WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex-controlled protective influences

  1. Major histocompatibility complex-controlled protective influences on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are peptide specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Kjellén, P; Olsson, T;

    1997-01-01

    The myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 63-88-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and its associated T cell cytokine profile are influenced by the rat major histocompatibility complex (MHC). There is an allele-specific protective influence of the MHC class I region, whereas...

  2. Protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry: influence on stereoselectivity of glycosylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2010-10-20

    Saccharides are polyhydroxy compounds, and their synthesis requires complex protecting group manipulations. Protecting groups are usually used to temporarily mask a functional group which may interfere with a certain reaction, but protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry do more than protecting groups usually do. Particularly, protecting groups can participate in reactions directly or indirectly, thus affecting the stereochemical outcomes, which is important for synthesis of oligosaccharides. Herein we present an overview of recent advances in protecting groups influencing stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions, including participating protecting groups, and conformation-constraining protecting groups in general.

  3. Influence of Current Transformer Saturation on Operation of Current Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the influence of instrument current transformer errors on operation of current protection of power supply diagram elements has been carried out in the paper. The paper shows the influence of an aperiodic component of transient current and secondary load on current  transformer errors.Peculiar operational features of measuring elements of electromechanical and microprocessor current protection with their joint operation with electromagnetic current transformers have been analyzed in the paper.

  4. Developing an undue influence screening tool for Adult Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Joy; Nerenberg, Lisa; Navarro, Adria E; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2017-03-01

    The study purpose was to develop and pilot an undue influence screening tool for California's Adult Protective Services (APS) personnel based on the definition of undue influence enacted into California law January 1, 2014. Methods included four focus groups with APS providers (n = 33), piloting the preliminary tool by APS personnel (n = 15), and interviews with four elder abuse experts and two APS administrators. Social service literature-including existing undue influence models-was reviewed, as were existing screening and assessment tools. Using the information from these various sources, the California Undue Influence Screening Tool (CUIST) was developed. It can be applied to APS cases and potentially adapted for use by other professionals and for use in other states. Implementation of the tool into APS practice, policy, procedures, and training of personnel will depend on the initiative of APS management. Future work will need to address the reliability and validity of CUIST.

  5. The influence of protected natural and cultural heritage on land management/market: The case of Slovenian natural protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisec Anka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on finding problems in land use domain in the areas of protected natural and cultural heritage. In the paper, the influence of special regulation in the natural and cultural protected areas on land management is presented. The paper gives an overview on history of cultural heritage and nature protection initiatives in Slovenia and provides a review on basic EU and international initiatives, conventions in this field. For the case of Slovenian rural land market, it highlights the problem of complex institutional regulations relating to land management in the protected areas, which affect mostly local people. Here, the impact of the protected regimes, the case of pre-emption right, on land management and consequently spatial development in local communities is stressed, which is an important topic in particular in less developed regions since restriction of land use often means more complex, costly and time lasting procedures in land management and less opportunities as the consequence.

  6. Influence of Planetary Protection Guidelines on Waste Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A.; Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Race, Margaret S.; Stabekis, Perry D.; Rummel, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Newly outlined missions in the Space Exploration Initiative include extended human habitation on Mars. During these missions, large amounts of waste materials will be generated in solid, liquid and gaseous form. Returning these wastes to Earth will be extremely costly, and will therefore likely remain on Mars. Untreated, these wastes are a reservoir of live/dead organisms and molecules considered to be "biomarkers" i.e., indicators of life). If released to the planetary surface, these materials can potentially confound exobiology experiments and disrupt Martian ecology indefinitely (if existent). Waste management systems must therefore be specifically designed to control release of problematic materials both during the active phase of the mission, and for any specified post-mission duration. To effectively develop waste management requirements for Mars missions, planetary protection guidelines must first be established. While previous policies for Apollo lunar missions exist, it is anticipated that the increased probability of finding evidence of life on Mars, as well as the lengthy mission durations will initially lead to more conservative planetary protection measures. To facilitate the development of overall requirements for both waste management and planetary protection for future missions, a workshop was conducted to identify how these two areas interface, and to establish a preliminary set of planetary protection guidelines that address waste management operations. This paper provides background regarding past and current planetary protection and waste management issues, and their interactions. A summary of the recommended planetary protection guidelines, anticipated ramifications and research needs for waste management system design for both forward (Mars) and backward (Earth) contamination is also provided.

  7. MOBILE PHONE AND CHILDREN: INFLUENCE ON HEALTH AND PROTECTION MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Liberman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article presents an analysis of the results of research aimed at clarifying the possible shortand long-term effects of exposure from electromagnetic fields (EMF of mobile radio communication – mobile (cellularand wireless (home phones on children and adolescents. Measures are considered to protect them from exposure to EMF, directions for further researches are formulated.

  8. Social influence protects collective decision making from equality bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Romand-Monnier, Margaux; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina; Bahrami, Bahador

    2016-02-01

    A basic tenet of research on wisdom of the crowds-and key assumption of Condercet's (1785) Jury Theorem-is the independence of voters' opinions before votes are aggregated. However, we often look for others' opinions before casting our vote. Such social influence can push groups toward herding, leading to "madness of the crowds." To investigate the role of social influence in joint decision making, in Experiment 1 we had dyads of participants perform a visual oddball search task together. In the Independent (IND) condition participants initially made a private decision. If they disagreed, discussion and collective decision ensued. In the Influence (INF) condition no private decisions were made and collective decision was immediately negotiated. Dyads that did not accrue collective benefit under the IND condition improved with added social influence under the INF condition. In Experiment 2, covertly, we added noise to 1 of the dyad members' visual search display. The resulting increased heterogeneity in dyad members' performances impaired the dyadic performance under the IND condition (Bahrami et al., 2010). Importantly, dyadic performance improved with social influence under the INF condition, replicating results in Experiment 1. Further analyses revealed that under the IND condition, dyads exercised equality bias (Mahmoodi et al., 2015) by granting undue credit to the less-reliable partner. Under the INF condition, however, the more-reliable partner (correctly) dominated the joint decisions. Although social influence may impede collective success under ideal conditions, our results demonstrate how it can help the group members overcome factors such as equality bias, which could potentially lead to catastrophic failure. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Factors influencing success of marine protected areas in the Visayas, Philippines as related to increasing protected area coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollnac, Richard; Seara, Tarsila

    2011-04-01

    Throughout the world there is a general consensus among environmentalists that there should be an increase in the amount of marine area that should be reserved in marine protected areas (MPAs). In fact, the 1998 Philippines Fishery Code indicates a need for designation of at least 15% of municipal waters for fish refuges or sanctuaries. Such an increase in area would take productive fishing areas away from fishing communities that can ill-afford the loss. The larger the protected area, there will be a greater number of people impacted. This article examines the relationship between factors that influence the success of Community Based MPA (CBMPA) performance in the Visayas, Philippines and their significance in efforts to increase the size of protected areas.

  10. Factors Influencing Success of Marine Protected Areas in the Visayas, Philippines as Related to Increasing Protected Area Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollnac, Richard; Seara, Tarsila

    2011-04-01

    Throughout the world there is a general consensus among environmentalists that there should be an increase in the amount of marine area that should be reserved in marine protected areas (MPAs). In fact, the 1998 Philippines Fishery Code indicates a need for designation of at least 15% of municipal waters for fish refuges or sanctuaries. Such an increase in area would take productive fishing areas away from fishing communities that can ill-afford the loss. The larger the protected area, there will be a greater number of people impacted. This article examines the relationship between factors that influence the success of Community Based MPA (CBMPA) performance in the Visayas, Philippines and their significance in efforts to increase the size of protected areas.

  11. Influence of settings management and protection status on recreational uses and pressures in marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonson, Charles; Pelletier, Dominique; Alban, Frederique; Giraud-Carrier, Charlotte; Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2017-09-15

    Coastal populations and tourism are growing worldwide. Consequently outdoor recreational activity is increasing and diversifying. While Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are valuable for mitigating anthropogenic impacts, recreational uses are rarely monitored and studied, resulting in a lack of knowledge on users' practices, motivation and impacts. Based on boat counts and interview data collected in New Caledonia, we i) explored factors affecting user practices and motivations, ii) constructed fine-scale pressure indices covering activities and associated behaviors, and iii) assessed the relationships between user practices and site selection. User practices were found to depend on protection status, boat type and user characteristics. Pressure indices were higher within no-take MPAs, except for fishing. We found significant relationships between user practices and settings characteristics. In the context of increasing recreational uses, these results highlight options for managing such uses through settings management without jeopardizing the social acceptance of MPAs or the attainment of conservation goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of time-dependent factors in the evaluation of critical infrastructure protection measures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehring, W. A.; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-28

    The examination of which protective measures are the most appropriate to be implemented in order to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from attacks on critical infrastructures and key resources typically involves a comparison of the consequences that could occur when the protective measure is implemented to those that could occur when it is not. This report describes a framework for evaluation that provides some additional capabilities for comparing optional protective measures. It illustrates some potentially important time-dependent factors, such as the implementation rate, that affect the relative pros and cons associated with widespread implementation of protective measures. It presents example results from the use of protective measures, such as detectors and pretrained responders, for an illustrative biological incident. Results show that the choice of an alternative measure can depend on whether or not policy and financial support can be maintained for extended periods of time. Choice of a time horizon greatly influences the comparison of alternatives.

  13. Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of Child Protection Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistin, Caroline J.; Tien, Irene; Bauchner, Howard; Parker, Victoria; Leventhal, John M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES More than $55 million is spent on hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) annually, but there is no consensus on what makes CPTs effective. The objective of this study was to create expert consensus on tasks that CPTs should perform and factors that contribute to effectiveness. METHODS A modified Delphi approach was used to create expert consensus among professionals with experience working on or with hospital-based CPTs. Three initial rounds of surveys were conducted; a first round of open-ended questions generated topics related to CPT tasks and factors related to team effectiveness. A Likert scale (range: 1–7) determined rank. In the fourth round, participants ranked the top 5 variables associated with effectiveness. RESULTS Twenty-six (90%) of 29 participants completed the first 3 rounds, and 20 (67%) completed the final ranking. Experts believed that CPTs should provide communication of findings to appropriate agencies (mean Likert score: 7.0), court testimony (7.0), medical consultations (6.9), multidisciplinary case review (6.6), and forensic interviews (6.0). CPT success should be determined by professionals who use CPT services (6.6) and CPT members (6.5). Variables that were ranked most often as critical to effectiveness included interdisciplinary collaboration (95% of participants), provision of resources (80%), and team collegiality (75%). Variables that were ranked as most detrimental included inadequate staffing (85%) and lack of collegiality (80%). CONCLUSIONS A multidisciplinary team working in a collegial atmosphere seems to be the major key to CPT effectiveness. In addition to providing services, CPTs should focus on improving collegiality and interdisciplinary collaboration and should seek performance feedback from referring professionals and CPT members. PMID:20587674

  14. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors

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    Christina-Maria Ikinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term.

  15. Aspects Regarding The Anthropic Influence On The “Movila Lui Burcel” Protected Area (Vaslui County

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    Irina Irimia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines some aspects regarding the anthropic influence on the “Movila lui Burcel” protected area. There were done some periodical displacement and observations in the field (2012-2014; there were identified anthropic factors with negative influence on the protected area; there were described the effects of the action of these factors. The anthropic factors with negative influence identified on the territory of the protected area are: the existence of the plantations of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia; unreasonable grazing; presence of wastes and some fire hearths. The effects of the anthropic factors identified are represented by: modifications of the habitat with serious consequences on the existence and perpetuation of rare and vulnerable species included on the red lists; degrading of landscape.

  16. Influence of cathodic protection on the lifetime extension of painted steel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Y. R.; Cho, H. H.; Take, S.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, Y. S.

    2006-06-01

    For corrosion to occur on a coated metal surface, an electrochemical double layer must be established. Hence, the adhesion between the substrate and the coating must be weakened to enable a separate thin layer of water to be formed at the interface from water that has permeated the coating. To prevent the failure of a painted coating, we applied a cathodic protection method. This method has been controversial for a few years because cathodic protection can induce cathodic delamination of the entire surface, especially near the anode, and also because it is not effective on a not-wetted surface from the anode. We therefore evaluated the efficiency of cathodic protection for 700 days in an atmospheric environment and performed surface observation, AC impedance measurements and corrosion tests. In the case of a noncathodic protected painted steel specimen, blisters formed after 100 days and grew in number for the remainder of the test. However, cathodic protection of the painted steel increased the coating resistance and extended the lifetime of the coating. According to our calculation with the BEASY program, the thickness of the water film under a rain condition barely influenced the protection potential. The high voltage of the cathodic protection and the subsequent cathodic delamination caused the paint to peel off near the anode. Hence, the protection voltage should be controlled in accordance with changes to the environmental condition.

  17. Ownership structure of protected areas influences the patterns of seed removal by mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Sánchez, J.L.; Kampichler, C.

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, nature reserves vary greatly in the size of the property, administration, financial budget and measures to protect against land use change and illegal hunting. We compared two private and two public reserves and observed an influence between the ownership structure and the patterns of

  18. Ownership structure of protected areas influences the patterns of seed removal by mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Sánchez, J.L.; Kampichler, C.

    2011-01-01

    In Mexico, nature reserves vary greatly in the size of the property, administration, financial budget and measures to protect against land use change and illegal hunting. We compared two private and two public reserves and observed an influence between the ownership structure and the patterns of rem

  19. Influence of Chemical Surface Modification of Woven Fabrics on Ballistic and Stab Protection of Multilayer Packets

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    Diana GRINEVIČIŪTĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve enhanced protective and wear (flexibility, less bulkiness properties of ballistic and stab protecting panels the investigation of chemical surface modification of woven p-aramid fabrics was performed applying different chemical composition shear thickening fluid (STF which improves friction inside fabric structure. For the chemical treatment silicic acid and acrylic dispersion water solutions were used and influence of their different concentrations on panels’ protective properties were investigated. Results of ballistic tests of multilayer protective panel have revealed that shear thickening effect was negligible when shooting at high energy range (E > 440 J. Determination of stab resistance of p-aramid panels has shown that different chemical composition of STFs had different influence on protective properties of the panels. Application of low concentrations of silicic acid determined higher stab resistance values comparing to higher concentrations of acrylic dispersion water solutions. At this stage of research stab tests results as ballistic ones determined that STF application for multilayer p-aramid fabrics protective panels is more efficient at low strike energy levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.3138

  20. Factors Influencing Farmers’ Willingness to Participate in Plant Protection Machinery Subsidies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linping; WANG; Liangmei; CAI

    2013-01-01

    In order to have an overview of implementation of the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery in Fujian Province, based on the questionnaire data on Fujian Province, we use Logit model to conduct empirical analysis of factors influencing farmers’ willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery. Research results show that there are 69.4% of farmers willing to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery; farmers’ growing area has a significant impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy for purchase of plant protection machinery, and there is negative correlation; educational level, experience in planting, family farming pure income all have a significant positive impact on the willingness to participate in the subsidy policy.

  1. A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John F; Patterson, Brent R; Mahoney, Peter J

    2014-02-01

    It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. We studied intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP. Mortality risk for eastern wolves in areas adjacent to APP was significantly higher than for other sympatric Canis types outside of APP, and for eastern wolves and other canids within APP. Outside of APP, the annual mortality rate of all canids by harvest (24%) was higher than for other causes of death (4-7%). Furthermore, eastern wolves (hazard ratio = 3.5) and nonresidents (transients and dispersing animals, hazard ratio = 2.7) were more likely to die from harvest relative to other Canis types and residents, respectively. Thus, eastern wolves dispersing from APP were especially vulnerable to harvest mortality. For residents, eastern wolf survival was more negatively influenced by increased road density than for other Canis types, further highlighting the sensitivity of eastern wolves to human disturbance. A cycle of dispersal from APP followed by high rates of mortality and hybridization appears to maintain eastern wolves at low density adjacent to APP, limiting the potential for expansion beyond the protected area. However, high survival and numerical dominance of eastern wolves within APP suggest that protected areas can allow rare hybridizing species to persist even if their demographic performance is compromised and barriers to hybridization are largely

  2. Influence of the geometry of protective barriers on the propagation of shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochet, I.; Eveillard, S.; Vinçont, J. Y.; Piserchia, P. F.; Rocourt, X.

    2016-04-01

    The protection of industrial facilities, classified as hazardous, against accidental or intentional explosions represents a major challenge for the prevention of personal injury and property damage, which also involves social and economic issues. We consider here the use of physical barriers against the effects of these explosions, which include the pressure wave, the projection of fragments and the thermal flash. This approach can be recommended for the control of major industrial risks, but no specific instructions are available for its implementation. The influence of a protective barrier against a detonation-type explosion is studied in small-scale experiments. The effects of overpressure are examined over the entire path of the shock wave across the barrier and in the downstream zone to be protected. Two series of barrier structures are studied. The first series (A) of experiments investigates two types of barrier geometry with dimensions based on NATO recommendations. These recommendations stipulate that the barrier should be 2 m higher than the charge height, the thickness at the crest should be more than 0.5 m, while its length should be equal to twice the protected structure length and the bank slope should be equivalent to the angle of repose of the soil. The second series (B) of experiments investigates the influence of geometrical parameters of the barrier (thickness at the crest and inclination angles of the front and rear faces) on its protective effects. This project leads to an advance in our understanding of the physical phenomena involved in the propagation of blast waves resulting from an external explosion, in the area around a protective physical barrier. The study focuses on the dimensioning of protective barriers against overpressure effects arising from detonation and shows the advantage of using a barrier with a vertical front or rear face.

  3. Influence of the geometry of protective barriers on the propagation of shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochet, I.; Eveillard, S.; Vinçont, J. Y.; Piserchia, P. F.; Rocourt, X.

    2017-03-01

    The protection of industrial facilities, classified as hazardous, against accidental or intentional explosions represents a major challenge for the prevention of personal injury and property damage, which also involves social and economic issues. We consider here the use of physical barriers against the effects of these explosions, which include the pressure wave, the projection of fragments and the thermal flash. This approach can be recommended for the control of major industrial risks, but no specific instructions are available for its implementation. The influence of a protective barrier against a detonation-type explosion is studied in small-scale experiments. The effects of overpressure are examined over the entire path of the shock wave across the barrier and in the downstream zone to be protected. Two series of barrier structures are studied. The first series (A) of experiments investigates two types of barrier geometry with dimensions based on NATO recommendations. These recommendations stipulate that the barrier should be 2 m higher than the charge height, the thickness at the crest should be more than 0.5 m, while its length should be equal to twice the protected structure length and the bank slope should be equivalent to the angle of repose of the soil. The second series (B) of experiments investigates the influence of geometrical parameters of the barrier (thickness at the crest and inclination angles of the front and rear faces) on its protective effects. This project leads to an advance in our understanding of the physical phenomena involved in the propagation of blast waves resulting from an external explosion, in the area around a protective physical barrier. The study focuses on the dimensioning of protective barriers against overpressure effects arising from detonation and shows the advantage of using a barrier with a vertical front or rear face.

  4. Influence of dissolved oxygen on the protectiveness and morphological characteristics of calcareous deposits with galvanostatic polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjie; Du, Min; Gao, Rongjie

    2017-04-01

    The influence of dissolved oxygen on calcareous deposits formed under galvanostatic polarization mode was studied. When the dissolved oxygen concentration was less than 7 mg L-1, the cathodic protection potential showed a plateau at the initial polarization, and then quickly shifted negatively. While the dissolved oxygen was more than 9 mg L-1, the potential shifted negatively in a linear form. After 168 h of polarization, the final protection potential shifted negatively with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration. The deposition progress was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and only one single loop was found in Nyquist diagram, indicating deposits of ineffective protectiveness precipitation under the experimental conditions. The protection factor of deposits increased with the decreasing dissolved oxygen concentration which was detected by linear polarization resistance technique. The cathodic electrochemical reaction could change very shortly from oxygen reduction to hydrogen evolution after cathodic protection under very low dissolved oxygen concentration, such as 1 mg L-1, resulting in the hydrogen bubbling from the metallic surface and the decrease of deposits protection factor. Observation by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the deposits were mainly of calcite under the experimental conditions, and that dissolved oxygen had no effect on the crystalline types of calcium carbonate.

  5. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receivin...... in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for the promotion of positive forms of income diversification and the further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on autonomous adaptation strategies....

  6. Influence of tumors on protective anti-tumor immunity and the effects of irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Gemma A.; Radons, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Mira; Multhoff, Gabriele; Pockley, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity plays important roles in the development and progression of cancer and it is becoming apparent that tumors can influence the induction of potentially protective responses in a number of ways. The prevalence of immunoregulatory T cell populations in the circulation and tumors of patients with cancer is increased and the presence of these cells appears to present a major barrier to the induction of tumor immunity. One aspect of tumor-mediated immunoregulation which has received comparatively little attention is that which is directed toward natural killer (NK) cells, although evidence that the phenotype and function of NK cell populations are modified in patients with cancer is accumulating. Although the precise mechanisms underlying these localized and systemic immunoregulatory effects remain unclear, tumor-derived factors appear, in part at least, to be involved. The effects could be manifested by an altered function and/or via an influence on the migratory properties of individual cell subsets. A better insight into endogenous immunoregulatory mechanisms and the capacity of tumors to modify the phenotype and function of innate and adaptive immune cells might assist the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches and improve the management of patients with cancer. This article reviews current knowledge relating to the influence of tumors on protective anti-tumor immunity and considers the potential influence that radiation-induced effects might have on the prevalence, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells in patients with cancer. PMID:23378947

  7. Influence of tumours on protective anti-tumour immunity and the effects of irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Ann Foulds

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innate and adaptive immunity play important roles in the development and progression of cancer and it is becoming apparent that tumours can influence the induction of potentially protective responses in a number of ways. The prevalence of immunoregulatory T cell populations in the circulation and tumours of patients with cancer is increased, and the presence of these cells appears to present a major barrier to the induction of tumour immunity. One aspect of tumour-mediated immunoregulation which has received comparatively little attention is that which is directed towards natural killer (NK cells, although evidence that the phenotype and function of NK cell populations are modified in patients with cancer is accumulating.Although the precise mechanisms underlying these localised and systemic immunoregulatory effects remain unclear, tumour-derived factors appear, in part at least, to be involved. The effects could be manifested by an altered function and/or via an influence on the migratory properties of individual cell subsets. A better insight into endogenous immunoregulatory mechanisms and the capacity of tumours to modify the phenotype and function of innate and adaptive immune cells might assist the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches and improve the management of patients with cancer.This article reviews current knowledge relating to the influence of tumours on protective anti-tumour immunity and considers the potential influence that radiation-induced effects might have on the prevalence, phenotype and function of innate and adaptive immune cells in patients with cancer.

  8. Four decades of World Natural Heritage – how changing protected area values influence the UNESCO label

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    Conradin, Katharina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch of the World Heritage Convention in 1972, World Heritage sites have become increasingly popular. To date, more than 1000 sites have received World Heritage status, among them 228 natural and mixed sites. Yet too, in the past four decades, protected area paradigms have evolved from rather strict and exclusionary to more integrative approaches. Nevertheless, relatively little is known on how such developments influence World Natural Heritage (WNH sites. This paper presents the results of a global survey of 128 of 211 WNH sites listed in 2011 and analyses the results by taking the year of inscription as a reference. The article shows that the understanding of WNH status has undergone great changes: from being perceived as an internationally valued instrument to foster conservation, WNH status has now rather become a label of great promotional importance. This can, e.g., be shown by a decreasing influence of WNH status on the status of protection of a site. Conversely, the influence of WNH status on visitor numbers has increased with time. Furthermore, evidence suggests that more complex effects of WNH status attribution, such as a site’s influence on sustainable development, take time to develop and are thus greater for sites that have been inscribed in the list at an earlier date. Given these developments, it is necessary to rethink whether the World Heritage approach in its current form is still timely, and how the development potential of World Natural Heritage sites can be tapped while ensuring their conservation.

  9. Influence of yarn folding on UV protection properties of hemp knitted fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Ana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the media have highlighted the damage of the ozone layer and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR reaching the earth’s surface. Prolonged and repeated, both occupational and recreational, sun exposure of the population causes some detrimental effects. Clothing is considered to be one of the most important tools for UV protection. It is generally accepted that synthetic fibres provide a high UV protection capability of textiles, while cellulose fibres (cotton, linen, hemp, viscose have a low UV absorption capacity. However, natural pigments, pectin and waxes in natural cellulose fibers, and lignin in hemp fibers, act as UV absorbers having a favorable effect on UPF of grey-state fabrics. Bearing in mind the trend of reintroduction of hemp fibers as a source of eco-friendly textiles, there is a serious lack of study about the potential of hemp materials in terms of UV protection. Folded yarn is a complex yarn composed of two or more component yarns arranged parallel and twisted together to make a “new quality” yarn. Folding of yarns is an operation undertaken in order to modify single-yarn properties to an appreciable degree. There are very few investigations concerning the relationship between the yarn properties and UV protection effectiveness of the fabric made there from. In addition, there is no any result in the scientific literature about the influence of yarn folding on UV protection properties of textile materials. Having this in mind, for our research the idea was to evaluate the effect of yarn folding in this regard. The plain knitted fabrics composed of single or two-folded hemp yarn were compared in terms of UV protection properties. The Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF, as the quantitative measurement of the material effectiveness to protect the human skin against UVR, was determined for the textile materials by in vitro test method according to the European standard EN 13758. The knitted

  10. Why do we lose protected areas? Factors influencing protected area downgrading, downsizing and degazettement in the tropics and subtropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, William S; Rao, Madhu; Mascia, Michael B; Carrasco, L Roman

    2016-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are an essential tool for the conservation of biodiversity globally. Previous studies have focussed on the effectiveness of PAs and the design of optimal PA networks. However, not all PAs remain intact permanently; many PAs undergo downgrading, downsizing and/or degazettement (PADDD), a fact largely ignored until recently. The drivers of enacted PADDD events and the factors influencing its spatial occurrence are poorly understood, potentially undermining the efficacy of PAs and PA networks. Here we examine the spatial relationship between PADDD and economic, demographic and structural variables, using a 110-year data set of 342 enacted PADDD events across 44 countries in the tropics and subtropics. We find that the probability of an enacted PADDD event increases with the size of the PA and through a synergistic interaction between PA size and local population densities. Our results are robust to the under-reporting of enacted PADDD events that occur among smaller PAs and in regions with lower population density. We find an economic motive for PADDD events, given that the opportunity costs associated with larger PAs are higher, on average, than smaller PAs. Our findings suggest a need for conservation practitioners to better consider PA characteristics, as well as the social, economic and political context in which PAs are situated, to aid the creation of more efficient and sustainable PA networks. In particular, the dynamics of enacted PADDD events highlight the need to explicitly consider PA robustness as a core component of systematic conservation planning for PA networks.

  11. [Influence of intraoperative noise protection on postoperative pain: demonstrated exemplified by total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshmiri, A; Wolf, T; Wiech, O; Benditz, A; Grifka, J; Springorum, H

    2014-02-01

    It is known that implied memory of intraoperative noise influences postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different intraoperative noise protection methods during total knee arthroplasty on postoperative pain scores. A total of 83 patients were included in this prospectively designed, double-blind trial and underwent total knee arthroplasty with psoas compartment and sciatic nerve regional anesthesia and additionally propofol sedation. After randomization patients were assigned either to the noise protection group, the music group or the control group. Postoperative pain scores (VAS) were evaluated in each group. In the three different time intervals evaluated there were no significant differences between the groups. Also the pain maxima for each postoperative day showed no significant difference but there was a slight trend to the advantage of the music group. Even though there were no significant effects of music or noise protection on postoperative pain scores, it can be concluded, as has been done by many other authors that music should be used in the perioperative setting for general patient comfort.

  12. Low-complexity controllers for time-delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Özbay, Hitay; Bonnet, Catherine; Mounier, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    This volume in the newly established series Advances in Delays and Dynamics (ADD@S) provides a collection of recent results on the design and analysis of Low Complexity Controllers for Time Delay Systems. A widely used indirect method to obtain low order controllers for time delay systems is to design a controller for the reduced order model of the plant. In the dual indirect approach, an infinite dimensional controller is designed first for the original plant model; then, the controller is approximated by keeping track of the degradation in performance and stability robustness measures. The present volume includes new techniques used at different stages of the indirect approach. It also includes new direct design methods for fixed structure and low order controllers. On the other hand, what is meant by low complexity controller is not necessarily low order controller. For example, Smith predictor or similar type of controllers include a copy of the plant internally in the controller, so they are technically ...

  13. Sowing quality of seeds sunflower, depending on the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants

    OpenAIRE

    Буряк, Ю. І.; Огурцов, Ю. Є.; Чернобаб, О. В.; Клименко, І. І.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this work was to study the influence of plant growth regulators and protectants on the sowing quality of seeds parental forms and hybrids of sunflower.Methodology and materials. Research conducted in the Plant Production Institute named after V.Ya. Yuriev NAAS. The predecessor of sunflower – winter wheat. Sunflower seeds parent lines Сх1010А, Х720В, Х526В and hybrids F1 Romance and Maximus were sown in optimal terms with the seeding norm of 57 thousand pieces of viable seeds p...

  14. Decision-making in child protective services: Influences at multiple levels of the social ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    Decision-making in the child protection system is influenced by multiple factors; agency and geographic contexts, caseworker attributes, and families' unique circumstances all likely play a role. In this study, we use the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to explore how these factors are associated with two key case decisions-substantiation and removal to out-of-home care. Analyses are conducted using weighted hierarchical linear models. We find that substantiation is strongly influenced by agency factors, particularly constraints on service accessibility. Substantiation is less likely when agencies can provide services to unsubstantiated cases and when collaboration with other social institutions is high. This supports the concept that substantiation may be a gateway to services in some communities. Agency factors contributed less to the probability of removal among substantiated cases, though time resources and constraints on decision-making had some influence. For both substantiation and removal risks, county, caseworker, and child characteristics were less influential than agency characteristics and family risk factors.

  15. Influence de certains corps gras sur le Sun Protection Factor (SPF mesuré in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau Céline

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the knowledge on the influence of vehicle on the SPF (Sun Protection Factor, we determined in vitro the SPF from an oil-in-water (O/W emulsion containing octylmethoxycinnamate (4%. We changed the oily phase composition. The in vitro determination of SPF is based on the physical determination of the reduction of the energy in the UV range, through a film of product which has previously been spread on an adequate substrate. About 30 mg were applied on roughened PMMA plates and the transmission measurements are carried out using a spectrophotometer equipped with integrating sphere. Eighteen oily ingredients were studied. Each one of them was incorporated in the amount of 20%. It is the lanolin which appears most effective SPF booster. Then oils come blackcurrant, argan, sweet almond, sesame, groundnut, carthame and palmotene.

  16. The Influence of Security Statement, Technical Protection, and Privacy on Satisfaction and Loyalty; A Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikari, Hamid Reza

    Customer satisfaction and loyalty have been cited as the e-commerce critical success factors and various studies have been conducted to find the antecedent determinants of these concepts in the online transactions. One of the variables suggested by some studies is perceived security. However, these studies have referred to security from a broad general perspective and no attempts have been made to study the specific security related variables. This paper intends to study the influence on security statement and technical protection on satisfaction, loyalty and privacy. The data was collected from 337 respondents and after the reliability and validity tests, path analysis was applied to examine the hypotheses. The results suggest that loyalty is influenced by satisfaction and security statement and no empirical support was found for the influence on technical protection and privacy on loyalty. Moreover, it was found that security statement and technical protection have a positive significant influence on satisfaction while no significant effect was found for privacy. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that security statement have a positive significant influence on technical protection while technical protection was found to have a significant negative impact on perceived privacy.

  17. POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION PROVIDING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF NATURAL IONIZING IRRADIATION SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Stepanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An article presents the modern problems of population radiation protection inBashkortostanRepublic. The main natural ionizing irradiation sources are identified and their contribution to the total exposure dose of the BashkortostanRepublicpopulation is analyzed. The types of the main natural ionizing irradiation sources are identified, as well as the ways of their intake and the methods of their influence. The results of laboratory studies are presented for the radon equivalent equilibrium volumetric activity, for the average gamma radiation dose rate in dwellings, for the investigations of gross alpha and gross beta activity in drinking water and open water sourcesBashkortostanRepublic. The article underlines the main problems of the radiation situation in the new construction. The main preventive measures are pointed out for the radiation protection of the buildings under construction improving. The article also presents an analysis of the results of activities of the Administration of Rospotrebnadzor in theBashkortostanRepublicfor the reducing of the levels of the Republican population exposure from the natural irradiation sources.

  18. Influence of physical parameters on radiation protection and image quality in intra-oral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinato, W. [Instituto Federal de Ensino Basico, Tecnico e Tecnologico da Bahia, Av. Amazonas, 1350-45030-220, Zabele, Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 Rosa Elze, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Souza, D.N., E-mail: divanizi@ufs.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 Rosa Elze, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    In the world of diagnostic imaging, radiography is an important supplementary method for dental diagnosis. In radiology, special attention must be paid to the radiological protection of patients and health professionals, and also to image quality for correct diagnosis. In Brazil, the national rules governing the operation of medical and dental radiology were specified in 1998 by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, complemented in 2005 by the guide 'Medical radiology: security and performance of equipment.' In this study, quality control tests were performed in public clinics with dental X-ray equipment in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, with consideration of the physical parameters that influence radiological protection and also the quality of images taken in intra-oral radiography. The accuracy of the exposure time was considered acceptable for equipment with digital timers. Exposure times and focal-spot size variations can lead to increased entrance dose. Increased dose has also been associated with visual processing of radiographic film, which often requires repeating the radiographic examination.

  19. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receivin...... in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for the promotion of positive forms of income diversification and the further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on autonomous adaptation strategies.......Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receiving...... transfers from the PSNP, on average, did not increase farm or non-farm income but significantly increases natural-resource extraction (one component of off-farm income). While these results should be treated with caution, they suggest that the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources...

  20. Influences of age and light touch on the preparation for protective stepping reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O-Phartkaruna, Tippawan; Pichaiyongwongdee, Sopa; Tretriluxana, Jarugool; Vachalathiti, Rungtiwa

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the effect of light touch on the preparation for fall-induced protective stepping in elderly and young individuals. The subjects were perturbed with forward pull with no-touch and light touch conditions. Anticipatory periods, lift-off onset, center of pressure displacement and velocity were measured and analyzed. The authors observed a stabilizing effect during with light touch in pre-perturbation periods. During the perturbation, the elderly took steps earlier than did the young individuals by reducing anticipatory periods; however, their anterior stability limit was similar to that of the youth, indicating that the step was pre-selected. In the youth, a delay in anticipatory onset and shorter periods were observed with light touch, resulting from a limitation in lateral limb loading. Additionally, the stabilizing effect in the pre-perturbation period did not influence stabilization of preparatory period before stepping. In the elderly, shorter anticipatory periods and lower stability limits were also shown in light touch conditions. The authors concluded that the elderly were more concerned with a postural task than with light touch. Protective stepping is reflected in the state of balance stability and involves a pre-selection process. Light touch enhances postural stability in stance and impacts the stepping.

  1. Influence of physical parameters on radiation protection and image quality in intra-oral radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinato, W.; Souza, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    In the world of diagnostic imaging, radiography is an important supplementary method for dental diagnosis. In radiology, special attention must be paid to the radiological protection of patients and health professionals, and also to image quality for correct diagnosis. In Brazil, the national rules governing the operation of medical and dental radiology were specified in 1998 by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, complemented in 2005 by the guide "Medical radiology: security and performance of equipment." In this study, quality control tests were performed in public clinics with dental X-ray equipment in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, with consideration of the physical parameters that influence radiological protection and also the quality of images taken in intra-oral radiography. The accuracy of the exposure time was considered acceptable for equipment with digital timers. Exposure times and focal-spot size variations can lead to increased entrance dose. Increased dose has also been associated with visual processing of radiographic film, which often requires repeating the radiographic examination.

  2. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  3. Antidepressant and proneurogenic influence of environmental enrichment in mice: protective effects vs recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens-Martín, María; Tejeda, Gonzalo S; Trejo, José L

    2011-11-01

    Physical-cognitive activity has long-lasting beneficial effects on the brain and on behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) induces brain activity known to influence the behavior of mice, as measured in learned helplessness paradigms (forced swim test), and neurogenic cell populations in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, it is not completely clear whether the antidepressant and proneurogenic effects of EE are different in animals that are naive or pre-exposed to the stress inducing helplessness, and if this depends on the type of stressor. It also remains unclear whether differential effects are exerted on distinct neurogenic subpopulations. We found that EE has a protective effect in adult female mice (C57BL/6J) when exposed twice to the same stressor (forced swim test) but it has no influence on recovery. The repeated exposure to this stressor was analyzed together with the effects of EE on different neurogenic populations distinguished by age and differentiation state. Younger cells are more sensitive and responsive to the conditions, both the positive and negative effects. These results are relevant to identify the cell populations that are the targets of stress, depression, and enrichment, and that form part of the mechanism responsible for mood dysfunctions.

  4. The influence of differing protected area status and environmental factors on the macroinvertebrate fauna of temperate austral wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Furlonge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One means of conserving wetlands is to designate the area around them as ‘protected’. Although many different types of protected areas exist, ranging from international (Ramsar-listed to local importance, there is little information on how the type of protection influences biodiversity conservation. Studies of the effectiveness of protected area systems are a priority, if we are to understand their importance and design systems effectively. Many Tasmanian wetlands are regarded as having high to very high conservation values with more than 60% located within protected areas. This study tested macroinvertebrate richness and assemblage responses to a range of environmental attributes and differing types of protected area status at 66 protected Tasmanian (Australian wetlands. Two hundred and eighteen taxa were identified with an average of 33 species (or morphospecies and 18 families recorded per wetland. The wetland assemblages were idiosyncratic, four families contributed 21% of the total recorded and only two families contributed greater than 10%. Wetlands were not significantly nested on the basis of the composition of their macroinvertebrate assemblages. No single environmental attribute had a strong relationship with macroinvertebrate richness or assemblage composition and neither species richness nor assemblage composition varied significantly between different types of protected areas. Although the majority of protected area types were designed to support terrestrial conservation objectives rather than wetland values, our results suggest that the latter were also afforded protection. The state of the proximal zone (the terrestrial zone within 50m of the wetland edge and the type of aquatic habitat present (macrophyte or sediment-dominated substrates were the most important determinants of macroinvertebrate richness and assemblage composition across all types of protected wetlands. These results suggest that for temperate austral wetlands

  5. Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Heat and Moisture Transfer in Firefighters’ Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for heat and moisture transfer through firefighters’ protective clothing (FPC during radiation exposure. The model, which accounts for air gaps in the FPC as well as heat transfer through human skin, investigates the effect of different initial moisture contents on the thermal insulation performance of FPC. Temperature, water vapor density, and the volume fraction of liquid water profiles were monitored during the simulation, and the heat quantity absorbed by water evaporation was calculated. Then the maximum durations of heat before the wearer acquires first- and second-degree burns were calculated based on the bioheat transfer equation and the Henriques equation. The results show that both the moisture weight in each layer and the total moisture weight increase linearly within a given environmental humidity level. The initial moisture content in FPC samples significantly influenced the maximum water vapor density. The first- and second-degree burn injury time increase 16 sec and 18 sec when the RH increases from 0% to 90%. The total quantity of heat accounted for by water evaporation was about 10% when the relative humidity (RH is 80%. Finally, a linear relationship was identified between initial moisture content and the human skin burn injury time before suffering first- and second-degree burn injuries.

  6. Audience influence on EGM gambling: the protective effects of having others watch you play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockloff, Matthew J; Greer, Nancy

    2011-09-01

    One component of social facilitation on gambling is the potential for an audience of people to observe the play of Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) gamblers and influence their behaviour without participating directly in gambling themselves. An experiment was conducted with an audience of onlookers, purported to be students of research methods, taking notes while watching the participants play an EGM. Forty-three male and 82 female participants (N = 125), aged 18-79 (M = 49.2, SD = 15.6), played a laptop simulated 3-reel EGM using a $20 stake in three conditions: (1) alone, (2) watched by a simulated audience of six persons, or (3) watched by an audience of 26. Outcomes on the poker machine were rigged with a fixed sequence of five wins in the first 20 spins and indefinite losses thereafter. The results found smaller bet-sizes associated with larger audiences of onlookers, and this outcome is consistent with a hypothesized motivation to display more wins to the audience. Moreover, final payouts were greater in the audience conditions compared to the control, further suggesting that an audience may be a protective factor limiting player losses.

  7. Electromagnetic response of the protective pellicle of Euglenoids: influence of the surface profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchaussandague, Marina E.; Gigli, Miriam L.; Skigin, Diana C.; Tolivia, Analía.; Conforti, Visitación

    2015-03-01

    In a recent paper we have investigated, from an electromagnetic point of view, the role played by the pellicle of Euglenoids -unicellular aquatic organisms- in the protection of the cell against UV radiation.14 By modelling the pellicle as a diffraction grating, we computed the electromagnetic response of different species that exhibit different behaviors against UV radiation. In this previous study, the pellicle profile was approximated by a sinusoidal grating. However, it has been observed in the transversal cut images that the profiles are not exactly sinusoidal, and also vary from sample to sample. Since the electromagnetic response depends on the geometry of the grating, reflectance calculations that take into account a more accurate representation of the actual profile could provide more insight into this problem. In this paper we investigate the electromagnetic response of the pellicle of Euglenoids for different grating profiles. The diffraction problem is solved by using the Chandezon method, which has demonstrated a successful performance for deep gratings of arbitrary profiles. We analyze the influence of the shape, depth and period of the grating on the UV reflectance. We show that the pellicle characteristics are critical parameters to increase the reflectance, thus reducing the penetration of the UV radiation within the cell and therefore, minimizing the damage and increasing the survival of these organisms.

  8. The mTOR Complex Controls HIV Latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Emilie; Hakre, Shweta; Kampmann, Martin; Lim, Hyung W; Hosmane, Nina N; Martin, Alyssa; Bassik, Michael C; Verschueren, Erik; Battivelli, Emilie; Chan, Jonathan; Svensson, J Peter; Gramatica, Andrea; Conrad, Ryan J; Ott, Melanie; Greene, Warner C; Krogan, Nevan J; Siliciano, Robert F; Weissman, Jonathan S; Verdin, Eric

    2016-12-14

    A population of CD4 T lymphocytes harboring latent HIV genomes can persist in patients on antiretroviral therapy, posing a barrier to HIV eradication. To examine cellular complexes controlling HIV latency, we conducted a genome-wide screen with a pooled ultracomplex shRNA library and in vitro system modeling HIV latency and identified the mTOR complex as a modulator of HIV latency. Knockdown of mTOR complex subunits or pharmacological inhibition of mTOR activity suppresses reversal of latency in various HIV-1 latency models and HIV-infected patient cells. mTOR inhibitors suppress HIV transcription both through the viral transactivator Tat and via Tat-independent mechanisms. This inhibition occurs at least in part via blocking the phosphorylation of CDK9, a p-TEFb complex member that serves as a cofactor for Tat-mediated transcription. The control of HIV latency by mTOR signaling identifies a pathway that may have significant therapeutic opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social and Environmental Influences Shaping Risk Factors and Protective Behaviors in two Mexico-US Border Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rebeca; Ferreira-Pinto, João B.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Ramos, Maria Elena; Lozada, Remedios M.; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    The economic, social, cultural and political milieus that influence HIV risk behaviors along the U.S.- Mexico border are understudied. In an effort to appropriately inform interventions targeting structural influences, we compared injecting drug using populations living in two cities—Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua and Tijuana, Baja California— situated on the Mexico-U.S. border. These populations presented with similar demographic profiles, but differed significantly in terms of social and environmental influences that can influence both risk and protective factors (e.g., family drug use, migration, drug use patterns). We observed distinct behavioral and structural influences in these two border cities that will require tailored intervention strategies to reduce HIV transmission. PMID:19464228

  10. Can anti-speeding messages based on protection motivation theory influence reported speeding intentions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, A Ian; Walker, Britta L

    2013-08-01

    The study investigated the effects of anti-speeding messages based on protection motivation theory (PMT) components: severity, vulnerability, rewards, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and response cost, on reported speeding intentions. Eighty-three participants aged 18-25 years holding a current Australian driver's license completed a questionnaire measuring their reported typical and recent speeding behaviors. Comparisons were made between 18 anti-speeding messages used on Australian roads and 18 new anti-speeding messages developed from the PMT model. Participants reported their reactions to the 36 messages on the perceived effectiveness of the message for themselves and for the general population of drivers, and also the likelihood of themselves and other drivers driving within the speed limit after viewing each message. Overall the PMT model-derived anti-speeding messages were better than jurisdiction-use anti-speeding messages in influencing participants' reported intention to drive within the speed limit. Severity and vulnerability were the most effective PMT components for developing anti-speeding messages. Male participants reported significantly lower intention to drive within the speed limit than did female participants. However, males reported significantly higher intention to drive within the speed limit for PMT-derived messages compared with jurisdiction-based messages. Third-person effects were that males reported anti-speeding messages to be more effective for the general driving population than for themselves. Females reported the opposite effect - that all messages would be more effective for themselves than for the general driving population. Findings provided support for using a sound conceptual basis as an effective foundation for anti-speeding message development as well as for evaluating proposed anti-speeding messages on the target driver population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Governance regime and location influence avoided deforestation success of protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun; Silvius, Kirsten M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-03-26

    Protected areas in tropical countries are managed under different governance regimes, the relative effectiveness of which in avoiding deforestation has been the subject of recent debates. Participants in these debates answer appeals for more strict protection with the argument that sustainable use areas and indigenous lands can balance deforestation pressures by leveraging local support to create and enforce protective regulations. Which protection strategy is more effective can also depend on (i) the level of deforestation pressures to which an area is exposed and (ii) the intensity of government enforcement. We examine this relationship empirically, using data from 292 protected areas in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that, for any given level of deforestation pressure, strictly protected areas consistently avoided more deforestation than sustainable use areas. Indigenous lands were particularly effective at avoiding deforestation in locations with high deforestation pressure. Findings were stable across two time periods featuring major shifts in the intensity of government enforcement. We also observed shifting trends in the location of protected areas, documenting that between 2000 and 2005 strictly protected areas were more likely to be established in high-pressure locations than in sustainable use areas and indigenous lands. Our findings confirm that all protection regimes helped reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

  12. Influence of the bee pollen pellets on an organism’s antioxidant protection system under radiation-toxicological exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Severynovs’ka

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of adaptogen (bee pollen pellets in a regulation of antioxidant protection of rat’s brain tissues under influence of low dose radiation and heavy metals mixture was studied. Complex of negative ecological factors deplete the fermentative chain of antioxidant protection that may result in decrease of organism’s adaptation capabilities. Application of bee pollen pellets as an adaptogen increases the level of general antioxidant activity in all brain parts under separate and combineв influence of heavy metals and radiation. Distinctions of the pollen pellets’ stimulating effect in different brain parts are caused by structure-functioning peculiarities of theу parts and their reactions to environmental factors.

  13. Influence of yarn folding on UV protection properties of hemp knitted fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Kocić Ana A.; Popović Dušan M.; Stanković Snežana B.; Poparić Goran B.

    2016-01-01

    In the last years the media have highlighted the damage of the ozone layer and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reaching the earth’s surface. Prolonged and repeated, both occupational and recreational, sun exposure of the population causes some detrimental effects. Clothing is considered to be one of the most important tools for UV protection. It is generally accepted that synthetic fibres provide a high UV protection capability of text...

  14. Influence of System Parameters on Fuse Protection Use in Regenerative DC Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Salman Qamber

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Current limiting fuses are widely used to protect the thyristors in DC drive systems. One very important problem is the choice of the correct voltage rating for fuses protecting regenerative DC drives, where many types of fault may occur, which makes fuse protection difficult. In the event of a commutation failure while regenerating, the fuses need to interrupt the loop supplied by the AC and DC voltages acting in series, which is the most difficult case for protection by fuses. In this paper a detailed study of the complete interruption process has been investigated by modeling of arcing process of the fuse protection against the regenerative circuit internal commutation fault. The effect of varying the motor time constant, supply impedance, number of fuses used to clear the fault and DC machine rating on the total transient response is studied. The model of a 200 A fuse is employed in this study. Fuses in series with both the semiconductor devices (F1 and fuses in AC lines (F2 are considered. Comparison was made between arc energy produced for fuses protecting the regenerative circuit if failure occurs, with the arc energy produced in a standard AC test in order to investigate the required voltage rating for the fuse.

  15. Cathodic protection of XL 52 steel under the influence of sulfate reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, R. Garcia [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico, D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Departamento de lngenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Olivares, G. Zavala; Gayosso, M.J. Hernandez; Trejo, A. Gayosso [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico, D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The effect of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) upon the cathodic protection of XL 52 steel was determined, in order to identify if the potential value of -0.950 V versus copper/copper sulfate electrode is good enough to protect the metal surface. During the experiments, different operational parameters were monitored: hydrogen sulfide production, iron concentration, electrolyte alkalinity, microorganisms' population, as well as the metal surface damage. At the same time, the corrosion rate was determined using two electrochemical techniques: polarization resistance (PR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). According to the results, it was observed that the protection potential of -0.950 V versus copper/copper sulfate electrode is not enough to control the microbiologically induced corrosion. This situation is reinforced by the fact that significant iron concentration was found in the electrolyte. The microbiological activity is not affected by the protection potential. On the contrary, the population growth is slightly strengthened. The alkalinity generated by the applied potential did not stop the SRB growth. A type of localized corrosion was developed during the experiments with microorganisms, even when the protection potential was applied to the system. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Assessment of skin pigmentation by confocal microscopy: Influence of solar exposure and protection habits on cutaneous hyperchromias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ana Paula M; Mercurio, Daiane G; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous hyperchromias are disorders of skin pigmentation involving an increase of melanin production and its irregular accumulation in skin cells. It is known that the use of sunscreens helps to prevent changes in the skin pigmentation pattern, but the structural and morphological alterations that occur in the different types of hyperpigmentations need better elucidation. To assess the influence of solar exposure and protection habits on the pattern of skin pigmentation using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). Forty volunteers aged 18-39 years with skin hyperpigmentation participated in the study. Skin characterization was performed by imaging techniques and by assessing the habits of solar exposure and protection by applying questionnaires to the volunteers. RCM was used to record sequences of confocal sections at areas of interest and to examine cell shape and brightness in the basal cell layer of the lesion and in normal perilesional skin. Furthermore, high-resolution images were obtained for analysis of the spots. Sunlight influences the number and location of spots as the face of volunteers with higher solar exposure was covered with spots, whereas volunteers with less exposure had fewer spots located in the nose and cheeks region due to greater exposure of these areas to the sun. The data showed the importance of sun protection for preventing changes in the pattern of skin pigmentation, and RCM proved to be an important tool for skin characterization. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Influence of green top cover for soil protection ins Spanish olives trees. Root tensile strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.; Casanova, C.; Solar, C.; Sobrino, E.; Delgado, M.; Miralles, H. R.; Martin, S. J.

    2009-07-01

    Natural development of certain top living covers is the best way for soil protection under arid climate conditions. a number of certain gramineas was experimental field trial for 5 years looking for soil cover protection and adaptability under the olives tree rows. Olives trees are a fully expanded crop in spain occupying 2.5 million of hectares. Is very interesting crop because one ha of pre-treated olive tree pruned residues will produce 0.3 t of ethanol (Cara, C. et al. 2007). (Author)

  18. Influence of a carbohydrate drink on performance of military personnel in NBC protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Dijk, M.J. van; Boer, L.C.; Beek, E.J. van der

    1996-01-01

    Background: The increased threat of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) weapons underlines the need of protective clothing and gas masks, but this may impair performance. Thus, attention should be focused on the nutritional requirements. Hypothesis: Optimal performance is guaranteed if the supply

  19. Experimental Study on the Influence of AC Stray Current on the Cathodic Protection of Buried Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingmiao Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The size of the damaged area of the coating and its position on the pipeline impacted the cathodic protection potential, and there was a damaged area of the greatest impact value. When damaged area was 300 mm2, the IR drop was the largest, and this situation could easily lead to inadequate protection; when the parallel spacing between pipeline and interference source was unchanged, the measured value curves of cathodic protection potential presented “U” shaped trend with the increasing stray current interference intensity. Under certain parallel spacing between pipeline and interference source, high alternating stray current intensity would cause serious negative offsets, so that the overprotection of the pipeline occurred, and make the coating crack; there was a parallel threshold length. When less than the threshold, the pipe-ground potential increases rapidly with the parallel length increasing. In order to judge whether a pipeline was interference by AC stray current and the risk of stray current corrosion, we should make a comprehensive analysis of the cathodic protection energizing potential, the switch-off potential, AC pipe-soil potential, IR drops, and so on.

  20. Influence of a carbohydrate drink on performance of military personnel in NBC protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Boxtel, L.B.J. van; Dijk, M.J. van; Boer, L.C.; Beek, E.J. van der

    1996-01-01

    Background: The increased threat of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) weapons underlines the need of protective clothing and gas masks, but this may impair performance. Thus, attention should be focused on the nutritional requirements. Hypothesis: Optimal performance is guaranteed if the supply

  1. Phytochemicals of Brassicaceae in plant protection and human health--influences of climate, environment and agronomic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Maria; Klingen, Ingeborg; Birch, Andrew N E; Bones, Atle M; Bruce, Toby J A; Johansen, Tor J; Meadow, Richard; Mølmann, Jørgen; Seljåsen, Randi; Smart, Lesley E; Stewart, Derek

    2011-05-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage, plant organ, plant competition, fertilization, pH), season, climatic factors, water availability, light (intensity, quality, duration) and CO(2) are known to significantly affect content and profile of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as the glucosinolates and leaf surface waxes play an important role in interactions with pests and pathogens. Factors that affect production of phytochemicals are important when designing plant protection strategies that exploit these compounds to minimize crop damage caused by plant pests and pathogens. Brassicaceous plants are consumed increasingly for possible health benefits, for example, glucosinolate-derived effects on degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, factors influencing phytochemical content and profile in the production of brassicaceous plants are worth considering both for plant and human health. Even though it is known that factors that influence phytochemical content and profile may interact, studies of plant compounds were, until recently, restricted by methods allowing only a reductionistic approach. It is now possible to design multi-factorial experiments that simulate their combined effects. This will provide important information to ecologists, plant breeders and agronomists.

  2. Strategies for the optimization of cathodic protection of pipelines under AC influence; Strategien fuer die Optimierung des kathodischen Korrosionsschutzes von Rohrleitungen unter Wechselspannungsbeeinflussung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Markus [SGK Schweizerische Gesellschaft fuer Korrosionsschutz, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The newly determined values for the protection of cathodically protected pipelines against AC corrosion cannot be readily applied to all pipelines. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on strategies for the optimization of cathodic protection of pipelines under AC influence. It is hardly possible to define general strategies. Rather, an examination of the entire pipeline is essential. Is a compliance with the prescribed limits not possible or only possible with unreasonable effort, an active cathodic corrosion protection in combination with remote-controlled monitoring and protection devices can reduce the current corrosion risk.

  3. Empirical Research on Factors Influencing Level of Environmental Protection Information Disclosure in Annual Reports by Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jinfeng; Xue Huifeng

    2009-01-01

    Taking 248 A-share manufacturing listed companies in 2006 Shanghai Stock Exchange as example,using "index method" to measure level of environmental protection information disclosure,this paper examines the factors influencing level of environmental protection information disclosure.The findings show that the disclosure level has improved,but the overall level is still low and unable to satisfy information users;there is positive correlation between corporate size,industry type,accounting firm's type and corporate environmental disclosure index.The companies of large scale and heavy pollution and those audited by international "Big 4" and domestic "Big 10" accounting firms have a high level of environmental disclosure,while the profitability and financial leverage has no impact on the disclosure level.Finally some suggestions are put forward to establish environmental information disclosure system in China.

  4. Application of Advanced Materials Protecting from Influence of Free Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Oleg; Shovkoplyas, Yuriy

    2016-07-01

    High cost and low availability of the components certified for use in the space environment forces satellite designers to using industrial and even commercial items. Risks associated with insufficient knowledge about behavior of these components in radiation environment are parried, mainly, by careful radiating designing of a satellite where application of special protective materials with improved space radiation shielding characteristics is one of the most widely used practices. Another advantage of protective materials application appears when a satellite designer needs using equipment in more severe space environment conditions then it has been provided at the equipment development. In such cases only expensive repeated qualification of the equipment hardness can be alternative to protective materials application. But mostly this way is unacceptable for satellite developers, being within strong financial and temporal restrictions. To apply protective materials effectively, the developer should have possibility to answer the question: "Where inside a satellite shall I place these materials and what shall be their shape to meet the requirements on space radiation hardness with minimal mass and volume expenses?" At that, the minimum set of requirements on space radiation hardness include: ionizing dose, nonionizing dose, single events, and internal charging. The standard calculative models and experimental techniques, now in use for space radiation hardness assurance of a satellite are unsuitable for the problem solving in such formulation. The sector analysis methodology, widely used in satellite radiating designing, is applicable only for aluminium shielding and doesn't allow taking into account advantages of protective materials. The programs simulating transport of space radiations through a substance with the use of Monte-Carlo technique, such as GEANT4, FLUKA, HZETRN and others, are fully applicable in view of their capabilities; but time required for

  5. MODERN APPROACHES FOR PROTECTION OF TRANSPORT STRUCTURES FROM INFLUENCES CAUSED BY MOVING DISPLACEMENTS AND FOR PROVIDING OF THEIR SAFE LONG TERM EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bresler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The conception and new developments of Company «Maurer Soehne» intended for protection of transport structures from influences caused by displacements and for providing of their safe long-term exploitation are presented.

  6. FEM Simulation of Influence of Protective Encapsulation on MEMS Pressure Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Qingshan; Janting, Jakob; Branebjerg, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the work is to evaluate the feasibility of packaging a MEMS silicon pressure sensor by using either a polymer encapsulation or a combination of a polymer encapsulation and a metallic protection Membrane (fig. 1). The potential application of the protected sensor is for harsh...... environments. Several steps of simulation are carried out:1) Comparisons of the sensitivities are made among the non-encapsulated silicon sensor, the polymer encapsulated and polymer with metal encapsulated sensor. This is for evaluating whether the encapsulating materials reduce the pressure sensitivity...... compared to the conventionally exposed sensor. 2) Stress concentration calculations are performed to investigate if the encapsulation could lead to increased stress concentration in the silicon structure. The reliability of the adhesion of the metallic encapsulating membrane is assessed by investigating...

  7. INFLUENCE OF CURRENT-TIME CURVE OF PROTECTIVE INSTRUMENTS ON FIRE SAFETY OF CABLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Aushev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides results of experimental investigations on determination heating characteristics of ВВГ2x2.5, ВВГ2x4 and ВВГ2x6 cables and individual current-time curves of automatic switch-off series. Joint operation of automatic switch-offs and protected conductors are analyzed from the point of view of fire safety provision.

  8. Understanding factors that influence protective glove use among automotive spray painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness.

  9. The influence of cooperative relations of small businesses on environmental protection intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Hernandez, Sonia; Platero Jaime, Manuel; Esteban Sánchez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between one of the most important policies of social responsibility in manufacturing: the protection of the environment and cooperative business relations in small businesses (fewer than 50 employees). For this, we performed a literature review and an empirical study of 930 small manufacturing firms in Spain. Results indicate that small businesses that maintain and improve their cooperative relations through business networking with universities, competito...

  10. Multi-factors influencing the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils surrounding drinking water protection zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wentao; Wang, Tieyu; Lu, Yonglong; Chang, Andrew; Chen, Weiping

    2013-08-01

    We selected the Guanting Reservoir in Beijing, China as a case where an industrial area locates on the upwind corner to study the influence of human activities and natural processes on the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. Soil PAH concentrations in the study area follow a log-normal probability distribution function, suggesting that distribution of PAH in soils was affected by human activities. Distribution of PAHs in soils was significantly affected by the point source that high PAH concentrations were observed in near industrial area with an obvious declining trend from the northwest to the southeast which was the prevailing wind direction in this area. Away from the influence of point source, distribution of PAHs in soils was found to significantly correlate with total organic carbon content, while the influences of agricultural land uses and type of soil texture on the total soil PAHs contents and ring compositions were quite limited. The results can provide some evidences and data on the pollutant accumulation in drink water protection area influenced by natural processes and human activities.

  11. The influence of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    influence of the CPA on the seller's common law duty to warrant the buyer against eviction is ... is liable for breach of contract if he does anything which directly or indirectly detracts from the ... See also Kahn Principles of Sale and Lease 27-28.

  12. Negative Adult Influences and the Protective Effects of Role Models: A Study with Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Xue, Yange

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether role models (individuals adolescents look up to) contributed to the resilience of adolescents who were exposed to negative nonparental adult influences. Our sample included 659 African American, ninth-grade adolescents. We found that adolescents' exposure to negative adult behavior was associated with increased…

  13. Influence of Family History of Cancer on Engagement in Protective Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuta, Ann O.; Barry, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1580 people die from cancer each day. Family history is highlighted as an especially important indicator of cancer risk. Purpose: To determine whether having a family member with cancer influences preventive behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical activity, and screenings). Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis…

  14. Protective influences on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by MHC class I and class II alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, M; Vingsbo, C; Olsson, T;

    1994-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is influenced by polymorphism of the MHC. We have previously found that Lewis rats with certain MHC haplotypes are susceptible to disease induced with the myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 63-88, whereas Lewis rats with other MHC haplotypes...

  15. UVR protection influences fructosamine level after sun exposure of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mianowska, Beata; Narbutt, Joanna; Young, Antony Richard; Fendler, Wojciech; Małachowska, Beata; Młynarski, Wojciech; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Seasonal variation in glycated hemoglobin levels has been observed, and sun exposure has been considered as one of the factors associated with this relationship. Fructosamine is a short-time marker of blood protein glycation. We investigated the effect of seven days of sunbathing on blood fructosamine concentration in healthy volunteers using different ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protections. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: group A - used a UVA and UVB absorbing sunscreen (N = 15), group B - used a UVB absorbing sunscreen (N = 18), and group C - followed uncontrolled sun protection habits (N = 22). Overall, the fructosamine concentration did not change after sun exposure (baseline 248.8 μmol/l, 25-75%: 238.5 to 258.8 μmol/l vs. after 247.3 μmol/l, 25-75%: 234.9 to 261.8 μmol/l, P = 0.6637). Median change of fructosamine differed significantly between groups (A: -1.90 μmol/l, 25-75%: -17.10 to 1.80 μmol/l vs. B: -3.80 μmol/l, 25-75%: -18.50 to 2.40 μmol/l vs. C: +4.05 μmol/l, 25-75%: -3.20 to 22.0 μmol/l; one-way ANOVAP = 0.0277). After age adjustment and combining groups A and B, the difference in change of fructosamine concentration was statistically significant between groups A + B (decrease) vs. group C (increase, P = 0.0193). Appropriate sunscreen use during sunbathing resulted in decreased fructosamine concentrations, while inadequate UVR protection resulted in its increase. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Influence of Hydration State on Permeation Testing and Vapor Transport Properties of Protective Clothing Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip W. Gibson, Ph.D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protective clothing systems composed ofpermselective polymer film laminates are analternative to standard air-permeable garments basedon activated carbon. These polymer layers aredesigned with high water vapor permeation rates andlow permeation of chemical warfare agents. Polymerfilms that have a significant water vapor flux usuallyalso have an affinity for water, and will hydrate andswell significantly at high humidity levels. Thepolymer film’s increase in water content has thepotential to affect the transport rate of chemicalwarfare agents in vapor and liquid form, and usuallyalso has a large effect on the intrinsic water vaporpermeability of the membrane.

  17. A study of Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Metal by Tetraethoxysilane Plasma Polymerized Coatings-Influence of Aluminum Surface Pretreatments-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YoshihiroMomose; TatsuyaYabuki

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion-protective performance of plasma-polymerized (PP) coatings on pretreated aluminum substrates has been investigated by cathodic polarization curve measurement. The surface composition and electronic properties of the pretreated and PP film coated metal surfaces were also characterized by XPS and the temperature-programmed photoelectron emission (TPPE). A PP coating was prepared on the pretreated surfaces by plasma polymerization of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) monomer vapor and oxygen using a 13.56MHz radiofrequency generator. The polarization curve of PP film coated samples was measured in NaC1 aqueous solution. The weight loss rate calculated from the value of the corrosion current of the curve was used to estimate the protective performance of the PP film coated samples. Argon plasma treatment of the metal surface gave much better corrosion-protective performance than pretreatments such as oxidation by heating in air and diamond scratching. The XPS analysis indicated that the silicon oxide assigned to SiO2 was formed on the PP film coated surface. The TPPE analysis revealed that the electron emission characteristics for the metal surfaces pretreated only were strongly influenced by the pretreatments, while all the PP film coated samples exhibited nearly the same electron emission trend with a much decreased intensity.

  18. A study of Corrosion Protection of Aluminum Metal by Tetraethoxysilane Plasma Polymerized Coatings -Influence of Aluminum Surface Pretreatments-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihiro Momose; Tatsuya Yabuki

    2004-01-01

    The corrosion-protective performance of plasma-polymerized (PP) coatings on pretreated aluminum substrates has been investigated by cathodic polarization curve measurement. The surface composition and electronic properties of the pretreated and PP film coated metal surfaces were also characterized by XPS and the temperature-programmed photoelectron emission (TPPE). A PP coating was prepared on the pretreated surfaces by plasma polymerization of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) monomer vapor and oxygen using a 13.56MHz radiofrequency generator. The polarization curve of PP film coated samples was measured in NaCl aqueous solution. The weight loss rate calculated from the value of the corrosion current of the curve was used to estimate the protective performance of the PP film coated samples. Argon plasma treatment of the metal surface gave much better corrosion-protective performance than pretreatments such as oxidation by heating in air and diamond scratching. The XPS analysis indicated that the silicon oxide assigned to SiO2 was formed on the PP film coated surface. The TPPE analysis revealed that the electron emission characteristics for the metal surfaces pretreated only were strongly influenced by the pretreatments, while all the PP film coated samples exhibited nearly the same electron emission trend with a much decreased intensity.

  19. Environmental influence of Wuhan urban agglomeration development and strategies of environmental protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Qun; LIU Ying-tao; MAO Han-ying

    2006-01-01

    In Wuhan urban agglomeration (WUA), the population growth and concentration, the industrial development and urban sprawl have been affecting the environment fundamentally. Comparing with Yangtze delta metropolitan region, the level of urbanization and industrialization of WUA has lagged behind for about 10 years; but the problems in environmental protection and rehabilitation are commonly serious. In the future, WUA should avoid unnecessary mistakes and seek a win-win strategy for economy and environment in its large-scale development stage. Based on the analysis of the changing of main environmental pollutants and the coupled curves in past decades, the paper discussed the important links among the urban environmental pollutions, industry growth and urban sprawl in WUA. It is concluded that the integration of economic and environmental policies in urban development is more required and significant at the large urban agglomeration region. Four proactive and long-term strategies need to be adopted to provide prior guidance and better protection for the development of WUA.

  20. Radon protection problems in geologicly/miningly influenced locations; Radonschutzprobleme in geologisch/bergbaulich beeinflussten Standorten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leissring, Bernd [Bergtechnisches Ingenieurbuero GEOPRAX Bernd Leissring und Nick Leissring GbR, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Regions with special geologic and mining circumstances can lead to higher radon loads in the ground air. Are such locations built on by buildings, higher radon concentrations are preassigned and proved. By tracer gas analysis check-ups you can clearly prove the influences by radon, which accumulates in the mining buildings and its migration into the building area / buildings. The exhaustive area covering loads were also recorded by radon measurements in the buildings. Steady monthly long time measurements in over 100 buildings in Schneeberg show dynamics of the influences at changes of the weather movements in the underground hollows. Changes of the weather streams in the mining area lead to change of the radon concentration in the measured houses.At radon redevelopments in the mining cities the mining conditioned influxes into the houses must be exhaustively considered.

  1. Influence of protective characteristics of packaging material on packed dried fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Jasna J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruits are very delicate to biochemical changes during storage, due to low water content, as well as low aw value. The shelf life of these products depends on aw value. Materials for dry fruits packaging are necessary to have appropriate barrier characteristics for water, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide molecules, as well as for electromagnetic rays, especially those with low wavelengths in UV region. During storage of packed dry fruits, qualitative changes, influenced by different packaging materials, may occur. The results of tested characteristics of different packaging materials, combination and their barrier features, as well as the qualitative changes of packaged dried apples are presented in this paper. The qualitative changes of color and sensory characteristics of packaged dried apples point out to influence of the type, combination as well as the barrier features of used packaging materials. .

  2. Antidepressant and Proneurogenic Influence of Environmental Enrichment in Mice: Protective Effects vs Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens-Martín, María; Tejeda, Gonzalo S.; Trejo, José L

    2011-01-01

    Physical–cognitive activity has long-lasting beneficial effects on the brain and on behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) induces brain activity known to influence the behavior of mice, as measured in learned helplessness paradigms (forced swim test), and neurogenic cell populations in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, it is not completely clear whether the antidepressant and proneurogenic effects of EE are different in animals that are naive or pre-exposed to the stress inducing help...

  3. Influence of the surface pre-treatment of aluminum on the processes of formation of cerium oxides protective films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, R.; Stoyanova, E.; Tsanev, A.; Stoychev, D.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that there is special interest in the contemporary investigations on conversion treatment of aluminum aimed at promoting its corrosion stability, which is focused on electrolytes on the basis of salts of metals belonging to the group of rare-earth elements. Their application is especially attractive, as it enables a successful substitution of the presently applied highly efficient, but at the same time toxic Cr6+-containing electrolytes. The present paper presents a study on the influence of the preliminary alkaline activation and acidic de-oxidation of the aluminum surface on the processes of immersion formation of protective cerium oxides films on Al 1050. The results obtained show that their deposition from simple electrolytes (containing only salts of Ce3+ ions) on the Al surface, treated only in alkaline solution, occurs at a higher rate, which leads to preparing thicker oxide films having a better protective ability. In the cases when the formation of oxide films is realized in a complex electrolyte (containing salts of Ce3+ and Cu2+ ions), better results are obtained with respect to the morphology and protective action of cerium oxides film on samples that have been consecutively activated in alkaline solution and deoxidized in acidic solution. Electrochemical investigations were carried out in a model corrosion medium (0.1 M NaCl); it was shown that the cerium protective films, deposited by immersion, have a cathodic character with regard to the aluminum support and inhibit the occurrence of the depolarizing corrosion process -- the reaction of oxygen reduction.

  4. An objective decision model of power grid environmental protection based on environmental influence index and energy-saving and emission-reducing index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun-shu; Jin, Yan-ming; Hao, Wei-hua

    2017-01-01

    Based on modelling the environmental influence index of power transmission and transformation project and energy-saving and emission-reducing index of source-grid-load of power system, this paper establishes an objective decision model of power grid environmental protection, with constraints of power grid environmental protection objectives being legal and economical, and considering both positive and negative influences of grid on the environmental in all-life grid cycle. This model can be used to guide the programming work of power grid environmental protection. A numerical simulation of Jiangsu province’s power grid environmental protection objective decision model has been operated, and the results shows that the maximum goal of energy-saving and emission-reducing benefits would be reached firstly as investment increasing, and then the minimum goal of environmental influence.

  5. Reprint of "Decision-making in child protective services: Influences at multiple levels of the social ecology".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Decision-making in the child protection system is influenced by multiple factors; agency and geographic contexts, caseworker attributes, and families' unique circumstances all likely play a role. In this study, we use the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to explore how these factors are associated with two key case decisions-substantiation and removal to out-of-home care. Analyses are conducted using weighted hierarchical linear models. We find that substantiation is strongly influenced by agency factors, particularly constraints on service accessibility. Substantiation is less likely when agencies can provide services to unsubstantiated cases and when collaboration with other social institutions is high. This supports the concept that substantiation may be a gateway to services in some communities. Agency factors contributed less to the probability of removal among substantiated cases, though time resources and constraints on decision-making had some influence. For both substantiation and removal risks, county, caseworker, and child characteristics were less influential than agency characteristics and family risk factors.

  6. Protective influence of hyaluronic acid on focal adhesion kinase activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donejko, Magdalena; Rysiak, Edyta; Galicka, Elżbieta; Terlikowski, Robert; Głażewska, Edyta Katarzyna; Przylipiak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and hyaluronic acid (HA) on cell survival and apoptosis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Regarding the mechanism of ethanol action on human skin fibroblasts, we investigated cell viability and apoptosis, expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and the influence of HA on those processes. Materials and methods Studies were conducted in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that were treated with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM ethanol or with ethanol and 500 µg/mL HA. Cell viability was examined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and NC-300 Nucleo-Counter. Imaging of the cells using a fluorescence microscope Pathway 855 was performed to measure FAK expression. Results Depending on the dosage, ethanol decreased cell viability and activated the process of apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. HA prevented the negative influence of ethanol on cell viability and prevented apoptosis. The analysis of fluorescence imaging using BD Pathway 855 High-Content Bioimager showed the inhibition of FAK migration to the cell nucleus, depending on the increasing concentration of ethanol. Conclusion This study proves that downregulation of signaling pathway of FAK is involved in ethanol-induced apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. The work also indicates a protective influence of HA on FAK activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol. PMID:28293103

  7. Spruce Needle Polyprenols Protect Against Atorvastatin-Induced Muscle Weakness and do not Influence Central Nervous System Functions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansone Baiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyprenols (PPs have been identified in almost all living organisms. The richest source of PPs is the needles of conifer trees. Endogenously, PPs, similarly to cholesterol, are synthesised in human and animal cells via the mevalonate pathway. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-oxidant properties of PPs. To our knowledge, no studies have been published on the influence of PPs on muscle strength. We hypothesised that administration of PPs could prevent changes in muscle functioning caused by statins (weakness, etc.. In the present study, atorvastatin (80 mg/kg was used as a model compound. PPs at doses 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg were administered. Both drugs were given per os for 16 days. The influence of atorvastatin, PPs and their combination on behaviour, muscle strength, plasma cholesterol and creatine kinase activity was assessed in female Wistar rats. Our data demonstrated that atorvastatin considerably impaired muscle strength, whereas PPs protected that effect. Neither PPs, nor atorvastatin influenced plasma cholesterol levels, whereas PPs at dose 20 mg/kg elevated creatine kinase activity by about 25%. PPs at the tested doses did not alter behaviour, indicating safety of central nervous system functions. The obtained data suggest usefulness of PPs as a complement in statin therapy to reduce muscle-related side effects.

  8. The influence of the free space environment on the superlight-weight thermal protection system: conception, methods, and risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsenko, Vitaliy; Falchenko, Iurii; Fedorchuk, Viktor; Petrushynets, Lidiia

    2016-07-01

    This report focuses on the results of the EU project "Superlight-weight thermal protection system for space application (LIGHT-TPS)". The bottom line is an analysis of influence of the free space environment on the superlight-weight thermal protection system (TPS). This report focuses on new methods that based on the following models: synergetic, physical, and computational. This report concentrates on four approaches. The first concerns the synergetic approach. The synergetic approach to the solution of problems of self-controlled synthesis of structures and creation of self-organizing technologies is considered in connection with the super-problem of creation of materials with new functional properties. Synergetics methods and mathematical design are considered according to actual problems of material science. The second approach describes how the optimization methods can be used to determine material microstructures with optimized or targeted properties. This technique enables one to find unexpected microstructures with exotic behavior (e.g., negative thermal expansion coefficients). The third approach concerns the dynamic probabilistic risk analysis of TPS l elements with complex characterizations for damages using a physical model of TPS system and a predictable level of ionizing radiation and space weather. Focusing is given mainly on the TPS model, mathematical models for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment and software for the modeling and prediction of the influence of the free space environment. The probabilistic risk assessment method for TPS is presented considering some deterministic and stochastic factors. The last approach concerns results of experimental research of the temperature distribution on the surface of the honeycomb sandwich panel size 150 x 150 x 20 mm at the diffusion welding in vacuum are considered. An equipment, which provides alignment of temperature fields in a product for the formation of equal strength of welded joints is

  9. Situational Pressures that Influence Firefighters' Decision Making about Personal Protective Equipment: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Michael A; Scott, Cliff; Davis, Andrea L; Allen, Joseph; Taylor, Jennifer A

    2016-09-01

    Firefighters are exposed to hazardous conditions as a result of their occupation and often understand the dangers of these toxic exposures; yet, it remains unclear why some refrain from wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) in dangerous situations. We were intrigued by the gap between demonstrated safety knowledge and lack of connection to observed or self-reported safety behaviors, an issue about which there is limited consensus among scholars. In a national study of fire service safety climate, 123 firefighters across 12 fire departments participated in 62 interviews and 10 focus groups. Firefighter identity, goal seduction, and situation aversion were the strongest factors of PPE non-compliance, whereas PPE empowerment and individual will promoted PPE use within a fire department. Understanding situations where PPE use is both practiced and neglected is imperative to improving fire service safety culture. Peer-pressure and leading by example at the peer and organizational levels appear to be essential considerations firefighters undertake when choosing whether or not to engage in safety behavior.

  10. The protective influence of selenium on oxidant disturbances in brain of rats exposed to lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczykowska, M; Kocot, J; Lewandowska, A; Żelazowska, R; Musik, I

    2015-01-01

    For more than sixty years lithium carbonate has been used in medicine. However, during its administration different side effects including oxidative stress can occur. Selenium belongs to essential elements possessing antioxidant properties. This study aimed at evaluating if selenium could be used as a protective adjuvant in lithium therapy. The experiment was performed on four groups of Wistar rats: I (control), II (Li), III (Se), IV (Li + Se) treated with saline, lithium carbonate (2.7 mg Li/kg b.w.), sodium selenite (0.5 mg Se/kg b.w.) and lithium carbonate (2.7 mg Li/kg b.w.) + sodium selenite (0.5 mg Se/kg b.w.), respectively. All substances were administered as water solutions by stomach tube for 3 or 6 weeks. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) were determined in brain homogenates. Lithium slightly enhanced MDA and depressed CAT and SOD after 6 weeks as well as GPx after 3 weeks. Selenium co-administration showed tendency to restore the disturbed parameters. Selenium alone and given with lithium significantly increased GPx vs. Li-treated group after 3 weeks. Having regarded the outcomes of this study, the research on application of selenium during lithium treatment seems to be worth continuation.

  11. Genetic influences can protect against unresponsive parenting in the prediction of child social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Although social competence in children has been linked to the quality of parenting, prior research has typically not accounted for genetic similarities between parents and children, or for interactions between environmental (i.e., parental) and genetic influences. In this article, the possibility of a Gene x Environment (G × E) interaction in the prediction of social competence in school-age children is evaluated. Using a longitudinal, multimethod data set from a sample of children adopted at birth (N = 361), a significant interaction was found between birth parent sociability and sensitive, responsive adoptive parenting when predicting child social competence at school entry (age 6), even when controlling for potential confounds. An analysis of the interaction revealed that genetic strengths can buffer the effects of unresponsive parenting. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. The use of chitooligosaccharide in beer brewing for protection against beer-spoilage bacteria and its influence on beer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yu, Zhimin; Wang, Ting; Guo, Xuan; Luan, Jing; Sun, Yumei; Li, Xianzhen

    2016-04-01

    To identify a biological preservative that can protect beer from microbial contamination, which often results in the production of turbidity and off-flavor. The antimicrobial activity of a chitooligosaccharide against beer-spoilage bacteria and its effect on the fermentation performance of brewer's yeast was studied. Chitooligosaccharide with an average 2 kDa molecular weight was the best at inhibiting all tested beer-spoilage bacteria. The application of chitooligosaccharide in the brewing process did not influence the fermentation of brewer's yeast. The change in beer performance induced by the contamination of Lactobacillus brevis could be effectively controlled by application of chitooligosaccharide in the beer brewing process. The experimental data suggested that chitooligosaccharide should be an excellent preservative to inhibit beer-spoilage bacteria in the brewing process and in the end product.

  13. Evaluation of E. coli biofilm as a protective barrier against microbiologically influenced deterioration of concrete (MICD) under mesophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, S; Ormeci, B; Isgor, O B

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was evaluated for its potential to control and minimize microbiologically influenced concrete deterioration (MICD) under mesophilic temperatures (37 °C). Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm was first grown on Portland cement mortar disks for 8 days. Mortar disks were then exposed to two different types of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) (Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiobacillus thiooxidans), which use sulfur compounds as substrate and oxidize them to sulfate and sulfuric acid. The effectiveness of the biofilm against MICD was evaluated by measuring pH, sulfate, calcium concentrations in the reactors and surface analysis of the mortar samples using X-ray diffraction and visual inspection. Overall, the results indicate that the E. coli DH5α biofilm showed good protection against MICD induced by SOB at 37 °C.

  14. Factors influencing private and public environmental protection behaviors: results from a survey of residents in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wang; Reisner, Ann

    2011-03-01

    Currently one of the largest and most rapidly developing countries, China also has some of the world's most severe environmental problems. China will most likely need to use all of the potential major strategies currently available to solve the country's huge environmental challenges, including promoting individual conservation behavior through educational campaigns and encouraging public environmental advocacy. This paper summarized the findings of a survey of 347 residents of Shaanxi province on environmental attitudes and behaviors. The survey found generally high levels of environmental knowledge and high recognition of the seriousness of environmental issues, moderate levels of individual actions supporting environmental resource conservation and low levels of public environmental behaviors, particularly for organized public advocacy. Further analysis indicated that the perceived importance of environmental protection is the most important factor influencing individual environmental resource conservation, but not public advocacy behaviors. Implications for environmental campaigns are discussed.

  15. Influence of gas detonation spraying conditions on the quality of Fe-Al intermetallic protective coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senderowski C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present generalized research results and analyses of the quality of coatings produced with self decomposing Fe-Al intermetallic powders deposited on 1045 steel in the gas detonation spraying (GDS. A number of GDS experiments has been carried out with significantly changed operational spraying parameters (the volume of the fuel gas, carrier gas, distance and the frequency of spraying which define the process energy level directly influencing the quality of the coating. On the basis of the initial results the choice of the process parameters has been made to obtain the most advantageous set of geometrical and physical-mechanical properties of the coating material and substrate. The quality of the coatings was considered by taking into account the grain morphology, chemical content, phase inhomogeneity, cohesive porosity, as well as adhesive porosity in the substrate coating joint. The coating roughness was also considered. It was found that all GDS coatings produced are built with lamellar splats which result from the GDS process transformed (changed plasticity and geometry powder particles forming the deposit. The result of the GDS spraying parameters optimization is the lack of signs of melting of the material (even in microareas while the geometry of the deposited grains is considerably changed. This phenomenon has been considered as a proof of high plasticity of the GDS formed Fe-Al intermetallic coatings.

  16. Cardiovascular protection by ezetimibe and influence on oxidative stress in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Nishioka, Satoshi; Nomura, Atsuo; Ijiri, Yoshio; Miyamura, Masatoshi; Ukimura, Akira; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Kitaura, Yasushi; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2015-10-15

    Ezetimibe is as an inhibitor of NPC1L1 protein, which has a key role in cholesterol absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ezetimibe on the plasma lipid profile, atherosclerotic lesions, and cardiomyocyte ultrastructure in an animal model of atherosclerosis with intermittent hypoxia. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice received a high-fat diet for 30 days. Then animals were exposed to intermittent hypoxia for 10 days or were maintained under normoxic conditions. In the ezetimibe group, ezetimibe (5 mg/kg/day) was added to the diet. Under normoxic conditions, the total cholesterol level was significantly lower in the ezetimibe group (63.6±6.6 mg/dl) than in the control group (116.3±16.9 mg/dl, PIntermittent hypoxia accelerated atherosclerosis associated with increased superoxide production, which also caused degeneration of cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial abnormalities, and interstitial fibrosis. Compared with the control group, the ezetimibe group showed significantly less advanced atherosclerotic lesions and lower superoxide production in the thoracic aorta, as well as reduced oxidative stress, preservation of cardiomyocyte ultrastructure, and reduced interstitial fibrosis in the left ventricular myocardium. In conclusion, ezetimibe not only reduces total cholesterol, but also prevents the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events due to intermittent hypoxia at least partly through suppression of oxidative stress.

  17. The influence of differential response on decision-making in child protective service agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczewski, Colleen E

    2015-01-01

    Differential response (DR) profoundly changes the decision pathways of public child welfare systems, yet little is known about how DR shapes the experiences of children whose reports receive an investigation rather than an alternate response. Using data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), this study examined the relationship between DR implementation and decision outcomes in neglect cases, as measured by investigation, substantiation, and removal rates in 297 U.S. counties. Multivariate regression models included county-level measures of child poverty and proportions of African American children. Path analyses were also conducted to identify mediating effects of prior decision points and moderating effects of DR on poverty and race's influence on decision outcomes. Results indicate that compared to non-DR counties, those implementing DR have significantly lower investigation and substantiation rates within county populations but higher substantiation rates among investigated cases. Regression models showed significant reductions in removal rates associated with DR implementation, but these effects became insignificant in path models that accounted for mediation effects of previous decision points. Findings also suggest that DR implementation may reduce the positive association between child poverty rates and investigation rates, but additional studies with larger samples are needed to confirm this moderation effect. Two methods of calculating decision outcomes, population- and decision-based enumeration, were used, and policy and research implications of each are discussed. This study demonstrates that despite their inherit complexity, large administrative datasets such as NCANDS can be used to assess the impact of wide-scale system change across jurisdictions.

  18. Protective influence of hyaluronic acid on focal adhesion kinase activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donejko M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena Donejko,1 Edyta Rysiak,2 Elżbieta Galicka,1 Robert Terlikowski,3 Edyta Katarzyna Głażewska,1 Andrzej Przylipiak1 1Department of Esthetic Medicine, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, 3Department of Health Restoration, Medical University of Białystok, Białystok, Poland Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and hyaluronic acid (HA on cell survival and apoptosis in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Regarding the mechanism of ethanol action on human skin fibroblasts, we investigated cell viability and apoptosis, expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, and the influence of HA on those processes. Materials and methods: Studies were conducted in confluent human skin fibroblast cultures that were treated with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM ethanol or with ethanol and 500 µg/mL HA. Cell viability was examined using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay and NC-300 Nucleo-Counter. Imaging of the cells using a fluorescence microscope Pathway 855 was performed to measure FAK expression. Results: Depending on the dosage, ethanol decreased cell viability and activated the process of apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. HA prevented the negative influence of ethanol on cell viability and prevented apoptosis. The analysis of fluorescence imaging using BD Pathway 855 High-Content Bioimager showed the inhibition of FAK migration to the cell nucleus, depending on the increasing concentration of ethanol. Conclusion: This study proves that downregulation of signaling pathway of FAK is involved in ethanol-induced apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts. The work also indicates a protective influence of HA on FAK activity in human skin fibroblasts exposed to ethanol. Keywords: apoptosis, skin fibroblast, focal adhesion kinase, hyaluronic acid, ethanol

  19. INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PARAMETERS ON HARDNESS, WEAR-RESISTANCE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROTECTIVE GAS AND THERMAL COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Spiridonov; M. V. Neroda; I. O. Sokorov

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates influence of magnetic and electric grinding parameters on formation of physical and mechanical properties of protective coatings. It has been established that it is possible to control chemical composition, properties and qualitative characteristics of hardening coatings while changing technological process parameters. 

  20. INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PARAMETERS ON HARDNESS, WEAR-RESISTANCE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROTECTIVE GAS AND THERMAL COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Spiridonov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates influence of magnetic and electric grinding parameters on formation of physical and mechanical properties of protective coatings. It has been established that it is possible to control chemical composition, properties and qualitative characteristics of hardening coatings while changing technological process parameters. 

  1. Sustrates and nutrient solutions for obtaining pipper seedlings and its influences on the production in crops protected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairely Sarduy Díaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the productive success in the production of the pepper (Capsicum annum L. in protected crop is necessary to guarantee the quality of the seedlings. For that the objective of this investigation was to evaluate mixtures with crowd + coconut fiber and worm humus as substrates and three nutritious solutions for the production of seedlings of pepper and its later influence on the production. In the nursery phase an assay in a design totally randomized was used in factorial arrangement 32, being the factors, substrate and nutritious solution where variables of growth and development were evaluated, in 25 seedlings for treatment. In the experiment in field phase was given pursuit to the plants coming from the nine treatments of the nursery phase in a design at random blocks with four replicas, where components of the yield were evaluated in 10 plants by parcel and the yield in the total parcel. The data were processed by means of a variance analysis using the statistical package SPSS version 15. The employment of worm humus with the nutritious solution B and the humus with the crowd and coconut plus the application of the nutritious solutions A and B allows obtaining pepper seedlings with the established quality. These combinations stand out in the production phase for the percentage of flourishing plants, mass of the fruits and the yield, for that the employment of these substrates, constitute new alternatives for this technology.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF NON-CHEMICAL METHODS OF PLANT PROTECTION ON THE PRESENCE OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES IN BROAD BEANS GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact of accompanying plants: sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima L. and white mustard (Synapis alba L., on the incidence of pests of the broad bean (Vicia faba L. variety Bartek, in the intercropping system. The observations of the number of the beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp were made. The broad bean was grown along with two other plants in varying spacing (the distances between rows were 50, 65 and 80 cm and in homogeneous cultivation (the distances between rows were 50 cm. Broad bean in a homogeneous cultivation served as a control. In addition, the broad bean from homogeneous cultivation subjected to a standard protection by chemical insecticides was also analyzed. The measurements were carried out in field conditions, by using an entomological bucket, through the shedding of insects from randomly selected 30 plants per plot. The sweet alyssum as an accompanying plant showed no significant influence on the occurrence of herbivorous beetles of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. and Sitona spp., regardless of the spacing between the rows. The white mustard as a companion plant showed a significant impact on increasing the number of Bruchus rufimanus Boh. beetles in the middle row spacing (65 cm. The impact of white mustard on other beetles has not been detected.

  3. Heterosubtypic cross-protection induced by whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine in mice : Influence of the route of vaccine administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budimir, Natalija; de Haan, Aalzen; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Huckriede, Anke; Wilschut, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Development of influenza vaccines capable of inducing broad protection against different virus subtypes is necessary given the ever-changing viral genetic landscape. Previously, we showed that vaccination with whole inactivated virus (WIV) induces heterosubtypic protection against lethal

  4. Influences of protective atmosphere on the characterization and properties of NaSr2Nb5O15 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics by sol–gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tian-Hang Zhang; Yan-Gai Liu; Jin-Qiu Zhao; Zhao-Hui Huang; Ming-Hao Fang

    2015-10-01

    NaSr2Nb5O15 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the sol–gel method; they were sintered at different temperatures with or without protective atmosphere. The influences of sintering temperature and protective atmosphere on the characterization and properties of the ceramics were investigated. All the ceramics showed the pure tungsten bronze structure and an intermediate relaxor-like behaviour between normal and ideal relaxor ferroelectrics according to the modified Curie–Weiss law. The sintering temperature affected significantly the properties of ceramics, with the sintering temperature increased both with and without protective atmosphere, the r, 33, p and r of these ceramics initially increased and decreased finally, whereas the variation of m and c showed the opposite tendency. Furthermore, the protective atmosphere also significantly affected the properties of these ceramics, r, 33, p and r of such ceramics sintered with protective atmosphere were superior to those of the ceramics sintered without protective atmosphere, while the tan , m and c gave the contrary results.

  5. Incidence des puits sur la protection cathodique des plates-formes fixes Influence of Welles on the Cathodic Protection of Fixed Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roche M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les puits d'exploitation des gisements pétroliers onshore ne sont pas systématiquement protégés cathodiquement. Par contre les puits offshore supportés par les plates-formes fixes de forage sont nécessairement soumis aux systemes de protection cathodique destinés à celles-ci. La conception de ces systèmes doit prendre en compte la demande en courant des puits, considérée généralement comme parasite. Différentes méthodes de calcul existent, plus ou moins étayées par des considérations scientifiques. Aucune ne peut véritablement prévoir ce que sera la réalité et l'emploi de méthodes de mesure est nécessaire si l'on veut vérifier ce qui se passe exactement. Les différentes méthodes de calcul et de mesure sont passées en revue et critiquées, ce qui conduit à évoquer les points qui nous paraissent devoir être mieux étudiés dans le futur. Production wells on onshore cil fields are not systematically cathodically protected. On the contrary, offshore weils attained from fixed drilling plotforms are necessorily subjected to cathodic protection systems designed for such structures. The design of such systems must Cake into consideration the amount of current demanded by the well, generally considered as parositic current. Different colculoting methods exist, more or less based on scientific considerations. None con truly foresee what the reality will be, and measuring methods have ta be used if we want to check to see exactly what is happening. The different calculating and measuring methods are reviewed and criticized, thus bringing out points that we feel should be further investigated in the future.

  6. The Influence of Aluminum Tripolyphosphate on the Protective Behavior of an Acrylic Water-Based Paint Applied to Rusty Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective performance, in conditions of total immersion, of an acrylic water-based paint applied to rusty steel, has been studied using electrochemical techniques. There was no rust, blister, crack, or flake that occurred on coating after 500 h immersion. The data obtained have enabled the protective mechanism to be proposed. The specific pigments utilized in the formulation of the paint studied can release phosphates to form a protective layer on metal substrate, which can impede the access of aggressive species to substrate surface. The coatings performed electrochemical activity in the beginning of immersion; then the layer formed and resistance of coating increased.

  7. Attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, and reported use of hearing protection among college students: Influence of youth culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Kearney, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, noisy activities that were participated in, and factors associated with hearing protection use among college students. A 44-item online survey was completed by 2,151 college students (aged 17 years and above) to assess the attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms related to noise exposure, and use of hearing protection around noisy activities. Among the participants, 39.6% experienced at least one hearing symptom, with ear pain as the most frequently reported (22.5%). About 80% of the participants were involved in at least one noise activity, out of which 41% reported the use of hearing protection. A large majority of those with ear pain, hearing loss, permanent tinnitus, and noise sensitivity was involved in attending a sporting event, which was the most reported noisy activity. The highest reported hearing protection use was in the use of firearms, and the lowest in discos/ dances. The reported use of hearing protection is associated with having at least one hearing symptom but the relationship is stronger with tinnitus, hearing loss, and ear pain (χ² = 30.5-43.5, Pstudent health services, involving student groups in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness and prevention, and establishing noise level limitations for all on-campus events.

  8. Protection Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon; Li, Cher

    The strategies firms use to protect their intellectual property and knowledge can strongly influence their ability to capture the benefits of their innovative efforts. Using the attention-based theory, we explore positive and negative sides of legal appropriability. While asserting the benefits f...

  9. Cross-scale feedbacks and scale mismatches as influences on cultural services and the resilience of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kristine; De Vos, Alta; Cumming, Graeme S; Moore, Christine; Biggs, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a central strategy for achieving global conservation goals, but their continued existence depends heavily on maintaining sufficient social and political support to outweigh economic interests or other motives for land conversion. Thus, the resilience of protected areas can be considered a function of their perceived benefits to society. Nature-based tourism (NBT), a cultural ecosystem service, provides a key source of income to protected areas, facilitating a sustainable solution to conservation. The ability of tourism to generate income depends, however, on both the scales at which this cultural service is provided and the scales at which tourists respond to services on offer. This observation raises a set of location-, context-, and scale-related questions that need to be confronted before we can understand and value cultural service provision appropriately. We combine elements of resilience analysis with a systems ecology framework and apply this to NBT in protected areas to investigate cross-scale interactions and scale mismatches. We postulate that cross-scale effects can either have a positive effect on protected area resilience or lead to scale mismatches, depending on their interactions with cross-scale feedbacks. To demonstrate this, we compare spatial scales and nested levels of institutions to develop a typology of scale mismatches for common scenarios in NBT. In our new typology, the severity of a scale mismatch is expressed as the ratio of spatial scale to institutional level, producing 25 possible outcomes with differing consequences for system resilience. We predict that greater differences between interacting scales and levels, and greater magnitudes of cross-scale interactions, will lead to greater magnitudes of scale mismatch. Achieving a better understanding of feedbacks and mismatches, and finding ways of aligning spatial and institutional scales, will be critical for strengthening the resilience of protected areas that

  10. Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C.

    2013-09-01

    The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

  11. Factors Surgical Team Members Perceive Influence Choices of Wearing or Not Wearing Personal Protective Equipment during Operative/Invasive Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuming, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to certain bloodborne pathogens can prematurely end a person's life. Healthcare workers (HCWs), especially those who are members of surgical teams, are at increased risk of exposure to these pathogens. The proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during operative/invasive procedures reduces that risk. Despite this, some HCWs fail…

  12. Item Randomized-Response Models for Measuring Noncompliance: Risk-Return Perceptions, Social Influences, and Self-Protective Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockenholt, Ulf; Van Der Heijden, Peter G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Randomized response (RR) is a well-known method for measuring sensitive behavior. Yet this method is not often applied because: (i) of its lower efficiency and the resulting need for larger sample sizes which make applications of RR costly; (ii) despite its privacy-protection mechanism the RR design may not be followed by every respondent; and…

  13. INFORMATION-MEASURING SYSTEM FOR EVALUATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION POWER LEVELS INFLUENCE TO ITS WEAKENED BY PROTECTIVE SHIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Boiprav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An information-measuring system and realized on the basis of its methodology used for evaluation of electromagnetic radiation power levels passing via the protective shielding construction are described. It’s proposed to use the developed methodology for the testing of electromagnetic radiation shields for anechoic chambers

  14. Factors Surgical Team Members Perceive Influence Choices of Wearing or Not Wearing Personal Protective Equipment during Operative/Invasive Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuming, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to certain bloodborne pathogens can prematurely end a person's life. Healthcare workers (HCWs), especially those who are members of surgical teams, are at increased risk of exposure to these pathogens. The proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during operative/invasive procedures reduces that risk. Despite this, some HCWs fail…

  15. Oral vaccination of brushtail possums with BCG: Investigation into factors that may influence vaccine efficacy and determination of duration of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, B M; Aldwell, F E; Keen, D L; Parlane, N A; Hamel, K L; de Lisle, G W

    2006-10-01

    To determine factors that may influence the efficacy of an oral pelleted vaccine containing Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to induce protection of brushtail possums against tuberculosis. To determine the duration of protective immunity following oral administration of BCG. In Study 1, a group of possums (n=7) was immunised by feeding 10 pellets containing dead Pasteur BCG, followed 15 weeks later with a single pellet of live Pasteur BCG. At that time, four other groups of possums (n=7 per group) were given a single pellet of live Pasteur BCG orally, a single pellet of live Danish BCG orally, 10 pellets of live Pasteur BCG orally, or a subcutaneous injection of live Pasteur BCG. For the oral pelleted vaccines, BCG was formulated into a lipid matrix, and each pellet contained approximately 107 colony forming units (cfu) of BCG, while the vaccine injected subcutaneously contained 106 cfu of BCG. A sixth, non-vaccinated, group (n=7) served as a control. All possums were challenged by the aerosol route with a low dose of virulent M. bovis 7 weeks after vaccination, and killed 7-8 weeks after challenge. Protection against challenge with M. bovis was assessed from pathological and bacteriological findings. In Study 2, lipid-formulated live Danish BCG was administered orally to three groups of possums (10-11 per group), and these possums were challenged with virulent M. bovis 8, 29 or 54 weeks later. The possums were killed 7 weeks after challenge, to assess protection in comparison to a non-vaccinated group. The results from Study 1 showed that vaccine efficacy was not adversely affected by feeding dead BCG prior to live BCG. Feeding 10 vaccine pellets induced a level of protection similar to feeding a single pellet. Protection was similar when feeding possums a single pellet containing the Pasteur or Danish strains of BCG. All vaccinated groups had significantly reduced pathological changes or bacterial counts when compared to the non-vaccinated group

  16. 考虑变压器励磁涌流影响的保护整定%Protection Setting Value Calculation Considering Influence of Transformer Excitation Inrush Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑾

    2011-01-01

    在大型变压器空载冲击过程中,由于励磁涌流和负序电压的存在,如果定值整定不得当,会导致差动保护,复压过流保护等误动作,影响设备的正常运行.为了保证定值整定的正确性,在此通过对励磁涌流产生的原因和特点进行理论分析,结合变压器冲击过程中实际数据以及大型变压器冲击过程中由于定值整定不合理造成保护误动作的实例,对变压器冲击过程中相关定值整定的原则进行了探讨.在定值的整定过程中要考虑励磁涌流的幅值、谐波含量和衰减时间以及负序电压的幅值和衰减时间的影响.%In no-load impact process of large transformers, the excitation inrush current and negative sequenee voltage can cause protection misoperation of differential protection and complex pressure over-current protection if the setting value calculation is not reasonable. In order to ensure the correctness of protection setting value calculation, the principle of the protection setting value calculation is discussed on the basis of the theoretical analysis of causes and characteristics of the excitation inrush current, and in combiniation with the actual data during transformer impact and examples of misoperation caused by the unreasonable protection setting value calculation in large transformer impact process. When the protection setting value is calculated, the amplitude, harmonic content and attenuation time must be considered, as well as the influence of amplitude and attenuation time of negative sequence voltage.

  17. Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Hegazy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesized cationic surfactant N-(2-(2-mercaptoacetoxy ethyl-N,N-dimethyldodecan-1-aminium bromide (QSH was used to prepare colloidal copper nanoparticles (CuNPs in water through the chemical reduction method. The obtained copper nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR spectrum and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The corrosion performance was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements in addition to the salt spray test. The results obtained from these methods were in good agreement. Results showed that the modified coating provide a good coverage and an additional corrosion protection of the carbon steel.

  18. Application of Protection Motivation Theory to Study the Factors that Influence Disaster Recovery Planning: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunnava, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    In today's information intensive and networked world, Disaster Recovery Planning (DRP) is a critical and significant activity. However, DRP does not always receive the attention it deserves. Therefore, it is critical to examine the factors that influence the undertaking of disaster recovery planning. A model on disaster recovery planning was…

  19. Development of an instrument based on the protection motivation theory to measure factors influencing women's intention to first pap test practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Lale; Dehdari, Tahereh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2014-01-01

    Given that there are many Iranian women who have never had a Pap smear, this study was designed to develop and validate a measurement tool based on the Protection Motivation Theory to assess factors influencing the Iranian women's intention to perform first Pap testing. In this psychometric research, to determine the Content Validity Index (CVI) and the Content Validity Ratio (CVR), a panel of experts (n=10) reviewed scale items. Reliability was estimated through the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (n=30) and internal consistency (n=240). Also, factor analysis (exploratory and conformity) was performed on the data of the sample women who had never had a Pap smear test (n=240). A 26-item questionnaire was developed. The CVI and CVR scores of the scale were 0.89 and 0.90, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis loaded a 26-item with seven factors questionnaire (perceived vulnerability and severity, fear, response costs, response efficacy, self-efficacy, and protection motivation (or intention)) that jointly accounted for 72.76% of the observed variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit for the data. Internal consistency (range 0.70-0.93) and test-retest reliability (range 0.72-0.96) of sub-scales were acceptable. This study showed that the designed instrument was a valid and reliable tool for measuring the factors influencing the women's intention to perform their first Pap testing.

  20. Observation on the influence of ulinastatin for the cerebral protection and inflammatory reaction of patients with craniocerebral injury surgery during the perioperative period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yu Cai; Dong-Yan Zi; Yi Zheng; Ling-Ling Wang; Xiao-Bin Li; Han Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the influence situation of ulinastatin for the cerebral protection and inflammatory reaction of patients with craniocerebral injury surgery during the perioperative period, in order to understand the application value of ulinastatin in the patients with craniocerebral injury surgery.Methods:A total of 54 patients with craniocerebral injury surgery in our hospital from July 2014 to May 2015 were selected as the study object, and 54 patients were randomly divided into two groups, 27 patients in control group were treated with conventional perioperative treatment, 27 patients in observation group were treated with ulinastatin on the conventional perioperative treatment, then the cerebral blood flow parameters, serum nerve function related indexes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines of two groups before the treatment and at 1st, 3rd and 5th day after the treatment were analyzed and compared.Results:The cerebral blood flow parameters, serum nerve function related indexes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines of two groups before the treatment were compared, while those statistical indexes of observation group at 1st, 3rd and 5th day after the treatment were all better than those of control group, the differences were all significant.Conclusion:The influence role of ulinastatin for the cerebral protection and inflammatory reaction of patients with craniocerebral injury surgery during the perioperative period is better, and its application value for the patients with craniocerebral injury surgery is relatively higher.

  1. Influence of acrylamide on the gastric mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a common chemical found in heated starchy foods especially potato products. We investigated, for the first time, the effect of acrylamide, alone or with rosemary, on the structure of gastric mucosa of adult male albino rats. Stomach sections were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative immmunohistochemical assessments of the expression of caspase-3, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EPGR) were performed. Our results showed that acrylamide produced mucosal erosions and depletion of the protective surface mucus together with widespread inflammatory infiltration. In addition, there was significantly increased expression of caspase-3 and iNOS and weak expression of EPGR. Rosemary exerted a protective effect against acrylamide-induced gastric toxicity via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation as well as accelerating the healing process. The results of this work add to the known toxic effects of acrylamide and provide a new insight into the possible use of rosemary to ameliorate these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dilemmas of economic interest versus protection of human health and the environment influenced by the need to manage innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppenbrouwers, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    The actual economic situation and the growing awareness of environmental and health concerns are at the basis of an increasing number of innovative projects. Inherent to the innovative character of these initiatives is the uncertainty on possible risks and their influence on the actual societal organization. It is important that before bringing innovations to the market, or trying to remediate existing problems, regulation should happen in order to avoid irreparable damage or negative impact ...

  3. [INFLUENCE OF MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON THE FUNCTIONS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROTECTION OF ERYTHROCYTES IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES MELLITUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerovskii, A I; Yakimova, T V; Nasanova, O N

    2016-01-01

    Experiments on rats with diabetes mellitus model induced by streptosotocin and high (30%) fat diet showed that the daily treatment with aqueous extracts of great nettle leaves (100 mg/kg) and common burdock roots (25 mg/kg) for a period of 10 days led to a decrease in the glycemic index and triglyceride level and produced protective action on erythrocytes both in animals kept on a fat-rich diet and on the background of a low-caloric ration. Both medicinal plant extracts were comparable with reference drug metformin in reducing the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (by 12-31%) and ectoglobular hemoglobin (1.7-1.8 times, p diet with usual (8%) fat content improved the metabolic indices to a lower degree (on the average by 13-21%, p < 0.05) than did the proposed phytotherapy.

  4. INFLUENCE ОF MODIFIER THERMAL TREATMENT ОN CHARACTERISTICS ОF COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ivashko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results that reveal influence of modifiers characterized by different nature and composition and subjected to heat treatment on operational characteristics of single and binary compositions. Interaction between dispersed clay particles and dependence of  coating properties on  their mass content in oligomeric and polymeric matrices have been justified in the paper. The paper contains data that prove an increase of coating hardness by 15–20 %. The coating composition includes thermally-treated dispersed clay particles.

  5. ТHE INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONAL INTELIGENCE IN PROTECTION OF THE MENTAL HEALTH IN CONDITIONS OF A PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupco Kevereski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available If our time is stressful, than protecting and promoting of our mental health is imperative of the time that is coming.In modern literature there is a huge interest for the determination of the mental health of the emotional intelligence, which is treated as a factor for it’s keeping and development. This paper is based on the assumption that the emotional intelligence has considerable contribution for understanding the relationship between psychosocial stress and mental health, seen through three important variables: self-confidence, depression and aggressiveness. In the research were included 72 people, and for variables’ measurement are used: questionnaire for measuring emotional intelligence (PК-45, stress inventory and questionnaire for emotional structure of the person- Profile index of emotions. The results from the regressive analyses showed that stress is connected to the three indicators of the mental health. People with low emotional intelligence react with lower self-confidence and high depression and aggressiveness in stressful situations. The two competencies of emotional intelligence (EI - self consciousness and social consciousness statistically are different from the other relevant measures which show that EI is important thing in understanding the relationship between the stress and mental health.

  6. Influence of a Protective Coating Slurry on Enhancing the Descaling Ability and Oxidation Resistance of 9%Nickel Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ying; WEI Lianqi; ZHANG Xiaomeng; ZHOU Xun; WANG Shuhua; SHAN Xin; YE Shufeng

    2014-01-01

    A kind of ceramic slurry was prepared and sprayed onto the surface of 9Ni steel at room temperature. The coating layer will not only reduce the depth of the formed Ni-enriched entanglement at high temperature but also have an excellent ability to resist oxidation of the 9Ni steel. Compared to bare specimen, the depths of the entanglement of the coated 9Ni specimen could be successfully reduced by 74.1%and the oxidation loss be decreased by 62.3% by heating at 1 250 ℃ for 60min. In addition, the coated specimen indicates no trace of oxide pegs. It proves that the coating has outstanding improvement to internal oxidation resistance. Some characterization methods such as metalloscopy, XRD, XPS, SEM and EDX have been used to reveal a possible protective mechanism. The result shows that the coating layer reacts with the iron oxide to form MgFe2O4 on the surface of the coated specimen, which could provide a smaller diffusion coefficient rate of Fe ion. The coating with a low cost and easy implementation is promisingly applicable in the slab-reheating process of the 9Ni steel.

  7. Influence of die geometry and material selection on the behavior of protective die covers in closed-die forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingyan; Rosenstock, Dirk; Wolfgarten, Martin; Hirt, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Due to the fact that tooling costs make up to 30% of total costs of the final forged part, the tool life is always one main research topic in closed-die forging [1]. To improve the wear resistance of forging dies, many methods like nitriding and deposition of ceramic layers have been used. However, all these methods will lose its effect after a certain time, then tool repair or exchange is needed, which requires additional time and costs. A new method, which applies an inexpensive and changeable sheet metal on the forging die to protect it from abrasive wear, was firstly proposed in [2]. According to the first investigation, the die cover is effective for decreasing thermal and mechanical loads, but there are still several challenges to overcome in this concept, like wrinkling and thinning of the die cover. Therefore, an experimental study using different geometries and die cover materials is presented within this work. The results indicate the existence of feasible application cases of this concept, since conditions are found under which a die cover made of 22MnB5 still keeps its original shape even after 7 forging cycles.

  8. Does Piroxicam really protect ischemic neurons and influence neuronal firing in cerebral ischemia? An exploration towards therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Paul, Sudip; Patnaik, Ranjana

    2013-09-01

    Cerebral ischemia is still one of the most confusing and enigmatic neurological disorders with least understood injuries. The EEG measures have been traditionally used to detect residual neural dysfunctions after cerebral ischemia although having several shortcomings, yielding controversial and inconsistent results. It is feasible to hypothesize that advanced EEG research can overcome these shortcomings and provide more clear information regarding the long lasting neural impairment in the subjects suffered from brain stroke. To our understanding, EEG power spectrum density measures can significantly contribute towards intervening drug administered diseased model and give us correct status of neuronal firing after an insult. On the basis of our findings we hypothesize that Piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) can protect neurons and improves neuronal firing after ischemia/reperfusion injury in animal model of focal cerebral ischemia. This is the first ever finding which advocates the role of Piroxicam, a NSAID in neuronal firing apart from its other neuroprotective roles. Thus, we consider the possibility of modulation of neuronal firing as a therapeutic strategy to help prevent neuronal dysfunctions in cerebral ischemia.

  9. NapA protects Helicobacter pylori from oxidative stress damage, and its production is influenced by the ferric uptake regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksley, Clare; Jenks, Peter J; Green, Andrew; Cockayne, Alan; Logan, Robert P H; Hardie, Kim R

    2003-06-01

    The Helicobacter pylori protein NapA has been identified as a homologue of the Escherichia coli protein Dps. It is shown in this study that, like Dps, NapA is produced maximally in stationary phase cells and contributes to the ability of H. pylori to survive under oxidative stress conditions. Moreover, NapA co-localizes with the nuclear material, suggesting that it can interact with DNA in vivo. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that repression of NapA production by iron starvation was not so pronounced in a H. pylori fur mutant, suggesting that the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is involved in napA regulation, and a potential fur box by which this control could be mediated is identified. This finding is consistent with the regulation of iron-binding proteins by Fur and also the modulation of Fur during oxidative stress, thus allowing NapA levels to be increased in the environmental conditions under which its ability to protect DNA from attack by toxic free radicals is most beneficial to the cell.

  10. The influence of antiobesity media content on intention to eat healthily and exercise: a test of the ordered protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritland, Raeann; Rodriguez, Lulu

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people's appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people's intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information significantly increased people's intention to exercise as well as their overall coping appraisals (the perceived effectiveness of the recommended behaviors and their ability to perform them). Likewise, increased threat and coping appraisals were both found to significantly influence people's intention to exercise and diet. Coping (rather than threat) appraisals more strongly predicted behavioral intent. Following the attitude-behavior literature, behavioral intention was used as the most proximate predictor of actual behavior (i.e., stronger intentions increase the likelihood of behavior change).

  11. Couldn't or wouldn't? The influence of privacy concerns and self-efficacy in privacy management on privacy protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Ting; Chen, Wenghong

    2015-01-01

    Sampling 515 college students, this study investigates how privacy protection, including profile visibility, self-disclosure, and friending, are influenced by privacy concerns and efficacy regarding one's own ability to manage privacy settings, a factor that researchers have yet to give a great deal of attention to in the context of social networking sites (SNSs). The results of this study indicate an inconsistency in adopting strategies to protect privacy, a disconnect from limiting profile visibility and friending to self-disclosure. More specifically, privacy concerns lead SNS users to limit their profile visibility and discourage them from expanding their network. However, they do not constrain self-disclosure. Similarly, while self-efficacy in privacy management encourages SNS users to limit their profile visibility, it facilitates self-disclosure. This suggests that if users are limiting their profile visibility and constraining their friending behaviors, it does not necessarily mean they will reduce self-disclosure on SNSs because these behaviors are predicted by different factors. In addition, the study finds an interaction effect between privacy concerns and self-efficacy in privacy management on friending. It points to the potential problem of increased risk-taking behaviors resulting from high self-efficacy in privacy management and low privacy concerns.

  12. Influence of bentonite in polymer membranes for effective treatment of car wash effluent to protect the ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, S Aditya; Arthanareeswaran, G; Thuyavan, Y Lukka; Ismail, A F

    2015-11-01

    In this study, modified polyethersulfone (PES) and cellulose acetate (CA) membranes were used in the treatment of car wash effluent using ultrafiltration. Hydrophilic sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and bentonite as nanoclay were used as additives for the PES and CA membrane modification. Performances of modified membranes were compared with commercial PES membrane with 10kDa molecular weight cut off (MWCO). The influencing parameters like stirrer speed (250-750rpm) and transmembrane pressure (100-600kPa) (TMP) were varied and their effects were studied as a function of flux. In the treatment of car wash effluent, a higher permeate flux of 52.3L/m(2)h was obtained for modified CA membrane at TMP of 400kPa and stirrer speed of 750rpm. In comparison with modified PES membrane and commercial PES membrane, modified CA membranes showed better performance in terms of flux and flux recovery ratio. The highest COD removal (60%) was obtained for modified CA membrane and a lowest COD removal (47%) was observed for commercial PES membrane. The modified membranes were better at removing COD, turbidity and maintained more stable flux than commercial PES membrane, suggesting they will provide better economic performance in car wash effluent reclamation.

  13. Complexity Control of Fast Motion Estimation in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC with Rate-Distortion-Complexity optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Mo; Forchhammer, Søren; Aghito, Shankar Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A complexity control algorithm for H.264 advanced video coding is proposed. The algorithm can control the complexity of integer inter motion estimation for a given target complexity. The Rate-Distortion-Complexity performance is improved by a complexity prediction model, simple analysis of the past...

  14. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  15. Participation and Protected Areas Governance: the Impact of Changing Influence of Local Authorities on the Conservation of the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Niedziałkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the new conservation paradigm, protected areas should contribute to the socioeconomic development of host communities, and the latter ought to be included in participatory decision making concerning these areas. However, the understanding of participation is ambiguous and there are at least three major approaches, which may have different impacts on the governance of protected areas. We examine the case of the Białowieża Primeval Forest in order to trace the effectiveness of changing modes of participation as well as to discuss the limitations and problems of public participation. Between 1918 and 2010, the role of local authorities changed from no influence to limited control over decision making regarding designation and enlargement of the Białowieża National Park (BNP. As a result of these changes, attempts to enlarge the BNP over the whole forest were undermined. The evidence shows that power relations and instrumental reasons constituted the main drivers of the changing participation pattern with deliberative rationale lacking. As a result, the conservation goals were only partially achieved. We argue that when interests are clearly conflicting and win-win solutions are difficult to reach, room for constructive participation may be limited. In these circumstances, public involvement may turn into yet another venue for a power play between actors with vested interests, without bringing gains in legitimacy or new policy options. This is especially the case for countries with a relatively short democratic record where the government lacks the consistency and capacity to steer the process over the longer term.

  16. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  17. The cross-metathesis of methyl oleate with cis-2-butene-1,4-diyl diacetate and the influence of protecting groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Pérez Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: α,ω-Difunctional substrates are useful intermediates for polymer synthesis. An attractive, sustainable and selective (but as yet unused method in the chemical industry is the oleochemical cross-metathesis with preferably symmetric functionalised substrates. The current study explores the cross-metathesis of methyl oleate (1 with cis-2-butene-1,4-diyl diacetate (2 starting from renewable resources and quite inexpensive base chemicals.Results: This cross-metathesis reaction was carried out with several phosphine and N-heterocyclic carbene ruthenium catalysts. The reaction conditions were optimised for high conversions in combination with high cross-metathesis selectivity. The influence of protecting groups present in the substrates on the necessary catalyst loading was also investigated.Conclusions: The value-added methyl 11-acetoxyundec-9-enoate (3 and undec-2-enyl acetate (4 are accessed with nearly quantitative oleochemical conversions and high cross-metathesis selectivity under mild reaction conditions. These two cross-metathesis products can be potentially used as functional monomers for diverse sustainable polymers.

  18. The Influence of Antiobesity Media Content on Intention to Eat Healthily and Exercise: A Test of the Ordered Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeann Ritland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people’s appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people’s intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information significantly increased people’s intention to exercise as well as their overall coping appraisals (the perceived effectiveness of the recommended behaviors and their ability to perform them. Likewise, increased threat and coping appraisals were both found to significantly influence people’s intention to exercise and diet. Coping (rather than threat appraisals more strongly predicted behavioral intent. Following the attitude-behavior literature, behavioral intention was used as the most proximate predictor of actual behavior (i.e., stronger intentions increase the likelihood of behavior change.

  19. The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical power of the Environmental Protection Agency’s medaka Extended One-Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of various Congressional mandates to protect the environment from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In the context of this framework, the Office of Research...

  20. Discussion of Environmental Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁和毓

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about environment issues was introduced. The influence of pollution on human beings as well as ecosystem was analyzed. And the management of environment protection and the roles that both the local government and central government should play were discussed. Finally, the legislation and supervision for environment protection were put forward.

  1. Theory of vibration protection

    CERN Document Server

    Karnovsky, Igor A

    2016-01-01

    This text is an advancement of the theory of vibration protection of mechanical systems with lumped and distributed parameters. The book offers various concepts and methods of solving vibration protection problems, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, and the fields of their effective applications. Fundamental approaches of vibration protection, which are considered in this book, are the passive, parametric and optimal active vibration protection. The passive vibration protection is based on vibration isolation, vibration damping and dynamic absorbers. Parametric vibration protection theory is based on the Shchipanov-Luzin invariance principle. Optimal active vibration protection theory is based on the Pontryagin principle and the Krein moment method. The book also contains special topics such as suppression of vibrations at the source of their occurrence and the harmful influence of vibrations on humans. Numerous examples, which illustrate the theoretical ideas of each chapter, ar...

  2. The influence of personal protection equipment, occupant body size, and restraint system on the frontal impact responses of Hybrid III ATDs in tactical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Lauren Wood; Orton, Nichole Ritchie; Gruber, Rebekah; Rupp, Jonathan; Scherer, Risa; Reed, Matthew; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-08-18

    Although advanced restraint systems, such as seat belt pretensioners and load limiters, can provide improved occupant protection in crashes, such technologies are currently not utilized in military vehicles. The design and use of military vehicles presents unique challenges to occupant safety-including differences in compartment geometry and occupant clothing and gear-that make direct application of optimal civilian restraint systems to military vehicles inappropriate. For military vehicle environments, finite element (FE) modeling can be used to assess various configurations of restraint systems and determine the optimal configuration that minimizes injury risk to the occupant. The models must, however, be validated against physical tests before implementation. The objective of this study was therefore to provide the data necessary for FE model validation by conducting sled tests using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). A secondary objective of this test series was to examine the influence of occupant body size (5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male), military gear (helmet/vest/tactical assault panels), seat belt type (3-point and 5-point), and advanced seat belt technologies (pretensioner and load limiter) on occupant kinematics and injury risk in frontal crashes. In total, 20 frontal sled tests were conducted using a custom sled buck that was reconfigurable to represent both the driver and passenger compartments of a light tactical military vehicle. Tests were performed at a delta-V of 30 mph and a peak acceleration of 25 g. The sled tests used the Hybrid III 5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male ATDs outfitted with standard combat boots and advanced combat helmets. In some tests, the ATDs were outfitted with additional military gear, which included an improved outer tactical vest (IOTV), IOTV and squad automatic weapon (SAW) gunner with a tactical assault panel (TAP), or IOTV and rifleman with

  3. TIMAP-protein phosphatase 1-complex controls endothelin-1 production via ECE-1 dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boratkó, Anita; Veréb, Zoltán; Petrovski, Goran; Csortos, Csilla

    2016-04-01

    Endothelin induced signaling pathways can affect blood pressure and vascular tone, but the influence of endothelins on tumor cells is also significant. We have detected elevated endothelin-1 secretion from TIMAP (TGF-β inhibited membrane associated protein) depleted vascular endothelial cells. The autocrine signaling activated by the elevated endothelin-1 level through the ETB receptors evoked an angiogenic-like phenotype, the cells assumed an elongated morphology, and enhanced tube formation and wound healing abilities. The depleted protein, TIMAP, is a highly specific and abundant protein in the endothelial cells, and it is a regulatory/targeting subunit for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c). Protein-protein interaction between the TIMAP-PP1c complex and the endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) was detected, the latter of which is a transmembrane protein that produces the biologically active 21-amino acid form of endothelin-1 from proendothelin. The results indicate that silencing of TIMAP induces a reduction in TIMAP-PP1c activity connected to ECE-1. This leads to an increase in the amount of ECE-1 protein in the plasma membrane and a consequent increase in endothelin-1 secretion. Similarly, activation of PKC, the kinase responsible for ECE-1 phosphorylation increased ECE-1 protein level in the membrane fraction of the endothelial cells. The elevated ECE-1 level was mitigated in time in normal cells, but was clearly preserved in TIMAP-depleted cells. Overall, our results indicate that PKC-phosphorylated ECE-1 is a TIMAP-PP1c substrate and this phosphatase complex has an important role in endothelin-1 production of EC through the regulation of ECE-1 activity.

  4. The purpose of this research is to find out whether there is an influence of leadership, internal communication, and work motivation to the Department of Women's Empowerment, Child Protection and Family Planning in Central Java either simultaneously or pa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Dwi Ardilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find out whether there is an influence of leadership, internal communication, and work motivation to the Department of Women's Empowerment, Child Protection and Family Planning in Central Java either simultaneously or partially. The population in this research are 87 employees in the Department of Women's Empowerment, Child Protection and Family Planning in Central Java. The research methods used in this study were interview, questionnaire and documentation. The analysis data used in this study were descriptive analysis percentage and multiple linear regression analysis with SPSS for Windows release 16. The results of the regression equation: Y = -0448 + 0.320X1 + 0.518X2 + 0.242X3 with Y (employee performance, X1 (leadership, X2 (internal communication, and X3 (work motivation. The results of this study that there is influence between leadership, internal communication and work motivation to employee performance was 51,4%. Partially, the influence of leadership (X1 on Y by 0.320 with a value by 10.63% partial relations at the significance level of 0.002, while the influence of internal communication (X2 to Y of 0.518 with 10.17% for partial relations at the significance level of 0.003, and the influence of work motivation (X3 to Y with values of 0.242 relations partially by 10.17% at the significance level of 0.003.

  5. The influence of time-variable cathodic corrosion protection on a.c. corrosion; Einfluss von zeitlich variierendem kathodischem Korrosionsschutz auf die Wechselstromkorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Markus; Voute, Carl-Heinz; Joos, David [SGK Schweizerische Gesellschaft fuer Korrosionsschutz, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    The current limiting values for corrosion of pipelines under a.c. current stress may be difficult to apply to pipelines, owing to the very heterogeneous bedding of the pipeline, poor jacket quality, or high short-term a.c. voltages. In principle, periodic alternation between very high and very low protective currents may optimize cathodic corrosion protection. This pulsed current strategy was found to be effective in laboratory tests if the operating parameters are set accurately.

  6. Hospital physicians' influence on gastrointestinal protection during treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetylsalicylic acid and the impact on prescribing in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Due Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the use of gastrointestinal (GI protection before, during and after hospitalisation for elderly patients using NSAID or low-dose ASA. METHODS: This study included all elderly patients (75+ admitted to hospital in the period of 1(st April 2010 to 31(st March 2011 at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, who were regular users of NSAID or low-dose ASA before hospital admission, or had one of these drugs initiated during hospital stay. By using pharmacy dispensing data and a hospital-based pharmacoepidemiological database, the treatment strategy for the individual patients was followed across hospital stay. RESULTS: In total, 3,587 patients were included. Before hospital admission, 93 of 245 NSAID users (38.0% and 597 of 1994 user of low-dose ASA (29.9% had used GI protection. During hospital stay, use of GI protection increased to 75% and 33.9%, respectively. When hospital physicians initiated new treatment with NSAID or with low-dose ASA, 305 of 555 (55.0% and 647 of 961 (67.3% were initiated without concomitant use of GI protection. When hospital physicians initiated GI protection, 26.8-51.0% were continued in primary care after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: During hospital stay, the use of GI protection increases, but when new treatment with NSAIDs or low-dose ASA is initiated in hospital, the use of gastrointestinal protection is low. The low use of GI protection is carried on in primary care after discharge.

  7. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas that are painted white. DO ... protect the ears or sides of the face. Special clothing that protects the skin by absorbing UV ...

  8. Negotiating Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel

    strategies are entangled in cultural, religious, and national identities. Using ethnographic methods, I investigate protection against selected risks: harm from evil eyes, violation of domestic sanctity, and cultural heritage dilapidation. Protection against these risks is examined through studies...

  9. Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 100% UV ray protection (look for models that advertise both UVB and UVA protection). Use a broad- ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  10. Influence of endovascular-laser irradiation of blood on the processis of lipoperoxidation and antioxidant protection in children with septico-purulent diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenusha, F.; Damaskin, I.; Okuni, C.; Terentieva, A.; Tsaran, N.

    1995-03-01

    Study of final produce of peroxide lipide oxidation--malon dialdehyde and the principal enzyme of antioxidant protection--superoxiddismutaza it was effectuated. Blood was taken before the procedure of endovascular laser irradiation, 24 hours after the procedure, 3 - 5 and 6 - 8 days after the first procedure of endovascular laser irradiation.

  11. Reading About the Flu Online: How Health-Protective Behavioral Intentions Are Influenced by Media Multitasking, Polychronicity, and Strength of Health-Related Arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Anastasia; Yuan, Shupei; Joo, Eunsin

    2017-06-01

    As health organizations increasingly use the Internet to communicate medical information and advice (Shortliffe et al., 2000; World Health Organization, 2013), studying factors that affect health information processing and health-protective behaviors becomes extremely important. The present research applied the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion to explore the effects of media multitasking, polychronicity (preference for multitasking), and strength of health-related arguments on health-protective behavioral intentions. Participants read an online article about influenza that included strong and weak suggestions to engage in flu-preventive behaviors. In one condition, participants read the article and checked Facebook; in another condition, they were exposed only to the article. Participants expressed greater health-protective behavioral intentions in the media multitasking condition than in the control condition. Strong arguments were found to elicit more positive behavioral intentions than weak arguments. Moderate and high polychronics showed greater behavioral intentions than low polychronics when they read the article in the multitasking condition. The difference in intentions to follow strong and weak arguments decreased for moderate and high polychronics. The results of the present study suggest that health communication practitioners should account for not only media use situations in which individuals typically read about health online but also individual differences in information processing, which puts more emphasis on the strength of health-protective suggestions when targeting light multitaskers.

  12. Buffer moisture protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  13. Surfaces, Coatings and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, I. F.

    1982-08-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramics, sputter ion plating, and sol-gel ceramic protective coatings for nuclear reactors are discussed. The influence of such coatings on the behavior of reactor fuel elements is noted. The investigation of such coatings by diffraction methods is described. Laser and nuclear microprobes, scanning transmission electron microscopes, neutron scattering, and image analysis are summarized.

  14. 设施农业生产期光照变化及其影响%Illumination Changes and Related Influence in Production Period of Protected Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙奇; 宗英飞; 张国林; 谢华光

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to explore the change of illumination resources of protected agriculture in frost period to lay foundation for sustainable development of protected agriculture.[Method] The characters of illumination changes of protected agriculture in production period were analyzed based on climate tendency and standard deviation in 1961-2010.[Result] The production period of protected agriculture is from October to April of following year,when both of solar radiation and illumination hour were declining and climate tendencies were-0.066 9 and-2.036 9 h/y.In 2001-2010,daily illumination hour reduced 0.49 h.Additionally,from December to February of the following year,total solar radiation and illumination hour were declining and the climate tendencies were-0.019 2 and-0.458 9 h/y.In general,the reduction of illumination resource significantly affects protected agriculture.Therefore,structure of greenhouse and management of cultivation should be improved to promote protected agriculture.[Conclusion] The research provides references for protected agriculture development in western part of Liaoning.%[目的]研究霜期设施农业生产期光资源变化问题,以期为合理掌握和推进霜期设施农业的可持续发展奠定基础.[方法]采用气候倾向率和标准偏差方法,分析1961~2010年霜期设施农业生产期光照资源变化特征.[结果]设施农业生产期为10月至翌年4月,太阳总辐射和日照时数呈显著减少趋势,其气候倾向率分别为-0.066 9 MJ/(m2·a)和-2.036 9 h/a;2001~2010年平均每日减少日照时间0.49 h.12月至翌年2月寒冷期太阳总辐射和日照时数存在减少倾向,其气候倾向率分别为-0.019 2MJ/(m2·a)和-0.458 9 h/a.光照资源的减少严重影响设施农业的发展,应及时调整和改进目前的日光温室大棚设施结构和栽培管理形式,增设调控设备,确保设施农业可持续发展.[结论]该研究结果为辽宁西部设施农业的可持续发展提供了帮助.

  15. Performance of diamond-like carbon-protected rubber under cyclic friction. I. Influence of substrate viscoelasticity on the depth evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Martinez, D.; Pal, J.P. van der; Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of the viscoelastic properties of rubber substrate on the tribological behavior of DLC film-coated alkyl acrylate rubber is studied. The mechanical behavior of the rubber was first characterized by creep experiments using spherical indentations. The results were adjusted

  16. Relevance of silvicultural and forest-protective factors to forest decline and the possibilities of their influence. Faktoren des Waldbaus und Forstschutzes beim Waldsterben und Moeglichkeiten ihrer Beeinflussung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitri, L. (Hessische Forstliche Versuchsanstalt, Hann Muenden (Germany). Abt. Waldschutz)

    1990-01-01

    Long-term substantial atmospheric input has a direct and/or indirect effect on tree parts both above and below ground as well as on chemical and biological processes in the soil. The damaging effects to soil and stand can be obviated only by a quick reduction - or even better elimination - of the pollution load. This paper describes expedicent silvicultural measures for creating the prerequisites for a stable, well-growing stand as well as suitable preventive and, when necessary, combative forest protection measures which complement the former and minimize losses. (orig.).

  17. Simulation of TA steady-state saturated characteristics and influence of TA saturation on over-current protection%TA稳态饱和特性仿真及TA饱和对过流保护的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈成功; 李爱元; 凌志勇

    2016-01-01

    对不同饱和程度下TA稳态二次电流进行仿真,并根据微机保护装置的常见算法,模拟保护装置的离散采样过程,对仿真得到的二次电流进行计算,分析TA稳态饱和特性,以及TA饱和对过流保护的影响。提出了TA饱和后,可以根据过饱和系数,选取合适的采样频率和整定值,保证保护装置正确动作。%Firstly, the simulation of steady-state secondary current under different degree of saturation is implemented in this paper. Then, according to the common algorithms of microprocessor-based protection, the discrete sampling process is simulated, and the sampling value of secondary current is calculated. Based on the simulation results, TA steady-state saturated characteristics are analyzed, and TA saturation influence on over-current protection are discussed. Lastly, this paper proposes that when TA is saturated, the selection of suitable sampling frequency and setting value based on saturation factor can make sure the protection operates correctly.

  18. 励磁涌流对变压器差动保护的影响及解决方法%Influence of Magnetizing Inrush Current of Transformer's Differential Protection and the Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊俊; 张文鹏; 王森

    2014-01-01

    Because the presence of residual magnetism inside the transformer, After the removal of the transformer no-load input or external fault and voltage recovery, Inrush current phenomenon occurs. The inrush current is often relatively large amplitude, can have influence over differential protection, causing the protective device malfunction. This requires analysis of the magnetizing inrush current causes of magnetizing inrush current of transformer diferential protection and solutions to explore.%因为变压器内部存在剩磁,所以当变压器空载投入或系统故障切除后电压恢复时,变压器会出现励磁涌流现象。该励磁涌流幅值往往比较大,会对差动保护产生影响,造成保护装置误动作。这就需要分析励磁涌流产生的机理,励磁涌流对变压器差动保护的影响及解决方法进行探讨。

  19. Reviews on the Influence Factors of Public Environment Protection Behavior in China and Foreign Countries%国内外公众环保行为的影响因素述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾圣钧

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, with the rapid development of economy, the problems relevant to resource over-consumption and environmental pollution have become more and more serious in China.And the government and academia are paying more attention to all those problems.It is very helpful to learn more about the influence factors of public environment protection behavior, which would contribute to leading people's environment protection behavior.According to literature reviews, this paper summarizes the influence factors of public environment protection behavior in China and foreign countries, which include contextual factor, personal characteristic factor, and habit and attitude factor.Finally, these results, and directions for future research were discussed.%近年来,我国经济快速发展的同时资源过度消耗和环境污染问题日益突出,已经引起政府和学术界的高度关注.了解公众环保行为的各种影响因素,有助于更加科学和有效地引导公众的环保行为,从而收到事半功倍的效果.通过对国内外有关文献进行梳理和分析,归纳和比较国内外公众环保行为的影响因素,发现主要包括情境因素,个人特征因素和习惯和态度因素三方面.最后,对结果进行了总结和讨论,并指出未来研究的方向.

  20. The study on the influence of surface cleanness and water soluble salt on corrosion protection of epoxy resin coated carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Younng Shon [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The corrosion resistance of epoxy-coated carbon steel was evaluated. The carbon steel surface was subjected to different treatment methods such as steel grit blasting and power tool treatment as well as contamination of water soluble salt. To study the effect of the surface treatments and contamination, the topology of the treated surface was observed by confocal microscopy and a pull-off adhesion test was conducted. The corrosion resistance of the epoxy-coated carbon steel was further examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) combined with immersion test of 3.5 wt% of NaCl solution. Consequently, the surface contamination by sodium chloride with 16 mg/m{sup 2}, 48 mg/m{sup 2} and 96 mg/m{sup 2} didn't affect the adhesion strength for current epoxy coated carbon steel and blister and rust were not observed on the surface of epoxy coating contaminated by various concentration of sodium chloride after 20 weeks of immersion in 3.5 wt% NaCl aqueous solutions. In addition, the results of EIS test showed that the epoxy-coated carbon steel treated with steel grit blasting and power tool showed similar corrosion protection performance and surface cleanness such as Sa 3 and Sa 2.5 didn't affect the corrosion protectiveness of epoxy coated carbon steel.

  1. Influence of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment on The Liquid Filtration Efficiency of Melt-Blown PP Nonwovens in The Conditions of Simulated Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes. After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

  2. The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical power of the Environmental Protection Agency's Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin; Swintek, Joe; Johnson, Rodney

    2017-02-01

    Because of various Congressional mandates to protect the environment from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In the context of this framework, the Office of Research and Development within the USEPA developed the Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) to characterize the endocrine action of a suspected EDC. One important endpoint of the MEOGRT is fecundity of medaka breeding pairs. Power analyses were conducted to determine the number of replicates needed in proposed test designs and to determine the effects that varying reproductive parameters (e.g. mean fecundity, variance, and days with no egg production) would have on the statistical power of the test. The MEOGRT Reproduction Power Analysis Tool (MRPAT) is a software tool developed to expedite these power analyses by both calculating estimates of the needed reproductive parameters (e.g. population mean and variance) and performing the power analysis under user specified scenarios. Example scenarios are detailed that highlight the importance of the reproductive parameters on statistical power. When control fecundity is increased from 21 to 38 eggs per pair per day and the variance decreased from 49 to 20, the gain in power is equivalent to increasing replication by 2.5 times. On the other hand, if 10% of the breeding pairs, including controls, do not spawn, the power to detect a 40% decrease in fecundity drops to 0.54 from nearly 0.98 when all pairs have some level of egg production. Perhaps most importantly, MRPAT was used to inform the decision making process that lead to the final recommendation of the MEOGRT to have 24 control breeding pairs and 12 breeding pairs in each exposure group.

  3. Consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    Štěrbová, Alena

    2010-01-01

    77 Resumé This thesis is dedicated to the consumer protection. My reason for the choice of this topic was following. A field of consumer protection is being continually developed. It is complicated for a layman to be well informed about all his rights and duties not only because the Czech legal regulation suffers from a immense fragmentation. Moreover, the implementation of EC directives ( as a source of many provisions protecting a consumer in the Civil Code) into our legal system was carrie...

  4. Protective Eyewear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... They protect your eyes from the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays, which can damage your eyes. Pick sunglasses ...

  5. Protected Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the boundaries of properties in Kansas in public or institutional ownership that contain ecological resources that merit some level of protection....

  6. Memory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  7. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2001-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

  8. Corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  9. Higher Levels of Protective Parenting are Associated with Better Young Adult Health: Exploration of Mediation through Epigenetic Influences on Pro-Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. H. Beach

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation was designed to examine the association of parenting during late childhood and early adolescence, a time of rapid physical development, with biological propensity for inflammation. Based on life course theory, it was hypothesized that parenting during this period of rapid growth and development would be associated with biological outcomes and self-reported health assessed in young adulthood. It was expected that association of parenting with health would be mediated either by effects on methylation of a key inflammatory factor, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, or else by association with a pro-inflammatory shift in the distribution of mononuclear blood cells. Supporting expectations, in a sample of 398 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from age 11 to age 19, parenting at ages 11-13 was associated with youth reports of better health at age 19. We found that parenting was associated with changes in TNF methylation as well as with changes in cell-type composition. However, whereas methylation of TNF was a significant mediator of the association of parenting with young adult health, variation in mononuclear white blood cell types was not a significant mediator of the association of parenting with young adult health. The current research suggests the potential value of examining the health-related effects of parenting in late childhood and early adolescence. Further examination of protection against pro-inflammatory tendencies conferred by parenting appears warranted.

  10. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway.

  11. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national network of research centers: A case study in socio-political influences on research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehouse, K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    During the 15 years that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has supported university-based research centers, there have been many changes in mission, operating style, funding level, eligibility, and selection process. Even the definition of the term {open_quotes}research center{close_quotes} is open to debate. Shifting national priorities, political realities, and funding uncertainties have powered the evolution of research centers in EPA, although the agency`s basic philosophy on the purpose and value of this approach to research remains essentially unchanged. Today, EPA manages 28 centers, through the Office of Exploratory Research. These centers are administered under three distinct programs. Each program has its own mission and goals which guide the way individual centers are selected and operated. This paper will describe: (1) EPA`s philosophy of reserach centers, (2) the complicated history of EPA research centers, (3) coordination and interaction among EPA centers and others, (4) opportunities for collaboration, and (5) plans for the future.

  12. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  13. Colloids and organic matter complexation control trace metal concentration-discharge relationships in Marshall Gulch stream waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, Kyle D.; Ray Runyon, J.; Pohlmann, Michael A.; Redfield, Shelby E.; Pelletier, Jon; McIntosh, Jennifer; Chorover, Jon

    2016-10-01

    This study combined concentration-discharge analyses (filtration at 0.45 μm), cascade filtrations (at 1.2, 0.4, and 0.025 μm) and asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (AF4) to probe the influence of colloidal carriers (dissolved organic matter and inorganic nanoparticles) on observed concentration-discharge relationships for trace metals in a 155 ha forested catchment of the Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory (SCM CZO), Arizona. Many major elements (Na, Mg, Si, K, Ca) show no colloidal influence, and concentration-discharge relationships for these species are explained by previous work. However, the majority of trace metals (Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Cu, Y, REE, U) show at least some influence of colloids on chemistry when filtered at the standard 0.45 μm cutoff. Concentration-discharge slopes of trace metals with modest colloidal influence are shallow (˜0.3) similar to that measured for dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 0.24), whereas elements with greater colloidal influence have steeper concentration-discharge slopes approaching that of Al (0.76), the element with the largest colloidal influence in this study (on average 68%). These findings are further supported by AF4 measurements that show distinct and resolvable pools of low hydrodynamic diameter DOC-sized material coexistent with larger diameter inorganic colloids, and the ratio of these carriers changes systematically with discharge because the DOC pool has a concentration-discharge relationship with shallower slope than the inorganic colloidal pool. Together these data sets illustrate that positive concentration-discharge slopes of trace metals in stream waters may be explained as the relative partitioning of trace metals between DOC and inorganic colloids, with contributions of the latter likely increasing as a result of increased prevalence of macropore flow.

  14. The Influence of Data Resolution on Predicted Distribution and Estimates of Extent of Current Protection of Three 'Listed' Deep-Sea Habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren K Ross

    Full Text Available Modelling approaches have the potential to significantly contribute to the spatial management of the deep-sea ecosystem in a cost effective manner. However, we currently have little understanding of the accuracy of such models, developed using limited data, of varying resolution. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of predictive models constructed using non-simulated (real world data of different resolution. Predicted distribution maps for three deep-sea habitats were constructed using MaxEnt modelling methods using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data and associated terrain derived variables as predictors. Model performance was evaluated using repeated 75/25 training/test data partitions using AUC and threshold-dependent assessment methods. The overall extent and distribution of each habitat, and the percentage contained within an existing MPA network were quantified and compared to results from low resolution GEBCO models. Predicted spatial extent for scleractinian coral reef and Syringammina fragilissima aggregations decreased with an increase in model resolution, whereas Pheronema carpenteri total suitable area increased. Distinct differences in predicted habitat distribution were observed for all three habitats. Estimates of habitat extent contained within the MPA network all increased when modelled at fine scale. High resolution models performed better than low resolution models according to threshold-dependent evaluation. We recommend the use of high resolution multibeam bathymetry data over low resolution bathymetry data for use in modelling approaches. We do not recommend the use of predictive models to produce absolute values of habitat extent, but likely areas of suitable habitat. Assessments of MPA network effectiveness based on calculations of percentage area protection (policy driven conservation targets from low resolution models are likely to be fit for purpose.

  15. The Influence of Data Resolution on Predicted Distribution and Estimates of Extent of Current Protection of Three 'Listed' Deep-Sea Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lauren K; Ross, Rebecca E; Stewart, Heather A; Howell, Kerry L

    2015-01-01

    Modelling approaches have the potential to significantly contribute to the spatial management of the deep-sea ecosystem in a cost effective manner. However, we currently have little understanding of the accuracy of such models, developed using limited data, of varying resolution. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of predictive models constructed using non-simulated (real world) data of different resolution. Predicted distribution maps for three deep-sea habitats were constructed using MaxEnt modelling methods using high resolution multibeam bathymetric data and associated terrain derived variables as predictors. Model performance was evaluated using repeated 75/25 training/test data partitions using AUC and threshold-dependent assessment methods. The overall extent and distribution of each habitat, and the percentage contained within an existing MPA network were quantified and compared to results from low resolution GEBCO models. Predicted spatial extent for scleractinian coral reef and Syringammina fragilissima aggregations decreased with an increase in model resolution, whereas Pheronema carpenteri total suitable area increased. Distinct differences in predicted habitat distribution were observed for all three habitats. Estimates of habitat extent contained within the MPA network all increased when modelled at fine scale. High resolution models performed better than low resolution models according to threshold-dependent evaluation. We recommend the use of high resolution multibeam bathymetry data over low resolution bathymetry data for use in modelling approaches. We do not recommend the use of predictive models to produce absolute values of habitat extent, but likely areas of suitable habitat. Assessments of MPA network effectiveness based on calculations of percentage area protection (policy driven conservation targets) from low resolution models are likely to be fit for purpose.

  16. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  17. Patient Dose During Carotid Artery Stenting With Embolic-Protection Devices: Evaluation With Radiochromic Films and Related Diagnostic Reference Levels According to Factors Influencing the Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ercole, Loredana, E-mail: l.dercole@smatteo.pv.it [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Quaretti, Pietro; Cionfoli, Nicola [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Klersy, Catherine [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology Service, Research Department, (Italy); Bocchiola, Milena [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Rodolico, Giuseppe; Azzaretti, Andrea [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Lisciandro, Francesco [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Cascella, Tommaso; Zappoli Thyrion, Federico [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    To measure the maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) on patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using embolic-protection devices, to analyze the dependence of dose and exposure parameters on anatomical, clinical, and technical factors affecting the procedure complexity, to obtain some local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), and to evaluate whether overcoming DRLs is related to procedure complexity. MESD were evaluated with radiochromic films in 31 patients (mean age 72 {+-} 7 years). Five of 33 (15 %) procedures used proximal EPD, and 28 of 33 (85 %) procedures used distal EPD. Local DRLs were derived from the recorded exposure parameters in 93 patients (65 men and 28 women, mean age 73 {+-} 9 years) undergoing 96 CAS with proximal (33 %) or distal (67 %) EPD. Four bilateral lesions were included. MESD values (mean 0.96 {+-} 0.42 Gy) were <2 Gy without relevant dependence on procedure complexity. Local DRL values for kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), and number of frames (N{sub FR}) were 269 Gy cm{sup 2}, 28 minutes, and 251, respectively. Only simultaneous bilateral treatment was associated with KAP (odds ratio [OR] 10.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1-102.7, p < 0.05) and N{sub FR} overexposures (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p < 0.05). Type I aortic arch decreased the risk of FT overexposure (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1-0.9, p = 0.042), and stenosis {>=} 90 % increased the risk of N{sub FR} overexposure (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040). At multivariable analysis, stenosis {>=} 90 % (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040) and bilateral treatment (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p = 0.027) were associated with overexposure for two or more parameters. Skin doses are not problematic in CAS with EPD because these procedures rarely lead to doses >2 Gy.

  18. Influence of heat stress on the cortisol and oxidant-antioxidants balance during oestrous phase in buffalo-cows (Bubalus bubalis): thermo-protective role of antioxidant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, G A; Anwar, M M; Wasfy, S I; Hammadeh, M E

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of heat stress, which is commonly observed in the animals of Upper Egypt area in summer, as well as the effect of antioxidant treatment as a thermo-protective was examined. In this study, the animals (n = 120) were divided into winter group (n = 40, bred during winter) and summer group (n = 80, bred during summer) as well as, animals in the summer group were divided into first subgroup animals (n = 40) and injected with Viteselen intramuscularly (15 ml) twice weekly for 10 weeks and second subgroup animals (n = 40) were not treated (as control). Serum levels of progesterone (P4), oestradiol (E2), cortisol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidase (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. The pregnancy rate of all animals was detected rectally. The levels of oestradiol and the activity of the antioxidant SOD were decreased in serum of animals in behavioural oestrus during summer as compared with those in winter. During the same time period the levels of oxidants such as LPO and NO were increased in the serum of animals again in the phase of oestrus. In another group of animals treated by intramuscular injection with 15 ml viteselen (antioxidant) twice weekly for 6 weeks during hot months, the activities of serum SOD showed an increase and the levels of oxidants and cortisol decreased. Moreover, the levels of oestradiol were increased during the oestrous behaviour. The pregnancy rate was decreased in animals under heat stress and the pregnancy rate was enhanced dramatically when these animals received antioxidants during the heat stress. This means that the heat-stress in Upper Egypt may affect the fertility of animals and pregnancy rate and this effect may be through an increased production of free radicals and decreased production of antioxidants as well as increased levels of cortisol. Treatment of animals or supplementation with antioxidants before the beginning of months of heat-stress and also during the stress period may

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CHINA'S OFFSHORE OIL INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wenpu; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Environmental Protection in Offshore Field Development Since its establishment in 1982, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)has paid attention to marine environment protection, the main task in environmental protection management is to take advanced and effective measures to minimize the influence of oil development practice on marine ecologic environment.

  20. Influence of Maternal Antibodies on Efficacy of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccination To Protect Pigs from Experimental Infection with PCV2▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T.; Patterson, A. R.; Elsener, J.; Meng, X. J.; Halbur, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous nature of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in the pig population and the increasing use of PCV2 vaccines in breeding herds, the majority of dams have been exposed to field PCV2 or PCV2 vaccines, resulting in piglets with varied levels of passively acquired PCV2 maternal antibodies. The objective of the current research was to investigate the influence of passively acquired anti-PCV2 antibodies on PCV2 vaccine efficacy. Sixty 26-day-old pigs were divided into four groups: vaccinated pigs with no maternal PCV2 antibodies at the time of vaccination (VAC-NEG; n = 9), vaccinated pigs with maternal PCV2 antibodies at the time of vaccination (VAC-POS; n = 21), nonvaccinated pigs with no maternal antibodies at the time of challenge (NVAC-CNEG; n = 15), and nonvaccinated pigs with maternal antibodies at the time of challenge (NVAC-CPOS; n = 15). Vaccinations and challenges were performed on trial days 0 and 28, respectively, according to group designation. The pigs were monitored for clinical signs of disease daily and weighed weekly, and blood was collected weekly. All pigs were necropsied on trial day 49, and tissues were evaluated for macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Serum was evaluated using PCV2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and PCV2 IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, quantitative PCV2 PCR, and a serum PCV2 neutralizing antibody test. In comparison to NVAC-CPOS pigs, VAC-POS animals had significantly (P < 0.01) less severe microscopic PCV2-associated lymphoid lesions and significantly (P < 0.04) reduced PCV2 genomic copies in serum following PCV2 challenge. These results indicate that vaccination with Suvaxyn PCV2 One Dose reduces viremia and prevents microscopic lesions associated with PCV2 in the presence of maternal antibodies. PMID:18094109

  1. Influence of maternal antibodies on efficacy of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination to protect pigs from experimental infection with PCV2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T; Patterson, A R; Elsener, J; Meng, X J; Halbur, P G

    2008-03-01

    Due to the ubiquitous nature of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in the pig population and the increasing use of PCV2 vaccines in breeding herds, the majority of dams have been exposed to field PCV2 or PCV2 vaccines, resulting in piglets with varied levels of passively acquired PCV2 maternal antibodies. The objective of the current research was to investigate the influence of passively acquired anti-PCV2 antibodies on PCV2 vaccine efficacy. Sixty 26-day-old pigs were divided into four groups: vaccinated pigs with no maternal PCV2 antibodies at the time of vaccination (VAC-NEG; n = 9), vaccinated pigs with maternal PCV2 antibodies at the time of vaccination (VAC-POS; n = 21), nonvaccinated pigs with no maternal antibodies at the time of challenge (NVAC-CNEG; n = 15), and nonvaccinated pigs with maternal antibodies at the time of challenge (NVAC-CPOS; n = 15). Vaccinations and challenges were performed on trial days 0 and 28, respectively, according to group designation. The pigs were monitored for clinical signs of disease daily and weighed weekly, and blood was collected weekly. All pigs were necropsied on trial day 49, and tissues were evaluated for macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Serum was evaluated using PCV2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and PCV2 IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, quantitative PCV2 PCR, and a serum PCV2 neutralizing antibody test. In comparison to NVAC-CPOS pigs, VAC-POS animals had significantly (P < 0.01) less severe microscopic PCV2-associated lymphoid lesions and significantly (P < 0.04) reduced PCV2 genomic copies in serum following PCV2 challenge. These results indicate that vaccination with Suvaxyn PCV2 One Dose reduces viremia and prevents microscopic lesions associated with PCV2 in the presence of maternal antibodies.

  2. 油田污水中阴极保护电流密度取值的影响因素%Influence Factors of Cathodic Protection Current Density Values in Oilfield Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贻刚; 沈晓燕; 韩文礼; 张彦军; 姚玉萍; 陈新文

    2013-01-01

    In cathodic protection (CP) design,the current density value is a very important parameter. It is proved that there are many factors affecting the current density value. In order to find out influencing factors of CP current density value in liquid media, a batch of experiments were carried out using Parstat 2273 electrochemical system in lab. The influences of temperature, pH and cathodic polarization level on CP current density value were studied, respectively. The testing results show that temperature, pH and cathodic polarization level are major factors for the current density value.%在阴极保护设计中,保护电流密度的取值是个十分重要的参数.实践证明,电流密度取值的影响因素比较多.为了找出液体环境中阴极保护电流密度的影响因素,采用电化学综合测试仪器,研究了温度、pH、极化程度四个因素对电流密度取值的影响.结果表明,溶液温度、pH、极化程度是影响电流密度取值的主要因素.

  3. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  4. Protection of Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    More and more large capacity wind power will be integrated into power system in the future, and certain technical challenges will emerge due to the fluctuation characteristics of wind power and the complex control of power electronic devices inside the wind turbines (e. g., low voltage ride through (LVRT)). By comparing a wind power integration grid with a hydropower integration grid, the special transient phenomena caused by the wind power integration is studied and simulation results are presented. Furthermore, the potential impacts on the traditional protection are discussed. Results show that the special transient phenomena can decrease the sensitivity, reliability and operation speed of conventional protections.

  5. Protective Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    CONTROL NO* /ZOMOS A0-6n9 164 NAVAL AIR ENGINEERING CENTER PHILADELPHIA PA AERONAUTICAL MATERIALS LAB METHODS OF SANITIZING AND DEODORIZING ...SANITIZING, DEODORIZING , AND ANTISTATIC AGENTS IS DESCRIBED* RECOMMENDATIONS ARE MADE FOR THE USE OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM 1OMPOUNDS FOR SANITIZING AND...EQUIPMENT. HONEYCOMB CORES. SANDWICH CONSTRUCTION, METAL PLATES. ALUMINUM . TESTS. LAND MINES (U) SEVERAL OF THE BLAST PROTECTIVE COMBAT BOOT CONCEPTS

  6. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Radioactive Shipping Service

    2005-01-01

    The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  7. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tel. 73171

  8. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  9. Protecting Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    House Science Committee Chairman Robert Walker (R-Pa.) has introduced a bill into Congress to give the United States the legislative authority to implement the 1991 Environmental Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty. That protocol established rules and principles to shield the Antarctic environment from human spoilage—placing limits on the discharge of pollutants, protecting plant and animal life, and requiring environmental impact assessments before new activities and programs are launched. The protocol also forbids prospecting or developing of mineral resources except for scientific research.

  10. Enzyme inhibitor studies reveal complex control of methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway enzyme expression in Catharanthus roseus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Han

    Full Text Available In Catharanthus roseus, the monoterpene moiety exerts a strong flux control for monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA formation. Monoterpene synthesis depends on the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway. Here, we have explored the regulation of this pathway in response to developmental and environmental cues and in response to specific enzyme inhibitors. For the MEP pathway entry enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS, a new (type I DXS isoform, CrDXS1, has been cloned, which, in contrast to previous reports on type II CrDXS, was not transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor ORCA3. Regulation of the MEP pathway in response to metabolic perturbations has been explored using the enzyme inhibitors clomazone (precursor of 5-ketochlomazone, inhibitor of DXS and fosmidomycin (inhibitor of deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR, respectively. Young leaves of non-flowering plants were exposed to both inhibitors, adopting a non-invasive in vivo technique. Transcripts and proteins of DXS (3 isoforms, DXR, and hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (HDS were monitored, and protein stability was followed in isolated chloroplasts. Transcripts for DXS1 were repressed by both inhibitors, whereas transcripts for DXS2A&B, DXR and HDS increased after clomazone treatment but were barely affected by fosmidomycin treatment. DXS protein accumulated in response to both inhibitors, whereas DXR and HDS proteins were less affected. Fosmidomycin-induced accumulation of DXS protein indicated substantial posttranscriptional regulation. Furthermore, fosmidomycin effectively protected DXR against degradation in planta and in isolated chloroplasts. Thus our results suggest that DXR protein stability may be affected by substrate binding. In summary, the present results provide novel insight into the regulation of DXS expression in C. roseus in response to MEP-pathway perturbation.

  11. Enzyme inhibitor studies reveal complex control of methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzyme expression in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Heppel, Simon C; Su, Tao; Bogs, Jochen; Zu, Yuangang; An, Zhigang; Rausch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In Catharanthus roseus, the monoterpene moiety exerts a strong flux control for monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) formation. Monoterpene synthesis depends on the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here, we have explored the regulation of this pathway in response to developmental and environmental cues and in response to specific enzyme inhibitors. For the MEP pathway entry enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), a new (type I) DXS isoform, CrDXS1, has been cloned, which, in contrast to previous reports on type II CrDXS, was not transcriptionally activated by the transcription factor ORCA3. Regulation of the MEP pathway in response to metabolic perturbations has been explored using the enzyme inhibitors clomazone (precursor of 5-ketochlomazone, inhibitor of DXS) and fosmidomycin (inhibitor of deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR)), respectively. Young leaves of non-flowering plants were exposed to both inhibitors, adopting a non-invasive in vivo technique. Transcripts and proteins of DXS (3 isoforms), DXR, and hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (HDS) were monitored, and protein stability was followed in isolated chloroplasts. Transcripts for DXS1 were repressed by both inhibitors, whereas transcripts for DXS2A&B, DXR and HDS increased after clomazone treatment but were barely affected by fosmidomycin treatment. DXS protein accumulated in response to both inhibitors, whereas DXR and HDS proteins were less affected. Fosmidomycin-induced accumulation of DXS protein indicated substantial posttranscriptional regulation. Furthermore, fosmidomycin effectively protected DXR against degradation in planta and in isolated chloroplasts. Thus our results suggest that DXR protein stability may be affected by substrate binding. In summary, the present results provide novel insight into the regulation of DXS expression in C. roseus in response to MEP-pathway perturbation.

  12. Radiation protection policies to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, J. [Commonwealth Massachusetts, Needham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. {close_quote} Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence.

  13. Complex control of GABA(A receptor subunit mRNA expression: variation, covariation, and genetic regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K Mulligan

    Full Text Available GABA type-A receptors are essential for fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are critical in brain function. Surprisingly, expression of receptor subunits is highly variable among individuals, but the cause and impact of this fluctuation remains unknown. We have studied sources of variation for all 19 receptor subunits using massive expression data sets collected across multiple brain regions and platforms in mice and humans. Expression of Gabra1, Gabra2, Gabrb2, Gabrb3, and Gabrg2 is highly variable and heritable among the large cohort of BXD strains derived from crosses of fully sequenced parents--C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. Genetic control of these subunits is complex and highly dependent on tissue and mRNA region. Remarkably, this high variation is generally not linked to phenotypic differences. The single exception is Gabrb3, a locus that is linked to anxiety. We identified upstream genetic loci that influence subunit expression, including three unlinked regions of chromosome 5 that modulate the expression of nine subunits in hippocampus, and that are also associated with multiple phenotypes. Candidate genes within these loci include, Naaa, Nos1, and Zkscan1. We confirmed a high level of coexpression for subunits comprising the major channel--Gabra1, Gabrb2, and Gabrg2--and identified conserved members of this expression network in mice and humans. Gucy1a3, Gucy1b3, and Lis1 are novel and conserved associates of multiple subunits that are involved in inhibitory signaling. Finally, proximal and distal regions of the 3' UTRs of single subunits have remarkably independent expression patterns in both species. However, corresponding regions of different subunits often show congruent genetic control and coexpression (proximal-to-proximal or distal-to-distal, even in the absence of sequence homology. Our findings identify novel sources of variation that modulate subunit expression and highlight the extraordinary capacity of biological networks to buffer

  14. Complex Controls on Groundwater Quality in Growing Mid-sized Cities: A Case Study Focused on Nitrate and Emerging Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohr, C. A.; Godsey, S.; Welhan, J. A.; Larson, D. M.; Lohse, K. A.; Finney, B.; Derryberry, D.

    2015-12-01

    Many regions rely on quality groundwater to support urban growth. Groundwater quality often responds in a complex manner to stressors such as land use change, climate change, or policy decisions. Urban growth patterns in mid-sized cities, especially ones that are growing urban centers in water-limited regions in the western US, control and are controlled by water availability and its quality. We present a case study from southeastern Idaho where urban growth over the past 20 years has included significant ex-urban expansion of houses that rely on septic systems rather than city sewer lines for their wastewater treatment. Septic systems are designed to mitigate some contaminants, but not others. In particular, nitrates and emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, are not removed by most septic systems. Thus, even well-maintained septic systems at sufficiently high densities can impact down gradient water quality. Here we present patterns of nitrate concentrations over the period from 1985-2015 from the Lower Portneuf River Valley in southeastern Idaho. Concentrations vary from 0.03 to 27.09 nitrate-nitrogen mg/L, with average values increasing significantly over the 30 year time period from 3.15 +/- 0.065 to 3.57 +/- 0.43 mg/L. We examine temporal changes in locations of nitrate hotspots, and present pilot data on emerging contaminants of concern. Initial results suggest that high nitrate levels are generally associated with higher septic densities, but that this pattern is influenced by legacy agricultural uses and strongly controlled by underlying aquifer properties. Future work will include more detailed hydrological modeling to predict changes in hotspot locations under potential climate change scenarios.

  15. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  16. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  17. Protecting Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    of a democratic state as defence per se is to its government. Democratic governance rests on the mutual dependence and influence of leadership and led, and the practical function subsumes professional bureaucracies. Thus, defence debate is the exchange of views on matters important to national security amongst...... the democratically elected leadership, the public, and the defence bureaucracy’s professional experts. Defence debate is a decisive contributor to defence policy and it normally includes quantitative issues like the size of military forces and the proportion of the state’s resources devoted to the armed forces...

  18. 级联和应涌流对牵引变压器差动保护的影响分析%Analysis on the Influence of Series Sympathetic Inrush on the Differential Protection of Traction Transformers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯存亮; 毕大强; 葛宝明

    2011-01-01

    从牵引变压器励磁电压变化导致励磁电流变化的角度分析处于运行状态的牵引变压器级联和应涌流的发生发展过程,以及级联和应涌流对牵引变压器差动保护的影响.在变压器空投时,起始涌流流过系统电阻时使公共节点上的电压出现非周期波动,从而引起处于运行状态变压器的励磁电压发生变化,导致级联和应涌流的产生;级联和应涌流中的直流分量是引起电流互感器饱和、进而导致牵引变压器差动保护误动的主要原因.动模实验结果表明:仅依靠综合谐波制动判据是无法准确识别级联和应涌流的,应增加电流互感器饱和的识别或使用不易饱和的电流互感器.%The physical mechanism of series sympathetic inrush between two traction transformers in traction substation is introduced by the relationship between magnetizing voltage and magnetizing current. The influence of series sympathetic inrush on the differential protection is also analyzed. Due to the particularity of power supply mode, the initial inrush caused by the energized transformer running across the system resistance results in the non-periodic fluctuation of voltage in the common node. The distorted voltages cause series sympathetic inrush. The DC component in the series sympathetic inrush causes the saturation of current transformer which is the main reason of the mal-operation in differential protection for traction transformer. Dynamic experiments show that a restraint criterion based on compositive harmonic content can not recognize series sympathetic inrush efficiently. A criterion of current transformer saturation detection or the current transformers that are not prone to saturate is recommended.

  19. Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ultraviolet b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) on ultraviolet B ... protection, sun screen lotion may be inadequate for preventing all UV ..... p59Fyn is a crucial factor influencing dedifferentiation and.

  20. Protecting Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loepp, Susan; Wootters, William K.

    2006-09-01

    For many everyday transmissions, it is essential to protect digital information from noise or eavesdropping. This undergraduate introduction to error correction and cryptography is unique in devoting several chapters to quantum cryptography and quantum computing, thus providing a context in which ideas from mathematics and physics meet. By covering such topics as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm, this text informs the reader about current thinking in quantum information theory and encourages an appreciation of the connections between mathematics and science.Of particular interest are the potential impacts of quantum physics:(i) a quantum computer, if built, could crack our currently used public-key cryptosystems; and (ii) quantum cryptography promises to provide an alternative to these cryptosystems, basing its security on the laws of nature rather than on computational complexity. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is assumed, but students should have a basic knowledge of complex numbers, vectors, and matrices. Accessible to readers familiar with matrix algebra, vector spaces and complex numbers First undergraduate text to cover cryptography, error-correction, and quantum computation together Features exercises designed to enhance understanding, including a number of computational problems, available from www.cambridge.org/9780521534765

  1. Complexity control in statistical learning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sameer M Jalnapurkar

    2006-04-01

    We consider the problem of determining a model for a given system on the basis of experimental data. The amount of data available is limited and, further, may be corrupted by noise. In this situation, it is important to control the complexity of the class of models from which we are to choose our model. In this paper, we first give a simplified overview of the principal features of learning theory. Then we describe how the method of regularization is used to control complexity in learning. We discuss two examples of regularization, one in which the function space used is finite dimensional, and another in which it is a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. Our exposition follows the formulation of Cucker and Smale. We give a new method of bounding the sample error in the regularization scenario, which avoids some difficulties in the derivation given by Cucker and Smale.

  2. Handbook for Designing MMOD Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jim; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Alan; Hyde, James; Lear, Dana; Liou, J.C.; Lyons, Frankel; Prior, Thomas; Studor, George; Ratliff, Martin; hide

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft are subject to micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impact damage which have the potential to degrade performance, shorten the mission, or result in catastrophic loss of the vehicle. Specific MMOD protection requirements are established by NASA for each spacecraft early in the program/project life, to ensure the spacecraft meets desired safety and mission success goals. Both the design and operations influences spacecraft survivability in the MMOD environment, and NASA considers both in meeting MMOD protection requirements. The purpose of this handbook is to provide spacecraft designers and operations personnel with knowledge gained by NASA in implementing effective MMOD protection for the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and various science spacecraft. It has been drawn from a number of previous publications [10-14], as well as new work. This handbook documents design and operational methods to reduce MMOD risk. In addition, this handbook describes tools and equations needed to design proper MMOD protection. It is a living report, in that it will be updated and re-released periodically in future with additional information. Providing effective and efficient MMOD protection is essential for ensuring safe and successful operations of spacecraft and satellites. A variety of shields protect crew modules, external pressurized vessels and critical equipment from MMOD on the International Space Station (ISS). Certain Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle systems are hardened from MMOD impact, and operational rules are established to reduce the risk from MMOD (i.e., flight attitudes are selected and late inspection of sensitive thermal protection surfaces are conducted to reduce MMOD impacts). Science spacecraft include specific provisions to meet MMOD protection requirements in their design (for example, Stardust & GLAST). Commercial satellites such as Iridium and Bigelow Aerospace Genesis spacecraft incorporate MMOD protection. The development of low

  3. “The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical power of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) data for simulations” Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excel spreadsheet that contains the raw fecundity data used to conduct power simulations specific to the MEOGRT reproductive assessment. This dataset is associated...

  4. Influence of maternally-derived antibodies in 6-week old dogs for the efficacy of a new vaccine to protect dogs against virulent challenge with canine distemper virus, adenovirus or parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wilson

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, two doses of the DHPPi/L4R vaccine administered to dogs from six weeks of age in the presence of maternal antibodies aided in the protection against virulent challenge with CDV, CAV-1 or CPV.

  5. Laser Protection TIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Protection TIL conducts research and analysis of laser protection materials along with integration schemes. The lab's objectives are to limit energy coming...

  6. Protective and Catching Safety Systems In Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzhin Marat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article is described application of protective and catching systems in construction. Classification of similar systems, their types and purpose are listed. Dangerous zones on construction site and events to for limiting their influence or protection from the factors. Protective and catching systems is one of the most effective technical equipment, applied in recent time. Protective fences and catching systems are important part in the problem solution. Protective fences protect workers from falling from height. Protective and catching systems allows avoid injuries by workers, also catch debris, fallen from constructing buildings. In regard with continuing development in technical and technological solutions, protective and catching systems require adaptation to a new requirements of construction industry and requirements of normative documents. Technical regulations in the appliance sphere of protective and catching systems requires actualization and aligning with modern normatives. Important role should be given to developing organizational and technological documentation for application of the systems. Scientific studying of technical parameters of fences and protective catching nets also has great interest.

  7. Functionality of Ventilated Facades: Protection of Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Petrichenko Mikhail; Musorina Tatiana; Statsenko Elena; Ostrovaia Anastasia; Tarasov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses about methods of construction of the ventilated facades. The ventilated facade is not only the element of facing, it is the supporting structure. Their main objective - creation of air ventilating space between a facade and an external wall of the building. Moving of air in this gap protects a heater from destruction, interfering with a moisture congestion. In addition, the ventilated facade protect the building from aggressive influence of external environment, have a ...

  8. Investigating public decisions about protecting wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzner, Michael

    2002-03-01

    Quantitative analyses of species protection decisions taken by public authorities regularly show that ecological factors, such as the probability of extinction, often play a minor role in the decision-making process. The taxonomy of the species or its potential conflict with economic development is a more powerful factor. This paper presents quantitative empirical research on the protection of wetlands in Austria. Econometrically estimated models show that geographical and ecological factors (such as the size of the area, elevation and importance for biodiversity) play a significant role in the protection of wetlands. Additional influences include conflict variables encoding the negative effects of the primary economic sector (agriculture) or tourism.

  9. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  10. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  11. Robotics in Protected Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.; Bac, C.W.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews robotics for protected cultivation systems. Based on a short description of the greenhouse crop production process, the current state in greenhouse mechanization and the challenges for robotics in protected cultivation are identified. Examples of current greenhouse robotics

  12. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Ozone Layer Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Ozone Layer Protection Welcome to ... Managing Refrigerant Emissions Stationary Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Car and Other Mobile Air Conditioning GreenChill Partnership Responsible ...

  13. Tulare Basin protection plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tulare Basin Protection Plan has been initiated by The Nature Conservancy to elucidate the problems and opportunities of natural diversity protection....

  14. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Healthy Watersheds Protection (HWP) Share ... live in a watershed — thus watershed condition is important to everyone. Watersheds exist at different geographic scales, ...

  15. Noise and Hearing Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Noise and Hearing Protection Noise and Hearing Protection Patient ... it is. How can I tell if a noise is dangerous? People differ in their sensitivity to ...

  16. 励磁涌流对变压器差动保护的影响分析及对策探讨%Analysis of the Influence of Magnetziing Inrush Current on Transformer Differen tial Protection and Its Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索娜; 郭丽娜; 刘士华

    2016-01-01

    Absrtact:When a transformer is switched on without load or the power supply is restored after a fault , the in-rush current will lead to the differential protection device making a faulty action or refusing action sothat affecting the normal operation of equipment .The paper analyzes differential protection principle of the transformer , and develops the causes for the inrush current generated and its characteristics , analyzes contrastively four measures to restrain the excitation inrush current , in order to help resolving malfunction of protection equipment for transformer .%大型变压器在空载合闸或切除故障后恢复供电时,因为励磁涌流的存在,会导致变压器差动保护装置发生误动或拒动,从而影响电力系统的正常运行。分析变压器差动保护的工作原理,研究变压器励磁涌流产生的原因和特点,对比分析当前所采用的4种抑制励磁涌流的措施,为解决变压器保护装置的误动或拒动提供帮助。

  17. Information protection playbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the Information Protection Playbook is to serve as a comprehensive resource for information protection (IP) professionals who must provide adequate information security at a reasonable cost. It emphasizes a holistic view of IP: one that protects the applications, systems, and networks that deliver business information from failures of confidentiality, integrity, availability, trust and accountability, and privacy. Using the guidelines provided in the Information Protection Playbook, security and information technology (IT) managers will learn how to

  18. Protective Behavior in Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; van Megen, F.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of protective equilibrium in the context of fin ite games in strategic form.It shows that for matrix games the set of protective equilibria equals the set of proper equilibria.Moreover, in the context of bima trix games, the notion of protective behaviour is used as

  19. Environmental Protection Agency, Protecting Children's Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Protecting Children's Environmental Health Children are often more vulnerable to pollutants ... during development. Learn more about children's health, the environment, and what you can do. Basic Information Children ...

  20. Discussion on the Influence of Electric Power Project on Environment and Protection Measures%浅论电力工程对环境的影响及保护措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小冬

    2014-01-01

    从火力发电、水力发电、核发电、风力发电几方面,分析了电力工程对环境的影响,探讨了减轻影响的措施。%This paper analyzes the influence of electric power project on environment from aspects of coal-fired power generation, hydro-power generation, nuclear power generation and wind power generation, and probes into the measures for mitigating the influence.

  1. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  2. Protective relay principles

    CERN Document Server

    Sleva, Anthony F

    2009-01-01

    This title lets you improve failure detection and optimize protection. In the ever-evolving field of protective relay technology, an engineer's personal preference and professional judgment are as important to power system protection as the physical relays used to detect and isolate abnormal conditions. With invaluable insights from an experienced expert, ""Protective Relay Principles"" focuses on probable power system failure modes and the important characteristics of the protective relays used to detect these postulated failures.This book presents useful new concepts in a way that is easier

  3. Numerical differential protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, trans?formers, busbars, and electric lines.Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing.The emphasis is then pla

  4. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  5. The influence of structure and processing on the behavior of TiO2 protective layers for stabilization of n-Si/TiO2/Ni photoanodes for water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Matthew T; Lichterman, Michael F; Carim, Azhar I; Liu, Rui; Hu, Shu; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Lewis, Nathan S

    2015-07-22

    Light absorbers with moderate band gaps (1-2 eV) are required for high-efficiency solar fuels devices, but most semiconducting photoanodes undergo photocorrosion or passivation in aqueous solution. Amorphous TiO2 deposited by atomic-layer deposition (ALD) onto various n-type semiconductors (Si, GaAs, GaP, and CdTe) and coated with thin films or islands of Ni produces efficient, stable photoanodes for water oxidation, with the TiO2 films protecting the underlying semiconductor from photocorrosion in pH = 14 KOH(aq). The links between the electronic properties of the TiO2 in these electrodes and the structure and energetic defect states of the material are not yet well-elucidated. We show herein that TiO2 films with a variety of crystal structures and midgap defect state distributions, deposited using both ALD and sputtering, form rectifying junctions with n-Si and are highly conductive toward photogenerated carriers in n-Si/TiO2/Ni photoanodes. Moreover, the photovoltage of these electrodes can be modified by annealing the TiO2 in reducing or oxidizing environments. All of the polycrystalline TiO2 films with compact grain boundaries investigated herein protected the n-Si photoanodes against photocorrosion in pH = 14 KOH(aq). Hence, in these devices, conduction through the TiO2 layer is neither specific to a particular amorphous or crystalline structure nor determined wholly by a particular extrinsic dopant impurity. The coupled structural and energetic properties of TiO2, and potentially other protective oxides, can therefore be controlled to yield optimized photoelectrode performance.

  6. The Influence of Structure and Processing on the Behavior of TiO_2 Protective Layers for Stabilization of n-Si/TiO_2/Ni Photoanodes for Water Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew T. McDowell; Lichterman, Michael F.; Carim, Azhar I.; Liu, Rui; Hu, Shu; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Light absorbers with moderate band gaps (1–2 eV) are required for high-efficiency solar fuels devices, but most semiconducting photoanodes undergo photocorrosion or passivation in aqueous solution. Amorphous TiO_2 deposited by atomic-layer deposition (ALD) onto various n-type semiconductors (Si, GaAs, GaP, and CdTe) and coated with thin films or islands of Ni produces efficient, stable photoanodes for water oxidation, with the TiO_2 films protecting the underlying semiconductor from photocorr...

  7. Multifunctional Laminated Composite Materials for Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin M. Aly

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protective clothing performs a vital role in maintaining the safety of human in workplace. The developments in this field are proceeding to fulfill the needs with multifunctional materials at competitive costs. Recently, the protective clothing field introduces the usage of composite materials taking advantage of their outstanding properties. In this paper, the multifunctional performance of hybrid laminated composites (HLC was investigated aiming to be utilized in protective clothing. The influences of reinforcement and resin properties on the physical properties of the laminated composites and their resistance to puncture load and UV transmittance were studied. ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis of the results. The results showed that, the reinforcement material and structure and the fiber/matrix interface have major influences on the laminated composites performance. It was revealed that, the HLC fabricated from (polyester/glass fabric with satin 4 structure and nonwoven glass fiber mat exhibited the best functional performance.

  8. Analysis on Influencing Factors of Environmental Protection Data Quality Based on Game Theory%基于博弈论的环保数据质量影响因素分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嘉华; 赵丽; 邓峰

    2016-01-01

    Pollution discharge data is the basis of all environmental protection works and its accuracy and credibility is of great significance.To this end, the main factors that affect the quality of the pollution sources are analyzed:such as internal fac-tors driven by economic interests;the management factors driven by the performance benefits and the government factors driven by local protection.Currently, the new environmental laws have not been fully implemented, and the law-braking costs for sewage units, environmental authorities and local governments are far lower than the cost of obeying the laws.By using game theory, this paper discussed the inevitabilities for why these three facts will create negative effects. According to the analysis results, it also puts forward some corresponding strategies to improve the quality of the data.%污染源产排污数据是一切环保工作的基础,确保真实可信具有十分重要的意义.为此,分析了影响污染源产排污数据质量的主要因素:受经济利益驱动的自身因素;受政绩利益驱动的管理因素和受地方保护驱动的政府因素等.在新环保法未得到充分贯彻,排污单位、环保主管部门和地方政府三者违法成本均低于守法成本的条件下,以博奕论为分析工具讨论了三种影响因素产生负面作用的必然性,并根据分析结果针对性地提出了提高数据质量的应对策略.

  9. Protection using telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Deregulation in both the telecommunication and electric power industry, together with new telecommunication network technologies and advances in numerical protection, has resulted in the need to reconsider traditional methods of delivering tele-protection schemes and their associated bearer services. Fibre-optic technology is commonly deployed in new telecommunication networks for inter-station communication and utility-owned and public telecommunication networks from third parties are available for protection purposes. (author)

  10. PROTECTING THE PAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Promoting folk culture has become an important mission for some local governments, especially in ethnic minority areas Folk culture is drawing increasing attention as people's awareness of protecting their heritage has grown. But it is also evident that such protection efforts can bring economic benefits. Hubei, in central China, is one of the beneficiaries of folk culture protection. Seventeen of the 501 candidates for the

  11. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  12. Administration and environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Milkov, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental protection is a very important task of the state. The state in this area deals in a preventative manner, and at the same time controls the application of laws and regulations. The aim of this paper is to carry out the identification of administrative bodies dealing with environmental protection at the national, provincial and local levels. There are administrative bodies dealing directly with matters of environmental protection. On the other hand, within the scope of some admini...

  13. Application effect of skin protectant for the patients with incontinence and its correlated influencing factors%皮肤保护剂在失禁患者中的应用效果及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春晓; 吴娟

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨皮肤保护剂在失禁患者中的应用效果,并分析IAD发生的危险因素和保护因素,为临床提供有效的防范依据.方法 将2013年5月至2014年1月入住南通市某三级甲等医院4个监护病区(神经外科ICU、神经内科ICU、急诊ICU、综合ICU)的174例高危失禁患者随机分成3组(A组造口护肤粉,B组鞣酸软膏,C组皮肤保护膜),予以皮肤保护剂预防性地干预,比较IAD的发生率、发生时间,并对可能引起IAD的相关因素进行多因素Logistic回归分析.结果 发生IAD者32例占18.4%.A组、B组和C组IAD发生率依次为30.4%、10.3%和15.0%,B组lAD的发生率最低,其次为C组和A组,经比较,3组间差异有统计学意义.经两两比较发现,A组与B组之间、A组与C组之间,IAD发生率的差异有统计学意义,B组与C组之间差异无统计学意义.IAD平均发生时间为(7.00±3.91)d,3组患者IAD发生时间比较差异无统计学意义.多因素Logistic回归分析显示,大便性状和失禁频率是高危失禁患者发生IAD的危险因素,使用预防效果较好的皮肤保护剂是其发生的保护因素.结论 在失禁护理过程中,应尽早给予清洁肛周皮肤并使用预防效果较好的皮肤保护剂.%Objective The study is to investigate the effects of skin protectant carried out among the patients with incontinence,analyze the risk factors and protective factors of the occurrence of incontinence-associated dermatitis,and provide effective preventive measures for clinic.Methods From May 2013 to January 2014,174 cases of high-risk patients with incontinence from care units of intensive care unit,neurology intensive care unit,neurosurgery intensive care unit,and emergency intensive care unit of a top three hospital of Nantong were divided into three groups and provided with preventive interventions of skin protectant.Group A used ostomy skin care powder,group B used tannic acid ointment,and group C used Comfeel skin

  14. Cathodic Protection Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs Navy design and engineering of ship and submarine impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for underwater hull corrosion control and...

  15. Study of the influence of the protective covering from contamination on the radiopharmaceutical bottle in measurement of activity; Estudo da influencia do involucro protetor de contaminacao no frasco de radiofarmacos na medicao da atividade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A, E-mail: lilian547@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of the use of a plastic covering on the bottle used to supply radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the feasibility of its use at the time of manufacture, in order to avoid contamination in the activity meter well chamber. For that were held several measured with liquid {sup 137}Cs source with and without this envelope and the activity meters of the calibration laboratory. Tests showed a small variation in the percentage of measures with the plastic covering, value considerably low, which will not cause injury in providing radiopharmaceuticals for the Service Nuclear Medicine.

  16. Protecting the Amazon with protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Moore, Nathan J; Arima, Eugenio; Perz, Stephen; Simmons, Cynthia; Caldas, Marcellus; Vergara, Dante; Bohrer, Claudio

    2009-06-30

    This article addresses climate-tipping points in the Amazon Basin resulting from deforestation. It applies a regional climate model to assess whether the system of protected areas in Brazil is able to avoid such tipping points, with massive conversion to semiarid vegetation, particularly along the south and southeastern margins of the basin. The regional climate model produces spatially distributed annual rainfall under a variety of external forcing conditions, assuming that all land outside protected areas is deforested. It translates these results into dry season impacts on resident ecosystems and shows that Amazonian dry ecosystems in the southern and southeastern basin do not desiccate appreciably and that extensive areas experience an increase in precipitation. Nor do the moist forests dry out to an excessive amount. Evidently, Brazilian environmental policy has created a sustainable core of protected areas in the Amazon that buffers against potential climate-tipping points and protects the drier ecosystems of the basin. Thus, all efforts should be made to manage them effectively.

  17. The Influence of Terrain on the Protective System of Shapotou Section of Baotou-Lanzhou Railway%地形对包兰铁路沙坡头段防护体系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娜; 张春来; 邹学勇; 吴晓旭; 张峰

    2014-01-01

    To explore the role of terrain on preventing the railway from blown sand disaster, a typical transect within the protective system of Shapotou section was selected and its airflow measured in field and over a scaled down model in wind tunnel. The airflow over this transect shows high speed wind centers on the top of the fence dune and on the edges of river terraces, while low speed wind centers appear at the leeward of the fence dune and downwind of the river terraces. The high wind speed center gets stronger as the wind speed in-creases. The reduction coefficient (Rc (x,z)) is used to describe the airflow variation along this transect. A sharp in-crease of (Rc (x,z)) is found behind the fence for a horizontal distance 8 times the fence height. Rc(x,z) increases with the increasing protection distance. Under the reference wind speed of 8-9 m/s, the decline and fluctuating terrain contribute about 43%the reduction of the near surface airflow to the total airflow reduction by the shel-terbelt. As wind speed increases, airflow diffusion is weakened and (Rc (x,z)) decreases to below zero. Dune to-pography and the protection measure play a role on the dune surface airflow. Though the fence dune has a windward slope gradient three times the gradient of the semi-fixed dune and the fixed dune, the speed-up ratio (s) is almost the same. It is the drag force of fence exerting on the winds that effectively reduces the windward speed-up ratio, and leads to the large amount of sands accumulating around the fence to form a distinct artifi-cial dune form. Friction wind speed decreases rapidly from the moving dune area towards the railway. Under reference wind speed of 6 m/s, 9 m/s and 12 m/s, the friction wind speed over dune surface decreases by 49%, 45% and 39% from the moving dune area to the railway, respectively. The friction wind speed in the fixed dune section (model) is always lower than 0.5 m/s due to the decline terrain. The fence dune has a protection distance ten

  18. Protective Garment Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Protective garment ensemble with internally-mounted environmental- control unit contains its own air supply. Alternatively, a remote-environmental control unit or an air line is attached at the umbilical quick disconnect. Unit uses liquid air that is vaporized to provide both breathing air and cooling. Totally enclosed garment protects against toxic substances.

  19. Smart cathodic protection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Leggedoor, J.; Schuten, G.; Sajna, S.; Kranjc, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cathodic protection delivers corrosion protection in concrete structures exposed to aggressive environments, e.g. in de-icing salt and marine climates. Working lives of a large number of CP systems are at least more than 13 years and probably more than 25 years, provided a minimum level of maintenan

  20. Complete Rerouting Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a new protection method: Complete Rerouting. This is the most capacity e cient protection method for circuit switched networks and it is, to the best of our knowledge, the first time it has been described. We implement a column generation algorithm and test the performanc...

  1. Legal protection of the night sky in Andalusia (Western Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, David Galadí; Ranea-Palma, Ángela

    2015-03-01

    Andalusia (Spain) houses several astronomical observatories, among them the main observational facility in continental Europe: Calar Alto Observatory. In recent years, the regional government of Andalusia has been setting up a regulation to protect the natural conditions of darkness at night all over the region. This regulation includes several outstanding features and poses specific rules to protect the influence area of Calar Alto Observatory.

  2. Protection of multimaterial assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, L. Zheludkevich; Silvar, Kallip; Maria, Serdechnova

    2016-01-01

    The light-weight design calls for broader utilization of multimaterial mixes (M3) in different engineering structures, especially in the transportation area. Together with joining technologies for hybrid structures, the optimization of the life cycle of such systems is an issue of prime importance. Multimaterial structures are often prone to faster degradation under service conditions because of galvanically forced electrochemical corrosion. The protection technologies traditionally used for single-material structures are not always applicable for multimaterial design because of compatibility issues and a stronger thermodynamic driving force for degradation. In this chapter different strategies for protection of multimaterials structures are briefly overviewed. The main focus is on new alternative protection systems based on combination of synergistic inhibiting mixtures introduced into protective coatings. A road map which can be followed in order to create an efficient active protection coating for hybrid structures is suggested.

  3. Introduction to Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2016-01-01

    Protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent, although there was one paper that discussed beam-induced damage for the SLAC linac (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) as early as in 1967. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron-positron accelerators and to the increase of energy stored in the beam. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping ...

  4. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods...

  5. The Pattern of Economic Development Research on the Influence of Resource Saving and Environment Protection%经济发展方式对资源节约和环境保护的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宝辉

    2014-01-01

    我国经济虽然一直保持着强劲势头增长,但为了经济的持续稳定增长,我们需要改变原先以牺牲资源和环境质量为代价的增长。在“十二五”规划指引下,我们迫切需要改变经济发展方式,在进行经济发展方式改革时,我们要坚持科学发展观,坚持节约资源和保护环境的原则。面对经济发展方式改变中出现的资源问题和环境问题,我们需要认真分析和研究,并找出解决这些问题的方法和措施。%Although our country's economy has maintained a strong momentum of growth, but for the sake of the steady economic growth, we need to change the former at the expense of resources and environmental quality at the expense of gro-wth. In the 12th five-year plan, we urgently need to change the pattern of economic development, the pattern of economic de-velopment in the reform, we should adhere to the scientific concept of development, adhere to the principle of resource saving and environment protection. In the face of economic development mode change in resource and environmental problems, we need careful analysis and research, and find out the methods and measures to solve these problems.

  6. Managament in Tourism and Environment Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Mrnjavac

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourist activities motivate tourists to visit a destination. Tourism evaluates motives and protects them largely from harmful influences. Tourism evaluation aims to establish the value of natural tourist attractions and of those created by humans. Along with tourist attractions, destinations are also evaluated in order to find out about their utility. The evaluation of a destination and its particular attractions is expressed by the realized tourist traffic for the observed period. Protection of tourist attractions is a systematic activity against all kinds of pollution. It also includes the sustainability of traffic flows in tourism destination. Management in tourism industry has an irreplaceable role in that.

  7. Fire protection design criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  8. Ethics and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Sven Ove [Department of Philosophy and the History of Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 78 B, 2tr, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  9. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  10. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  11. Semiconductor surface protection material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, R. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method and a product for protecting semiconductor surfaces is disclosed. The protective coating material is prepared by heating a suitable protective resin with an organic solvent which is solid at room temperature and converting the resulting solution into sheets by a conventional casting operation. Pieces of such sheets of suitable shape and thickness are placed on the semiconductor areas to be coated and heat and vacuum are then applied to melt the sheet and to drive off the solvent and cure the resin. A uniform adherent coating, free of bubbles and other defects, is thus obtained exactly where it is desired.

  12. Phreatomagmatic and water-influenced Strombolian eruptions of a small-volume parasitic cone complex on the southern ringplain of Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand: Facies architecture and eruption mechanisms of the Ohakune Volcanic Complex controlled by an unstable fissure eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósik, S.; Németh, K.; Kereszturi, G.; Procter, J. N.; Zellmer, G. F.; Geshi, N.

    2016-11-01

    The Ohakune Volcanic Complex is a late Pleistocene tuff ring - scoria/spatter cone complex located south of Ruapehu volcano. This small-volume volcano consists of an outer E-W elongated compound tuff ring edifice, three inner scoria-spatter cones and further volcanic depressions, located on the Ohakune Fault. We quantified accurately the variations of the eruptive styles and processes through time by systematic sampling of key stratigraphic marker beds at proximal and distal locations, and the determination of grain size distribution, componentry, density and vesicularity. Using a Digital Terrain Model coupled with stratigraphic data, we also determined the spatial distribution and volume of each identified unit and individual edifices within the Ohakune Volcanic Complex. Activity began with a shallow phreatomagmatic phase characterized by an almost continuous generation of a low eruptive column, accompanied by wet pyroclastic density currents, together with the ejection of juvenile fragments and accidental lithics from the surrounding country rocks. Subsequent activity was dominated by a variety of Strombolian eruptions exhibiting differing intensities that were at times disrupted by phreatic blasts or phreatomagmatic explosions due to the interaction with external water and/or sudden changes in magma discharge rate. At least three major vent-shifting events occurred during the eruption, which is demonstrated by the truncation of the initial tuff ring and the infilling of the truncated area by several coarse grained surge units. Our study indicates that approx. 12 × 106 m3 DRE magma erupted within maximum 2.5 to 5 months through multiple vents. The erupted magma ascended from a depth of 16-18 km, and reached the surface within approximately 50 h. Alternating eruption styles, frequent vent-shifting and a variety of emplacement mechanisms inferred from the deposits of the Ohakune Volcanic Complex demonstrate the unpredictable nature of small-volume volcanism, contributing to our understanding of hazards attributed to this type of activity. Future small-volume eruptions within the Taupo Volcanic Zone may be of similar nature.

  13. Insights in Public Health: Protecting Public Health Through Governmental Transparency: How the Hawai'i Department of Health's New "Stoplight" Placarding Program is Attempting to Influence Behavioral Change in Hawai'i's Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Reducing the occurrence of and influencing the rapid correction of food illness risk factors is a common goal for all governmental food regulatory programs nationwide. Foodborne illness in the United States is a major cause of personal distress, preventable illness, and death. To improve public health outcomes, additional workforce was required due to long standing staffing shortages and was obtained partially through consolidation of the Hawai'i Department of Health's (HDOH) two food safety programs, the Sanitation Branch, and the Food & Drug Branch in July 2012, and through legislation that amended existing statutes governing the use of food establishment permit fees. Additionally, a more transparent food establishment grading system was developed after extensive work with industry partners based on three possible placards issued after routine inspections: green, yellow, and red. From late July 2014 to May 2015, there were 6,559 food establishments inspected statewide using the placard system with 79% receiving a green, 21% receiving a yellow, and no red placards issued. Sufficient workforce to allow timely inspections, continued governmental transparency, and use of new technologies are important to improve food safety for the public.

  14. How Intellectual Property Protection Influences Economic Growth in Developing Countries%发展中国家知识产权保护对经济增长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张麒麟; 王九云; 丁晶晶

    2012-01-01

    By introducing the east - west pattern into north - south framework, this paper improves the expanding- variety -type R&D -based innovation diffusion model. This new model shows that either enhancing or weakening the strength of intellectual property protection (IPP) causes the east and west regions in the countries in the South fall into the dilemma of innovation and imitation. If significant technology gap exists between east and west in those countries, then it is conditional for them to accelerate technological progress only by the policy of either strengthening or weakening IPP, and the critical condition depends on the technology gap between North and South, the technology gap between the east and the west and some other factors. North economic growth always benefits from strengthening IPP in South, but for South, strengthening IPP has beneficial effect on economic growth only if it satisfies a critical condition, which is complex function of the same technology gaps between North and South, and East and West.%在南北分析框架基础上引入东西格局概念,改进水平创新技术扩散模型。无论是增强还是减弱知识产权保护强度,南方国家的东部地区和西部地区都陷入创新与模仿的两难困境。若南方国家东部地区和西部地区存在明显技术差距,那选择加强或减弱知识产权保护来实现南方国家技术进步是有条件的,该临界条件由南北国家技术差距、东西部地区技术差距等因素决定。加强知识产权保护有利于北方国家的经济增长率的增加,而加强知识产权保护对南方国家经济增长率的有利影响是有条件的,该临界条件同样是南北国家技术差距、东西部地区技术差距的复杂函数。

  15. WIND PROTECTION OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubitsyna Natalja Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the interaction between the wind regime and the landscape. Examples of objects of landscape architecture in high-tech and science-intensive spheres, such as the launch pad of a spacecraft, are given. Wind protection is represented as a result of work on wind power engineering and a means of increasing bioclimatic comfort. The terms of landscape architecture are disclosed and mutual influence on the climate and impact on woody-shrub vegetation and field crops are analyzed. The phenomenon of air permeability for optimal operation of windproof structures and orientations of geoplastics and dendroplastics is described. In this paper, a classification of terrain types is described with a description of their elemental composition, as well as various categories of landscape. The proposal to consider the landscape as a territorial complex, and landscape buildings, landscape-architectural structures as objects of landscape architecture possessing properties of wind protection and air permeability was introduced. Thus, the concept of a landscape-architectural complex as a single group of landscape-architectural objects located on the territory and connected by a common system of communications, functions, technical elements and a visual image is formulated. Further research is based on the rationale for the use of the term ensemble in relation to the objects of the landscape and architectural complex and the identification of their design and planning features that can affect the parameters of wind protection and air permeability. The paper concludes that frequent coincidence of favorable for the fauna wind regime and mimicry of landscape architecture objects. The combination in the landscape of functions for wind protection and aesthetics is analyzed with analysis of such elements of landscape architecture as hedges and windproof properties of green plantations. In the work examples of wind engineering small architectural forms are

  16. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  17. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E

    2013-01-01

    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  18. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  19. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  20. Protect the Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琪

    2006-01-01

    How to protect the environment becomes one of the biggest problems in the world.Rubbish not only pollutes our environment,but also harms people’s health, so we shouldn’t scatter litter.Some factories

  1. Wired for Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Describes how growing acceptance of security measures such as access-control cards, video surveillance, and biometric devices is allowing colleges to protect students and their belongings more effectively. (EV)

  2. Protect Yourself: Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facepieces (dust masks) can be used for dust, mists, welding fumes, etc. They do not provide protection ... offer breathing comfort from a bat- tery-powered fan which pulls air through fil- ters and circulates ...

  3. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  4. Flooding: Prioritizing protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peduzzi, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    With climate change, urban development and economic growth, more assets and infrastructures will be exposed to flooding. Now research shows that investments in flood protection are globally beneficial, but have varied levels of benefit locally.

  5. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Agreement is to provide for cooperation in the prevention, detection and suppression of wildland fires within the protection areas designated in...

  6. Antioxidants: Protecting Healthy Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers and may help decrease your risk of macular degeneration. Foods high in carotenoids include red, orange, deep- ... as vitamin C to offer protection from some chronic diseases. Vitamin E is found in vegetable oils, salad ...

  7. Radiation Protection Group

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

  8. Asbestos: Protect Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Topics: Asbestos Contact Us Share Protect Your Family How to Identify Materials That May Contain Asbestos ... Improper removal may actually increase your and your family’s exposure to asbestos fibers. Top of Page Asbestos ...

  9. Lightweight Protective Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed garment material protects wearer from poisonous chemicals, bacteria, and radioactive particulates. Garment allows heat, moisture, and carbon dioxide to pass from inside to outside so wearer remains comfortable. Garment made of cotton fabric on which thin layer of polyacrylate rubber is deposited by calendering or spraying. Lighter and cooler than existing protective garments. Polyacrylate rubber selected for garment material because it transmits water vapor and carbon dioxide at high rates.

  10. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  11. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  12. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  13. Radiological protection; Proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin N, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Division de Ciencias e Ingenieria, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon de los Aldama, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    This work is directed to all those people related with the exercise of the radiological protection and has the purpose of providing them a base of knowledge in this discipline so that they can make decisions documented on technical and scientist factors for the protection of the personnel occupationally exposed, the people in general and the environment during the work with ionizing radiations. Before de lack of a text on this matter, this work seeks to cover the specific necessities of our country, providing a solid presentation of the radiological protection, included the bases of the radiations physics, the detection and radiation dosimetry, the radiobiology, the normative and operational procedures associates, the radioactive wastes, the emergencies and the transport of the radioactive material through the medical and industrial applications of the radiations, making emphasis in the relative particular aspects to the radiological protection in Mexico. The book have 16 chapters and with the purpose of supplementing the given information, are included at the end four appendixes: 1) the radioactive waste management in Mexico, 2-3) the Mexican official standards related with the radiological protection, 4) a terms glossary used in radiological protection. We hope this book will be of utility for those people that work in the investigation and the applications of the ionizing radiations. (Author)

  14. MiRNA-Mediated Regulation of the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex Controls Pluripotency and Endodermal Differentiation in Human ESCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Staton L; Langer, Lee F; Ward, James M; Archer, Trevor K

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs and chromatin remodeling complexes represent powerful epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the pluripotent state. miR-302 is a strong inducer of pluripotency, which is characterized by a distinct chromatin architecture. This suggests that miR-302 regulates global chromatin structure; however, a direct relationship between miR-302 and chromatin remodelers has not been established. Here, we provide data to show that miR-302 regulates Brg1 chromatin remodeling complex composition in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) through direct repression of the BAF53a and BAF170 subunits. With the subsequent overexpression of BAF170 in hESCs, we show that miR-302's inhibition of BAF170 protein levels can affect the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation. Furthermore, miR-302-mediated repression of BAF170 regulates pluripotency by positively influencing mesendodermal differentiation. Overexpression of BAF170 in hESCs led to biased differentiation toward the ectoderm lineage during EB formation and severely hindered directed definitive endoderm differentiation. Taken together, these data uncover a direct regulatory relationship between miR-302 and the Brg1 chromatin remodeling complex that controls gene expression and cell fate decisions in hESCs and suggests that similar mechanisms are at play during early human development.

  15. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  16. The CXCR4/CXCR7/CXCL12 Axis Is Involved in a Secondary but Complex Control of Neuroblastoma Metastatic Cell Homing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Mühlethaler-Mottet

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is one of the most deadly solid tumors of the young child, for which new efficient and targeted therapies are strongly needed. The CXCR4/CXCR7/CXCL12 chemokine axis has been involved in the progression and organ-specific dissemination of various cancers. In NB, CXCR4 expression was shown to be associated to highly aggressive undifferentiated tumors, while CXCR7 expression was detected in more differentiated and mature neuroblastic tumors. As investigated in vivo, using an orthotopic model of tumor cell implantation of chemokine receptor-overexpressing NB cells (IGR-NB8, the CXCR4/CXCR7/CXCL12 axis was shown to regulate NB primary and secondary growth, although without any apparent influence on organ selective metastasis. In the present study, we addressed the selective role of CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors in the homing phase of metastatic dissemination using an intravenous model of tumor cell implantation. Tail vein injection into NOD-scid-gamma mice of transduced IGR-NB8 cells overexpressing CXCR4, CXCR7, or both receptors revealed that all transduced cell variants preferentially invaded the adrenal gland and typical NB metastatic target organs, such as the liver and the bone marrow. However, CXCR4 expression favored NB cell dissemination to the liver and the lungs, while CXCR7 was able to strongly promote NB cell homing to the adrenal gland and the liver. Finally, coexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors significantly and selectively increased NB dissemination toward the bone marrow. In conclusion, CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors may be involved in a complex and organ-dependent control of NB growth and selective homing, making these receptors and their inhibitors potential new therapeutic targets.

  17. The Environment and the Relative Protection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The material is presenting, under an adequate structure, an analysis of the environment of Romania. The starting point of the study is given by the natural conditions, influenced by the geographic location of Romania on the globe, evidencing the main characteristics (relief, hydrographic basin, climate, flora and fauna etc.. Afterwards, the material is pointing out the concerns as well as certain outcomes achieved in our country in the field of the environment protection. Particularly, there is the concern regarding the durable development which is emphasized, along with the part that the environment protection should play under the circumstances. Then, the material is evidencing the essence of the policies concerning the environment protection as well as the transitory steps implied in this field by the adhesion of Romania to the European Union.

  18. Managing ecotourism visitation in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.; Lindberg, Kreg; Wood, Megan Epler; Engeldrum, David

    1998-01-01

    Ecotourism management seeks to integrate and balance several potentially conflicting objectives: protection of natural and cultural resources, provision of recreation opportunities and generation of economic benefits. In the absence of effective planning and management, ecotourism can lead to significant negative impacts on vegetation, soil, water, wildlife, historic resources, cultures, and visitor experiences. This chapter reviews visitor-related natural resource and experience impacts associated with ecotourism within protected areas. The influence of factors that control the nature and extent of impacts are also reviewed, including type and amount of use, the variable resistance and resilience of environmental attributes such as vegetation and soil types, and the role of management in shaping visitation, resources and facilities to support visitation while minimizing associated impacts. Implications for managing the effects of protected area visitation are highlighted, including carrying capacity decision frameworks and selecting management strategies and tactics.

  19. Study of the inhibiting properties of fatty amines in association with phosphono-carboxylic acid salts for the corrosion protection of a carbon steel. Influence of flow on the inhibition mechanism; proprietes inhibitrices d'un melange d'amines grasses et de sels d'acide phosphonocarboxyliques vis-a-vis de la corrosion d'un acier au carbone. Influence des conditiions hydrodynamiques sur le mecanisme d'inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa de Echevarrieta, N.

    2004-02-01

    This work is devoted to the corrosion inhibition of a carbon steel in a 200 mg l{sup -1} NaCl solution by a non-toxic multicomponent inhibitor used for water treatment in cooling circuits. It was composed of fatty amines (FA) associated with phosphono-carboxylic acid salts (PCAS). Steady-state current-voltage curves were combined with electrochemical impedance measurements to characterise the inhibitive properties of each compound and to optimize the concentration of the compounds in the mixture. Maximum efficiency was reached for the mixture containing 50 mg l{sup -1} FA +200 mg l{sup -1} PCAS. A competitive adsorption mechanism was proposed to account for the synergistic effect. The inhibitive film was composed of an iron oxide/hydroxide mixture incorporating the organic molecules. The properties of the protective layer were dependent on the electrode rotation rate and on the immersion time. This behaviour is related to the influence of flow on the anodic kinetics. (author)

  20. Managament in Tourism and Environment Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Edna Mrnjavac; Branka Berc Radišić; Nadia Pavia

    2008-01-01

    Tourist activities motivate tourists to visit a destination. Tourism evaluates motives and protects them largely from harmful influences. Tourism evaluation aims to establish the value of natural tourist attractions and of those created by humans. Along with tourist attractions, destinations are also evaluated in order to find out about their utility. The evaluation of a destination and its particular attractions is expressed by the realized tourist traffic for the observed period. Protectio...

  1. System level ESD protection

    CERN Document Server

    Vashchenko, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses key aspects of analog integrated circuits and systems design related to system level electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection.  It is an invaluable reference for anyone developing systems-on-chip (SoC) and systems-on-package (SoP), integrated with system-level ESD protection. The book focuses on both the design of semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) components with embedded, on-chip system level protection and IC-system co-design. The readers will be enabled to bring the system level ESD protection solutions to the level of integrated circuits, thereby reducing or completely eliminating the need for additional, discrete components on the printed circuit board (PCB) and meeting system-level ESD requirements. The authors take a systematic approach, based on IC-system ESD protection co-design. A detailed description of the available IC-level ESD testing methods is provided, together with a discussion of the correlation between IC-level and system-level ESD testing methods. The IC-level ESD...

  2. Influencing Up

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Allan R

    2012-01-01

    The authors of the classic Influence Without Authority explain the unique challenges of influencing powerful people Learn to overcome your difficulties with a boss who is uninterested in your concerns, or resistant to giving needed support. Or discover how to win the cooperation of senior managers who are hard to reach, and hard to sell on your ideas, products, or services. In their classic book, Influence Without Authority, Allan Cohen and David Bradford provided a universal model of how to influence someone you don't control. Influencing Up applies those ideas to problematic bosses and other

  3. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  4. Modeling the influence of R&D expenditures on global climate protection%研发投资对全球气候保护影响的模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 朱潜挺; 王铮

    2012-01-01

    In order to modeling the influence of RD expenditures on climate change,endogenous technological change induced by RD expenditures is integrated into the LRICES model.With the assumption of RD expenditures growth,the global temperature rise by 2100 is about 2.32℃ with BAU(business-as-usual),and the trajectories of carbon emissions in China,US,Japan,EU,FSU and ROW are predicted respectively,which are "S-shaped" with emission peak and emission rebound.The emission peak year in China,US,Japan,EU,FSU and ROW are 2034,2020,2034,2022,2031 and 2036 respectively.It can be found emissions in developed countries will peak earlier than developing countries,but the emission per capita in developed countries by 2050 is still much higher than other regions.A global emission reduction scheme is necessary.Based on the policy modeling in this paper,we propose that developed countries and FSU cut emission by 80% and 50% to 1990 level by 2050,while China and ROW start emission cutting by 2025 and control emissions to 2005 level by 2050.This scheme not only can control the global temperature rise by 2100 to be 1.92℃,but also show the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" when take into account the economic cost and utility loss.%基于LRICES模型,将研发投资引发的技术进步内生化到模型中,在假设各国未来的研发投资处于较保守增长速度的前提下,分析研发投资对全球气候保护政策的影响。研究发现,在内生化研发投资技术进步机制的作用下,至2100年,全球升温2.32℃,全球及各国的碳排放趋势均呈现先上升后下降再略微反弹的"倒S"型,全球的碳排放高峰为2032年,中国、美国、日本、欧盟、前苏联、世界其他地区的碳排放高峰分别出现在2034年、2020年、2034年、2022年、2031年、2036年。虽然发达国家比发展中国家较早达到了排放高峰,但2050年发达国家的人均碳排放量仍远高于发展中国家,

  5. Phytochemicals: Health Protective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston; Beck, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    Consuming a diet rich in plant foods will provide a milieu of phytochemicals, non-nutritive substances in plants that possess health-protective benefits. Vegetables, fruits, whole grains, herbs, nuts and seeds contain an abundance of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, sulfur compounds, pigments, and other natural antioxidants that have been associated with protection from and/or treatment of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The foods and herbs with the highest anticancer activity include garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Citrus, in addition to providing an ample supply of vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, and soluble fibre, contains a host of active phytochemicals. Clinical trials have not yet been able to demonstrate the same protective effects from taking supplements. It is difficult to estimate how many Canadians achieve an adequate level of consumption, but it seems reasonable to assume that many Canadians could benefit from substantially increasing their intake of vegetables and fruit.

  6. Protection against trichothecene mycotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Trichothecenes and their effects on humans have attracted national and international attention because of their reported use in warfare. This study arose out of a concern about such uses and the potential harm these substances could cause among civilian and military populations that might be exposed to them. Accordingly, this report is intended to assist in the protection not only of U.S. Armed Forces against the adverse effects of trichothecenes but also of civilian populations that may come into contact with these toxins during peace or war. The committee concentrated on the following two major objectives: (1) examination of the environmental and biological behavior of the trichothecene class of mycotoxins to determine what protective measures can be taken and (2) development of the means for optimizing the protection of human beings against the effects of trichothecenes through appropriate prophylaxes and treatments.

  7. Protection against Shiga Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kavaliauskiene

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxins consist of an A-moiety and five B-moieties able to bind the neutral glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 on the cell surface. To intoxicate cells efficiently, the toxin A-moiety has to be cleaved by furin and transported retrogradely to the Golgi apparatus and to the endoplasmic reticulum. The enzymatically active part of the A-moiety is then translocated to the cytosol, where it inhibits protein synthesis and in some cell types induces apoptosis. Protection of cells can be provided either by inhibiting binding of the toxin to cells or by interfering with any of the subsequent steps required for its toxic effect. In this article we provide a brief overview of the interaction of Shiga toxins with cells, describe some compounds and conditions found to protect cells against Shiga toxins, and discuss whether they might also provide protection in animals and humans.

  8. Protecting patron privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Beckstrom, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In a world where almost anyone with computer savvy can hack, track, and record the online activities of others, your library can serve as a protected haven for your visitors who rely on the Internet to conduct research-if you take the necessary steps to safeguard their privacy. This book shows you how to protect patrons' privacy while using the technology that your library provides, including public computers, Internet access, wireless networks, and other devices. Logically organized into two major sections, the first part of the book discusses why the privacy of your users is of paramount

  9. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  10. Collaborative financial infrastructure protection

    CERN Document Server

    Baldoni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection Survey recently released by Symantec found that 53% of interviewed IT security experts from international companies experienced at least ten cyber attacks in the last five years, and financial institutions were often subject to some of the most sophisticated and large-scale cyber attacks and frauds. The book by Baldoni and Chockler analyzes the structure of software infrastructures found in the financial domain, their vulnerabilities to cyber attacks and the existing protection mechanisms. It then shows the advantages of sharing information among financia

  11. Adolescent Substance Use and Family-based Risk and Protective Factors: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalahi, Halaevalu F.

    2001-01-01

    Family influence has been established as one of the strongest sources of risk and protection when considering adolescent substance abuse. Theories used to view the family influence include family systems theory; social cognitive theory; social control theory; and strain theory. Specific family-based risk and protective factors include family…

  12. Mechanism Analysis on the Influence of Distributed Generation on Zero Sequence Current Protection in Low Resistance Grounding System%分布式电源接入对小电阻接地系统零序电流保护影响的机理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏适; 王斌; 罗征洋; 徐宏; 赵静; 李雪梅

    2015-01-01

    从本质上研究了分布式电源接入对小电阻接地系统零序电流保护的影响,并结合数值仿真进行验证。此外,在满足继电保护可靠动作的前提下,分析了配电网允许分布式电源侧的接入最大短路容量与并网位置、并网变压器中性点接地阻抗的关系。结果表明:分布式电源接入可能导致保护动作失去选择性、误动或拒动;在不同并网位置情况下,合理的设置并网变压器中性点接地阻抗值,可以减小分布式电源接入对配电网保护带来的影响,从而可增加允许分布式电源侧的接入最大短路容量。%This paper focuses on the influence of distributed generation on zero sequence current protection in low resistance grounding system, verifying with mathematical simulation. The relationship between the maximum allowable short-circuit capability of distributed generation and the grid-connected location or the impedance of grid-connected transformer’s neutral ground. The result shows that distributed generation may lead to the lose of selectivity or missing operation. Reasonable values of impedance of grid-connected transformer’s neutral ground can decrease the influence of distributed generation on the distribution network protection, increasing the maximum of short-circuit capability of distributed generation. This work is supported by Science and Technology Projects of China Southern Power Grid (Project number: 0301XX2406).

  13. The protective effect of lithium on the oxygen and glucose deprivation model of SH-SY5Y cells and its influence on AIF apoptosis pathway%锂剂对SH-SY5Y细胞氧糖剥夺模型的保护作用及其对AIF凋亡通路的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾国强; 巴晓红; 潘凤英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of the different concentrations of lithium on the SH-SY5Y cells oxygen and glucose deprivation model, then to determine the effective concentration, and to explore its influence on AIF apoptosis pathway and the mechanism of its neuroprotective effect. Methods Different concentrations of lithium preconditioned oxygen and glucose deprivation model of SH-SY5Y cells were used. MTT staining were used to describe the effects of the drugs. The cell apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry after Annexin V/PI double staining. AIF protein was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Results MTT showed that different concentrations of lithium had strong protective effects on the oxygen and glucose deprivation model of SH-SY5Y cells, and 1 mmol/L lithium chloride was the effective dose for cell protection. After Annexin V and PI staining, flow cytometry showed that the apoptosis was decreased significantly in cells treated with lithium. Immunofluorescence staining suggested that AIF protein reduced in nuclear area after treated with lithium. Conclusion Lithium has strong protective effect on the oxygen and glucose deprivation model of SH-SY5Y cells, 1 mmol/L lithium chloride is the effective dose for cell protection, and one of the mechanisms may be inhibition of AIF apoptosis pathway.%目的 研究不同浓度的锂剂对SH-SY5Y细胞氧糖剥夺模型的保护效果,确定有效的浓度,并探讨其对AIF凋亡通路的作用,分析其神经保护作用的机制.方法 以不同浓度的锂剂对制备氧糖剥夺模型的SH-SY5Y细胞进行预处理,观察其对细胞的保护作用.MTT法描绘细胞生长曲线.Annexin V和PI双染,流式细胞仪检测各组细胞凋亡情况.免疫荧光检测凋亡诱导因子(AIF)蛋白的变化.结果 MTT显示不同浓度的锂剂对SH-SY5Y细胞氧糖剥夺模型有较强的细胞保护作用,1mmol/L氯化锂为细胞保护的有效剂量.Annexin V和PI双染,流式细胞仪检测可

  14. Critical Homeland Infrastructure Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    CIP Mr. Dan Mathis DPO-MA The National Innovative Technology and Ms. Elizabeth NITMAC Mission Assurance Center D’Andrea Current and Developing Issues...Vulnerabilities and COL Jeff Brown JTF-CNO Countermeasures Telecommunications Security and NSTAC Mr. Karl Rauscher NSTAC Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection LTC(P

  15. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  16. Reforming Rights Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For China, the recently established UN Human Rights Council is a victory of multilateralism This spring witnessed a significant reform in the United Nations human rights protection mechanism. On March 15, the UN General Assembly approved a draft resolution, with a 170 to 4 vote and 3 abstentions, to create a Human Rights Council (HRC). Then, March 23, the UN Economic and

  17. Protecting our science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Noah S

    2013-10-01

    In response to a recent court decision, the Annals of Occupational Hygiene is reviewing our procedures to ensure transparency in authorship and direct and indirect conflicts of interest. These improvements are intended to help protect the integrity of the science presented in the journal.

  18. Recife: Coastal protection plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kibrit, B.; Imambaks, R.; Anijs, M.; Tarigheh, A.S.; Mungar, S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades the north-eastern coast of Brazil has been degrading due to erosion. This degradation has both natural- and men-made causes. Brazil has no specific laws and acts which relate to coastal protection and management up to this date. Beaches in the metropolitan area of Recife show v

  19. Challenges to effective protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Kimotho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With sexual violence now recognised as a weapon of war and a punishable violation of human rights, it is incumbent upon the international community, national governments and humanitarian organisations to provide more effective protection of women and girls.

  20. Inflation Protected Investment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Mahlstedt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is presented, which is based on traditional asset classes and Markov-switching models. Different stock market, as well as inflation regimes are identified, and within those regimes, the inflation hedging potential of stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities and gold are investigated. Within each regime, we determine optimal investment portfolios driven by the investment idea of protection from losses due to changing inflation if inflation is rising or high, but decoupling the performance from inflation if inflation is low. The results clearly indicate that these asset classes behave differently in different stock market and inflation regimes. Whereas in the long-run, we agree with the general opinion in the literature that stocks and bonds are a suitable hedge against inflation, we observe for short time horizons that the hedging potential of each asset class, especially of real estate and commodities, depend strongly on the state of the current market environment. Thus, our approach provides a possible explanation for different statements in the literature regarding the inflation hedging properties of these asset classes. A dynamic inflation-protected investment strategy is developed, which combines inflation protection and upside potential. This strategy outperforms standard buy-and-hold strategies, as well as the well-known 1 N -portfolio.

  1. Armored garment for protecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, James W.; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D.; Brazfield, Richard; Lawrie, Catherine; Lawrie, David; Preece, Dale S.

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  2. Global protected area impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Lucas N; Pfaff, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use 'matching' (or 'apples to apples') for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation.

  3. Beyond Pain and Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2007-01-01

    discourse on homosexual youth in Korea, protection discourse and pain discourse, the notion of identity itself will be critically examined and the girls' agency in destabilizing heteronormativity will be discussed. This study also deals with the appropriation of popular culture by the girls, suggesting...

  4. Personal data protection package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mańko

    2014-01-01

    The existing directive on personal data protection was enacted almost two decades ago, at the dawn of the digital era. The Commission proposes to replace that directive with a regulation, thereby not only updating the legal framework, but also ending its fragmentation.

  5. The IMI PROTECT project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, Robert F; Kurz, Xavier; de Groot, Mark C H

    2016-01-01

    The Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European ConsorTium (PROTECT) initiative was a collaborative European project that sought to address limitations of current methods in the field of pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance. Initiated in 2009 and ending in 201...

  6. Protectiveness, Persecution, and Powerlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Kathleen G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of family pathology from a transactional viewpoint. The thesis proposed is that family pathology is a means of protecting the family and ensuring its survival. The father, mother, and child assume and exchange the roles of the Karpman drama triangle; namely, Persecutor, Victim, and Rescuer. (Author)

  7. Protection of Marine Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoll, M.; Ciaccia, E.; Dekeling, R.P.A.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Liddell, K.; Gunnarsson, S.L.; Ludwig, S.; Nissen, I.; Lorenzen, D.; Kreimeyer, R.; Pavan, G.; Meneghetti, N.; Nordlund, N.; Benders, F.P.A.; Zwan, T. van der; Zon, A.T. van; Fraser, L.; Johansson, T.; Garmelius, M.

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for

  8. [Chile: social protection in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, Rafael

    2006-10-01

    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  9. Tools influencing on business development and population's social protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Alieva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises the issue how to develop public policy instruments that could efficiently target bothdevelopment of entrepreneurship and strengthening of social safety of workers.

  10. Protected Flux Pairing Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew; Zhang, Wenyuan; Ioffe, Lev; Gershenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the coherent flux tunneling in a qubit containing two submicron Josephson junctions shunted by a superinductor (a dissipationless inductor with an impedance much greater than the resistance quantum). The two low energy quantum states of this device, " open="|"> 0 and " open="|"> 1, are represented by even and odd number of fluxes in the loop, respectively. This device is dual to the charge pairing Josephson rhombi qubit. The spectrum of the device, studied by microwave spectroscopy, reflects the interference between coherent quantum phase slips in the two junctions (the Aharonov-Casher effect). The time domain measurements demonstrate the suppression of the qubit's energy relaxation in the protected regime, which illustrates the potential of this flux pairing device as a protected quantum circuit. Templeton Foundation, NSF, and ARO.

  11. Advanced Software Protection Now

    CERN Document Server

    Bendersky, Diego; Notarfrancesco, Luciano; Sarraute, Carlos; Waissbein, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Software digital rights management is a pressing need for the software development industry which remains, as no practical solutions have been acclamaimed succesful by the industry. We introduce a novel software-protection method, fully implemented with today's technologies, that provides traitor tracing and license enforcement and requires no additional hardware nor inter-connectivity. Our work benefits from the use of secure triggers, a cryptographic primitive that is secure assuming the existence of an ind-cpa secure block cipher. Using our framework, developers may insert license checks and fingerprints, and obfuscate the code using secure triggers. As a result, this rises the cost that software analysis tools have detect and modify protection mechanisms. Thus rising the complexity of cracking this system.

  12. Protecting Spreadsheets Against Fraud

    CERN Document Server

    Mittermeir, Roland T; Hodnigg, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on spreadsheet risks has predominantly focussed on errors inadvertently introduced by spreadsheet writers i.e. it focussed on the end-user aspects of spreadsheet development. When analyzing a faulty spreadsheet, one might not be able to determine whether a particular error (fault) has been made by mistake or with fraudulent intentions. However, the fences protecting against fraudulent errors have to be different from those shielding against inadvertent mistakes. Faults resulting from errors committed inadvertently can be prevented ab initio by tools that notify the spreadsheet writer about potential problems whereas faults that are introduced on purpose have to be discovered by auditors without the cooperation of their originators. Even worse, some spreadsheet writers will do their best to conceal fraudulent parts of their spreadsheets from auditors. In this paper we survey the available means for fraud protection by contrasting approaches suitable for spreadsheets with those known from frau...

  13. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  14. Consumer protection and grocery

    OpenAIRE

    Sklář, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with consumer protection and grocery section regulations. It's objective is to evaluate whether grocery stores stick to law while selling food and to analyze attitudes and behavior of consumers. The theoretical part deals with definition of consumer and other related concepts and with obligations of food sellers and consumer rights. The practical part consists of three parts that contain expert commentary, own research performed through grocery stores and survey tak...

  15. Mitochondrial protection by resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Sonntag, William E; de Cabo, Rafael; Baur, Joseph A; Csiszar, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are thought to play important roles in mammalian aging. Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that exerts diverse antiaging activities, mimicking some of the molecular and functional effects of dietary restriction. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial protective effects of resveratrol, which could be exploited for the prevention or amelioration of age-related diseases in the elderly.

  16. AUTISTIC CHILDREN PROTECTION SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan LUKIC

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article sets forth the theoretical grounds which make the basis for the organizational scheme of the autistic persons social protection. This protection consists of the below listed forms of work:· Health service with the role of an early detection and participation in the creation of rehabilitation programs;· Social protection with its programs of work from the diagnostics where the defectologist makes a team together with the physician and the psychologists to the systems of rehabilitation institutions where the defectologist’s is the main responsibility.The present article underlines two facts, namely:· that an autistic person requires to be followed and every spare moment used to promote and advance the activities the doer commenced himself instead of having him carry out the programs which are beyond his internal motivations and which he finds emotionally inaccessible;· that and form of work organization with autistic persons must subordinate its administrative part to the basic professional requirements this kind of disorder (handicap sets in front of each professional.

  17. Quality of Protection Evaluation of Security Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Ksiezopolski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol.

  18. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  19. Resilience in young children involved with child protective services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Kierra M P; Font, Sarah A

    2017-06-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk of poor developmental outcomes. However, some children display resilience, meaning they are high-functioning despite their adverse experiences. To date, few research studies have examined protective factors among very young maltreated children. Yet, domains of resilience, and the protective factors that promote resilience among maltreated children, are likely to differ by developmental stage. Drawing on ecological systems theory and life course theory, we examined how protective factors at multiple ecological levels across early childhood were related to social and cognitive resilience among very young children involved with child protective services. The results demonstrated that the buffering effects of protective factors varied by social or cognitive resilience and the cumulative effects of protective factors were more consistently related to later resilience than protective factors at specific time points. In addition, the influence of specific protective factors on resilience slightly varied by initial in-home or out-of-home placement. These findings have important policy and research implications for promoting optimal development among children involved in child protective services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental Protection Versus Foundry Engineering Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available • Theory and practice of environmental protection in the case of foundries in Europe and Asia • Experience resulting from the cooperation with the foundries in a few European countries, China and India • Phenomena and factors affecting the pollution of the natural environment and the implementation of measures aiming at the environmental protection. Every specialist dealing with foundry processes and their impact on environmental pollution must have encountered in their professional careers numerous situations in which the theory of environmental protection confronts the stark reality. The discrepancy between theory and practice can particularly be noticed in foundry engineering in developing countries where the contrasts between different countries and casting plants are extremely striking. The comparison of working conditions in European and Asian foundries provides a vast scope for further observations and analyses. Environmental protection seems not only a concern of manufacturers of castings, but also of their customers whose opinion exerts a significant influence on both the acceptability of working conditions and on the approach to environmental pollution adopted in metal casting industry. The article presents a number of examples of various outlooks on environmental issues in foundries manufacturing a wide range of cast steel and cast iron castings, where different technologies and production processes are applied.

  1. South Australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrou, N; Casson, R; Fung, S; Ferdowsi, N; Lee, G; Selva, D

    2008-06-01

    To study student's knowledge of the effects of sunlight on the eyes, as well as their sun protective behaviours. In total, 640 [corrected] students aged 13-18 years were surveyed in South Australia, during August-September 2004, using a standardized previously used survey. Scores were calculated regarding knowledge about ultraviolet light, sunlight effects on eyes, as well as eye and body protection. Risk factor scores were produced for each student. The data were analysed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA), as well as the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel methods. Results were compared to the same survey conducted in 1995 in Queensland Australia. This group demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge, similar to the 1995 survey. Students in the older age groups demonstrated significantly higher knowledge. The majority of students (74%) owned a pair of sunglasses; however, 44.5% almost never wore their glasses. The reported frequency of wearing sunglasses was significantly related to advertising, believing sunglasses protect the eyes, as well as personal, family, and peer attitudes towards wearing sunglasses. The results of our survey suggest no significant change in knowledge and behaviours of students, compared to the 1995 survey. We feel it is imperative that adolescents be made more aware of the damaging effects of sunlight and the benefits of eye protection. Health promotion campaigns should target the youth and consider that as a group, they are significantly influenced by the media, peers, and family attitudes.

  2. Factors affecting Thai workers' use of hearing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantranont, Kunlayanee; Srisuphan, Wichit; Kaewthummanukul, Thanee; Suthakorn, Weeraporn; Jormsri, Pantip; Salazar, Mary K

    2009-11-01

    This study used an ecological model to examine Thai workers' beliefs and attitudes toward using occupational hearing protection. Data collection involved focus group sessions with 28 noise-exposed workers at four factories in Chiang Mai Province and an interview with a safety officer at each organization. Detailed content analysis resulted in the identification of three types of factors influencing the use of hearing protection: intrapersonal, including preventing impaired hearing, noise annoyance, personal discomfort, and interference with communication; interpersonal, including coworker modeling, supervisor support, and supervisor modeling; and organizational, including organizational rules and regulations, provision of hearing protection devices, dissemination of knowledge and information, noise monitoring, and hearing testing. Effective hearing protection programs depend on knowledge of all of these factors. Strategies to promote workers' use of hearing protection should include the complete range of factors having the potential to affect workers' hearing.

  3. Translational Influence on Messenger Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette

    , on messenger stability was examined. Depending on the translation initiation frequency, the chance of an initial ribosome trailing the RNA polymerase get better for better initiation sites, thus protecting transcription from termination by Rho. A polarity assay in which the activity of the downstream lac......-termination to be a global phenomena in gene regulation. The influence of codon usage in the early coding region on messenger stability was examined, in order to establish how fast or slow the ribosome has to decode the sequence for it to protect the messenger from degradation. The experiments demonstrated that very fast...

  4. Integrating protection into food aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bizzarri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Food Programme (WFP does not have a specific protection mandate but its activities are increasingly shaped by awareness of the need to protect women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV.

  5. School Fire Protection: Contents Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The heart of a fire protection system is the sprinkler system. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) statistics show that automatic sprinklers dramatically reduce fire damage and loss of life. (Author)

  6. 感觉神经(元)对失神经骨骼肌超微结构保护作用的实验研究%Experimental study of the influence of sensory nerve (neuron) protection on the ultrastructure of denervated skeletal muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 李继峰; 钟慈声; 顾玉东

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of sensory nerve (neuron)protection on the ultrastructure of denervated skeletal muscle. Methods 60 SD rats were randomly divided into 10 groups, with 6 each. Group A of simple complete denervation of biceps brachii served as control. Groups B ~ E were experimental groups which standed for complete denervation with sensory nerve implantation, complete denervation with sensory nerve “ baby - sitting”, complete denervation with dorsal root ganglia implantation, and complete denervation with implantation of preganglionically avulsed sensory nerve respectively. 1 month and 3 months postoperatively, electron microscopic observation of the muscles was done. Results Compared to the control, less degenerated nucleus, minor mitochondria edema and sarcoplasmic reticulum enlargement, higher capillary/myofiber ratio, less interstitial fibroblast and collagen fibers, better oriented myomere and myofilament were seen in the experimental groups. Conclusions Sensory nerves or neurons can protect the ultrastructure of denervated skeletal muscle.%目的观察感觉神经(元)对失神经骨骼肌超微结构的保护作用。方法60只SD大鼠,按手术先后顺序随机分成10组,每组6只。A组(对照组):肱二头肌完全失神经支配。B~E组(实验组):B组为失神经支配加感觉神经种植组,C组为失神经支配加感觉神经寄养组,D组为失神经支配加背根神经节种植组,E组为节前撕脱的感觉神经种植组。术后1、3个月取材,各组又分为二个时间组。用透射电镜观察肌肉超微结构的变化。结果与对照组相比,各实验组肌肉退变核数少、线粒体肿胀及肌质网扩张程度轻、毛细血管/肌纤维数比值大、间质胶原纤维和成纤维细胞少、肌丝肌节排列整齐。结论感觉神经(元)对失神经骨骼肌超微结构有保护作用。

  7. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  8. Lightning protection of PV systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Enrico; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning strikes can affect photovoltaic (PV) generators and their installations, involving also the inverter's electronics. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the risk connected to lightning strikes in order to adopt the correct protective measures for the system. The Standard IEC (EN) 62305-2 reports the procedures for the risk calculation and for the choice of proper lightning protection systems. Usually the technical guidelines suggest protecting with SPDs (surge protective devices) b...

  9. Teeming stream protection using an argon shroud during casting of steel ingots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-jie; Bao, Yan-ping; Wang, Min; Zhang, Le-chen

    2017-01-01

    Two kinds of argon shroud protection devices with two different basic structures were designed and investigated. Industrial experiments and numerical simulations were used to examine the protection effect, and the mechanism of air entrapment during the casting of steel ingots was analyzed. The influence of the structure of the argon shroud protection device on the protection effect was investigated. An argon shroud protection device mounted to the nozzle holder on the bottom of the ladle does not provide a good protection effect because air can easily flow into the teeming system and cause reoxidation of molten steel during teeming. By contrast, an argon shroud protection device seated on the top of the central trumpet provides an excellent protection effect, where air has little chance of flowing into the teeming system during casting. The feasibilities of the argon shroud protection devices are discussed.

  10. Machine Protection: Availability for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, Andrea; Schmidt, Ruediger

    2015-03-16

    Machine availability is a key indicator for the performance of the next generation of particle accelerators. Availability requirements need to be carefully considered during the design phase to achieve challenging objectives in different fields, as e.g. particle physics and material science. For existing and future High-Power facilities, such as ESS (European Spallation Source) and HL-LHC (High-Luminosity LHC), operation with unprecedented beam power requires highly dependable Machine Protection Systems (MPS) to avoid any damage-induced downtime. Due to the high complexity of accelerator systems, finding the optimal balance between equipment safety and accelerator availability is challenging. The MPS architecture, as well as the choice of electronic components, have a large influence on the achievable level of availability. In this thesis novel methods to address the availability of accelerators and their protection systems are presented. Examples of studies related to dependable MPS architectures are given i...

  11. Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głuszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

  12. Functionality of Ventilated Facades: Protection of Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrichenko Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about methods of construction of the ventilated facades. The ventilated facade is not only the element of facing, it is the supporting structure. Their main objective - creation of air ventilating space between a facade and an external wall of the building. Moving of air in this gap protects a heater from destruction, interfering with a moisture congestion. In addition, the ventilated facade protect the building from aggressive influence of external environment, have a sound and thermal insulation properties. There are several problems of systems of the ventilated facades connected with an application of a heater. For more effective using it is necessary to minimize contact of a heater with environment.

  13. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the use of nanomaterials to prevent corrosion. The first section deals with the fundamentals of corrosion prevention using nanomaterials. Part two includes a series of case studies and applications of nanomaterials for corrosion control.$bCorrosion is an expensive and potentially dangerous problem in many industries. The potential application of different nanostructured materials in corrosion protection, prevention and control is a subject of increasing interest. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials explores the potential use of nanotechnology in corrosion control. The book is divided into two parts. Part one looks at the fundamentals of corrosion behaviour and the manufacture of nanocrystalline materials. Chapters discuss the impact of nanotechnology in reducing corrosion cost, and investigate the influence of various factors including thermodynamics, kinetics and grain size on the corrosion behaviour of nanocrystalline materials. There are also chapters on electrodeposition ...

  14. Dicyclopropylmethyl peptide backbone protectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpino, Louis A; Nasr, Khaled; Abdel-Maksoud, Adel Ali; El-Faham, Ayman; Ionescu, Dumitru; Henklein, Peter; Wenschuh, Holger; Beyermann, Michael; Krause, Eberhard; Bienert, Michael

    2009-08-20

    The N-dicyclopropylmethyl (Dcpm) residue, introduced into amino acids via reaction of dicyclopropylmethanimine hydrochloride with an amino acid ester followed by sodium cyanoborohydride or triacetoxyborohydride reduction, can be used as an amide bond protectant for peptide synthesis. Examples which demonstrate the amelioration of aggregation effects include syntheses of the alanine decapeptide and the prion peptide (106-126). Avoidance of cyclization to the aminosuccinimide followed substitution of Fmoc-(Dcpm)Gly-OH for Fmoc-Gly-OH in the assembly of sequences containing the sensitive Asp-Gly unit.

  15. Writing wildlife protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左丹妮

    2013-01-01

      Get the students to pay more attention to environmental protection.这篇书面表达是以漫画为材料的半开放式作文,只给出了中文的题目:“师傅被熏晕了”。通过观察不难发现漫画中师徒四人都表情痛苦,究其根源都是因为河水太黑太脏的缘故。

  16. Urocortin and cardiovascular protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu HUANG; Xiao-qiang YAO; Chi-wai LAU; Yau-chi CHAN; Suk-ying TSANG; Franky Leung CHAN

    2004-01-01

    Urocortin and other hypothalamus corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) polypeptides play biologically diverse roles in the stress, cardiovascular and inflammatory responses by acting on central and peripheral CRF receptors.Urocortin shows a significantly high sequence homology to CRF, and the concurrent expression of type-2 CRF (CRF2) receptors with urocortin in the heart suggests that urocortin may play a physiological role in the cardiac function. Urocortin is thought to be the endogenous agonist producing the cardiovascular actions previously attributed to CRF. This review highlights the current novel findings on the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which urocortin may exert its cardiovascular protective action.

  17. RHIC prefire protection masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, A.; Biscardi, C.; Curcio, T.; Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Fu, W.; Liaw, C. J.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2015-01-07

    The protection of the RHIC experimental detectors from damage due to beam hitting close upstream elements in cases of abort kicker prefires requires some dedicated precautionary measures with two general options: to bring the beam close to a limiting aperture (i.e. the beam pipe wall), as far upstream of the detector components as possible or, alternatively, to bring a limiting aperture close to the circulating beam. Spontaneous and random prefires of abort kicker modules (Pulse Forming Network, PFN) have a history as long as RHIC is being operated. The abort system consist of 5 kickers in per ring, each of them equipped with its own dedicated PFN.

  18. Protective measures for personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, J.J.

    1946-12-13

    This document addresses radiation protection concerns for workers in the experimental laboratories and production plants where nuclear fission piles are being used. A broad in-depth discussion is provided based with the experiences gained in the Manhattan Project and being applied to contemporary activities. Discussion is thorough and encompasses control of external irradiations including alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron radiations; and control of radioactivity within the body by control of inhalation, ingestion, and entrance through skin or wounds. General measures for the control of radiation hazards is addressed by provision of clothing and waste disposal. An Appendix 1 is entitled General Rules and Procedures Concerning Activity Hazards.

  19. Radiation protection considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, C; Urscheler, C; Vincke, H

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the legal Radiation Protection (RP) framework to be considered in the design of HiLumi LHC. It details design limits and constraints, dose objectives and explains how the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) approach is formalized at CERN. Furthermore, features of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code are summarized that are of relevance for RP studies. Results of FLUKA simulations for residual dose rates during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are compared to measurements demonstrating good agreement and providing proof for the accuracy of FLUKA predictions for future shutdowns. Finally, an outlook for the residual dose rate evolution until LS3 is given.

  20. Characteristics of Overvoltage Protection with Cascade Application of Surge Protective Devices in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULOVIC, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Surge Protective Devices (SPDs are widely used for protection of the equipment in low-voltage AC power circuits against wide variety of surges. Cascade application of SPDs starting at the service entrance of a building and downstream toward near sensitive equipment is intended to ensure optimal energy distribution among installed SPDs, as well as proper equipment protection against surges. Characteristics of overvoltage protection with two-stage application of SPDs have been analyzed in the paper through performed measurements, followed by simulations and numerical modeling using the ATP/EMTP and MATLAB Simulink. Parametric analysis of the protection's characteristics in wide range of influencing factors has been performed in order to define a set of applicable solutions for proper selection and performance of SPDs.

  1. National Perspectives on Data Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurow, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of different approaches to protecting personal information in Europe and the United States highlights data protection laws and agreements (international transfer of personal data, European laws, United States state and federal laws), United States and European views of privacy protection, national economic and political goals, and…

  2. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  3. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  4. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  5. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  6. Data Protection from Insider Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Bertino, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    As data represents a key asset, organizations increasingly face the problem of protecting data from theft and misuse. Even though several data security techniques are available to protect data and computing infrastructures, many techniques, such as firewalls and network security tools, are unable to protect data from attacks by an organizations� insiders. Insiders are usually users who have authorized access to the organization information systems and therefore protecting data from these users is challenging. This lecture discusses several techniques that can provide effective protection aga

  7. The gender problem in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

  8. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  9. Protective Measurement and Quantum Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan

    2015-01-01

    1. Protective measurements: an introduction Shan Gao; Part I. Fundamentals and Applications: 2. Protective measurements of the wave function of a single system Lev Vaidman; 3. Protective measurement, postselection and the Heisenberg representation Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; 4. Protective and state measurement: a review Gennaro Auletta; 5. Determination of the stationary basis from protective measurement on a single system Lajos Diósi; 6. Weak measurements, the energy-momentum tensor and the Bohm approach Robert Flack and Basil J. Hiley; Part II. Meanings and Implications: 7. Measurement and metaphysics Peter J. Lewis; 8. Protective measurements and the explanatory gambit Michael Dickson; 9. Realism and instrumentalism about the wave function: how should we choose? Mauro Dorato and Frederico Laudisa; 10. Protective measurements and the PBR theorem Guy Hetzroni and Daniel Rohrlich; 11. The roads not taken: empty waves, waveform collapse and protective measurement in quantum theory Peter Holland; 12. Implications of protective measurements on de Broglie-Bohm trajectories Aurelien Drezet; 13. Entanglement, scaling, and the meaning of the wave function in protective measurement Maximilian Schlosshauer and Tangereen V. B. Claringbold; 14. Protective measurements and the nature of the wave function within the primitive ontology approach Vincent Lam; 15. Reality and meaning of the wave function Shan Gao; Index.

  10. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  11. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  12. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  13. Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, R. J.

    2004-07-01

    As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial ''elephants in the room''. They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the

  14. Space radiation protection issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-11-01

    The complex charged particle environments in space pose considerable challenges with regard to potential health consequences that can impact mission design and crew selection. The lack of knowledge of the biological effects of different ions in isolation and in combination is a particular concern because the risk uncertainties are very high for both cancer and non-cancer late effects. Reducing the uncertainties is of high priority. Two principal components of space radiation each raise different concerns. Solar particle events (SPE) occur sporadically and are comprised primarily of low- to moderate-energy protons. Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is isotropic and relatively invariant in dose rate. GCR is also dominated by protons, but the energy range is wider than in SPE. In addition, the contribution of other light and heavy ions to the health risks from GCR must be addressed. This paper will introduce the principal issues under consideration for space radiation protection.

  15. Hardware protection through obfuscation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Tehranipoor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various threats faced during design and fabrication by today’s integrated circuits (ICs) and systems. The authors discuss key issues, including illegal manufacturing of ICs or “IC Overproduction,” insertion of malicious circuits, referred as “Hardware Trojans”, which cause in-field chip/system malfunction, and reverse engineering and piracy of hardware intellectual property (IP). The authors provide a timely discussion of these threats, along with techniques for IC protection based on hardware obfuscation, which makes reverse-engineering an IC design infeasible for adversaries and untrusted parties with any reasonable amount of resources. This exhaustive study includes a review of the hardware obfuscation methods developed at each level of abstraction (RTL, gate, and layout) for conventional IC manufacturing, new forms of obfuscation for emerging integration strategies (split manufacturing, 2.5D ICs, and 3D ICs), and on-chip infrastructure needed for secure exchange o...

  16. Radiation protection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

  17. Decontamination and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J.C.; Dhein, E.H.; Morgenthau, M.

    1954-01-01

    Test panels, four ft square, of 14 building materials were mounted on the weather surfaces of two remotely controlled liberty ships and on a stationary barge. One of the ships was protected by a washdown system. All surfaces were contaminated significantly with tenacious fallout. Vertical surfaces facing upwind became equally or more highly contaminated than horizontal or pitched surfaces, probably due to wind currents impacting the tenacious contaminant onto surfaces normal to it. A sequence of hosing and vigorous scrubbing operations resulted in contamination reductions of 40 to 70%, but with reductions on most surfaces being less than 50%. The most effective decontamination method was scrubbing. Under the conditions of this test, painting and joint sealing had little effect while the washdown countermeasure reduced the initial contamination over 90%. It is concluded that contamination from fallout encountered in these tests presents a serious decontamination problem on buildings and paved areas and further development of effective countermeasures is necessary.

  18. Farmers' use of personal protective equipment during handling of plant protection products: Determinants of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2016-11-15

    Understanding factors affecting the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during handling of plant protection products (PPPs) is of major importance for the design of tailored interventions to minimize exposure among farmers. However, data regarding this issue are highly limited. Factors related to the use of PPE during handling of PPPs were explored in a survey of cotton farmers in northern Greece. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the farmers based on a questionnaire with structured items on the frequency of use of various personal protective devices during handling of PPPs. New evidence on patterns of PPE use and potential exposure of farmers to PPPs is provided. Most farmers (49.3%) showed potentially unsafe behaviour with respect to PPE use. Hat and boots were the most commonly used protective items during PPPs use, but most of the farmers surveyed reported low frequency of use for gloves, goggles, face mask, coveralls, and respirator. Especially the respirator was reported to be the least used PPE item amongst farmers. Farmers who perceived PPPs as harmful substances or those who had an episode of intoxication in the past reported more frequent use of several PPE items. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the variable episode of intoxication in the past exerted the strongest positive influence on PPE use, followed by the perception of PPPs being hazardous substances, upper secondary education, previous training on PPPs (i.e., spraying equipment, application parameters, risks to human health and environment, safety issues) and farm size under cultivation. Old age exerted a significant negative influence on PPE use, namely, elderly farmers tended not to use PPE. Strategies to maximize the protection of applicators of PPPs from hazardous exposures still require innovation to achieve increased effectiveness. Emphasis on lifelong training and education of farmers about hazards and risks of PPPs is crucial for changing

  19. PROTECTION OF ENERGY CONSUMERS IN THE ECONOMIES OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper realizes an analyze of the position of the energy consumers and presents some ways of influencing the behaviour of the energy consumers. The paper dealt also with the issue of the protection of domestic electricity and gas consumer which aims, in particular, its rights to receive energy at any time, in safe conditions and at affordable prices.

  20. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  1. The Influence of Diabetes Mellitus in Myocardial Ischemic Preconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cury Rezende

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic preconditioning (IP is a powerful mechanism of protection discovered in the heart in which ischemia paradoxically protects the myocardium against other ischemic insults. Many factors such as diseases and medications may influence IP expression. Although diabetes poses higher cardiovascular risk, the physiopathology underlying this condition is uncertain. Moreover, although diabetes is believed to alter intracellular pathways related to myocardial protective mechanisms, it is still controversial whether diabetes may interfere with ischemic preconditioning and whether this might influence clinical outcomes. This review article looks at published reports with animal models and humans that tried to evaluate the possible influence of diabetes in myocardial ischemic preconditioning.

  2. The Influence of Diabetes Mellitus in Myocardial Ischemic Preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Paulo Cury; Rahmi, Rosa Maria; Hueb, Whady

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is a powerful mechanism of protection discovered in the heart in which ischemia paradoxically protects the myocardium against other ischemic insults. Many factors such as diseases and medications may influence IP expression. Although diabetes poses higher cardiovascular risk, the physiopathology underlying this condition is uncertain. Moreover, although diabetes is believed to alter intracellular pathways related to myocardial protective mechanisms, it is still controversial whether diabetes may interfere with ischemic preconditioning and whether this might influence clinical outcomes. This review article looks at published reports with animal models and humans that tried to evaluate the possible influence of diabetes in myocardial ischemic preconditioning.

  3. Protective link for superconducting coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2009-12-08

    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  4. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh

  5. Specified problems of consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    KRCHOVÁ, Ladislava

    2009-01-01

    Problems of consumer protection are always on the surface and they concern all of us. Consumer protection should not only be important for consumers, but for all of society as well. The aim of consumer protection is the existence of convenient consumer rights, supervisory institutions and consumer organizations. The task of these consumer organizations is giving information, advising and educating consumers. The well-educated and informed consumer will be equal partners with sellers, who are ...

  6. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public: Federal...: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD),...

  7. Protection of industrial power systems

    CERN Document Server

    DAVIES, T

    2006-01-01

    The protection which is installed on an industrial power system is likely to be subjected to more difficult conditions than the protection on any other kind of power system. Starting with the many simple devices which are employed and covering the whole area of industrial power system protection, this book aims to help achieve a thorough understanding of the protection necessary.Vital aspects such as the modern cartridge fuse, types of relays, and the role of the current transformer are covered and the widely used inverse definite-minimum time overcurrent relay, the theory of the M

  8. CEBAF - environmental protection program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    An important objective in the successful operation of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is to ensure protection of the public and the environment. To meet this objective, the Southeastern Universities Research Association, Inc., (SURA) is committed to working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop, implement, and manage a sound and workable environmental protection program at CEBAF. This environmental protection plan includes information on environmental monitoring, long-range monitoring, groundwater protection, waste minimization, and pollution prevention awareness program plan.

  9. Using ecological null models to assess the potential for marine protected area networks to protect biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Brice X; Auster, Peter J; Paddack, Michelle J

    2010-01-27

    Marine protected area (MPA) networks have been proposed as a principal method for conserving biological diversity, yet patterns of diversity may ultimately complicate or compromise the development of such networks. We show how a series of ecological null models can be applied to assemblage data across sites in order to identify non-random biological patterns likely to influence the effectiveness of MPA network design. We use fish census data from Caribbean fore-reefs as a test system and demonstrate that: 1) site assemblages were nested, such that species found on sites with relatively few species were subsets of those found on sites with relatively many species, 2) species co-occurred across sites more than expected by chance once species-habitat associations were accounted for, and 3) guilds were most evenly represented at the richest sites and richness among all guilds was correlated (i.e., species and trophic diversity were closely linked). These results suggest that the emerging Caribbean marine protected area network will likely be successful at protecting regional diversity even if planning is largely constrained by insular, inventory-based design efforts. By recasting ecological null models as tests of assemblage patterns likely to influence management action, we demonstrate how these classic tools of ecological theory can be brought to bear in applied conservation problems.

  10. Using ecological null models to assess the potential for marine protected area networks to protect biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice X Semmens

    Full Text Available Marine protected area (MPA networks have been proposed as a principal method for conserving biological diversity, yet patterns of diversity may ultimately complicate or compromise the development of such networks. We show how a series of ecological null models can be applied to assemblage data across sites in order to identify non-random biological patterns likely to influence the effectiveness of MPA network design. We use fish census data from Caribbean fore-reefs as a test system and demonstrate that: 1 site assemblages were nested, such that species found on sites with relatively few species were subsets of those found on sites with relatively many species, 2 species co-occurred across sites more than expected by chance once species-habitat associations were accounted for, and 3 guilds were most evenly represented at the richest sites and richness among all guilds was correlated (i.e., species and trophic diversity were closely linked. These results suggest that the emerging Caribbean marine protected area network will likely be successful at protecting regional diversity even if planning is largely constrained by insular, inventory-based design efforts. By recasting ecological null models as tests of assemblage patterns likely to influence management action, we demonstrate how these classic tools of ecological theory can be brought to bear in applied conservation problems.

  11. Obligatory Radiation Protection Course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Since February 2008, participation in the radiation protection course has been a prerequisite for obtaining a CERN personal dosimeter for all Staff Members and Users. All Staff and Users holding a personal dosimeter were informed by the Bulletin and by a personal e-mail sent in February 2008 that they were required to participate in the course before the annual exchange of their dosimeter. Many people had not done so by that time and the Dosimetry Service exceptionally classified them for 2 months as short-term visitors (VCT), a category of monitored personnel to whom the training requirement does not presently apply. As all personnel concerned have since had time to participate in an RP course, this "grace period" will no longer be granted as of 1 October 2008 and the RP course must be completed before the personal dosimeter is exchanged. For newcomers to CERN, and for those returning to CERN after an absence of more than 1 year, one registration as a VCT for two months ...

  12. Corrosion protection by anaerobiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkland, H P; Harms, H; Wanner; Zehnder, A J

    2001-01-01

    Biofilm-forming bacteria can protect mild (unalloyed) steel from corrosion. Mild steel coupons incubated with Rhodoccocus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 in an aerobic phosphate-buffered medium containing benzoate as carbon and energy source, underwent a surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer [Fe3(PO4)2]. Electrochemical potential (E) measurements allowed us to follow the buildup of the vivianite cover. The presence of sufficient metabolically active bacteria at the steel surface resulted in an E decrease to -510 mV, the potential of free iron, and a continuous release of ferrous iron. Part of the dissolved iron precipitated as vivianite in a compact layer of two to three microns in thickness. This layer prevented corrosion of mild steel for over two weeks, even in a highly corrosive medium. A concentration of 20 mM phosphate in the medium was found to be a prerequisite for the formation of the vivianite layer.

  13. Protecting a pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.H (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Garcia-Lopez, M. (Ingenieria y Geotecnia Ltda., Santafe de Bogota (Colombia))

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  14. Optical Fiber Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    F&S Inc. developed and commercialized fiber optic and microelectromechanical systems- (MEMS) based instrumentation for harsh environments encountered in the aerospace industry. The NASA SBIR programs have provided F&S the funds and the technology to develop ruggedized coatings and coating techniques that are applied during the optical fiber draw process. The F&S optical fiber fabrication facility and developed coating methods enable F&S to manufacture specialty optical fiber with custom designed refractive index profiles and protective or active coatings. F&S has demonstrated sputtered coatings using metals and ceramics and combinations of each, and has also developed techniques to apply thin coatings of specialized polyimides formulated at NASA Langley Research Center. With these capabilities, F&S has produced cost-effective, reliable instrumentation and sensors capable of withstanding temperatures up to 800? C and continues building commercial sales with corporate partners and private funding. More recently, F&S has adapted the same sensing platforms to provide the rapid detection and identification of chemical and biological agents

  15. Systematic approach in protection and ergonomics testing personal protective equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog. E.A. den

    2009-01-01

    In the area of personal protection against chemical and biological (CB) agents there is a strong focus on testing the materials against the relevant threats. The testing programs in this area are elaborate and are aimed to guarantee that the material protects according to specifications. This

  16. Modeling thermal protection outfits for fire exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guowen

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed that successfully predicts heat transfer through thermally protective clothing materials and garments exposed to intense heat. The model considers the effect of fire exposure to the thermophysical properties of materials as well as the air layers between the clothing material and skin surface. These experiments involved characterizing the flash fire surrounding the manikin by measuring the temperature of the flame above each thermal sensor in the manikin surface. An estimation method is used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient for each thermal sensor in a 4 second exposure to an average heat flux of 2.00cal/cm2sec. A parameter estimation method was used to estimate heat induced change in fabric thermophysical properties. The skin-clothe air gap distribution of different garments was determined using three-dimensional body scanning technology. Multi-layer skin model and a burn prediction method were used to predict second and third degree burns. The integrated generalized model developed was validated using the "Pyroman" Thermal Protective Clothing Analysis System with Kevlar/PBIRTM and NomexRTMIIIA coverall garments with different configuration and exposure time. A parametric study conducted using this numerical model indicated the influencing parameters on garment thermal protective performance in terms of skin burn damage subjected to 4 second flash fire exposure. The importance of these parameters is analyzed and distinguished. These parameters includes fabric thermophysical properties, PyromanRTM chamber flash fire characteristics, garment shrinkage and fit factors, as well as garment initial and test ambient temperature. Different skin models and their influence on burn prediction were also investigated using this model.

  17. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan; Cheng, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-02-02

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  18. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  19. Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröde, P.; Kuklane, K.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Nocker, W.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were

  20. THERMAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PROCESS OF GAS AND THERMAL PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Spiridonov; I. O. Sokorov; M. V. Niaroda

    2008-01-01

    The paper reveals thermal zones of magnetic and electric grinding process. The influence of electric and physical parameters of magnetic and electric grinding on temperature in the zone of gas and thermal protective coatings has been established in the paper.

  1. Chirality in thiolate-protected gold clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppe, Stefan; Bürgi, Thomas

    2014-04-15

    Over recent years, research on thiolate-protected gold clusters Au(m)(SR)n has gained significant interest. Milestones were the successful determination of a series of crystal structures (Au102(SR)44, Au25(SR)18, Au38(SR)24, Au36(SR)24, and Au28(SR)20). For Au102(SR)44, Au38(SR)24, and Au28(SR)20, intrinsic chirality was found. Strong Cotton effects (circular dichroism, CD) of gold clusters protected by chiral ligands have been reported a long time ago, indicating the transfer of chiral information from the ligand into the cluster core. Our lab has done extensive studies on chiral thiolate-protected gold clusters, including those protected with chiral ligands. We demonstrated that vibrational circular dichroism can serve as a useful tool for the determination of conformation of the ligand on the surface of the cluster. The first reports on crystal structures of Au102(SR)44 and Au38(SR)24 revealed the intrinsic chirality of these clusters. Their chirality mainly arises from the arrangement of the ligands on the surface of the cluster cores. As achiral ligands are used to stabilize the clusters, racemic mixtures are obtained. However, the separation of the enantiomers by HPLC was demonstrated which enabled the measurement of their CD spectra. Thermally induced inversion allows determination of the activation parameters for their racemization. The inversion demonstrates that the gold-thiolate interface is anything but fixed; in contrast, it is rather flexible. This result is of fundamental interest and needs to be considered in future applications. A second line of our research is the selective introduction of chiral, bidentate ligands into the ligand layer of intrinsically chiral gold clusters. The ligand exchange reaction is highly diastereoselective. The bidentate ligand connects two of the protecting units on the cluster surface and thus effectively stabilizes the cluster against thermally induced inversion. A minor (but significant) influence of chiral ligands to

  2. Study on the Effect of Pickled Cabbage using Freeze-drying Protective Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Long

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of pickled cabbage using biological material was researched in the study. Firstly, the research determined the centrifugal condition of bacterial sludge and then detected the influence of various protective agents on the survival rate of lactobacillus. The final test result can show the influence degree of various protective agents on the survival rate of the freeze-drying lactobacillus was sodium glutamate>skim milk>mannitol>sucrose>glycerol>maltose. The best formula of the protective agent was: the skim milk, sucrose, glycerol, maltose and sodium glutamate shall be 6% and the mannitol shall be 4%. The survival rate of the lactobacillus after using the sodium glutamate with the best protection effect can reach 65.5%. The experience proved that these protective agents and ratio can guarantee the nutrients in the pickled cabbage not destroyed.

  3. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  4. Myths and Misconceptions in Fall Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epp, R J

    2006-02-23

    Since 1973, when OSHA CFRs 1910 and 1926 began to influence the workplace, confusion about the interpretation of the standards has been a problem and fall protection issues are among them. This confusion is verified by the issuance of 351 (as of 11/25/05) Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA in response to formally submitted questions asking for clarification. Over the years, many workers and too many ES&H Professionals have become 'self-interpreters', reaching conclusions that do not conform to either the Standards or the published Interpretations. One conclusion that has been reached by the author is that many ES&H Professionals are either not aware of, or do not pay attention to the Standard Interpretations issued by OSHA, or the State OSHA interpretation mechanism, whoever has jurisdiction. If you fall in this category, you are doing your organization or clients a disservice and are not providing them with the best information available. Several myths and/or misconceptions have been promulgated to the point that they become accepted fact, until an incident occurs and OSHA becomes involved. For example, one very pervasive myth is that you are in compliance as long as you maintain a distance of 6 feet from the edge. No such carte blanche rule exists. In this presentation, this myth and several other common myths/misconceptions will be discussed. This presentation is focused only on Federal OSHA CFR1910 Subpart D--Walking-Working Surfaces, CFR1926 Subpart M--Fall Protection and the Fall Protection Standard Interpretation Letters. This presentation does not cover steel erection, aerial lifts and other fall protection issues. Your regulations will probably be different than those presented if you are operating under a State plan.

  5. INJECTION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH OF THE PROTECTIVE SCREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENEJLYUK A. I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. This article contains information about the methods and the planning principles used in experimental research study of the injection technology of impervious screen. Today, there are ways to create impervious screens and curtains solve soil protection issues in the field impermeable layer arrangement at a shallow depth. However, for Ukraine, in the burial sites of radiation and other wastes is urgent issue of protection of underground space in places with deep impermeable layer. Classical methods can not fully solve such problems. To solve them, you need to develop innovative technology to create such a screen, which will lie authentic sole object to be protected, at the project depth. For the experiments, it is necessary to choose the most important indicator, and technological factors affecting it. This is due to the fact that the proposed technology provides for lesser known technical solutions, the use of which should ultimately result in impervious screens with desired properties. Goal. The aim of this study is the selection of technological parameters of injection, design of experiments and the selection of indicators characterizing the efficient operation of the screen. Such constructs must first have almost zero permeability. In this paper, it was of interest to study the influence of process parameters on the filtration rate of the protective screen. Conclusion. As a result of the design of experiments, the basic technological factors that have a significant effect on the studied parameters. varying levels of these factors are also identified, which in turn makes it possible to determine the optimum process parameters creating a screen that meets all the desired properties and characteristics. Based on a series of experiments it is possible to obtain optimal formulations for different types of soils.

  6. Social Assessment of Specially Protected Natural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Viktorovna Mikhailova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to the consideration of functions of specially protected natural areas (SPNA in the development of society seek to determine the size of the territory withdrawn from agricultural use for the purposes of nature conservation; these approaches also aim to evaluate money revenue gained from these territories. However, the influence of SPNA on public life is not reduced to the “monetization” of the territory. People who live near conservation areas and experience the advantages (disadvantages of such neighbourhood should be the focus of the study of the social role of protected areas. The social role of SPNA in the life of local communities in the Arkhangelsk Oblast and the Karelia Republic was identified with the help of public opinion survey. In total 575 people participated in the survey. The research was carried out in the settlements located within the boundaries of Kenozersky and Vodlozersky national parks, and near Shilovsky Nature Reserve. When measuring the impact of conservation areas on the society of the neighbouring settlements, the authors define the axiological, emotional-and-psychological, activityand-regulatory, economic, forecasting and integrated components. The research findings show that the residents acknowledge the conservation value of protected areas; many of the inhabitants of adjacent territories do not experience inconveniences in connection with the special environmental regime, they earn income connected to the operation of SPNA; there is a positive attitude towards the activity of SPNA. If these areas cease functioning, then one third of the respondents expect negative changes in their life. Specially protected natural areas contribute to the socio-cultural and spiritual development of the local community to a greater extent in comparison with its socio-economic development. The presence of SPNA on the territory of the municipality opens up opportunities for new types of economic activities, provides

  7. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  8. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian L Galford

    Full Text Available Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results

  9. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Sonter, Laura J; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results suggest that 1

  10. Protecting the protectors of wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Carlos Gambarotta

    2007-01-01

    Preserving the last remnants of wild country requires effective legislation, adequate finances, and appropriate policies, but in addition it requires the permanent presence of dedicated park rangers. For the International Ranger Federation, a ranger is a person who works in protected areas, and, among other tasks, is responsible for the protection of the natural and...

  11. Adaptive protection algorithm and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA

    2009-04-28

    An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

  12. Google and personal data protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, B.; Zuiderveen Borgesius, F.; Lopez-Tarruella, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses the interplay between the European personal data protection regime and two specific Google services, Interest-Based Advertising and Google Street View. The chapter assesses first the applicability of the Data Protection Directive, then jurisdictional issues, the principles rel

  13. Micrometeorological principles of protected cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protected cultivation is a broad term commonly used among producers of specialty crops. Techniques can range from complex fixed structures to field site selection, to straightforward cultural practices in the field. This introduction to the ASHS workshop "Protected cultivation for fruit crops" consi...

  14. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised section

  15. A route towards immune protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Nibbelink, Milou

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a route towards an immune protective device for islet of Langerhans transplantation. We developed a protocol to use MIN6 β cells aggregates as pseudo-islets to overcome the donor shortage issue (chapter 3). In this thesis we explored two different immune protective strategies; a

  16. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunovac, Marina

    2014-01-01

    ... the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA), Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employme...

  17. Antitrust Policy and Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeru Matsumoto; Hajime Sugeta

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effects of antitrust policy (the prohibition of a input price discrimination) when an emission tax is used for environmental protection. We show that antitrust policy reduces pollution emission and improves social welfare. Therefore, antitrust policy contributes to environmental protection.

  18. Freeze Protection in Gas Holders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Duursma, Gail

    In cold weather, the water seals of gasholders need protection from freez- ing to avoid compromising the seal. These holders have a large reservoir of “tank water” at the base which is below ground. At present freeze- protection is achieved by external heating of the seal water which is in a slot...

  19. Guidelines for Protection in Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, Richard W.; And Others

    The report examines due process protections and requirements in evaluation as mandated by P.O. 94-142 (The Education for All Handicapped Children Act) and Maryland special education Bylaw. A checklist guide for Admission, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) personnel to ensure protection in evaluation is provided. Self check guidelines touch on 16…

  20. Reforming European Data Protection Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutwirth, S.; Leenes, R.E.; de Hert, P.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    This book on privacy and data protection offers readers conceptual analysis as well as thoughtful discussion of issues, practices, and solutions. It features results of the seventh annual International Conference on Computers, Privacy, and Data Protection, CPDP 2014, held in Brussels January 2014. T

  1. Nanocomposites for electromagnetic radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrunin, V. F., E-mail: VFPetrunin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Specific features that characterize nanoparticles and which are due to their small size and allow one to enhance the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and nanostructured materials and to develop the effective protection of man and equipment against harmful uncontrolled radiation are reported. Examples of the development of nanocomposite radar absorbing materials that can be used for protection of man and equipment are presented.

  2. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi; Maryam Zare; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad; Elham Naghshineh

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  3. The Environmental Right as a Human Right: Scientific Development and the Protection of Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN ZHONGLE

    2011-01-01

    @@ As environmental issues are attracting domestic and international attention,protection of environmental rights is becoming increasingly important in human rights affairs.Environmental protection involves economic development and social harmony, influences the maintenance and complete realization of people's rights to health, property and life, and is even related to the future existence of the whole human society.

  4. Frequency domain analysis of lightning protection using four lightning protection rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javor Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the lightning discharge channel is modeled as a vertical monopole antenna excited by a pulse generator at its base. The lightning electromagnetic field of a nearby lightning discharge in the case of lightning protection using four vertical lightning protection rods was determined in the frequency domain. Unknown current distributions were determined by numerical solving of a system of integral equations of two potentials using the Point Matching Method and polynomial approximation of the current distributions. The influence of the real ground, treated as homogeneous loss half-space of known electrical parameters, expressed through a Sommerfeld integral kernel, was modeled using a new Two-image approximation which gives good results in both near and far fields.

  5. [Data protection in rehabilitation research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, A K; Gerold, H; Breckenkamp, J; Bahmer, J; Klemke, R; Berg-Beckhoff, G; Horschke, A; Razum, O

    2014-08-01

    Data protection is regulated by legislation and has to be adhered to by scientists, too. This overview shows where aspects of data protection have to be considered in rehabilitation research. Important legal sources are the code of social law X, the German Federal Data Protection Act and the data protection acts of the German states. Specific recommendations about patient information sheet and written informed consent are given for research based on interviews with study participants. Furthermore, operations such as collecting, processing, using, storing, publishing and archiving of personal data are explained, taking into account the requirements of data protection. A practical example (URL: www.thieme-connect.de/ejournals/toc/rehabilitation) shows how to separate personal data and research data using the services of an external data custodian. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Protected Area Certificates: Gaining Ground for Better Ecosystem Protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstedt, Anna; Grote, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    Protected areas are vital to sustain a number of ecosystem services. Yet, many protected areas are underfinanced and lack management effectiveness. Protected area certificates have been suggested as a way to resolve these problems. This instrument would allow land managers to certify an area if it meets certain conservation criteria. The certificates could then be sold on an international market, for example to companies and any consumers that are interested in environmental protection. Some pilot initiatives have been launched, yet little is known about future demand and features of protected area certificates. To fill this knowledge gap, we conduct a choice experiment with close to 400 long-distance tourists from Germany as a potential group of buyers. Our results indicate that the respondents have the highest willingness to pay for certificates that conserve sensitive ecosystems and in addition to this lead to poverty reduction and safeguard water resources. For other attributes such as a greenhouse gas reduction, the preferences are less significant. Overall, the results are rather homogenous irrespective of where the protected areas are located. These insights are important for the future design and marketing of protected area certificates.

  7. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  8. Hand protection from ultraviolet exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazova, M.; O' Hagan, J.B. [Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Did cot (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A number of industrial applications and public services involve exposure to ultraviolet radiation (U.V.R.) from a variety of lamps and lasers, for example, in forensic examination, biological trans-illuminators, dentistry, laser material processing, microelectronics, etc. The proposed European Union Directive on Optical Radiation would place specific requirements on employers to provide adequate safety measures to reduce exposure to U.V.R., including gloves for hand protection. The selection of gloves should be based on a risk assessment and on the performance characteristics of the gloves for the task. However, current International and national standards do not describe evaluation procedures of disposable gloves for hand protection against non-ionising radiation. A methodology for assessment of the UV protection level for disposable gloves and a simple measurement protocol are proposed, based on a common approach with UV protection by clothing and sunscreens. Glove Ultraviolet Protection Factor is defined as a time-scale increase in exposure permitted for the hand protected by a glove with respect to an unprotected hand. However, the wide variety of U.V.R. sources and the real-life conditions of glove use (stretching and wetting the surface by liquids) bring substantial challenges to the assessment method. Our study of {approx} 50 samples of widely used disposable gloves made of different materials (nitrile, vinyl, latex and chloroprene) showed that for all tested gloves a change in U.V.R. attenuation with stretching is characteristic for the type of glove material and can be included as a scaling factor in the definition of U.V.R. protection. Glove material has a bigger effect on U.V.R. protection level than variations in the glove thickness or its colour. The following approaches are suggested to overcome the problem of variable U.V.R. sources: - Worst case scenario minimal protection level, most restrictive case - Application

  9. The Influence of Diabetes Mellitus in Myocardial Ischemic Preconditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Cury Rezende; Rosa Maria Rahmi; Whady Hueb

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is a powerful mechanism of protection discovered in the heart in which ischemia paradoxically protects the myocardium against other ischemic insults. Many factors such as diseases and medications may influence IP expression. Although diabetes poses higher cardiovascular risk, the physiopathology underlying this condition is uncertain. Moreover, although diabetes is believed to alter intracellular pathways related to myocardial protective mechanisms, it is still c...

  10. Movements of Diplodus sargus (Sparidae) within a Portuguese coastal Marine Protected Area: Are they really protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Ana Filipa; Pereira, Tadeu José; Quintella, Bernardo Ruivo; Castro, Nuno; Costa, José Lino; de Almeida, Pedro Raposo

    2016-03-01

    Mark-recapture tagging and acoustic telemetry were used to study the movements of Diplodus sargus within the Pessegueiro Island no-take Marine Protected Area (MPA), (Portugal) and assess its size adequacy for this species' protection against fishing activities. Therefore, 894 Diplodus sargus were captured and marked with conventional plastic t-bar tags. At the same time, 19 D. sargus were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored by 20 automatic acoustic receivers inside the no-take MPA for 60 days. Recapture rate of conventionally tagged specimens was 3.47%, most occurring during subsequent marking campaigns. One individual however was recaptured by recreational fishermen near Faro (ca. 250 km from the tagging location) 6 months after release. Furthermore, three specimens were recaptured in October 2013 near releasing site, one year after being tagged. Regarding acoustic telemetry, 18 specimens were detected by the receivers during most of the study period. To analyse no-take MPA use, the study site was divided into five areas reflecting habitat characteristics, three of which were frequently used by the tagged fish: Exterior, Interior Protected and Interior Exposed areas. Information on no-take protected area use was also analysed according to diel and tidal patterns. Preferred passageways and permanence areas were identified and high site fidelity was confirmed. The interaction between tide and time of day influenced space use patterns, with higher and more variable movements during daytime and neap tides. This no-take MPA proved to be an important refuge and feeding area for this species, encompassing most of the home ranges of tagged specimens. Therefore, it is likely that this no-take MPA is of adequate size to protect D. sargus against fishing activities, thus contributing to its sustainable management in the region.

  11. Linguistic Imperialism and Chinese Language and Culture Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾杰

    2014-01-01

    Influenced by the English imperialism theory proposed by Danish linguist Robert Philipson,the rapid development and popularity of English in the whole world have aroused debates among English hegemony.Some scholars in China are much concerned about the hegemony’s threat to Chinese language and culture and raised the concept of language and culture protection.Nevertheless,the author maintain that while caring about the adverse impact caused by English hegemony,the Chinese language and culture need to be protected,meanwhile,al-inclusive attitude shal be adopted towards English and western culture to enhance the communication and interaction between Chinese and English languages and cultures.

  12. Adaptive Distance Protection for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation resources, more and more microgrids can be found in distribution systems. This paper proposes a phasor measurement unit based distance protection strategy for microgrids in distribution system. At the same time, transfer tripping scheme...... is adopted to accelerate the tripping speed of the relays on the weak lines. The protection methodology is tested on a mid-voltage microgrid network in Aalborg, Denmark. The results show that the adaptive distance protection methodology has good selectivity and sensitivity. What is more, this system also has...

  13. Beam Transfer and Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    Beam transfer, such as injection into or extraction from an accelerator, is one of the most critical moments in terms of machine protection in a high-intensity machine. Special equipment is used and machine protection aspects have to be taken into account in the design of the beam transfer concepts. A brief introduction of the principles of beam transfer and the equipment involved will be given in this lecture. The main concepts of machine protection for injection and extraction will be presented, with examples from the CERN SPS and LHC.

  14. Protection contre les radiations recommandations

    CERN Document Server

    Claude, A; Kipfer, P; Bacq, Z

    Considérations générales ; mesures de sécurité vis-à-vis des sources de rayonnement externes ; mesures de sécurité vis-à-vis des radioisotopes ; étude spéciale de la protection dans quelques cas particuliers ; mesures de sécurité vis-à-vis des neutrons ; mesures de protection pour les appareils de supervoltage ; appareils physiques de mesure et de contrôle pour la protection.

  15. Protected electrode structures and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Laramie, Michael G.; Kopera, John Joseph Christopher

    2017-08-08

    An electrode structure and its method of manufacture are disclosed. The disclosed electrode structures may be manufactured by depositing a first release layer on a first carrier substrate. A first protective layer may be deposited on a surface of the first release layer and a first electroactive material layer may then be deposited on the first protective layer. The first release layer may have a low mean peak to valley surface roughness, which may enable the formation of a thin protective layer with a low mean peak to valley surface roughness.

  16. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  17. Protecting yourself online for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Muir, Nancy C

    2014-01-01

    Protect your privacy and use the internet safely! Don't let news about internet risks deter you from taking full advantage of its benefits! The web is such an amazing and useful resource for connecting with friends and family, shopping, banking, catching up on current events, and getting help in a myriad of ways. Let AARP's Protecting Yourself Online For Dummies arm you with the information you need to use the internet with confidence. You'll learn: How and why risks can occurSteps to protect yourself from identity theft, fraud, and e-mail scamsExpert tips for creating strong passwords and s

  18. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  19. LHC injection and dump protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Rossi, A; Wollmann, D

    2010-01-01

    The machine protection against fast failures including injection or dump kickers relies on fixed and movable devices. Results will be shown from the low-intensity beam commissioning of the moveable injection protection devices in the SPS to LHC transfer lines and downstream of the LHC injection kickers, and of the LHC dump protection elements in IR6. This paper is almost exclusively focussing on the issues arising during the 2009 commissioning. The implications of these results and a commissioning status report with the planning for 2010 will be addressed.

  20. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  1. Catalysts, Protection Layers, and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest solar fuel to produce and in this presentation we shall give a short overview of the pros and cons of various tandem devices [1]. The large band gap semiconductor needs to be in front, but apart from that we can chose to have either the anode in front or back using either...... acid or alkaline conditions. Since most relevant semiconductors are very prone to corrosion the advantage of using buried junctions and using protection layers offering shall be discussed [2-4]. Next we shall discuss the availability of various catalysts for being coupled to these protections layers...... and how their stability may be evaluated [5, 6]. Examples of half-cell reaction using protection layers for both cathode and anode will be discussed though some of recent examples under both alkaline and acidic conditions. Si is a very good low band gap semiconductor and by using TiO2 as a protection...

  2. Improved design for frontal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, N.; Vendrig, R.; Houtzager, K.

    2001-01-01

    The requirements of frontal impact legislation and the comparative evaluations of consumer organizations have improved occupant crash protection. Passenger vehicle bodies have crumple zones developed through rigid flat barrier testing and improved passenger cell stability has resulted from considera

  3. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... this page please turn Javascript on. Important new vaccines have recently been approved for use and are ...

  4. Protecting Yourself from Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from He at Stress Heat stress, from exertion or hot environments, places workers at risk for illnesses such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Heat Stroke ...

  5. IMPROVING SUBSTANTIVE AND PROCEDURAL PROTECTIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific environmental rights in their newest Constitution has effectively acknowledged .... for environmental protection.22 Many believe that an important part of the .... impacted the broader development of indigenous peoples' human rights.57.

  6. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  7. SMART core protection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. K.; Park, H. Y.; Koo, I. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. S.; Kim, J. S.; Son, C. H. [Samchang Enterprise Co., Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    SMART COre Protection System(SCOPS) is designed with real-tims Digital Signal Processor(DSP) board and Network Interface Card(NIC) board. SCOPS has a Control Rod POSition (CRPOS) software module while Core Protection Calculator System(CPCS) consists of Core Protection Calculators(CPCs) and Control Element Assembly(CEA) Calculators(CEACs) in the commercial nuclear plant. It's not necessary to have a independent cabinets for SCOPS because SCOPS is physically very small. Then SCOPS is designed to share the cabinets with Plant Protection System(PPS) of SMART. Therefor it's very easy to maintain the system because CRPOS module is used instead of the computer with operating system.

  8. STRENGTHENING SOCIAL STRUCTURES FOR PROTECTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apusigah

    negative effects on victims but due to their socio-cultural significance, some girls ... meanings, while drawing on the positive aspects of culture to protect women. .... the norm especially in the urban areas and amid sweeping globalization and.

  9. Special Protection Area Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Special Protection Area (SPA) is a geographic area designated by the County Council which has high quality or unusually sensitive water resources and environmental...

  10. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  11. Food Protection Has Many Facets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)

  12. Foundations of hardware IP protection

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the design of security-hardened, hardware intellectual property (IP). Readers will learn how IP can be threatened, as well as protected, by using means such as hardware obfuscation/camouflaging, watermarking, fingerprinting (PUF), functional locking, remote activation, hidden transmission of data, hardware Trojan detection, protection against hardware Trojan, use of secure element, ultra-lightweight cryptography, and digital rights management. This book serves as a single-source reference to design space exploration of hardware security and IP protection. · Provides readers with a comprehensive overview of hardware intellectual property (IP) security, describing threat models and presenting means of protection, from integrated circuit layout to digital rights management of IP; · Enables readers to transpose techniques fundamental to digital rights management (DRM) to the realm of hardware IP security; · Introduce designers to the concept of salutar...

  13. PERSONAL LEADERSHIP PROTECTS RESEARCH SUBJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personal leadership promotes the ethical conduct of human research activities. Leadership entails application of one’s cognitive abilities, technical skills, and emotional intelligence during the conduct of research activities, Personal leadership assures human research subject protection....

  14. Protection of Information in Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Koren

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing production in its basic purpose expands the information. The information processing begins with the information receiving, then the preparation for printing, then printing itself and finally finishing the processed information. Of course, during these four steps, specially some prints are imperilled and have to be protected. An investigation was performed to establish the state of information imperilling in printing, in 96 companies with 498 interviewed persons. The questionnaire comprised 26 questions and 130 variables.The poll has shown the state of imperilling, specially the information protection in printing, with the aim to improve the protection measures. The investigation results can be used as the model for organizing the protection in printing companies.

  15. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  16. Globalization and Protection of Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Justina AV; Somogyi, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Unionists and politicians frequently claim that globalization lowers employment protection of workers. This paper tests this hypothesis in a panel of 28 OECD countries from 1985 to 2003, differentiating between three dimensions of globalization and two labor market segments. While overall globalization is shown to loosen protection of the regularly employed, it increases regulation in the segment of limited-term contracts. We find economic and political globalization to drive deregulation for...

  17. Health Protection Products Are Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    FooDS and beverages that are made from natural ingredients and advertised as therapies are sweeping the consumer market. The health protection products I’ve seen can be divided into five categories. They include: 1. Beverages: tea, haw juice, mineral water; 2. Medicinal liquids: royal jelly, black-boned chicken essence, softshelled turtle essence; 3. Health protection foods: brown rice powder, rice vinegar, asparagus juice, egg-white candy;

  18. Nanomodified magnesian schungite protective concrete

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Ryzhov; L.N. Potseluyeva

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing demand for building materials with low permeability to the radioactive gas radon and materials that have protective properties against radiation exposure and non-ionizing radiation. Formulations have been developed and now special building flooring and plaster radiation protective mixtures are commercially available. With the acceleration the pace of development of nuclear energy safe utilization of liquid and solid radioactive waste is a vital task for the surv...

  19. EMI protection for communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malaric, Kresimir

    2009-01-01

    This practical reference provides a thorough understanding of how to protect communication systems from intentional and unintentional electromagnetic interference. You learn how to overcome critical problems in both digital and analog communications. This unique resource shows you how to shield equipment from electrical and magnetic fields, design TEM and GTEM-Cell, build capacitive coupling clamps for susceptibility tests, protect electronic equipment with filters, and calculate the measurement uncertainty. You find numerous, well-illustrated examples that make challenging electromagnetics is

  20. Defects in new protective aprons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaze, S.; LeBlanc, A.D.; Bushong, S.C.

    1984-07-01

    Upon careful examination, several defects have been detected in new protective aprons. The nature of the defects is identified and described. Although the occurrence of such defects has not exceeded 5%, they are significant enough to warrant return of the lead apron to the supplier. It is recommended that the integrity of all new protective aprons be verified upon receipt as well as at yearly intervals.

  1. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).

  2. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  3. Protection limits on free speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2014-01-01

    Freedom of speech is one of the basic rights of citizens should receive broad protection, but in the real context of China under what kind of speech can be protected and be restricted, how to grasp between state power and free speech limit is a question worth considering. People tend to ignore the freedom of speech and its function, so that some of the rhetoric cannot be demonstrated in the open debates.

  4. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Bezerra Lira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  5. Social protection and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Craig; Bansha Dulal, Hari; Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    This article lays the foundation for this special issue on social protection and climate change, introducing and evaluating the ways in which the individual articles contribute to our understanding of the subject.......This article lays the foundation for this special issue on social protection and climate change, introducing and evaluating the ways in which the individual articles contribute to our understanding of the subject....

  6. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  7. Study of the Influence of Health Protection Supporter for Sleep on the Sleep Quality and Development of Head Shape of Newborns%睡眠支架对新生儿睡眠质量和头型发育影响的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂添; 谢丽群; 郭晶晶; 陈瑶

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨睡眠支架对新生儿睡眠状况和头型发育的影响。方法将2013年1-7月在该院住院期间足月单胎、母婴同室、母乳喂养、剖宫产的正常新生儿200例,随机分为实验组100例,应用“新生儿安全睡眠保健支架”,对照组100例,采取自由睡眠体位,观察新生儿出生后4d睡眠质量、6个月头部发育情况。结果实验组新生儿出生后4d内平均睡眠时间为(20.4±1.4) h,对照组出生后4 d内平均睡眠时间为(19.2±1.8)h,睡眠质量实验组好于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),实验组6个月后婴儿头型原头型占82.9%,对照组6个月后婴儿头型原头型占37.6%,头型发育实验组好于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论应用“新生儿安全睡眠保健支架”,能改善新生儿睡眠质量,对促进新生儿头型发育有一定影响。%Objective To investigate the influence of health protection supporter for sleep (HPSS) on the sleep quality and devel-opment of head shape of newborns. Methods We collected 200 normal infants who were full-term singleton, direct rooming-in, breastfed, and caesarean delivered in Guangdong Women and Children Hospital from January to July in 2013. And they were ran-domly divided into the experimental group of 100 cases, treated with HPSS and the control group of 100 cases treated with free sleep position. The sleep quality of the newborns 4 days after birth, head development situation of the newborns 6 months after birth were observed. Results The average sleep time 4 days after birth in the experimental group was 20.4 ±1.4 hours, and in the control group was 19.2±1.8 hours, the sleep quality of the experimental group was better than that of the control group, the differ-ence between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05); 6 months after birth, of the experimental group, 82.9% of the newborns had the original head shape

  8. Protection against recurrent stroke with resveratrol: endothelial protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Clark

    Full Text Available Despite increased risk of a recurrent stroke following a minor stroke, information is minimal regarding the interaction between injurious mild cerebral ischemic episodes and the possible treatments which might be effective. The aim of the current study was to investigate recurrent ischemic stroke and whether resveratrol, a nutritive polyphenol with promising cardio- and neuro- protective properties, could ameliorate the associated brain damage. Experiments in adult rats demonstrated that a mild ischemic stroke followed by a second mild cerebral ischemia exacerbated brain damage, and, daily oral resveratrol treatment after the first ischemic insult reduced ischemic cell death with the recurrent insult (P<0.002. Further investigation demonstrated reduction of both inflammatory changes and markers of oxidative stress in resveratrol treated animals. The protection observed with resveratrol treatment could not be explained by systemic effects of resveratrol treatment including effects either on blood pressure or body temperature measured telemetrically. Investigation of resveratrol effects on the blood-brain barrier in vivo demonstrated that resveratrol treatment reduced blood-brain barrier disruption and edema following recurrent stroke without affecting regional cerebral blood flow. Investigation of the mechanism in primary cell culture studies demonstrated that resveratrol treatment significantly protected endothelial cells against an in vitro 'ischemia' resulting in improved viability against oxygen and glucose deprivation (39.6 ± 6.6% and 81.3 ± 9.5% in vehicle and resveratrol treated cells, respectively. An inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis did not prevent the improved cell viability following oxygen glucose deprivation but SIRT-1 inhibition with sirtinol partially blocked the protection (P<0.001 suggesting endothelial protection is to some extent SIRT-1 dependent. Collectively, the results support that oral resveratrol treatment provides

  9. Chemical Solutions of Fire Protection Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhitova, L.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern approaches to the creation of fire protective coatings by modifying intumescent systems by nanomaterials with study of the chemical reaction mechanisms under the high temperatures influence were considered. A systematic study of the interactions of components of polyphosphate type intumescent blend were carried out, a well-defined correlations between the directions of chemical processes and fire retardant properties of intumescent coatings were found. Efficient ways to simultaneous increase of fireprotective efficiency and performance characteristics of intumescent coatings (operatin life, resistance to environmental factors and bioсontamination were proposed. The results of fundamental research allowed to develop new formulations of flame retardant compositions, whose properties have been confirmed by tests in accordance with existing standardized methods, these results were introduced into production.

  10. Marble protection: An inorganic electrokinetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meloni, Paola, E-mail: paola.meloni@dimcm.unica.it [Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering (DIMCM), University of Cagliari, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Manca, Francesco, E-mail: ing.francesco.manca@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering (DIMCM), University of Cagliari, Via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Carcangiu, Gianfranco, E-mail: gcarcan@unica.it [Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria (IGAG), CNR, Piazza d’Armi, 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    The influence of an electric potential difference in an aqueous solution was studied as a method for depositing a calcium oxalate coating over a weathered carbonatic stone. Samples of weathered Carrara white marble were treated at 15 and 50 °C for 5 h in an electrokinetic cell, specifically conceived for this study, containing a solution of ammonium oxalate (4% by weight), and were subsequently characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The electrokinetic treatment proved to be a cost effective and time saving process, able to produce a thick and homogeneous calcium oxalate coating over the stone surface that improves its chemical and physical resistance in low pH environments, and is able to protect the stone from the by-products of urban pollution.

  11. Ultraviolet Protection by Fabric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increasing emission of greenhouse gases has evoked the human being to save the ozone layer and minimize the risk of ultraviolet radiation (UVR. Various fabric structures have been explored to achieve desired ultraviolet protection factor (UPF in various situations. Objective. In this study, the effect of various filament configurations like twisted, flat, intermingled, and textured in multifilament yarns on fabric in different combinations is assessed in order to engineer a fabric of better ultraviolet protection factor (UPF. Methods. In order to engineer a fabric having optimum UV protection with sufficient comfort level in multifilament woven fabrics, four different yarn configurations, intermingled, textured, twisted, and flat, were used to develop twelve different fabric samples. The most UV absorbing and most demanding fibre polyethylene terephthalate (PET was considered in different filament configuration. Results. The combinations of intermingled warp with flat, intermingled, and textured weft provided excellent UVR protection comparatively at about 22.5 mg/cm2 fabric areal density. The presence of twisted yarn reduced the UV protection due to enhanced openness in fabric structure. Conclusion. The appropriate combination of warp and weft threads of different configuration should be selected judiciously in order to extract maximum UV protection and wear comfort attributes in multifilament woven PET fabrics.

  12. Patent monopoly : protecting your ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.B. [Bennett Jones LLB, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    A form of intellectual property, patents can be bought and sold, thereby having a lot of financial value. The petroleum industry is a sector very involved with patent protection. At some time, it is expected that most technical companies will be involved in obtaining patent protection or busy defending themselves against a patent suit. In this paper, the author focussed on the procedure to obtain patent protection. Progressing from the basic facts concerning patents, the author then briefly described the necessary steps in the procedure. The author began by distinguishing the three major intellectual properties of use in the petroleum industry, namely patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Words, symbols or designs, including the various combinations of those, which distinguish the services of one company from those of another, are considered trademarks. Creative works, on the other hand, are protected under copyrights from being copied without permission. Inventions are protected by patents. What should be known about inventions was the focus of the next section in the presentation, followed by a section entitled: seeking patent protection: the first steps. The filing of the formal patent applications was discussed, then the emphasis was placed on after filing: the examination. The issued patent, which can be enforced against competitors, was the very last section in the presentation.

  13. Consumer Protection: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman CHATTERJEE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary era is marked as the era of consumers. No country can knowingly or unknowingly disregard the interest of the consumers. This can be argued on the basis of fast enactment of consumer protection laws in almost all part of the world. Apart from the consumer protection laws in developed world, we could find the accelerated rate of lawmaking for consumers in developing countries like Thailand, Sri Lanka, Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Mauritius, China, Taiwan, Nepal, Indonesia, Malaysia and other countries. India is not an exception to this rule. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986, is one of the examples that is to be treated as a milestone in the history of socio-economic legislation to protect the interests of the consumers in India. The main objective of the Consumer Protection Act is to ensure the better protection of consumers. Unlike existing laws which are punitive or preventive in nature, the provisions of this Act are compensatory in nature. The Act is also intended to provide simple, speedy and inexpensive redressal to the consumers’ grievances, and relief of a pecific nature and award of compensation wherever appropriate to the consumer. The act has been amended in 1993 both to extend its coverage and scope and to enhance the powers of the redressal machinery.

  14. Protective factors for adolescent violence against authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun; Jaureguizar, Joana; Bentler, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Both the family and school environments influence adolescents' violence, but there is little research focusing simultaneously on the two contexts. This study analyzed the role of positive family and classroom environments as protective factors for adolescents' violence against authority (parent abuse and teacher abuse) and the relations between antisocial behavior and child-to-parent violence or student-to-teacher violence. The sample comprised 687 Spanish students aged 12-16 years, who responded to the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the Classroom Environment Scale (CES). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test our model of violent behavior towards authority based on Catalano and Hawkins' Social Developmental Model (1996). Perceived family cohesion and organization showed an inverse association with parent abuse, suggesting that a positive family environment was a protective factor for the development of violence against parents. Family and classroom environments had direct effects on adolescents' violence against authority, and antisocial behavior showed a mediating effect in this relationship. The model accounted for 81% of the variance in violence against authority. As family environment was a better predictor of violence against authority than school environment, intervention efforts to reduce rates of adolescent violence should focus on helping parents to increase family cohesion and to manage conflictive relationships with their children.

  15. Protandim Protects Oligodendrocytes against an Oxidative Insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L. Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte damage and loss are key features of multiple sclerosis (MS pathology. Oligodendrocytes appear to be particularly vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF, which induce cell death and prevent the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs. Here, we investigated the efficacy of sulforaphane (SFN, monomethyl fumarate (MMF and Protandim to induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme expression, and protect oligodendrocytes against ROS-induced cell death and ROS-and TNF-mediated inhibition of OPC differentiation. OLN-93 cells and primary rat oligodendrocytes were treated with SFN, MMF or Protandim resulting in significant induction of Nrf2-driven (antioxidant proteins heme oygenase-1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-1 and p62/SQSTM1, as analysed by Western blotting. After incubation with the compounds, oligodendrocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Protandim most potently promoted oligodendrocyte cell survival as measured by live/death viability assay. Moreover, OPCs were treated with Protandim or vehicle control prior to exposing them to TNF or hydrogen peroxide for five days, which inhibited OPC differentiation. Protandim significantly promoted OPC differentiation under influence of ROS, but not TNF. Protandim, a combination of five herbal ingredients, potently induces antioxidants in oligodendrocytes and is able to protect oligodendrocytes against oxidative stress by preventing ROS-induced cell death and promoting OPC differentiation.

  16. Protective interest rate as tax instrument of corporate capital protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with researching negative consequences of allocation of economic (virtual gains made as a result of conventional accounting concept by facing current income with historical expenses and necessity to promote additional stimulating instruments that are at disposal by the state in order to eliminate these negative consequences. one of them is certainly protective interest as a relatively new active fiscal instrument of capital protection and recognition of price of invested owner's equity in business ventures, i.e. a specific form of compensation by the state for invested capital bearing in mind, that no source is free, including ones own sources. We also showed mechanisms of protective interest which, together with other measures of macroeconomic policy, should contribute to the protection of real purchasing power of company equity and increase of net gain, left on company's disposal for new investments, new work places, more money in the budget, protection of actual assets against taxing in the conditions of inflation, etc.

  17. Influence of antimalarial treatment on acquisition of immunity in Plasmodium berghei NK65 malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ton That Ai; Nakazawa, Shusuke; Huaman, Maria Cecilia; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2002-07-01

    Antimalarial treatments during primary Plasmodium berghei NK65 infection in BALB/c mice influenced the acquisition of protective immunity against reinfection. Among subcurative treatments, lower doses better enable mice to acquire protective immunity than do higher doses. Eradication of parasites from the start of infection did not promote protective immunity.

  18. Protection of telephone cables serving substations : proposal for new protection criteria based on field test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Seve, J. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed a field test conducted to develop new protection criteria for telephone cables serving substations. Most distribution substations in rural areas are not linked to Hydro-Quebec's telecommunication network. However, the cost advantage of using wireless or fiber optic links cannot be justified despite the fact that more than 200 sites are in need of additional electrical protection. The field tests were conducted at 2 rural 120/25 kV substations in order to determine reduction factors and grounding for cable sheaths. Faults on the distribution line were examined as well as high voltage (HV) faults at the substation. Approximately 440 current injections were applied over a testing period of 24 days. Voltage measurements were conducted for an area up to 100 km{sup 2} around the substations. The study showed that transferred voltage along metallic links and mutual resistance between the ground electrodes influenced soil voltage profiles. Transfer voltages travelled more than 5 km in rural areas. Grounding reference for customers reached more than 70 per cent of the GPR value. The study showed that a reduction factor of at least 40 per cent can be used for high voltage faults in MGN distribution substations. Power line sheaths can be grounded if sheath temperature can be limited to 110 degrees C. An updated Hydro-Quebec cable protection policy was included. tabs., figs.

  19. Protection of electronic circuits from overvoltages

    CERN Document Server

    Standler, Ronald B

    1989-01-01

    Practical rules and strategies designed to protect electronic systems from damage by transient overvoltages include symptoms and threats, remedies, protective devices and their applications, and validation of protective measures. 1989 edition.

  20. 75 FR 41213 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey; Correction AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: On December 22, 2009, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs...

  1. The protection of individuals by means of diplomatic protection: diplomatic protection as a human rights instrument

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Individuals whose international (human) rights are violated outside their state of nationality often have very limited means to address such violations. For instance, the foreign nationals detained by the United States in Guantanamo Bay have been unable to improve their situation themselves. Their state of nationality however can protect them through the exercise of diplomatic protection, thereby invoking the international responsibility of the host state for a violation of international law....

  2. Protection of phosphatidylcholine to photosystemⅡ membrane during heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem Ⅱ membrane was reconstituted with phosphatidylcholine (PC) with different kinds of fatty acyl chains and the protection of PC to photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) membrane during heat treatment was investigated using oxygen electrode, variable fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Heat treatment decreased the oxygen evolution rate and the F′v/Fm′ ratio of PSⅡ membrane and influenced CD spectra of PSⅡ membrane, but PC inhibited the effect of heat treatment on the oxygen evolution rate, the F′v/F′m ratio and CD spectra of PSⅡ membrane. The results indicate that PC can protect PSⅡ membrane against heat treatment and the alterations in the unsaturated fatty acid extent in PC can cause the changes of the protection ability.

  3. Power system protection 4 digital protection and signalling

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  4. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J.C. Mc Carthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

  5. Estimating the effect of protected lands on the development and conservation of their surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I; Yuan-Farrell, Chris; Fievet, Charles; Moeller, Matthias; Kareiva, Peter; Foster, David; Gragson, Ted; Kinzig, Ann; Kuby, Lauren; Redman, Charles

    2007-12-01

    The fate of private lands is widely seen as key to the fate of biodiversity in much of the world. Organizations that work to protect biodiversity on private lands often hope that conservation actions on one piece of land will leverage the actions of surrounding landowners. Few researchers have, however, examined whether protected lands do in fact encourage land conservation nearby or how protected lands affect development in the surrounding landscape. Using spatiotemporal data sets on land cover and land protection for three sites (western North Carolina, central Massachusetts, and central Arizona), we examined whether the existence of a protected area correlates with an increased rate of nearby land conservation or a decreased rate of nearby land development. At all sites, newly protected conservation areas tended to cluster close to preexisting protected areas. This may imply that the geography of contemporary conservation actions is influenced by past decisions on land protection, often made for reasons far removed from concerns about biodiversity. On the other hand, we found no evidence that proximity to protected areas correlates with a reduced rate of nearby land development. Indeed, on two of our three sites the development rate was significantly greater in regions with more protected land. This suggests that each conservation action should be justified and valued largely for what is protected on the targeted land, without much hope of broader conservation leverage effects.

  6. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  7. Responsive Polymers for Crop Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban F. Peteu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines the responsive polymer methods currently in use with their potential application to plant protection and puts forward plant-specific mechanisms as stimuli in newly devised methods for smart release of crop protection agents (CPAs. CPAs include chemicals (fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, biochemicals (antibiotics, RNA-based vaccines for plant viruses, semiochemicals (pheromones, repellents, allomones, microbial pesticides, growth regulators (insect and plant or micronutrients, all with crop protection effects. This appraisal focuses on emerging uses of polymer nano-encapsulated CPAs. Firstly, the most interesting advances in controlled release methods are critically discussed with their advantages and drawbacks. Secondly, several plant-specific stimuli-based smart methods are anticipated for use alongside the polymer nano- or micro-capsules. These new CPA release methods are designed to (i protect plants against infection produced by fungi or bacteria, and (ii apply micro-nutrients when the plants need it the most. Thus, we foresee (i the responsive release of nano- encapsulated bio-insecticides regulated by plant stress enzymes, and (ii the delivery of micro-nutrients synchronized by the nature or intensity of plant root exudates. Such continued advances of nano-scale smart polymer-based CPAs for the protection of crops herald a “small revolution” for the benefit of sustainable agriculture.

  8. Nanomodified magnesian schungite protective concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Ryzhov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is increasing demand for building materials with low permeability to the radioactive gas radon and materials that have protective properties against radiation exposure and non-ionizing radiation. Formulations have been developed and now special building flooring and plaster radiation protective mixtures are commercially available. With the acceleration the pace of development of nuclear energy safe utilization of liquid and solid radioactive waste is a vital task for the survival of humanity.With the use of innovative magnesian barite and magnesian schungite composites opportunities to solidify LRW and solid radioactive waste monolithing are expanded. Magnesium-schungite nanostructured concrete exceed heavy concrete on Portland cement by gamma radiation and strength characteristics reducing multiplicity. Formulations are protected by a patent for an invention.The paper shows a clear advantage of magnesia cement (compared with Portland cement in terms of specific mass energy parameters Em and Wm. The data demonstrates that the magnesia cement is characterized by higher parameters of maximum frequency of oscillation of the atoms ?m, which, apparently, is the key to explaining the increased protection (shielding properties of materials based on magnesia cement mixed with shungite of gamma radiation and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation the range.Magnesium-schungite radiation-shielding materials are approved by Rospotrebnadzor for use for collective protection to reduce the income of radon in indoor air, gamma and x-ray production, residential, public and administrative buildings, as well as in food, pharmaceutical, medical and child care.

  9. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  10. Elements of Integration in Winter Wheat Protection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecylia Jańczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Poland winter wheat is grown on the area of 1.600.000 ha. Most of the plant protection treatments are being done without thorough analysis of real threats from pests and diseases. The aim of the research is to develop the optimal program of wheat protection against pests and diseases based on integration of various methods of plant protection. Two programs: conventional and integrated were compared. In integrated program the eventual needs and terms of treatments were estimated on the basis of detailed observations of plant infection, pest appearance, their natural enemies and thorough analysis of weather conditions and forecasts. The role of disease resistant wheat varietes and nitrogen fertilizers was also analysed. The research took into account beneficial entomofauna and its influence on pest numbers as well as influence of chemicals used in agriculture on their species. As the result the selective pesticides, safe to beneficial organisms, were selected. The quantity and quality of winter wheat yield was analysed, including protein and gluten contents. The economic effectiveness of various programs of wheat protection against pests and diseases was assessed. The results of research are important both in practical and scientific sense.

  11. Relationship between GRP78 and diabetes mellitus-induced influence on myocardial protection provided by remifentanil postconditioning in vitro%葡萄糖调节蛋白78与糖尿病因素影响瑞芬太尼后处理心肌保护作用的关系:离体实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈满丽; 陈立建; 万俐娟; 张雷; 都建; 顾尔伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and diabetes mellitus-induced influence on myocardial protection provided by remifentanil postconditioning in vitro.Methods H9c2 cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum.The cells were seeded in 96-well (100 μl/well) or 6-well (2 ml/well) plates at the density of l05 cells/ml.The cells were then randomly divided into 6 groups (n =24 each) using a random number table:normoglycemic control group (group NC),normoglycemic hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) group (group NHR),normoglycemic remifentanil postconditioning group (group NRP),hyperglycemic control group (group HC),hyperglycemic H/R group (group HHR),and hyperglycemic remifentanil postconditioning group (group HRP).In NC,NHR and NRP groups,the cells were cultured in normoglyccmic culture medium (5.5 mmol/L) for 48 h.In HC,HHR and HRP groups,the cells were incubated in hyperglycemic culture medium (25.0 mmol/L) for 48 h.In NHR,NRP,HHR and HRP groups,after changing the culture medium for Tyrode solution,the cells were exposed to 95% N2-5% CO2 in an incubator at 37 ℃ for 5 h.Subsequently,in NHR and HHR groups,the culture medium was changed to DMEM/F12 culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and glucose at the corresponding concentration,and the cells were incubated for 1 h;in NRP and HRP groups,the cells were incubated for 1 h in the DMEM culture medium containing remifentanil at the final concentration of 1 μmol/L.At 1 h of reoxygenation,the cells of 9 wells in each group were selected to measure the cell viability by CCK8 assay,the cells of 12 wells in each group were selected to determine the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) released in the supernatant using colorimetric method,and the cells of 3 wells in each group were selected to detect the expression of GRP78 by Western blot.Results Compared with group NC,the cell viability was significantly decreased

  12. Influence of Phenobarbital and Topiramate on long-term learning and memory in Rats with immature brain and the protection effect of Acanthopanax%PB和TPM对未成熟脑大鼠远期学习记忆的影响及刺五加的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛利吉; 杨琳; 韩玲; 刘宇; 齐薛浩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of Phenobarbital ( PB) and Topiramate ( TPM) on long-term learning and memory of newly-born rats by short-term administration and the protection effect of Acanthopanax.Methods There were two batches of rats.Among the first batch, 30 3-day old healthy Sprague-Dawley ( SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, control group, PB group and PB combined with Acanthopanax group.Among the second batch, 30 3-day old healthy Sprague-Dawley ( SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 rats in each, control group, TPM group and TPM combined with acanthopanx group.Hypertonic saline (10mL・ kg-1・ d-1 ) was given to the control group, PB group was injected with PB (62.5mg・ kg-1・ d-1), and PB (62.5mg・ kg-1・ d-1) and Acanthopanax (5.6g・ kg-1・ d-1 ) were injected to PB combined with Acanthopanax group.TMP was injected to TMP group with the dose of 62.5mg・kg-1・ d-1 , and TMP combined with Acanthopanax group were given 62.5mg・ kg-1・ d-1 of TMP and 5.6g・ kg-1・ d-1 of Acanthopanax.The rats were injected after weighed for three continuous days.They were regularly fed till they were one month old.Finally 8 out of each group were selected to attend the game of Morris water maze.Results The incubation period for searching underwater platform in PB group was longer than the control group, and the difference was significant ( t=-3.542,P=0.005) .The times passing through the effective area reduced in PB group compared with the control group (t=3.352,P=0.005).However, after adding Acanthopanax, the incubation period (t=1.313,P=0.210) and the times passing through the effective area (t =0.051,P=0.128) had no significant difference from the control group.The incubation period for searching underwater platform in TPM group was significantly longer than the control group (t=-1.920,P=0.075), but the times passing through the effective area was less than the control group (t=1.915,P=0.076) .However, TPM group was not

  13. 依达拉奉对深低温冻存大鼠断肢再植后缺血再灌注损伤骨骼肌细胞膜及线粒体的保护效应%Protective influence of edaravone on cellular membrane and mitochondria of replanted rat extremities following ischemia/reperfusion injury due to cryopreservation and rewarming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段永壮; 钟世镇; 王增涛; 徐达传; 丁自海; 付庆林; 郝丽文; 何波

    2007-01-01

    肌缺血再灌注损伤,对骨骼肌细胞膜及线粒体有保护作用.其作用可能与依达拉奉直接抑制羟自由基、提高骨骼肌超氧化物歧化酶活性、减少丙二醛的产生,使细胞进行正常的氧化磷酸化有关.%BACKGROUND: A lot of important organs are worthless for clinical application because they are hard to store for a long time. In addition, tissues or organs which are dealt with cryopreservation also attack ischemia/reperfusion injury with the recovery of blood flow; especially, skeletal muscle is the most involved tissue.OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective influence of edaravone on cellular membrane and mitochondria of replanted rat extremities following ischemia/reperfusion injury due to cryopreservation and rewarming.DESIGN: Randomized contrast animal study.SETTING: Basic Medical College of Southern Medical University; Department of Hand and Foot Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Cryopreservation Laboratory, Shandong Provincial Hospital from April to November 2006. A total of 36 healthy adult male Wistar rats were provided by Experimental Animal Center of Medical College of Shandong University. All rats were randomly divided into control group, cryopreservation group and edaravone group with 12 in each group.METHODS: Femoral artery and vein of rats in control group were exposured, but extremities were not blocked. Rats in other two groups were used to establish ischemia/reperfusion injury models of replanted extremities. Before cryopreservation, their right hindlimbs were cut off and maintained in liquid nitrogen container for 1 month. After the operation mentioned above, the broken limbs were rewarmed, perfused with routine eluant and replanted. Four hours later, blood supply of extremities was recirculated and the samples were selected. Eluant in edaravone group contained 0.5 mg/kg edaravone. Samples of skeletal muscle were selected at the same time point to

  14. Natural products for plant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čeković Živorad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantage applying natural products, such as a secondary metabolites, in plant protection is shortly presented. Acceptable solutions for the enhanced ecological criteria, which are requested by the users of pesticides and consumers of agricultural goods, could be the replacement of classical pesticides by natural products in plant protection. Some natural products are already in use as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides because new biotechnological processes, fermentation and biotransformations provide procedures for their industrial production. In addition to biotechnical processes natural compounds possessing pesticide activities are also prepared by chemical synthesis. An active secondary metabolite must first be isolated from natural sauces and then, based on biological toxicological and ecological studies, acceptable compounds are selected for laboratory and industrial chemical synthesis. Several compounds possessing insecticidal, herbicidal and fungicidal activities, which have been successfully applied for plan protection are presented.

  15. New approaches to radiation protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Michael Rosen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (eg., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion; hence the are called radiation countermeasures. Here we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development.

  16. Accessing and disclosing protected resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2015-01-01

    Today, data is money. Whether it is private users' personal data or confidential data and assets belonging to service providers, all parties have a strong need to protect their resources when interacting with each other, i.e. for access control and authorization measures to be deployed. Enabling...... advanced user controlled privacy is essential to realize the visions of 5G applications and services. For service providers and enterprises resources are usually well safeguarded, while private users are often missing the tools and the know-how to protect their own data and preserve their privacy. The user...... the framework of User Managed Access (UMA), can enable users to understand the value of their protected resources and possibly give them control of how their data will be used by service providers....

  17. Radiological protection in veterinary practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Engineering and Technology); Kusama, Tomoko

    1990-06-01

    To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author).

  18. Natural protection against harmful oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Michelle

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although still not conclusive, the studies described indicate that topically applied vitamin E can provide protection against ultraviolet radiation when applied alone or in combination with other antioxidants. The general consensus is that, although less stable than the tocopherol esters when used in cosmetic systems, the alcohol form of alpha-tocopherol is the most effective topically-applied skin protectant. Increased UV protection potentially reduces the risk of skin cancer. However, the debate continues regarding the skin’s ability to hydrolyse ester forms of alpha-tocopherol, which are used commercially because of their greater stability during processing and over time in these products. Further research is therefore needed in order to provide more definitive data on what potential benefits or possible disadvantages may be associated with use of the ester forms in these topical applications.

  19. Controls and Machine Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E

    2016-01-01

    Machine protection, as part of accelerator control systems, can be managed with a 'functional safety' approach, which takes into account product life cycle, processes, quality, industrial standards and cybersafety. This paper will discuss strategies to manage such complexity and the related risks, with particular attention to fail-safe design and safety integrity levels, software and hardware standards, testing, and verification philosophy. It will also discuss an implementation of a machine protection system at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).

  20. Protection of Trademarks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongyan

    2009-01-01

    @@ A trademark is a distinctive sign which identifies certain goods or services as those produced or provided by a specific person or enterprise. Trademark protection is one of the most important parts in protecting intellectual property, playing a positive role in maintenance of fair market and promoting the development of the socialist market economy. China resumed the system of trademark in 1987. With reforming and opening up, the Chinese trademark is developing rapidly. Now, the amount of Chinese trademarks' registration is one of the most in the world.

  1. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  2. Power system protection 3 application

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  3. Protective relaying theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, Walter A

    2003-01-01

    Targeting the latest microprocessor technologies for more sophisticated applications in the field of power system short circuit detection, this revised and updated source imparts fundamental concepts and breakthrough science for the isolation of faulty equipment and minimization of damage in power system apparatus. The Second Edition clearly describes key procedures, devices, and elements crucial to the protection and control of power system function and stability. It includes chapters and expertise from the most knowledgeable experts in the field of protective relaying, and describes micropro

  4. Chemistries for Protection and Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    dispersible intractable Dispersible forms of polythiophenes Pendant groups or side groups promote dispersion in some solvents TDA R e s e a r c h Conducting ...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 TDA R e s e a r c h Outline of Presentation • Protection • Conductive polymer CW agent sensors for...TDA R e s e a r c h Conductive Polymer Sensors • Develop nerve agent sensors on an RFID platform for protective clothing • Replace or augment heavy

  5. Fruit protected cultivation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Huajun; Wang Saoming; Wang Jiaxi

    2003-01-01

    Protected fruit cultivation in China has developed very quickly from the early 1990s, and now it is animportant branch in fruit cultivation. A brief review including fruit species, developing history, growing area, output, anddistribution in the whole country is made in the paper. Characteristics of the dominant kinds of greenhouse,environmental control methods, and standards of temperature, humidity, light and CO2 for different fruit species arepresented. Information on varieties, growing benefits, special management practices and other aspects of the main fruitspecies used for protected cultivation are also presented.

  6. Asset protection through security awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Speed, Tyler Justin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: What Is Information Security? Creating a Culture of Security Awareness Protecting Corporate Assets Protective MeasuresA Culture of Security AwarenessRemaining DynamicOverview of Security Awareness Categories Overview Industry StandardsPrivacy ConcernsPassword Management Credit Card Compliance (PCI) General File ManagementExamples of Security Regulations and LawsWho Is an IS Professional?Introduction Empowering Security Professionals Top-Down ApproachDiplomacyThe People Portion of Information SecurityThe IS SpecialistDiplomacy-The IS Professional's Best FriendEnd Users Are Great N

  7. An Ongoing Role of α-Calcitonin Gene–Related Peptide as Part of a Protective Network Against Hypertension, Vascular Hypertrophy, and Oxidative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smillie, Sarah-Jane; King, Ross; Kodji, Xenia;

    2014-01-01

    α-Calcitonin gene-related peptide (αCGRP) is a vasodilator, but there is limited knowledge of its long-term cardiovascular protective influence. We hypothesized that αCGRP protects against the onset and development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and have identified protective mechanisms...

  8. An analysis of the trend of protected area size in Serbia in the period from 1948 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ilija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of establishing protected areas in Serbia has been influenced by specific social-economic changes in period after World War II, which have resulted in constant growth of protected area surface and changes in protected area type of manager. Because of that, this research analysis changes in the area of established protected area, through average annual absolute change and average annual exponential growth rate. These elements are important because of estimation of the future growth of protected areas in public and private sectors, as well as for defining the necessary measures for the implementation of defined goals.

  9. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Ito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs. We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm2, and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation.

  10. Vector transmission of leishmania abrogates vaccine-induced protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Peters

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental vaccines have been developed to protect against the cutaneous and visceral forms of leishmaniasis caused by infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania, but a human vaccine still does not exist. Remarkably, the efficacy of anti-Leishmania vaccines has never been fully evaluated under experimental conditions following natural vector transmission by infected sand fly bite. The only immunization strategy known to protect humans against natural exposure is "leishmanization," in which viable L. major parasites are intentionally inoculated into a selected site in the skin. We employed mice with healed L. major infections to mimic leishmanization, and found tissue-seeking, cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells specific for Leishmania at the site of challenge by infected sand fly bite within 24 hours, and these mice were highly resistant to sand fly transmitted infection. In contrast, mice vaccinated with a killed vaccine comprised of autoclaved L. major antigen (ALM+CpG oligodeoxynucleotides that protected against needle inoculation of parasites, showed delayed expression of protective immunity and failed to protect against infected sand fly challenge. Two-photon intra-vital microscopy and flow cytometric analysis revealed that sand fly, but not needle challenge, resulted in the maintenance of a localized neutrophilic response at the inoculation site, and removal of neutrophils following vector transmission led to increased parasite-specific immune responses and promoted the efficacy of the killed vaccine. These observations identify the critical immunological factors influencing vaccine efficacy following natural transmission of Leishmania.

  11. 10 CFR 60.9 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occurs because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 60.9 Section 60.9 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 60.9 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, an applicant for a...

  12. 10 CFR 61.9 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occurs because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 61.9 Section 61.9 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 61.9 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, an applicant for a...

  13. 10 CFR 40.7 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected activities does not automatically render him or... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 40.7 Section 40.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Provisions § 40.7 Employee protection. (a...

  14. 10 CFR 30.7 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occurs because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 30.7 Section 30.7 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 30.7 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, an applicant for a...

  15. 10 CFR 63.9 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected activities... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 63.9 Section 63.9 Energy NUCLEAR... MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.9 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee...

  16. 10 CFR 70.7 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occurs because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 70.7 Section 70.7 Energy NUCLEAR... Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, an applicant for a Commission license, or...

  17. 10 CFR 50.7 - Employee protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... occurs because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement in protected... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 50.7 Section 50.7 Energy NUCLEAR... Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, an applicant for a Commission license, or...

  18. Does China Need an Animal Protection Law?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On September 18,a number of Chinese law experts announced that they had drafted an animal protection act. China currently lacks a comprehensive basic law on animal protection. The underdeveloped legal system is thus unable to put all animals under effective protection. Thus,scholars suggested drafting China’s first law on the protection of

  19. Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing with a tight weave or high-SPF clothing. ■■ Wear wide-brimmed hats and sunglasses with UV protection and side panels. ■■ Take breaks in shaded areas. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National ...

  20. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...