymium-europium-dysprosium series as explained by increase of solvation degree, associated with lanthanum compression. It is shown that increase of methanol or propanol content results in exothermicity decrease of the ionic migration process. The temperature constituents of enthalpy and entropy of dissociation of the simple and complex rare earth salts are presented.

  15. Electromagnetic response of a conductor with complex conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leylekian, L.; Ocio, M.; Hammann, J.

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the electromagnetic response of a conductor with complex conductivity. We will show how the geometry of the measuring apparatus can modify the amplitude of this response. We will particularly emphasize the role that plays a complex conductivity, as we can find in granular superconductors, on the mesured magnetic susceptibility of the sample. Cet article a pour but de décrire la réponse électromagnétique d'un conducteur muni d'une conductivité complexe. Nous montrerons comment la géométrie du dispositif de mesure peut modifier l'amplitude de cette réponse. Nous insisterons particulièrement sur le rôle que joue une conductivité complexe, comme nous pouvons en trouver dans les supraconducteurs granulaires, sur la susceptibilité magnétique mesurée de l'échantillon.

  16. Increased water resistance of paper treated with amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and the HCl salts of hexadecylamine and octadecylamine. Solutions of the complexes were applied to paper at concentrations of 2-4%. After the treated papers were dried, sodium hydroxide solution was applied to convert the adsorb...

  17. Ionic conductivity of ternary electrolyte containing sodium salt and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, Minato; Asai, Takahito; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ternary electrolyte containing NaBF 4 , polyether and ionic liquid has been prepared. ► The conductivity of the electrolytes has been evaluated toward content of ionic liquid. ► The conductivity shows maximum 1.2 mS cm −1 and is varied in relation to solution structure. - Abstract: For the development of novel non-aqueous sodium ion conductor with safety of sodium secondary cell, non-flammable ionic liquid is attractive as electrolyte component. A preliminary study has been carried out for the purpose of constructing sodium ion conducting electrolyte based on ionic liquid. The solubility of sodium salt such as NaBF 4 in ionic liquid is poor, thus the ternary electrolyte has been prepared where NaBF 4 with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) as coordination former is dissolved with ionic liquid diethyl methoxyethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEMEBF 4 ). The maximum conductivity among the prepared solutions, ca. 1.2 mS cm −1 at 25 °C, was obtained when the molar ratio (ethylene oxide unit in PEGDME):NaBF 4 :DEMEBF 4 was 8:1:2. The relationship between the conductivity of the ternary electrolyte and its solution structure has been discussed.

  18. Enhancement of electrical conductivity in the Gum Arabica complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Sourav S.; Sarkar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gum Arabica is a natural biopolymer obtained from plant Acacia Arabica. In this present study the electro-active nature of its complex has been investigated. The complexes were developed using pure Gum Arabica and pure Citric acid by the sol-gel process. The scope of complex formation has been investigated and their natures were examined experimentally. The experiments which were carried out in this work are namely d.c V-I characteristics, d.c Arrhenius, ion transference number measurement, UV-VIS and IR photo-absorption. Solid specimen of the complex at various concentration of Citric acid has been developed for d.c experiments and adequate specimens were also developed for UV-VIS experiment. The result of d.c V-I characteristics on specimens at different Citric acid concentrations shows that d.c conductivity increases with concentration of the acid. The said enhancement is observed to be about 100 times that of pure hosts. The ion transference number measurement shows that the total conductivity increases with external acid concentration of which d.c conductivity enhance many times compared to that of ionic part. The result from d.c Arrhenius study shows that electro-thermal activation energy decreases with increasing acid concentration leading to enhancement of electronic conductivity of the complex. The result of UV-VIS study confirms the formation of the acid complex of Gum Arabica. The nature of photo-absorption indicates very clearly that main absorption region shows gradual shifts towards longer wavelength with increase of acid concentration. The result of FTIR absorption shows the structural concepts of electro-activity and complex formation indication of pure Gum Arabica. The overall analysis shows that the electro-activity of the mentioned biopolymer may be tailored.

  19. The Effect of Salt on the Complex Coacervation of Vinyl Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Perry

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex coacervation is an electrostatically-driven phase separation phenomenon that is utilized in a wide range of everyday applications and is of great interest for the creation of self-assembled materials. Here, we utilized turbidity to characterize the effect of salt type on coacervate formation using two vinyl polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid sodium salt (pAA and poly(allylamine hydrochloride (pAH, as simple models for industrial and biological coacervates. We confirmed the dominant role of salt valence on the extent of coacervate formation, while demonstrating the presence of significant secondary effects, which can be described by Hofmeister-like behavior. These results revealed the importance of ion-specific interactions, which are crucial for the informed design of coacervate-based materials for use in complex ionic environments, and can enable more detailed theoretical investigations on the role of subtle electrostatic and thermodynamic effects in complex coacervation.

  20. The Effect of Salt on the Complex Coacervation of Vinyl Polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Sarah; Li, Yue; Priftis, Dimitrios; Leon, Lorraine; Tirrell, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Complex coacervation is an electrostatically-driven phase separation phenomenon that is utilized in a wide range of everyday applications and is of great interest for the creation of self-assembled materials. Here, we utilized turbidity to characterize the effect of salt type on coacervate formation using two vinyl polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid sodium salt) (pAA) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (pAH), as simple models for industrial and biological coacervates. We confirmed the dominant role of salt valence on the extent of coacervate formation, while demonstrating the presence of significant secondary effects, which can be described by Hofmeister-like behavior. These results revealed the importance of ion-specific interactions, which are crucial for the informed design of coacervate-based materials for use in complex ionic environments, and can enable more detailed theoretical investigations on the role of subtle electrostatic and thermodynamic effects in complex coacervation.

  1. Complex partial seizure with severe depression and conduct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complex partial seizure complicated by psychiatric comorbidities like depression and conduct disorder presents management challenges for both the physician and parents. The etiology of such psychiatric comorbidities may be related to the seizure or to several other unrelated risk factors. The psychiatric comorbidities and ...

  2. Structure–Conductivity Relationships in Ordered and Disordered Salt-Doped Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, Matthew T.; Hickey, Robert J.; Xie, Shuyi; So, Soonyong; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P. (UMM)

    2016-11-21

    We examine the relationship between structure and ionic conductivity in salt-containing ternary polymer blends that exhibit various microstructured morphologies, including lamellae, a hexagonal phase, and a bicontinuous microemulsion, as well as the disordered phase. These blends consist of polystyrene (PS, Mn ≈ 600 g/mol) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO, Mn ≈ 400 g/mol) homopolymers, a nearly symmetric PS–PEO block copolymer (Mn ≈ 4700 g/mol), and lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI). These pseudoternary blends exhibit phase behavior that parallels that of well-studied ternary polymer blends consisting of A and B homopolymers compatibilized by an AB diblock copolymer. The utility of this framework is that all blends have nominally the same number of ethylene oxide, styrene, Li+, and TFSI– units, yet can exhibit a variety of microstructures depending on the relative ratio of the homopolymers to the block copolymer. For the systems studied, the ratio r = [Li+]/[EO] is maintained at 0.06, and the volume fraction of PS homopolymer is kept equal to that of PEO homopolymer plus salt. The total volume fraction of homopolymer is varied from 0 to 0.70. When heated through the order–disorder transition, all blends exhibit an abrupt increase in conductivity. However, analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data indicates significant structure even in the disordered state for several blend compositions. By comparing the nature and structure of the disordered states with their corresponding ordered states, we find that this increase in conductivity through the order–disorder transition is most likely due to the elimination of grain boundaries. In either disordered or ordered states, the conductivity decreases as the total amount of homopolymer is increased, an unanticipated observation. This trend with increasing homopolymer loading is hypothesized to result from an increased density of

  3. Infrared studies on complexes between octaethyltetraamidepyrophosphate (OETAPP) and uranyl salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grychowski, P.; Mikulski, J.; Moravets, Ya.; Shara, V.; Shourkova, L.

    1981-01-01

    Uranyl nitrate and uranyl chloride were extracted from the water phase with CHCl 3 solution of octaethyltetraamidepyrophosphate (OETAPP). Infrared spectra of the organic phases were recorded before and after the extraction. For both systems, the frequency of the P=O stretching mode of OETAPP after the extraction was lowered, which indicates for the formation of OETAPP UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 and OETAPP UO 2 Cl 2 complexes. If uranyl nitrate was extracted with OETAPP in CCl 4 a precipitate was formed in the solution. From the analysis of the IR spectrum of the precipitate it was concluded that the complex OETAPP UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 was formed also in this case, however, the complex was insoluble in CCl 4 . (author)

  4. Simultaneous Rheoelectric Measurements of Strongly Conductive Complex Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed; Divoux, Thibaut; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce an modular fixture designed for stress-controlled rheometers to perform simultaneous rheological and electrical measurements on strongly conductive complex fluids under shear. By means of a nontoxic liquid metal at room temperature, the electrical connection to the rotating shaft is completed with minimal additional mechanical friction, allowing for simultaneous stress measurements at values as low as 1 Pa. Motivated by applications such as flow batteries, we use the capabilities of this design to perform an extensive set of rheoelectric experiments on gels formulated from attractive carbon-black particles, at concentrations ranging from 4 to 15 wt %. First, experiments on gels at rest prepared with different shear histories show a robust power-law scaling between the elastic modulus G0' and the conductivity σ0 of the gels—i.e., G0'˜σ0α, with α =1.65 ±0.04 , regardless of the gel concentration. Second, we report conductivity measurements performed simultaneously with creep experiments. Changes in conductivity in the early stage of the experiments, also known as the Andrade-creep regime, reveal for the first time that plastic events take place in the bulk, while the shear rate γ ˙ decreases as a weak power law of time. The subsequent evolution of the conductivity and the shear rate allows us to propose a local yielding scenario that is in agreement with previous velocimetry measurements. Finally, to establish a set of benchmark data, we determine the constitutive rheological and electrical behavior of carbon-black gels. Corrections first introduced for mechanical measurements regarding shear inhomogeneity and wall slip are carefully extended to electrical measurements to accurately distinguish between bulk and surface contributions to the conductivity. As an illustrative example, we examine the constitutive rheoelectric properties of five different grades of carbon-black gels and we demonstrate the relevance of this rheoelectric apparatus as a

  5. Speciation of cadmium mixed ligand complexes in salt water lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Kituyi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Amalgam voltammetry has been used to study heavy metal interaction in model lake water in KNO3 at 23 oC at concentration levels of genuine lake water. The hanging drop amalgam electrode was prepared in situ before exchanging the medium for the sample solution. Half-wave potentials at two metal ion concentrations were measured, one at the actual concentration in the lake while the other at a much lower one. The experimentally determined shifts in half-wave potentials are used to compute several formation constants. At the natural [CO32-] of 0.5 M in the lake, the main contributor to the speciation of cadmium is [Cd(CO3Cl2]2-. At high [Cd2+], the DPASV detects the presence of free Cd2+ ions, hence, potential polluting effect, while the amalgam reports [Cd(CO32Cl] 3- to be dominant above [CO32-] = 0.8 M. There is a variation in the number of complexes detected, their stabilities and percentage distribution in the two methods. Cd2+ ion concentration also affects the number of complexes formed and their stabilities.

  6. Metallic conductivity in a disordered charge-transfer salt derived from cis-BET-TTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, C. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Tarres, J. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Ribera, E. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Veciana, J. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Canadell, E. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Molins, E. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Mas, M. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain); Laukhin, V. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC) (Spain)]|[Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki; Doublet, M.L. [Lab. de Structure et Dynamique (CNRS), Univ. de Montpellier 2 (France); Cowan, D.O. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-02-28

    The first example of a metallic charge-transfer salt derived from cis-bis(ethylenethio)-tetrathiafulvalene (BET-TTF) is reported. (BET-TTF){sub 2}SCN and (BET-TTF)SCN salts were obtained by electrocrystallization starting from trans-BET-TTF. X-ray crystal structure of the mixed-valence salt revealed that trans-cis isomerization occurs upon one electron oxidation. In spite of the structural disorder in both BET-TTF and the counterion, 2:1 salt is metallic down to 60 K and then resistance increases slowly down to 4 K. (orig.)

  7. Polypyrrole salts and bases: superior conductivity of nanotubes and their stability towards the loss of conductivity by deprotonation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Kopecký, D.; Vrňata, M.; Prokeš, J.; Varga, M.; Watzlová, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 91 (2016), s. 88382-88391 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole salt * polypyrrole base * methyl orange Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  8. Complexation and sensing behavior of dansyl-appended cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin dimers with bile salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.R.; Berthault, P.; Hoek, van A.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Huskens, J.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    2002-01-01

    The dansyl-modified cyclodextrin derivatives 2 and 3 form complexes with the steroidal bile salts. The selectivity of the monomeric derivative 3 is similar to that of native g-cyclodextrin. All binding constants with 3 are lowered compared to g-cyclodextrin because of the competition for the cavity

  9. Complexation and sensing behavior of dansyl-appended cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin dimers with bile salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.R.; Berthault, Patrick; van Hoek, Arie; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    The dansyl-modified cyclodextrin derivatives 2 and 3 form complexes with the steroidal bile salts. The selectivity of the monomeric derivative 3 is similar to that of native β-cyclodextrin. All binding constants with 3 are lowered compared to β-cyclodextrin because of the competition for the cavity

  10. Dielectric and conduction mechanism studies of PEMA/ENR-50 blend with LiCF3SO3 salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, N.; Mohamed, N. S.; Subban, R. H. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) composed of a blend of Poly(ethyl methacrylate) (PEMA) and Epoxidized Natural Rubber-50 (ENR-50) and Lithium triflate (LiCF3SO3) were prepared by solution casting technique. The conductivity was measured by using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Measurement of conductivity was carried out as a function of frequency at various concentrations of salt. The SPE exhibit high conductivity of ˜10-5 S/cm at ambient temperature when 40 wt% of LiCF3SO3 was added. Increase in conductivity is attributed to increasing number of charge carriers due to dissociation of salt when the concentration of salt increased. Dielectric properties and ac conductivity of the samples were analyzed. The values of dielectric constant were found to increase with increasing conductivity of the samples. The electrical modulus shows the formation of dispersion peaks. Relaxation time of ionic charge carriers were extracted from the maximum peak of loss tangent at various concentrations of LiCF3SO3 salt. The temperature dependence of the power law exponent s is explained by the overlapping large polaron-tunnelling (OLPT) model.

  11. Estimating Concentrations of Road-Salt Constituents in Highway-Runoff from Measurements of Specific Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Smith, Kirk P.

    1999-01-01

    Discrete or composite samples of highway runoff may not adequately represent in-storm water-quality fluctuations because continuous records of water stage, specific conductance, pH, and temperature of the runoff indicate that these properties fluctuate substantially during a storm. Continuous records of water-quality properties can be used to maximize the information obtained about the stormwater runoff system being studied and can provide the context needed to interpret analyses of water samples. Concentrations of the road-salt constituents calcium, sodium, and chloride in highway runoff were estimated from theoretical and empirical relations between specific conductance and the concentrations of these ions. These relations were examined using the analysis of 233 highwayrunoff samples collected from August 1988 through March 1995 at four highway-drainage monitoring stations along State Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Theoretically, the specific conductance of a water sample is the sum of the individual conductances attributed to each ionic species in solution-the product of the concentrations of each ion in milliequivalents per liter (meq/L) multiplied by the equivalent ionic conductance at infinite dilution-thereby establishing the principle of superposition. Superposition provides an estimate of actual specific conductance that is within measurement error throughout the conductance range of many natural waters, with errors of less than ?5 percent below 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) and ?10 percent between 1,000 and 4,000 ?S/cm if all major ionic constituents are accounted for. A semi-empirical method (adjusted superposition) was used to adjust for concentration effects-superposition-method prediction errors at high and low concentrations-and to relate measured specific conductance to that calculated using superposition. The adjusted superposition method, which was developed to interpret the State Route 25 highway-runoff records, accounts for

  12. On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    Calcite is a mineral phase that frequently precipitates during subsurface remediation or geotechnical engineering processes. This precipitation can lead to changes in the overall behavior of the system, such as flow alternation and soil strengthening. Because induced calcite precipitation is typically quite variable in space and time, monitoring its distribution in the subsurface is a challenge. In this research, we conducted a laboratory column experiment to investigate the potential of complex conductivity as a mean to remotely monitor calcite precipitation. Calcite precipitation was induced in a glass bead (3 mm) packed column through abiotic mixing of CaCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. The experiment continued for 12 days with a constant precipitation rate of {approx}0.6 milimole/d. Visual observations and scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed two distinct phases of precipitation: an earlier phase dominated by well distributed, discrete precipitates and a later phase characterized by localized precipitate aggregation and associated pore clogging. Complex conductivity measurements exhibited polarization signals that were characteristic of both phases of calcite precipitation, with the precipitation volume and crystal size controlling the overall polarization magnitude and relaxation time constant. We attribute the observed responses to polarization at the electrical double layer surrounding calcite crystals. Our experiment illustrates the potential of electrical methods for characterizing the distribution and aggregation state of nonconductive minerals like calcite. Advancing our ability to quantify geochemical transformations using such noninvasive methods is expected to facilitate our understanding of complex processes associated with natural subsurface systems as well as processes induced through engineered treatments (such as environmental remediation and carbon sequestration).

  13. Complex conductivity of oil-contaminated clayey soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Revil, A.; Shi, X.

    2017-12-01

    Non-intrusive hydrogeophysical techniques have been wildly applied to detect organic contaminants because of the difference of electrical properties for contaminated soil. Among them, spectral induced polarization (SIP) has emerged as a promising tool for the identification of contamination due to its sensitivity to the chemistry of pore water, solid-fluid interfaces and fluid content. Previous works have investigated the influences of oil on the electrical signatures of porous media, which demonstrated the potentials of SIP in the detection of hydrocarbon contamination. However, few works have done on the SIP response of oil in clayey soils. In this study, we perform a set of SIP measurements on the clayey samples under different water saturations. These clayey soils are characterized by relatively high cation exchange capacity. The objective in this work is to test the empirical relationships between the three exponents, including the cementation exponent (m), the saturation exponent (n) and the quadrature conductivity exponent (p), which is expected to reduce the model parameters needed in geophysical and hydraulic properties predictions. Our results show that the complex conductivity are saturation dependent. The magnitude of both in-phase and quadrature conductivities generally decrease with decreasing water saturation. The shape of quadrature conductivity spectra slightly changes when water saturation decreases in some cases. The saturation exponent slightly increases with cation exchange capacity, specific surface area and clay content, with an average value around 2.05. Compared to saturation exponent, the quadrature conductivity exponent apparently increases with cation exchange capacity and specific surface area while has little to do with the clay content. Further, the results indicate that the quadrature conductivity exponent p does not strictly obey to p=n-1 as proposed by Vinegar and Waxman (1984). Instead, it mostly ranges between p=n-1.5 and p=n-0

  14. Effect of bisquaternary ammonium salts on complexing of metal ions with pyrocatechol violet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tananajko, M.M.; Kofanova, N.K.

    1984-01-01

    Conditions for the improvement of contrast and sensitivity of reactions of high-charge ions of metals (Mo, W, La, Cd, Zr, Hf, Th) in the process of their photometric determination with pyrocatechol violet (PV), using bisquaternary ammonium salts (BQAS), have been studied. It is shown that in the systems investigated the BQAS play the role of ''shifting'' reagents, shifting bathochromically the absorption bands of different ligand complexes as compared with absorption bands of the Me-PV binary complexes. The effect of the BQAS on complexing with PV in aqueous and organic phases (chloroform) is studied and potential flotation of the compounds in the phase interface is considered

  15. Improved behavior of cooper-amine complexes during thermal annealing for conductive thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayag, Kevin Ray; Panama, Gustavo; Paul, Shrabani; Kim, Hong Doo [Dept. of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies successfully produced conductive thin films from organo-metallic-compounds-based inks. Some inks like those made from copper salt and amines, however, tend to move during thermal annealing and, thus, affect the conductive pattern on the substrate. In this study, conductive inks were synthesized by forming complexes of copper with amines and/or blended amines. To build-up an organo-metallic framework and preserve the pattern throughout the annealing period, diamine was added to the complex in different proportions. The prepared inks were coated on glass substrate and were annealed on a hot plate at 170°C under the gaseous mixture of formic acid and alcohol for 5 min. The metallic film was observed to retain the original pattern of the ink during and after annealing. Adhesion on the substrate was also improved. Inks with blended amines produced films with lower resistivities. The lowest electrical resistivity recorded was 4.99 μΩ cm, three times that of bulk copper.

  16. In vitro studies on interactions of iron salts and complexes with food-stuffs and medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisser, P

    1990-07-01

    It has been shown in the present study that food components such as phytic acid, oxalic acid, tannin, sodium alginate, choline and choline salts, vitamins A, D3 and E, soy oil and soy flour, do not undergo any interactions with iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex (Ferrum Hausmann). Phytic acid, oxalic acid, tannin and sodium alginate, however, react with iron(II) or iron(III)-salts at pH values of 3.0, 5.5 and 8.0, giving rise to iron complexes. Trimethylamine-N-oxide, which is present in fish meal, reacts with iron(II)-sulphate to produce iron(III) reaction products; it does not react with iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex. Special soybean flours show no irreversible adsorption or precipitation with iron(III)-hydroxyide polymaltose complex over the pH range 3.0-8.0, in contrast to iron(II)-sulphate. Antacids containing aluminium hydroxide, talc, ion exchange resins or other unabsorbable, insoluble components absorb iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex in the pH range 3.0-8.0 in a reversible manner, while the strong adsorption or precipitation observed with iron(II)-sulphate at pH 8.0 is irreversible. No interaction was observed between the steroid hormones studied and iron(II)-sulphate or iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex. On the basis of the measured compatibilities, iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex can be administered orally simultaneously with many other drugs, without prejudicing the absorption of iron or of the other drug as is often seen with iron(II) and iron(III) salts.

  17. Synthesis of complex oxides with garnet structure by spray drying of an aqueous salt solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeenko, A. V.; Larionova, T. V.; Klimova-Korsmik, O. G.; Starykh, R. V.; Galkin, V. V.; Tolochko, O. V.

    2017-04-01

    The use of spray drying to obtain powders of complex oxides with a garnet structure has demonstrated. The processes occurring during heating of the synthesized oxide-salt product, leading to the formation of a material with a garnet structure, have been investigated using DTA, TGA, XPS, and XRD. It has been shown that a single-phase garnet structure of system (Y x Gd(3- x))3Al5O12 can be synthesized over the entire range of compositions.

  18. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered that Vibrio parahaemolyticus VtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15718.001 PMID:27377244

  19. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N.; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R.; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim

    2016-07-05

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered thatVibrio parahaemolyticusVtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment.

  20. The Complex Conductivity Signature of Geobacter Species in Geological Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sarkisova, S.; Achang, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Complex Conductivity (CC) technique is a promising biogeophysical approach for sensing microbially-induced changes in geological media because of its low-invasive character and sufficient sensitivity to enhanced microbial activity in the near subsurface. Geobacter species have been shown to play important roles in the bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with petroleum and landfill leachate. This capability is based on the ability of Geobacter species to reduce Fe(III) by transferring of electrons from the reduced equivalents to Fe(III) rich minerals through respiration chain and special metallic-like conductors - pili. Only the cultivation of Geobacter species on Fe(III) oxides specifically express pili biosynthesis. Moreover, mutants that cannot produce pili are unable to reduce Fe(III) oxides. However, little is known about the contribution of these molecular conductors (nanowires) to the generation of complex conductivity signatures in geological media. Here, we present the results about the modulation of CC signatures in geological media by Geobacter sulfurreducens (G.s.). Cultures of wild strain G.s. and its pilA(-) mutant were anaerobically cultivated in the presence of the pair of such donors and acceptors of electrons: acetate - fumarate, and acetate - magnetite under anaerobic conditions. Each culture was injected in CC sample holders filled either with N2-CO2 mix (planktonic variant) or with this gases mix and glass beads, d=1 mm, (porous medium variant). Both strains of G.s. proliferated well in a medium supplemented with acetate-fumarate. However, pilA(-) mutant did not multiply in a medium supplemented with ox-red pair yeast extract - magnetite. This observation confirmed that only wild pilA(+) strain is capable of the dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) within magnetite molecule. The measurement of CC responses from planktonic culture of G.s. wild strain grown with acetate-fumarate did not show linear correlation with their magnitudes but

  1. Transparent conducting polymer electrolyte by addition of lithium to the molecular complex chitosane-poly(aminopropyl siloxane)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, S.; Retuert, P.J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2003-06-30

    Transparent lithium-ion conducting films were prepared by adding lithium perchlorate to a mixture of chitosane (CHI) and poly(aminopropylsiloxane) (pAPS) in a molar ratio 0.6:1 by sol-gel methods. The morphological and molecular properties, determined by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR, respectively, depend on the lithium salt concentration. The same techniques were also used for performing a 'titration' of the capacity of the film for incorporating lithium salt. Results show that about 0.8 mol lithium salt per mol chitosane can be added before the product losses the transparence and molecular compatibility characteristic of the pristine CHI/pAPS polymer complex. When lithium salt addition reaches the tolerance limit, anisotropically oriented patterns are observed in the hybrid films. Both transparence and ionic conductivity of the product appear to be related to the layered nature of formed nanocomposites. The properties of obtained films may be furthermore rationalized considering the chemical functionality and the Lewis donor-acceptor affinity of the components.

  2. Enhanced conductivity of sodium versus lithium salts measured by impedance spectroscopy. Sodium cobaltacarboranes as electrolytes of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Isabel; Andrio, Andreu; Teixidor, Francesc; Viñas, Clara; Compañ, Vicente

    2017-06-14

    The development of new types of ion conducting materials is one of the most important challenges in the field of energy. Lithium salt polymer electrolytes have been the most convenient, and thus the most widely used in the design of the new generation of batteries. However, in this work, we have observed that Na + ions provide a higher conductivity, or at least a comparable conductivity to that of Li + ions in the same basic material. This provides an excellent possibility to use Na + ions in the design of a new generation of batteries, instead of lithium, to enhance conductivity and ensure wide supply. Our results indicate that the dc-conductivity is larger when the anion is [Co(C 2 B 9 H 11 ) 2 ] - , [COSANE] - , compared to tetraphenylborate, [TPB] - . Our data also prove that the dc-conductivity behavior of Li + and Na + salts is opposite with the two anions. At 40 °C, the conductivity values change from 1.05 × 10 -2 S cm -1 (Li[COSANE]) and 1.75 × 10 -2 S cm -1 (Na[COSANE]) to 2.8 × 10 -3 S cm -1 (Li[TPB]) and 1.5 × 10 -3 S cm -1 (Na[TPB]). These findings indicate that metallacarboranes can be useful components of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs), providing excellent conductivity when the medium contains sufficient amounts of ionic components and a certain degree of humidity.

  3. FUNCTION OF MALATDEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX OF MAIZE MESOPHYLL AND BUNDLE SHEATH CELLS UNDER SALT STRESS CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еprintsev А.Т.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-induced changes in malatdehydrogenase system activity make the essential contribution to cell adaptation to stress condition. The enzyme systems of C4-plants are most interesting due to their ability for adaptation to environment conditions. The role of separate components of malatdehydrogenase complex of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of corn in formation of adaptive reaction in stressful conditions is investigated in presented work.The activation of all enzymes of malatdehydrogenase system and the subsequent decrease in their activity was observed in mesophyll durring the first stage of adaptation to salt influence. In bundle sheath cells such parameters are differed from control less essentially. Fast accumulation of piruvate in cells and malate in both investigated tissues was induced. The further salinity led to falling of concentration this intermediate. The concentration of piruvate was below control level, and it was raised by the end of an exposition.The results show that sodium chloride causes induction of Krebs-cycle in mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of corn and intensification of Hatch-Slack cycle. The described differences in function malatdehydrogenase systems of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells of leaves of corn under salinity mainly consist of the activity of enzymes of a studied complex in bundle sheath cells is subject to the minimal changes in comparison with mesophyll. Role of this enzymesystem in mechanisms of adaptive reaction of various tissues of corn to salt stress is discussed.

  4. Complexes with charge transfer and ion-radical salts in catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, O V [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the data experimentally proving formation of complexes with charge transfer as intermediate complexes in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Catalytic activity correlations with charge transfer energy (and in heterogeneous catalysis with width of semiconductor forbidden band can be useful while selection of catalysts (MoO/sub 3//MgO; V/sub 2/O/sub 5//MgO; MoO/sub 3//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/; V/sub 2/O/sub 5//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/). A review of papers on catalytic activity of the previously prepared complexes with charge transfer and ion-radical salts is given. The use of alkali metal complexes with aromatic compounds showed their high activity in hydrogenation reactions and proved principle possibility of activation of hydrogen and hydrocarbons by the systems which do not contain transfer metals.

  5. Two Salt Bridges Differentially Contribute to the Maintenance of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Channel Function*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guiying; Freeman, Cody S.; Knotts, Taylor; Prince, Chengyu Z.; Kuang, Christopher; McCarty, Nael A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified two salt bridges in human CFTR chloride ion channels, Arg352-Asp993 and Arg347-Asp924, that are required for normal channel function. In the present study, we determined how the two salt bridges cooperate to maintain the open pore architecture of CFTR. Our data suggest that Arg347 not only interacts with Asp924 but also interacts with Asp993. The tripartite interaction Arg347-Asp924-Asp993 mainly contributes to maintaining a stable s2 open subconductance state. The Arg352-Asp993 salt bridge, in contrast, is involved in stabilizing both the s2 and full (f) open conductance states, with the main contribution being to the f state. The s1 subconductance state does not require either salt bridge. In confirmation of the role of Arg352 and Asp993, channels bearing cysteines at these sites could be latched into a full open state using the bifunctional cross-linker 1,2-ethanediyl bismethanethiosulfonate, but only when applied in the open state. Channels remained latched open even after washout of ATP. The results suggest that these interacting residues contribute differently to stabilizing the open pore in different phases of the gating cycle. PMID:23709221

  6. Formation and stabilization of anionic metal complexes in concentrated aqueous quaternary ammonium salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, F.L.; Hwang, L.L.Y.; Ronca, N.; Solomon, N.A.; Steigman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Anionic complexes of transition metals were stabilized in aqueous solutions containing high concentrations of various short-chain quaternary ammonium salts. Compounds with longer paraffin chains were effective in much less concentrated solution. Complex ions were detected spectrophotometrically. FeCl 4 - , which is usually formed in concentrated HCl, was the predominant Fe(III) complex in 30 m choline chloride containing only 0.12 M HCl. A yellow transitory Tc(VII) chloro-addition intermediate, formed in the reduction of TcO 4 - by concentrated HCl, was stabilized when the solution also contained 25 m choline chloride. Its spectrum, as well as the isolation of an already known Tc(VII) bipyridyl complex, is reported. Concentrated organic electrolytes also stabilized Tc(V) oxide halides against disproportionation and Tc(IV) hexahalides against hydrolysis. Halochromates of Cr(VI) were formed and stabilized in dilute acid containing quaternary ammonium salts. Their UV spectra showed the well-resolved vibronic fine structure associated with the symmetric chromium-to-oxygen charge-transfer band. It is known that these progressions are resolved in aprotic solvents, but not in aqueous acidic solution alone, and that the loss of fine structure in aqueous media is due to hydrogen bonding. The stabilization of anionic metal complexes and the resolution of vibronic structure in halochromates are probably consequences of water-structure-enforced ion paring. The present work suggests that the water molecules in immediate contact with the complex anions are more strongly hydrogen bonded to each other than to the complex. 21 references, 4 figures

  7. Achieving Amphibious Superprotonic Conductivity in a CuI Metal-Organic Framework by Strategic Pyrazinium Salt Impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Sajal; Bar, Arun Kumar; Sheikh, Javeed Ahmad; Clearfield, Abraham; Konar, Sanjit

    2018-01-19

    Treatment of a pyrazine (pz)-impregnated Cu I metal-organic framework (MOF) ([1⊃pz]) with HCl vapor renders an interstitial pyrazinium chloride salt-hybridized MOF ([1⊃pz⋅6 HCl]) that exhibits proton conductivity over 10 -2  S cm -1 both in anhydrous and under humid conditions. Framework [1⊃pz⋅6 HCl] features the highest anhydrous proton conductivity among the lesser-known examples of MOF-based materials exhibiting proton conductivity under both anhydrous and humid conditions. Moreover, [1⊃pz] and corresponding pyrazinium sulfate- and pyrazinium phosphate-hybridized MOFs also exhibit superprotonic conductivity over 10 -2  S cm -1 under humid conditions. The impregnated pyrazinium ions play a crucial role in protonic conductivity, which occurs through a Grotthuss mechanism. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Lithium salt with a super-delocalized perfluorinated sulfonimide anion as conducting salt for lithium-ion cells: Physicochemical and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Han, Hongbo; Cheng, Xiaorong; Zheng, Liping; Cheng, Pengfei; Feng, Wenfang; Nie, Jin; Armand, Michel; Huang, Xuejie; Zhou, Zhibin

    2015-11-01

    Lithium salt with a super-delocalized imide anion, namely (trifluoromethane(S-trifluoromethanesulfonylimino)sulfonyl) (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([CF3SO(=NSO2CF3)2]-), [sTFSI]-), has been prepared and studied as conducting salt for Li-ion cells. The fundamental physicochemical and electrochemical properties of neat Li[sTFSI] and its carbonate-based liquid electrolyte have been characterized with various chemical and electrochemical tools. Li[sTFSI] shows a low melting point at 118 °C, and is thermally stable up to 300 °C without decomposition on the spectra of differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-TG-MS). The electrolyte of 1.0 M (mol dm-3) Li[sTFSI] in ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl-methyl-carbonate (EMC) (3:7, v/v) containing 0.3% water does not show any hydrolytic decomposition on the spectra of 1H and 19F NMR, after storage at 85 °C for 10 days. The conductivities of 1.0 M Li[sTFSI]-EC/EMC (3:7, v/v) are slightly lower than those of Li[(CF3SO2)2N] (LiTFSI), but higher than those of Li[(C2F5SO2)2N] (LiBETI). The electrochemical behavior of Al foil in the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte has been investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is illustrated that Al metal does not corrode in the high potential region (3-5 V vs. Li/Li+) in the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte. On Pt electrode, the Li[sTFSI]-based electrolyte is highly resistant to oxidation (ca. 5 V vs. Li/Li+), and is also resistant to reduction to allow Li deposition and stripping. The applicability of Li[sTFSI] as conducting salt for Li-ion cells has been tested using graphite/LiCoO2 cells. It shows that the cell with Li[sTFSI] displays better cycling performance than that with LiPF6.

  9. Complexation of Polyelectrolytes with Hydrophobic Drug Molecules in Salt-Free Solution: Theory and Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qun-Li; Hadinoto, Kunn; Ni, Ran

    2017-04-18

    The delivery and dissolution of poorly soluble drugs is challenging in the pharmaceutical industry. One way to significantly improve the delivery efficiency is to incorporate these hydrophobic small molecules into a colloidal polyelectrolyes(PE)-drug complex in their ionized states. Despite its huge application value, the general mechanism of PE collapse and complex formation in this system has not been well understood. In this work, by combining a mean-field theory with extensive molecular simulations, we unveil the phase behaviors of the system under dilute and salt-free conditions. We find that the complexation is a first-order-like phase transition triggered by the hydrophobic attraction between the drug molecules. Importantly, the valence ratio between the drug molecule and PE monomer plays a crucial role in determining the stability and morphology of the complex. Moreover, the sign of the zeta potential and the net charge of the complex are found to be inverted as the hydrophobicity of the drug molecules increases. Both theory and simulation indicate that the complexation point and complex morphology and the electrostatic properties of the complex have a weak dependence on chain length. Finally, the dynamics aspect of PE-drug complexation is also explored, and it is found that the complex can be trapped into a nonequilibrium glasslike state when the hydropobicity of the drug molecule is too strong. Our work gives a clear physical picture behind the PE-drug complexation phenomenon and provides guidelines to fabricate the colloidal PE-drug complex with the desired physical characteristics.

  10. Role of Silver Salts Lattice Energy on Conductivity Drops in Chitosan Based Solid Electrolyte: Structural, Morphological and Electrical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Abdullah, Omed Gh.; Hussein, Sarkawt A.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of anion type on silver ion reduction and drop in direct current (DC) conductivity was investigated experimentally. The structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of the samples were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), optical micrographs (OM) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRD results reveal significant disruption in the crystalline structure of chitosan (CS) for different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNt) salt. The localized surface resonance plasmonic (LSRP) peaks that were observed for CS:AgNt samples, along with the white silver specs detected by OM technique confirm the formation of Ag nanoparticles. The appearance of obvious dark regions in the CS:AgNt system reveals the existence of a large percentage of amorphous domains. The nonexistence of spherulitic texture confirms the amorphous nature of the samples. The second semicircle in an impedance plot can be attributed to an Ag nanoparticle grain boundary. The established relationships between dielectric constant and carrier concentration and the behavior of dielectric constant versus salt concentration were used to explain the phenomenon of ion-ion association. The continuous increase of DC conductivity was noticed at high temperatures, which was then explained on the basis of lattice energy of silver salts. The influences of anion size on the rate of silver ion reductions are also interpreted.

  11. Evidence of solvent-dependent complexation in non-ionic polymer-salt systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakem, I.F.; Lal, J.

    2002-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been performed on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-salt solutions. An attempt is made to characterize experimentally the scattering behavior of aqueous (D 2 O) polyethylene oxide and PEO-methanol solutions in the presence of potassium iodide (KI). In water solution, no interactions were observed with KI and PEO. However, in methanol a definite indication of complex formation was found. Addition of KI to a solution of PEO in methanol shows a large change in interchain interaction and chain conformation. (orig.)

  12. Cation and anion dependence of stable geometries and stabilization energies of alkali metal cation complexes with FSA(-), FTA(-), and TFSA(-) anions: relationship with physicochemical properties of molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Kubota, Keigo; Matsumoto, Hajime

    2013-12-19

    Stable geometries and stabilization energies (Eform) of the alkali metal complexes with bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide, (fluorosulfonyl)(trifluoromethylslufonyl)amide and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (FSA(-), FTA(-) and TFSA(-)) were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The FSA(-) complexes prefer the bidentate structures in which two oxygen atoms of two SO2 groups have contact with the metal cation. The FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+) and Na(+) prefer the bidentate structures, while the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Cs(+) prefer tridentate structures in which the metal cation has contact with two oxygen atoms of an SO2 group and one oxygen atom of another SO2 group. The two structures are nearly isoenergetic in the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with K(+) and Rb(+). The magnitude of Eform depends on the alkali metal cation significantly. The Eform calculated for the most stable TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) cations at the MP2/6-311G** level are -137.2, -110.5, -101.1, -89.6, and -84.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The viscosity and ionic conductivity of the alkali TFSA molten salts have strong correlation with the magnitude of the attraction. The viscosity increases and the ionic conductivity decreases with the increase of the attraction. The melting points of the alkali TFSA and alkali BETA molten salts also have correlation with the magnitude of the Eform, which strongly suggests that the magnitude of the attraction play important roles in determining the melting points of these molten salts. The anion dependence of the Eform calculated for the complexes is small (less than 2.9 kcal/mol). This shows that the magnitude of the attraction is not the cause of the low melting points of alkali FTA molten salts compared with those of corresponding alkali TFSA molten salts. The electrostatic interactions are the major source of the attraction in the complexes. The electrostatic energies for the most stable TFSA

  13. Relaxation Behavior by Time-Salt and Time-Temperature Superpositions of Polyelectrolyte Complexes from Coacervate to Precipitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samim Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexation between anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes results in solid-like precipitates or liquid-like coacervate depending on the added salt in the aqueous medium. However, the boundary between these polymer-rich phases is quite broad and the associated changes in the polymer relaxation in the complexes across the transition regime are poorly understood. In this work, the relaxation dynamics of complexes across this transition is probed over a wide timescale by measuring viscoelastic spectra and zero-shear viscosities at varying temperatures and salt concentrations for two different salt types. We find that the complexes exhibit time-temperature superposition (TTS at all salt concentrations, while the range of overlapped-frequencies for time-temperature-salt superposition (TTSS strongly depends on the salt concentration (Cs and gradually shifts to higher frequencies as Cs is decreased. The sticky-Rouse model describes the relaxation behavior at all Cs. However, collective relaxation of polyelectrolyte complexes gradually approaches a rubbery regime and eventually exhibits a gel-like response as Cs is decreased and limits the validity of TTSS.

  14. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 Attenuates Salt-Induced Hypertension and Kidney Injury in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Wollner, Clayton; Kurth, Theresa; Bukowy, John D; Cowley, Allen W

    2017-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore the protective effects of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) inhibition by rapamycin on salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. We have previously demonstrated that H 2 O 2 is elevated in the kidneys of SS rats. The present study showed a significant upregulation of renal mTORC1 activity in the SS rats fed a 4.0% NaCl for 3 days. In addition, renal interstitial infusion of H 2 O 2 into salt-resistant Sprague Dawley rats for 3 days was also found to stimulate mTORC1 activity independent of a rise of arterial blood pressure. Together, these data indicate that the salt-induced increases of renal H 2 O 2 in SS rats activated the mTORC1 pathway. Daily administration of rapamycin (IP, 1.5 mg/kg per day) for 21 days reduced salt-induced hypertension from 176.0±9.0 to 153.0±12.0 mm Hg in SS rats but had no effect on blood pressure salt sensitivity in Sprague Dawley treated rats. Compared with vehicle, rapamycin reduced albumin excretion rate in SS rats from 190.0±35.0 to 37.0±5.0 mg/d and reduced the renal infiltration of T lymphocytes (CD3 + ) and macrophages (ED1 + ) in the cortex and medulla. Renal hypertrophy and cell proliferation were also reduced in rapamycin-treated SS rats. We conclude that enhancement of intrarenal H 2 O 2 with a 4.0% NaCl diet stimulates the mTORC1 pathway that is necessary for the full development of the salt-induced hypertension and kidney injury in the SS rat. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Diazonium salt derivatives of osmium bipyridine complexes: Electrochemical grafting and characterisation of modified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, David J. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Jenkins, Peter [School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Polson, Matthew I.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Leech, Donal [School of Chemistry, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Baronian, Keith H.R. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Downard, Alison J., E-mail: alison.downard@canterbury.ac.n [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2011-02-01

    Osmium bipyridine complexes were directly grafted to carbon electrodes through electroreduction of the diazonium salts [Os(bpy-ph-N{sub 2}{sup +}){sub 3}](PF{sub 6}){sub 5} (1) and [Os(bpy-ph-N{sub 2}{sup +}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}](PF{sub 6}){sub 2} (2). Growth of the films was not self-limiting as is usually found for grafting from diazonium salts. It appears that electron hopping through the bipyridine ligands of the immobilised complexes enables film growth to continue at a constant rate during grafting by potential cycling. The surface concentrations of deposited films were measured electrochemically and the film thicknesses were measured by depth-profiling using the atomic force microscope. Films up to 42 nm thick were prepared with no evidence for slowing of film growth. The grafted films exhibited high stability when repetitively cycled through the Os{sup 2+/3+} couple and electron transfer rate constants of 11.4 s{sup -1} and 35.4 s{sup -1} were measured in ACN and PBS, respectively, for the Os{sup 2+/3+} couple of the film grafted from 1.

  16. Diazonium salt derivatives of osmium bipyridine complexes: Electrochemical grafting and characterisation of modified surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, David J.; Jenkins, Peter; Polson, Matthew I.J.; Leech, Donal; Baronian, Keith H.R.; Downard, Alison J.

    2011-01-01

    Osmium bipyridine complexes were directly grafted to carbon electrodes through electroreduction of the diazonium salts [Os(bpy-ph-N 2 + ) 3 ](PF 6 ) 5 (1) and [Os(bpy-ph-N 2 + ) 2 Cl 2 ](PF 6 ) 2 (2). Growth of the films was not self-limiting as is usually found for grafting from diazonium salts. It appears that electron hopping through the bipyridine ligands of the immobilised complexes enables film growth to continue at a constant rate during grafting by potential cycling. The surface concentrations of deposited films were measured electrochemically and the film thicknesses were measured by depth-profiling using the atomic force microscope. Films up to 42 nm thick were prepared with no evidence for slowing of film growth. The grafted films exhibited high stability when repetitively cycled through the Os 2+/3+ couple and electron transfer rate constants of 11.4 s -1 and 35.4 s -1 were measured in ACN and PBS, respectively, for the Os 2+/3+ couple of the film grafted from 1.

  17. Phosphate buffer and salt medium concentrations affect the inactivation of T4 phage by platinum(II) complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik B.; Josephsen, Jens; Kerszman, Gustaw

    1985-01-01

    -Tris) buffer and HEPES buffer. The phosphate abolishes the antiphage activity of the platinum complexes probably by some sort of complex formation. This together with dimerization reactions qualitatively explains the tailing off of the phage inactivation rate. High concentrations of NaNO3 as the salt medium...

  18. Conductivity in one-dimensional disordered Cs2TCNQ3 salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messaoudi, M.; Duran, J.

    1984-01-01

    Room temperature, low frequency conductivity measurements of two isomers (I and II) of the Cs 2 TCNQ 3 compounds are made. The conductivity-voltage characteristic display informative data concerning the interaction between disorder and conductivity in these materials. The isomer I clearly exhibits a disorder-dominated conductivity as can be seen from deviations to the Ohmic law. The isomer II, on the contrary, shows up various features connected with the existence of stopping barriers. In particular, it is shown that the interdimensional crossover which takes place at low frequency plays a significant role in these experiments. Moreover the conductivity-voltage characteristic measured along the a axis (perpendicular to the stacking axis) displays a very interesting behavior whereby the disorder properties interplay in an unusual manner. (author)

  19. Electronic Conductivity of Polypyrrole−Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Bay, Lasse; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2004-01-01

    The electronic conductivity of the electroactive polymer polypyrrole-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (PPy-DBS) has been characterized as function of the redox level. The polymer was synthesized with different isomers of the dopant anions: the common mixed DBS tenside and three well-defined synthetic...

  20. Origin of ultra-low thermal conductivity in complex chalcogenides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanishka Biswas

    Chem. A 2015, 3, 648. Banik et al. Chem. Mater., 2015, 27, 581. Guin et al. J. Mater. Chem. .... Thermal conductivity of SnTe. 13. 300 400 500 600 700. 0. 1. 2. 3. SnTe κ lat. (W. /mK). T (K) κ min .... (b) part-crystalline part-liquid state,. (c) rattling ...

  1. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: rationale and methodology for Argonne-conducted reviews of site characterization programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Tisue, M.W.; Hambley, D.F.; Fenster, D.F.; Rote, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    Both regulatory and technical concerns must be addressed in Argonne-conducted peer reviews of site characterization programs for individual sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository in salt. This report describes the regulatory framework within which reviews must be conducted and presents background information on the structure and purpose of site characterization programs as found in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 4.17 and Title 10, Part 60, of the Code of Federal Regulations. It also presents a methodology to assist reviewers in addressing technical concerns relating to their respective areas of expertise. The methodology concentrates on elements of prime importance to the US Department of Energy's advocacy of a given salt repository system during the NRC licensing process. Instructions are given for reviewing 12 site characterization program elements, starting with performance objectives, performance issues, and levels of performance of repository subsystem components; progressing through performance assessment; and ending with plans for data acquisition and evaluation. The success of a site characterization program in resolving repository performance issues will be determined by judging the likelihood that the proposed data acquisition activities will reduce uncertainties in the performance predictions. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Binding orientation and interaction of bile salt in its ternary complex with pancreatic lipase-colipase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Neshatul; Prakash Prabhu, N

    2018-05-23

    The interfacial activity of pancreatic lipases (PL) depends on the presence of colipase and bile salt. The activity of PL is inhibited by micellar concentrations of bile salt which can be restored by the addition of colipase. Though the formation of 1:1:1 tertiary complex by lipase-colipase-bile salt micelle is well accepted, the residue-level interactions between lipase-colipase and bile salt are yet to be clearly understood. Molecular dynamic simulations of lipase-colipase complex, lipase and colipase were performed in the presence of a model bile salt, sodium taurocholate (NaTC), at its near-CMC and supra-micellar concentrations. From the interactions obtained from the molecular dynamic simulations, the ternary complex was modelled and compared with earlier reports. The analysis suggested that a micelle of NaTC consisting of nine monomers was formed at the concave groove between lipase and colipase chain and it mainly interacted with the fourth finger of colipase. This complex was mainly stabilized by van der Waals interactions. Interestingly, the C-terminal domain of lipase which holds the colipase did not show any significant role in formation or stabilization of NaTC micelle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectroscopic and structural studies on some divalent metal salt of p-aminobenzoic acid (ABA(MG)) tetracyanonickelate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared spectra of MLNi (CN) 4 [ M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn or Cd and LDivalent metal salt of p- Aminobenzoic Acid or ABA (Mg) ] are reported. Their structure consists of polymeric layers of [M-Ni(CN) 4 ] α with the divalent metal salt of p-aminobenzoic acid [ABA(Mg)] molecules bound directly to the metal (M). These spectra were comparewith powder the Xray diffraction pattern of complexes. It is show that proposed structures for these complexes derived from Mattson 1000 FTIR spectra are consistent with the X-ray powder diffraction measurements and elemental analysis result

  4. Effect of the type of metal on the electrical conductivity and thermal properties of metal complexes: The relation between ionic radius of metal complexes and electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sh. M.; El-Ghamaz, N. A.; Diab, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Co(II) complexes (1-4) and Ni(II) complexes (5-8) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and thermal analysis data. Thermal decomposition of all complexes was discussed using thermogravimetric analysis. The dielectric properties and alternating current conductivity were investigated in the frequency range 0.1-100 kHz and temperature range 300-660 K. The thermal activation energies of electrical conductivity (ΔE1 and ΔE2) values for complexes were calculated and discussed. The values of ΔE1 and ΔE2 for complexes (1-8) were found to decrease with increasing the frequency. Ac electrical conductivity (σac) values increases with increasing temperatures and the values of σac for Co(II) complexes are greater than Ni(II) complexes. Co(II) complexes showed a higher conductivity than other Ni(II) complexes due to the higher crystallinity as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  5. Electric conductivity of salt melts containing KCL, KF and K2TaF7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agulyanskij, A.I.; Stangrit, P.T.; Konstantinov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Given are electric conductivity measurement results depending on the temperature and composition of the molten KF-K 2 TaF 7 , KCl-K 2 TaF 7 systems and also melts close in their composition to industrial electrolytes, KCl-KF (in mass ratio of 2:1) with addition of K 2 TaF 7 up to 25 mass%. Presented are electric conductivity molecular isotherms of the KF-K 2 TaF 7 , KCl-K 2 TaF 7 systems at 800 deg C and specific electric conductivity dependence of KCl-KF-K 2 TaF 7 melts on K 2 TaF 7 composition at 800 deg C and 900 deg C. Proceeding from the shape of molecular and specific electric conductivity isotherms a conclusion is made about existence of the following tantalum-containing ions: TaF 7 2- , TaF 6 - and TaF 6 Cl 2- in the investigated melts

  6. Synthesis of rock-salt type lithium borohydride and its peculiar Li+ ion conduction properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miyazaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The high energy density and excellent cycle performance of lithium ion batteries makes them superior to all other secondary batteries and explains why they are widely used in portable devices. However, because organic liquid electrolytes have a higher operating voltage than aqueous solution, they are used in lithium ion batteries. This comes with the risk of fire due to their flammability. Solid electrolytes are being investigated to find an alternative to organic liquid. However, the nature of the solid-solid point contact at the interface between the electrolyte and electrode or between the electrolyte grains is such that high power density has proven difficult to attain. We develop a new method for the fabrication of a solid electrolyte using LiBH4, known for its super Li+ ion conduction without any grain boundary contribution. The modifications to the conduction pathway achieved by stabilizing the high pressure form of this material provided a new structure with some LiBH4, more suitable to the high rate condition. We synthesized the H.P. form of LiBH4 under ambient pressure by doping LiBH4 with the KI lattice by sintering. The formation of a KI - LiBH4 solid solution was confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically. The obtained sample was shown to be a pure Li+ conductor despite its small Li+ content. This conduction mechanism, where the light doping cation played a major role in ion conduction, was termed the “Parasitic Conduction Mechanism.” This mechanism made it possible to synthesize a new ion conductor and is expected to have enormous potential in the search for new battery materials.

  7. Structural Characterization of Emeraldine-Salt Polyaniline/Gold Nanoparticles Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Sanches

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs stabilized with polyamidoamine dendrimers (Au-PAMAM or sodium citrate (Au-CITRATE were synthesized and complexed with polyaniline emeraldine-salt form (ES-PANI. The complexes were characterized using structural and morphological techniques, including X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Zeta Potential analyses, and Fourier-Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. When the Au-CITRATE NPs are added to the polymeric solution, the formation of a precipitate is clearly observed. The precipitate exhibited a different morphology from that found for ES-PANI and Au-CITRATE NPs, suggesting the formation of ES-PANI coating over the surface of Au-CITRATE NPs. On the other hand, when the Au-PAMAM NPs are incorporated into the ES-PANI solution, none interaction was observed, probably due to the repulsive electrostatic interactions, being the organization of the ES-PANI chains unaffected by the presence of the Au-PAMAM NPs.

  8. Whey Peptide-Iron Complexes Increase the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions in Comparison to Iron Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano-Silva, Maria Elisa; Barros Mariutti, Lilian Regina; Bragagnolo, Neura; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2018-02-28

    Food fortification with iron may favor lipid oxidation in both food matrices and the human body. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of peptide-iron complexation on lipid oxidation catalyzed by iron, using oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions as a model system. The extent of lipid oxidation of emulsions containing iron salts (FeSO 4 or FeCl 2 ) or iron complexes (peptide-iron complexes or ferrous bisglycinate) was evaluated during 7 days, measured as primary (peroxide value) and secondary products (TBARS and volatile compounds). Both salts catalyzed lipid oxidation, leading to peroxide values 2.6- to 4.6-fold higher than the values found for the peptide-iron complexes. The addition of the peptide-iron complexes resulted in the formation of lower amounts of secondary volatiles of lipid oxidation (up to 78-fold) than those of iron salts, possibly due to the antioxidant activity of the peptides and their capacity to keep iron apart from the lipid phase, since the iron atom is coordinated and takes part in a stable structure. The peptide-iron complexes showed potential to reduce the undesirable sensory changes in food products and to decrease the side effects related to free iron and the lipid damage of cell membranes in the organism, due to the lower reactivity of iron in the complexed form.

  9. Hydration Differences Explain the Large Variations in the Complexation Thermodynamics of Modified γ-Cyclodextrins with Bile Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler, Jonatan; Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Westh, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The structure and thermodynamics of inclusion complexes of seven different γ-cyclodextrins (γCDs) and three biologically relevant bile salts (BS) were investigated in the present study. Natural γCD and six modified γCDs [two methyl-γCDs, one sulfobutyl ether-γCD (SBEγCD), and three 2-hydroxypropyl...

  10. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  11. Complex conductivity results to silver nanoparticles in partically saturated laboratory columns

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Laboratory complex conductivity data from partially saturated sand columns with silver nanoparticles. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: It involves...

  12. Human deoxyhaemoglobin-2,3-diphosphoglycerate complex low-salt structure at 2.5 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, V; Dodson, G G; Mauguen, Y

    1993-09-20

    The haemoglobin-2,3-diphosphoglycerate complex structure has been solved at 2.5 A resolution using crystals grown from low-salt solutions. The results show some important differences with the precedent haemoglobin-2,3-diphosphoglycerate high-salt structure solved by Arnone. First, we observe a loss of symmetry in the binding site, secondly both of the lysine residues 82 beta interact with 2,3-diphosphoglycerate at the same time, each making two contacts. This level of interaction is in agreement with the functional behaviour of natural haemoglobin mutants with mutations at the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site.

  13. Low-Thermal Conductivity Suspensions Used in the Isolation of the Salt Pills Aboard the Astro-H Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Wegel, Donald C.; James, Bryan L.; Galassi, Nicholas M.; Faulkner, Richard L.; San Sebastian, Marcelino

    2011-01-01

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) utilizes the magnetocholoric effect in a paramagnetic salt to produce sub-Kelvin temperatures. It is a solid-state device that has no moving parts and does not rely upon a density gradient in a working fluid. This makes it ideal for cooling space-based instruments. ·Typically the salt is enclosed in a cylindrical pill that is suspended within the bore of a magnet. The suspension between the salt pill and magnet must be robust enough to survive a launch yet have a thermal conductance that minimizes heat from the magnet that is mechanically, and thermally, anchored to a stage at a higher temperature. Here we detail such a design that uses Kevlar(Trade Mark) as the supporting media in a system that limits motion of the salt pill axial as well as laterally with respect to the magnet bore.

  14. Ionic conductivity studies in crystalline PVA/NaAlg polymer blend electrolyte doped with alkali salt KCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, T.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Ravindrachary, V.; Pujari, P. K.; Rathod, Sunil G.; Naik, Jagadish

    2014-04-01

    Potassium Chloride (KCl) doped poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (NaAlg) in 60:40 wt% polymer blend electrolytes were prepared by solution casting method. The complexation of KCl with host PVA/NaAlg blend is confirmed by FTIR and UV-Vis spectra. The XRD studies show that the crystallinity of the prepared blends increases with increase in doping. The dc conductivity increases with increase in dopant concentration. Temperature dependent dc conductivity shows an Arrhenius behavior. The dielectric properties show that both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increases with increase in KCl doping concentration and decreases with frequency. The cole-cole plots show a decrease in bulk resistance, indicates the increase in ac conductivity, due to increase in charge carrier mobility. The doping of KCl enhances the mechanical properties of PVA/NaAlg, such as Young's modulus, tensile strength, stiffness.

  15. Solid solutions of platinum(II) and palladium(II) oxalato-complex salt as precursors of nanoalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadesenets, A. V.; Asanova, T. I.; Vikulova, E. S.; Filatov, E. Yu.; Plyusnin, P. E.; Baidina, I. A.; Asanov, I. P.; Korenev, S. V.

    2013-03-01

    A solid solution of platinum (II) and palladium (II) oxalato-complex salt, (NH4)2[Pt0.5Pd0.5(C2O4)2]·2H2O, has been synthesized and studied as a precursor for preparing bimetallic PtPd nanoparticles through its thermal decomposition. The smallest homogenous bimetallic PtPd nanoparticles were found to form in hydrogen and helium atmospheres. The annealing temperature and time have low effect on the bimetallic particles size. Comparative analysis of structural and thermal properties of the solid solution and individual Pt, Pd oxalato-complex salts was performed to investigate a mechanism of thermal decomposition of (NH4)2[Pt0.5Pd0.5(C2O4)2]·2H2O. Based on in situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy investigation it was proposed a mechanism of formation of bimetallic PtPd nanoparticles from the solid-solution oxalato-complex salt during thermal decomposition.

  16. Preparation of Some Novel Copper(I) Complexes and their Molar Conductances in Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dip Singh; Rana, Dilbag

    2009-04-01

    Attempts have been made to prepare some novel copper(I) nitrate, sulfate, and perchlorate complexes. Molar conductances of these complexes have been measured in organic solvents like acetonitrile (AN), acetone (AC), methanol (MeOH), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,Ndimethylacetamide (DMA), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) at 298 K. The molar conductance data have been analyzed to obtain limiting molar conductances (λ0) and ion association constants (KA) of the electrolytes. The results showed that all these complexes are strong electrolytes in all organic solvents. The limiting ionic molar conductances (λo± ) for various ions have been calculated using Bu4NBPh4 as reference electrolyte. The actual radii for copper(I) complex ions are very large and different in different solvents and indicate some solvation effects in each solvent system

  17. Finding low-conductance sets with dense interactions (FLCD) for better protein complex prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Qian, Xiaoning

    2017-03-14

    Intuitively, proteins in the same protein complexes should highly interact with each other but rarely interact with the other proteins in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Surprisingly, many existing computational algorithms do not directly detect protein complexes based on both of these topological properties. Most of them, depending on mathematical definitions of either "modularity" or "conductance", have their own limitations: Modularity has the inherent resolution problem ignoring small protein complexes; and conductance characterizes the separability of complexes but fails to capture the interaction density within complexes. In this paper, we propose a two-step algorithm FLCD (Finding Low-Conductance sets with Dense interactions) to predict overlapping protein complexes with the desired topological structure, which is densely connected inside and well separated from the rest of the networks. First, FLCD detects well-separated subnetworks based on approximating a potential low-conductance set through a personalized PageRank vector from a protein and then solving a mixed integer programming (MIP) problem to find the minimum-conductance set within the identified low-conductance set. At the second step, the densely connected parts in those subnetworks are discovered as the protein complexes by solving another MIP problem that aims to find the dense subnetwork in the minimum-conductance set. Experiments on four large-scale yeast PPI networks from different public databases demonstrate that the complexes predicted by FLCD have better correspondence with the yeast protein complex gold standards than other three state-of-the-art algorithms (ClusterONE, LinkComm, and SR-MCL). Additionally, results of FLCD show higher biological relevance with respect to Gene Ontology (GO) terms by GO enrichment analysis.

  18. Single-molecule force-conductance spectroscopy of hydrogen-bonded complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrotta, Alessandro; De Vico, Luca; Solomon, Gemma C.

    2017-01-01

    to inform about molecular recognition events at the single-molecule limit. For this, we consider the force-conductance characteristics of a prototypical class of hydrogen bonded bimolecular complexes sandwiched between gold electrodes. The complexes consist of derivatives of a barbituric acid and a Hamilton...... is mechanically manipulated. The implication is that force and conductance provide complementary information about the evolution of molecules in junctions that can be used to interrogate basic structure-transport relations at the single-molecule limit....

  19. Time-lapse three-dimensional inversion of complex conductivity data using an active time constrained (ATC) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoulis, M.; Revil, A.; Werkema, D.D.; Minsley, B.J.; Woodruff, W.F.; Kemna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Induced polarization (more precisely the magnitude and phase of impedance of the subsurface) is measured using a network of electrodes located at the ground surface or in boreholes. This method yields important information related to the distribution of permeability and contaminants in the shallow subsurface. We propose a new time-lapse 3-D modelling and inversion algorithm to image the evolution of complex conductivity over time. We discretize the subsurface using hexahedron cells. Each cell is assigned a complex resistivity or conductivity value. Using the finite-element approach, we model the in-phase and out-of-phase (quadrature) electrical potentials on the 3-D grid, which are then transformed into apparent complex resistivity. Inhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions are used at the boundary of the domain. The calculation of the Jacobian matrix is based on the principles of reciprocity. The goal of time-lapse inversion is to determine the change in the complex resistivity of each cell of the spatial grid as a function of time. Each model along the time axis is called a 'reference space model'. This approach can be simplified into an inverse problem looking for the optimum of several reference space models using the approximation that the material properties vary linearly in time between two subsequent reference models. Regularizations in both space domain and time domain reduce inversion artefacts and improve the stability of the inversion problem. In addition, the use of the time-lapse equations allows the simultaneous inversion of data obtained at different times in just one inversion step (4-D inversion). The advantages of this new inversion algorithm are demonstrated on synthetic time-lapse data resulting from the simulation of a salt tracer test in a heterogeneous random material described by an anisotropic semi-variogram. ?? 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

  20. Thermodynamic study on salt effects on complex formation of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins with p-aminobenzoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibunova, E.S.; Kumeev, R.S.; Terekhova, I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic study on salt effects in CD/pABA complex formation was performed. • Effects of KCl, KH 2 PO 4 and K 2 SO 4 are insignificant and nonspecific. • Specific influence of KBr is caused by the ability of Br − to penetrate into CD cavity. • Coexistence of two complexation equilibria is accompanied by solvent reorganization. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to gain a deeper understanding of salt effects in the inclusion complex formation of cyclodextrins. For this purpose, thermodynamic study of complex formation of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins with p-aminobenzoic acid was carried out in water and solutions of KCl, KBr, KH 2 PO 4 and K 2 SO 4 (0.2 mol/kg). Stability constants were calculated from the binding isotherms obtained on the basis of 1 H NMR measurements. Enthalpy and entropy of complex formation were estimated from the van’t Hoff plots. It was found that effects of KCl, KH 2 PO 4 and K 2 SO 4 are insignificant, while the influence of KBr on complex formation of cyclodextrins with p-aminobenzoic acid is more pronounced and results in a decrease of the stability constants. Specific action of Br − is caused by the ability of these anions to penetrate into macrocyclic cavity. Coexistence of two complexation equilibria in KBr solution is accompanied by significant solvent reorganization originated from more intensive dehydration of the interacting species. This results in an increase of the enthalpy and entropy of complex formation. Manifestation of Br − effect was found to be the same in the binding of p-aminobenzoic acid with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins.

  1. Correction: A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

    2016-12-22

    Correction for 'A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide' by Chee Koon Ng et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 11842-11845.

  2. Relations among water levels, specific conductance, and depths of bedrock fractures in four road-salt-contaminated wells in Maine, 2007–9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Charles W.; Stasulis, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    Data on groundwater-level, specific conductance (a surrogate for chloride), and temperature were collected continuously from 2007 through 2009 at four bedrock wells known to be affected by road salts in an effort to determine the effects of road salting and fractures in bedrock that intersect the well at a depth below the casing on the presence of chloride in groundwater. Dissolved-oxygen data collected periodically also were used to make inferences about the interaction of fractures and groundwater flow. Borehole geophysical tools were used to determine the depths of fractures in each well that were actively contributing flow to the well, under both static and pumped conditions; sample- and measurement-depths were selected to correspond to the depths of these active fractures. Samples of water from the wells, collected at depths corresponding to active bedrock fractures, were analyzed for chloride concentration and specific conductance; from these analyses, a linear relation between chloride concentration and specific conductance was established, and continuous and periodic measurements of specific conductance were assumed to represent chloride concentration of the well water at the depth of measurement. To varying degrees, specific conductance increased in at least two of the wells during winter and spring thaws; the shallowest well, which also was closest to the road receiving salt treatment during the winter, exhibited the largest changes in specific conductance during thaws. Recharge events during summer months, long after application of road salt had ceased for the year, also produced increases in specific conductance in some of the wells, indicating that chloride which had accumulated or sequestered in the overburden was transported to the wells throughout the year. Geophysical data and periodic profiles of water quality along the length of each well’s borehole indicated that the greatest changes in water quality were associated with active fractures; in

  3. Vibrational Spectra of β″-Type BEDT-TTF Salts: Relationship between Conducting Property, Time-Averaged Site Charge and Inter-Molecular Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamamoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the conducting behavior and the degree of charge fluctuation in the β″-type BEDT-TTF salts is reviewed from the standpoints of vibrational spectroscopy and crystal structure. A group of β″-type ET salts demonstrates the best model compounds for achieving the above relationship because the two-dimensional structure is simple and great diversity in conducting behavior is realized under ambient pressure. After describing the requirement for the model compound, the methodology for analyzing the results of the vibrational spectra is presented. Vibrational spectroscopy provides the time-averaged molecular charge, the charge distribution in the two-dimensional layer, and the inter-molecular interactions, etc. The experimental results applied to 2/3-filled and 3/4-filled β″-type ET salts are reported. These experimental results suggest that the conducting property, the difference in the time-averaged molecular charges between the ionic and neutral-like sites, the alternation in the inter-molecular distances and the energy levels in the charge distributions are relevant to one another. The difference in the time-averaged molecular charges, ∆ρ, is a useful criterion for indicating conducting behavior. All superconductors presented in this review are characterized as small but finite ∆ρ.

  4. Correlation between the Increasing Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions of Cation Chlorides with Time and the “Salting-Out” Properties of the Cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Verdel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The time-dependent role of cations was investigated by ageing four different aqueous solutions of cation chlorides. A linear correlation was found between the cations’ Setchenov coefficient for the salting-out of benzene and the increase in the conductivity with time. The conductivity of the structure-breaking cations or the chaotropes increased more significantly with time than the conductivity of the kosmotropes. Since larger water clusters accelerate the proton or hydroxyl hopping mechanism, we propose that the structuring of the hydration shells of the chaotropes might be spontaneously enhanced over time.

  5. Investigation of complexing in solutions of salt mixture In(NO3)3-NaVO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhodnova, A.N.; Listratenko, I.V.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometry, conductometry and pH-metry are used to investigate properties and composition of the solid phases of isomolar series of In(NO 3 ) 3 -NaVO 3 salt mixture solutions and series of solutions having constant concentration of one of the components and varied of the other. Results of investigation are presented. It is stated that in the investigated solution series in weakly acid media HPA with the ratios [In 3+ ]:[V 5+ ] being equal to 11:1, 6:1, and 1:9, are formed. Composition of the complexes is mainly defined by the ratio of the components in In(NO 3 ) 3 and NaVO 3 salt mixture solutions and the medium acidity. Compounds of Na 2 OxIn 2 O 3 x2.5V 2 O 5 x8.5H 2 O and Cs 2 OxIn 2 O 3 x6V 2 O 5 x6.5H 2 O empirical formulae are separated. Results of IR spectroscopy, derivatography and X-ray phase analysis of the corresponding salts are presented

  6. Investigation of complexing in solutions of salt mixture In(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/-NaVO/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhodnova, A N; Listratenko, I V

    1987-05-01

    Spectrophotometry, conductometry and pH-metry are used to investigate properties and composition of the solid phases of isomolar series of In(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/-NaVO/sub 3/ salt mixture solutions and series of solutions having constant concentration of one of the components and varied of the other. Results of investigation are presented. It is stated that in the investigated solution series in weakly acid media HPA with the ratios (In/sup 3+/):(V/sup 5+/) being equal to 11:1, 6:1, and 1:9, are formed. Composition of the complexes is mainly defined by the ratio of the components in In(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ and NaVO/sub 3/ salt mixture solutions and the medium acidity. Compounds of Na/sub 2/OxIn/sub 2/O/sub 3/x2.5V/sub 2/O/sub 5/x8.5H/sub 2/O and Cs/sub 2/OxIn/sub 2/O/sub 3/x6V/sub 2/O/sub 5/x6.5H/sub 2/O empirical formulae are separated. Results of IR spectroscopy, derivatography and X-ray phase analysis of the corresponding salts are presented.

  7. Conformational coupling between receptor and kinase binding sites through a conserved salt bridge in a signaling complex scaffold protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi R Ortega

    Full Text Available Bacterial chemotaxis is one of the best studied signal transduction pathways. CheW is a scaffold protein that mediates the association of the chemoreceptors and the CheA kinase in a ternary signaling complex. The effects of replacing conserved Arg62 of CheW with other residues suggested that the scaffold protein plays a more complex role than simply binding its partner proteins. Although R62A CheW had essentially the same affinity for chemoreceptors and CheA, cells expressing the mutant protein are impaired in chemotaxis. Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations (MD, NMR spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD, we addressed the role of Arg62. Here we show that Arg62 forms a salt bridge with another highly conserved residue, Glu38. Although this interaction is unimportant for overall protein stability, it is essential to maintain the correct alignment of the chemoreceptor and kinase binding sites of CheW. Computational and experimental data suggest that the role of the salt bridge in maintaining the alignment of the two partner binding sites is fundamental to the function of the signaling complex but not to its assembly. We conclude that a key feature of CheW is to maintain the specific geometry between the two interaction sites required for its function as a scaffold.

  8. Ink composition for making a conductive silver structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven B.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-10-18

    An ink composition for making a conductive silver structure comprises a silver salt and a complex of (a) a complexing agent and a short chain carboxylic acid or (b) a complexing agent and a salt of a short chain carboxylic acid, according to one embodiment. A method for making a silver structure entails combining a silver salt and a complexing agent, and then adding a short chain carboxylic acid or a salt of the short chain carboxylic acid to the combined silver salt and a complexing agent to form an ink composition. A concentration of the complexing agent in the ink composition is reduced to form a concentrated formulation, and the silver salt is reduced to form a conductive silver structure, where the concentrated formulation and the conductive silver structure are formed at a temperature of about 120.degree. C. or less.

  9. Weak bases and formation of a less soluble lauryl sulfate salt/complex in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) containing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachar, Shobha N; Risley, Donald S; Werawatganone, Pornpen; Aburub, Aktham

    2011-06-30

    This work reports on the solubility of two weakly basic model compounds in media containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Results clearly show that the presence of SLS in the media (e.g. simulated gastric fluid or dissolution media) can result in an underestimation of solubility of some weak bases. We systematically study this phenomenon and provide evidence (chromatography and pXRD) for the first time that the decrease in solubility is likely due to formation of a less soluble salt/complex between the protonated form of the weak base and lauryl sulfate anion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Low frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) response of dilute clay suspensions: Modeling and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chang-Yu; Feng, Ling; Seleznev, Nikita; Freed, Denise E

    2018-04-11

    In this work, we establish an effective medium model to describe the low-frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) dispersion of dilute clay suspensions. We use previously obtained low-frequency polarization coefficients for a charged oblate spheroidal particle immersed in an electrolyte as the building block for the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula to model the dilute clay suspension. The complex conductivity phase dispersion exhibits a near-resonance peak when the clay grains have a narrow size distribution. The peak frequency is associated with the size distribution as well as the shape of clay grains and is often referred to as the characteristic frequency. In contrast, if the size of the clay grains has a broad distribution, the phase peak is broadened and can disappear into the background of the canonical phase response of the brine. To benchmark our model, the low-frequency dispersion of the complex conductivity of dilute clay suspensions is measured using a four-point impedance measurement, which can be reliably calibrated in the frequency range between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz. By using a minimal number of fitting parameters when reliable information is available as input for the model and carefully examining the issue of potential over-fitting, we found that our model can be used to fit the measured dispersion of the complex conductivity with reasonable parameters. The good match between the modeled and experimental complex conductivity dispersion allows us to argue that our simplified model captures the essential physics for describing the low-frequency dispersion of the complex conductivity of dilute clay suspensions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-molecule force-conductance spectroscopy of hydrogen-bonded complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrotta, Alessandro; De Vico, Luca; Solomon, Gemma C.; Franco, Ignacio

    2017-03-01

    The emerging ability to study physical properties at the single-molecule limit highlights the disparity between what is observable in an ensemble of molecules and the heterogeneous contributions of its constituent parts. A particularly convenient platform for single-molecule studies are molecular junctions where forces and voltages can be applied to individual molecules, giving access to a series of electromechanical observables that can form the basis of highly discriminating multidimensional single-molecule spectroscopies. Here, we computationally examine the ability of force and conductance to inform about molecular recognition events at the single-molecule limit. For this, we consider the force-conductance characteristics of a prototypical class of hydrogen bonded bimolecular complexes sandwiched between gold electrodes. The complexes consist of derivatives of a barbituric acid and a Hamilton receptor that can form up to six simultaneous hydrogen bonds. The simulations combine classical molecular dynamics of the mechanical deformation of the junction with non-equilibrium Green's function computations of the electronic transport. As shown, in these complexes hydrogen bonds mediate transport either by directly participating as a possible transport pathway or by stabilizing molecular conformations with enhanced conductance properties. Further, we observe that force-conductance correlations can be very sensitive to small changes in the chemical structure of the complexes and provide detailed information about the behavior of single molecules that cannot be gleaned from either measurement alone. In fact, there are regions during the elongation that are only mechanically active, others that are only conductance active, and regions where both force and conductance changes as the complex is mechanically manipulated. The implication is that force and conductance provide complementary information about the evolution of molecules in junctions that can be used to

  12. Self-reduction of a copper complex MOD ink for inkjet printing conductive patterns on plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraj, Yousef; Grouchko, Michael; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2015-01-31

    Highly conductive copper patterns on low-cost flexible substrates are obtained by inkjet printing a metal complex based ink. Upon heating the ink, the soluble complex, which is composed of copper formate and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol, decomposes under nitrogen at 140 °C and is converted to pure metallic copper. The decomposition process of the complex is investigated and a suggested mechanism is presented. The ink is stable in air for prolonged periods, with no sedimentation or oxidation problems, which are usually encountered in copper nanoparticle based inks.

  13. Thermal, dielectric characteristics and conduction mechanism of azodyes derived from quinoline and their copper complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghamaz, N A; Diab, M A; El-Bindary, A A; El-Sonbati, A Z; Nozha, S G

    2015-05-15

    A novel series of (5-(4'-derivatives phenyl azo)-8-hydroxy-7-quinolinecarboxaldehyde) (AQLn) (n=1, p-OCH3; n=2, R=H; and n=3; p-NO2) and their complexes [Cu(AQLn)2]·5H2O are synthesized and investigated. The optimized bond lengths, bond angles and the calculated quantum chemical parameters for AQLn are investigated. HOMO-LUMO energy gap, absolute electronegativities, chemical potentials, and absolute hardness are also calculated. The thermal properties, dielectric properties, alternating current conductivity (σac) and conduction mechanism are investigated in the frequency range 0.1-100kHz and temperature range 293-568K for AQL1-3 and 318-693K for [Cu(AQL1-3)2]·5H2O complexes. The thermal properties are of ligands (AQLn) and their Cu(II) complexes investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The temperature and frequency dependence of the real and the imaginary part of the dielectric constant are studied. The values of the thermal activation energy of conduction mechanism for AQLn and their complexes [Cu(AQLn)2]·5H2O under investigation are calculated at different test frequencies. The values of thermal activation energies ΔE1 and ΔE2 for AQLn and [Cu(AQLn)2]·5H2O decrease with increasing the values of frequency. The ac conductivity is found to be depending on the chemical structure of the compounds. Different conduction mechanisms have been proposed to explain the obtained experimental data. The small polaron tunneling (SPT) is the dominant conduction mechanism for AQL1 and its complex [Cu(AQL1)2]·5H2O. The quantum mechanical tunneling (QMT) is the dominant conduction mechanism for AQL2 and its complex [Cu(AQL2)2]·5H2O. The correlated barrier hopping (CBH) is the dominant conduction mechanism for AQL3 and its complex [Cu(AQL3)2]·5H2O, and the values of the maximum barrier height (Wm) are calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Properties of grafted polymer metal complexes as ion exchangers and its electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arnaouty, M.B.; Abdel Ghaffar, A.M.; Eid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The polyelectrolyte has been prepared as a potential proton exchanger polymer by grafting of acrylic acid/acrylamide and acrylic acid/acrylonitrile comonomer onto low density polyethylene film via gamma radiation. The influence of grafting percent on the electrical conductivity was studied. The resulting polymers were then characterized by evaluating their physico-chemical properties such as ion exchange capacity, and electrical conductivity as a function of grafting yield. The grafted films at different compositions was characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the grafted film at grafting % (191) and monomer concentration ratio 50:50 for (LDPE-g-AAc/AAm) was found to be more than that for (LDPE-g-AAc/AN). The electrical conductivity was found to be greatly affected by the comonomer composition where it increased as the degree of grafting increased for all grafted films. After alkaline treatment with 3% KOH, the electrical conductivity of the grafted films found to be increased. The presence of potassium as counter ion maximized the electrical conductivity of the grafted films. The electrical conductivity of Cu-membrane complexes was higher than that of both Co and Ni complexes. The electrical conductivity increases by increasing both Cu ions content and temperature

  15. Salt-induced phase separation for the determination of metals as their diethyldithiocarbamate complexes by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.J.; Lovett, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection can be used to determine trace levels of Pt(II), Pd(II), Rh(III), Co(III), Ru(III), and Ir in aqueous solution following complexation with diethyldithiocarbamate. The metal complexes are extracted into acetonitrile from aqueous solution by the addition of a saturated salt solution. Quantitative metal recovery from aqueous solution is achievable for most metals for a wide solution pH range. Detection limits for the metals are <3 ng of metal/mL of original aqueous sample. Analyses of real samples are highly reproducible and sensitive. Ir an interfere in the determination of Pt(II) and Rh(III). A general protocol for chromatographic separation and determination of Pt(II), Pd(II), Rh(III), Ru(III), and Ir in aqueous solution is presented

  16. Structural and Redox Properties of Vanadium Complexes in Molten Salts of Interest for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, S.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Electronic absorption (UV/VIS) spectra have been obtained at 450 degrees C from V2O5-K2S2O7 molten mixtures in SO2 ( P-SO2 = 0 - 1.2 atm) gas atmospheres. The data are in agreement with the V-V reversible arrow V-IV equilibrium: (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(4-)(l) + SO2(g) - 2VO(SO4)(2)(2-)(l) + SO3(g). Sulfur...... and vibrational properties of the vanadium complexes formed in the molten salt-gas system V2O5-M2S2O7-M2SO4/SO2-O-2 (M = K or Cs). The spectral features and the exploitation of the relative Raman intensities indicate that the (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(+) dimeric complex unit which possesses a V-O-V bridge is formed...

  17. Study of nonequilibrium steady state of Fe(II) complex salt by means of synchrotron-radiation x-ray

    CERN Document Server

    Moritomo, Y

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we introduce our recent investigation at SPring-8/BL02B2 on the nonequilibrium steady state of photoexcited spin-crossover salts, which consists of Fe sup 2 sup + complexes and counter cations. The Fe sup 2 sup + complex takes two states; one is the low-spin state (S=0) and the other is the high-spin state (S=2). The photoexcitation can convert the low-spin site into the high-spin state, and hence, a finite the high-spin site is excited balancing with the thermal relaxation process. When the excitation power exceeds a critical value, we observe a dynamical phase transition into the high-spin condensed state.

  18. Investigation of regularities of uranyl salts complexing with neutral bases in nonaqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobets, L.V.; Buchikhin, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Anhydrous uranyl chloride complexing with neutral oxygen-containing organic bases (sulfoxides, organic phosphates, phosphinates, phosphinoxides, N-oxides) in the acetone medium depending on the donor capacity of neutral molecules is discussed. The constants of 1:1 complexes dissociation are shown to detect no correlation with the donor capacity of neutral bases. At the same time stability constants of complexes increase as the donor capacity of ligands grows. But the dependence is of a complex character and is determined by the nature of neutral molecules. Estimation of uranyl chloride and 0-donor contributions into the values of stability constants and complex formation heats is given

  19. Modeling of Flow, Transport and Controlled Sedimentation Phenomena during Mixing of Salt Solutions in Complex Porous Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    The deposition of salts in porous media is a major engineering phenomenon encountered in a plethora of industrial and environmental applications where in some cases is desirable and in other not (oil production, geothermal systems, soil stabilization etc). Systematic approach of these problems requires knowledge of the key mechanisms of precipitating salts within the porous structures, in order to develop new methods to control the process. In this work, the development and the solution of spatiotemporally variable mass balances during salt solution mixing along specific pores were performed. Both analytical models and finite differences CFD models were applied for the study of flow and transport with simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation (by crystal growth on the surface of the pores) in simple geometries, while unstructured finite elements and meshless methods were developed and implemented for spatial discretization, reconstruction, and solution of transport equations and homogeneous / heterogeneous reactions in more complex geometries. At initial stages of this work, critical problem parameters were identified, such as the characteristics of the porosity, the number of dissolved components, etc. The parameters were then used for solving problems which correspond to available experimental data. For each combination of ions and materials, specific data and process characteristics were included: (a) crystal kinetics (nucleation, growth rates or reaction surface rates of crystals, critical suspension concentrations), (b) physico-chemical properties (bulk density, dimensions of generated crystals, ion diffusion coefficients in the solution), (c) operating parameters (macroscopic velocity, flow, or pressure gradient of the solution, ion concentration) (d) microfluidic data (geometry, flow area), (e) porosity data in Darcy description (initial porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity). During the modeling of flow and transport in three

  20. Self-potential and Complex Conductivity Monitoring of In Situ Hydrocarbon Remediation in Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Revil, A.; Ren, Z.; Karaoulis, M.; Mendonca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soil and groundwater in both non-aqueous phase liquid and dissolved forms generated from spills and leaks is a wide spread environmental issue. Traditional cleanup of hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water using physical, chemical, and biological remedial techniques is often expensive and ineffective. Recent studies show that the microbial fuel cell (MFC) can simultaneously enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater and yield electricity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques such as self-potential (SP) and complex conductivity (induced polarization) have shown the potential to detect and characterize the nature of electron transport mechanism of in situ bioremediation of organic contamination plumes. In this study, we deployed both SP and complex conductivity in lab scale MFCs to monitor time-laps geophysical response of degradation of hydrocarbons by MFC. Two different sizes of MFC reactors were used in this study (DI=15 cm cylinder reactor and 94.5cm x 43.5 cm rectangle reactor), and the initial hydrocarbon concentration is 15 g diesel/kg soil. SP and complex conductivity measurements were measured using non-polarizing Ag/AgCl electrodes. Sensitivity study was also performed using COMSOL Multiphysics to test different electrode configurations. The SP measurements showed stronger anomalies adjacent to the MFC than locations afar, and both real and imaginary parts of complex conductivity are greater in areas close to MFC than areas further away and control samples without MFC. The joint use of SP and complex conductivity could in situ evaluate the dynamic changes of electrochemical parameters during this bioremediation process at spatiotemporal scales unachievable with traditional sampling methods. The joint inversion of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of MFC enhanced hydrocarbon remediation in the subsurface.

  1. Mass spectra of alkaline earth salts with a FAB source. Complexation with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, J.

    1987-01-01

    With a liquid desorption FAB source it is possible to obtain alkaline earth metal ions complexed by a crown ether. Conditions for formation of these complexes ions are examined for selection of the complexing agent in function of cation size. Behaviour of alkaline and alkaline earth compounds are compared allowing the differentiation of ion extraction phenomena by liquid desorption ion source and solvent extraction [fr

  2. Colchiceine Complexes with Lithium, Sodium and Potassium Salts − Spectroscopic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Colchiceine complexes with Li+, Na+ and K+ cations have been synthesized and studied by 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR, FAB MS and UV-Vis. It has been shown that colchiceine forms stable complexes especially with lithium cation and the most stable structures of the complexes are those in which the acetamide groups are involved in the coordination process. The structures of the colchiceine complexes with Li+, Na+ and K+ cations are discussed in details. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  3. Low Thermal Conductivity of RE-Doped SrO(SrTiO3)1 Ruddlesden Popper Phase Bulk Materials Prepared by Molten Salt Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Yulia Eka; Said, Suhana Mohd; Refinel, Refinel; Ohtaki, Michitaka; Syukri, Syukri

    2018-04-01

    The SrO(SrTiO3)1 (Sr2TiO4) Ruddlesden Popper (RP) phase is a natural superlattice comprising of alternately stacking perovskite-type SrTiO3 layers and rock salt SrO layers along the crystallographic c direction. This paper discusses the properties of the Sr2TiO4 and (La, Sm)-doped Sr2TiO4 RP phase synthesized via molten salt method, within the context of thermoelectric applications. A good thermoelectric material requires high electrical conductivity, high Seebeck coefficient and low thermal conductivity. All three conditions have the potential to be fulfilled by the Sr2TiO4 RP phase, in particular, the superlattice structure allows a higher degree of phonon scattering hence resulting in lowered thermal conductivity. In this work, the Sr2TiO4 RP phase is doped with Sm and La respectively, which allows injection of charge carriers, modification of its electronic structure for improvement of the Seebeck coefficient, and most significantly, reduction of thermal conductivity. The particles with submicron size allows excessive phonon scattering along the boundaries, thus reduces the thermal conductivity by fourfold. In particular, the Sm-doped sample exhibited even lower lattice thermal conductivity, which is believed to be due to the mismatch in the ionic radius of Sr and Sm. This finding is useful as a strategy to reduce thermal conductivity of Sr2TiO4 RP phase materials as thermoelectric candidates, by employing dopants of differing ionic radius.

  4. Complex conductivity of volcanic rocks and the geophysical mapping of alteration in volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, A.; Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Soueid Ahmed, A.; Roque, S.; Heap, M. J.; Grandis, H.; Viveiros, F.

    2018-05-01

    Induced polarization measurements can be used to image alteration at the scale of volcanic edifices to a depth of few kilometers. Such a goal cannot be achieved with electrical conductivity alone, because too many textural and environmental parameters influence the electrical conductivity of volcanic rocks. We investigate the spectral induced polarization measurements (complex conductivity) in the frequency band 10 mHz-45 kHz of 85 core samples from five volcanoes: Merapi and Papandayan in Indonesia (32 samples), Furnas in Portugal (5 samples), Yellowstone in the USA (26 samples), and Whakaari (White Island) in New Zealand (22 samples). This collection of samples covers not only different rock compositions (basaltic andesite, andesite, trachyte and rhyolite), but also various degrees of alteration. The specific surface area is found to be correlated to the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the samples measured by the cobalthexamine method, both serving as rough proxies of the hydrothermal alteration experienced by these materials. The in-phase (real) conductivity of the samples is the sum of a bulk contribution associated with conduction in the pore network and a surface conductivity that increases with alteration. The quadrature conductivity and the normalized chargeability are two parameters related to the polarization of the electrical double layer coating the minerals of the volcanic rocks. Both parameters increase with the degree of alteration. The surface conductivity, the quadrature conductivity, and the normalized chargeability (defined as the difference between the in-phase conductivity at high and low frequencies) are linearly correlated to the CEC normalized by the bulk tortuosity of the pore space. The effects of temperature and pyrite-content are also investigated and can be understood in terms of a physics-based model. Finally, we performed a numerical study of the use of induced polarization to image the normalized chargeability of a volcanic edifice

  5. Complex conductivity response to silver nanoparticles in partially saturated sand columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aal, Gamal; Atekwana, Estella A.; Werkema, D. Dale

    2017-02-01

    The increase in the use of nanoscale materials in consumer products has resulted in a growing concern of their potential hazard to ecosystems and public health from their accidental or intentional introduction to the environment. Key environmental, health, and safety research needs include knowledge and methods for their detection, characterization, fate, and transport. Specifically, techniques available for the direct detection and quantification of their fate and transport in the environment are limited. Their small size, high surface area to volume ratio, interfacial, and electrical properties make metallic nanoparticles, such as silver nanoparticles, good targets for detection using electrical geophysical techniques. Here we measured the complex conductivity response to silver nanoparticles in sand columns under varying moisture conditions (0-30%), nanoparticle concentrations (0-10 mg/g), lithology (presence of clay), pore water salinity (0.0275 and 0.1000 S/m), and particle size (35, 90-210 and 1500-2500 nm). Based on the Cole-Cole relaxation models we obtained the chargeability and the time constant. We demonstrate that complex conductivity can detect silver nanoparticles in porous media with the response enhanced by higher concentrations of silver nanoparticles, moisture content, ionic strength, clay content and particle diameter. Quantification of the volumetric silver nanoparticles content in the porous media can also be obtained from complex conductivity parameters based on the strong power law relationships.

  6. Chemical stability of conductive ceramic anodes in LiCl–Li{sub 2}O molten salt for electrolytic reduction in pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Wook; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Min Ku; Lee, Sang Kwon; Choi, Eun Young; Park, Woo Shin; Hong, Sun Seok; Oh, Seung Chul; Hur, Jin Mok [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Process Development Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Conductive ceramics are being developed to replace current Pt anodes in the electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuels in pyroprocessing. While several conductive ceramics have shown promising electrochemical properties in small-scale experiments, their long-term stabilities have not yet been investigated. In this study, the chemical stability of conductive La{sub 0.33}Sr{sub 0.67}MnO{sub 3} in LiCl–Li{sub 2}O molten salt at 650°C was investigated to examine its feasibility as an anode material. Dissolution of Sr at the anode surface led to structural collapse, thereby indicating that the lifetime of the La{sub 0.33}Sr{sub 0.67}MnO{sub 3} anode is limited. The dissolution rate of Sr is likely to be influenced by the local environment around Sr in the perovskite framework.

  7. Dissecting the salt dependence of the Tus-Ter protein-DNA complexes by high-throughput differential scanning fluorimetry of a GFP-tagged Tus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Morgane J J; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2013-12-01

    The analysis of the salt dependence of protein-DNA complexes provides useful information about the non-specific electrostatic and sequence-specific parameters driving complex formation and stability. The differential scanning fluorimetry of GFP-tagged protein (DSF-GTP) assay has been geared with an automatic Tm peak recognition system and was applied for the high-throughput (HT) determination of salt-induced effects on the GFP-tagged DNA replication protein Tus in complex with various Ter and Ter-lock sequences. The system was designed to generate two-dimensional heat map profiles of Tus-GFP protein stability allowing for a comparative study of the effect of eight increasing salt concentrations on ten different Ter DNA species at once. The data obtained with the new HT DSF-GTP allowed precise dissection of the non-specific electrostatic and sequence-specific parameters driving Tus-Ter and Tus-Ter-lock complex formation and stability. The major factor increasing the thermal resistance of Tus-Ter-lock complexes in high-salt is the formation of the TT-lock, e.g. a 10-fold higher Kspe was obtained for Tus-GFP:Ter-lockB than for Tus-GFP:TerB. It is anticipated that the system can be easily adapted for the study of other protein-DNA complexes.

  8. The Spectroscopic and Conductive Properties of Ru(II Complexes with Potential Anticancer Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo A. Adeniyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different density functional methods (DFT have been used to optimize and study the chemistry of five potential anticancer complexes in terms of their electronic, conductive, and spectroscopic properties. Many of the computed properties in addition to the IR and QTAIM analysis of the NMR are dipole moment vector (μi, linear polarizability tensor (αij, first hyperpolarizability tensors (βijk, polarizability exaltation index (Γ, and chemical hardness (η of the complexes. Stable low energy geometries are obtained using basis set with effective core potential (ECP approximation but, in the computation of atomic or molecular properties, the metal Ru atom is better treated with higher all electron basis set like DGDZVP. The spectroscopic features like the IR of the metal-ligand bonds and the isotropic NMR shielding tensor of the coordinated atoms are significantly influenced by the chemical environment of the participating atoms. The carboxylic and pyrazole units are found to significantly enhance the polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities of the complexes while the chloride only improves the polarity of the complexes. Fermi contacts (FC have the highest effect followed by the PSO among all the four Ramsey terms which defined the total spin-spin coupling constant J (HZ of these complexes.

  9. Hydration Differences Explain the Large Variations in the Complexation Thermodynamics of Modified γ-Cyclodextrins with Bile Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køhler, Jonatan; Schönbeck, Christian; Westh, Peter; Holm, René

    2016-01-28

    The structure and thermodynamics of inclusion complexes of seven different γ-cyclodextrins (γCDs) and three biologically relevant bile salts (BS) were investigated in the present study. Natural γCD and six modified γCDs [two methyl-γCDs, one sulfobutyl ether-γCD (SBEγCD), and three 2-hydroxypropyl-γCDs (HPγCD)] and their complexes with BS were investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and molecular dynamics simulations. With the exception of the fully methylated γCD, which did not bind the BSs investigated, all of the γCDs formed 1:1 complexes with the BS, and the structures were similar to those with natural γCD; i.e., the modifications of the γCD had limited structural impact on the formation of complexes. Isothermal titration calorimetry was carried out over in the temperature interval 5-55 °C to enable the calculation of the stability constant (K) and the thermodynamic parameters enthalpy (ΔH°), entropy (ΔS°), and heat capacity (ΔCp°). The stability constants decreased with an increased degree of substitution (DS), with methyl substituents having a lower effect on the stability constant than the sulfobutyl ether and hydroxypropyl substituents on the stability constants. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed, since both enthalpy and entropy increased with the degree of substitution, which may reflect dehydration of the hydrophobic surface on both CD and BS. Calculations based on ΔCp° data suggested that each of the substituents dehydrated 10-20 (hydroxypropyl), 22-33 (sulfobutyl ether), and 10-15 Å(2) (methyl) of the BS surface area, in reasonable agreement with estimates from the molecular dynamics simulations. Combined with earlier investigations on modified βCDs, these results indicate general trends of the substituents on the thermodynamics of complex formation.

  10. Studies on cluster, salt and molecular complex of zinc-quinolinate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reactions of zinc halides with 8-hydroxyquinoline (hydroxQ) in equimolar ratio were carried out in different solvents. ... determination of surface area. We prepared a ..... resulted in the formation of de-solvated complex, which on standing at ...

  11. Preparation and properties of amylose complexes prepared from hexadecylamine and its hydrochloride salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes were prepared from jet-cooked aqueous mixtures of high amylose corn starch and 1-hexadecylamine (HDA). Slow-cooling produced torus/disc-shaped spherulites, whereas aggregates of smaller spherulites were obtained by rapid-cooling in ice. The morphologies and 6(1)V x-ray ...

  12. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  13. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-10-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4-5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  14. Internal deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts. Structures formed by complex deformation and high contrasts in viscosity observed in drill cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-04-01

    During the evaporation of a massive salt body, alternations of interrupted and full evaporation sequences can form a complex layering of different lithologies. Viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude between these different lithologies are possible in this environment. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. How up to 200m thick layers of these evaporites affect salt deformation at different scales is not well known. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt. To gain a better understanding of the internal deformation of these layers we analyzed K-Mg salt rich drill cores out of the Zechstein III-1b subunit from the Veendam Pillow 10 km southeast of Groningen, near the city Veendam in the NE Netherlands. The study area has a complex geological history with multiple tectonic phases of extension and compression forming internal deformation in the pillow but also conserving most of the original layering. Beside halite the most common minerals in the ZIII-1b are carnallite, kieserite, anhydrite and bischofite alternating in thin layers of simple composition. Seismic interpretation revealed that the internal structure of the Veendam Pillow shows areas, in which the K-Mg salt rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, as a result of salt deformation. The internal structure of the ZIII-1b on the other hand, remains unknown. The core analysis shows a strong strain concentration in the weaker Bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) and Carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) rich layers producing tectonic breccias and highly strained layers completely overprinting the original layering. Layers formed by alternating beds

  15. Concentration dependence of the partial volume, viscosity, and electric conductivity of solutions of lithium salts in aliphatic alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, O.V.; Golubev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Concentration dependence of partial volumes, electric conductivity and viscosity of lithium nitrate and chloride solutions in methanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, isobutanol, pentanol and isopentanol at 298.15 K were studied by the methods of densimetry, conductometry and viscosimetry. Structural specific features of the solutions studied are discussed on the basis of the calculated volumetric characteristics of the substance dissolved and solvent [ru

  16. Utilization of carbon dioxide for polymer electrolytes [I]: Effect of supercritical treatment conditions on ionic conduction in amorphous polyether/salt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oe, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Supercritical CO 2 treatment on amorphous polyether/salt mixtures improves ionic conductivity in the dry state. ► Suitable CO 2 condition for high conductivity exists in near the critical temperature and pressure. ► Conductivity decreases only 20% after 30 days. ► Dissociation of free ClO 4 − and interactions between ether chains and Li + increase in treated electrolytes. - Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) as a treatment medium has a possibility to realize excellent room temperature conductivity more than 10 −4 S/cm for polymer electrolytes in the dry state. In this study, a typical high ion-conductive polyether-based electrolyte which consists of poly-[ethylene oxide-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl glycidyl ether] (P(EO/EM)) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ) was used as a model sample for the scCO 2 treatment. We found the suitable scCO 2 treatment conditions (pressure, temperature and time) for high conductivity. The conductivity of sample treated at 7.5 MPa and 40 °C for 40 min was more than 100-times higher than that of original without the treatment, and the value decreased only 20% after 30 days. DSC measurement revealed that the decrease in glass transition temperature (T g ) is caused by the scCO 2 -treatment. The change of ionic association in the scCO 2 -treated samples was confirmed using FT-IR measurement. The scCO 2 treatment gave rise to increase in peak fraction of free ClO 4 − anions (620–625 cm −1 ) and peak shift of ν(C–O–C) mode to lower frequency region (1060–1070 cm −1 ) depending on ether–Li + interactions.

  17. Radiometric Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity of Complex Planetary-like Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueux, S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Planetary surface temperatures and thermal inertias are controlled by the physical and compositional characteristics of the surface layer material, which result from current and past geological activity. For this reason, temperature measurements are often acquired because they provide fundamental constraints on the geological history and habitability. Examples of regolith properties affecting surface temperatures and inertias are: grain sizes and mixture ratios, solid composition in the case of ices, presence of cement between grains, regolith porosity, grain roughness, material layering etc.. Other important factors include volatile phase changes, and endogenic or exogenic heat sources (i.e. geothermal heat flow, impact-related heat, biological activity etc.). In the case of Mars, the multitude of instruments observing the surface temperature at different spatial and temporal resolutions (i.e. IRTM, Thermoskan, TES, MiniTES, THEMIS, MCS, REMS, etc.) in conjunction with other instruments allows us to probe and characterize the thermal properties of the surface layer with an unprecedented resolution. While the derivation of thermal inertia values from temperature measurements is routinely performed by well-established planetary regolith numerical models, constraining the physical properties of the surface layer from thermal inertia values requires the additional step of laboratory measurements. The density and specific heat are usually constant and sufficiently well known for common geological materials, but the bulk thermal conductivity is highly variable as a function of the physical characteristics of the regolith. Most laboratory designs do not allow an investigation of the thermal conductivity of complex regolith configurations similar to those observed on planetary surfaces (i.e. cemented material, large grains, layered material, and temperature effects) because the samples are too small and need to be soft to insert heating or measuring devices. For this

  18. The effect of addition of primary positive salts, complex salt, on the ionic strength and rate constant at various temperatures by reaction kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurade, S. S.; Ramteke, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have investigated the rate of reaction by using ionic strength at different temperatures. The main goal of this experiment is to determine the relation between ionic strength with reaction rate, reaction time and rate constant with temperature. It is observed that the addition of positive salt indicate the increasing ionic strength with increase in run time at various temperatures. Thus the temperature affects the speed of reaction and mechanism by which chemical reaction occurs and time variable plays vital role in the progress of reaction at different temperatures.

  19. New composites graphite/salt for high temperature thermal energy storage: From elaboration to development of thermal characterization methods for orthotropic conductive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acem, Zoubir

    2007-01-01

    This PhD is carried out within the framework of DISTOR (European) and HTPSTOCK (French) projects, which have for objective to conceive and study new graphite/salt composites dedicated to high temperature energy storage (>200 deg. C). She is split into two distinct part. The first one focused mainly on works linked with elaboration and thermal characterisation of these new composites. The different composites ways of elaboration (Dispersion, uniaxial compression, isostatic) associated to the different kind of graphite (Natural expanded graphite (ENG), synthetic graphite) investigated during the PhD are presented. The results of the thermal characterization campaign of these composites are also presented and permit to highlight the impact of graphite in the thermal behaviour of studied materials. Based on these results, modelling studies of the evolution of the thermal conductivity have been undertaken to deepen the understanding of the effect of graphite (quantity, size of particles) on the effective conductivity composites. The second one describes the thermal characterization devices and associated thermo-kinetics models which had to be developed and adapted to the specificities of newly developed materials. This concerns mainly the materials prepared by compression, which present orthotropic properties and are difficult to reproduce. So, the characterization of this kind of material is very difficult and tedious. That is why we are committed to develop and adapt existing methods of characterization to allow the complete thermal characterisation of an orthotropic conductive material from a single experimentation on a single sample. (author) [fr

  20. One-step formation of bifunctionnal aryl/alkyl grafted films on conducting surfaces by the reduction of diazonium salts in the presence of alkyl iodides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetemi, Dardan; Hazimeh, Hassan; Decorse, Philippe; Galtayries, Anouk; Combellas, Catherine; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Pinson, Jean; Podvorica, Fetah I

    2015-05-19

    The formation of partial perfluoroalkyl or alkyl radicals from partial perfluoroalkyl or alkyl iodides (ICH2CH2C6F13 and IC6H13) and their reaction with surfaces takes place at low driving force (∼-0.5 V/SCE) when the electrochemical reaction is performed in acetonitrile in the presence of diazonium salts (ArN2(+)), at a potential where the latter is reduced. By comparison to the direct grafting of ICH2CH2C6F13, this corresponds to a gain of ∼2.1 V in the case of 4-nitrobenzenediazonium. Such electrochemical reaction permits the modification of gold surfaces (and also carbon, iron, and copper) with mixed aryl-alkyl groups (Ar = 3-CH3-C6H4, 4-NO2-C6H4, and 4-Br-C6H4, R = C6H13 or (CH2)2-C6F13). These strongly bonded mixed layers are characterized by IRRAS, XPS, ToF-SIMS, ellipsometry, water contact angles, and cyclic voltammetry. The relative proportions of grafted aryl and alkyl groups can be varied along with the relative concentrations of diazonium and iodide components in the grafting solution. The formation of the films is assigned to the reaction of aryl and alkyl radicals on the surface and on the first grafted layer. The former is obtained from the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt; the latter results from the abstraction of an iodine atom by the aryl radical. The mechanism involved in the growth of the film provides an example of complex surface radical chemistry.

  1. A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

    2016-09-27

    Binary catalyst systems comprising a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex and an alkali metal salt were developed for selective hydroboration of CO 2 utilizing pinacolborane at r.t. and 1 atm CO 2 , with the combination of [Ru(CNC Bn )(CO) 2 (H)][PF 6 ] and KOCO 2 t Bu producing formoxyborane in 76% yield. A bicyclic catalytic mechanism was proposed and discussed.

  2. Ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficient of barium-chloride-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    styrenesulphonic acid) with bariumchloride dihydrate (BaCl 2 ·2H 2 O) salt complex has been synthesized following the usual solution casting. The ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte was analysed by impedance spectroscopy. The highest room ...

  3. Conduction properties of thin films from a water soluble carbon nanotube/hemicellulose complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dongkai; Yotprayoonsak, Peerapong; Saunajoki, Ville; Ahlskog, Markus; Virtanen, Jorma; Kangas, Veijo; Volodin, Alexander; Van Haesendonck, Chris; Burdanova, Maria; Mosley, Connor D. W.; Lloyd-Hughes, James

    2018-04-01

    We have examined the conductive properties of carbon nanotube based thin films, which were prepared via dispersion in water by non-covalent functionalization of the nanotubes with xylan, a type of hemicellulose. Measurements of low temperature conductivity, Kelvin probe force microscopy, and high frequency (THz) conductivity elucidated the intra-tube and inter-tube charge transport processes in this material. The measurements show excellent conductive properties of the as prepared thin films, with bulk conductivity up to 2000 S cm-1. The transport results demonstrate that the hemicellulose does not seriously interfere with the inter-tube conductance.

  4. The role of the VZn-NO-H complex in the p-type conductivity in ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, M N; Saniz, R; Lamoen, D; Partoens, B

    2015-02-21

    Past research efforts aiming at obtaining stable p-type ZnO have been based on complexes involving nitrogen doping. A recent experiment by (J. G. Reynolds et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 2013, 102, 152114) demonstrated a significant (∼10(18) cm(-3)) p-type behavior in N-doped ZnO films after appropriate annealing. The p-type conductivity was attributed to a VZn-NO-H shallow acceptor complex, formed by a Zn vacancy (VZn), N substituting O (NO), and H interstitial (Hi). We present here a first-principles hybrid functional study of this complex compared to the one without hydrogen. Our results confirm that the VZn-NO-H complex acts as an acceptor in ZnO. We find that H plays an important role, because it lowers the formation energy of the complex with respect to VZn-NO, a complex known to exhibit (unstable) p-type behavior. However, this additional H atom also occupies the hole level at the origin of the shallow behavior of VZn-NO, leaving only two states empty higher in the band gap and making the VZn-NO-H complex a deep acceptor. Therefore, we conclude that the cause of the observed p-type conductivity in experiment is not the presence of the VZn-NO-H complex, but probably the formation of the VZn-NO complex during the annealing process.

  5. Complexation of triptycene-derived macrotricyclic polyether with paraquat derivatives, diquat, and a 2,7-diazapyrenium salt: guest-induced conformational changes of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Cao, Jing; Li, Peng-Fei; Zong, Qian-Shou; Zhao, Jian-Min; Guo, Jia-Bin; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Chen, Chuan-Feng

    2013-04-05

    Complexation between a triptycene-derived macrotricyclic polyether containing two dibenzo-[30]-crown-10 cavities and different functionalized paraquat derivatives, diquat, and a 2,7-diazapyrenium salt in both solution and solid state was investigated in detail. It was found that depending on the guests with different terminal functional groups and structures, the macrotricyclic polyether could form 1:1 or 1:2 complexes with the guests in different complexation modes in solution and also in the solid state. Especially, the conformation of the macrotricyclic polyether was efficiently adjusted by the encapsulated guests, which was to some extent similar to substrate-induced fit of enzymes. Moreover, the binding and releasing of the guests in the complexes could be controlled by potassium ions.

  6. Silver-organo-complex ink with high conductivity and inkjet stability

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2017-06-22

    A robust formulation of silver-organo-complex (SOC) ink and method of making same are provided. In an aspect, the complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The silver loaded ink can be printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion.

  7. Silver-organo-complex ink with high conductivity and inkjet stability

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad; McKerricher, Garret; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    A robust formulation of silver-organo-complex (SOC) ink and method of making same are provided. In an aspect, the complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The silver loaded ink can be printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion.

  8. Exact solutions of time-fractional heat conduction equation by the fractional complex transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zheng-Biao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fractional Complex Transform is extended to solve exactly time-fractional differential equations with the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. How to incorporate suitable boundary/initial conditions is also discussed.

  9. High-conductance surface-anchoring of a mechanically flexible platform-based porphyrin complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, Nadine; Buchmann, Kristof; Scheil, Katharina; Berndt, Richard; Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen; Schütt, Christian; Otte, Franziska L; Herges, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The conductances of molecular model junctions comprising a triazatriangulenium platform with or without an ethynyl spacer and an upright Zn-porphyrin are probed with a low-temperature scanning probe microscope. The platform alone is found to be highly conductive. The ethynyl-linked Zn-porphyrin moiety reduces the conductance by three orders of magnitude and leads to an unexpected, non-monotonous variation of the force that was measured simultaneously at the tip of the microscope. Density functional theory calculations show that this variation results from an induced tilting of the porphyrin. (paper)

  10. Formation of nitrogen complexes when [Ru(NH3)5H2O]2+ ion reaction with diazo-acetic ester and aromatic salts of diazonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shur, V.B.; Tikhonova, I.A.; Vol'pin, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    A possibility of formation of nitrogen complexes during transition metal compound interaction with aliphatic and aromatic diazo compounds is studied. It is shown that at the interaction of [Ru(NH 3 ) 5 H 2 O] 2+ with diazo-acetic ester in water (pH7) at 20 deg, quick splitting of the CN-bond in the ester molecule takes place with the formation of [Ru(NH 3 ) 5 N 2 ] 2+ and [(NH 3 ) 5 RuN 2 Ru(NH 3 ) 5 ] 4+ (NRRN) nitrogen complexes. The sum yield of complexes comprises 86% taking into acount diazo-acetic ester. Aromatic salts of diazonium, n-O 3 SC 6 H 4 N 2 and p-quinone diazide react with the [Ru(NH 3 ) 5 H 2 O] 2+ excess forming NRRN (the yield equals 40-53%). The reaction mechanism is discussed

  11. Coupling heat conduction and radiation in complex 2D and 3D geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peniguel, C.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal radiation is a very important mode of heat transfer in most real industrial systems. A numerical approach coupling radiation (restricted to non participant medium) and conduction is presented. The code (SYRTHES) is able to handle 2D and 3D problems (including cases with symmetries and periodicity). Radiation is solved by a radiosity approach, and conduction by a finite element method. Accurate and efficient algorithms based on a mixing of analytical/numerical integration, and ray tracing techniques are used to compute the view factors. Validation has been performed on numerous test cases. A conjugate residual algorithm solves the radiosity system. An explicit interactive numerical procedure is then used to couple conduction and radiation. No stability problem has been encountered so far. One specificity of SYRTHES is that conduction and radiation are solved on independent grids. This brings much flexibility and allows to keep the number of independent radiation patches at a reasonable level. Several industrial examples are given as illustration. (author)

  12. Comparing the operators' behavior in conducting emergency operating procedures with the complexity of procedural steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2003-01-01

    Many kinds of procedures have been used to reduce the operators' workload throughout various industries. However, significant portion of accidents or incidents was caused by procedure related human errors that are originated from non-compliance of procedures. According to related studies, several important factors for non-compliance behavior have been identified, and one if them is the complexity of procedures. This means that comparing the change of the operators' behavior with the complexity of procedures may be meaningful for investigating plausible reasons for the operators' non-compliance behavior. In this study, emergency training records were collected using a full scope simulator in order to obtain data related to the operators' non-compliance behavior. And then, collected data are compared with the complexity of procedural steps. As the result, two remarkable relationships are found, which indicate that the operators' behavior could be reasonably characterized by the complexity of procedural steps. Thus, these relationships can be used as meaningful clues not only to scrutinize the reason of non-compliance behavior but also to suggest appropriate remedies for the reduction of non-compliance behavior that can result in procedure related human errors

  13. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  14. A parametric model for the changes in the complex valued conductivity of a lung during tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordebo, Sven; Dalarsson, Mariana; Khodadad, Davood; Müller, Beat; Waldman, Andreas D.; Becher, Tobias; Frerichs, Inez; Sophocleous, Louiza; Sjöberg, Daniel; Seifnaraghi, Nima; Bayford, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Classical homogenization theory based on the Hashin–Shtrikman coated ellipsoids is used to model the changes in the complex valued conductivity (or admittivity) of a lung during tidal breathing. Here, the lung is modeled as a two-phase composite material where the alveolar air-filling corresponds to the inclusion phase. The theory predicts a linear relationship between the real and the imaginary parts of the change in the complex valued conductivity of a lung during tidal breathing, and where the loss cotangent of the change is approximately the same as of the effective background conductivity and hence easy to estimate. The theory is illustrated with numerical examples based on realistic parameter values and frequency ranges used with electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The theory may be potentially useful for imaging and clinical evaluations in connection with lung EIT for respiratory management and control.

  15. Examining Rhodium Catalyst complexes for Use with Conducting Polymers Designed for Fuel Cells in Preparing Biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, M.M.; Kerr, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Biosensing devices are important because they can detect, record, and transmit information regarding the presence of, or physiological changes in, different chemical or biological materials in the environment. The goal of this research is to prepare a biosensing device that is effective, quick, and low cost. This is done by examining which chemicals will work best when placed in a biosensor. The first study involved experimenting on a rhodium catalyst complexed with ligands such as bipyridine and imidazole. The rhodium catalyst is important because it is reduced from RhIII to RhI, forms a hydride by reaction with water and releases the hydride to react with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to selectively produce 1,4-NADH, the reduced form of NAD+. The second study looked at different types of ketones and enzymes for the enzyme-substrate reaction converting a ketone into an alcohol. Preliminary results showed that the rhodium complexed with bipyridine was able to carry out all the reactions, while the rhodium complexed with imidazole was not able to produce and release hydrides. In addition, the most effective ketone to use is benzylacetone with the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase from baker’s yeast. Future work includes experimenting with bis-imidazole, which mimics the structure of bipyridine to see if it has the capability to reduce and if the reduction rate is comparable to the bipyridine complex. Once all testing is completed, the fastest catalysts will be combined with polymer membranes designed for fuel cells to prepare biosensing devices that can be used in a variety of applications including ones in the medical and environmental fields.

  16. New Ru(II)N'NN'-type pincer complexes: synthesis, characterization and the catalytic hydrogenation of CO_2 or bicarbonates to formate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengjin Dai; Qi Luo; Hengjiang Cong; Jing Zhang; Tianyou Peng

    2017-01-01

    [RuCl(L1)(MeCN)_2]Cl (1) and [RuCl(L2)(MeCN)_2]Cl (2) complexes were prepared through the reaction of [RuCl2(p-cymene)]_2 with 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)-4-hydroxy-pyridine (L1) or 2,6-bis(benzimidazole- 2-yl) pyridine (L2) in acetonitrile, respectively. The treatment of [Ru(OTf)(L2)(MeCN)_2]OTf (3) with 1 equivalent of PPh_3 in ethanol resulted in the formation of [Ru(L2"-"1)(MeCN)(PPh_3)_2]OTf (4), in which one of the N-H moieties of L2 is deprotonated to give an anionic ligand (L2"-"1). It was found that complex 1 can catalyze the hydrogenation of CO_2 to formate salts, producing sodium formate in 34.0% yield with a turnover number (TON) of 407 under the optimized conditions. Further investigations revealed that complexes 1-4 can efficiently catalyze the hydrogenation of sodium bicarbonate to sodium formate, and the catalytic activity follows the order 4 ≥ 1 ≥ 2 ≅ 3. In particular, sodium formate was obtained in good yield (77%) with a high TON (1530) when complex 4 was used as the catalyst. The present results illustrate a new example of Ru(II) complexes bearing a rigid N'NN' framework for the efficient hydrogenation of CO_2 to formate salts in a homogeneous system. (authors)

  17. Phosphorus and nitrogen-containing carbons obtained by the carbonization of conducting polyaniline complex with phosphites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Morávková, Zuzana; Kovářová, Jana; Vulić, I.; Gavrilov, N.; Pašti, I. A.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 246, 20 August (2017), s. 443-450 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbonization * conducting polymer * nitrogen-containing carbon Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  18. Coupling heat conduction and radiation in complex 2D and 3D geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peniguel, C [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Rupp, I [SIMULOG, 78 - Guyancourt (France)

    1998-12-31

    Thermal radiation is a very important mode of heat transfer in most real industrial systems. A numerical approach coupling radiation (restricted to non participant medium) and conduction is presented. The code (SYRTHES) is able to handle 2D and 3D problems (including cases with symmetries and periodicity). Radiation is solved by a radiosity approach, and conduction by a finite element method. Accurate and efficient algorithms based on a mixing of analytical/numerical integration, and ray tracing techniques are used to compute the view factors. Validation has been performed on numerous test cases. A conjugate residual algorithm solves the radiosity system. An explicit interactive numerical procedure is then used to couple conduction and radiation. No stability problem has been encountered so far. One specificity of SYRTHES is that conduction and radiation are solved on independent grids. This brings much flexibility and allows to keep the number of independent radiation patches at a reasonable level. Several industrial examples are given as illustration. (author) 6 refs.

  19. The importance of α-CT and Salt bridges in the Formation of Insulin and its Receptor Complex by Computational Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Lanjanian, Hossein; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Insulin hormone is an important part of the endocrine system. It contains two polypeptide chains and plays a pivotal role in regulating carbohydrate metabolism. Insulin receptors (IR) located on cell surface interacts with insulin to control the intake of glucose. Although several studies have tried to clarify the interaction between insulin and its receptor, the mechanism of this interaction remains elusive because of the receptor's structural complexity and structural changes during the interaction. In this work, we tried to fractionate the interactions. Therefore, sequential docking method utilization of HADDOCK was used to achieve the mentioned goal, so the following processes were done: the first, two pdb files of IR i.e., 3LOH and 3W11 were concatenated using modeller. The second, flexible regions of IR were predicted by HingeProt. Output files resulting from HingeProt were uploaded into HADDOCK. Our results predict new salt bridges in the complex and emphasize on the role of salt bridges to maintain an inverted V structure of IR. Having an inverted V structure leads to activate intracellular signaling pathway. In addition to presence salt bridges to form a convenient structure of IR, the importance of α-chain of carboxyl terminal (α-CT) to interact with insulin was surveyed and also foretokened new insulin/IR contacts, particularly at site 2 (rigid parts 2 and 3). Finally, several conformational changes in residues Asn711-Val715 of α-CT were occurred, we suggest that α-CT is a suitable situation relative to insulin due to these conformational alterations.

  20. A genome scan conducted in a multigenerational pedigree with convergent strabismus supports a complex genetic determinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Georges

    Full Text Available A genome-wide linkage scan was conducted in a Northern-European multigenerational pedigree with nine of 40 related members affected with concomitant strabismus. Twenty-seven members of the pedigree including all affected individuals were genotyped using a SNP array interrogating > 300,000 common SNPs. We conducted parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses assuming segregation of an autosomal dominant mutation, yet allowing for incomplete penetrance and phenocopies. We detected two chromosome regions with near-suggestive evidence for linkage, respectively on chromosomes 8 and 18. The chromosome 8 linkage implied a penetrance of 0.80 and a rate of phenocopy of 0.11, while the chromosome 18 linkage implied a penetrance of 0.64 and a rate of phenocopy of 0. Our analysis excludes a simple genetic determinism of strabismus in this pedigree.

  1. A genome scan conducted in a multigenerational pedigree with convergent strabismus supports a complex genetic determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Anouk; Cambisano, Nadine; Ahariz, Naïma; Karim, Latifa; Georges, Michel

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide linkage scan was conducted in a Northern-European multigenerational pedigree with nine of 40 related members affected with concomitant strabismus. Twenty-seven members of the pedigree including all affected individuals were genotyped using a SNP array interrogating > 300,000 common SNPs. We conducted parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses assuming segregation of an autosomal dominant mutation, yet allowing for incomplete penetrance and phenocopies. We detected two chromosome regions with near-suggestive evidence for linkage, respectively on chromosomes 8 and 18. The chromosome 8 linkage implied a penetrance of 0.80 and a rate of phenocopy of 0.11, while the chromosome 18 linkage implied a penetrance of 0.64 and a rate of phenocopy of 0. Our analysis excludes a simple genetic determinism of strabismus in this pedigree.

  2. Coupling conduction radiation and convection phenomena in complex 2D and 3D geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, I.; Peniguel, C.

    1997-01-01

    In many industrial applications, convection radiation and conduction participate simultaneously to the heat transfers. A numerical approach able to cope with such problems has been developed. The code SYRTHES is tackling conduction and radiation (limited to non participating medium) while the fluid part is solved by CFD codes like ESTET (Finite volumes) or N3S (Finite elements). SYRTHES relies on an explicit numerical scheme to couple all phenomena. No stability problems has been encountered. To provide further flexibility, the three phenomena are solved on independent grids. All data transfers being automatically taken care of by SYRTHES. Extending the development to multi-physics or multi-code problems it is fairly straightforward thanks to the explicit approach. Illustrating applications show how SYRTHES is managing problems for which several CFD codes are needed simultaneously with message passing tools like PVM and CALCIUM. (author)

  3. Coupling conduction radiation and convection phenomena in complex 2D and 3D geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, I [SIMULOG, Guyancourt Cedex, (France); Peniguel, C [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1998-12-31

    In many industrial applications, convection radiation and conduction participate simultaneously to the heat transfers. A numerical approach able to cope with such problems has been developed. The code SYRTHES is tackling conduction and radiation (limited to non participating medium) while the fluid part is solved by CFD codes like ESTET (Finite volumes) or N3S (Finite elements). SYRTHES relies on an explicit numerical scheme to couple all phenomena. No stability problems has been encountered. To provide further flexibility, the three phenomena are solved on independent grids. All data transfers being automatically taken care of by SYRTHES. Extending the development to multi-physics or multi-code problems it is fairly straightforward thanks to the explicit approach. Illustrating applications show how SYRTHES is managing problems for which several CFD codes are needed simultaneously with message passing tools like PVM and CALCIUM. (author) 9 refs.

  4. Enhancement of natural radioactivity in soils and salt-marshes surrounding a non-nuclear industrial complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologon, J.P.; Garca-Tenorio, R.; Garca-Leon, M.

    1995-01-01

    The existence of a very high extension (about 1000 ha) of phosphogypsum piles, sited in the estuary formed by the mouths of the Tinto and Odiel rivers (SW Spain), produce a quite local, but unambiguous radioactive impact in the surrounding salt-marshes. In these piles the main by-product formed in the manufacture of phosphoric acid is stored. The radioactive impact is generated by the deposition and accumulation of radionuclides from the uranium series that previously had been mainly leached or dissolved from the piles by waters that temporally can cover or cross them. Other means of impact, especially through the atmosphere, have been evaluated as negligible or not detectable

  5. Studies on polymer electrolyte poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with ionic liquid: Effect of complexation on thermal stability, conductivity and relaxation behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saroj, A.L. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India); Singh, R.K., E-mail: rksingh_17@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India); Chandra, S. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PVP + IL based polymer electrolyte films have been prepared and studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complexation/interaction of PVP with IL has been confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conductivity and relaxation frequency increases with increasing IL content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two relaxation peaks for complexed and uncomplexed PVP with IL have been observed. - Abstract: Polymer electrolyte films of PVP + x wt% ionic liquid (IL) (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM][BF{sub 4}]) for x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 wt% have been prepared using solution cast technique. These films were characterized by TGA, DSC, FT-IR and ac impedance spectroscopy techniques. From XRD studies it is found that the inclusion of IL increases the amorphocity of polymeric membranes. DSC thermograms show that the glass transition (T{sub g}) and melting temperatures (T{sub m}) of PVP shift upon complexation with IL. FT-IR analysis shows the complexation of PVP with IL. Thermogravimetric studies show that PVP decomposes in a single step while PVP/IL membranes exhibit two step decomposition; lower value of decomposition temperature corresponds to the decomposition of PVP/IL complex while the higher decomposition temperature has been attributed to the decomposition of PVP. The decomposition temperature of PVP/IL complex decreases with the increasing amount of IL in the PVP membrane. Temperature dependence of conductivity and dielectric relaxation frequencies have also been studied for PVP and PVP/IL membranes. Both show thermally activated Arrhenius behaviour.

  6. Trafficking and function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a complex network of posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Michelle L.; Barnes, Stephen; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications add diversity to protein function. Throughout its life cycle, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) undergoes numerous covalent posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including glycosylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, phosphorylation, and palmitoylation. These modifications regulate key steps during protein biogenesis, such as protein folding, trafficking, stability, function, and association with protein partners and therefore may serve as targets for therapeutic manipulation. More generally, an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms that underlie CFTR PTMs may suggest novel treatment strategies for CF and perhaps other protein conformational diseases. This review provides a comprehensive summary of co- and posttranslational CFTR modifications and their significance with regard to protein biogenesis. PMID:27474090

  7. Behaviour of conductivity improvers in jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacre, B.; Hetherington, J.I. [Cranfield Univ., Wiltshire (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Dangerous accumulation of electrostatic charge can occur due to high speed pumping and microfiltration of fuel. This can be avoided by increasing the electrical conductivity of the fuel using conductivity improver additives. However, marked variations occur in the conductivity response of different fuels when doped to the same level with conductivity improver. This has been attributed to interactions of the conductivity improver with other fuel additives or fuel contaminants. The present work concentrates on the effects of fuel contaminants, in particular polar compounds, on the performance of the conductivity improver. Conductivity is the fuel property of prime interest. The conductivity response of model systems of the conductivity improver STADIS 450 in dodecane has been measured and the effect on this conductivity of additions of model polar contaminants sodium naphthenate, sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate, and sodium phenate have been measured. The sodium salts have been found to have a complex effect on the performance of STADIS 450, reducing the conductivity at low concentrations to a minimum value and then increasing the conductivity at high concentrations of sodium salts. This work has focused on characterising this minimum in the conductivity values and on understanding the reason for its occurrence. The effects on the minimum conductivity value of the following parameters are investigated: (a) time, (b) STADIS 450 concentration, (c) sodium salt concentration, (d) mixed sodium salts, (e) experimental method, (f) a phenol, (g) individual components of STADIS 450. The complex conductivity response of the STADIS 450 to sodium salt impurities is discussed in terms of possible inter-molecular interactions.

  8. Nanoscale control of oxide interface conduction in graphene-complex-oxide heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengchen; Ryu, Sangwoo; Ghahari, Fereshte; Jnawali, Giriraj; Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Irvin, Patrick; Kim, Philip; Eom, Chang-Beom; Levy, Jeremy

    2014-03-01

    Graphene is a promising material for high-speed optoelectronic devices such as THz modulators and detectors. Recently, broadband THz emission and detection can be achieved with nanostructures at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface [2]. We have mechanically exfoliated single layer and multilayer graphene on top of 3.4 unit cell LaAlO3/SrTiO3 and successfully sketched nanowires in the 2DEG underneath graphene using conductive AFM lithgraphy [3]. Raman and AFM investigations confirm that the graphene quality and surface morphology remain unaltered by the writing process. These first experimental demonstrations of integrating graphene and LaAlO3/SrTiO3 are promising for future DC-THz photonic applications. We gratefully acknowledge support for this work from ONR (N00014-13-1-0806), NSF(DMR-1124131, DMR-1104191), and AFOSR (FA9550-12-1-0342).

  9. The value and cost of complexity in predictive modelling: role of tissue anisotropic conductivity and fibre tracts in neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Syed Salman; Bikson, Marom; Salman, Humaira; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony

    2014-06-01

    Computational methods are increasingly used to optimize transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) dose strategies and yet complexities of existing approaches limit their clinical access. Since predictive modelling indicates the relevance of subject/pathology based data and hence the need for subject specific modelling, the incremental clinical value of increasingly complex modelling methods must be balanced against the computational and clinical time and costs. For example, the incorporation of multiple tissue layers and measured diffusion tensor (DTI) based conductivity estimates increase model precision but at the cost of clinical and computational resources. Costs related to such complexities aggregate when considering individual optimization and the myriad of potential montages. Here, rather than considering if additional details change current-flow prediction, we consider when added complexities influence clinical decisions. Towards developing quantitative and qualitative metrics of value/cost associated with computational model complexity, we considered field distributions generated by two 4 × 1 high-definition montages (m1 = 4 × 1 HD montage with anode at C3 and m2 = 4 × 1 HD montage with anode at C1) and a single conventional (m3 = C3-Fp2) tDCS electrode montage. We evaluated statistical methods, including residual error (RE) and relative difference measure (RDM), to consider the clinical impact and utility of increased complexities, namely the influence of skull, muscle and brain anisotropic conductivities in a volume conductor model. Anisotropy modulated current-flow in a montage and region dependent manner. However, significant statistical changes, produced within montage by anisotropy, did not change qualitative peak and topographic comparisons across montages. Thus for the examples analysed, clinical decision on which dose to select would not be altered by the omission of anisotropic brain conductivity. Results illustrate the need to rationally

  10. The value and cost of complexity in predictive modelling: role of tissue anisotropic conductivity and fibre tracts in neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Shahid, Syed; Bikson, Marom; Salman, Humaira; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony

    2014-06-01

    Objectives. Computational methods are increasingly used to optimize transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) dose strategies and yet complexities of existing approaches limit their clinical access. Since predictive modelling indicates the relevance of subject/pathology based data and hence the need for subject specific modelling, the incremental clinical value of increasingly complex modelling methods must be balanced against the computational and clinical time and costs. For example, the incorporation of multiple tissue layers and measured diffusion tensor (DTI) based conductivity estimates increase model precision but at the cost of clinical and computational resources. Costs related to such complexities aggregate when considering individual optimization and the myriad of potential montages. Here, rather than considering if additional details change current-flow prediction, we consider when added complexities influence clinical decisions. Approach. Towards developing quantitative and qualitative metrics of value/cost associated with computational model complexity, we considered field distributions generated by two 4 × 1 high-definition montages (m1 = 4 × 1 HD montage with anode at C3 and m2 = 4 × 1 HD montage with anode at C1) and a single conventional (m3 = C3-Fp2) tDCS electrode montage. We evaluated statistical methods, including residual error (RE) and relative difference measure (RDM), to consider the clinical impact and utility of increased complexities, namely the influence of skull, muscle and brain anisotropic conductivities in a volume conductor model. Main results. Anisotropy modulated current-flow in a montage and region dependent manner. However, significant statistical changes, produced within montage by anisotropy, did not change qualitative peak and topographic comparisons across montages. Thus for the examples analysed, clinical decision on which dose to select would not be altered by the omission of anisotropic brain conductivity

  11. Laboratory Investigation of Complex Conductivity and Magnetic Susceptibility on Natural Iron Oxide Coated Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Slater, L. D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Briggs, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Redox reactions occurring at the oxic/anoxic interface where groundwater discharges to surface water commonly result in iron oxide deposition that coats sediment grains. With relatively large total surface area, these iron oxide coated sediments serve as a sink for sorption of dissolved contaminants, although this sink may be temporary if redox conditions fluctuate with varied flow conditions. Characterization of the distribution of iron oxides in streambed sediments could provide valuable understanding of biogeochemical reactions and the ability of a natural system to sorb contaminants. Towards developing a field methodology, we conducted laboratory spectral induced polarization (SIP) and magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements on natural iron oxide coated sand (Fe-sand) with grain sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 mm in order to assess the sensitivity of these measurements to iron oxides in sediments. The Fe-sand was also sorted by sieving into various grain sizes to study the impact of grain size on the polarization mechanisms. The unsorted Fe-sand saturated with 0.01 S/m NaCl solution exhibited a distinct phase response ( > 4 mrad) in the frequency range from 0.001 to 100 Hz whereas regular silica sand was characterized by a phase response less than 1 mrad under the same conditions. The presence of iron oxide substantially increased MS (3.08×10-3 SI) over that of regular sand ( Laboratory results demonstrated that SIP and MS may be well suited to mapping the distribution of iron oxides in streambed sediments associated with anoxic groundwater discharge.

  12. Use of water in aiding olefin/paraffin (liquid + liquid) extraction via complexation with a silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Thompson, Jillian; Zhou, Jingjing; Goodrich, Peter; Atilhan, Mert; Pensado, Alfonso S.; Kirchner, Barbara; Rooney, David; Jacquemin, Johan; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver-based ILs used as olefin extracting agents for olefin/paraffin mixtures. • Each extraction process is based on the olefin complexation and solvation. • The presence of water influences positively each extraction process. • Each extraction process was evaluated by DFT calculations, NMR, IR and Raman. • LLE data were then correlated by using the UNIQUAC model. - Abstract: This paper describes the extraction of C 5 –C 8 linear α-olefins from olefin/paraffin mixtures of the same carbon number via a reversible complexation with a silver salt (silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, Ag[Tf 2 N]) to form room temperature ionic liquids [Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]. From the experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the olefin/paraffin mixtures and Ag[Tf 2 N], 1-pentene showed the best separation performance while C 7 and C 8 olefins could only be separated from the corresponding mixtures on addition of water which also improves the selectivity at lower carbon numbers like the C 5 and C 6 , for example. Using infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the complex and Ag[Tf 2 N] saturated by olefin, the mechanism of the extraction was found to be based on both chemical complexation and the physical solubility of the olefin in the ionic liquid ([Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]). These experiments further support the use of such extraction techniques for the separation of olefins from paraffins

  13. Radio elements / bottom salts separation by nano-filtration aided by complexation in a highly saline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubert, Eric

    1997-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the use of a membrane-based technique, nano-filtration, aided or not by complexation, for the processing of highly saline liquid effluents produced by radio-chemical decontamination. The objective is to separate non-radioactive elements (sodium nitrate) from radio-elements (caesium, strontium and actinides) in order to reduce the volume of wastes. Within the perspective of an industrial application, a system to concentrate the effluent is firstly defined. Different nano-filtration membranes are tested and reveal to be insufficient in highly saline environment. A stage of selective complexation of radio-elements is therefore considered before nano-filtration. The main factors affecting performance of nano-filtration-complexation (for a given membrane system) are identified: ionic force, pH, ligand content, trans-membrane pressure. Finally, a nano-filtration pilot is implemented to perform nano-filtration-complexation operations by remote handling on radioactive substances [fr

  14. Li2 NH-LiBH4 : a Complex Hydride with Near Ambient Hydrogen Adsorption and Fast Lithium Ion Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Cao, Hujun; Zhang, Weijin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Hui; Pistidda, Claudio; Ju, Xiaohua; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Guotao; Etter, Martin; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin; Chen, Ping

    2018-01-26

    Complex hydrides have played important roles in energy storage area. Here a complex hydride made of Li 2 NH and LiBH 4 was synthesized, which has a structure tentatively indexed using an orthorhombic cell with a space group of Pna2 1 and lattice parameters of a=10.121, b=6.997, and c=11.457 Å. The Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 sample (in a molar ratio of 1:1) shows excellent hydrogenation kinetics, starting to absorb H 2 at 310 K, which is more than 100 K lower than that of pristine Li 2 NH. Furthermore, the Li + ion conductivity of the Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 sample is about 1.0×10 -5  S cm -1 at room temperature, and is higher than that of either Li 2 NH or LiBH 4 at 373 K. Those unique properties of the Li 2 NH-LiBH 4 complex render it a promising candidate for hydrogen storage and Li ion conduction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Comparative analysis of Pu spread resistance of chemico-technological (out of pile) complexes of electronuclear molten salt and heavy water blanket facilities for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, V.I.; Vakhrushin, A.Yu.; Gorbunov, V.F.; Kushnikov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Technological processes used for radiochemical reprocessing of molten salt and heavy water blankets of an electronuclear facility for Pu transmutation and Pu distribution in those processes are characterized. Below the major parameters are given that affect the resistance of the technological to Pu proliferation. Types of Pu migration: process losses, accident related losses, theft. Factors affecting migration are total inventory of Pu in a reprocessing complex, purity of Pu and its compounds, chemical condition of Pu, the feasibility of equipping technological processes with instruments of control. The comparative analysis carried out taking into account the above parameters established that the technological processes related to heavy water blanket reprocessing, specifically a homogeneous (solution) option, are much more resistant to Pu proliferation, including both Pu migration to the environment and the unsanctioned withdrawal of Pu from the technological process. 5 refs., 4 figs

  16. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Homoepitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on surfaces of face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline conducting substrates under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast edge diffusion direction. For larger-than-critical island sizes on {110 } and {100 } fcc substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including not-simply-connected void-containing islands mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The evolution of the average island size follows a universal power-law scaling relation, and the evolution of the total edge length of the islands in the complex pattern follows Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami kinetics. Our study makes a strong case for the use of electric fields, as precisely controlled macroscopic forcing, toward surface patterning involving complex nanoscale features.

  17. Liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes of cobalt(II-4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol with ditetrazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divarova Vidka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes between Co(II-4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR anionic chelates and cations of three ditetrazolium chlorides were studied: Blue Tetrazolium chloride (BTC, Neotetrazolium chloride (NTC and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium chloride (NBT. The optimum conditions for the formation and solvent extraction of the ion-association comlpex chelates were determined. It has been found that in the systems of Co(II-PAR-DTS, the reactants are reacted in molar ratios 1:2:1 and the general formula of complexes was suggested. The extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized by the equilibrium constants and the recovery factors. The analytical characteristics of the complexes were calculated.

  18. Complex microwave conductivity of YBa2Cu3O7 in magnetic fields up to 500 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.I.; Dolotenko, M.I.; Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Goettee, J.D.; King, J.C.; Kolokolchikov, N.P.; Kudasov, Yu.B.; Lewis, W.; Marshall, B.R.; Papatheofanis, B.J.; Platonov, V.V.; Rodriguez, P.J.; Tatsenko, O.M.; Veeser, L.R.; Zerwekh, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    The complex microwave conductivity of thin, oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films was measured at 94 GHz in pulsed, ultrahigh-magnetic fields up to 500 T. The c-axis of the film was perpendicular to the magnetic field. We estimate the upper critical field of the film at absolute zero as B c2 (0)=340±40 T. Dynamics of the transition into a normal state and connection with previous measurements of the reversibility line are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Complex microwave conductivity of YBa2Cu3O7 in magnetic fields up to 500T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettee, J.D.; Zerwekh, W.D.; Kudasov, Y.B.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the complex conductivity of thin films of YBa 2 cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) superconductor down to temperatures of 4K and magnetic fields up to 500T. The highly oriented films were probed by 94 GHz radiation, with the external magnetic field applied perpendicular to the c-axis. These measurements allowed us to assign a value of 340 ± 40 for the upper critical field at T=O. The measurements were recently carried out at the pulsed field facility of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos using both Russian and American magnetic flux compression generators

  20. Hemoglobin and Myoglobin as Reducing Agents in Biological Systems. Redox Reactions of Globins with Copper and Iron Salts and Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikova, G B; Shekhovtsova, E A

    2016-12-01

    In addition to reversible O2 binding, respiratory proteins of the globin family, hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb), participate in redox reactions with various metal complexes, including biologically significant ones, such as those of copper and iron. HbO 2 and MbO 2 are present in cells in large amounts and, as redox agents, can contribute to maintaining cell redox state and resisting oxidative stress. Divalent copper complexes with high redox potentials (E 0 , 200-600 mV) and high stability constants, such as [Cu(phen) 2 ] 2+ , [Cu(dmphen) 2 ] 2+ , and CuDTA oxidize ferrous heme proteins by the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism through overlapping π-orbitals of the heme and the copper complex. Weaker oxidants, such as Cu2+, CuEDTA, CuNTA, CuCit, CuATP, and CuHis (E 0 ≤ 100-150 mV) react with HbO 2 and MbO 2 through preliminary binding to the protein with substitution of the metal ligands with protein groups and subsequent intramolecular electron transfer in the complex (the site-specific outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism). Oxidation of HbO 2 and MbO 2 by potassium ferricyanide and Fe(3) complexes with NTA, EDTA, CDTA, ATP, 2,3-DPG, citrate, and pyrophosphate PP i proceeds mainly through the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism via the exposed heme edge. According to Marcus theory, the rate of this reaction correlates with the difference in redox potentials of the reagents and their self-exchange rates. For charged reagents, the reaction may be preceded by their nonspecific binding to the protein due to electrostatic interactions. The reactions of LbO 2 with carboxylate Fe complexes, unlike its reactions with ferricyanide, occur via the site-specific outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism, even though the same reagents oxidize structurally similar MbO 2 and cytochrome b 5 via the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism. Of particular biological interest is HbO 2 and MbO 2 transformation into met-forms in the presence

  1. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  2. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  3. Temporal dynamics of stomatal conductance of plants under water deficit: can homeostasis be improved by more complex dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Maia Souza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we hypothesized that chaotic or complex behavior of stomatal conductance could improve plant homeostasis after water deficit. Stomatal conductance of sunflower and sugar beet leaves was measured in plants grown either daily irrigation or under water deficit using an infrared gas analyzer. All measurements were performed under controlled environmental conditions. In order to measure a consistent time series, data were scored with time intervals of 20s during 6h. Lyapunov exponents, fractal dimensions, KS entropy and relative LZ complexity were calculated. Stomatal conductance in both irrigated and non-irrigated plants was chaotic-like. Plants under water deficit showed a trend to a more complex behaviour, mainly in sunflower that showed better homeostasis than in sugar beet. Some biological implications are discussed.Este estudo testou a hipótese de que a condutância estomática de uma população de estômatos em uma folha poderia apresentar um comportamento caótico ou complexo sob diferentes condições hídricas, o que poderia favorecer a capacidade homeostática das plantas. A condutância estomática em folhas de girassol e de beterraba cultivadas com irrigação diária e sob deficiência hídrica foi medida com um analisador de gás por infra-vermelho em condições controladas. Os dados foram registrados a cada 20s durante 6h. As séries temporais obtidas foram analisadas por meio dos coeficientes de Lyapunov, dimensão fractal, entropia KS e complexidade LZ relativa. A condutância estomática nas plantas cultivadas com e sem deficiência hídrica exibiu um comportamento provavelmente caótico. As plantas sob estresse hídrico mostraram uma tendência para um comportamento mais complexo, principalmente as plantas de girassol cuja capacidade homeostática foi superior. Algumas implicações biológicas destes comportamentos são discutidas no texto.

  4. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  5. The perceptual trap: Experimental and modelling examples of soil moisture, hydraulic conductivity and response units in complex subsurface settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Demand, Dominic; Allroggen, Niklas; Loritz, Ralf; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    In order to discuss hypothesis testing in hydrology, the question of the solid foundation of such tests has to be answered. But how certain are we about our measurements of the components of the water balance and the states and dynamics of the complex systems? What implicit assumptions or bias are already embedded in our perception of the processes? How can we find light in the darkness of heterogeneity? We will contribute examples from experimental findings, modelling approaches and landscape analysis to the discussion. Example soil moisture and the soil continuum: The definition of soil moisture as fraction of water in the porous medium assumes locally well-mixed conditions. Moreover, a unique relation of soil water retention presumes instant local thermodynamic equilibrium in the pore water arrangement. We will show findings from soil moisture responses to precipitation events, from irrigation experiments, and from a model study of initial infiltration velocities. The results highlight, that the implicit assumption relating soil moisture state dynamics with actual soil water flow is biased towards the slow end of the actual velocity distribution and rather blind for preferential flow acting in a very small proportion of the pore space. Moreover, we highlight the assumption of a well-defined continuum during the extrapolation of point-scale measurements and why spatially and temporally continuous observation techniques of soil water states are essential for advancing our understanding and development of subsurface process theories. Example hydraulic conductivity: Hydraulic conductivity lies at the heart of hydrological research and modelling. Its values can range across several orders of magnitude at a single site alone. Yet, we often consider it a crisp, effective parameter. We have conducted measurements of soil hydraulic conductivity in the lab and in the field. Moreover, we assessed infiltration capacity and conducted plot-scale irrigation experiments to

  6. Conductivity gradients as inferred by electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings within a salt-affected wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Schroeder, William

    2018-01-01

    The change from deep-rooted grass and shrub vegetation to annual-cropping dryland farming has contributed to serious soil salinization challenges on the semi-arid North American Great Plains. In some cases, cultivation of the Great Plains has increased the availability of water, causing dominant sulfate salts to travel from the uphill areas to depressions where it will surface when water evaporates at the soil surface. A potential solution could include the replanting of the native deep-rooted vegetation, which requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of soil salinity. This study tested the soil factors influencing electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings of soil salinity distribution around wetlands. The objectives were to: (1) predict growth and survival of Salix dasyclados Wimm. (cv. `India') along a salinity gradient in a small wetland, and (2) investigate whether newly established willows affected water-table fluctuations, which would indicate their phreatophytic nature or their ability to obtain their water supply from the zone of saturation. Results indicated significantly lower salinity values for sampling points with EM38 readings above 175 and 250 mS m-1 for height and survival, respectively. In addition, diurnal fluxes of the water table in areas of good willow growth and lower salinity indicated that cultivar `India' was phreatophytic in these areas and therefore has great potential for being used to combat saline seeps.

  7. Complex Pattern Formation from Current-Driven Dynamics of Single-Layer Epitaxial Islands on Crystalline Conducting Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Dasgupta, Dwaipayan; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    We report a systematic study of complex pattern formation resulting from the driven dynamics of single-layer homoepitaxial islands on face-centered cubic (FCC) crystalline conducting substrate surfaces under the action of an externally applied electric field. The analysis is based on an experimentally validated nonlinear model of mass transport via island edge atomic diffusion, which also accounts for edge diffusional anisotropy. We analyze the morphological stability and simulate the field-driven evolution of rounded islands for an electric field oriented along the fast diffusion direction. For larger than critical island sizes on {110} and {100} FCC substrates, we show that multiple necking instabilities generate complex island patterns, including void-containing islands, mediated by sequences of breakup and coalescence events and distributed symmetrically with respect to the electric field direction. We analyze the dependence of the formed patterns on the original island size and on the duration of application of the external field. Starting from a single large rounded island, we characterize the evolution of the number of daughter islands and their average size and uniformity. The analysis reveals that the pattern formation kinetics follows a universal scaling relation. Division of Materials Sciences & Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (Award No.: DE-FG02-07ER46407).

  8. Use of Iron (II Salts and Complexes for the Production of Soil Amendments from Organic Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerigo Beneduci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to obtain rapidly stabilized composts for crops from solid organic wastes is evaluated. Here we used a laboratory scale reaction chamber where solid waste treatment was performed under strictly controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The row organic waste was mixed with acid solutions containing iron (II ions either in the fully hydrated form or in the form of complexes with the diethylentriaminopentaacetic acid. Data from elemental analysis distribution and GC/MS analysis of the polar and non polar dissolved organic matter, clearly showed that Fe(II ions significantly enhance organic substrate oxidation of the initial solid waste, compared to a material obtained without the addition of the Fe(II ions to the raw organic matrix. These results suggest that Fe(II ions might be involved in a catalytic oxidation pathway that would be activated under the experimental conditions used. The extent of the oxidation process was evaluated by the value of the C/N ratio and, qualitatively, by the molecular composition of the dissolved organic matter. After about 6 hours of incubation, dark-brown and dry organic matrices were obtained with C/N ratio as low as 12 and a high degree of oxidative decomposition into low-molecular-weight compounds at high oxidation state.

  9. Density and electrical conductivity of molten salts. Comparative study of binary mixtures of alkali nitrates with silver nitrate and with thallium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillant, S.

    1968-01-01

    The choice of methods and the number of measurements made enable us to give results on the density and electrical conductivity of molten binary mixtures, alkali nitrate and silver nitrate, and alkali nitrate and thallium nitrate, in the form of equations. The deviations from linearity of the volume and the molar conductivity are determined by calculating the corresponding excess values whose variations are analyzed as a function of the Tobolsky parameter. The absence of any relationship in the sign of the entropy and the excess volume is justified. It is shown that the silver and thallium nitrates, in contrast to the thermodynamic properties, behave as the alkali nitrates in so far as the excess conductivity is concerned. This result is confirmed by the study of changes in the activation enthalpy for the partial molar conductivity; this study also shows the particular behaviour of lithium nitrate. (author) [fr

  10. IMPROVED ALGORITHM FOR CALCULATING COMPLEX NON-EQUIPOTENTIAL GROUNDING DEVICES OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT CONDUCTIVITY OF NATURAL GROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Starkov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The method of natural concentrated groundings substitution by the set of electrodes taking them into account in the algorithm of electric characteristics calculation for complicated grounding connections of electric installation is offered. An equivalent model as a set of linear electrodes is chosen in accordance with two criteria: leakage resistance and potentials on the ground surface. Methodology. We have applied induced potential method and methods for computing branched electrical circuits with distributed parameters. Results. We have obtained the algorithm for calculating complex non-equipotential grounding connections, which makes it possible to obtain refined values of the potential distribution in the electric stations and substations with outdoor switchgear. Originality. For the first time, we have taking into account the conductivity of natural concentrated grounds by a set of vertical and horizontal electrodes based on equivalent electrical characteristics applied to a two-layer ground. Practical value. The using of the proposed calculation algorithm in the electric grids of JSC «Kharkivoblenergo» made it possible to determine the values of the potential distribution at short circuit in electrical substation taking into account the influence of the conductivity of natural concentrated groundings.

  11. Copolymerization and terpolymerization of carbon dioxide/propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride using a (salenCo(III complex tethering four quaternary ammonium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeob Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The (salenCo(III complex 1 tethering four quaternary ammonium salts, which is a highly active catalyst in CO2/epoxide copolymerizations, shows high activity for propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride (PO/PA copolymerizations and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations. In the PO/PA copolymerizations, full conversion of PA was achieved within 5 h, and strictly alternating copolymers of poly(1,2-propylene phthalates were afforded without any formation of ether linkages. In the PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations, full conversion of PA was also achieved within 4 h. The resulting polymers were gradient poly(1,2-propylene carbonate-co-phthalates because of the drift in the PA concentration during the terpolymerization. Both polymerizations showed immortal polymerization character; therefore, the molecular weights were determined by the activity (g/mol-1 and the number of chain-growing sites per 1 [anions in 1 (5 + water (present as impurity + ethanol (deliberately fed], and the molecular weight distributions were narrow (Mw/Mn, 1.05–1.5. Because of the extremely high activity of 1, high-molecular-weight polymers were generated (Mn up to 170,000 and 350,000 for the PO/PA copolymerization and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerization, respectively. The terpolymers bearing a substantial number of PA units (fPA, 0.23 showed a higher glass-transition temperature (48 °C than the CO2/PO alternating copolymer (40 °C.

  12. Combined effect of salt and drought on boron toxicity in Puccinellia tenuiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunguang; Dai, Zheng; Xia, Jingye; Chang, Can; Sun, Hongwen

    2018-08-15

    Boron toxicity is a worldwide problem, usually accompanied by salt (NaCl) and drought. The combined stresses may induce complex toxicity to the plant. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the combined stresses of salt and drought affect B toxicity in plants. Puccinellia tenuiflora seedlings were planted in vermiculite. A three (B) × three (salt) × three (drought) factorial experiment (for a total of 27 treatments) was conducted. After a 30-day cultivation, plants were harvested to determine dry weight and the concentrations of B, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ . Plant growth was inhibited by B toxicity, which was alleviated by salt and drought. B stress enhanced B uptake and transport of the plant, which was inhibited by salt and drought. B stress had a little effect on K + and Na + concentration and caused Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ accumulation in the plant. Salt addition increased Na + concentration and inhibited Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ accumulation. Drought addition inhibited Na + accumulation and enhanced Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ accumulation. The combined stresses of salt and drought had a greater alleviation on the inhibition of dry weight caused by B than individual salt and drought. Besides, the combined stresses of salt and drought also enhanced B uptake and inhibited B transport. The results indicate that salt, drought, and the combined stresses of salt and drought all can alleviate B toxicity in P. tenuiflora, the main mechanism of which is the restriction of B and Na + uptake caused by salt and drought. The combined stresses of salt and drought have a greater effect on B toxicity than individual salt and drought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Advantages of conducting in-situ U-Pb age dating of multiple U-bearing minerals from a single complex: Case in point - the Oka Carbonatite Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Simonetti, A.

    2012-12-01

    sample. The niocalite for a carbonatite sample Oka153 defines a bimodal age distribution, with weighted average 206Pb/238U ages of 110.1 ±5.0 and 133.2 ±6.1 Ma. Apatite from the same sample also records a similar bimodal age distribution of 111.4 ±2.8 and 126.9 ±1.8 Ma. The combined in situ U-Pb dating results for apatite, pervoskite, niocalite from Oka clearly support a protracted history of magmatic activity (~30 Myr) for this carbonatite complex. Of importance, the U-Pb results from this study clearly indicate the significance of conducting a thorough geochronological investigation rather than defining the age of any one alkaline complex solely on the basis of a single radiometric age determination.

  14. Salt effects on isotope partitioning and their geochemical implications: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, J.; Cole, D.R.; Fortier, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Essential to the use of stable isotopes as natural tracers and geothermometers is the knowledge of equilibrium isotope partitioning between different phases and species, which is usually a function of temperature only. The one exception known to date is oxygen and hydrogen isotope fractionation between liquid water and other phases (steam, gases, minerals), which changes upon the addition of salts to water, i.e., the isotope salt salt effect. Our knowledge of this effect, the difference between activity and composition (a-X) of isotopic water molecules in salt solutions, is very limited and controversial, especially at elevated temperatures. For the last several years, we have been conducting a detailed, systematic experimental study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the isotope salt effects from room temperature to elevated temperatures (currently to 500 degree C). From this effort, a simple, coherent picture of the isotope salt effect is emerging, that differs markedly from the complex results reported in the literature. In this communication, we present an overview on the isotope salt effect, obtained chiefly from our study. Observed isotope salt effects in salt solutions are significant even at elevated temperatures. The importance and implications of the isotope salt effect for isotopic studies of brine-dominated systems are also discussed in general terms

  15. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  16. Bottom-up on-crystal in-chip formation of a conducting salt and a view of its restructuring: From organic insulator to conducting >switch> through microfluidic manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Puigmartí-Luis, Josep; Paradinas, Markos; Bailo, Elena; Rodríguez-Trujillo, Romen; Pfattner, Raphael; Ocal, Carmen; Amabilino, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical modification of an immobilized single crystal in a fluid cell is reported, whereby a material with switching functions is generated in situ by generating a chemical reagent in the flow. Crystals of the insulating organic crystal of TCNQ (tetracyanoquinodimethane) were grown in a microfluidic channel and were trapped using a pneumatic valve, a nascent technique for materials manipulation. They were subsequently reduced using solution-deposited silver to provide a conducting materi...

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal characterization of sulpiride complexes of iron, manganese, copper, cobalt, nickel, and zinc salts. Antibacterial and antifungal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Soliman, Madiha H.

    2010-08-01

    Sulpiride (SPR; L) is a substituted benzamide antipsychotic which is reported to be a selective antagonist of central dopamine receptors and claimed to have mood-elevating properties. The ligation behaviour of SPR drug is studied in order to give an idea about its potentiality towards some transition metals in vitro systems. Metal complexes of SPR have been synthesized by reaction with different metal chlorides. The metal complexes of SPR with the formula [MCl 2(L) 2(H 2O) 2]· nH 2O [M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II); n = 0-2] and [FeCl 2(HL)(H 2O) 3]Cl·H 2O have been synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis (CHN), electronic (infrared, solid reflectance and 1H NMR spectra) and thermal analyses (TG and DTA). The molar conductance data reveal that the bivalent metal chelates are non-electrolytes while Fe(III) complex is 1:1 electrolyte. IR spectra show that SPR is coordinated to the metal ions in a neutral monodentate manner with the amide O. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, octahedral geometry is suggested. The thermal decomposition processes of these complexes were discussed. The correlation coefficient, the activation energies, E*, the pre-exponential factor, A, and the entropies, Δ S*, enthalpies, Δ H*, Gibbs free energies, Δ G*, of the thermal decomposition reactions have been derived from thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves. The synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were also screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against bacterial species ( Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungi ( Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The activity data show that the metal complexes are found to have antibacterial and antifungal activity than the parent drug and less than the standard.

  18. Complexation of tauro- and glyco-conjugated bile salts with alpha-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-alpha-cyclodextrin studied by affinity capillary electrophoresis and molecular modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Rene; Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Askjær, Sune

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of the bile salts taurocholate, taurodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycocholate, glycodeoxycholate, and glycochenodeoxycholate present in man, dog, and rat with α-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin was investigated by mobility shift affinity capillary electrop...

  19. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, solid state d.c. electrical conductivity and biological studies of some lanthanide(III chloride complexes with a heterocyclic Schiff base ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with 2-amino-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded a potentially tridentate Schiff base viz. 2-[N-(2′-hydroxy-1-naphthylideneamino]-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene (HNAT. This ligand formed complexes with lanthanum(III, cerium(III, praseodymium(III, neodymium(III, samarium(III, europium(III and gadolinium(III chloride under well defined conditions. These complexes were characterized through elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements, IR, UV–Vis, FAB mass and 1H NMR spectral studies. Analytical data showed that all the metal complexes exhibited 1:1 metal–ligand ratio. Molar conductance values adequately confirmed the non-electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The proton NMR spectral observations supplement the IR spectral assignments. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acted as neutral tridentate, coordinating to the metal ion through azomethine nitrogen, ester carbonyl and naphtholate oxygen without deprotonation. The ligand and its lanthanum(III chloride complex were subjected to XRD studies. The lanthanum(III chloride complex has undergone a facile transesterification reaction. The solid state d.c. electrical conductivity of some selected complexes were measured as a function of temperature, indicating the semiconducting nature of the metal complexes. The antimicrobial activities were examined by disk diffusion method against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species.

  20. NMR Evidences of the Coupling between Conduction Electrons and Molecular Degrees of Freedom in the Exotic Member of the Bechgaard Salt (TMTSF)2FSO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsukawa, Hidetaka; Yajima, Akio; Hiraki, Ko-ichi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Kang, Haeyong; Jo, Younjung; Kang, Woun; Chung, Ok-Hee

    2016-12-01

    We performed 77Se- and 19F-NMR measurements on single crystals of (TMTSF)2FSO3 to characterize the electronic structures of different phases in the temperature-pressure phase diagram, determined by precise transport measurements [Jo et al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 014516 (2003)]. We claim that such varieties of electronic states in the refined phase diagram are caused by strong couplings of the conduction electrons with FSO3 anions, especially with the permanent electric dipoles on the anions. We suggest that as temperature decreases, the FSO3 anions form orientational ordering through two steps; first, only the tetrahedrons form an orientational order leaving the orientations of the electronic dipoles in random (transition I); then the dipoles form a perfect orientational order at a lower temperature (transition II). In the intermediate temperature range between transitions I and II, we found an appreciable enhancement of homogeneous and inhomogeneous widths of the 77Se-NMR spectrum. From the analysis of the angular dependence of the linewidth, we attributed these anomalies to the intramolecular charge disproportionation or imbalance and its slow dynamics caused by the coupling with the permanent electric dipole of the anion. Results of 19F-NMR relaxation and lineshape measurements support this picture very well. Electronic structures at higher pressures up to 1.25 GPa are discussed on the basis of the results of the 77Se- and 19F-NMR measurements.

  1. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  2. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Tsukada, Kineo; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Oomichi, Toshihiko; Oono, Hideo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure, as well as improve the technical reliability and safety by the elimination of a proton beam entering window. Constitution: The nuclear reactor container main body is made of Hastelloy N and provided at the inner surface with two layers of graphite shields except for openings. An aperture was formed in the upper surface of the container, through which protons accelerated by a linear accelerator are directly entered to the liquid surface of molten salts such as 7LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 , 7LiF-NaF-ThF 4 , 7LiF-Rb-UF 4 , NaF-KF-UF 4 and the like. The heated molten salts are introduced by way of a pipeway into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to coolant salts and electric generation is conducted by way of heated steams. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Where Does Road Salt Go - a Static Salt Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C. W.; Liu, F.; Moriarty, V. W.

    2017-12-01

    Each winter, more than 15 million tons of road salt is applied in the United States for the de-icing purpose. Considerable amount of chloride in road salt flows into streams/drainage systems with the snow melt runoff and spring storms, and eventually goes into ecologically sensitive low-lying areas in the watershed, such as ponds and lakes. In many watersheds in the northern part of US, the chloride level in the water body has increased significantly in the past decades, and continues an upward trend. The environmental and ecological impact of the elevated chloride level can no longer be ignored. However although there are many studies on the biological impact of elevated chloride levels, there are few investigations on how the spatially distributed road salt application affects various parts of the watershed. In this presentation, we propose a static road salt model as a first-order metric to address spacial distribution of salt loading. Derived from the Topological Wetness Index (TWI) in many hydrological models, this static salt model provides a spatial impact as- sessment of road salt applications. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the static model, National Elevation Dataset (NED) of ten-meter resolution of Lake George watershed in New York State is used to generate the TWI, which is used to compute a spatially dis- tributed "salt-loading coefficient" of the whole watershed. Spatially varying salt applica- tion rate is then aggregated, using the salt-loading coefficients as weights, to provide salt loading assessments of streams in the watershed. Time-aggregated data from five CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensors in selected streams are used for calibration. The model outputs and the sensor data demonstrate a strong linear correlation, with the R value of 0.97. The investigation shows that the static modeling approach may provide an effective method for the understanding the input and transport of road salt to within watersheds.

  4. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  5. Exploring inclusion complexes of ionic liquids with α- and β- cyclodextrin by NMR, IR, mass, density, viscosity, surface tension and conductance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Biraj Kumar; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Yasmin, Ananya; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2018-05-01

    The formation of the host-guest inclusion complexes of ionic liquids namely [BMIm]Cl and [HMIm]Cl with α-CD and β-CD were studied by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Conductivity and surface tension study were in good agreement with the 1H NMR and FT-IR studies which confirm the formation of the inclusion complexes. The Density and viscosity study also supported the formation of the ICs. Further the stoichiometry was determined 1:1 for each case and the association constants and thermodynamic parameters derived supported the most feasible formation of the [BMIm]Cl- β-CD inclusion complex.

  6. INORGANIC AND ORGANIC ONIUM SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrosonium NO ion absorbs in the infrared between 1/2400 and 1/ 2150 cm. Salts of complex fluoro-acids absorb at higher frequencies than salts...halide adducts generally contain nitrosonium ions . Hexaphenylditin does not undergo marked heterolytic dissociation in nitromethane solution...influencing the covalent-ionic equilibrium are discussed. Infrared spectrum nitrosonium ion ; ionic character in lattice and position nitrosonium ion absorption

  7. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  8. Ferromagnetic behavior in linear charge-transfer complexes. Structural and magnetic characterization of octamethylferrocene salts: (Fe(C sub 5 Me sub 4 H) sub 2 ) sup sm bullet + (A) sup sm bullet minus (A = TCNE, TCNQ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.S.; Glatzhofer, D.T.; O' Hare, D.M. (E.I. de Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (USA)); Reiff, W.M. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA)); Chakraborty, A.; Epstein, A.J. (Ohio Sate Univ., Columbus (USA))

    1989-07-26

    The reaction of Fe{sup II}({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2} with cyano acceptors A (A = TCNE (tetracyanoethylene), TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quanodimethane), n-C{sub 4}(CN){sub 6} (n-hexacyanobutadiene), C{sub 6}(CN){sub 6} (tris(dicyanomethylene)cyclopropane), DDQ (2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone), TCNQF{sub 4} (perfluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane) results in formation of 1:1 charge-transfer salts of (Fe{sup III})(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+}(A){sup {sm bullet}{minus}} composition. The TCNE and TCNQ complexes have been structurally characterized. The high-temperature magnetic susceptibility for polycrystalline samples of these complexes can be fit by the Curie-Qeiss law, {chi} = C(T-{theta}){sup {minus}1}, with {theta} = +0.5 {plus minus} 2.2 K, and {mu}{sub eff} ranges from 2.71 to 3.97 {mu}{sub B}, suggesting that the polycrystalline samples measured had varying degrees of orientation. The 7.0 K EPR spectrum of the radical cation exhibits an axially symmetric powder pattern with g{sub {parallel}} = 4.11 and g{sub {perpendicular}} = 1.42, and the EPR parameters are essentially identical with those reported for ferrocenium and decamethylferrocenium. No EPR spectrum is observed at 78 K. Akin to the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts, these salts have {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra consistent with complete charge transfer; however, unlike the case for the former complexes, quadrupole splittings of 0.30 and 0.220 mm/s are observed at 4.8 and 298 K, respectively. The absence of strong interionic magnetic coupling for the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts contrasts with the behavior of the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts. 26 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Single-molecule conductance of a chemically modified, π-extended tetrathiafulvalene and its charge-transfer complex with F4TCNQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the synthesis and single-molecule electrical transport properties of a molecular wire containing a π-extended tetrathiafulvalene (exTTF group and its charge-transfer complex with F4TCNQ. We form single-molecule junctions using the in situ break junction technique using a homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope with a range of conductance between 10 G0 down to 10−7 G0. Within this range we do not observe a clear conductance signature of the neutral parent molecule, suggesting either that its conductance is too low or that it does not form a stable junction. Conversely, we do find a clear conductance signature in the experiments carried out on the charge-transfer complex. Due to the fact we expected this species to have a higher conductance than the neutral molecule, we believe this supports the idea that the conductance of the neutral molecule is very low, below our measurement sensitivity. This idea is further supported by theoretical calculations. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported single-molecule conductance measurements on a molecular charge-transfer species.

  10. Fast and low-temperature sintering of silver complex using oximes as a potential reducing agent for solution-processible, highly conductive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Su Bin; Kim, Ji Man; Han, Dae Sang; Chae, Jangwoo; Kwak, Jeonghun

    2014-01-01

    Highly conductive, solution-processed silver thin-films were obtained at a low sintering temperature of 100 °C in a short sintering time of 10 min by introducing oximes as a potential reductant for silver complex. The thermal properties and reducibility of three kinds of oximes, acetone oxime, 2-butanone oxime, and one dimethylglyoxime, were investigated as a reducing agent, and we found that the thermal decomposition product of oximes (ketones) accelerated the conversion of silver complex into highly conductive silver at low sintering temperature in a short time. Using the acetone oxime, the silver thin-film exhibited the lowest surface resistance (0.91 Ω sq −1 ) compared to those sing other oximes. The silver thin-film also showed a high reflectance of 97.8%, which is comparable to evaporated silver films. We also demonstrated inkjet printed silver patterns with the oxime-added silver complex inks. (paper)

  11. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  12. Molten salt electrorefining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Shoji, Yuichi; Matsumaru, Ken-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    A molten cadmium phase (lower side) and a molten salt phase (upper side) are filled in an electrolytic bath. A basket incorporating spent nuclear fuels is inserted/disposed in the molten cadmium phase. A rotatable solid cathode is inserted/disposed in the molten salt phase. The spent fuels, for example, natural uranium, incorporated in the basket is dissolved in the molten cadmium phase. In this case, the uranium concentration in the molten salt phase is determined as from 0.5 to 20wt%. Then, electrolysis is conducted while setting a stirring power for stirring at least the molten salt phase of from 2.5 x 10 2 to 1 x 10 4 based on a reynolds number. Crystalline nuclei of uranium are precipitated uniformly on the surface of the solid cathode, and they grow into fine dendrites. With such procedures, since short-circuit between the cathode precipitates and the molten cadmium phase (anode) is scarcely caused, to improve the recovering rate of uranium. (I.N.)

  13. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  14. Conductivity of Langmuir-Blodgett films of a disk-shaped liquid-crystalline molecule-DNA complex studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Alpana; Suresh, K. A.

    2008-08-01

    We have studied the electrical conductivity in monolayer films of an ionic disk-shaped liquid-crystal molecule, pyridinium tethered with hexaalkoxytriphenylene (PyTp), and its complex with DNA by current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM). The pure PyTp and PyTp-DNA complex monolayer films were first formed at the air-water interface and then transferred onto conducting substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to study the nanoscale electron transport through these films. The conductive tip of CS-AFM, the LB film, and the metal substrate form a nanoscopic metal-LB film-metal (M-LB-M) junction. We have measured the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for the M-LB-M junction using CS-AFM and have analyzed the data quantitatively. We find that the I-V curves fit well to the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) model, suggesting electron tunneling to be a possible mechanism for electron transport in our system. Further, analysis of the I-V curves based on the FN model yields the barrier heights of PyTp-DNA complex and pure PyTp films. Electron transport studies of films of ionic disk-shaped liquid-crystal molecules and their complex with DNA are important from the point of view of their applications in organic electronics.

  15. Robust Design of a Particle-Free Silver-Organo-Complex Ink with High Conductivity and Inkjet Stability for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad; McKerricher, Garret; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Currently, silver-nanoparticle-based inkjet ink is commercially available. This type of ink has several serious problems such as a complex synthesis protocol, high cost, high sintering temperatures (∼200 °C), particle aggregation, nozzle clogging, poor shelf life, and jetting instability. For the emerging field of printed electronics, these shortcomings in conductive inks are barriers for their widespread use in practical applications. Formulating particle-free silver inks has potential to solve these issues and requires careful design of the silver complexation. The ink complex must meet various requirements, such as in situ reduction, optimum viscosity, storage and jetting stability, smooth uniform sintered films, excellent adhesion, and high conductivity. This study presents a robust formulation of silver–organo-complex (SOC) ink, where complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The 17 wt % silver loaded ink was printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion. The jetting stability was monitored for 5 months to confirm that the ink was robust and highly stable with consistent jetting performance. Radio frequency inductors, which are highly sensitive to metal quality, were demonstrated as a proof of concept on flexible PEN substrate. This is a major step toward producing high-quality electronic components with a robust inkjet printing process.

  16. Robust Design of a Particle-Free Silver-Organo-Complex Ink with High Conductivity and Inkjet Stability for Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2015-12-29

    Currently, silver-nanoparticle-based inkjet ink is commercially available. This type of ink has several serious problems such as a complex synthesis protocol, high cost, high sintering temperatures (∼200 °C), particle aggregation, nozzle clogging, poor shelf life, and jetting instability. For the emerging field of printed electronics, these shortcomings in conductive inks are barriers for their widespread use in practical applications. Formulating particle-free silver inks has potential to solve these issues and requires careful design of the silver complexation. The ink complex must meet various requirements, such as in situ reduction, optimum viscosity, storage and jetting stability, smooth uniform sintered films, excellent adhesion, and high conductivity. This study presents a robust formulation of silver–organo-complex (SOC) ink, where complexing molecules act as reducing agents. The 17 wt % silver loaded ink was printed and sintered on a wide range of substrates with uniform surface morphology and excellent adhesion. The jetting stability was monitored for 5 months to confirm that the ink was robust and highly stable with consistent jetting performance. Radio frequency inductors, which are highly sensitive to metal quality, were demonstrated as a proof of concept on flexible PEN substrate. This is a major step toward producing high-quality electronic components with a robust inkjet printing process.

  17. Synthesis, spectral, thermal studies and electrical conductivity of Co (II) and Ni (II) complexes 3-[4-dimethylaminophenyl]-1-(2-pyridyl) prop-2-en-1-one (DMAPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaber, Mohamed, E-mail: abuelazm@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta (Egypt); Al-Daly, Samy; Fayed, Tarek [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527 Tanta (Egypt); El-Sayed, Yousif [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt)

    2015-01-15

    Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of 3-[4-dimethylaminophenyl]-1-(2-pyridyl)prop-2-en-1-one have been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic spectra as well as thermal studies. The magnetic and spectral studies suggested the octahedral geometry for Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes. The kinetic parameters of the thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated using Coats–Redfern method. The electrical conductivity of the titled ligand and its Co(II) complexes was studied. The effects of different alcoholic solvents, pH and temperature on the complexation formation were considered. Also, the effect of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions on the emission spectrum of the free DMAPP was assigned. The stoichiometry of the metal complexes, the conditional formation constant, free energy, Beer{sup '}s law, molar extinction coefficient as well as specific absorptivity were evaluated. The ability of using the titled ligand as metalochromic indicator in complexometric titration was studied.

  18. Conductance Studies on Complex Formation between c-Methylcalix[4]resorcinarene and Titanium (III in Acetonitrile-H2O Binary Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Saadati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calixresorcinarenes have proved to be unique molecules for molecular recognition via hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and ionic interactions with suitable substrates such as cations. The study of the interactions involved in the complexation of different cations with calixresorcinarenes in solvent mixtures is important for a better understanding of the mechanism of biological transport, molecular recognition, and other analytical applications. This article summarizes different aspects of the complexes of the Ti3+ metal cation with c-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CMCR as studied by conductometry in acetonitrile (AN–water (H2O binary mixtures at different temperatures. Conductance data show that the metal cation/ligand (ML stoichiometry of the complexes in solution is 1:1 in all cases. Non-linear behaviour was observed for the variation of logKf of the complexes vs. the composition of the binary solvent mixtures. Selectivity of CMCR for the Ti3+ cation is sensitive to solvent composition; in some cases and at certain compositions of the mixed solvent systems, the selectivity order is changed. Values of thermodynamic parameters (, for formation of the CMCR–Ti3+ complexes in AN–H2O binary systems were obtained from the temperature dependence of stability constants, and the results show that the thermodynamics of complexation reactions are affected by the nature and composition of the mixed solvents.

  19. A sensor for acetaminophen in a blood medium using a Cu(II)-conducting polymer complex modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathi, Mannan; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2004-01-01

    Complexation of Cu ions in a terthiophene carboxylic acid (TTCA) polymer film resulted an enhanced anodic current for acetaminophen oxidation when compared to polymer coated and bare glassy carbon electrodes in human blood and buffer media. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ESCA experiments indicate the involvement of copper in the electrocatalytic oxidation of acetaminophen. No interference was observed from other biologically important and phenolic compounds used with this modified electrode. Especially, the non-interference from N-acetylcysteine, an antidote for the treatment of acetaminophen poisoning, reveals the proposed method's superiority in medicinal applications. In addition, the present modified electrode avoids surface fouling at higher concentrations of acetaminophen. The calibration range obtained with CV was based between 2.0x10 -5 and 5.0x10 -3 M [r 2 =0.997 (n=5, R.S.D.=2.5%); DL=5.0x10 -6 M (S/N=3)]. The analytical utility of the modified electrode was achieved by analyzing the content of acetaminophen in different drugs without pretreatment using CV and amperometric techniques

  20. Toward an analytical framework for understanding complex social-ecological systems when conducting environmental impact assessments in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bowd

    2015-03-01

    counterpoint to established approaches and could contribute to improving the quality of EIAs with respect to the complex SESs that characterize the developing world.

  1. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  2. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    exhibit better heat transfer and nuclear performance metrics. Lighter salts also tend to have more favorable (larger) moderating ratios, and thus should have a more favorable coolant-voiding behavior in-core. Heavy (high-Z) salts tend to have lower heat capacities and thermal conductivities and more significant activation and transmutation products. However, all of the salts are relatively good heat-transfer agents. A detailed discussion of each property and the combination of properties that served as a heat-transfer metric is presented in the body of this report. In addition to neutronic metrics, such as moderating ratio and neutron absorption, the activation properties of the salts were investigated (Table C). Again, lighter salts tend to have more favorable activation properties compared to salts with high atomic-number constituents. A simple model for estimating the reactivity coefficients associated with a reduction of salt content in the core (voiding or thermal expansion) was also developed, and the primary parameters were investigated. It appears that reasonable design flexibility exists to select a safe combination of fuel-element design and salt coolant for most of the candidate salts. Materials compatibility is an overriding consideration for high-temperature reactors; therefore the question was posed whether any one of the candidate salts was inherently, or significantly, more corrosive than another. This is a very complex subject, and it was not possible to exclude any fluoride salts based on the corrosion database. The corrosion database clearly indicates superior container alloys, but the effect of salt identity is masked by many factors which are likely more important (impurities, redox condition) in the testing evidence than salt identity. Despite this uncertainty, some reasonable preferences can be recommended, and these are indicated in the conclusions. The reasoning to support these conclusions is established in the body of this report.

  3. What determines the complex kinetics of stomatal conductance under blueless PAR in Festuca arundinacea? Subsequent effects on leaf transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Romain; Frak, Ela; Combes, Didier; Durand, Jean-Louis; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

    2010-06-01

    Light quality and, in particular, its content of blue light is involved in plant functioning and morphogenesis. Blue light variation frequently occurs within a stand as shaded zones are characterized by a simultaneous decrease of PAR and blue light levels which both affect plant functioning, for example, gas exchange. However, little is known about the effects of low blue light itself on gas exchange. The aims of the present study were (i) to characterize stomatal behaviour in Festuca arundinacea leaves through leaf gas exchange measurements in response to a sudden reduction in blue light, and (ii) to test the putative role of Ci on blue light gas exchange responses. An infrared gas analyser (IRGA) was used with light transmission filters to study stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (Tr), assimilation (A), and intercellular concentration of CO(2) (Ci) responses to blueless PAR (1.80 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). The results were compared with those obtained under a neutral filter supplying a similar photosynthetic efficiency to the blueless PAR filter. It was shown that the reduction of blue light triggered a drastic and instantaneous decrease of gs by 43.2% and of Tr by 40.0%, but a gradual stomatal reopening began 20 min after the start of the low blue light treatment, thus leading to new steady-states. This new stomatal equilibrium was supposed to be related to Ci. The results were confirmed in more developed plants although they exhibited delayed and less marked responses. It is concluded that stomatal responses to blue light could play a key role in photomorphogenetic mechanisms through their effect on transpiration.

  4. The operators' non-compliance behavior to conduct emergency operating procedures--comparing with the work experience and the complexity of procedural steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2003-01-01

    Many kinds of procedures have been used to reduce the operators' workload throughout various industries, such as in the aviation, the chemical and the nuclear industry. It is remarkable that, however, significant portion of accidents or incidents was caused by procedure related human error due to non-compliance of procedures. In this study, to investigate the operators' non-compliance behavior, emergency-training records were collected using a full scope simulator. And three types of the operators' behavior (such as strict adherence, skipping redundant actions and modifying action sequences) observed from collected emergency training records were compared with both their work experience and the complexity of procedural steps. As the results, three remarkable relationships are obtained. They are: (1) the operators who have an intermediate work experience seem to frequently adopt non-compliance behavior to conduct the procedural steps, (2) the operators seem to frequently adopt non-compliance behavior to conduct the procedural steps that have an intermediate procedural complexity, and (3) the senior reactor operators seem to accommodate their non-compliance behavior based on the complexity of procedural steps. Therefore, it is expected that these relationships can be used as meaningful clues not only to scrutinize the reason for non-compliance behavior but also to suggest appropriate remedies for the reduction of non-compliance behavior that can result in procedure related human error

  5. Low molecular weight salts combined with fluorinated solvents for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W.

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. An electrolyte includes at least one salt having a molecular weight less than about 250. Such salts allow forming electrolytes with higher salt concentrations and ensure high conductivity and ion transport in these electrolytes. The low molecular weight salt may have a concentration of at least about 0.5M and may be combined with one or more other salts, such as linear and cyclic imide salts and/or methide salts. The concentration of these additional salts may be less than that of the low molecular weight salt, in some embodiments, twice less. The additional salts may have a molecular weight greater than about 250. The electrolyte may also include one or more fluorinated solvents and may be capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C.

  6. New Textile Sensors for In Situ Structural Health Monitoring of Textile Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Based on the Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) Polymer Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerkovic, Ivona; Koncar, Vladan; Grancaric, Ana Marija

    2017-10-10

    Many metallic structural and non-structural parts used in the transportation industry can be replaced by textile-reinforced composites. Composites made from a polymeric matrix and fibrous reinforcement have been increasingly studied during the last decade. On the other hand, the fast development of smart textile structures seems to be a very promising solution for in situ structural health monitoring of composite parts. In order to optimize composites' quality and their lifetime all the production steps have to be monitored in real time. Textile sensors embedded in the composite reinforcement and having the same mechanical properties as the yarns used to make the reinforcement exhibit actuating and sensing capabilities. This paper presents a new generation of textile fibrous sensors based on the conductive polymer complex poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) developed by an original roll to roll coating method. Conductive coating for yarn treatment was defined according to the preliminary study of percolation threshold of this polymer complex. The percolation threshold determination was based on conductive dry films' electrical properties analysis, in order to develop highly sensitive sensors. A novel laboratory equipment was designed and produced for yarn coating to ensure effective and equally distributed coating of electroconductive polymer without distortion of textile properties. The electromechanical properties of the textile fibrous sensors confirmed their suitability for in situ structural damages detection of textile reinforced thermoplastic composites in real time.

  7. New Textile Sensors for In Situ Structural Health Monitoring of Textile Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Based on the Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate Polymer Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Jerkovic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many metallic structural and non-structural parts used in the transportation industry can be replaced by textile-reinforced composites. Composites made from a polymeric matrix and fibrous reinforcement have been increasingly studied during the last decade. On the other hand, the fast development of smart textile structures seems to be a very promising solution for in situ structural health monitoring of composite parts. In order to optimize composites’ quality and their lifetime all the production steps have to be monitored in real time. Textile sensors embedded in the composite reinforcement and having the same mechanical properties as the yarns used to make the reinforcement exhibit actuating and sensing capabilities. This paper presents a new generation of textile fibrous sensors based on the conductive polymer complex poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate developed by an original roll to roll coating method. Conductive coating for yarn treatment was defined according to the preliminary study of percolation threshold of this polymer complex. The percolation threshold determination was based on conductive dry films’ electrical properties analysis, in order to develop highly sensitive sensors. A novel laboratory equipment was designed and produced for yarn coating to ensure effective and equally distributed coating of electroconductive polymer without distortion of textile properties. The electromechanical properties of the textile fibrous sensors confirmed their suitability for in situ structural damages detection of textile reinforced thermoplastic composites in real time.

  8. Structural studies of precursor and partially oxidized conducting complexes. 19. Synthesis and crystal structure of Cs2[Pt(CN)4]Cl/sub 0.30, the first anhydrous one-dimensional tetracyanoplatinate chloride complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.K.; Williams, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The preparation and single-crystal x-ray structural characterization of a new, partially oxidized tetracyanoplatinate (POTCP), Cs 2 [Pt(CN) 4 ]Cl/sub 0.30/, CsCP(Cl), has been carried out. This one-dimensional conducting salt crystallizes with four formula units in the tetragonal unit cell I4/mcm, with cell constants a = 13.176 (2) A, c = 5.718 (1) A, and V = 992.7 A 3 . A total of 3112 observed data were averaged to yield 427 independent reflections. The structure was solved by standard heavy-atom methods and was refined by full-matrix least squares to a final R(F 0 2 ) = 0.045 and R/sub w/(F 0 2 ) = 0.059. Pertinent structural features include perfectly linear chains of Pt atoms with Pt-Pt separations crystallographically constrained to a value of (c/2) = 2.859 (2) A and interchain Pt-Pt distances of 9.317 A. Separations between the Cs + and Cl - ions are significantly shorter than the sum of the ionic radii. A discussion of these unusually short interionic distances and the absence of hydration as determined from the structural study and themogravimetric analyses is given. 2 figures, 2 tables

  9. Seismic anisotropy in deforming salt bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, P.; Wookey, J. M.; Kendall, J. M.; Dutko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt is often involved in forming hydrocarbon traps. Studying salt dynamics and the deformation processes is important for the exploration industry. We have performed numerical texture simulations of single halite crystals deformed by simple shear and axial extension using the visco-plastic self consistent approach (VPSC). A methodology from subduction studies to estimate strain in a geodynamic simulation is applied to a complex high-resolution salt diapir model. The salt diapir deformation is modelled with the ELFEN software by our industrial partner Rockfield, which is based on a finite-element code. High strain areas at the bottom of the head-like strctures of the salt diapir show high amount of seismic anisotropy due to LPO development of halite crystals. The results demonstrate that a significant degree of seismic anisotropy can be generated, validating the view that this should be accounted for in the treatment of seismic data in, for example, salt diapir settings.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structures, and characterization of double complex salts [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6]·2H2O and [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Makotchenko, Evgenia V.; Shubin, Yury V.; Baidina, Iraida A.; Korolkov, Ilya V.; Sheludyakova, Liliya A.; Korenev, Sergey V.

    2015-11-01

    Double complex salts of rhodium(III) and gold(III) of the composition [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6]·2H2O (1) and [Au(en)2][Rh(NO2)6] (2) have been prepared. Crystal structures of the compounds have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compounds have been characterized by PXRD, IR, far-IR, CHN and DTA. The complexes have a layered structures. The presence of water in 1 makes the structure of the hydrated DCS less dense as compared to the anhydrous one. The environment of the cation and the anion in the two structures is the same, oxygen atoms of the nitro groups are involved in hydrogen bonds N-H⋯O, N⋯O distances being approximately the same. The structures of 1 and 2 are notable in having shortened contacts between the gold atoms and the oxygen atoms of the nitro groups of the neighboring complex anions. The thermal behavior of the complexes in a hydrogen atmosphere was investigated. The final product of thermolysis prepared at the temperature 600°C is a two-phase mixture of pure metallic gold and the solid solution Rh0.93Au0.07.

  11. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  13. Applications of molten salts in plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium is efficiently recovered from scrap at Los Alamos by a series of chemical reactions and separations conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 to 900 0 C. These processes usually employ a molten salt or salt eutectic as a heat sink and/or reaction medium. Salts for these operations were selected early in the development cycle. The selection criteria are being reevaluated. In this article we describe the processes now in use at Los Alamos and our studies of alternate salts and eutectics

  14. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE SEPARATION OF LIGHT OLEFINS (ETHYLENE AND PROPYLENE) BY USING p-COMPLEXATION WITH SILVER SALTS

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado-Gordon, Hernando-José; Valbuena-Moreno, Gleidy

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conventional processes for separation of ethylene and propylene until reaching petrochemical grade are energy intensive. Therefore, alternative separation methods, such as chemical affinity based technologies, are an interesting alternative for designing more sustainable processes. p-Complexation of the silver ion (Ag+) is one of these technologies. In this study, p-complexation is compared to the conventional technologies from process and economic points of view, in order to determi...

  15. Complexation of 1,3-dimorpholinopropane with Hg(II) and Zn(II) salts: Synthese, crystal structures and antibacterial studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goudarziafshar, H.; Yousefi, S.; Abbasityula, Y.; Dušek, Michal; Eigner, Václav; Rezaeivala, M.; Özbek, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 6 (2015), s. 1076-1084 ISSN 1001-4861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * 1,3-dimorpholinopropane * antibacterial activity * Hg(II) complex * Zn(II) complex Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2015

  16. Morphology and conductivity studies of a new solid polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... formation of the polymer–salt complex. The samples with higher salt concentration are softer, less opaque and less smooth compared to the low salt concentration samples. DSC studies show an increase in the glass transition temperature and a decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increase in the salt concentration.

  17. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurath, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures

  18. Polyelectrolyte complex formation and stability when mixing polyanions and polycations in salted media: A model study related to the case of body fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Etrych, Tomáš; Leclercq, L.; Boustta, M.; Vert, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 25, 1-2 (2005), s. 281-288 ISSN 0928-0987 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 512087 - GIANT Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyelectrolyte complex * selectivity * light scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.347, year: 2005

  19. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  20. pH and electric conductivity study of H{sub 2}O/MEG/salt systems on monoethyleneglycol (MEG) reclamation units in gas processing; Estudo de pH e condutividade eletrica em sistemas H{sub 2}O/MEG/sal, em unidades de recuperacao de monoetilenoglicol (MEG), no processamento de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Camila; Carrijo, Darley; Nascimento, Jailton; Grava, Wilson [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Lemos, Alessandro A.; Andrade, Wander V.; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Amorim, Josinira Antunes de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The monoethylene glycol (MEG) is injected in natural gas production wells in order to combine with the free water, altering the thermodynamic conditions for the formation of hydrates. The presence of MEG in aqueous solutions containing salts provokes the decrease of the solubility of the same ones. Information of properties as the pH and the conductivity are important for the control of the process. Before this, the present work has as objective determines the behavior of the aqueous solutions with MEG and NaCl in pH and conductivity terms, in different temperatures, with views to the stage of recovery of MEG and the salt precipitation beginning. The experimental methodology consisted of the elaboration of synthetic solutions of the mixtures in study, covering every MEG concentration range and temperature between 5 and 90 deg C. The conductivity results for the system H{sub 2}O+MEG showed that the conductivity decreases with the concentration of MEG and it increases with the temperature. A conductivity increase was observed for diluted concentrations of MEG, due to the most pronounced effect of protonation of MEG. For pH measures, it was necessary to develop a calibration procedure due to the fact that this property varies with the solvent media. The pH values decrease as it increases the concentration of MEG, reaching a value practically constant around 40%. (author)

  1. Membrane crystallization for recovery of salts from produced water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist-Jensen, Cejna Anna; Jensen, Henriette Casper; Ali, Aamer

    Membrane Crystallization (MCr) is a novel technology able to recover freshwater and high-purity salts from complex solutions and therefore, is suggested for a better exploitation of wastewater streams. Unlike other membrane processes, MCr is not limited by high concentrations and, therefore, the ......, the membrane maintained its hydrophobic nature despite that produced water contained oil residues. Conductivity and HPLC was utilized to analyze the quality of the permeate stream......., the solutions can be treated to achieve saturation level. Hereby different salts can be precipitated and directly recovered from various streams. In this study, it is shown that MCr is able to treat produced water by producing clean water and simultaneously NaCl crystals. The recovered crystals exhibited high...

  2. Analysis of Single-Hole and Cross-Hole Tracer Tests Conducted at the Nye County Earl Warning Drilling Program Well Complex, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Umari; J.D. Earle; M.F. Fahy

    2006-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the flow and transport characteristics downgradient from the proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, single- and cross-hole tracer tests were conducted from December 2004 through October 2005 in boreholes at the Nye County 22 well complex. The results were analyzed for transport properties using both numerical and analytical solutions of the governing advection dispersion equation. Preliminary results indicate effective flow porosity values ranging from 1.0 x 10 -2 for an individual flow path to 2.0 x 10 -1 for composite flow paths, longitudinal dispersivity ranging from 0.3 to 3 m, and a transverse horizontal dispersivity of 0.03 m. Individual flow paths identified from the cross-hole testing indicate some solute diffusion into the stagnant portion of the alluvial aquifer

  3. The titanium tris-anilide cation [Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3](+) stabilized as its perfluoro-tetra-phenylborate salt: structural characterization and synthesis in connection with redox activity of 4,4'-bipyridine dititanium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Heather A; Clough, Christopher R; Cummins, Christopher C

    2015-04-21

    This work explores the reduction of 4,4'-bipyridine using two equivalents of the titanium(iii) complex Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3 resulting in formation of a black, crystalline complex, (4,4'-bipy){Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3}2, for which an X-ray structure determination is reported. The neutral, black, 4,4'-bipyridine-bridged bimetallic was found to be redox active, with mono- and di-anions being accessible electrochemically, and with the mono- and di-cations also being accessible chemically, and isolable, at least when using the weakly coordinating anion [B(C6F5)4](-) as the counter-ion. It proved possible to crystallize the salt [(4,4'-bipy){Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3}2][B(C6F5)4]2 for a single-crystal X-ray structure investigation; in this instance it was revealed that the aromaticity of the 4,4'-bipyridine ligand, that had been disrupted upon reduction, had been regained. A rare cationic d(0) metal tris-amide complex, shown by X-ray crystallography to contain an intriguing pyramidal TiN3 core geometry, namely {Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3}(+), could also be isolated when using [B(C6F5)4] as the essentially non-interacting counter-ion. This highly reactive cation should be considered as a potential intermediate in the plethora of reactions wherein Ti(N[(t)Bu]Ar)3 has been shown to effect the reduction of substrates including halogenated organic molecules, carbonyl compounds, organic nitriles, and metal complexes.

  4. Covalent attachment of pyridine-type molecules to glassy carbon surfaces by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium salts. Formation of ruthenium complexes on ligand-modified surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesildag, Ali; Ekinci, Duygu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, pyridine, quinoline and phenanthroline molecules were covalently bonded to glassy carbon (GC) electrode surfaces for the first time using the diazonium modification method. Then, the complexation ability of the modified films with ruthenium metal cations was investigated. The derivatization of GC surfaces with heteroaromatic molecules was achieved by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding in situ generated diazonium salts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to confirm the attachment of heteroaromatic molecules to the GC surfaces and to determine the surface concentration of the films. The barrier properties of the modified GC electrodes were studied in the presence of redox probes such as Fe(CN) 6 3- and Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ by cyclic voltammetry. Additionally, the presence of the resulting organometallic films on the surfaces was verified by XPS after the chemical transformation of the characterized ligand films to the ruthenium complex films. The electrochemical behavior of these films in acetonitrile solution was investigated using voltammetric methods, and the surface coverage of the organometallic films was determined from the reversible metal-based Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation waves.

  5. Covalent attachment of pyridine-type molecules to glassy carbon surfaces by electrochemical reduction of in situ generated diazonium salts. Formation of ruthenium complexes on ligand-modified surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesildag, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Ekinci, Duygu, E-mail: dekin@atauni.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2010-09-30

    In this study, pyridine, quinoline and phenanthroline molecules were covalently bonded to glassy carbon (GC) electrode surfaces for the first time using the diazonium modification method. Then, the complexation ability of the modified films with ruthenium metal cations was investigated. The derivatization of GC surfaces with heteroaromatic molecules was achieved by electrochemical reduction of the corresponding in situ generated diazonium salts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to confirm the attachment of heteroaromatic molecules to the GC surfaces and to determine the surface concentration of the films. The barrier properties of the modified GC electrodes were studied in the presence of redox probes such as Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} and Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 3+} by cyclic voltammetry. Additionally, the presence of the resulting organometallic films on the surfaces was verified by XPS after the chemical transformation of the characterized ligand films to the ruthenium complex films. The electrochemical behavior of these films in acetonitrile solution was investigated using voltammetric methods, and the surface coverage of the organometallic films was determined from the reversible metal-based Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation waves.

  6. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  7. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  8. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO 2 , HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g -1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  9. Volcano crisis response at Yellowstone volcanic complex - after-action report for exercise held at Salt Lake City, Utah, November 15, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Tilling, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    A functional tabletop exercise was run on November 14-15, 2011 in Salt Lake City, Utah, to test crisis response capabilities, communication protocols, and decision-making by the staff of the multi-agency Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) as they reacted to a hypothetical exercise scenario of accelerating volcanic unrest at the Yellowstone caldera. The exercise simulated a rapid build-up of seismic activity, ground deformation, and hot-spring water-chemistry and temperature anomalies that culminated in a small- to moderate-size phreatomagmatic eruption within Yellowstone National Park. The YVO scientific team's responses to the unfolding events in the scenario and to simulated requests for information by stakeholders and the media were assessed by (a) the exercise organizers; (b) several non-YVO scientists, who observed and queried participants, and took notes throughout the exercise; and (c) the participants themselves, who kept logs of their actions during the exercise and later participated in a group debriefing session and filled out detailed questionnaires. These evaluations were tabulated, interpreted, and summarized for this report, and on the basis of this information, recommendations have been made. Overall, the YVO teams performed their jobs very well. The exercise revealed that YVO scientists were able to successfully provide critical hazards information, issue information statements, and appropriately raise alert levels during a fast-moving crisis. Based on the exercise, it is recommended that several measures be taken to increase YVO effectiveness during a crisis: 1. Improve role clarification within and between YVO science teams. 2. Improve communications tools and protocols for data-sharing and consensus-building among YVO scientists, who are geographically and administratively dispersed among various institutions across the United States. 3. Familiarize YVO staff with Incident Command System (ICS) procedures and protocols, and provide more in

  10. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  11. Romanian experience with rock salt characterisation methods and the implications for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Daniela; Balan, Valeriu; Mirion, Ilie

    2001-01-01

    The disposal in deep geological formations as rock salt, granite or clay seems to be now the most appropriate solution for final storage of the spent fuel. At this moment, rock salt is one of the Romanian options for spent fuel disposal, but the final decision will be made only after a performance assessment of this geological formation, having as input data the specific characteristics of the salt rock. In order to provide the data requested by the safety assessment programs, the Institute for Nuclear Research - Pitesti developed complex and modern methodologies for thermodynamic parameter determination as well as studies on salt convergence and radionuclide migration. The methodologies pursued to determine those thermal properties specific for spent fuel disposal as dilatation coefficient, heat conductivity and specific heat. The convergence and migration studies pursued a better understanding of these processes, very important in the disposal safety. The paper is a review of those studies and presents the methodologies and the main results obtained on salt samples from Slanic Prahova Salt Mine. (authors)

  12. Rock salt as a medium for long-term isolation of radioactive wastes - a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1985-01-01

    Rock salt has been regarded as a suitable medium for the permanent disposal of high and medium level radioactive wastes since the National Academy of Sciences recommended it in 1957. As a result of detained site-specific studies conducted for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project in New Mexico, however, several potential problems which are unique to bedded salt deposits have emerged. These include 1) the need to delineate the extent and rate of past dissolution and projections for the future, 2) the origin and significance of brines often found underlying the salt beds, 3) the rate and volume of migration of brine from the salt crystals towards the heat producing waste canisters, 4) the creep rates and implications for retrievability, and 5) the existence of potash and oil and gas resources with implications of human intrusion in the future. These questions will also be faced for sites in salt domes with added complications due to more complex structure and hydrology. The experience at WIPP shows that the site characterization process for high level waste repositories in bedded or dome salt should aim at identifying the important issues of site suitability early in the process and a clear program should be established to address these issues

  13. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle; Stauffer, Philip H.; Weaver, Douglas James; Caporuscio, Florie Andre; Otto, Shawn; Boukhalfa, Hakim; Jordan, Amy B.; Chu, Shaoping; Zyvoloski, George Anthony; Johnson, Peter Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  14. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otto, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  15. Amine-free reversible hydrogen storage in formate salts catalyzed by ruthenium pincer complex without pH control or solvent change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothandaraman, Jotheeswari; Czaun, Miklos; Goeppert, Alain; Haiges, Ralf; Jones, John-Paul; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A

    2015-04-24

    Due to the intermittent nature of most renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, energy storage is increasingly required. Since electricity is difficult to store, hydrogen obtained by electrochemical water splitting has been proposed as an energy carrier. However, the handling and transportation of hydrogen in large quantities is in itself a challenge. We therefore present here a method for hydrogen storage based on a CO2 (HCO3 (-) )/H2 and formate equilibrium. This amine-free and efficient reversible system (>90 % yield in both directions) is catalyzed by well-defined and commercially available Ru pincer complexes. The formate dehydrogenation was triggered by simple pressure swing without requiring external pH control or the change of either the solvent or the catalyst. Up to six hydrogenation-dehydrogenation cycles were performed and the catalyst performance remained steady with high selectivity (CO free H2 /CO2 mixture was produced). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  17. Studies of the polynuclear complexes of labile ligands of vitamin B1 and Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with Fe(III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojo, J.O.

    2003-01-01

    The ligands (complex salts) of vitamin B/sub 1/ (H Vit.) and the chlorides of Zn, Cd and Hg with the general formula, [H Vit]/sup +2/ [MCl/sub 4/]/sup -2/ were prepared and their interactions with iron (III) investigated. It was found that the complex salts of Zn and Cd produced the dinuclear complexes and that of mercury produced a complex without the thiamine moiety. The possible reason for the absence of a Hg complex similar to those of Zn and Cd may be that large size of mercury ion. The complexes were characterized by elementary analyses, infrared and visible spectra, magnetic moment and conductivity measurements.(author)

  18. Mena/VASP and αII-Spectrin complexes regulate cytoplasmic actin networks in cardiomyocytes and protect from conduction abnormalities and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Peter M; Merkel, Carla J; Offner, Kristin; Abeßer, Marco; Ullrich, Melanie; Fischer, Tobias; Bayer, Barbara; Wagner, Helga; Gambaryan, Stepan; Ursitti, Jeanine A; Adham, Ibrahim M; Linke, Wolfgang A; Feller, Stephan M; Fleming, Ingrid; Renné, Thomas; Frantz, Stefan; Unger, Andreas; Schuh, Kai

    2013-08-12

    In the heart, cytoplasmic actin networks are thought to have important roles in mechanical support, myofibrillogenesis, and ion channel function. However, subcellular localization of cytoplasmic actin isoforms and proteins involved in the modulation of the cytoplasmic actin networks are elusive. Mena and VASP are important regulators of actin dynamics. Due to the lethal phenotype of mice with combined deficiency in Mena and VASP, however, distinct cardiac roles of the proteins remain speculative. In the present study, we analyzed the physiological functions of Mena and VASP in the heart and also investigated the role of the proteins in the organization of cytoplasmic actin networks. We generated a mouse model, which simultaneously lacks Mena and VASP in the heart. Mena/VASP double-deficiency induced dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction abnormalities. In wild-type mice, Mena and VASP specifically interacted with a distinct αII-Spectrin splice variant (SH3i), which is in cardiomyocytes exclusively localized at Z- and intercalated discs. At Z- and intercalated discs, Mena and β-actin localized to the edges of the sarcomeres, where the thin filaments are anchored. In Mena/VASP double-deficient mice, β-actin networks were disrupted and the integrity of Z- and intercalated discs was markedly impaired. Together, our data suggest that Mena, VASP, and αII-Spectrin assemble cardiac multi-protein complexes, which regulate cytoplasmic actin networks. Conversely, Mena/VASP deficiency results in disrupted β-actin assembly, Z- and intercalated disc malformation, and induces dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction abnormalities.

  19. Fundamentals of molten-salt thermal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This book has been published by the Society of Molten-Salt Thermal Technology to publish a part of the achievement of its members. This book is composed of seven chapters. The chapter 1 is Introduction. The chapter 2 explains the physical properties of molten salts, such as thermal behavior, surface tension, viscosity, electrical conductivity and others. The chapter 3 presents the compatibility with construction materials. Corrosion in molten salts, the electrochemical behavior of fluoride ions on carbon electrodes in fluoride melts, the behaviors of hastelloy N and metals in melts are items of this chapter. The equipments and instruments for molten salts are described in chapter 4. The heat transfer in molten salts is discussed in chapter 5. The chapter 6 explains the application of molten salt technology. The molten salt technology can be applied not only to thermal engineering and energy engineering but also to chemical and nuclear engineerings, and the technical fundamentals, current development status, technical problems and the perspective for the future are outlined. The chapter 7 is the summary of this book. The commercialization of molten salt power reactors is discussed at the end of this book. (Kato, T.)

  20. Gas release during salt well pumping: model predictions and comparisons to laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, L.M.; Caley, S.M.; Bian, E.Y.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate mixtures of flammable gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Nineteen of these SSTs have been placed on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because they are known or suspected, in all but one case, to retain these flammable gases. Salt well pumping to remove the interstitial liquid from SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. Research at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has sought to quantify the release of flammable gases during salt well pumping operations. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the PNNL Flammable Gas Project. Understanding and quantifying the physical mechanisms and waste properties that govern gas release during salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues

  1. Conductivity, XRD, and FTIR studies of New Mg2+-ion-conducting solid polymer electrolytes: [PEG: Mg(CH3COO)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polu, Anji Reddy; Kumar, Ranveer; Causin, Valerio; Neppalli, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes based on poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) doped with Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 have been prepared by using the solution-casting method. The X-ray diffraction patterns of PEG with Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 salt indicated a decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing concentration of the salt. The complexation of Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 salt with the polymer was confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. The ionic conductivity was measured for the [PEG: Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 ] system in the frequency range 50 Hz - 1 MHz. The addition of Mg salt was found to improve the ionic conductivity significantly. The 15-wt-% Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 -doped system had a maximum conductivity of 1.07 x 10 -6 S/cm at 303 K. The conductance spectrum shows two distinct regions: a dc plateau and a dispersive region. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity reveals the conduction mechanism to be an Arrhenius-type thermally activated process.

  2. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-01-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions

  3. Modelling electrical conductivity of groundwater using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tutmez (Bulent); Z. Hatipoglu (Z.); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractElectrical conductivity is an important indicator for water quality assessment. Since the composition of mineral salts affects the electrical conductivity of groundwater, it is important to understand the relationships between mineral salt composition and electrical conductivity. In this

  4. Modelling electrical conductivity of groundwater using and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutmez, B.; Hatipoglu, Z.; Kaymak, U.

    2006-01-01

    Electrical conductivity is an important indicator for water quality assessment. Since the composition of mineral salts affects the electrical conductivity of groundwater, it is important to understand the relationships between mineral salt composition and electrical conductivity. In this present

  5. Molten salt: Corrosion problems and electrometallurgy in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A bibliographic survey is given of corrosion problems and electrometallurgical problems of molten salt in nuclear reactor applications. Due to the high potential to be achieved, their high ionic conductivity and the rapidity of reactions in a molten salt atmosphere, molten salts are interesting solvents for various electrometallurgical processes. Another important field of application is in the separation or electrolytical refining of various metals (Be, U, Pu, Th, Hf, Zr). However, these very characteristics of molten salts may also cause serious corrosion problems. Results obtained for the molten-salt reactor and the different causes of corrosion are reviewed an possible countermeasures analyzed. (orig.)

  6. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Electrochemical ion separation in molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Ihlefeld, Jon; Waldrip, Karen; Wheeler, Jill S.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.

    2017-12-19

    A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

  8. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  9. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

    1976-08-01

    A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

  10. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  11. Multi-frequency time-difference complex conductivity imaging of canine and human lungs using the KHU Mark1 EIT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuen, Jihyeon; Woo, Eung Je; Seo, Jin Keun

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the lately developed electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system KHU Mark1 through time-difference imaging experiments of canine and human lungs. We derived a multi-frequency time-difference EIT (mftdEIT) image reconstruction algorithm based on the concept of the equivalent homogeneous complex conductivity. Imaging experiments were carried out at three different frequencies of 10, 50 and 100 kHz with three different postures of right lateral, sitting (or prone) and left lateral positions. For three normal canine subjects, we controlled the ventilation using a ventilator at three tidal volumes of 100, 150 and 200 ml. Three human subjects were asked to breath spontaneously at a normal tidal volume. Real- and imaginary-part images of the canine and human lungs were reconstructed at three frequencies and three postures. Images showed different stages of breathing cycles and we could interpret them based on the understanding of the proposed mftdEIT image reconstruction algorithm. Time series of images were further analyzed by using the functional EIT (fEIT) method. Images of human subjects showed the gravity effect on air distribution in two lungs. In the canine subjects, the morphological change seems to dominate the gravity effect. We could also observe that two different types of ventilation should have affected the results. The KHU Mark1 EIT system is expected to provide reliable mftdEIT images of the human lungs. In terms of the image reconstruction algorithm, it would be worthwhile including the effects of three-dimensional current flows inside the human thorax. We suggest clinical trials of the KHU Mark1 for pulmonary applications

  12. Interface Study of ITO/ZnO and ITO/SnO2 Complex Transparent Conductive Layers and Their Effect on CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingliang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent ITO/ZnO and ITO/SnO2 complex conductive layers were prepared by DC- and RF-magnetron sputtering. Their structure and optical and electronic performances were studied by XRD, UV/Vis Spectroscopy, and four-probe technology. The interface characteristic and band offset of the ITO/ZnO, ITO/SnO2, and ITO/CdS were investigated by Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, and the energy band diagrams have also been determined. The results show that ITO/ZnO and ITO/SnO2 films have good optical and electrical properties. The energy barrier those at the interface of ITO/ZnO and ITO/SnO2 layers are almost 0.4 and 0.44 eV, which are lower than in ITO/CdS heterojunctions (0.9 eV, which is beneficial for the transfer and collection of electrons in CdTe solar cells and reduces the minority carrier recombination at the interface, compared to CdS/ITO. The effects of their use in CdTe solar cells were studied by AMPS-1D software simulation using experiment values obtained from ZnO, ITO, and SnO2. From the simulation, we confirmed the increase of Eff, FF, Voc, and Isc by the introduction of ITO/ZnO and ITO/SnO2 layers in CdTe solar cells.

  13. Multi-frequency time-difference complex conductivity imaging of canine and human lungs using the KHU Mark1 EIT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuen, Jihyeon; Woo, Eung Je; Seo, Jin Keun

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of the lately developed electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system KHU Mark1 through time-difference imaging experiments of canine and human lungs. We derived a multi-frequency time-difference EIT (mftdEIT) image reconstruction algorithm based on the concept of the equivalent homogeneous complex conductivity. Imaging experiments were carried out at three different frequencies of 10, 50 and 100 kHz with three different postures of right lateral, sitting (or prone) and left lateral positions. For three normal canine subjects, we controlled the ventilation using a ventilator at three tidal volumes of 100, 150 and 200 ml. Three human subjects were asked to breath spontaneously at a normal tidal volume. Real- and imaginary-part images of the canine and human lungs were reconstructed at three frequencies and three postures. Images showed different stages of breathing cycles and we could interpret them based on the understanding of the proposed mftdEIT image reconstruction algorithm. Time series of images were further analyzed by using the functional EIT (fEIT) method. Images of human subjects showed the gravity effect on air distribution in two lungs. In the canine subjects, the morphological change seems to dominate the gravity effect. We could also observe that two different types of ventilation should have affected the results. The KHU Mark1 EIT system is expected to provide reliable mftdEIT images of the human lungs. In terms of the image reconstruction algorithm, it would be worthwhile including the effects of three-dimensional current flows inside the human thorax. We suggest clinical trials of the KHU Mark1 for pulmonary applications.

  14. 168 Hours Salt Fog Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin

    2011-01-01

    This report explained the test conducted in salt fog chamber to evaluate the effectiveness of mild steel, coated with rust converter, for 168 hours in artificial seawater exposure. The samples were compared with mild steel coated with commercial primer. The tests were conducted followed ASTM B117. Individual pictures were taken of each sample before the tests began, at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours to see the progression of the corrosion. Results showed that the samples coated with rust converter provide a good significant protection against corrosion phenomenon than the samples coated with commercial primer that available in the market. (author)

  15. Temperature profiles from Salt Valley, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J. H.; Lachenbruch, A. H.; Smith, E. P.

    Temperature profiles were obtained in the nine drilled wells as part of a thermal study of the Salt Valley anticline, Paradox Basin, Utha. Thermal conductivities were also measured on 10 samples judged to be representative of the rocks encountered in the deepest hole. The temperature profiles and thermal conductivities are presented, together with preliminary interpretive remarks and suggestions for additional work.

  16. Site characterization plan: Gulf Coast salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing technology and providing facilities for safe, environmentally acceptable, permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation has been intensively investigating Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin salt domes and bedded salt in Texas and Utah since 1978. In the Gulf Coast, the application of screening criteria in the region phase led to selection of eight domes for further study in the location phase. Further screening in the area phase identified four domes for more intensive study in the location phase: Oakwood Dome, Texas; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome, Mississippi. For each dome, this Site Characterization Plan identifies specific hydrologic, geologic, tectonic, geochemical, and environmental key issues that are related to the DOE/NWTS screening criteria or affect the feasibility of constructing an exploratory shaft. The Site Characterization Plan outlines studies need to: (1) resolve issues sufficiently to allow one or more salt domes to be selected and compared to bedded salt sites in order to determine a prime salt site for an exploratory shaft; (2) conduct issue-related studies to provide a higher level of confidence that the preferred salt dome site is viable for construction of an exploratory shaft; and (3) provide a vehicle for state input to issues. Extensive references, 7 figures, 20 tables

  17. Conductivity, dielectric behavior and FTIR studies of high molecular weight poly(vinylchloride)-lithium triflate polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, S.; Chai, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of high molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with lithium triflate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) salt were prepared by solution casting method. The ionic conductivity and dielectric measurements were carried out on these films over a wide frequency regime at various temperatures. The conductivity-temperature plots were found to obey classical Arrhenius relationship. The dielectric behavior was analysed using dielectric permittivity and dielectric modulus of the samples. FTIR studies show some simple overlapping and shift in peaks between high molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with lithium triflate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) salt in the polymer electrolyte complexes

  18. Conductivity, dielectric behavior and FTIR studies of high molecular weight poly(vinylchloride)-lithium triflate polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, S. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: ramesh@mail.utar.edu.my; Chai, M.F. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2007-05-15

    Thin films of high molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with lithium triflate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) salt were prepared by solution casting method. The ionic conductivity and dielectric measurements were carried out on these films over a wide frequency regime at various temperatures. The conductivity-temperature plots were found to obey classical Arrhenius relationship. The dielectric behavior was analysed using dielectric permittivity and dielectric modulus of the samples. FTIR studies show some simple overlapping and shift in peaks between high molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with lithium triflate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) salt in the polymer electrolyte complexes.

  19. Plutonium and americium recovery from spent molten-salt-extraction salts with aluminum-magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusick, M.J.; Sherwood, W.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Development work was performed to determine the feasibility of removing plutonium and americium from spent molten-salt-extraction (MSE) salts using Al-Mg alloys. If the product buttons from this process are compatible with subsequent aqueous processing, the complex chloride-to-nitrate aqueous conversion step which is presently required for these salts may be eliminated. The optimum alloy composition used to treat spent 8 wt % MSE salts in the past yielded poor phase-disengagement characteristics when applied to 30 mol % salts. After a limited investigation of other alloy compositions in the Al-Mg-Pu-Am system, it was determined that the Al-Pu-Am system could yield a compatible alloy. In this system, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of plutonium loading in the alloy, excess magnesium, age of the spent salt on actinide recovery, phase disengagement, and button homogeneity. Experimental results indicate that 95 percent plutonium recoveries can be attained for fresh salts. Further development is required for backlog salts generated prior to 1981. A homogeneous product alloy, as required for aqueous processing, could not be produced

  20. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  1. Catalysts for selective hydrogenation of furfural derived from the double complex salt [Pd(NH 3 ) 4 ](ReO 4 ) 2 on γ-Al 2 O 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Simon T.; Lamb, H. Henry

    2017-06-01

    The double complex salt [Pd(NH3)4](ReO4)2 was employed as precursor of supported bimetallic catalysts for selective hydrogenation of furfural. Direct reduction of [Pd(NH3)4](ReO4)2 on γ-Al2O3 in flowing H2 at 400 °C yields bimetallic nanoparticles 1–2 nm in size that exhibit significant interaction between the metals, as evidenced by temperature-programmed hydride decomposition (complete suppression of β-PdHx formation), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at the Pd K and Re LIII edges (PdRe distance = 2.72 Å), and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In contrast, calcination of [Pd(NH3)4](ReO4)2 on γ-Al2O3 at 350 °C in air and subsequent reduction in H2 at 400 °C results in metal segregation and formation of large (>50 nm) supported Pd particles; Re species cover the Pd particles and γ-Al2O3 support. A PdRe 1:2 catalyst prepared by sequential impregnation and calcination using HReO4 and [Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2 has a similar morphology. The catalyst derived by direct reduction of [Pd(NH3)4](ReO4)2 on γ-Al2O3 exhibits remarkably high activity for selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol (FAL) at 150 °C and 1 atm. Suppression of H2 chemisorption via elimination of Pd threefold sites, as evidenced by CO diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, correlates with increased FAL selectivity.

  2. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  3. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  4. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  5. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  6. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  7. Synthesis and Identification of the Organic Reagent Ereochrom Black T and its Complex with Cobalt (lll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassem M. Abd Al Hassein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ligand 1–(4–Hydroxy –3–Naphthalene Azo–4–Nitro–8–Hydroxy–6–Sulfonic Naphthalene Acid Sodium Salt was synthesized (by the reaction between 3–amino–4– hydroxyl naphthalene and 3 – nitro – 7 – hydroxyl –5– sulfonic naphthalene acid sodium salt and characterized by FTIR technique, its ionization constants (PKs were determined. Synthesis and spectroscopic investigations of its complex with Co (III in aqueous solution revealed the sole formation of (1: 2 (metal: ligand complex. Specral and magnatic studies of the isolated complex indicates octahedral coordination via the N atoms of the azo groups and the O atoms of the hydroxyl groups. The molar conductivity of the complex was determined in an alcoholic solutions indicates that the complex has high molar conductivity. The magnetic properties were determined by using Gouy balance which indicates diamagnetic complex.

  8. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  9. Static fuel molten salt reactors - simpler, cheaper and safer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The many conceptual designs for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR's) today are all evolutions from the prototype MSR that went critical at Oak Ridge 50 years ago. Critically, they are based on pumping the molten fuel salt from a reaction chamber where the fuel achieves critical mass through a heat exchanger where the resulting heat is transferred to another working fluid. This basic concept was not the first idea that the Oak Ridge scientists considered. Their initial preference was to put the molten salt fuel into tubes, just like solid fuel pellets in their cladding, and circulate a coolant past the tubes. They concluded however that the low thermal conductivity of the salt meant that the tubes could be no wider than 2mm which would be entirely impractical. In this analysis they ignored the contribution of convection to heat transfer in fluids, probably because they were designing an aircraft engine where varying g forces would make convection unreliable. Moltex Energy has re-examined this decision using the modern tools of computational fluid dynamics to simulate convective flow in the molten salt and discovered that in fact tubes of similar diameter to those used for solid fuels are entirely practical. Power densities of 250kW/litre of fuel salt are readily attainable providing a higher overall power density than a PWR reactor. This discovery permits MSR's to be built without any of the complex pumping, passively safe drain systems, on line degassing, filtration and chemical processing needed in pumped MSR's. Their design is very simple and they have many intrinsic safety factors including low pressure operation, chemically unreactive fluids and strongly negative fuel thermal and coolant voiding reactivity coefficients. Most importantly, the highly radioactive fission products are retained in non-volatile form within the fuel tubes in the reactor core. Radioactive fuel salt never leaves the reactor vessel except in an immobile frozen form during

  10. Investigations on PVdF- HFP - PEMA polymer blend electrolytes doped with different lithium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojkumar Ubarhande, Radha; Bhattacharya, Shreya; Usha Rani, M.; Shanker Babu, Ravi; Krishnaveni, S.

    2017-11-01

    Plasticized polymer blend electrolytes were prepared by incorporating poly (vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)(PVdF-HFP) and poly(ethylmethacrylate) (PEMA) complexed with plasticizer (PC) and different lithium salts such as LiClO4, LiBF4, LiCF3SO3 and LiN (CF3SO2)2) using solution-casting technique. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red techniques confirms the structural characters and complex formation of the polymer electrolytes respectively. AC impedance analysis was carried out for all the samples in the range303-373K. The results suggest that among the various lithium salts, LiN (CF3SO2)2) based electrolytes exhibited the highest ionic conductivity (3.17 × 10-3 Scm-1).

  11. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  12. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from -5 md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability ( -5 md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing

  13. Effect of salt stress on growth, inorganic ion and proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibitory effect of salt stress in rice is complex and is one of the main reasons for reduction of plant growth and crop productivity. In the present study, the response of rice callus cultivar Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML105), commonly known as Thai jasmine rice, to salt stress was examined. Callus cultures of KDML105 rice ...

  14. Investigation of ionic conduction in PEO-PVDF based blend polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patla, Subir Kumar; Ray, Ruma; Asokan, K.; Karmakar, Sanat

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effect of blend host polymer on solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) films doped with ammonium iodide (NH4I) salt using a variety of experimental techniques. Structural studies on the composite SPEs show that the blending of Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymers in a suitable ratio enhances the amorphous fraction of the polymer matrix and facilitates fast ion conduction through it. We observe that the addition of a small amount of PVDF in the PEO host polymer enhances the ion - polymer interaction leading to more ion dissociation. As a result, the effective number of mobile charge carriers within the polymer matrix increases. Systematic investigation in these blend SPEs shows that the maximum conductivity (1.01 × 10-3 S/cm) is obtained for PEO - rich (80 wt. % PEO, 20 wt. % PVDF) composites at 35 wt. % NH4I concentration at room temperature. Interestingly, at higher salt concentrations (above 35 wt. %), the conductivity is found to decrease in this system. The reduction of conductivity at higher salt concentrations is the consequence of decrease in the carrier concentration due to the formation of an ion pair and ion aggregates. PVDF-rich compositions (20 wt. % PEO and 80 wt. % PVDF), on the other hand, show a very complex porous microstructure. We also observe a much lower ionic conductivity (maximum ˜ 10-6 S/cm at 15 wt. % salt) in these composite systems relative to PEO-rich composites.

  15. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  16. Drop the Salt! Assessing the impact of a public health advocacy strategy on Australian government policy on salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth; Kennington, Sarah; Neal, Bruce; Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) launched a campaign to encourage the Australian government to take action to reduce population salt intake. The objective of the present research was to assess the impact of the Drop the Salt! campaign on government policy. A review of government activities related to salt reduction was conducted and an advocacy strategy implemented to increase government action on salt. Advocacy actions were documented and the resulting outcomes identified. An analysis of stakeholder views on the effectiveness of the advocacy strategy was also undertaken. Settings Advocacy activities were coordinated through AWASH at the George Institute for Global Health in Sydney. All relevant State and Federal government statements and actions were reviewed and thirteen stakeholders with known interests or responsibilities regarding dietary salt, including food industry, government and health organisations, were interviewed. Stakeholder analysis affirmed that AWASH influenced the government's agenda on salt reduction and four key outputs were attributed to the campaign: (i) the Food Regulation Standing Committee discussions on salt, (ii) the Food and Health Dialogue salt targets, (iii) National Health and Medical Research Council partnership funding and (iv) the New South Wales Premier's Forum on Fast Foods. While it is not possible to definitively attribute changes in government policy to one organisation, stakeholder research indicated that the AWASH campaign increased the priority of salt reduction on the government's agenda. However, a coordinated government strategy on salt reduction is still required to ensure that the potential health benefits are fully realised.

  17. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  18. Atom states and interatomic interactions in complex perovskite-like oxides. Communication XX. Origin of electron-ionic conductivity in lanthanum gallates doped with strontium and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chezhina, N.V.; Zolotukhina, N.V.; Pijr, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibilities and electric conductivities of solid solutions based on lanthanum gallate containing chromium and strontium atoms in the ratio of 10 : 2 were studied. It was shown that no partial oxidation of chromium to Cr(IV) occurs when lanthanum gallate is doped with chromium and strontium simultaneously, whereas the ionic conductivity is associated with the appearance of vacancies stabilized by chromium atoms in the oxygen sublattice [ru

  19. The effects of tree establishment on water and salt dynamics in naturally salt-affected grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosetto, Marcelo D; Jobbágy, Esteban G; Tóth, Tibor; Di Bella, Carlos M

    2007-07-01

    Plants, by influencing water fluxes across the ecosystem-vadose zone-aquifer continuum, can leave an imprint on salt accumulation and distribution patterns. We explored how the conversion of native grasslands to oak plantations affected the abundance and distribution of salts on soils and groundwater through changes in the water balance in naturally salt-affected landscapes of Hortobagy (Hungary), a region where artificial drainage performed approximately 150 years ago lowered the water table (from -2 to -5 m) decoupling it from the surface ecosystem. Paired soil sampling and detailed soil conductivity transects revealed consistently different salt distribution patterns between grasslands and plantations, with shallow salinity losses and deep salinity gains accompanying tree establishment. Salts accumulated in the upper soil layers during pre-drainage times have remained in drained grasslands but have been flushed away under tree plantations (65 and 83% loss of chloride and sodium, respectively, in the 0 to -0.5 m depth range) as a result of a five- to 25-fold increase in infiltration rates detected under plantations. At greater depth, closer to the current water table level, the salt balance was reversed, with tree plantations gaining 2.5 kg sodium chloride m(-2) down to 6 m depth, resulting from groundwater uptake and salt exclusion by tree roots in the capillary fringe. Diurnal water table fluctuations, detected in a plantation stand but not in the neighbouring grasslands, together with salt mass balances suggest that trees consumed approximately 380 mm groundwater per year, re-establishing the discharge regime and leading to higher salt accumulation rates than those interrupted by regional drainage practices more than a century ago. The strong influences of vegetation changes on water dynamics can have cascading consequences on salt accumulation and distribution, and a broad ecohydrological perspective that explicitly considers vegetation-groundwater links is

  20. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  1. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  2. Salt Sensitivity: Challenging and Controversial Phenotype of Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrino, Rossella; Manunta, Paolo; Zagato, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Increases in life expectancy and cardiovascular adverse events in patients with hypertension highlight the need for new risk-reduction strategies to reduce the burden of degenerative diseases. Among the environmental factors, high salt consumption is currently considered the most important risk factor of hypertension. However, while high salt intake significantly raises blood pressure in some individuals, others do not show variation or even decrease their blood pressure. This heterogeneity is respectively classified as salt sensitivity and salt resistance. In this review, we propose salt sensitivity as a useful phenotype to unravel the mechanistic complexity of primary hypertension. The individual variability in blood pressure modification in response to salt intake changes derives from the combination of genetic and environmental determinants. This combination of random and non random determinants leads to the development of a personal index of sensitivity to salt. However, those genes involved in susceptibility to salt are still not completely identified, and the triggering mechanisms underlying the following development of hypertension still remain uncovered. One reason might be represented by the absence of a specific protocol, universally followed, for a standard definition of salt sensitivity. Another reason may be linked to the absence of common criteria for patient recruitment during clinical studies. Thus, the generation of a reliable approach for a proper recognition of this personal index of sensitivity to salt, and through it the identification of novel therapeutic targets for primary hypertension, should be one of the aspirations for the scientific community.

  3. Equivalent complex conductivities representing the effects of T-tubules and folded surface membranes on the electrical admittance and impedance of skeletal muscles measured by external-electrode method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Katsuhisa

    2017-12-01

    In order to represent the effects of T-tubules and folded surface membranes on the electrical admittance and impedance of skeletal muscles measured by the external-electrode method, analytical relations for the equivalent complex conductivities of hypothetical smooth surface membranes were derived. In the relations, the effects of each tubule were represented by the admittance of a straight cable. The effects of the folding of a surface membrane were represented by the increased area of surface membranes. The equivalent complex conductivities were represented as summation of these effects, and the effects of the T-tubules were different between the transversal and longitudinal directions. The validity of the equivalent complex conductivities was supported by the results of finite-difference method (FDM) calculations made using three-dimensional models in which T-tubules and folded surface membranes were represented explicitly. FDM calculations using the equivalent complex conductivities suggested that the electrically inhomogeneous structure due to the existence of muscle cells with T-tubules was sufficient for explaining the experimental results previously obtained using the external-electrode method. Results of FDM calculations in which the structural changes caused by muscle contractions were taken into account were consistent with the reported experimental results.

  4. Studies on the Properties of Plasticizer and Lithium Salt on PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of plasticizer and lithium salt on PMMA-based solid polymer electrolyte have been investigated. In current project, three system samples consisted of pure poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) system, plasticized poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA-EC) system and the LiCF 3 SO 3 salted-poly(methyl methacrylate) containing a fixed amount of plasticizer ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system have been prepared using solution casting technique. The conductivities of the films from each system are characterized by impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectrum. With the addition of plasticizer, results show improvement on the ionic conductivity value where the value of 6.25x10 -10 Scm -1 is obtained. This may be due to the nature of plasticizer that softens the polymer and hence enhanced the ionic transportation across the polymer. The room temperature conductivity for the highest conducting sample in the ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 1.36x10 -5 Scm -1 . Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates complexation between the polymer and the plasticizer and the polymer, the plasticizer and the salts, and the result of XRD further supports the observation.

  5. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  6. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  7. Genetic predisposition to salt-sensitivity : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeks, Esther; Kessels, Alfons G H; Kroon, Abraham A; van der Klauw, Melanie M; de Leeuw, Peter W

    PURPOSE: To assess the role of genetic polymorphisms in salt sensitivity of blood pressure. DATA IDENTIFICATION: We conducted a systematic review by searching the Medline literature from March 1993 to June 2003. Each paper was scrutinized and data concerning study population, method of salt

  8. Experimental results on salt concrete for barrier elements made of salt concrete in a repository for radioactive waste in a salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsch, Alex-W.; Preuss, Juergen; Mauke, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The Bartensleben rock salt mine in Germany was used as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste from 1971 to 1991 and from 1994 to 1998. The repository with an overall volume of about 6 million m 3 has to be closed. Salt concrete is used for the refill of the voids of the repository. The concrete mixtures contain crushed salt instead of natural aggregates as the void filling material should be as similar to the salt rock as possible. Very high requirements regarding low heat development and little or even no cracking during concrete hardening had to be fulfilled even for the barrier elements made from salt concrete which separate the radioactive waste from the environment. Requirements for the salt concrete were set up with regard to the fluidity of the fresh concrete during the hardening process and its durability. In the view of a comprehensive numerical calculations of the temperature development and thermal stresses in the massive salt concrete elements of the backfill of the voids, experimental results for material properties of the salt concrete are presented: mixture of the salt concrete, thermodynamic properties (adiabatic heat release, thermal dilatation, thermal conductivity and heat capacity), mechanical short term properties, creep (under tension, under compression), autogenous shrinkage

  9. Assessment of a Salt Reduction Intervention on Adult Population Salt Intake in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Pillay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing population salt intake is a global public health priority due to the potential to save lives and reduce the burden on the healthcare system through decreased blood pressure. This implementation science research project set out to measure salt consumption patterns and to assess the impact of a complex, multi-faceted intervention to reduce population salt intake in Fiji between 2012 and 2016. The intervention combined initiatives to engage food businesses to reduce salt in foods and meals with targeted consumer behavior change programs. There were 169 participants at baseline (response rate 28.2% and 272 at 20 months (response rate 22.4%. The mean salt intake from 24-h urine samples was estimated to be 11.7 grams per day (g/d at baseline and 10.3 g/d after 20 months (difference: −1.4 g/day, 95% CI −3.1 to 0.3, p = 0.115. Sub-analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in female salt intake in the Central Division but no differential impact in relation to age or ethnicity. Whilst the low response rate means it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about these changes, the population salt intake in Fiji, at 10.3 g/day, is still twice the World Health Organization’s (WHO recommended maximum intake. This project also assessed iodine intake levels in women of child-bearing age and found that they were within recommended guidelines. Existing policies and programs to reduce salt intake and prevent iodine deficiency need to be maintained or strengthened. Monitoring to assess changes in salt intake and to ensure that iodine levels remain adequate should be built into future surveys.

  10. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi-Jafari, M.

    2007-11-01

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  11. Low-temperature VRH conduction through complex materials in the presence of a temperature-dependent voltage threshold: A semi-classical percolative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.K.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we study the variation of low temperature (T) dc conductance, G(T), of a semi-classical percolative Random Resistor cum Tunneling-bond Network (RRTN), in the presence of a linearly temperature-dependent microscopic voltage threshold, υ g (T). This model (proposed by our group in the early 90's) considers a phenomenological semi-classical tunneling (or, hopping through a barrier) process. Just as in our previous constant-υ g case, we find in the present study also that the variable range hopping (VRH) exponent γ varies continuously with the ohmic concentration p in a non-monotonic fashion. In addition, we observe a new shoulder-like behaviour of G(T) in the intermediate temperature range, below the conductance maximum. (author)

  12. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  13. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  14. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  15. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  16. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  17. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  18. Links and Feedbacks between Salt Diapirs, Hydrates, and Submarine Landslides: Example from Cape Fear, offshore North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D.; Akinci, L.; Nikolinakou, M. A.; Heidari, M.

    2015-12-01

    New 2-dimensional multi-channel seismic data acquired offshore east coast U.S.A in autumn 2014 provide high-resolution insight into the post-rift evolution of the margin by dynamic, interrelated processes of sediment transport, slope failure, salt diapirism, and gas hydrate formation and dissociation. This area contains some of the largest slope failure complexes in the North Atlantic and on-going salt tectonics and large-scale growth faulting continue to shape the margin. In addition, there is strong evidence for the existence of gas hydrate via bottom-simulating reflectors. The best example of where salt diapirism, hydrates, and landslides are affecting near-surface sediments is the Cape Fear Slide Complex in which two salt diapirs are surrounded by the 120-meter tall amphitheater-shaped lower headwall of the Cape Fear landslide, which occurred approximately 24-42 kya. One of the diapirs currently stands above the present-day seafloor. Previous interpretations propose that the Cape Fear landslide was triggered by the rising salt diaper. We test this by integrating our geophysical observations with cores from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 172 and an analytical model that solves for the upward velocity of salt diapirs based on regional basin sediment thickness and diapir diameter. We find that the rate of salt rise is 4-15 m/My. This indicates less than 1 meter post-landslide rise has occurred and thus that the present-day morphology as imaged in seismic data represents the geometry at the time of the Cape Fear landslide. Current sediment angles on the flanks of the diapir are a maximum of 7°, which are statically stable at hydrostatic pore pressure. This suggests that simple oversteepening is not enough to explain the landslide. The hydraulic conductivity of sediments is estimated from nearby ODP sites to be an order of magnitude greater than the upward salt velocity, which suggests that overpressure in the roof sediments was unlikely. We tentatively propose that

  19. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  20. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  1. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part 'CIRCUITS' regroups under a condensed form - in French and using international units - the essential information contained in both basic documents of the American project for a molten-salt breeder power plant. This part is only dealing with things relating to the CEA-EDF workshop 'CIRCUITS'. It is not concerned with information on: the reactor and the moderator replacement, the primary and secondary salts, and the fuel salt reprocessing, that are dealt with in parts 'CORE' and 'CHEMISTRY' respectively. The possible evolutions in the data - and solutions - taken by the American designers for their successive projects (1970 to 1972) are shown. The MSBR power plant comprises three successive heat transfer circuits. The primary circuit (Hastelloy N), radioactive and polluted, containing the fuel salt, includes the reactor, pumps and exchangers. The secondary circuit (pipings made of modified Hastelloy N) contaminated in the exchanger, ensures the separation between the fuel and the fluid operating the turbo-alternator. The water-steam circuit feeds the turbine with steam. This steam is produced in the steam generator flowed by the secondary fluid. Some subsidiary circuits (discharge and storage of the primary and secondary salts, ventilation of the primary circuit ...) complete the three principal circuits which are briefly described. All circuits are enclosed inside the controlled-atmosphere building of the nuclear boiler. This building also ensures the biological protection and the mechanical protection against outer aggressions [fr

  2. Ion beam irradiation as a tool to improve the ionic conductivity in solid polymer electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H., E-mail: h-manjunath@blr.amrita.edu; Kumaraswamy, G. N. [Department of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bengaluru-560 035 (India); Damle, R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru-560 056 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have potential applications in solid state electronic and energy devices. The optimum conductivity of SPEs required for such applications is about 10{sup −1} – 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is observed that ionic conductivity of SPEs continuously increase with increasing concentration of inorganic salt in the host polymer. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity of SPEs decreases due to the formation of ion pairs. In the present study, solid polymer thin films based on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with NaBr salt with different concentrations have been prepared and the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO{sub x}NaBr is identified. The microstructure of the SPE with highest ionic conductivity is modified by irradiating it with low energy O{sup +1} ion (100 keV) of different fluencies. It is observed that the ionic conductivity of irradiated SPEs increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains due to radiation induced micro structural modification.

  3. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  4. Numerical analysis of the bearing capacity of complex rock mechanical underground systems with filigree structures in the presence of imponderables. A contribution to the systematization of the investigative process with application/demonstration using the example of the salt cavern ASSE II/south flank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyogtyev, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    The thesis dealing with the numerical analysis of the bearing capacity of complex rock mechanical underground systems with filigree structures in the presence of imponderables covers the following issues: status of science and technology, concept for the performance of numerical studies on the bearing capacity of large-volume underground systems, application example salt cavern ASSE II - application of the developed concept/development of numerical tools for the overall system/application of the global model to the given questions/realization of the modification potential.

  5. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the...

  6. An antibody to the GM1/GalNAc-GD1a complex correlates with development of pure motor Guillain-Barré syndrome with reversible conduction failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Go; Kaida, Ken-ichi; Kuwahara, Motoi; Kimura, Fumihiko; Kamakura, Keiko; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2013-01-15

    Antibodies to a ganglioside complex consisting of GM1 and GalNAc-GD1a (GM1/GalNAc-GD1a) are found in sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To elucidate the clinical significance of anti-GM1/GalNAc-GD1a antibodies in GBS, clinical features of 58 GBS patients with IgG anti-GM1/GalNAc-GD1a antibodies confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thin layer chromatography immunostaining were analyzed. Compared to GBS patients without anti-GM1/GalNAc-GD1a antibodies, anti-GM1/GalNAc-GD1a-positive patients more frequently had a preceding respiratory infection (n=38, 66%, pbedridden cases were able to walk independently within one month after the nadir. These results show that the presence of anti-GM1/GalNAc-GD1a antibodies correlated with pure motor GBS characterized by antecedent respiratory infection, fewer cranial nerve deficits, and CBs at intermediate sites of motor nerves. The CB may be generated through alteration of the regulatory function of sodium channels in the nodal axolemma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tony

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 3Inner Mongolia Industrial Engineering Research, Center of University for Castor, Tongliao 028042, ... strengthen and improve salt stress tolerance in plants. .... 2 µl cDNA, 1 µl each of 4 µM forward and reverse primer, 0.2 µl.

  8. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  9. Salt repository design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure

  10. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  11. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  12. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  13. Piezometric level and electrical conductivity spatiotemporal monitoring as an instrument to design further managed aquifer recharge strategies in a complex estuarial system under anthropogenic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Victor Hugo R; Bertrand, Guillaume F; Montenegro, Suzana M G L; Paiva, Anderson L R; Almeida, Cristiano N; Galvão, Carlos O; Barbosa, Luís Romero; Batista, Larissa F D R; Ferreira, Eduardo L G A

    2018-03-01

    Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR, NE Brazil) lies over a multi-layered aquifer system located in an estuarial area. The region has experienced fast population growth and repeated droughts in the last three decades, which led to unprecedented anthropogenic pressure on groundwater resources because of intense water pumping. Accordingly, scientific and stakeholder communities have been challenged to ensure the maintenance of sustainable groundwater resource by managing all water cycle. Because controlling pumping rates is difficult due to the large number of illegal wells, the Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategies are now under consideration. The RMR presents a tropical climate and an annual average rainfall rate of approximately 2450 mm year -1 , providing great potential volumes of water to be used for piezometric level recovery. However, MAR implementation requires a detailed and in-depth knowledge of the human-impact on the hydrogeological behavior of the resource over the long-term, in order to find out the most appropriate recharge strategy. Therefore, the present study illustrates how routine data monitoring, i.e., piezometric level and electrical conductivity (EC), in combination with the geological knowledge, may allow proposing further MAR strategies. Two contrasted behaviors were observed in RMR: (i) groundwater level decrease and stable EC in the North and Southernmost areas of Recife; and (ii) stable groundwater level and high/varying EC values next to the estuarial zone. Although aquifers are undergoing over-abstraction, this spatiotemporal heterogeneity suggests that a recharge is possibly locally favored next to the estuarial area of the RMR thanks to hydraulic connections between surface and deep aquifers throughout extended paleo-channels. Thus, based on this typology, MAR implementation through controlled infiltration close to the estuarial area seems to be more appropriated, whereas the direct deep injection appears to be more relevant in more

  14. Development of the direct modification method of the ruthenium complex on conductive diamond surfaces and the selective detection of bio-related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Y.; Miyamoto, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Nagumo, A.; Katsuki, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Yoshimatsu, M.; Takeshige, A. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, School of Science, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Kondo, T. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Fujishima, A. [Kanagawa Advanced Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakato, Takastu-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Honda, K. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, School of Science, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: khonda@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2008-06-30

    The tris-2,2'-(bipyridine) ruthenium(II) complex derivative, which shows the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) reaction, was directly immobilized on the boron-doped diamond (BDD) surface with three types of modification to form C-N, C-O and C-C bond between them. The objective of this study is to find the most appropriate modification method for the highest amount of immobilization on diamond and the highest stability for electrochemical reaction in the high potential ranges. By making use of this photofunctional BDD, the establishment of an analytical system for the selective and high-sensitive detection of oxalic acid in human urine using the ECL reaction was attempted. Comparing the stability for the ECL reaction among three modified BDD (MBDD) electrodes using the long-term potential cycling, in the initial of cycling, the ECL peak intensity for modified BDD linked with C-C bond (MBDD(C-C)), with C-N bond (MBDD(C-N)) and with C-O bond after the exposure to O{sub 2} plasma (MBDD(C-O{sub pl})) were in the same range. At MBDD(C-C), the ECL intensity was very stable and initial value was maintained even after 200 min of the potential cycling, but the ECL intensities for other modified BDD were rapidly decreased, indicating that the modification method through C-C bond can provide the high density and stable modification. Using MBDD(C-C), the analysis for oxalic acid in human urine was carried out by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow injection analysis (FIA) systems in that the electrochemical amperometric detector (ECD) and ECL detector with modified BDD were installed. In the HPLC-ECD chromatogram, many peaks including uric acid and ascorbic acid were observed. On the other hand, only one peak was detected in the HPLC-ECL chromatogram, indicating that oxalic acid could be selectively detected in human urine using the ECL reaction at modified BDD. The linear dynamic range and the lowest detection limit (S/N = 3) for the oxalic

  15. The role of MgBr2 to enhance the ionic conductivity of PVA/PEDOT:PSS polymer composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam M. Sheha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A solid polymer electrolyte system based on poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA and poly(3,4-Etylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS complexed with magnesium bromide (MgBr2 salt was prepared using solution cast technique. The ionic conductivity is observed to increase with increasing MgBr2 concentration. The maximum conductivity was found to be 9.89 × 10−6 S/cm for optimum polymer composite film (30 wt.% MgBr2 at room temperature. The increase in the conductivity is attributed to the increase in the number of ions as the salt concentration is increased. This has been proven by dielectric studies. The increase in conductivity is also attributable to the increase in the fraction of amorphous region in the electrolyte films as confirmed by their structural, thermal, electrical and optical properties.

  16. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  17. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  18. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  19. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  20. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.2. Technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2012-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine. The content of basic anions and cations in lake waters of Sasik-Kul deposit was defined. Results of X-ray spectral analysis of salt residual after water evaporation from Sasik-Kul lake was discussed. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing ion-chlorine is possible. The developed basic process flow diagram of uranium extraction from Sasik-Kul Lake' brine consists of the following basic stages: evaporation, leaching, catching of formed gases (HCl), sorption, desorption, deposition, drying and tempering.

  1. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.2. Technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine. The content of basic anions and cations in lake waters of Sasik-Kul deposit was defined. Results of X-ray spectral analysis of salt residual after water evaporation from Sasik-Kul lake was discussed. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing ion-chlorine is possible. The developed basic process flow diagram of uranium extraction from Sasik-Kul Lake' brine consists of the following basic stages: evaporation, leaching, catching of formed gases (HCl), sorption, desorption, deposition, drying and tempering.

  2. Americium separations from high salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Schulte, Louis D.; Stark, Peter C.; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Abney, Kent D.; Ricketts, Thomas E.; Valdez, Yvette E.; Bartsch, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Americium (III) exhibits an unexpectedly high affinity for anion-exchange material from the high-salt evaporator bottoms solutions--an effect which has not been duplicated using simple salt solutions. Similar behavior is observed for its lanthanide homologue, Nd(III), in complex evaporator bottoms surrogate solutions. There appears to be no single controlling factor--acid concentration, total nitrate concentration or solution ionic strength--which accounts for the approximately 2-fold increase in retention of the trivalent ions from complex solutions relative to simple solutions. Calculation of species activities (i.e., water, proton and nitrate) in such concentrated mixed salt solutions is difficult and of questionable accuracy, but it is likely that the answer to forcing formation of anionic nitrate complexes of americium lies in the relative activities of water and nitrate. From a practical viewpoint, the modest americium removal needs (ca. 50--75%) from nitric acid evaporator bottoms allow sufficient latitude for the use of non-optimized conditions such as running existing columns filled with older, well-used Reillex HPQ. Newer materials, such as HPQ-100 and the experimental bifunctional resins, which exhibit higher distribution coefficients, would allow for either increased Am removal or the use of smaller columns. It is also of interest that one of the experimental neutral-donor solid-support extractants, DHDECMP, exhibits a similarly high level of americium (total alpha) removal from EV bottoms and is much less sensitive to total acid content than commercially-available material

  3. Boric Ester-Type Molten Salt via Dehydrocoupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyoshi Matsumi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel boric ester-type molten salt was prepared using 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as a key starting material. After an ion exchange reaction of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with lithium (bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide (LiNTf2, the resulting 1-(2-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium NTf2 was reacted with 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN to give the desired boric ester-type molten salt in a moderate yield. The structure of the boric ester-type molten salt was supported by 1H-, 13C-, 11B- and 19F-NMR spectra. In the presence of two different kinds of lithium salts, the matrices showed an ionic conductivity in the range of 1.1 × 10−4–1.6 × 10−5 S cm−1 at 51 °C. This was higher than other organoboron molten salts ever reported.

  4. Molten salt engineering for thorium cycle. Electrochemical studies as examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yasuhiko

    1998-01-01

    A Th-U nuclear energy system utilizing accelerator driven subcritical molten salt breeder reactor has several advantages compared to conventional U-Pu nuclear system. In order to obtain fundamental data on molten salt engineering of Th-U system, electrochemical study was conducted. As the most primitive simulated study of beam irradiation of molten salt, discharge electrolysis was investigated in molten LiCl-KCl-AgCl system. Stationary discharge was generated under atmospheric argon gas and fine Ag particles were obtained. Hydride ion (H - ) behavior in molten salts was also studied to predict the behavior of tritide ion (T - ) in molten salt fuel. Finally, hydrogen behavior in metals at high temperature was investigated by electrochemical method, which is considered to be important to confine and control tritium. (author)

  5. Opto-electronic properties of quasi-linear, self-assembled platinum complexes : Pt-Pt distance dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.; Haas, de M.P.; Warman, J.M.; Fontana, M.; Stutzmann, N.; Kristiansen, M.; Caseri, W.R.; Smith, P.; Hoffmann, S.; Solling, T. I.

    2004-01-01

    Charge-carrier mobilities of various self-assembled platinum complexes were measured by time-resolved microwave conductivity techniques in the temperature range –80 to +100¿°C. Eight compounds were investigated in the present study, including the original Magnus' green salt ([Pt(NH3)4][PtCl4]) and

  6. Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given

  7. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  8. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  9. Ab initio investigation of isomerism, structure and stability of complex molecules of salts of oxo- and thiohalide and dihydride borates and aluminates Li[X2MY] (M=B, Al; X=F, Cl, H; Y=O, S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkin, D.O.; MakKi, M.L.; Charkin, O.P.

    2000-01-01

    To obtain full summary molecular constants of mixed salts Li[X 2 MY] and to analyze tendencies of their changes during substitution of B for Al, F - for C and H, and O - for S and to trace the character of polarization and deformation of X 2 MY - anions in the field of Li + cation in the cases of their different coordination in the framework of correlated approximation method MP4/6-31(+)G**//MP2/6-31G* + ZPE(MP2/6-31G*) ab initio calculation of surfaces of potential energy of plane trigonal anions X 2 MY - (M=B, Al; X=F, Cl, H; Y=O, S) and their lithium salts are done. Equilibrium geometrical parameters of isomers, frequencies and relative IR intensities of normal vibrations, their relative energies and decomposition energies are determined. Structure where Li + cation is coordinated bidentately to chalcogen and one of the X atom is the most profitable one. Polarization and deformation of X 2 MY - anion in the field of Li + cation in the cases of different ways of their coordination, tendencies in changes of the calculated parameters during B substitution are analyzed [ru

  10. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pöyry, Sanja; Róg, Tomasz; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-01-01

    We employ atomistic simulations to consider how mono- (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl(2)) salt affects properties of inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. We find that the influence of salt on structural properties is rather minute, only weakly affecting lipid packing, conformational ordering......, and membrane electrostatic potential. The changes induced by salt are more prominent in dynamical properties related to ion binding and formation of ion-lipid complexes and lipid aggregates, as rotational diffusion of lipids is slowed down by ions, especially in the case of CaCl(2). In the same spirit, lateral...... diffusion of lipids is slowed down rather considerably for increasing concentration of CaCl(2). Both findings for dynamic properties can be traced to the binding of ions with lipid head groups and the related changes in interaction patterns in the headgroup region, where the binding of Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions...

  11. Long-distance flights and high-risk breeding by nomadic waterbirds on desert salt lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedler, Reece D; Ribot, Raoul F H; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2018-02-01

    Understanding and conserving mobile species presents complex challenges, especially for animals in stochastic or changing environments. Nomadic waterbirds must locate temporary water in arid biomes where rainfall is highly unpredictable in space and time. To achieve this they need to travel over vast spatial scales and time arrival to exploit pulses in food resources. How they achieve this is an enduring mystery.  We investigated these challenges in the colonial-nesting Banded Stilt (Cladorhynchus leucocephalus), a nomadic shorebird of conservation concern. Hitherto, Banded Stilts were hypothesized to have only 1-2 chances to breed during their long lifetime, when flooding rain fills desert salt lakes, triggering mass-hatching of brine shrimp. Over 6 years, we satellite tagged 57 individuals, conducted 21 aerial surveys to detect nesting colonies on 14 Australian desert salt lakes, and analyzed 3 decades of Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery to quantify salt-lake flood frequency and extent. Within days of distant inland rainfall, Banded Stilts flew 1,000-2,000 km to reach flooded salt lakes. On arrival, females laid over half their body weight in eggs. We detected nesting episodes across the species' range at 7 times the frequency reported during the previous 80 years. Nesting colonies of thousands formed following minor floods, yet most were subsequently abandoned when the water rapidly evaporated prior to egg hatching. Satellite imagery revealed twice as many flood events sufficient for breeding-colony initiation as recorded colonies, suggesting that nesting at remote sites has been underdetected. Individuals took risk on uncertain breeding opportunities by responding to frequent minor flood events between infrequent extensive flooding, exemplifying the extreme adaptability and trade-offs of species exploiting unstable environments. The conservation challenges of nest predation by overabundant native gulls and anthropogenic modifications to salt lakes filling

  12. Summary of tank information relating salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caley, S.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Active use of these SSTs was phased out completely by November 1980, and the first step toward final disposal of the waste in the SSTs is interim stabilization, which involves removing essentially all of the drainable liquid from the tank. Stabilization can be achieved administratively, by jet pumping to remove drainable interstitial liquid, or by supernatant pumping. To date, 116 tanks have been declared interim stabilized; 44 SSTs have had drainable liquid removed by salt well jet pumping. Of the 149 SSTs, 19 are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because the waste in these tanks is known or suspected, in all but one case, to generate and retain mixtures of flammable gases, including; hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Salt well pumping to remove the drainable interstitial liquid from these SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. The scope of this work is to collect and summarize information, primarily tank data and observations, that relate salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues. While the waste within FGWL SSTs is suspected offering flammable gases, the effect of salt well pumping on the waste behavior is not well understood. This study is being conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the Flammable Gas Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Understanding the historical tank behavior during and following salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues

  13. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  14. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Salt as a public health challenge in continental European convenience and ready meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Sonja; Hartmann, Christina; Gruber, Anita; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2014-11-01

    To assess the salt content of continental European convenience and ready meals. A multistage study in which, after laboratory analysis of the products' salt contents (n 32), new salt-reduced meals were developed through food reformulation. Additionally, a comprehensive survey of convenience meals from the Austrian market (n 572) was conducted to evaluate the salt contents of a wider product range. Six continental European countries participated. No subjects enrolled. The salt contents of continental European convenience and ready meals mostly exceeded 1·8 g/100 g, which is 30 % of the targeted daily intake level; some contained even more than the recommended daily intake of 6 g. The highest salt contents were found in pizzas and pasta dishes, the lowest ones in sweet meals. Large variations in salt levels were found not only between and within meal type categories, but also between similar meals from different producers. In addition, our approach to develop new salt-reduced meals showed that a stepwise reduction of the ready meals' salt contents is possible without compromising the sensory quality. To address the problem of hypertension and increased risk for CVD through high salt intake, a reduction of the salt levels in continental European convenience and ready meals is urgently needed, since they are providing a major part of the daily salt intake. Successful national-wide salt reduction strategies in the UK or Finland have already demonstrated the public health impact of this setting.

  16. Lithium ion conducting biopolymer electrolyte based on pectin doped with Lithium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjuladevi, R.; Selvin, P. Christopher; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Shilpa, R.; Moniha, V.

    2018-04-01

    The Biopolymer electrolyte based on pectin doped with lithium nitrate of different concentrations have been prepared by solution casting technique. The decrease in crystalline nature of the biopolymer has been identified by XRD analyses. The complex formation between the polymer and the salt has been revealed using FTIR analysis. The ionic conductivity has been explored using A.C. impedance spectroscopy which reveals that the biopolymer containing 30 wt% Pectin: 70wt%LiNO3 has highest ionic conductivity of 3.97 × 10-3 Scm-1.

  17. Optimization of hybrid polymer electrolytes with the effect of lithium salt concentration in PEO/PVdF-HFP blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeepa, P.; Edwin raj, S.; Sowmya, G.; Kalaiselvimary, J.; Ramesh Prabhu, M., E-mail: mkram83@gmail.com

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Polymer blends based on PVdF-HFP/PEO were prepared for Li-ion battery applications. • Structural and electrochemical studies were carried out on prepared electrolytes. • The electrolytes can be used as electrolyte in the possible device fabrications. - Abstract: Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) 6.25 wt%/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] 18.75 wt% blend based electrolyte films containing different concentrations (2–10) wt% of lithium salt were prepared. The miscibility studies have been performed by using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The role of interaction between polymer hosts on conductivity is discussed using the results of a.c. impedance studies. A room temperature conductivity of 2.3912 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} has been obtained for PEO (6.25)–PVdF-HFP (18.75)–LiClO{sub 4} (8)–PC (67) polymer complex. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of polymer electrolyte seems to obey VTF relation. Electrochemical stability (3.3 V) was observed in the prepared polymer electrolyte. Reduction process and oxidation process of the prepared electrolyte system have also been evaluated by means of cyclic voltammetry. Thermogravimetric analysis results indicate thermal stability of PEO/PVdF-HFP lithium salt complexes. Roughness parameter of the sample having maximum ionic conductivity was studied by AFM. The morphology of the polymer complex is investigated by using SEM.

  18. Topical reports on Louisiana salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University conducted research into the potential use of Louisiana salt domes for disposal of nuclear waste material. Topical reports generated in 1981 and 1982 related to Vacherie and Rayburn's domes are compiled and presented, which address palynological studies, tiltmeter monitoring, precise releveling, saline springs, and surface hydrology. The latter two are basically a compilation of references related to these topics. Individual reports are abstracted

  19. Research Paper Silicon alleviates salt stress, decreases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of silicon (Si) application on cut rose (Rosa xhybrida L.) 'Hot Lady' under two levels of salt stress. Four Si concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm) as Si were combined with a 25 mM NaCl (EC 3.8) level in the nutrient solution supplied to ...

  20. Effect of lithium salt concentrations on blended 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber and poly(methyl methacrylate) based solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su’ait, M.S.; Ahmad, A.; Hamzah, H.; Rahman, M.Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of lithium salts (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF 4 and lithium perchlorate, LiClO 4 ) as doping salts in rubber-polymer blends, 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film for electrochemical devices application was investigated. The electrolyte films were prepared via the solution casting technique using 0–25 wt.% lithium salt. The effect of the lithium salts on chemical interaction, ionic conductivity and structural and morphological studies of (70:30) MG49-PMMA films was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Infrared analysis showed that the interactions between lithium ions and oxygen atoms occur at the ether group (C–O–C) (1500–1100 cm −1 ) on the MMA structure in both MG49 and PMMA. The oxygen atoms in the structure of the polymer host act as electron donor atoms and form a coordinate bond with the lithium ions from the doping salt to form polymer–salt complexes. The ionic conductivity was investigated at room temperature as well as at a temperature range from 303 K to 373 K. The ionic conductivity without the addition of salt was 1.1 × 10 −12 S cm −1 . The highest conductivity at room temperature for (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiBF 4 was 8.6 × 10 −6 S cm −1 at 25 wt.% of LiBF 4 . The ionic conductivity of (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiClO 4 was 1.5 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 25 wt.% of LiClO 4 . However, both electrolyte systems do not exhibit Arrhenius-like behavior. Systems with LiBF 4 salt have higher ionic conductivity than those with LiClO 4 salt because of the differences in anionic size and lattice energy of the appropriate salt. The observations from structural and morphology studies showed that complexation and re-crystallization occur in the system. The XRD studies showed a reduction of the MMA peak

  1. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548

  3. Comparison of destructive and nondestructive assay of heterogeneous salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleissner, J.G.; Hume, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    To study problems associated with nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of molten salt residues, a joint study was conducted by the Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, CO and Mound Laboratories, Miamisburg, OH. Extensive NDA measurements were made on nine containers of molten salt residues by both Rocky Flats and Mound followed by dissolution and solution quantification at Rocky Flats. Results of this study verify that plutonium and americium can be measured in such salt residues by a new gamma-ray spectral analysis technique coupled with calorimetry. Biases with respect to the segmented gamma-scan technique were noted

  4. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  5. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  6. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  7. Salt fortified with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) as an effective intervention for lymphatic filariasis, with lessons learned from salt iodization programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R

    2000-01-01

    DEC-fortified salt has been used successfully as a principal public health tool to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) in China and, less extensively, in several other countries. Studies from 1967 to the present conducted in Brazil, Japan, Tanzania, India, China, and Taiwan involving administration of DEC salt for 18 days to 1 year, have shown this intervention to be effective for both bancroftian and brugian filariasis, as measured by reductions in both microfilarial density and positivity, and in some studies through reduction in mosquito positivity rates as well. Furthermore, studies suggest specific advantages from using DEC salt, including lack of side effects, particularly for bancroftian filariasis, and ability to reduce prevalence below 1% when used in conjunction with standard regimens of DEC tablets. However, use of DEC salt as a control tool suffers from a concern that health authorities might find it difficult to manage a programme involving a commodity such as salt. In the past decade, the very successful global efforts to eliminate iodine deficiency through universal salt iodization have demonstrated that partnership with the salt industry can be both successful and effective as a public health tool. Use of DEC salt can be most successfully implemented in areas in which (a) there is adequate governmental support for its use and for elimination of filariasis, (b) filariasis-endemic areas are clearly defined, (c) political leaders, health officials and the salt industry agree that DEC salt is an appropriate intervention, (d) the salt industry is well-organized and has known distribution patterns, (e) a successful national salt iodization effort exists, (f) a monitoring system exists that ensures adequacy of salt iodine content during production and that can also measure household coverage, and (g) measurement of impact on transmission of LF with the new antigen or filarial DNA detection methods can be established. There are advantages and disadvantages

  8. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Geochemical response of a calcareous fen to road salt contamination during snow melt and precipitation events: Kampoosa Bog, Stockbridge, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Kampoosa Bog is the largest and most diverse calcareous lake-basin fen remaining in Massachusetts, and it is one of the state's elite Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC). The ground water chemistry of the fen has been greatly altered by road salt runoff (NaCl) from the Massachusetts Turnpike, which crosses the northern margin of the wetland complex. Ground water samples collected at different depths within the wetland, measurements of exchangeable Na from an eight-meter core, and hydraulic conductivity measurements suggest that ground water flow and contamination is largely a near- surface phenomenon. Detailed sampling of surface and ground waters during three spring snow melt events and one precipitation event characterizes the geochemical response of the wetland to hydrologic events. Overall, Na:Cl ratios for surface and ground water samples are less than one, and sodium and chloride imbalances suggest that 20-30% of sodium from rock salt is stored on cation exchange sites on organic material. Na:Cl ratios greater than one for fen ground water sampled during Snow Melt 2007 suggest that sodium can be released from cation exchange sites back to ground water under dilute conditions. The total mass of Na and Cl exported from the wetland is greatest under conditions of high discharge. The flux of dissolved salts at the outlet of the fen during Snow Melt 2005 accounts for ~ 24% Na and ~ 32% Cl of rock salt added to the Massachusetts Turnpike during 2004-2005. Estimates of annual fluxes of Na and Cl are on par with the amount of road salt applied, and sodium and chloride concentrations in shallow groundwater have decreased since 2002. The months of March, April and May are the primary months for salt export, accounting for more than half of the annual salt flux in 2005. Concerning the annual net export of sodium and chloride, large rain events may be more important with removing dissolved salts from the fen than snow melt because snow melt also is a time when

  10. Generic aspects of salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of geological disposal of radioactive wastes in salt is presented from 1957 when a panel of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council recommended burial in bedded salt deposits. Early work began in the Kansas, portion of the Permian Basin where simulated wastes were placed in an abandoned salt mine at Lyons, Kansas, in the late 1960's. This project was terminated when the potential effect of nearby solution mining activities could not be resolved. Evaluation of bedded salts resumed a few years later in the Permian Basin in southeastern New Mexico, and search for suitable sites in the 1970's resulted in the formation of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program in 1976. Evaluation of salt deposits in many regions of the United States has been virtually completed and has shown that deposits having the greatest potential for radioactive waste disposal are those of the largest depositional basins and salt domes of the Gulf Coast region

  11. Development of High Throughput Salt Separation System with Integrated Liquid Salt Separation - Salt Distillation Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sangwoon; Park, K. M.; Kim, J. G.; Jeong, J. H.; Lee, S. J.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of a salt distiller should be sufficiently large to reach the throughput of uranium electro-refining process. In this study, an assembly composing a liquid separation sieve and a distillation crucible was developed for the sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation in the same tower. The feasibility of the sequential salt separation was examined by the rotation test of the sieve-crucible assembly and sequential operation of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation. The adhered salt in the uranium deposits was removed successfully. The salt content in the deposits was below 0.1 wt% after the sequential operation of the liquid salt separation - salt distillation. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that efficient salt separation can be realized by the sequential operation of liquid salt separation and vacuum distillation in one distillation tower since the operation procedures are simplified and no extra operation of cooling and reheating is necessary.

  12. Salt Damage and Rising Damp Treatment in Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. P. Q. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt damage can affect the service life of numerous building structures, both historical and contemporary, in a significant way. In this review, various damage mechanisms to porous building materials induced by salt action are analyzed. The importance of pretreatment investigations is discussed as well; in combination with the knowledge of salt and moisture transport mechanisms they can give useful indications regarding treatment options. The methods of salt damage treatment are assessed then, including both passive techniques based on environmental control, reduction of water transport, or conversion to less soluble salts and active procedures resulting in the removal of salts from deterioration zones. It is concluded that cellulose can still be considered as the favorite material presently used in desalination poultices but hydrophilic mineral wool can serve as its prospective alternative in future applications. Another important cause of building pathologies is the rising damp and, in this phenomenon, it is particularly severe considering the presence of salts in water. The treatment of rising damp in historic building walls is a very complex procedure and at Laboratory of Building Physics (LFC-FEUP a wall base hygroregulated ventilation system was developed and patented.

  13. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avinash; Tanna, Bhakti

    2017-01-01

    Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile , and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters ( NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase ), ion channels (Cl - , Ca 2+ , aquaporins), antioxidant encoding genes ( APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD ) and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes). It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  14. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile, and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters (NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase, ion channels (Cl−, Ca2+, aquaporins, antioxidant encoding genes (APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes. It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  15. Ionic conductivity in polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)/lithium perchlorate solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, L.A.; Borges, R.S.; Moraes, E. Mara S.; Silva, G. Goulart; Pimenta, M.A.; Marletta, A.; Silva, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The ionic conductivity and phase arrangement of solid polymeric electrolytes based on the block copolymer polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PE-b-PEO) and LiClO 4 have been investigated. One set of electrolytes was prepared from copolymers with 75% of PEO units and another set was based on a blend of copolymer with 50% PEO units and homopolymers. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, for electrolytes based on the copolymer with 75% of PEO units, were dominated by the PEO phase. The PEO block crystallinity dropped and the glass transition increased with salt addition due to the coordination of the cation by PEO oxygen. The conductivity for copolymers 75% PEO-based electrolyte with 15 wt% of salt was higher than 10 -5 S/cm at room temperature and reached to 10 -3 S/cm at 100 deg. C on a heating measurement. The blend of PE-b-PEO (50% PEO)/PEO/PE showed a complex thermal behavior with decoupled melting of the blocks and the homopolymers. Upon salt addition the endotherms associated with PEO domains disappeared and the PE crystals remained untouched. The conductivity results were limited at 100 deg. C to values close to 10 -4 S/cm and at room temperature values close to 3 x 10 -6 S/cm were obtained for the 15 wt% salt electrolyte. Raman study showed that the ionic association of the highly concentrated blend electrolytes at room temperature is not significant. Therefore, the lower values of conductivity in the case of the blend with 50% PEO can be assigned to the higher content of PE domains leading to a morphology with lower connectivity for ionic conduction both in the crystalline and melted state of the PE domains

  16. Zechstein salt Denmark. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngsie Jacobsen, F.; Soenderholm, M.; Springer, N.; Gutzon Larsen, J.; Lagoni, P.; Fabricius, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Salt Research Project EFP-81 has mainly been aiming upon an elucidation of the stratigraphy of the Danish Zechstein evaporites. Also an attempt to clarify the connection between the fabric and the strength of the strongly deformed domal rock salt is performed. The unravelling of the stratigraphy is carried out by means of renewed interpretations of new and old data from all the wells drilling in the Danish Permian basin in connection with a revaluation of the core descriptions. By means of trace elements analysis it is possible to some extent to distinguish between Zestein 1 and 2 ''grey salt''. A description of the transition zone between Zechstein 1 and 2 is carried out. New methods of fabric analyses are introduced and the strength measurements of the rock salt are treated statistically in connection with new defined rock salt parameters. An investigation of fluid inclusions in halite and quartz crystals from dome salt has resulted in the determination of salinity and chemical composition of the brines present in the salt. Temperatures and corresponding pressures during the evolution of the salt pillow and salt dome have been established. The dehydration conditions of natural carnallite in situ are clarified. (author)

  17. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  18. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway: established and emerging roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongtao; Pardo, José M; Batelli, Giorgia; Van Oosten, Michael J; Bressan, Ray A; Li, Xia

    2013-03-01

    Soil salinity is a growing problem around the world with special relevance in farmlands. The ability to sense and respond to environmental stimuli is among the most fundamental processes that enable plants to survive. At the cellular level, the Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) signaling pathway that comprises SOS3, SOS2, and SOS1 has been proposed to mediate cellular signaling under salt stress, to maintain ion homeostasis. Less well known is how cellularly heterogenous organs couple the salt signals to homeostasis maintenance of different types of cells and to appropriate growth of the entire organ and plant. Recent evidence strongly indicates that different regulatory mechanisms are adopted by roots and shoots in response to salt stress. Several reports have stated that, in roots, the SOS proteins may have novel roles in addition to their functions in sodium homeostasis. SOS3 plays a critical role in plastic development of lateral roots through modulation of auxin gradients and maxima in roots under mild salt conditions. The SOS proteins also play a role in the dynamics of cytoskeleton under stress. These results imply a high complexity of the regulatory networks involved in plant response to salinity. This review focuses on the emerging complexity of the SOS signaling and SOS protein functions, and highlights recent understanding on how the SOS proteins contribute to different responses to salt stress besides ion homeostasis.

  19. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  20. Salt tolerance in wheat - an overview. (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the past few years to overcome the problem of salinity through the development of salt tolerant lines of important crop species using screening, breeding and molecular biology techniques. In view of considerable importance of spring wheat as a major staple food crop of many countries, plant scientists have directed there attention to identify and develop salt tolerant genotypes that can be of direct use on salt-affected soils. Although considerable progress in understanding individual phenomenon and genes involved in plant response to salinity stress has been made over the past few years, underlying physiological mechanisms producing salt tolerant plants is still unclear. It has been suggested that salt tolerance of plants could be improved by defining genes or characters. Twenty years ago, it was suggested that genes located on the D genome of bread wheat confer salinity tolerance to hexaploid wheat by reducing Na/sup +/ accumulation in the leaf tissue and increasing discrimination in favour of K/sup +/. However, recently, low Na/sup +/ accumulation and high K/sup +/Na/sup +/ discrimination, of similar magnitude to bread wheat, in several selections of durum wheat has been observed, supporting the notion that salt tolerance is controlled by multiple genes, which are distributed throughout the entire set of chromosomes. In addition, various physiological selection criteria such as compatible osmolytes (glycinebetaine, proline, trehalose, mannitol etc.), antioxidants, carbon discrimination, high K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratio etc. have been discussed. Although tolerance to salinity is known to have a multigenic inheritance, mediated by a large number of genes, knowledge of heritability and the genetic mode of salinity tolerance is still lacking because few studies have yet been conducted in these areas. Indeed, genetic information is lagging behind the physiological information. Modern methods such as recombinant DNA technology

  1. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie Xiaolei [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Hong, E-mail: hongwang@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zou Jing [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct synthesis method of silver conductive film on PET substrate was presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A stable particle-free conductive ink was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of silver-amine complex reduced the thermal decomposition temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductive patterns for flexible electronics were fabricated by inkjet printing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver film on PET substrate possessed highest adhesion rating even without polymer. - Abstract: Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 Degree-Sign C to 135 Degree-Sign C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 {mu}{Omega} cm after cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 50 min, 3.1 {mu}{Omega} cm at 230 Degree-Sign C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  2. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Xiaolei; Wang Hong; Zou Jing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A direct synthesis method of silver conductive film on PET substrate was presented. ► A stable particle-free conductive ink was prepared. ► Formation of silver-amine complex reduced the thermal decomposition temperature. ► Conductive patterns for flexible electronics were fabricated by inkjet printing. ► Silver film on PET substrate possessed highest adhesion rating even without polymer. - Abstract: Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  3. Some metallic materials and fluoride salts for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosnedl, P.; Hron, M.; Matal, O.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a special Ni base alloy MONICR for high temperature applications in fluoride salt environments developed in the framework of the complex R and D program for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept development in the Czech Republic. Selected results of MONICR alloy tests and results of semi products fabrication from this alloy are discussed in the paper. The results of the structural materials tests are applied on semi-products and for the design of the testing devices as the autoclave in loop arrangement for high temperature fluoride salts applications. Material properties other Ni base alloys are compared to those of MONICR. Corrosion test results of the alloy A686 in the LiF - NaF - ZrF 4 molten salt are provided and compared to the measured values of the polarizing resistance. (author)

  4. Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10 -16 m 2 to 10 -18 m 2 (10 -4 darcy to 10 -6 ). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ''heal'' or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required

  5. Molten salt fueled reactors with a fast salt draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventre, Edmond; Blum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a molten salt nuclear reactor which comprises a new arrangement for shutting it down in complete safety. This nuclear reactor has a molten salt primary circuit comprising, in particular, the core of this reactor. It includes a leak tight vessel the capacity of which is appreciably greater than that of the molten salt volume of the circuit and placed so that the level of the molten salt, when all the molten salt of the circuit is contained in this vessel, is less than that of the base of the core. There are facilities for establishing and maintaining an inert gas pressure in the vessel above the molten salt, for releasing the compressed gas and for connecting the vessel to the primary circuit entering this vessel at a lower level than that of the molten salt and enabling molten salt to enter or leave the vessel according to the pressure of the inert gas. The particular advantage of this reactor is that it can be shut down safely since the draining of the primary circuit no longer results from a 'positive action' but from the suppression of an arrangement essential for the operation of the reactor consisting of the build-up of the said inert gas pressure in the said vessel [fr

  6. Structural and ionic conductivity studies on proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte based on 2hydroxyethyl cellulose incorporated DTAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N. H.; Bakar, N. Y.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2017-09-01

    Solid biopolymer electrolytes (SBEs) based on 2hydroxyethyl cellulose (2HEC) complexes with dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) salt in various composition (wt. %) were successfully prepared by using solution casting technique. The ion - polymer interaction and structural studies have been reported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) supported with X - ray diffraction (XRD) and Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FTIR spectral shows interaction of 2HEC with DTAB happen at peak 2914cm-1, 2848cm-1, 2353cm-1, 2328cm-1, 1720cm-1, 1437cm-1, 1344cm-1, 1198cm-1 1095cm-1 1051cm-1, 912cm-1 and 872cm-1. The interaction of complexes leads to an increase in number of ion jump into neighboring vacant sites until it reaches the highest conductivity at room temperature which is 2.80 x 10-5 Scm-1 for sample containing 9wt. % of DTAB. The temperature dependence of the SBEs system exhibits Arrhenius behavior and the XRD spectral analysis shows the higher salt loading the crystallinity of the SBEs which also increased.

  7. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Killi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO2 transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment–protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution.

  8. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killi, Dilek; Haworth, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO2 transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII) performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water) supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment–protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution. PMID:29039809

  9. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  10. Experiments in connection with Salt Domes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.G.; Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The different theories concerning the origin of Salt Domes in Roumania, Germany, Texas, Louisiana, Colorado and Utah are discussed. In Roumania the salt occurs in cores of “Diapir” anticlines. The existance of hills of salt indicates, that the salt is still pushing upwards. In Germany the salt

  11. Fluctuation-enhanced electric conductivity in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Nonaka, Andrew J; Bell, John B; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L

    2017-10-10

    We analyze the effects of an externally applied electric field on thermal fluctuations for a binary electrolyte fluid. We show that the fluctuating Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations for charged multispecies diffusion coupled with the fluctuating fluid momentum equation result in enhanced charge transport via a mechanism distinct from the well-known enhancement of mass transport that accompanies giant fluctuations. Although the mass and charge transport occurs by advection by thermal velocity fluctuations, it can macroscopically be represented as electrodiffusion with renormalized electric conductivity and a nonzero cation-anion diffusion coefficient. Specifically, we predict a nonzero cation-anion Maxwell-Stefan coefficient proportional to the square root of the salt concentration, a prediction that agrees quantitatively with experimental measurements. The renormalized or effective macroscopic equations are different from the starting PNP equations, which contain no cross-diffusion terms, even for rather dilute binary electrolytes. At the same time, for infinitely dilute solutions the renormalized electric conductivity and renormalized diffusion coefficients are consistent and the classical PNP equations with renormalized coefficients are recovered, demonstrating the self-consistency of the fluctuating hydrodynamics equations. Our calculations show that the fluctuating hydrodynamics approach recovers the electrophoretic and relaxation corrections obtained by Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory, while elucidating the physical origins of these corrections and generalizing straightforwardly to more complex multispecies electrolytes. Finally, we show that strong applied electric fields result in anisotropically enhanced "giant" velocity fluctuations and reduced fluctuations of salt concentration.

  12. An application of LOTEM around salt dome near Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paembonan, Andri Yadi; Arjwech, Rungroj; Davydycheva, Sofia; Smirnov, Maxim; Strack, Kurt M.

    2017-07-01

    A salt dome is an important large geologic structure for hydrocarbon exploration. It may seal a porous reservoir of rocks that form petroleum reservoirs. Several techniques such as seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic including magnetotelluric have successfully yielded salt dome interpretation. Seismic has difficulties seeing through the salt because the seismic energy gets trapped by the salt due to its high velocity. Gravity and electromagnetics are more ideal methods. Long Offset Transient Electromagnetic (LOTEM) and Focused Source Electromagnetic (FSEM) were tested over a salt dome near Houston, Texas. LOTEM data were recorded at several stations with varying offset, and the FSEM tests were also made at some receiver locations near a suspected salt overhang. The data were processed using KMS's processing software: First, for assurance, including calibration and header checking; then transmitter and receiver data are merged and microseismic data is separated; Finally, data analysis and processing follows. LOTEM processing leads to inversion or in the FSEM case 3D modeling. Various 3D models verify the sensitivity under the salt dome. In addition, the processing was conducted pre-stack, stack, and post-stack. After pre-stacking, the noise was reduced, but showed the ringing effect due to a low-pass filter. Stacking and post-stacking with applying recursive average could reduce the Gibbs effect and produce smooth data.

  13. Salt in bread in Europe: potential benefits of reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilez, Joan; Salas-Salvado, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Bread is widely considered to be the foodstuff that provides the most dietary salt to the diet. As such, it is one of the key public health targets for a salt reduction policy. In this respect, it has been shown that a reduction in the salt content of bread is possible, and an alternative approach involves partial replacement with other, mainly potassium-based salts, which also counteract the effects of sodium. This replacement should be undertaken on the basis of criteria that maintain the product's sensory profile, and it tends to be more successful in breads with more naturally flavorful taste. The present review was conducted to examine salt intake in Europe and the health problems associated with its excessive consumption; particular focus is placed on the salt content of bread and the effects of its possible reduction and/or correction. The beneficial effects of such changes are highlighted by way of a theoretical calculation in baguette-type wheat bread. European legislation in the field of nutrition and health claims allows the positive aspects of such salt reduction and replacement methods to be stated. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. Inkjet printing of silver citrate conductive ink on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaolei; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jing

    2012-11-01

    Direct synthesis of silver conductive film on PET substrate by inkjet printing silver citrate conductive ink was presented in this paper. This kind of conductive ink contained silver citrate as silver precursor, 1,2-diaminopropane as complex agent dissolving the silver salt and methanol and isopropanol as a media adjusting the viscosity and surface tension. The formation of silver-amine complex reduced the decomposition temperature from 180 °C to 135 °C, thus the ink could be cured at relatively low temperature. The film reached the lowest resistivity of 17 μΩ cm after cured at 150 °C for 50 min, 3.1 μΩ cm at 230 °C and possessed high reflection and excellent adhesive property. Electrical conductivity, surface morphology and composition were investigated by four-point probe method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It is demonstrated how the cured condition affects the silver film. Moreover, radio-frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by inkjet printing, which opens up routes for the flexible electronics fabrication.

  15. Is there evidence showing that salt intake reduction reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lanas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent systematic review of Cochrane collaboration about the effect of reducing dietary salt concluded that “there is still insufficient power to exclude clinically important effects of reduced dietary salt on mortality or cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive or hypertensive populations”. This conclusion has generated an important debate, because the estimation that salt reduction can prevent 24% of strokes and 18% of myocardial infarctions has decided the health authorities of several nations to implement salt consumption reduction programs. The review of ecological studies and clinical trials allow to conclude that a reduction in salt consumption reduces blood pressure and methodological well conducted cohort studies has shown that cardiovascular events risk decreases progressively with lower levels of blood pressure. Combining this two finding we can assume that population should benefice from a decrease on salt consumption although there are no studies that shown a reduction in cardiovascular events in population with high sodium intake when dietary salt is reduced.

  16. Thermal energy storage using chloride salts and their eutectics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Philip D.; Goswami, D. Yogi

    2016-01-01

    Achieving the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot initiative requires (1) higher operating temperatures for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants to increase theoretical efficiency, and (2) effective thermal energy storage (TES) strategies to ensure dispatchability. Current inorganic salt-based TES systems in large-scale CSP plants generally employ molten nitrate salts for energy storage, but nitrate salts are limited in application to lower temperatures—generally, below 600 °C. These materials are sufficient for parabolic trough power plants, but they are inadequate for use at higher temperatures. At the higher operating temperatures achievable in solar power tower-type CSP plants, chloride salts are promising candidates for application as TES materials, owing to their thermal stability and generally lower cost compared to nitrate salts. In light of this, a recent study was conducted, which included a preliminary survey of chloride salts and binary eutectic systems that show promise as high temperature TES media. This study provided some basic information about the salts, including phase equilibria data and estimates of latent heat of fusion for some of the eutectics. Cost estimates were obtained through a review of bulk pricing for the pure salts among various vendors. This review paper updates that prior study, adding data for additional salt eutectic systems obtained from the literature. Where possible, data are obtained from the thermodynamic database software, FactSage. Radiative properties are presented, as well, since at higher temperatures, thermal radiation becomes a significant mode of heat transfer. Material compatibility for inorganic salts is another important consideration (e.g., with regard to piping and/or containment), so a summary of corrosion studies with various materials is also presented. Lastly, cost data for these systems are presented, allowing for meaningful comparison among these systems and other materials for TES

  17. Stability constants and thermodynamic parameters of trivalent gadolinium, yttrium, terbium, dysprosium and holmium complexes with 2-(p-sulphophenylazo) 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene 3,6 disulphonic acid (trisodium salt)[SPADNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.N.; Nagpal, S.; Kalra, H.L.; Puri, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The stepwise stability constants of Gd(III), Y(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) complexes with SPADNS have been determined potentiometrically in aqueous solution using Bjerrum-Calvin technique as modified by Irving and Rossotti at different temperatures (20deg and 40deg) and 0.1 M ionic strength (NaClO 4 ). The trend in the stability of these metal complexes has been found to be: Ho(III) > Dy(III) > Tb(III) > Y(III) > Gd(III). The overall changes in ΔGdeg, ΔHdeg and ΔSdeg accompanying the complex formation have also been determined. (author)

  18. Stability constants and thermodynamic parameters of trivalent gadolinium, yttrium, terbium, dysprosium and holmium complexes with 2-(p-sulphophenylazo) 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene 3,6 disulphonic acid (trisodium salt)(SPADNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, S.N.; Nagpal, S.; Kalra, H.L.; Puri, D.M. (Kurukshetra Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1980-10-01

    The stepwise stability constants of Gd(III), Y(III), Tb(III), Dy(III) and Ho(III) complexes with SPADNS have been determined potentiometrically in aqueous solution using Bjerrum-Calvin technique as modified by Irving and Rossotti at different temperatures (20deg and 40deg) and 0.1 M ionic strength (NaClO/sub 4/). The trend in the stability of these metal complexes has been found to be: Ho(III) > Dy(III) > Tb(III) > Y(III) > Gd(III). The overall changes in ..delta..Gdeg, ..delta..Hdeg and ..delta..Sdeg accompanying the complex formation have also been determined.

  19. Improvement to molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1975-01-01

    The invention proposes a molten salt nuclear reactor whose core includes a mass of at least one fissile element salt to which can be added other salts to lower the melting temperature of the mass. This mass also contains a substance with a low neutron capture section that does not give rise to a chemical reaction or to an azeotropic mixture with these salts and having an atmospheric boiling point under that of the mass in operation. Means are provided for collecting this substance in the vapour state and returning it as a liquid to the mass. The kind of substance chosen will depend on that of the molten salts (fissile element salts and, where required, salts to lower the melting temperature). In actual practice, the substance chosen will have an atmospheric pressure boiling point of between 600 and 1300 0 C and a melting point sufficiently below 600 0 C to prevent solidification and clogging in the return line of the substance from the exchanger. Among the materials which can be considered for use, mention is made of magnesium, rubidium, cesium and potassium but metal cesium is not employed in the case of many fissile salts, such as fluorides, which it would reduced to the planned working temperatures [fr

  20. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  1. Behavior of crushed salt under heat source in boreholes in a salt mine (Amelie Mine, Alsace Potash Mines, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoreychi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The study of thermomechanical interaction between rock salt and crushed salt, used as a backfilling material at the final stage of radioactive waste disposal in salt formations, led to perform an in situ test at the Amelie Mine(The Alsace Potash Mines in France). The field tests site is located at a depth of 520m and the tests were performed in six parallel boreholes. Five boreholes were backfilled using three types of crushed salt, changing by their grain size (fine = 0.4 mm; natural = 1 mm; coarse = 2 mm). The sixth borehole was not backfilled in order to witness for rock salt behavior without backfilling confinement. Except the first borehole used as a pilot test, the four backfilled boreholes were heated during four months with two levels of heat output (1.6 kW, then 2.2 kW). Cooling was also followed during four months after heating interruption. The maximum of temperature obtained on the wall of the backfilled boreholes was about 100 0 C during the first field test and 130 0 C during the second. The thermal diffusivity of rock mass and the coefficient of heat exchange by convection are studied. In spite of the case that the crushed salt thermal conductivity is initially ten times less than of rock salt, no excessive temperature concentration was obtained on the heat sources

  2. Development of electrowinner and salt regenerator for PRIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paek, S. W.; Lee, H. S.; Hur, J. M. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2011-11-15

    A scope of this study includes an manufacturing an electrowinning equipment of LCC(Liquid Cadmium Cathode) to recover actinides such as uranium and TRU(Np, Pu, Am, Cm) remained in the molten salt(LiCl-KCl) transferred after an electrorefining process which collects uranium of high purity and an salt regeneration equipment to remove RE(Rare Earth) from the remaining salt after electrowinning process by oxidation and precipitation. The design capacity to recover actinide metals for PRIDE electrowinner was determined to 1 kg/batch and the amount of cadmium and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were 10 kg and 50 kg, respectively. The equipment was designed based on the operation experiences of lab-scale LCC apparatus but the concepts of remote operation were introduced. PRIDE scale oxidative precipitation precipitation apparatus whose maximum batch size is 20kg-salt/batch was designed and installed. It consists of four parts: oxidation reactor, oxygen sparing unit, flange moving device and crucible unit. To avoid a severe corrosion problem due to a high temperature, oxygen and chloride salt atmosphere, the oxidation reaction is conducted in an 100% Ta crucible. A 3D test was conducted to review the possibility of the remote operation for the equipment and the test results were applied to the design improvement. The mock-up equipment were prepared on the basis of 3D test results and after the test of remote operation, the final equipment for PRIDE were manufactured.

  3. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. This part describes the MSBR core (data presented are from ORNL 4541). The principal characteristics of the core are presented in tables together with plane and elevation drawings, stress being put upon the reflector, and loading and unloading. Neutronic, and thermal and hydraulic characteristics (core and reflectors) are more detailed. The reasons why a graphite with a tight graphite layer has been chosen are briefly exposed. The physical properties of the standard graphite (irradiation behavior) have been determined for an isotropic graphite with fine granulometry; its dimensional variations largely ressemble that of Gilsonite. The mechanical stresses computed (Wigner effect) do not implicate in any way the graphite stack [fr

  4. The Salt II Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    The first strategic arms limitation talks resulted in two agreements: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement to Limit Strategic Offensive Arms. Senator Henry M. (Scoop) Jackson (D-Wa.) was concerned about the numerical advantage granted to the USSR by the Latter agreement and proposed an amendment that would prohibit future negotiators from granting the Soviet Union similar terms. This paper discusses the second round of SALT negotiations which opened in November 1972 and continued under presidents Richard M. Nixon, Gerald Ford, and Jimmy Carter. As the negotiators met, U.S. and Soviet scientists and engineers continued their work to develop new nuclear weapons and launchers. Particularly problematic were modern, large ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and the Soviet Backfire bomber

  5. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  6. Geothermal in situ experiments in the Asse salt-mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopietz, J.; Jung, R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents design and results of in situ experiments carried out by the Bundesanstat fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, F.R. of Germany) in the Asse salt-mine. With reference to model calculations of the temperature field which is produced in salt formations by radioactive waste, temperature measurements in the area of electrical heating elements and in situ measurements of thermal conductivity have been performed. The measured temperatures are in good accordance with the theoretical prediction. Preliminary results of the thermal conductivity measurements correspond with the data of single NaCl crystals published by Birch and Clark. At present a heating experiment is being conducted in the Asse mine to investigate thermo-mechanical effects of a cylindrical heat source upon the surrounding rock salt. Possible thermal induced fractures monitored by permeability changes and seismoacoustical phenomena are the main objects of this experiment

  7. A multi-proxy approach to understanding complex responses of salt-lake catchments to climate variability and human pressure: A Late Quaternary case study from south-eastern, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Samantha Elsie; Burjachs, Francesc; Ferrer-García, Carlos; Giralt, Santiago; Schulte, Lothar; Fernández-López de Pablo, Javier

    2018-03-01

    This article focuses on a former salt lake in the upper Vinalopó Valley in south-eastern Spain. The study spans the Late Pleistocene through to the Late Holocene, although with particular focus on the period between 11 ka cal BP and 3000 ka cal BP (which spans the Mesolithic and part of the Bronze Age). High resolution multi-proxy analysis (including pollen, non pollen palynomorphs, grain size, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction) was undertaken on the lake sediments. The results show strong sensitivity to both long term and small changes in the evaporation/precipitation ratio, affecting the surrounding vegetation composition, lake-biota and sediment geochemistry. To summarise the key findings the main general trends identified include: 1) Hyper-saline conditions and low lake levels at the end of the Late Glacial 2) Increasing wetness and temperatures which witnessed an expansion of mesophilic woodland taxa, lake infilling and the establishment of a more perennial lake system at the onset of the Holocene 3) An increase in solar insolation after 9 ka cal BP which saw the re-establishment of pine forests 4) A continued trend towards increasing dryness (climatic optimum) at 7 ka cal BP but with continued freshwater input 5) An increase in sclerophyllous open woody vegetation (anthropogenic?), and increasing wetness (climatic?) is represented in the lake record between 5.9 and 3 ka cal BP 6) The Holocene was also punctuated by several aridity pulses, the most prominent corresponding to the 8.2 ka cal BP event. These events, despite a paucity of well dated archaeological sites in the surrounding area, likely altered the carrying capacity of this area both regionally and locally, particularly during the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition, in terms of fresh water supply for human/animal consumption, wild plant food reserves and suitable land for crop growth.

  8. Salt brickwork as long-term sealing in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in these potential pathways to prevent radioactive release into the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made from compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built of salt bricks will be ductile. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. This provides for the good adhesive strength of the mortar to the bricks and the high shear-strength of the mortar itself. To test the interaction of rock salt with an emplaced long-term seal, experiments will be carried out in situ, in the Asse salt mine in Germany. Simple borehole sealing experiments will be performed in horizontal holes and a complicated drift sealing experiment is planned, to demonstrate the technology of sealing a standard size drift or shaft inside a disturbed rock mass. Especially, the mechanical stability of the sealing system has to be demonstrated

  9. Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes and Salt-Related Behavior in the Middle-East: The Case of Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Nasreddine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442. Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.

  10. Polymer electrolytes: an investigation of some poly (N-propylaziridine)/lithium salt compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, K R; Golder, A J; Knight, J

    1984-04-01

    Poly (N-propylaziridine)/lithium salt compositions were synthesized and their electrical conductivities were measured to assess their suitability as electrolytes in safe, leakproof, high energy-density lithium batteries operating at ambient temperature. The effects on conductivity of temperature, and the nature and concentration of the salt were studied. The salts markedly improve conductivity of the compositions over that of the undoped polymer but they are insufficiently conducting to be considered as battery electrolytes, due possibly to ion pairing. Their creep resistance is also low. Less fluid compositions containing higher molecular weight polymers better able to promote ion separation are more suitable. (ESA)

  11. The community project COSA: comparison of geo-mechanical computer codes for salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.J.S.; Knowles, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    Two benchmark problems related to waste disposal in salt were tackled by ten European organisations using twelve rock-mechanics finite element computer codes. The two problems represented increasing complexity with first a hypothetical verification and then the simulation of a laboratory experiment. The project allowed to ascertain a shapshot of the current combined expertise of European organisations in the modelling of salt behaviour

  12. Methods of characterization of salt formations in view of spent fuel final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Daniela; Balan, Valeriu; Mirion, Ilie

    2002-01-01

    Deep disposal in geological formations of salt, granite and clay seems to be at present the most proper and commonly adopted solution for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Disposing such wastes represents the top-priority issue of the European research community in the field of nuclear power. Although seemingly premature for Romanian power system, the interest for final disposal of spent fuel is justified by the long duration implied by the studies targeting this objective. At the same time these studies represent the Romanian nuclear research contribution in the frame of the efforts of integration within the European research field. Although Romania has not made so far a decision favoring a given geological formation for the final disposal of spent fuel resulting from Cernavoda NPP, the most generally taken into consideration appears the salt formation. The final decision will be made following the evaluation of its performances to spent fuel disposal based on the values of the specific parameters of the geological formation. In order to supply the data required as input parameters in the codes of evaluation of the geological formation performances, the INR Pitesti initiated a package of modern and complex methodologies for such determinations. The studies developed so far followed up the special phenomenon of salt convergence, a phenomenon characteristic for only this kind of rock, as well as the radionuclide migration. These studies allow a better understanding of these processes of upmost importance for disposal's safety. The methods and the experimental installation designed and realized at INR Pitesti aimed at determination of thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat, which are all parameters of high specific interest for high level radioactive waste or spent fuel disposal. The paper presents the results of these studies as well as the methodologies, the experimental installations and the findings

  13. Correlation between ionic conductivity and fluidity of polymer gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ionic conductivity; ion aggregates; FTIR spectroscopy; gels; fluidity. 1. Introduction ... liquid and polymer gel electrolytes have been studied as functions of salt ..... Ratner M A 1987 in Polymer electrolyte reviews (eds) J R. MacCallum and C A ...

  14. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  15. Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanita, Sergio C; Padivitage, Nilusha L T

    2013-03-20

    A sample extraction and purification procedure that uses ammonium-salt-induced acetonitrile/water phase separation was developed and demonstrated to be compatible with the recently reported method for pesticide residue analysis based on fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS). The ammonium salts evaluated were chloride, acetate, formate, carbonate, and sulfate. A mixture of NaCl and MgSO4, salts used in the well-known QuEChERS method, was also tested for comparison. With thermal decomposition/evaporation temperature of salts resulted in negligible ion source residual under typical electrospray conditions, leading to consistent method performance and less instrument cleaning. Although all ammonium salts tested induced acetonitrile/water phase separation, NH4Cl yielded the best performance, thus it was the preferred salting out agent. The NH4Cl salting out method was successfully coupled with FI/MS/MS and tested for fourteen pesticide active ingredients: chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, chlorimuron ethyl, oxamyl, methomyl, sulfometuron methyl, chlorsulfuron, triflusulfuron methyl, azimsulfuron, flupyrsulfuron methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminocyclopyrachlor methyl, diuron and hexazinone. A validation study was conducted with nine complex matrices: sorghum, rice, grapefruit, canola, milk, eggs, beef, urine and blood plasma. The method is applicable to all analytes, except aminocyclopyrachlor. The method was deemed appropriate for quantitative analysis in 114 out of 126 analyte/matrix cases tested (applicability rate=0.90). The NH4Cl salting out extraction/cleanup allowed expansion of FI/MS/MS for analysis in food of plant and animal origin, and body fluids with increased ruggedness and sensitivity, while maintaining high-throughput (run time=30s/sample). Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm), the 'well-accepted standard' in pesticide residue analysis, were achieved in >80% of cases tested; while limits of detection

  16. Exothermic potential of sodium nitrate salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1977-06-01

    High-Level radioactive liquid waste is being reduced to a liquid slurry by an evaporation and crystallization process and stored in the existing single-shell tanks. Continuous pumping of the waste storage tank will reduce the present 30 to 50% moisture to the minimum possible. The reduced waste is a relatively immobile salt cake consisting predominantly of sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) with lesser amounts of sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), sodium metaaluminate (NaAlO 2 ), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Trace amounts of fission products, transuranics, and a broad spectrum of organic materials in small but unknown amounts are also present. A program was initiated in 1973 to determine whether or not conditions exist which could lead to an exothermic reaction in the salt cake. Results of the latest series of tests conducted to determine the effects of mass and pressure are summarized. Hanford salt cake, as stored, cannot support combustion, and does not ignite when covered with a burning volatile hydrocarbon

  17. FTIR Spectroscopic and DC Ionic conductivity Studies of PVDF-HFP: LiBF4: EC Plasticized Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Mallikarjun, A.; Jaipal Reddy, M.; Siva Kumar, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper; the FTIR and Temperature dependent DC Ionic conductivity studies of polymer (80 Wt% PVDF-HFP) with inorganic lithium tetra fluoroborate salt (20 Wt% LiBF4) as ionic charge carrier and plasticized with various weight ratios of Ethylene carbonate plasticizer (10 Wt% to 70 Wt% EC) as gel polymer electrolytes. Solution casting method is used for the preparation of plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte films. FTIR analysis shows the good complexation between PVDF-HFP: LiBF4 and the presence of functional groups in the plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte membrane. Also the analysis and results show that the highest DC ionic conductivity of 1.66 × 10-3 SCm -1 was found at 373 K for a particular concentration of 80 Wt% PVDF-HFP: 20 Wt% LiBF4: 40 Wt% EC porous gel type polymer-salt plasticized porous membrane. Increase of temperature results expansion and segmental motion of polymer chain that generates free volume in turn promotes hopping of the lithium ions satisfying Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of salt corrosion of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travkin, V.V.; Pshirkov, V.F.; Kolachev, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    About 200 possible chemical reactions of metals, salts and oxides (in a solid state) with water (in a vapour state), and with gases (O 2 , Cl 2 , HCl) were studied by the thermodynamic analysis to elucidate a chemical nature of processes taking place at salt corrosion of titanium alloys (VT22, VT6 and VT16). Temperature dependences of isobaric-isothermic potential were considered to reveal a possibility of spontaneous course and direction of reactions as well as to obtain a comparative estimate of the probability of their pro-cedure. Thermodynamically possible schemes of the chemism of titanium alloy salt corrosion are proposed. Complex che-mical reactions take place in the presence of salt, moisture and oxygen of air on the surface of the alloys. The reactions proceed with the formation of titanium and alloying component chlorides, free chlorine and hydrogen. The free chlorine or HCl are released during pyrohydrolysis and oxidation of chlo-rides. The former ones interact with the alloy with the formation of salts, and hydrogen may be absorbed by the metal and cause embrittlement. Chlorides on the metal surface accelerate the chlorination process. NaCl acts as a cata-lyst. The determination of salt corrosion products has confirmed the process mechanism proposed

  19. Impacts of using salt and salt brine for roadway deicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) uses a variety of methods to help ensure safe travel on the state highway system : following winter storm events. These methods include plowing, use of sand to improve traction, and use of salt and chemical : com...

  20. Nonlinear dynamics in cardiac conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Smith, J. M.; Saxberg, B. E.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical conduction in the heart shows many phenomena familiar from nonlinear dynamics. Among these phenomena are multiple basins of attraction, phase locking, and perhaps period-doubling bifurcations and chaos. We describe a simple cellular-automation model of electrical conduction which simulates normal conduction patterns in the heart as well as a wide range of disturbances of heart rhythm. In addition, we review the application of percolation theory to the analysis of the development of complex, self-sustaining conduction patterns.

  1. Molten salts in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James

    1959-01-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [fr

  2. Optical Detection of Sodium Salts of Fluoride, Acetate and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Optical Detection of Sodium Salts of Fluoride, Acetate and Phosphate by a Diacylhydrazine. Ligand via the Formation of a Colour Alkali Metal Complex. Purnandhu Bose, Ranjan Dutta, I. Ravikumar and Pradyut Ghosh. ∗. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & 2B Raja ...

  3. Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate by a diacylhydrazine ligand by the formation of a colour alkali metal complex. Purnandhu Bose Ranjan Dutta I ... Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India ...

  4. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... 3Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex, Dera Ghazi Khan, ..... 1.00. 1.20. 1.40. Si concentration (%) in flag leaf. S to m a ta. l c o n d u ... hydroxide (KOH) under salt stress. .... Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia, p.

  5. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Askaryan effect [1] travel through salt, and so the propagation medium has a ... where the real part is the relative permittivity and the imaginary part is the ... When a time-varying field is applied, the complex electronic polarizability is given by.

  6. In situ permeability testing of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Broce, R.D.; Lie, K.

    1981-04-01

    Storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in bedded salt formations requires a knowledge of the in situ permeability of SENM rock salt. Since assumptions for safety assessments have been made in which these wastes could generate gas pressures on the order of the lithostatic pressure over geologic time scales, the permeability of the surrounding formation becomes an important parameter for determining the manner in which the gases will be contained or dispersed. This report describes the series of tests conducted in the AEC-7 borehole, located near the WIPP site, to determine the in situ gas flow characteristics of the bedded salt. In these tests, compressed air was injected into the borehole and flow into the surrounding formation measured. These measured flow rates were interpreted in terms of formation permeabilities and porosities which were, in turn, used as modeling parameters for the repository response analysis. Two series of field tests were performed. The first series consisted of a number of whole-hole flow tests conducted to provide preliminary design information required for future operation of a guarded straddle packer system capable of measuring permeabilities > or = 0.1 μdarcy. The second series of tests were conducted using the Systems, Science and Software (S-Cubed) designed guarded straddle packer system. In these interval permeability tests, 100-foot lengths of borehole were isolated and the flow characteristics of the surrounding formation examined. In this report, a complete description of the test procedures, instrumentation, and measurement techniques is first given. The analytical/numerical methods used for data interpretation are then presented, followed by results of the interval and permeability tests. (The whole-hole tests are summarized in Appendix A.) Conclusions are presented in the final section

  7. Computer simulation on molten ionic salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.; Okada, I.

    1978-01-01

    The extensive advances in computer technology have since made it possible to apply computer simulation to the evaluation of the macroscopic and microscopic properties of molten salts. The evaluation of the potential energy in molten salts systems is complicated by the presence of long-range energy, i.e. Coulomb energy, in contrast to simple liquids where the potential energy is easily evaluated. It has been shown, however, that no difficulties are encountered when the Ewald method is applied to the evaluation of Coulomb energy. After a number of attempts had been made to approximate the pair potential, the Huggins-Mayer potential based on ionic crystals became the most often employed. Since it is thought that the only appreciable contribution to many-body potential, not included in Huggins-Mayer potential, arises from the internal electrostatic polarization of ions in molten ionic salts, computer simulation with a provision for ion polarization has been tried recently. The computations, which are employed mainly for molten alkali halides, can provide: (1) thermodynamic data such as internal energy, internal pressure and isothermal compressibility; (2) microscopic configurational data such as radial distribution functions; (3) transport data such as the diffusion coefficient and electrical conductivity; and (4) spectroscopic data such as the intensity of inelastic scattering and the stretching frequency of simple molecules. The computed results seem to agree well with the measured results. Computer simulation can also be used to test the effectiveness of a proposed pair potential and the adequacy of postulated models of molten salts, and to obtain experimentally inaccessible data. A further application of MD computation employing the pair potential based on an ionic model to BeF 2 , ZnCl 2 and SiO 2 shows the possibility of quantitative interpretation of structures and glass transformation phenomena

  8. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  9. Ionic Conductivity of Polyelectrolyte Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Jung; Wu, Haiyan; Hu, Yang; Young, Megan; Wang, Huifeng; Lynch, Dylan; Xu, Fujian; Cong, Hongbo; Cheng, Gang

    2018-02-14

    Polyelectrolytes have many important functions in both living organisms and man-made applications. One key property of polyelectrolytes is the ionic conductivity due to their porous networks that allow the transport of water and small molecular solutes. Among polyelectrolytes, zwitterionic polymers have attracted huge attention for applications that involve ion transport in a polyelectrolyte matrix; however, it is still unclear how the functional groups of zwitterionic polymer side chains affect their ion transport and swelling properties. In this study, zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine), and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) hydrogels were synthesized and their ionic conductivity was studied and compared to cationic, anionic, and nonionic hydrogels. The change of the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic and nonionic hydrogels in different saline solutions was investigated in detail. Zwitterionic hydrogels showed much higher ionic conductivity than that of the widely used nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate hydrogel in all tested solutions. For both cationic and anionic hydrogels, the presence of mobile counterions led to high ionic conductivity in low salt solutions; however, the ionic conductivity of zwitterionic hydrogels surpassed that of cationic and ionic hydrogels in high salt solutions. Cationic and anionic hydrogels showed much higher water content than that of zwitterionic hydrogels in deionized water; however, the cationic hydrogels shrank significantly with increasing saline concentration. This work provides insight into the effects of polyelectrolyte side chains on ion transport. This can guide us in choosing better polyelectrolytes for a broad spectrum of applications, including bioelectronics, neural implants, battery, and so on.

  10. Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Li; Whitehead, Paul; Siegel, Donald I.; Findlay, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. - Highlights: → A new Integrated Catchment Model (INCA-Cl) is developed to simulate salinity. → Road salt application is important in controlling stream chloride concentration. → INCA-Cl can be used to manage and forecast the input and transport of chloride to the rivers. - A newly developed integrated catchment model for salinity can be used to manage and forecast the inputs and transport of chloride to streams.

  11. Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Li, E-mail: li.jin@ouce.ox.ac.uk [Earth Sciences Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Paul [School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Siegel, Donald I. [Earth Sciences Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Findlay, Stuart [Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 2801 Sharon Turnpike, Millbrook, NY 12545 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. - Highlights: > A new Integrated Catchment Model (INCA-Cl) is developed to simulate salinity. > Road salt application is important in controlling stream chloride concentration. > INCA-Cl can be used to manage and forecast the input and transport of chloride to the rivers. - A newly developed integrated catchment model for salinity can be used to manage and forecast the inputs and transport of chloride to streams.

  12. Functionalized alkoxy arene diazonium salts from paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bernd; Berger, René; Hölter, Frank

    2010-03-21

    Arene diazonium tetrafluoroborates can be synthesized from aromatic acetamides via a sequence of deacetylation, diazotation and precipitation, induced by anion exchange. The reaction is conducted as a convenient one-flask transformation with consecutive addition of the appropriate reagents. Exchange of solvents or removal of byproducts prior to isolation of the product is not required. The arene diazonium salts are isolated from the reaction mixture by simple filtration. Two complementary protocols are presented, and the utility of the reaction is exemplified for a synthesis of the diarylheptanoid natural product de-O-methyl centrolobine.

  13. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The complex was isolated as alkali metal salts, and spectroscopic as well as structural features of the complexes are presented. Different salts of the trans

  16. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  17. Concentration of iodine in edible salt in district mansehra, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.; Mustafa, A.; Khalil, K.U.R.; Faisal, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the status of iodization of edible salt of different brands available in the market and used at homes in district Mansehra, Pakistan. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in District Mansehra between December 2016 to March 2017. Samples were selected from 8 union councils through non probability convenient sampling technique. Salt analyzing kits were used to determine amount of iodine in each sample. Results: The mean iodine concentration of salt available in the market was 23.6+-10.461 ppm; while that of the household salt was 22.85+-10.696 ppm. Overall, 82% of the samples had iodine concentration within ecommended level i.e. 15-30ppm. No iodine was found in 13.2% of the samples and 4.8% of the samples had below recommended level. Conclusion: The percentage of adequately iodized salt in the market (83.9%) was better than that of households (81.5%). Overall samples of edible salt showed adequate amount of iodine. (author)

  18. Status of iodized salt coverage in urban slums of Cuttack City, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Ansuman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, it is necessary to consume adequately iodized salt on a regular basis and optimal iodine nutrition can be achieved through universal salt iodization. Objective: To assess the extent of use of adequately iodized salt in the urban slums of Cuttack. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random multi-stage cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional study involving 336 households and 33 retail shops selected randomly from 11 slums of Cuttack was conducted in 2005. A predesigned pretested schedule was used to obtain relevant information and salt iodine was estimated qualitatively by using a spot testing kit and quantitatively using the iodometric titration method. Statistical Analysis: Proportion, Chi-square test. Results: Only 60.1% of the households in urban slums of Cuttack were using adequately iodized salt i.e., the iodine level in the salt was ≥15 ppm. Iodine deficiency was significantly marked in sample salts collected from katcha houses as compared with salts collected from pucca houses. Households with low financial status were using noniodized/inadequately-iodized salt. Both crystalline and refined salts were sold at all retail shops. Crystalline salts collected from all retailers had an iodine content < 15 ppm and refined salts collected from one retailer had iodine content < 15 ppm. About 48.5% of salt samples collected from retail shops were adequately iodized. Conclusion: In the urban slums of Cuttack, retailers were selling crystalline salts, which were inadequately iodized- this would be a setback in the progress towards eliminating IDD.

  19. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles A [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  20. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  1. Molten-salt converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Molten-salt reactors appear to have substantial promise as advanced converters. Conversion ratios of 0.85 to 0.9 should be attainable with favourable fuel cycle costs, with 235 U valued at $12/g. An increase in 235 U value by a factor of two or three ($10 to $30/lb. U 3 O 8 , $75/SWU) would be expected to increase the optimum conversion ratio, but this has not been analyzed in detail. The processing necessary to recover uranium from the fuel salt has been partially demonstrated in the MSRE. The equipment for doing this would be located at the reactor, and there would be no reliance on an established recycle industry. Processing costs are expected to be quite low, and fuel cycle optimization depends primarily on inventory and burnup or replacement costs for the fuel and for the carrier salt. Significant development problems remain to be resolved for molten-salt reactors, notably the control of tritium and the elimination of intergranular cracking of Hastelloy-N in contact with tellurium. However, these problems appear to be amenable to solution. It is appropriate to consider separating the development schedule for molten-salt reactors from that for the processing technology required for breeding. The Molten-Salt Converter Reactor should be a useful reactor in its own right and would be an advance towards the achievement of true breeding in thermal reactors. (author)

  2. The effects of ascorbic acid on salt induced alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    contribute to the high electrical conductivity of salt-affected lands3. ... the cellular mechanisms of the stress and its application at the .... Fig 2: Effect of salt and ascorbic acid on a) stem length, b) root length, c) root number, d) dry weight of ...

  3. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 4-(2-Tetrathiafulvalenyl-ethenyl)pyridine (TTF-CH=CH-Py) radical cation salts containing poly(beta-diketonate) rare earth complexes: synthesis, crystal structure, photoluminescent and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointillart, Fabrice; Maury, Olivier; Le Gal, Yann; Golhen, Stéphane; Cador, Olivier; Ouahab, Lahcène

    2009-08-03

    The reactions between the redox-active 4-(2-tetrathiafulvalenyl-ethenyl)pyridine ligand (TTF-CH=CH-Py) and the tris(1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonate)Ln(III) (Ln = La and Nd) lead to the formation of compounds with the formulas {[La(hfac)(5)][(TTF-CH=CH-Py(*+))](2)} (1), {[Nd(hfac)(4)(H(2)O)][(TTF-CH=CH-Py(*+))]}(2) (2), and {[Nd(hfac)(4)(H(2)O)][(TTF-CH=CH-Py(*+))]}(2)(H(2)O)(C(6)H(14))(0.5) (3) (hfac(-) = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonate anion). These compounds have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, optical, and magnetic measurements. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 crystallize in the monoclinic C2/c, triclinic P1, and monoclinic P2(1)/c space groups, respectively. La(III) adopts a tetradecahedral geometry, while Nd(III) stands in a distorted capped square antiprism one. In 1, the inorganic network is formed by the [La(hfac)(5)](2-) dianionic complexes, while it is formed by a pseudo-dimeric dianionic unit of formula {[Nd(hfac)(4)(H(2)O)](2)}(2-) in 2 and 3. In all crystal structures, the organic network is constituted by the TTF-CH=CH-Py(*+) radical cations. The inorganic and organic networks interact through intermolecular contacts between the pyridine moieties of the TTF-CH=CH-Py(*+) radical cations and the Ln(III) ions. The luminescence properties of the Nd(III) ions (9400 cm(-1)) and fluorescence band of the TTF-CH=CH-Py(*+) radical cations (10200 cm(-1)) have been observed and studied for compound 2. Complexes 2 and 3 are paramagnetic because of Nd(III) ions. Compound 2 is a paramagnetic luminescent TTF-radical-cation-based material. Resistivity measurements have also been performed on these materials.

  5. Salicylic acid promotes plant growth and salt-related gene expression in Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) grown under different salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xule; Hu, Qingdi; Qian, Renjuan

    2018-03-01

    Salt stress is a critical factor that affects the growth and development of plants. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule that mitigates the negative effects of salt stress on plants. To elucidate salt tolerance in large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) and the regulatory mechanism of exogenous SA on D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to evaluate leaf biomass, leaf anatomy, soluble protein and sugar content, and the relative expression of salt-induced genes in D. superbus under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions with and without 0.5 mM SA. The result showed that exposure of D. superbus to salt stress lead to a decrease in leaf growth, soluble protein and sugar content, and mesophyll thickness, together with an increase in the expression of MYB and P5CS genes. Foliar application of SA effectively increased leaf biomass, soluble protein and sugar content, and upregulated the expression of MYB and P5CS in the D. superbus , which facilitated in the acclimation of D. superbus to moderate salt stress. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl), no significant difference in plant physiological responses and relevant gene expression between plants with and without SA was observed. The findings of this study suggest that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effects of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development.

  6. Preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Film as Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) from Zinc Complex Compound on Thin Film Solar Cells: A Study of O2 Effect on Annealing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslih, E. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cell application was successfully prepared through two step preparations which consisted of deposition by spin coating at 2000 rpm for 10 second and followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 hours under O2 and ambient atmosphere. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as a precursor which dissolved in ethanol and acetone (1:1 mol) mixture in order to make a zinc complex compound. In this work, we reported the O2 effect, reaction mechanism, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. ZnO thin film in this work shows a single phase of wurtzite, with n-type semiconductor and has band gap, carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity as 3.18 eV, 1.21 × 10-19cm3, 11 cm2/Vs, 2.35 × 10-3 Ωcm respectively which is suitable for TCO at thin film solar cell.

  7. Tetraphenylborate Solubility in High Ionic Strength Salt Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.; Ginn, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1998-04-01

    Solubility of sodium and potassium salts of the tetraphenylborate ion (TPB) in simulated Savannah River Site High Level Waste was investigated. Data generated from this study allow more accurate predictions of TPB solubility at the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility. Because previous research showed large deviations in the observed solubility of TPB salts when compared with model predictions, additional data were generated to better understand the solubility of TPB in more complex systems of high ionic strength and those containing both potassium and sodium. These data allow evaluation of the ability of current models to accurately predict equilibrium TPB concentrations over the range of experimental conditions investigated in this study

  8. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  9. Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papatheodorou, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures

  10. Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to salt consumption in sentinel countries of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Linders, Hubert; Ricardo, Camila Zancheta; Legetic, Branka; Campbell, Norm R C

    2012-10-01

    To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (≥ 18 years old) from Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country) was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shopping malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.

  11. Effect of Pre-rigor Salting Levels on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Chicken Breast Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Yeo, Eui-Joo; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pre-rigor salting level (0-4% NaCl concentration) on physicochemical and textural properties of pre-rigor chicken breast muscles. The pre-rigor chicken breast muscles were de-boned 10 min post-mortem and salted within 25 min post-mortem. An increase in pre-rigor salting level led to the formation of high ultimate pH of chicken breast muscles at post-mortem 24 h. The addition of minimum of 2% NaCl significantly improved water holding capacity, cooking loss, protein solubility, and hardness when compared to the non-salting chicken breast muscle (prigor salting level caused the inhibition of myofibrillar protein degradation and the acceleration of lipid oxidation. However, the difference in NaCl concentration between 3% and 4% had no great differences in the results of physicochemical and textural properties due to pre-rigor salting effects (p>0.05). Therefore, our study certified the pre-rigor salting effect of chicken breast muscle salted with 2% NaCl when compared to post-rigor muscle salted with equal NaCl concentration, and suggests that the 2% NaCl concentration is minimally required to ensure the definite pre-rigor salting effect on chicken breast muscle.

  12. Salt-bridge networks within globular and disordered proteins: characterizing trends for designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sankar; Mukharjee, Debasish

    2017-07-01

    There has been considerable debate about the contribution of salt bridges to the stabilization of protein folds, in spite of their participation in crucial protein functions. Salt bridges appear to contribute to the activity-stability trade-off within proteins by bringing high-entropy charged amino acids into close contacts during the course of their functions. The current study analyzes the modes of association of salt bridges (in terms of networks) within globular proteins and at protein-protein interfaces. While the most common and trivial type of salt bridge is the isolated salt bridge, bifurcated salt bridge appears to be a distinct salt-bridge motif having a special topology and geometry. Bifurcated salt bridges are found ubiquitously in proteins and interprotein complexes. Interesting and attractive examples presenting different modes of interaction are highlighted. Bifurcated salt bridges appear to function as molecular clips that are used to stitch together large surface contours at interacting protein interfaces. The present work also emphasizes the key role of salt-bridge-mediated interactions in the partial folding of proteins containing long stretches of disordered regions. Salt-bridge-mediated interactions seem to be pivotal to the promotion of "disorder-to-order" transitions in small disordered protein fragments and their stabilization upon binding. The results obtained in this work should help to guide efforts to elucidate the modus operandi of these partially disordered proteins, and to conceptualize how these proteins manage to maintain the required amount of disorder even in their bound forms. This work could also potentially facilitate explorations of geometrically specific designable salt bridges through the characterization of composite salt-bridge networks. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  13. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  14. Research on Dynamic Dissolving Model and Experiment for Rock Salt under Different Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing deep rock salt cavern is not only a widely recognized energy reserve method but also a key development direction for implementing the energy strategic reserve plan. And rock salt cavern adopts solution mining techniques to realize building cavity. In view of this, the paper, based on the dissolving properties of rock salt, being simplified and hypothesized the dynamic dissolving process of rock salt, combined conditions between dissolution effect and seepage effect in establishing dynamic dissolving models of rock salt under different flow quantities. Devices were also designed to test the dynamic dissolving process for rock salt samples under different flow quantities and then utilized the finite-difference method to find the numerical solution of the dynamic dissolving model. The artificial intelligence algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO, was finally introduced to conduct inverse analysis of parameters on the established model, whose calculation results coincide with the experimental data.

  15. Activation of CFTR by ASBT-mediated bile salt absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvelds, MJC; Jorna, H; Verkade, HJ; Bot, AGM; Hofmann, F; Agellon, LB; Sinaasappel, M; de Jonge, HR

    2005-01-01

    In cholangiocytes, bile salt (BS) uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) may evoke ductular flow by enhancing cAMP-mediated signaling to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. We considered that ASBT-mediated BS uptake in the distal

  16. Beaded Fiber Mats of PVA Containing Unsaturated Heteropoly Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Cheng YANG; Yan PAN; Jian GONG; Chang Lu SHAO; Shang Bin WEN; Chen SHAO; Lun Yu QU

    2004-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fiber mats containing unsaturated heteropoly salt was prepared for the first time. IR, X-ray diffraction and SEM photographs characterized the beaded fiber mats.The viscoelasticity and the conductivity of the solution were the key factors that influence the formation of the beaded fiber mats.

  17. Electrochemical properties of quaternary ammonium salts for electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ue, Makoto; Takeda, Masayuki; Takehara, Masahiro; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Inashiki, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center

    1997-08-01

    The limiting reduction and oxidation potentials and electrolytic conductivities of new quaternary ammonium salts were examined for electrochemical capacitor applications, whose anions have already been tested as lithium salts for lithium battery applications. The anodic stability was in the following order BR{sub 4}{sup {minus}} < ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} {le} CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} < (CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sup {minus}} {le} C{sub 4}F{sub 9}SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} < BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} < PF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} {le} AsF{sub 6}{sup {minus}} < SbF{sub 6}{sup {minus}}. The electrolytic conductivities of Me{sub 4{minus}n}Et{sub n}N(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N (n = 0--4) were examined in comparison with Me{sub 4{minus}n}Et{sub n}NBF{sub 4} counterparts. These imide salts showed good solubility, relatively high conductivity, and anodic stability in propylene carbonate. Et{sub 4}N(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N was found to be a good supporting salt for low permittivity organic solvents, and it afforded a highly conductive electrolyte system based on the ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate mixed solvent, which is useful for electrochemical capacitor applications.

  18. Salt tolerance in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) seedlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... This study was conducted to investigate the effect of salt stress on germination of 28 red clover. (Trifolium pratense ... tolerance with the aim of improving crop plants (Zhu,. 2001) or soil .... The interaction of salinity and population in terms of PI ... in shoot growth is probably due to hormonal signals generated ...

  19. The effect of salt composition on reductive extraction of some typical elements from molten LiF-BeF2 salt into liquid bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotake, M.; Jun, O.; Kimikazu, M.; Kunimitsu, Y.; Yasunobu, T.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of thorium and radium between molten LiF-BeF 2 and liquid bismuth solutions were measured at 600 0 C in support of the processing of the molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR) fuel. The increasing mole fraction of LiF in the salt phase from 40 to 70 mol% resulted in the rapid decrease of the distribution coefficient of thorium and in the slow decrease of that of radium. A comprehensive correlation of distribution behavior with salt composition is given by taking into account the formation of complex ions. The equilibrium distribution data affirm that thorium and radium exist mainly as Li 2 ThF 6 and RaF 2 , respectively, in the salt phase. It is suggested that the lower mole fraction of LiF in the fuel salt is effective in the MSBR fuel processing

  20. Salt tectonics in an experimental turbiditic tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Nicolas; Vendeville, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    deforms spontaneously by vertical collapse and lateral spreading of the entire overburden. We conducted a series of systematic experiments varying the length and thickness of the salt body, as well as the sediment input and nature.

  1. Numerical analysis of the bearing capacity of complex rock mechanical underground systems with filigree structures in the presence of imponderables. A contribution to the systematization of the investigative process with application/demonstration using the example of the salt cavern ASSE II/south flank; Numerische Analyse des Tragverhaltens komplexer gebirgsmechanischer untertaegiger Systeme mit filigranen Strukturen bei Anwesenheit von Imponderabilien. Ein Beitrag zur Systematisierung des Untersuchungsprozesses mit Anwendung/Demonstration am Beispiel des Salzbergwerks Schacht ASSE II/Suedflanke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyogtyev, Oleksandr

    2017-03-02

    The thesis dealing with the numerical analysis of the bearing capacity of complex rock mechanical underground systems with filigree structures in the presence of imponderables covers the following issues: status of science and technology, concept for the performance of numerical studies on the bearing capacity of large-volume underground systems, application example salt cavern ASSE II - application of the developed concept/development of numerical tools for the overall system/application of the global model to the given questions/realization of the modification potential.

  2. Rationale, design and conduct of a randomised controlled trial evaluating a primary care-based complex intervention to improve the quality of life of heart failure patients: HICMan (Heidelberg Integrated Case Management).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Klimm, Frank; Müller-Tasch, Thomas; Schellberg, Dieter; Gensichen, Jochen; Muth, Christiane; Herzog, Wolfgang; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2007-08-23

    Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complex disease with rising prevalence, compromised quality of life (QoL), unplanned hospital admissions, high mortality and therefore high burden of illness. The delivery of care for these patients has been criticized and new strategies addressing crucial domains of care have been shown to be effective on patients' health outcomes, although these trials were conducted in secondary care or in highly organised Health Maintenance Organisations. It remains unclear whether a comprehensive primary care-based case management for the treating general practitioner (GP) can improve patients' QoL. HICMan is a randomised controlled trial with patients as the unit of randomisation. Aim is to evaluate a structured, standardized and comprehensive complex intervention for patients with CHF in a 12-months follow-up trial. Patients from intervention group receive specific patient leaflets and documentation booklets as well as regular monitoring and screening by a prior trained practice nurse, who gives feedback to the GP upon urgency. Monitoring and screening address aspects of disease-specific self-management, (non)pharmacological adherence and psychosomatic and geriatric comorbidity. GPs are invited to provide a tailored structured counselling 4 times during the trial and receive an additional feedback on pharmacotherapy relevant to prognosis (data of baseline documentation). Patients from control group receive usual care by their GPs, who were introduced to guideline-oriented management and a tailored health counselling concept. Main outcome measurement for patients' QoL is the scale physical functioning of the SF-36 health questionnaire in a 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes are the disease specific QoL measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy questionnaire (KCCQ), depression and anxiety disorders (PHQ-9, GAD-7), adherence (EHFScBS and SANA), quality of care measured by an adapted version of the Patient Chronic Illness

  3. Rationale, design and conduct of a randomised controlled trial evaluating a primary care-based complex intervention to improve the quality of life of heart failure patients: HICMan (Heidelberg Integrated Case Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muth Christiane

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic congestive heart failure (CHF is a complex disease with rising prevalence, compromised quality of life (QoL, unplanned hospital admissions, high mortality and therefore high burden of illness. The delivery of care for these patients has been criticized and new strategies addressing crucial domains of care have been shown to be effective on patients' health outcomes, although these trials were conducted in secondary care or in highly organised Health Maintenance Organisations. It remains unclear whether a comprehensive primary care-based case management for the treating general practitioner (GP can improve patients' QoL. Methods/Design HICMan is a randomised controlled trial with patients as the unit of randomisation. Aim is to evaluate a structured, standardized and comprehensive complex intervention for patients with CHF in a 12-months follow-up trial. Patients from intervention group receive specific patient leaflets and documentation booklets as well as regular monitoring and screening by a prior trained practice nurse, who gives feedback to the GP upon urgency. Monitoring and screening address aspects of disease-specific self-management, (nonpharmacological adherence and psychosomatic and geriatric comorbidity. GPs are invited to provide a tailored structured counselling 4 times during the trial and receive an additional feedback on pharmacotherapy relevant to prognosis (data of baseline documentation. Patients from control group receive usual care by their GPs, who were introduced to guideline-oriented management and a tailored health counselling concept. Main outcome measurement for patients' QoL is the scale physical functioning of the SF-36 health questionnaire in a 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes are the disease specific QoL measured by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy questionnaire (KCCQ, depression and anxiety disorders (PHQ-9, GAD-7, adherence (EHFScBS and SANA, quality of care measured by an adapted

  4. Salt tolerance at single cell level in giant-celled Characeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane eBeilby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characean plants provide an excellent experimental system for electrophysiology and physiology due to: (i very large cell size, (ii position on phylogenetic tree near the origin of land plants and (iii continuous spectrum from very salt sensitive to very salt tolerant species. A range of experimental techniques is described, some unique to characean plants. Application of these methods provided electrical characteristics of membrane transporters, which dominate the membrane conductance under different outside conditions. With this considerable background knowledge the electrophysiology of salt sensitive and salt tolerant genera can be compared under salt and/or osmotic stress. Both salt tolerant and salt sensitive Characeae show a rise in membrane conductance and simultaneous increase in Na+ influx upon exposure to saline medium. Salt tolerant Chara longifolia and Lamprothamnium sp. exhibit proton pump stimulation upon both turgor decrease and salinity increase, allowing the membrane PD to remain negative. The turgor is regulated through the inward K+ rectifier and 2H+/Cl- symporter. Lamprothamnium plants can survive in hypersaline media up to twice seawater strength and withstand large sudden changes in salinity. Salt-sensitive Chara australis succumbs to 50 - 100 mM NaCl in few days. Cells exhibit no pump stimulation upon turgor decrease and at best transient pump stimulation upon salinity increase. Turgor is not regulated. The membrane PD exhibits characteristic noise upon exposure to salinity. Depolarization of membrane PD to excitation threshold sets off trains of action potentials, leading to further loses of K+ and Cl-. In final stages of salt damage the H+/OH- channels are thought to become the dominant transporter, dissipating the proton gradient and bringing the cell PD close to 0. The differences in transporter electrophysiology and their synergy under osmotic and/or saline stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant characean cells

  5. Hydronium-dominated ion transport in carbon-dioxide-saturated electrolytes at low salt concentrations in nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Jensen, Kristian; Kristensen, Jesper Toft; Crumrine, Andrew Michael

    2011-01-01

    the nanochannel conductance at low salt concentrations and identify a conductance minimum before saturation at a value independent of salt concentration in the dilute limit. Via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, our model self-consistently couples chemical-equilibrium dissociation models of the silica wall...

  6. Neutronic study of a nuclear reactor of fused salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia B, F. B.; Francois L, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    The reactors of fused salts called Molten Salt Reactor have presented a resurgence of interest in the last decade, due to they have a versatility in particular to operate, either with a thermal or fast neutrons spectrum. The most active development was by the middle of 1950 and principles of 1970 in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this work some developed models are presented particularly and studied with the help of the MCNPX code, for the development of the neutronic study of this reactor, starting of proposed models and from a simple and homogeneous geometry until other more complex models and approximate to more real cases. In particular the geometry conditions and criticality of each model were analyzed, the isotopic balance, as well as the concentrations of the salts and different assigned fuel types. (Author)

  7. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in response to salt stress in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings raised from seed treated with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nusrat; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2013-05-01

    Salt tolerance is a complex trait which involves the coordinated action of many genes that perform a variety of functions, such as ion sequestration, metabolic adjustment, osmotic adjustment and antioxidative defence. In this article, the growth and the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under normal (ECiw [Electrical conductivity of irrigation water] = 0.5 dS m(-1)) and salt stress conditions (ECiw = 3.4, 6.1, 8.6 and 10.8 dS m(-1) ) in relation to the priming of seeds of the two important oil yielding crops, i.e. safflower and sunflower, with different concentrations of chitosan [0% (control), 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%] is discussed. Induced salinity stress significantly decreased germination percentage, germination rate, length and weight of root and shoot, and protein content. Proline content, malondialdehyde content (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) activity increased at 10.8 dS m(-1). Under control conditions there were no significant differences in germination percentage among different concentrations of chitosan, whereas CAT and POX activity were increased by low concentrations of chitosan. With increasing salt stress, low concentrations of chitosan increased germination percentage but decreased MDA and proline contents and CAT and POX activity. Generation of ROS seems to be unavoidable under normal conditions and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in plants varies in terms of ROS generation under salt stress. However, the data indicate that plants subjected to salt stress-induced oxidative stress and the low concentrations of chitosan exhibited positive effects on salt stress alleviation through the reduction of enzyme activity in both crops. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Large-scale dynamic compaction demonstration using WIPP salt: Fielding and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-10-01

    Reconsolidation of crushed rock salt is a phenomenon of great interest to programs studying isolation of hazardous materials in natural salt geologic settings. Of particular interest is the potential for disaggregated salt to be restored to nearly an impermeable state. For example, reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as a major shaft seal component for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project. The concept for a permanent shaft seal component of the WIPP repository is to densely compact crushed salt in the four shafts; an effective seal will then be developed as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, further consolidating the crushed salt. Fundamental information on placement density and permeability is required to ensure attainment of the design function. The work reported here is the first large-scale compaction demonstration to provide information on initial salt properties applicable to design, construction, and performance expectations. The shaft seals must function for 10,000 years. Over this period a crushed salt mass will become less permeable as it is compressed by creep closure of salt surrounding the shaft. These facts preclude the possibility of conducting a full-scale, real-time field test. Because permanent seals taking advantage of salt reconsolidation have never been constructed, performance measurements have not been made on an appropriately large scale. An understanding of potential construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability, and performance of reconsolidated salt over time is required for seal design and performance assessment. This report discusses fielding and operations of a nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, and presents preliminary density and in situ (in place) gas permeability results

  9. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  10. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for the Molten Salt Reactor Fuel - 15573

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelli, E.; Konings, R.J.M.; Benes, A.

    2015-01-01

    Molten fluoride salts are considered as primary candidates for nuclear fuel in the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), one of the 6 generation IV nuclear reactor designs. In order to determine the safety limits and to access the properties of the potential fuel mixtures, thermodynamic studies are very important. This study is a combination of experimental work and thermodynamic modelling and focusses on the fluoride systems with alkaline and alkaline earth fluorides as matrix and ThF 4 , UF 4 and PuF 3 as fertile and fissile materials. The purification of the single components was considered as essential first step for the study of more complex systems and ternary phase diagrams were described using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and drop calorimetry, which are used to measure phase transitions, enthalpy of mixing and heat capacity. In addition to the calorimetric techniques, Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to collect data on vapour pressure and crystal structure of fluorides. The results are then coupled with thermodynamic modelling using the Calphad method for the assessment of the phase diagrams. A thermodynamic database describing the most important systems for MSR application has been developed and it has been used to optimize the fuel composition in view of the relevant properties such as melting temperature. A reliable database of thermodynamic properties of fluoride salts has been generated. It includes the key systems for the MSR fuel and it is very useful to predict the properties of the fuel

  11. CONDUCTIVITY STUDIES OF (PEO +KHCO3 SOLID ELECTROLYTE SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION AS AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VIJAY KUMAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte system, polyethylene oxide (PEO complexed with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3 salt was prepared by solution-cast technique. Several experimental techniques such as infrared radiation (IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, and composition dependence conductivity, temperature dependence conductivity in the temperature range of 308–368 K and transport number measurements were employed to characterize this polymer electrolyte system. The conductivity of the (PEO+KHCO3 electrolyte was found to be about 3 times larger than that of pure PEO at room temperature. The transference data indicated that the charge transport in these polymer electrolyte systems is predominantly due to K+ ions. Using this polymer electrolyte an electrochemical cell with configuration K+/(PEO+KHCO3/(I2+C+electrolyte was fabricated and its discharge characteristics are studied. A number of other cell parameters associated with the cell were evaluated and are reported in this paper.

  12. Implications of thermophysical properties in geoscientific investigations for the disposal of nuclear waste in a salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopietz, J.

    1984-01-01

    Examples from laboratory and in-situ experiments on the thermomechanical behavior of rock salt are used to discuss the implications of thermophysical properties for disposal of nuclear waste in a salt dome. The implications of thermophysical properties are also illustrated by a brief review of geothermal investigations made within the scope of geological and hydrogeological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome in northern Germany. High-resolution temperature measurements performed in shallow and deep boreholes drilled for the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome, together with thermal conductivity measurements on representative core samples from these boreholes, are contributing to a determination of groundwater flow in the covering layers of the salt dome and to the identification of zones of impurity (eg carnallitite layers) within the salt structure. Data from these experiments are used for setting up numerical models for heat propagation around a prospective waste repository in the Gorleben salt dome. Long-term creep experiments on samples of rock salt at up to 400 deg C are used to derive constitutive relations on the creep behavior of salt. In-situ heating experiments are being conducted in the Asse salt mine to determine the effect of a heat source on the integrity of the surrounding salt rock. (author)

  13. Numerical investigation of road salt impact on an urban wellfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, M L; Frind, E O; Molson, J W; Rudolph, D L

    2006-01-01

    The impact of road salt on a wellfield in a complex glacial moraine aquifer system is studied by numerical simulation. The moraine underlies an extensive urban and industrial landscape, which draws its water supply from >20 wellfields, several of which are approaching or have exceeded the drinking water limit for chloride. The study investigates the mechanisms of road salt infiltration, storage, and transport in the subsurface and assesses the effectiveness of mitigation measures designed to reduce the impact. The three-dimensional transport model accounts for increases in salt loading, as well as growth of the urbanized area and road network over the past 50 years. The simulations, which focus on one impacted wellfield, show chloride plumes originating mainly at arterial roads and migrating through aquitard windows into the water supply aquifers. The results suggest that the aquifer system contains a large and heterogeneously distributed mass of chloride and that concentrations in the aquifer can be substantially higher than the concentrations in the well water. Future impact scenarios indicate that although the system responds rapidly to reductions in salt loading, the residual chloride mass may take decades to flush out, even if road salting were discontinued. The implications with respect to urban wellfields in typical snow-belt areas are discussed.

  14. Hydrogeological research at the site of the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batsche, H.; Rauert, W.; Klarr, K.

    1980-01-01

    In connection with the storage of radioactive wastes in the abandoned Asse salt mine near Brunswick (Federal Republic of Germany), the hydrogeology of the ridge of hills of Asse has been investigated. In order to obtain as detailed information as possible on the hydrogeological conditions, a long-term investigation programme has been set up and many methods of investigation have been used. Hydrogeological boring operations resulted in important scientific findings regarding, for example, the course of the salt table and the main anhydrite which towers up above the salt table into the overlying collapsed rocks. Hydrochemical data showed the hydraulic effect of transverse faults. Isotopic hydrological measurements permitted distinction between the flow behaviour of the groundwater in different aquifers. The origin of the salt springs at the northwest end of the structure can be explained. Some additional pumping and labelling tests are expected to yield quantitative results concerning hydraulic interrelationships recognized to date. The very complex hydrogeological structure of the ridge of hills of Asse is the result of the multiple succession of permeable and impermeable layers on the flanks of the structure, and, furthermore, is possibly due to the fact that in some individual faults groundwater may seep through normally impermeable layers as well as via waterways at the salt table. (author)

  15. The Response of Photosynthetic Functions of F1 Cutting Seedlings From Physocarpus amurensis Maxim (♀ × Physocarpus opulifolius “Diabolo” (♂ and the Parental Seedlings to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Nan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper selected clonal cutting seedlings from the F1 hybrid varieties of Physocarpus amurensis Maxim (♀ × P. opulifolius “Diabolo” (♂ as research material to study the response of the photosynthetic gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of P. amurensis hybrids and their parental leaves to NaCl stress (with concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mmol⋅L-1. The results showed that under salt stress, the stomatal conductance (Gs, transpiration rate (Tr, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn of the three kinds of P. amurensis all significantly decreased. When the NaCl concentration was below 100 mmol⋅L-1, the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci of leaves of the three samples declined with the increase of salt concentration; however, when the concentration increased to 200 mmol⋅L-1, Ci did not decrease significantly, especially when the Ci of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” presented a slight increase. This indicated that the decline of photosynthetic carbon assimilation capacity induced by salt stress was the consequence of interaction between stomatal factors and non-stomatal factors, and the stomatal factors played an important role when the salt concentration was below 200 mmol⋅L-1. Compared with P. amurensis, the photosynthetic gas exchange capability of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” leaves was more sensitive to salt stress, and the limitation of non-stomatal factors was relatively evident. However, the photosynthetic capacity of hybrid P. amurensis leaves with the desired purple color was improved compared with P. amurensis. Under salt stress, the PSII activity of the three kinds of P. amurensis leaves declined, the electron transfer was inhibited, and obvious signs of photoinhibition were present. The PSII activity of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” leaves was more sensitive to salt stress than that in P. amurensis. Under salt stress, the NPQ of P. opulifolius “Diabolo” leaves decreased greatly, while under

  16. Study of the Formation of Eutectic Melt of Uranium and Thermal Analysis for the Salt Distillation of Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Hwang, Sung Chan; Kang, Young Ho; Park, Ki Min; Jun, Wan Gi; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Dong Wook

    2010-01-01

    Uranium deposits from an electrorefining process contain about 30% salt. In order to recover pure uranium and transform it into an ingot, the salts have to be removed from the uranium deposits. Major process variables for the salt distillation process of the uranium deposits are hold temperature and vacuum pressure. Effects of the variables on the salt removal efficiency were studied in the previous study 1. By applying the Hertz-Langmuir relation to the salt evaporation of the uranium deposits, the evaporation coefficients were obtained at the various conditions. The operational conditions for achieving above 99% salt removal were deduced. The salt distilled uranium deposits tend to form the eutectic melt with iron, nickel, chromium for structural material of salt evaporator. In this study, we investigated the hold temperature limitation in order to prevent the formation of the eutectic melt between uranium and other metals. The reactions between the uranium metal and stainless steel were tested at various conditions. And for enhancing the evaporation rate of the salt and the efficient recovery of the distilled salt, the thermal analysis of the salt distiller was conducted by using commercial CFX software. From the thermal analysis, the effect of Ar gas flow on the evaporation of the salt was studied.

  17. Spatial patterns in salt marsh porewater dissolved organic matter over a spring-neap tidal cycle: insight to the impact of hydrodynamics on lateral carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, J. A.; Yu, X.; Duque, C.; Michael, H. A.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes are a hydrologically complex ecosystem. Tides deliver saline surface water to salt marshes via tidal creeks, and freshwater is introduced through lateral groundwater flow and vertical infiltration from precipitation. Locally, sediment heterogeneity, tides, weather, and topography introduce spatial and temporal complexities in groundwater-surface water interactions, which, in turn, can have a large impact on salt marsh biogeochemistry and the lateral fluxes of nutrients and carbon between the marsh platform and tidal creek. In this study, we investigate spatial patterns of porewater fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) and redox potential over a spring-neap tidal cycle in a mid-latitude tidal salt marsh in Dover, Delaware. Porewater samplers were used in conjunction with a peristaltic pump and YSI EXO Sonde to measure porewater fDOM, electrical conductivity, redox potential and pH from 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.3 meters deep, as well as surface water from the creek and marsh platform. Eh was also measured continuously every 15 minutes with multi-level in-situ redox sensors at 0, 3, and 5m from the tidal creek, and water level and salinity were measured every 15 minutes continuously in 6 wells equipped with data loggers. Preliminary analyses indicate porewater salinity is dependent on the slope of the marsh platform, the elevation of the sample location, and the distance from a tidal creek. Near-creek redox analyses show tidal oscillations up to 300 mV; redox oscillations in the marsh interior show longer timescale changes. The observed redox oscillations coincide with the water level fluctuations at these locations. Therefore, lateral transport of carbon is determined by both hydrologic flow and biogeochemical processes. Results from this study provide insight into the timescales over which salt marsh hydrology impacts porewater biogeochemistry and the mechanisms controlling regional carbon cycling.

  18. Starch-lipid inclusion complexes for aerogel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently we reported that aqueous slurries of starch can be excess steam jet-cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to produce inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes can be simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam ...

  19. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  20. Field experiments in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    1986-01-01

    Field experiments in salt formations started as early as 1965 with Project Salt Vault in the Lyons Mine, Kansas, U.S.A., and with the purchase of the Asse salt mine by the German Federal Government. Underground tests concentrated on the heat dissipation around buried high-level radioactive wastes and the geomechanical consequences of their disposal. Near-field investigations cover the properties of water and gas release, radiolysis and corrosion. Further objectives of field experiments are the development and underground testing of a handling system for high-level wastes. The performance of an underground test disposal for such wastes is not only considered to be necessary for technical and scientific reasons but also for improving public acceptance of the concept of radioactive waste disposal. (author)