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Sample records for complex western siberia

  1. IN WESTERN SIBERIA

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    Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    along the oil transportation route that connected three Salym oil fields in Western Siberia.

  2. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  3. Impact of reclamation treatment on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex in Western Siberia

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    Berezin, L. V.; Khamova, O. F.; Paderina, E. V.; Gindemit, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The abundance and activity of the soil microflora were studied in a field experiment with the use of green manure crops to assess the impact of reclamation measures on the biological activity of soils of the solonetz complex. The number of microorganisms in the plow soil horizon increased in the background of the green fallows as compared to the black ones. Coefficients of mineralization, immobilization, and transformation of organic compounds were calculated for different variants of the soil treatment. The value of the mineralization coefficient indicates the intense decomposition of the green manure that entered the soil. In the first year, peas were actively decomposed, while oats, in the second year (aftereffect). The activity of the soil enzymes (invertase, urease, and catalase) was determined. A close relationship between the catalase activity and the intensity of the microbiological processes in the soils was revealed.

  4. The Technologies of Lie in Local Cultures of Western Siberia

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    Evgeny A. Naumenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the political phenomenon – "technology of lie" that emerged of Jesuit and quasi-Catholic culture of Europe at the Middle Ages. The article also considers penetration of this phenomenon into Western Siberia through representatives of exile. According to author, the technologies of lie were created as a result of distortion of Catholicism, departure from a true spiritual component. This policy was considered by its carriers as a competition form. The author considers that misstatement of Orthodoxy was possible to a lesser extent because of its traditional dogmatism; the Russian imperial power did not use technologies of lie at the wide nation-wide and geopolitical level. The phenomenon existed only in local cultures. In article the social and economic and political reasons of forming of these technologies in the Russian Empire and Western Siberia, their manifestations and a consequence are analyzed. As examples cases of anti-Semitic "bloody slanders" are given in the European Russia and a defiant line item of the Jesuit organization in a Siberian exile. The author notes that the considered tactics has been directed to some religious groups and to certain representatives of society and the government. As a rule, none of the victims were ready to "information attacks" and lost them, losing not only property and positions, but also life sometimes. The author emphasizes that this practice has been adopted by part of the Russian revolutionary atheists. There is approved action of these technologies in terms of the Siberian penal servitude and the exile. Later the experience gained by them has formed the basis of fabricated political processes in case of the Stalin the regime.

  5. Borehole temperatures in deep wells of Western Siberia, Russia, 1960-1995, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a database of the permafrost and geothermal conditions of the oil and gas deposits of Western Siberia. Data were taken from 736 plots, each having...

  6. Structural problems of mining region innovative development (Kuzbass, Western Siberia

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    Dotsenko Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the issues of overcoming the negative structural shift in Russian economy, accelerating economic growth, reducing technological and social- and-economic gap between Russia and the developed countries are strategically important. Modern structure of Russian economy which had been developed as a part of market model does not generate the innovative type of development. In this situation, mining regions, the structure of which was formed in the early 20th century and is represented by the extractive industries, are undergoing the greatest problems of innovative development. Therefore, despite high urbanization and industrial development level the economy of Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia is characterized by significant structural problems. They are associated with primary extractive nature of the regional industry, in which coal and iron ore, metallurgical and chemical industries dominate. They highly depend on Russian and global market of raw materials, widely use low-productive technologies, and they are characterized by high level of fixed capital depreciation and insufficient pace of innovative infrastructure development. The solution of the structural problems of economic development of mining region is connected with technological modernization of extractive industries and use of modern materials for the production of high-tech products.

  7. [Testaceans (Testacea, Protozoa) of taiga soils in Western Siberia (Surgut woodland)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhleeva, A A

    2002-01-01

    We studied population structure of testaceans of automorphic and hydromorphic soils in the middle taiga of Western Siberia. Rich testacean fauna has been revealed. It was represented to a similar extent as compared to the soils of Ciscaucasian Russia. The bryophilic group was the most typical for the region, since its representatives inhabited the predominating hydromorphic soils of bogs. The typical species included Amphitrema flavum, Heleopera petricola, Placocista spinosa, Trigonopyxis arcula, Centropyxis laevigata, Nebela tincta, Arcella catinus, as well as other moss forms. Flood plain proved to be the richest by testacean species variability among the studied habitats. The set of species here included both representatives of watershed and typical aquatic forms present due to the flood conditions of a given area. The highest quantitative indices of the testacean complexes were revealed in the forest area soils. Quadrulella quadrigera Deflandre, 1936 has been found in a flood plain area for the first time in Russia.

  8. Radial growth and percent of latewood in Scots pine provenance trials in Western and Central Siberia

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    S. R. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place. For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and vice versa for Suzun climatype – forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers – 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe – 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %. Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.

  9. Sociological Aspects of Rotational Employment in the Northern Territories of Western Siberia

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    Anatoly Nikolaevich Silin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes features of the lifestyle associated with rotational employment system in developing oil and gas resources of Northwestern Siberia. It shows the change in conceptual approaches to the organization of commuting, the dynamics of key parameters, the socio-cultural features of mobile and multilocal lifestyle of commuters. The consideration of the rotational method as complex and significant for the implementation of the tasks set for the Arctic and subarctic areas of Russia has allowed to reveal the interaction system of basic elements of commuting and offer more efficient tools and technologies as compared to traditional management. The author presents some results of the sociological research in the oil and gas companies located in Northwestern Siberia. The work discloses the factors of negative impact of commuting on health, physical and social well-being of people leading “double” and mobile lives. They are the following: need for long stay in closed space with strangers, differences in natural conditions of places of residence and work (pressure drops, oxygen deficiency in the North, light aperiodicity, food and water quality, cold and mosquitoes, separation from family, etc., increased physical and emotional stress. The surveys of employees on rotation, their families and management of the enterprises using this method in the oil and gas areas of the Western-Siberian North, conducted by the author for four decades, have given the opportunity to identify the causes of people’s dissatisfaction with conditions of their life, their attitude to authorities and different aspects of organization of production and life, transportation from place of residence to place of employment and back, etc. Geography of fly-in fly-out transportation and the level of satisfaction with various elements of such work have recently changed. The priority importance of payment for labor efforts has only preserved. Besides, if in the Soviet

  10. Ecological aspects of Microsporidia parasitizing in natural populations of the Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) blood-suking mosquitoes in Western Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    SIMAKOVA ANASTASIA V.; PANKOVA TAMARA F.; ISSI IRMA V.; ANDREEVA YULIA V.

    2016-01-01

    We examined microsporidia (1976-2014) in natural populations of blood-sucking Aedes mosquitoes of Western Siberia with the focus on their biodiversity and ecology. In total, we recorded 3' species of Culicidae family mosquitoes in Western Siberia; 22 species of them belong to the univoltine genus Aedes, producing one generation per year (spring). As it has been shown, microsporidians infect '3 mosquito species. In this study, we isolated 26 microsporidian species representing five genera (Amb...

  11. Integrated chronostratigraphy of Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary beds in the western Anabar region, northern Siberia

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    Kaufman, A. J.; Knoll, A. H.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Adams, W.

    1996-01-01

    Carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks of the western Anabar region, northern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolutionary and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic/Cambrian boundary. Sedimentologically, the boundary succession can be divided into three sequences representing successive episodes of late transgressive to early highstand deposition; four parasequences are recognized in the sequence corresponding lithostratigraphically to the Manykal Formation. Small shelly fossils are abundant and include many taxa that also occur in standard sections of southeastern Siberia. Despite this coincidence of faunal elements, biostratigraphic correlations between the two regions have been controversial because numerous species that first appear at or immediately above the basal Tommotian boundary in southeastern sections have first appearances scattered through more than thirty metres of section in the western Anabar. Carbon- and Sr-isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at one- to two-metre intervals in a section along the Kotuikan River, favour correlation of the Staraya Reckha Formation and most of the overlying Manykai Formation with sub-Tommotian carbonates in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, isotopic data suggest that the uppermost Manykai Formation and the basal 26 m of the unconformably overlying Medvezhya Formation may have no equivalent in the southeast; they appear to provide a sedimentary and palaeontological record of an evolutionarily significant time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlations with radiometrically dated horizons in the Olenek and Kharaulakh regions of northern Siberia suggest that this interval lasted approximately three to six million years, during which essentially all 'basal Tommotian' small shelly fossils evolved.

  12. MILESTONES OF DEVELOPMENT OF GENUS POTAMOGETON L. (POTAMOGETONACEAE IN THE FLORA OF THE WESTERN SIBERIA RESERVOIRS IN THE CAENOZOIC – REVIEW OF PALEOCARPOLOGY AND PALINOLOGY DATA

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    D. A. Durnikin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Palaeobotanical, geomorphological, and paleogeographical data on flora of reservoirs are presented. The structured materials on geomorphology and paleogeography from Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary deposits of Western Siberia are reported. The stratigraphic complexes linked to tectonic zoning Kulunda and southern Baraba Lowlands are analyzed. The data on the structure-formational zones, distinguished by time of inception, the composition and thickness of the sediments, and nature of the neotectonics are presented. The analysis of paleocarpology and palynology data from the Potamogeton genus as the largest among the aquatic plants of Western Siberia is done. The composition and structure of this genus as an integral part of Tertiary and Quaternary flora of studied reservoirs are characterized, the current composition of this genus is presented. It is proved that the most ancient complexes of the West Siberian Tertiary belong to the upper Eocene, whereas the early Siberian Paleogene is still unknown.

  13. BRDF characteristics of tundra vegetation communities in Yamal, Western Siberia

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    Buchhorn, Marcel; Heim, Birgit; Walker, Donald A. Skip; Epstein, Howard; Leibman, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Satellite data from platforms with pointing capabilities (CHRIS/Proba, RapidEye) or from sensors with wide swath (AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS) is influenced by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This effect can cause significant changes in the measured spectral surface reflectance depending on the solar illumination geometry and sensor viewing conditions. The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP), a German hyperspectral mission with expected launch in 2016, will provide high spectral resolution observations with a ground sampling distance of 30 meters. Since the EnMAP sensor has pointing capabilities, both spectral and directional reflection characteristics need to be taken into account for the algorithms development for vegetation parameters. The 'hyperspectral method development for Arctic VEGetation biomes' (hy-Arc-VEG) project is part of the national preparation program for the EnMAP mission. Within the EnMAP projcect hy-Arc-VEG we developed a portable field spectro-goniometer, named ManTIS (Manual Transportable Instrument for Spherical BRDF observations), for the in-situ measurements of anisotropic effects of tundra surfaces (national and international patent pending - DE 102011117713.6). The goniometer was designed for field use in difficult as well as challenging terrain and climate. It is therefore of low weight, without electrical devices and weatherproof. It can be disassembled and packed into small boxes for transport. The current off-nadir viewing capacity is matched to the EnMAP sensor configuration (up to 30°). We carried out spectral field and goniometer measurements on the joint YAMAL 2011 expedition (RU-US-DE) organized by the Earth-Cryosphere Institute (ECI) in August 2011 on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, Russia. The field goniometer measurements (conducted under varying sun zenith angles) as well as field spectro-radiometrical measurements were carried out at the NASA Yamal Land Cover/Land Use Change

  14. Occurrence and genetic variability of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes ticks from different regions of Western Siberia, Russia and Kazakhstan.

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    Tkachev, Sergey E; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Babkin, Igor V; Livanova, Natalia N; Livanov, Stanislav G; Panov, Victor V; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Tantsev, Alexey K; Taranenko, Dmitrii E; Tikunova, Nina V

    2017-01-01

    Kemerovo virus (KEMV), a member of the Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks and can cause aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis. Recently, this virus was observed in certain provinces of European part of Russia, Ural, and Western and Eastern Siberia. However, the occurrence and genetic diversity of KEMV in Western Siberia remain poorly studied. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence and genetic variability of KEMV in Ixodes ticks from Western Siberia. A total of 1958 Ixodes persulcatus, I. pavlovskyi ticks and their hybrids from Novosibirsk and Omsk provinces, Altai Republic (Russia) and East Kazakhstan province (Kazakhstan) were analyzed for the presence of KEMV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA. It was observed that the KEMV distribution area in Western Siberia was wider than originally thought and included Northern and Northeastern Altai in addition to the Omsk and Novosibirsk provinces. For the first time, this virus was found in Kazakhstan. The occurrence of KEMV was statistically lower than TBEV in most locations in Western Siberia. KEMV was found both in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks and in their hybrids. Notably, KEMV variants observed in the 2010s were genetically different from those isolated in the 1960s, which indicated the ongoing process of evolution of the Kemerovo virus group. Moreover, the possibility of reassortment for KEMV was demonstrated for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. APPLICATION OF THE TERRA MODIS SATELLITE DATA FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING IN WESTERN SIBERIA

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    I. G. Yashchenkoa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the MODIS thematic products, the status of vegetation of oil producing areas in Western Siberia for the period 2010-2015 is monitored. An approach for estimating the impact of various factors on the ecology of oil producing areas using the NDVI coefficient and remote sensing data on the status of vegetation is proposed. The approach is tested within four technologically-disturbed lands – four oil fields, Krapivinskoye, Myldzhenskoye, Luginetskoye, and Urmanskoye in Tomsk region. The territory of the Oglatsky Status Nature Reserve of regional importance is investigated as a reference area.

  16. Application of the Terra Modis Satellite Data for Environmental Monitoring in Western Siberia

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    Yashchenkoa, I. G.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2016-06-01

    Using the MODIS thematic products, the status of vegetation of oil producing areas in Western Siberia for the period 2010-2015 is monitored. An approach for estimating the impact of various factors on the ecology of oil producing areas using the NDVI coefficient and remote sensing data on the status of vegetation is proposed. The approach is tested within four technologically-disturbed lands - four oil fields, Krapivinskoye, Myldzhenskoye, Luginetskoye, and Urmanskoye in Tomsk region. The territory of the Oglatsky Status Nature Reserve of regional importance is investigated as a reference area.

  17. Lichens in the Urban Environment within South-East of Western Siberia, Russia

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    Ekaterina V. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichen species diversity and trend of their distribution were studied in two big cities and fi ve towns in south-east of Western Siberia. In total of 348 species from 46 families and 98 genera were found in all studied urban and suburban areas. All local checklists are characterized by high degree of the lichen species similarity between each other and smaller lists are included in bigger ones on to 64-100%. Epiphytic lichens were the largest group in all studied areas and almost half of them were occupied two and more substrates. Crustose life-form and mesophytes prevailed everywhere. Share of sensitive lichens exceeded percent of tolerant ones in big cities and was lower than tolerant ones in smaller towns. The sixteen species were the most tolerant, commonly present everywhere and have been recognized as the key species for urban lichen synusiae within south-east of Western Siberia. Five zones have been determined with IP-mapping (mapping on the base of index of air pollution tolerance in studied areas: IP=3-5 is a “normal zone”, IP=5-7 is a “moderate exposure zone”, IP=7-9 is a “mixed zone”, IP=9-10 is a “struggle zone”, and fi nally – lichen-free zone. The most studied urban areas had got quite extensive lichen-free zone (up to 35% of their areas.

  18. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURIES

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    A. A. Valitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the educational activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in Western Siberia from the late 19th to the mid-20th century. The analysis of archival material reflects the foundation, development and evolution of parish schools in Western Siberia; the activity of the eparchy inspectors and parish school boards being outlined. The main emphasis is on the Tomsk eparchy – the regional leader in successful primary school development in Western Siberia. For many Russian citizens then, the parish schools were the only available educational institutions. In Western Siberia, the ascetic enlightening activity of the clergymen had a great impact on raising the literacy level; the process being complicated by the vast territories, remoteness of the settlements, and lack of local schools. The research demonstrates the parallel evolution of the parish and civil education, however, the former one was always ahead in many aspects. The competition between the two systems stimulated new effective educational methods and teacher training processes, and contributed a lot to the Russian primary education development. The paper might be of interest to the experts in education and church history, and local historians

  19. Characterization of humic acids from tundra soils of northern Western Siberia by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukov, S. N.; Ejarque, E.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    Humic acids from polar soils—cryozems (Cryosols), gleyezems (Gleysols), and peat soils (Histosols)—have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. First information was acquired on the content of free radicals in humic acids from polar soils for the northern regions of Western Siberia (Gydan Peninsula, Belyi Island). It was found that polar soils are characterized by higher contents of free radicals than other zonal soils. This is related to the lower degree of humification of organic matter and the enhanced hydromorphism under continuous permafrost conditions. The low degree of organic matter humification in the cryolithozone was confirmed by the increased content of free radicals as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance, which indicates a low biothermodynamic stability of organic matter.

  20. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyan​, Davit; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and ...

  1. Seasonal and interannual changes of hydrological regime of the Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Elena; Kouraev, Alexei; Kolmakova, Maria; Bazanov, Vladimir; Skugarev, Andrei; Berezin, Alexander; Kirpotin, Sergei; Zemtsov, Valeriy; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Mognard, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Western Siberia is a large region with mostly flat relief, that lead to the formation of a multitude of interconnected natural objects - large and small rivers streams, large floodplains, lakes, bogs etc. . Flooded areas and bogs also act as a buffer zone, providing a dampening "sponge" effect on the water redistribution within the river system. Large area covered by rivers and wetlands results in high rate of evaporation compared to any other large boreal watershed. Two contrasting processes are actually occurring in the Southern and Northern parts of the region. In the south, there is a progressive swamping which leads to forest death. In the north, there is a thermokarst activity or thawing permafrost in palsas of sub-arctic zone of Western Siberia. We present the results of systematization and classification of landscape patterns, as well as study of variability of hydrological processes in the study region at different temporal (from multi-year to seasonal) and spatial (from local to regional) scales through a multidisciplinary approach based on in situ and remote sensing data. Radar altimetry (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, GFO, ENVISAT), radiometry (SMMR, SSM/I) and optical data (Landsat) are used in combination with the in situ observations and the recent field studies done in 2008 and 2009. We present the variability of water level (from radar altimetry) and surface properties (from altimeter waveforms parameters) for the 21 mid-size watersheds of the Ob' river system and Nadym, Pur and Taz rivers. Seasonal and interannual variability of water abundance is studied using radar altimetry and radiometry. We analyse the role of the snow cover in the formation and seasonal distribution of runoff in the region of Poluy, Nadym, Pur and Taz rivers by using in situ and satellite estimates of the snow water equivalent. This research has been done in the framework of the Russian-French cooperation GDRI "CAR-WET-SIB", French ANR "IMPACT-Boreal" project and FP7 MONARCH

  2. ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF WILD BIRDS - NATURAL RESERVOIR OF INFLUENZA A VIRUSES IN THE SOUTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA

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    K. A. Sharshov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to explore the ecological diversity of wild birds in Siberia, which are carriers of the Avian Influenza Virus (AIV.Methods. Biological material in the form of cloacal swabs and intestinal fragments from wild migratory birds were collected in the period 2007-2014 years. The virus has been gained in the allantoic cavity of developing chicken embryos. The presence of virus was determined in hemagglutination and primary identification and subtyping of influenza virus was confirmed by RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.Results. It was collected and investigated 2300 samples obtained from wild migratory birds 8 Orders. The influenza virus was detected in 185 birds of the three groups. The main role in the circulation of the AIV in the south of Western Siberia, playing members of the family Anatidae Order Anseriformes, namely species - Teal (Anas crecca, garganey (Anas querquedula, and shoveler (Anas clypeata. In the period from 2007 to 2014, the percentage of virus infection in waterfowl ranged from 5.6 to 20%. Order Charadriiformes was characterized by a lower percentage of virus isolation, of not more than 1.4%.Conclusion. Wild migratory waterfowl orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir of AIV in the south of Western Siberia. The area south of Western Siberia plays a key role in the persistence of avian influenza viruses, their evolution and geographical distribution.

  3. Three New Bat Ectoparasite Species of the Genus Macronyssus from Western Siberia (with an Identification Key for Females of the Genus Macronyssus from the Palearctic Boreal Zone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, M V; Zhigalin, A V

    2015-06-01

    Three new gamasid mite species belonging to the genus Macronyssus Kolenati, 1858 (Acari: Macronyssidae), namely, Macronyssus sibiricus n. sp., Macronyssus stanyukovichi n. sp., and Macronyssus tigirecus n. sp., are described (females only; males, protonymphs, and larvae remain unknown). All species are known from Western Siberia and belong to the Siberian-Far Eastern bat ectoparasite fauna complex. The parasite hosts are the eastern water bat Myotis petax Hollister, 1912, and Hilgendorf's tube-nosed bat Murina hilgendorfi Peters, 1880 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). An identification key for females of the genus Macronyssus Kolenati, 1858, in the boreal Palearctic region is presented.

  4. Russia and Islam: state policy on formation of tolerance of Muslims in Western Siberia (1773–1917

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    Yulia A. Bortnikova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Counteraction to Islamic extremism is the major problem in the modern world. The government of the Russian Empire solved this problem through purposeful education of confessional tolerance of Muslims in 1773–1917. Authors compare understanding of tolerance in Russia and in Western Siberia in 1773-1917, emphasizing that in the Tyumen region society understood this term the same as now. On the basis of earlier unknown archival documents of the Central historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan authors consider a state policy on formation of a certain option of Islam which provides religious tolerance in Russia. In article the main attention is paid to Western Siberia as exactly there the confessional state policy made the greatest success. The main directions of a state policy were: to unify Muslim culture according to orthodox samples; to keep the Siberian option of Islam; to create obstacles for distribution of standard Islam; to develop the state measures which would show respect for Muslims and care of them. Authors consider ways of deformation of Muslim culture in Western Siberia: change of architectural forms of mosques and necropolises, deformation of cult objects (existence of a religious sculpture, selection of literature in Muslim libraries, the facilitated conditions for examinations on the mullah's rank, appointment to positions of muftis without spiritual education in the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting, creation of obstacles for commission of a hajj to Mecca for mullahs.

  5. [Parasite fauna of the water vole (Arvicola terrestris) and its nests in the south of Western Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'kova, M G; Bogdanov, I I

    2004-01-01

    Fauna of parasitic and free-living arthropods associated the water vole Arvicola terestris and its nests in various landscape zones and subzones of the south of Western Siberia has been studied. Total abundance of gamasid mites and ticks (Gamasoidea, Ixodidae), fleas and nidicolous arthropods in nests is high, and the set of nidicolous and parasite species is quite diverse, but everywhere the parasite fauna is characterized by a small amount of species reaching a high abundance: Laelaps muris on the voles, Haemogamasus ambulans in nests, Ixodes apronophorus and Megpbotris walkeri both on the voles and nests. Parasitic arthropods living on the voles or in their nests are characterized by higher and stables indices of infection, while these parameters for free-living arthropods were variable. The list of mesostigmatic mites parasitizing the water vole and its nests in the south of Western Siberia (Adamovich, Krylov, 2001) has been considerably supplemented. In total, the fauna of parsitiform mites (Acari: Mesostigmata and Ixodiddes) and fleas (Siphonaptera) associated with the water vole in the south of Western Siberia is represented by 97 arthropod species of 19 families, including 74 species of mesostigmatic mites (Gamasoidea), 6 species of ticks (Ixodidae) and 17 species of fleas.

  6. Using MODIS NDVI products for vegetation state monitoring on the oil production territory in Western Siberia

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    Kovalev Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article describes the results of using remote sensing data for vegetation state monitoring on the oil field territories in Western Siberia. We used MODIS data product providing the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values. Average NDVI values of each studied area were calculated for the period from 2010 to 2015 with one year interval for June, July and August. Analysis was carried out via an open tool of geographic information system QGIS used for spatial analysis and calculation of statistical parameters within chosen polygons. Results are presented in graphs showing the variation of NDVI for each study area and explaining the changes in trend lines for each field. It is shown that the majority of graphs are similar in shape which is caused by similar weather conditions. To confirm these results, we have conducted data analysis including temperature conditions and information about the accidents for each area. Abnormal changes in NDVI values revealed an emergency situation on the Priobskoe oil field caused by the flood in 2015. To sum up, the research results show that vegetation of studied areas is in a sufficiently stable state.

  7. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRACE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF HAIR IN URBAN RESIDENTS OF WESTERN SIBERIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilms, E A; Gogadze, N V; Turchaninov, D V; Korchina, T Ya

    2015-01-01

    There was performed a study of the element status (hair analysis) of the population of the two cities of Western Siberia: Surgut (n = 350) and Omsk (n = 385). Detection of elements was performed by atomic emission and mass spectrometry methods. The population of Surgut when compared with residents of Omsk bioelements were characterized by a more high content of B, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, I, Zn (p < 0.001), and a lower content of Cr, Se (p < 0.001). Scarce elements for Omsk residents were 1, Se. In hair of Surgut residents in more higher concentrations there were detected toxic and potentially harmful elements such as Pb, Hg, Be, Cd, Li, Sn (p < 0.001). At the same time there were lower than in Omsk residents values of concentrations of Al, As, V In comparison groups there are established statistically significant differences of coefficients used for the evaluation of the metabolic activity, such as the Na/K, Ca/K, Na/Mg, Fe/Cu. In a sample of the city of Surgut coefficients Ca/K, Fe/Cu and "toxicity index" had the high values. The established differences in the availability of macro- and trace elements for the population of territories are determined by climatogeographic, geochemical features and the specificity of the structure of nutrition.

  8. Influence of transport infrastructure on water permeability of soils of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, Dmitry; Eremina, Diana

    2017-10-01

    Correctly designed transport infrastructure should support the current economic relations. It should provide a reserve for development of economy of the region in the future. In Western Siberia, new highways are actively being built and major repairs of the operating roads are being conducted. Local materials are often used in the roadbed construction. In the Tyumen region, it is usually sandy silt and clayey sand. The soil has unfavourable physico-mechanical properties. The soil is prone to water and wind erosion. This type of ground gets on the adjacent to the road territory. Studies on the influence of highways on soil permeability were carried out on the basis of the federal highway Tyumen-Omsk. Three types of soils, which are actively used in the agricultural sector, were considered. It is found that the content of particles with the size less than 0.01 mm reaches 32% in the soil used in road construction. It is noted that a part of these particles accumulates on the adjacent to the road territory since it is being washed out from roadbed. The content of physical clay (natural hydrological drain, results in the territory bogging. An inverse close correlation was established between the content of physical clay (<0.01 mm) and water permeability (r = 0.90).

  9. Lateral extension in Sphagnum mires along the southern margin of the boreal region, Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peregon, A; Uchida, M; Yamagata, Y, E-mail: anna.peregon@nies.go.j [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Although recent studies have recognized Northern Eurasian ecosystems as an important carbon reservoir, little is known about the forest-peatland interactions in a boreal environment induced by ongoing climatic changes. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of land-cover changes and rates of lateral extension of peat-accumulating wetlands toward the adjacent forests, estimated at the southern climatic range of the Sphagnum-dominated mires in Western Siberia. We used the radiocarbon dates and stratigraphy of peat sediments from seven peat cores, analyzed at two types of forest-peatland ecotones, which are located close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. The rate of lateral extension was found in a wide range varying from 2.3 to 791.7 cm yr{sup -1}. It was observed to be rapid during the initial stage of mire development, but to have slowed down over the last 2000-3000 yr. Our results, therefore, strongly contradict the concept of progressive peat accumulation throughout the late Holocene and contribute to our knowledge about ongoing land-cover change in the natural ecosystems of the Northern hemisphere.

  10. The genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng; Moorjani, Priya; Jay, Flora; Slepchenko, Sergey M.; Bondarev, Aleksei A.; Johnson, Philip L.F.; Petri, Ayinuer A.; Prüfer, Kay; de Filippo, Cesare; Meyer, Matthias; Zwyns, Nicolas; Salazar-Garcia, Domingo C.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Keates, Susan G.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Razhev, Dmitry I.; Richards, Michael P.; Peristov, Nikolai V.; Lachmann, Michael; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F.G.; Slatkin, Montgomery; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Pääbo, Svante

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-quality genome sequence of a ~45,000-year-old modern human male from Siberia. This individual derives from a population that lived prior to – or simultaneously with – the separation of the populations in western and eastern Eurasia and carries a similar amount of Neandertal ancestry as present-day Eurasians. However, the genomic segments of Neandertal ancestry are substantially longer than those observed in present-day individuals, indicating that Neandertal gene flow into the ancestors of this individual occurred 7,000–13,000 years before he lived. We estimate an autosomal mutation rate of 0.4–0.6×10−9/site/year and a Y chromosomal mutation rate of 0.7–0.9×10−9/site/year based on the additional substitutions that have occurred in present-day non-Africans compared to this genome, and a mitochondrial mutation rate of 1.8–3.2 × 10−8/site/year based on the age of the bone. PMID:25341783

  11. Paleoenvironmental dynamics of Western Beringia - New studies from the Yedoma key site Duvanny Yar (Lower Kolyma River, Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jens; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Wetterich, Sebastian

    2010-05-01

    Duvanny Yar is a stratigraphic key site for the late Quaternary in Western Beringia. It is characteristic for ice-rich permafrost sequences of the so-called Yedoma Suite in north-east Siberia (e.g. KAPLINA et al. 1978; SHER et al. 1979) and is an important reference site for the late Pleistocene history of Beringia (HOPKINS 1982). The aim of our study was to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental dynamics at the Duvanny Yar site during the late Quaternary using its terrestrial archive. A multidisciplinary approach using geocryological, geochronological, sedimentological, hydrochemical, isotope geochemical, and paleoecological methods was applied to obtain multiproxy records. Sediment samples were analysed for ice contents, grain size parameters, biogeochemistry (total carbon, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, stable carbon isotopes), mineral density, mass specific magnetic susceptibility, and for radiocarbon age. Stable isotopes of water were measured for ground ice (ice wedges, segregated ice, and pore ice), modern surface waters and modern precipitation. Six profiles along the riverbank were sampled in August 2008. They contained Eemian lacustrine deposits, long sequences of Ice Complex deposits of the Late Pleistocene Yedoma, Holocene lacustrine and boggy deposits in thermokarst depressions. All profiles showed very bad sorted sediment of fine to coarse silt. A homogenous and polymodal grain size distribution for the ice rich (~30 to 60 wt %) Yedoma Suite revealed a polygenetic origin and disproves the pure "arctic loess" hypothesis for these deposits. Measurements of bulk density, ice content and total organic carbon content (TOC) enable for a relative TOC content in Ice Complex deposits at Duvanny Yar. The mean value of organic carbon at Duvanny Yar is 16 ± 11 kg/m^3. Geochronological results based on 11 new AMS ages revealed that the Yedoma Suite was continuously formed from the end of the Middle Weichselian (~ 40000 years BP) and at least until the Late

  12. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazhigin, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo

  13. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davit Vasilyan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae

  14. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Zazhigin, Vladimir S; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo bufo, and a small part of this assemblage

  15. [Effects of smoking and alcohol consumptionon reproductive and metabolic indicators in young men in western siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, L V; Popova, A V; Erkovich, A A; Voroshilova, N A; Osadchuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption remain widespread throughout the world, including Russia. Recently, due to the increase in male infertility and subfertility, special attention has been paid to the effects of smoking and alcohol on the reproductive health of young men. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking and moderate alcohol consumption on spermatogenesis, reproductive hormone levels and metabolic status in young men living in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk). One hundred thirty-three volunteers (mean age 21.1+/-0.3 years) were tested for the sperm concentration, the proportion of mobile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate, blood serum levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and uric acid. and conclusions The studied lifestyle factors were found to have no effects on spermatogenesis. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day and a moderate frequency of alcohol consumption (up to 1 time per week) was associated with higher blood serum testosterone levels and engaging in more frequent sexual contacts compared to non-smoking and non-drinking men. Drinking alcohol more than once a week and smoking more than 8 cigarettes per day was associated, along with the increase in testosterone levels and the frequency of sexual contacts, with lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and higher serum triglyceride levels. Thus, in young men, frequent drinking and smoking can alter the hormonal and metabolic balance, which, as the duration of the exposure and the strength of the factors increase, will increase the risk of reproductive disorders.

  16. On-farm research in Western Siberia: Potential of adapted management practices for sustainable intensification of crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühling, Insa; Trautz, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Western Siberia is of global significance in terms of agricultural production, carbon sequestration and biodiversity preservation. Abandonment of arable land and changes in the use of permanent grasslands were triggered by the dissolution of the Soviet Union in and the following collapse of the state farm system. The peatlands, forests and steppe soils of Western Siberia are one of the most important carbon sinks worldwide. These carbon stocks are, if deteriorated, an important source of radiative forcing even in comparison to anthropogenic emissions. This situation is aggravated by recent and future developments in agricultural land use in the southern part of Western Siberia, in particular in Tyumen province. The increase of drought risk caused by climate change will led to more challenges in these water-limited agricultural production systems. The German-Russian interdisciplinary research project "SASCHA" aims to provide sustainable land management practices to cope with these far-reaching changes for Tyumen province. In particular, on farm scale agricultural strategies are being developed for increased efficiencies in crop production systems. Therefore a 3-factorial field trial with different tillage and seeding operations was installed with spring wheat on 10 ha under practical conditions in 2013. Within all combinations of tillage (no-till/conventional), seed rate (usual/reduced) and seed depth (usual/shallower) various soil parameters as well as plant development and yield components were intensively monitored during the growing seasons. Results after 2-years show significant impacts of the tillage operation on soil moisture and soil temperature. Also a higher trend in nitrogen mineralization could be observed without tillage. Plant development in terms of phenological growth stages took place simultaneously in all variants. Under no-till regime we measured slightly higher grain yields and significant advantages in protein yields. In conjunction with

  17. Pedotransfer capacity of nickel and platinum nanoparticles in Albeluvisols Haplic in the South-East of the Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Kulizhsky

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings of field and experimental studies of pedotransfer capability of nickel and platinum nanoparticles in the profile of Albeluvisols Haplic of the sub-boreal forest in the south-east of the Western Siberia were presented. Results of the surveys testify to the effect that major factors affecting the migration capability include large biogenic interstices and main cracks that act as transport channels for nanoparticles, as well as thermodynamic (φ- potentials of particles that define the intensity of surface electrostatic interactions with walls of soil interstices.

  18. Monitoring of a gas reservoir in Western Siberia through SqueeSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucci, Alessio; Ferretti, Alessandro; Fokker, Peter A.; Jager, Johan; Lou, Sten

    2014-05-01

    The success of surface movement monitoring using InSAR is critically dependent on the coherence of the radar signal though time and over space. As a result, rural areas are more difficult to monitor with this technology than are areas with a lot of infrastructure. The development of advanced algorithms exploiting distributed scatterers, such as SqueeSAR, has improved these possibilities considerably. However, in rural areas covered with varying quantities of snow and ice, it had not yet been possible to demonstrate the applicability of the technology. We performed a study to assess the applicability of InSAR for assessing land movement is Western Siberia, where we chose the area of the Yuznho Russkoye field for a detailed analysis, after a screening using data that involved a number of fields in the vicinity of the Yuznho Russkoye Field. A first evaluation with C-band data ranging from 2004 - 2010 was unsuccessful due to the small number of images. Therefore we investigated the applicability of X-band data. 75 images were available spanning a period spanning May 2012 until July 2013. Within the summer periods when there was no snow coverage, the X-band data showed good coherence. The subsidence during a summer season, however, was not sufficient to make a quantitative comparison between geomechanical predictions and geodetic observations. Including the winter season in the analysis, however, destroyed the coherence and no subsidence signal could be derived. Quite unexpectedly, however, by cutting out the winter season and using the two disconnected summer seasons simultaneously, the coherence re-appeared and a subsidence estimate was established covering the full period. This way, the temporal surface movement could be established as a function of the position in the field. The spatial subsidence distribution was subsequently compared with the expected pattern expected from the location of producing wells and was found to be show a good correlation. Subsidence was

  19. Organic matter mineralization and trace element post-depositional redistribution in Western Siberia thermokarst lake sediments

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    S. Audry

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the very first results on high-resolution sampling of sediments and their porewaters from three thermokarst (thaw lakes representing different stages of ecosystem development located within the Nadym-Pur interfluve of the Western Siberia plain. Up to present time, the lake sediments of this and other permafrost-affected regions remain unexplored regarding their biogeochemical behavior. The aim of this study was to (i document the early diagenesic processes in order to assess their impact on the organic carbon stored in the underlying permafrost, and (ii characterize the post-depositional redistribution of trace elements and their impact on the water column. The estimated organic carbon (OC stock in thermokarst lake sediments of 14 ± 2 kg m−2 is low compared to that reported for peat soils from the same region and denotes intense organic matter (OM mineralization. Mineralization of OM in the thermokarst lake sediments proceeds under anoxic conditions in all the three lakes. In the course of the lake development, a shift in mineralization pathways from nitrate and sulfate to Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides as the main terminal electron acceptors in the early diagenetic reactions was suggested. This shift was likely promoted by the diagenetic consumption of nitrate and sulfate and their gradual depletion in the water column due to progressively decreasing frozen peat lixiviation occurring at the lake's borders. Trace elements were mobilized from host phases (OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides and partly sequestered in the sediment in the form of authigenic Fe-sulfides. Arsenic and Sb cycling was also closely linked to that of OM and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxides. Shallow diagenetic enrichment of particulate Sb was observed in the less mature stages. As a result of authigenic sulfide precipitation, the sediments of the early stage of ecosystem development were a sink for water column Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Sb. In contrast, at all

  20. GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF KIWANO IN THE OPEN FIELD IN THE SOUTH OF WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Naumova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kiwano plants, or horned cucumber (Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey ex Naudin was grown in the open field in several experimental plots in the south of West Siberia (54,95025 N, 83,09763 E. Fruits production was correlated with night air temperature sum and soil organic matter content, reaching the maximum of 2.7 kg (fresh phytomass per plant. Fruit size and some basic juice characteristics were similar to those of kiwano fruits grown elsewhere in the world. The vegetative phytomass grown was correlated with day air temperature sum, being practically independent of soil chemical properties. Thus kiwano can be recommended as a crop to be grown in the open field in the south of West Siberia and other regions of Russia with similar soil and environmental conditions.

  1. Long-Term Arctic Peatland Dynamics, Vegetation and Climate History of the Pur-Taz Region, Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Andreev, Andrei; Bardeen, William; Mistretta, Francesca

    1998-01-01

    Stratigraphic analyses of peat composition, LOI, pollen, spores, macrofossils, charcoal, and AMS ages are used to reconstruct the peatland, vegetation and climatic dynamics in the Pur-Taz region of western Siberia over 5000 years (9300 - 4500 BP). Section stratigraphy shows many changes from shallow lake sediment to different combinations of forested or open sedge, moss, and Equisetum fen and peatland environments. Macrofossil and pollen data indicate that Larix sibirica and Betula pubescens trees were first to arrive, followed by Picea obovata. The dominance of Picea macrofossils 6000-5000 BP in the Pur-Taz peatland along with regional Picea pollen maxima indicate warmer conditions and movement of the spruce treeline northward at this time. The decline of pollen and macrofossils from all of these tree species in uppermost peats suggests a change in the environment less favorable for their growth, perhaps cooler temperatures and/or less moisture. Of major significance is the evidence for old ages of the uppermost peats in this area of Siberia, suggesting a real lack of peat accumulation in recent millennia or recent oxidation of uppermost peat.

  2. Effect of permafrost thawing on organic carbon and trace element colloidal speciation in the thermokarst lakes of western Siberia

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    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanisms of carbon mobilization and biodegradation during permafrost thawing and to establish a link between organic carbon (OC and other chemical and microbiological parameters in forming thermokarst (thaw lakes, we studied the biogeochemistry of OC and trace elements (TEs in a chronosequence of small lakes that are being formed due to permafrost thawing in the northern part of western Siberia. Twenty lakes and small ponds of various sizes and ages were sampled for dissolved and colloidal organic carbon, metals and culturable heterotrophic bacterial cell number. We observed a sequence of ecosystems from peat thawing and palsa degradation due to permafrost subsidence in small ponds to large, km-size lakes that are subject to drainage to, finally, the khasyrey (drained lake formation. There is a systematic evolution of both total dissolved and colloidal concentration of OC and TEs in the lake water along with the chronosequence of lake development that may be directly linked to the microbial mineralization of dissolved organic matter and the liberation of the inorganic components (Fe, Al, and TEs from the organo-mineral colloids.

    In this chronosequence of lake development, we observed an apparent decrease in the relative proportion of low molecular weight <1 kDa (1 kDa ~ 1 nm OC concentration along with a decrease in the concentration of total dissolved (<0.45 μm OC. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in the small size organic ligands (probably autochthonous exometabolites produced by the phytoplankton and a simultaneous decrease in the proportion of large-size organic (humic complexes of allochthonous (soil origin. This evolution may be due to the activity of heterotrophic bacterioplankton that use allochthonous organic matter and dissolved nutrients originating from peat lixiviation. Most insoluble TEs demonstrate a systematic decrease in concentration during filtration (5 μm, 0.45 μm exhibiting a similar

  3. CALCULATION OF WATER BALANCE FOR THE SOUTH DESERT AREA OF WESTERN SIBERIA BY INTERNATIONAL MONITORING NETWORK DATA

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    R. Meissner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the water balance is not only of great practical importance, but also of interest from the standpoint of basic science for the researchers of the steppe zone, which has traditionally attracted people for its climate and soil resources. The article presents the results obtained from a network of automatic stations deployed in the framework of the Russian-German scientific cooperation in the field of climate, soil, and hydrological monitoring for 2012-2015. The instrumental data were obtained and the method of soil water balance calculation was performed on the basis of data of automatic weather station observations and lysimetric stations of new generation in the conditions of Western Siberia.

  4. [Feather mite fauna (Astigmata) of birds of some passerine families (Passeriformes) in the south of Western Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsov, G A; Iakimenko, V V

    2012-01-01

    Feather mites (Astigmata) are specialized parasites living on the plumage and skin of birds. The paper presents the data on the infestation of some passerines (Passeriformes) by feather mites in the south of the Western Siberia (Omsk and Tyumen Provinces). On 16 bird species, we found 24 species of feather mites, belonging to the families Analgidae, Dermoglyphidae, Pteronyssidae, Trouessartiidae and Proctophyllodidae. Among them, 19 species are common parasites of passerine birds examined; five species were detected on atypical hosts. Ten mite species were recorded for the first time on examined passerine species. The analysis of the distribution of abundant and ordinary mite species on their hosts demonstrated that the majority of bird species possesses specific distribution pattern on host plumage with the preference of certain feather types. We also obtained new data on host associations of several mite species.

  5. Adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors under the influence of Bacillus strains in Western Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Anatoly A; Shternshis, Margarita V; Chechenina, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2017-03-01

    In geographical locations with a short vegetative season and continental climate that include Western Siberia, growing primocane fruiting raspberry varieties becomes very important. However, it is necessary to help the plants to overcome the environmental stress factors. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the pre-planting treatment of primocane fruiting raspberry root system with Bacillus strains on the following plant development under variable environmental conditions. In 2012, Bacillus subtilis RCAM В-10641, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RCAM В-10642, and Bacillus licheniformis RCAM В-10562 were used for inoculating the root system of primocane fruiting raspberry cultivar Nedosyagaemaya before planting. The test suspensions were 105 CFU/ml for each bacterial strains. The effects of this treatment on plant growth and crop productivity were estimated in 2012-2015 growing seasons differed by environmental conditions. The pre-planting treatment by the bacterial strains increased the number of new raspberry canes and the number of plant generative organs as well as crop productivity compared to control. In addition, these bacilli acted as the standard humic fertilizer. Variable environmental factors such as air temperature, relative humidity, and winter and spring frosts seriously influenced the plant biological parameters and crop productivity of control plants. At the same time, the pre-planting primocane fruiting root treatment by Bacillus strains decreased the negative effects of abiotic stresses on plants in all years of the research. Of the three strains studied, B. subtilis was shown to reveal the best results in adaptation of primocane fruiting raspberry plants to environmental factors in Western Siberia. For the first time, the role of Bacillus strains in enhancing frost resistance in primocane fruiting raspberry plants was shown. These bacilli are capable of being the basis of multifunctional biological formulations for effective plant and

  6. Investigation of ancient DNA from Western Siberia and the Sargat culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Casey C; Kaestle, Frederika A

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 14 archaeological samples at the Ural State University in Yekaterinburg, Russia, was extracted to test the feasibility of ancient DNA work on their collection. These samples come from a number of sites that fall into two groupings. Seven samples are from three sites, dating to the 8th-12th century AD, that belong to a northern group of what are thought to be Ugrians, who lived along the Ural Mountains in northwestern Siberia. The remaining seven samples are from two sites that belong to a southern group representing the Sargat culture, dating between roughly the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, from southwestern Siberia near the Ural Mountains and the present-day Kazakhstan border. The samples are derived from several burial types, including kurgan burials. They also represent a number of different skeletal elements and a range of observed preservation. The northern sites repeatedly failed to amplify after multiple extraction and amplification attempts, but the samples from the southern sites were successfully extracted and amplified. The sequences obtained from the southern sites support the hypothesis that the Sargat culture was a potential zone of intermixture between native Ugrian and/or Siberian populations and steppe peoples from the south, possibly early Iranian or Indo-Iranian, which has been previously suggested by archaeological analysis.

  7. Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  8. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

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    Clio Der Sarkissian

    Full Text Available North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present. We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a, a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population

  9. [Basic features of the nemoral curculionid-beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea) from eastern Europe and Western Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legalov, A A

    2011-01-01

    There are 132 curculionids associated with deciduous trees in eastern Europe and western Siberia. The weevils and bark beetles make up the basis of the fauna, forming almost 80%. The fauna of oak is the richest (64 species). The species composition on the ash-tree (50% are monophages) is highly original. Impoverishment of the species composition from the west to the east is revealed. The fauna declines by 18% from 45 to 550 E. The species composition reduces two times beyond the Urals. The faunal boundaries are revealed from west to east and from east to west. The most significant boundary (47% of the fauna do not pass it) for distribution of species to the east is situated between 40 and 45 degrees E. Two significant faunal boundaries are revealed from south to north. The fauna of curculionids of deciduous trees is formed by four groups of species. The southern European species (54%) and western palaearctic species (40%) dominate. The species composition of the studied territory is similar to the fauna of Middle Europe. Formation of the modern fauna of curculionids of deciduous trees in eastern Europe probably occurred in the Holocene. The western Palaearctic and Transpalaearctic species could have occupied the considered territory since the Late Pleistocene. Southern European species appeared in the considered territory after the Valdai glaciation during the warming in the Atlantic period of the Holocene. Penetration of East Palaearctic species began rather recently (last few decades), probably due to climate warming and economic activities.

  10. Carbon exchange fluxes over peatlands in Western Siberia: Possible feedback between land-use change and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.fleischer@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Landscape Ecology, Climatology Research Group, University of Münster, Münster (Germany); Khashimov, Ilhom, E-mail: nixonlp@mail.ru [Institute of Earth Science, Physical Geography and Geoecology Department, Tyumen State University, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Hölzel, Norbert, E-mail: nhoelzel@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Landscape Ecology, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research Group, University of Münster, Münster (Germany); Klemm, Otto, E-mail: otto.klemm@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Landscape Ecology, Climatology Research Group, University of Münster, Münster (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    The growing demand for agricultural products has been leading to an expansion and intensification of agriculture around the world. More and more unused land is currently reclaimed in the regions of the former Soviet Union. Driven by climate change, the Western Siberian grain belt might, in a long-term, even expand into the drained peatland areas to the North. It is crucial to study the consequences of this land-use change with respect to the carbon cycling as this is still a major knowledge gap. We present for the first time data on the atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and methane of an arable field and a neighboring unused grassland on peat soil in Western Siberia. Eddy covariance measurements were performed over one vegetation period. No directed methane fluxes were found due to an effective drainage of the study sites. The carbon dioxide fluxes appeared to be of high relevance for the global carbon and greenhouse gas cycles. They showed very site-specific patterns resulting from the development of vegetation: the persistent plants of the grassland were able to start photosynthesizing soon after snow melt, while the absence of vegetation on the managed field lead to a phase of emissions until the oat plants started to grow in June. The uptake peak of the oat field is much later than that of the grassland, but larger due to a rapid plant growth. Budgeting the whole measurement period, the grassland served as a carbon sink, whereas the oat field was identified to be a carbon source. The conversion from non-used grasslands on peat soil to cultivated fields in Western Siberia is therefore considered to have a positive feedback on climate change. - Highlights: • Grasslands on drained peat soil can act as carbon sinks. • Arable fields on drained peat act as carbon sources due to long phases of bare soil. • CH{sub 4} emissions from drained peatlands seem to play a smaller role than CO{sub 2} fluxes. • Conversion from grassland to arable field has

  11. Metal Adornments of Clothing and Headwear in the Bronze Age of Western Siberia (issues of research and reconstruction ..

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    Umerenkova Olga V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues related to the principals of scientific approach, methods and procedure of costume reconstruction on the basis of archaeological materials dating back to the Bronze Age discovered in the territory of Western Siberia. The costume is considered by researchers as one of the brightest manifestations of material culture. Its decoration provides multidisciplinary information containing elements of ideology and aesthetic norms together with traditions and social relationships. Reconstruction of clothing and headwear adornments in archaeological literature related to the Bronze Age is one of the understudied topics. Researchers use various sources for its recreation: archaeological materials, written historical, literature and folklore sources, and fine art items. A significant amount of source items has accumulated over the last decades, although the analysis and principles of processing thereof have not been sufficiently covered in special literature. In order to increase the informative capabilities of adornments as sources for the reconstruction of the Bronze Age costume, the author suggested a scheme of accounting for the location of adornments with respect to the remains of the buried when the excavations are documented. The article features the results of the author's reconstruction of women's headwear decoration with metal articles executed on the basis of Bronze Age materials.

  12. Electrical resistance profiles of permafrost-affected soils in the north of Western Siberia according to their vertical electrical sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E. V.; Tomashunas, V. M.; Alekseev, I. I.

    2017-09-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES) of soils and underlying permafrost was performed on key plots in the north of Western Siberia (the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). It was supposed that the values of apparent electrical resistivity should sharply change at the boundary between the active layer and permafrost. Gleyzems, peat gleyzems, podzols, and petrozems studied on the key plots within the Yamal and Gydan peninsulas were characterized by different depths of the active layer. It was found that the electrical resistivity in the permafrost is one to two orders of magnitude higher than that in the active layer of the soils of different textures. Our study suggests that the VES method can be used to diagnose permafrost without disturbance of the soil cover. This conclusion is of special interest for long-term permafrost monitoring programs on permanent key plots. In general, the data obtained by VES are in agreement with the results of determination of the active layer thickness by traditional field methods.

  13. [Characteristics of zonal distribution of the gamasid mites connected with small mammals and their nests in Western Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'kova, M G

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of long-term data on the fauna, landscape distribution, and structure of communities of the gamasid mites (Acari:Parasitiformes:Mesostigmata) connected with small mammals and their nests in the plain part of Western Siberia is carried out. By now, presence of 249 gamasid mite species is established in the territory under study, including 193 free-living and 56 parasitic species. Gamasid mites are represented by the maximal number of species on small mammals and in thers nests in northern forest-steppe (102 and 105 species respectively). Nine parasitic species from two ecological groups (epizoic and nidicolous) were found in all landscape zones of the West Siberian Plain, namely: 1) epizoic species Laelaps clethrionomydis Lange, 1955, Laelaps hilaris C. L. Koch, 1836, and Hyperlaelaps arvalis Zachvatkin, 1948 (obligatory non-exclusive hematophagous); 2) nidicolous species Androlaelaps casalis Berlese, 1887 (obligatory non-exclusive hematophagous), Eulaelaps stabularis C. L. Koch, 1836, Haemogamasus nidiformnes Bregetova, 1955 (facultative hematophagous), Haemnogamnasus ambulans Thorell, 1872 (obligatory non-exclusive hematophagous), Hirstionyssus isabellinus Oudemans, 1913, and Hirstionyssus eusoricis Bregetova, 1956 (obligatory exclusive hematophagous). Last three species demonstrate the mixed type of parasitism. The population of gamasid mites on small mammals is most specific in tundra, southern forest-steppe and steppe; the fauna of gamasid mites in nests is most specific in southern forest-steppe and steppe.

  14. Virological evaluation of avian influenza virus persistence in natural and anthropic ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, summer 2012.

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    Maria A De Marco

    Full Text Available Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP avian influenza viruses (AIVs, congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems.In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118 tested virus isolation (VI-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5% were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%. Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative.We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches to virus molecular evolution and phylogenesis, will be

  15. Virological Evaluation of Avian Influenza Virus Persistence in Natural and Anthropic Ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, Summer 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Maria A.; Delogu, Mauro; Sivay, Mariya; Sharshov, Kirill; Yurlov, Alexander; Cotti, Claudia; Shestopalov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs), congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems. Methodology/Principal Findings In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118) tested virus isolation (VI)-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5%) were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%). Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative. Conclusion/Significance We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches

  16. Imitation modeling of ice dams (case study of Tom’ River, Western Siberia

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    V. A. Zemtsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors of ice jam formations in the lower flow of the Tom River (Siberia are investigated. A length of the main channel under investigation is about 120 km. Approaches to solution of the problem of the jam formation control and, as a consequence, the jam induced floods are considered on the basis of the imitative computer modeling of stream dynamics and ice jams. The simulation makes it possible to analyze different scenarios of initial forcing and to predict reactions of the river bed system to the effects. On the basis of 1D models developed in the HEC-RAS 4.0 modeling system for the Tom River at the city of Tomsk we investigated a possibility of the ice jam localization, probability of which at different parts of river flow varies in time according to change of the river water discharge, stream hydraulics, and ice cover thickness. The 2D hydrodynamic model of the Tom River channel system in the SMS 9.2 modeling system has been developed. It allows simulating effects of ice jams located in different sections of the river flow on the run-off redistribution between the main channel and other river branches. It makes possible to estimate hazards and risks of ice jam floods and probable effects of ice jams on formation of the river channel system. As a result it becomes possible to regulate the safe spring ice transit through populated areas.Analysis of factors of the ice jam formations has demonstrated that due to increasing anthropogenic influence changes of hydro-meteorological and geomorphologic conditions lead to more frequent occurrence of jam floods for the last 25 years as compared to previous 40-year period. The imitative computer models are proposed to be used for planning anti-jam measures since they make possible to create a whole system of the channel structure, a relief of channel and floodplain, a flow velocity field including dangerous hydrologic processes. Similar system would allow predicting both consequences of local

  17. The Ukrainian community of Western Siberia: specific features of formation and development in the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century

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    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian crisis in the European part of the Russian Empire in the middle of the 20th century seriously impeded agricultural progress. Agrarian overpopulation and peasants deprived of land in the course of the peasant reform of 1861 further aggravated the negative situation in the governorates of Central Russia, Belarus, and left-bank Ukraine. These factors provided fertile soil for migratory sentiments among peasants. It was resettlement in vacant lands in the Asiatic Russia and North Caucasus, which allowed most of them to preserve their homesteads. In the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century, Ukrainian peasants were actively engaged in the migration movement which was supported by the state. One of the main placement areas became Western Siberia where a large Ukrainian peasant community was formed. The history of research on the Ukrainian community in Western Siberia is fragmentary, as many aspects remain unstudied. Hence, the article focuses on the following questions: causes of the Ukrainian migration to the border lands of the Russian Empire; stages in the migration; main areas where Ukrainians resided in Siberia; population dynamics of the Ukrainian community; adaptation patterns specific for Ukrainian migrants in their new places of residence; their role in the economic life of Siberia in the early 20th century. This article utilizes primary data from the All-Russian Agricultural and Land Census of 1917, which have been introduced for scientific use for the first time. As the methodological basis, the study draws on the system approach combining regional, neo-imperial and comparative principles.

  18. Reproductive isolation and genetic differentiation of dry land and bog populations of Pinus sylvestris L. in Western Siberia and Russian Plain

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    I. V. Petrova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of large-scale interdisciplinary ecological and geographical researches (1973–2015 years, environmental gradients, reproductive isolation, genetic and phenotypic differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. populations of the dry lands and the adjacent bogs in Western Siberia and the Russian Plain have been generalized. The strong regime gradients of the physical, chemical, and especially hydrothermal factors of the pine populations edafotope on dry lands and adjacent high bogs in the sub-forest-steppe, in the middle and northern taiga (in a less degree of Western Siberia have been revealed. The stable reproductive isolation of populations on the high bogs and (to a lesser extent on the transitional bogs from the dry land ones, which is determinated by a later dates of the peat substrate heating, a differences in the phases of pollination-“flowering” (reception of trees, and its increase in the general direction from the northwest to the southeast of the Russian Plain and the Western Siberia, has been determined. The significant genetic distances Nei (1978 and their gradients (bounds between the dry land and adjacent bog populations in the south of forest zone (at the local population level, and lower gradients in the northern taiga subzones, as well as in transitional bogs have been found. For the first time the clear boundary between populations of P. sylvestris L. on the dry land and adjacent high bog (in the continuous areal has been determined as a result of stationary palaeobotanical, ecological, phenological, morphological-anatomical-phenotypic and allozyme studies. An outline of hypothetical-deductive theory of genetic divergence of bog P. sylvestris populations from dry land ones in Holocene under the influence of the disruptive selection and the other factors of microevolution, which is proceed in the conditions of strongly contrasting environment and reproductive isolation has been substantiated through the

  19. Western Transbaikalia (South East Siberia): desertification from the past towards present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeeva, Nadezhda; Erbajeva, Margarita A.; Khenzykhenova, Fedora I.

    2010-05-01

    laguriforme, appearance of the genus Equus. The Middle Pleistocene of the Western Transbaikalia is characterized by further changing of the climate towards arid. Significant changes in small mammal associations took place. The typical inhabitants of semideserts and deserts such as Meriones and Ellobius appeared in the fauna. This evidence as well as an increasing of frequency of Eolagurus and Allactaga and decrease of ochotonids and ground squirrels have indicating the strengthening of the climate aridization. In the region dry steppes, semideserts and deserts wide spread at that time which is evidenced as well by the data of plant community. The Transbaikalian faunas of that time with the predominance of the Central Asian elements and vegetation resembled the recent condition of south Mongolia. To the Late Pleistocene the paleoenvironment of studied region have changed towards more or less periglacial. Dry steppes with the dominance of wormwood plants widely expanded in the region. The following intensive cooling of the climate led to the further reorganization of the mammal community and vegetation. The fauna is represented by the modern species however the distribution area of some of them were extended far to the North-East, far beyond their present limits. During whole Late Pleistocene the territory of Western Transbaikalia were occupied by open landscapes dwellers. Because of arid climate and environment was predominant in Transbaikalia the species composition of the faunas of cold and warm periods in total are almost common? They differ mainly by the quantity ratio of taxa. By contrast the adjacent contemporaneous Prebaikalian fauna included the taxa which were ecologically mixed and this fauna is named as non-analogue,, or tundra-forest-steppe, or mammoth fauna. The comparison of mammal faunas of these two regions show that they differ each other by the predominance of the Central-Asian elements in Transbaiaklian faunas and European-Siberian one in Prebaikalian.

  20. The System’s Evolution of Church and Parish Schools Western Siberia at the Boundary of the XIX–XX Centuries

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    Alexander А. Valitov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In article educational activity of the Russian Orthodox church is considered at a boundary of the XIX–XX centuries on the territory of Western Siberia. Authors state results of the analysis of the historical sources allowing to track process of emergence and development of elementary church schools in the region undertaken by it. Aspects of institute’s work are covered of diocesan observers and diocesan school boards. The existing church schools were the only possibility of familiarizing with knowledge of the basic to the population of the region of this period. The value of educational activity of church was especially great, at extensiveness of territories, big remoteness of settlements from each other and lack of territorial establishments in Western Siberia. The conclusion is that the system of church schools was developed in parallel with system of secular education of similar level. The competition between two systems forced to find new effective methods of work and constantly to improve vocational training of teaching personnel that eventually played a positive role in development of domestic primary education.

  1. [The heterogeneity of the ospa gene of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in western Siberia and Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenko, N V; Stronin, O V; Khasnatinov, M A; Danchinova, G A; Bataa, J; Gol'tsova, N A

    2009-01-01

    48 full-length Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii from West Siberia and Mongolia ospA gene nucleotide sequences was determined. Four groups of Borrelia garinii were revealed using the analysis of nucleotide sequences. The most variable ospA gene region was demonstrated to be included in region where the antigenic determinants of protein were encoded. High homology level was shown for nucleotide sequences corresponding to isolates of Borrelia afzelii.

  2. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usacheva, Anna A.; Semenkov, Ivan N. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Cesium-137 is artificial radionuclide with 30.17 years half-life. However, this element can be found anywhere due to global atmospheric fallout. Its background storage is detected in landscapes: water, bottom sediments, plants and soils. Almost no one has studied the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the landscapes of the North, because of its negligible storage. Cesium-137 is slightly mobile in the soils of the North. The cryogenic and other material movement is a typical feature of soils of the North. However, the dating of the soil turbations less than 100 years of age, using existing methods, is possible via long-term stationary observations. To determine the age of soil turbations quicker, one can use slightly mobile artificial radionuclides with medium or long half-life. Cesium-137 satisfies all the criteria. The aim of the work is to estimate suitable of cesium-137 as geo-tracer of soil turbation. According to our evaluation, the activity of the buried layers is less than 10 Bq*kg{sup -1} at the current {sup 137}Cs contamination of surface organic horizons (60-90 Bq*kg{sup -1}). A research has been conducted to study distribution of cesium-137 in the north and middle taiga landscapes of Western Siberia (Russia). Field research was carried out in 2012 in two study areas. The first study area 'Purpe' is located in the middle part of the Pur river basin, near Gubkinsky town (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The second study area 'Noyabrsk' is located in the Ob and the Pur river watersheds, near Noyabrsk-city (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug). Moss-grass-underwood layer (n=13) contains 22±20% of {sup 137}Cs total storage in the landscapes of oligo-trophic bogs with cryohistosols and pine forests on cryopodzols. The main reservoir of cesium-137 is soils (n=24) that accumulate 78±20% of its total landscape storage. The upper 10-cm soil layer contains 90% of {sup 137}Cs soil storage. Cesium-137 activity declines from shrubs and polytric layers

  3. Impact of western Siberia heat wave 2012 on greenhouse gases and trace metal concentration in thaw lakes of discontinuous permafrost zone

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    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the anomalously hot summer in 2012, surface air temperatures in Western Siberia were 5 to 15 °C higher than those observed during the previous period of > 30 yr. This unusual climate phenomenon provided an opportunity to examine the effects of short-term natural heating of water in thermokarst ponds and lakes in discontinuous permafrost zones and compare these observations to previous field results obtained when the temperature was normal during the summer of 2010 in the same region. In 2012, thermokarst bodies of water shrank significantly, water levels dropped approximately 50 cm in large lakes and small (2 ponds, and shallow soil depressions disappeared. Based on samples from ~ 40 bodies of water collected previously and in 2012, first-order features of changes in chemical composition in response to increased water temperatures (from 14.1 ± 2.2 to 23.8 ± 2.3 °C in 2010 and 2012, respectively were established. In these thermokarst bodies of water that covered a full range of surface areas, the average conductivity and pH were almost unchanged, whereas dissolved organic carbon (DOC, Cl- and SO42- concentrations were higher by a factor of ~ 2 during summer 2012 compared to periods with normal temperatures. Similarly, most divalent metals and insoluble trivalent and tetravalent elements were more concentrated by a factor of 1.7–2.4 in the summer of 2012 than normal periods. The average concentrations of dissolved CO2 and CH4 during the hot summer of 2012 increased by factors of 1.4 and 4.9, respectively. For most of the trace elements bound to colloids, the degree of colloidal binding decreased by a factor of 1.44 ± 0.33 (for an average of 40 elements during the hot summer of 2012 compared to normal periods. Increases in CO2 and CH4 concentrations with the decreasing size of the body of water were well-pronounced during the hot summer of 2012. The concentrations of CO2 and CH4 rose by factors of 5 and 150, respectively, in small (

  4. Geocryological hazards and destructive exogenic geological processes on lines of linear constructions of tundra and forest-tundra zones of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospennikov, E. N.; Hilimonjuk, V. Z.

    2009-04-01

    Economic development of northern oil-and gas-bearing regions, even by application of shift method, is accompanied by a construction of the linear transport systems including automobile- and railways. Construction of such roads is connected with the risks caused by the whole complex of hazards, defined by the environmental features of the region, including flat surface with strong marshiness, development of a peat, fine-grained and easily eroded friable sedimentations, as well as by complicated geocryological conditions. Geocryological conditions of Western Siberia area are characterized by a rather high heterogeneity. This implies the strong variability of permafrost soils distribution, their thickness and continuity, depths of seasonal thawing and frost penetration, and also intact development of geocryological processes and phenomena. Thermokarst, thermo erosion and thermo-abrasion develop in the natural conditions. These processes are caused by partial degradation of permafrost. A frost heave also occurs during their seasonal or long-term freezing. Failure of an environment, which is always peculiar to construction of the roads, causes reorganization of geocryological systems that is accompanied by occurrence of dangerous geocryological processes, such as technogenic thermokarst (with formation of various negative forms of a relief: from fine subsidence up to small and average sized lakes), frost heave ground (with formation frost mound in height up to 0,5 - 1,5 meters and more), thermal erosion (gullies and ravines with volume of the born material up to several thousand cubic meters). Development of these destructive processes in a road stripes leads to emergencies owing to deformations and destructions of an earthen cloth, and to failure of natural tundra and forest-tundra ecosystems. The methodical approaches based on typification and zoning of the area by its environmental complex have been developed for an estimation of geocryological hazards at linear

  5. Visit of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Western Siberia as a Part of the Ritual Legitimization of the Ruling Romanov Dynasty

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    Alexander А. Valitov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The visit of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich in Western Siberia in 1868, was not only a study tour by the representative of the Imperial Family with the marginal edge of the country. This visit was one of the forms of legimitacy power, which is a special ritual – including the official program, which was designed to reflect the unity of government and people. In General, the study period in the political culture of the country has developed specific scenarios of power, its functional embodiment they received in the form of various rituals, among which an important place was occupied by Imperial holidays and visit the highest personages. Thus, the visit of Grand Duke Vladimir, gave the chief Executive an opportunity to formally introduce myself filed for forming in the public mind about a particular scenario to the proximity of the public and the authorities, in the form of direct interaction between the Tsar and the Russian people.

  6. Effect of the permafrost thawing on the organic carbon and microbial activity in thermokarst lakes of Western Siberia: important source of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokova, L. S.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Dupre, B.

    2008-12-01

    Ongoing processes of the permafrost thawing in Western Siberia are likely to increase the surface of water reservoirs via forming so-called thermokarst lakes, mobilizing the organic carbon (OC) from the soil pool to the rivers and, finally, to the ocean, and thus modifying the fluxes of methane and CO2 to the atmosphere. In order to understand the mechanisms of carbon mobilization and biodegradation during permafrost thawing and to establish the link between the OC and microbial activity in forming thermokarstic lakes, we performed a comparative multidisciplinary study on the biogeochemistry of OC and metals in lakes located in the northern part of Western Siberia. About 10 lakes and small ponds of various size and age were sampled for dissolved and colloidal organic carbon and metals and total bacterial cell number. There is a systematic evolution of DOC, pH, trace elements and biological activity during successions of thermokarst lakes encountered in the present study. At the beginning of permafrost thawing at the scale of several meter size ponds, fast lixiviation of unaltered peat yields significant amount of OC, major and trace elements; the pH of these waters is between 3.5 and 4.0 and the conductivity is 20-30 μS. The intermediate stage of lake formation still preserve low pHs, high DOC and conductivity, even in relatively large, up to 1 km diameter but fast growing lakes. At these stages, there is no any productivity as phytoplankton cannot live in these acidic waters and bacterial mineralization intensity is around 0.3 mg C/L/day both in the surface and bottom horizons. Once the lake border is stabilized, there are no new "unaltered peat" sources and the biological processes start to consume the OC and nutrients. At this stage, there is still no production in the water column (high, up to 0.3 mg C/L/day. At this final stage, the remaining part of the lake located in the centre of the "khasyrei" exhibits the highest pH (5.5-6.0), presence of green algae

  7. [Yeast biodiversity in hydromorphic soils with reference to grass-Sphagnum swamp in Western Siberia and the hammocky tundra region( Barrow, Alaska)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakova, A V; Chernov, I Iu; Panikov, N S

    2001-01-01

    The microbiological analysis of 78 samples taken from a boreal bog in Western Siberia and from a tundra wetland soil in Alaska showed the presence of 23 yeast species belonging to the genera Bullera, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Mrakia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, Sporobolomyces, Torulaspora, and Trichosporon. Peat samples from the boreal bog were dominated by eurytopic anamorphic basidiomycetous species, such as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Sporobolomyces roseus, and by the ascomycetous yeasts Candida spp. and Debaryomyces hansenii. These samples also contained two rare ascomycetous species (Candida paludigena and Schizoblastosporion starkeyi-henricii), which so far have been found only in taiga wetland soils. The wetland Alaskan soil was dominated by one yeast species (Cryptococcus gilvescens), which is a typical inhabitant of tundra soils. Therefore, geographic factors may serve for a more reliable prediction of yeast diversity in soils than the physicochemical or ecotopic parameters of these soils.

  8. Mechanisms for Reduction of Natural Waters Technogenic Pollution by Metals due to Complexions with Humus Substances (Zoning: Western Siberia and the European Territory of Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The article described the complexation of metal ions with humus substances in natural waters (small lakes). Humus substances as the major biochemical components of natural water have a significant impact on the forms and migration of metals and the toxicity of natural objects. This article presents the results of large-scale chemical experiments: the study of the structural features (zonal aspects) of humus substances extracted from soil and water natural climatic zones (more than 300 objects) in Russia (European Russia and West Siberia); the influence of structural features on the physic-chemical parameters of humus acids and, in particular, on their complexing ability. The functional specifics of humus matter extracted from soils is estimated using spectrometric techniques. The conditional stability constants for Fe(III), Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Cr(III), Ca(II), Mg(II), Sr(II), and Al(III) are experimentally determined with the electrochemical, spectroscopic analysis methods. The activities of metals are classified according to their affinity to humus compounds in soils and water. The determined conditional stability constants of the complexes are tested by model experiments, and it is demonstrated that Fe and Al ions have higher conditional stability constants than the ions of alkali earth metals, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Furthermore, the influence of aluminium ions and iron on the complexation of copper and lead as well as the influence of lead and copper on complexation of cobalt and nickel have been identified. The metal forms in a large number of lakes are calculated basing on the experiments’ results. The main chemical mechanisms of the distribution of metals by forms in the water of the lakes in European Russia and West Siberia are described.

  9. From the Reindeer Path to the Highway and Back – Understanding the Movements of Khanty Reindeer Herders in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Dudeck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article explores the meaning of roads and the practices of movement for a small group of forest inhabitants in the Western Siberian lowlands on the middle Ob. The indigenous people known as the Khanty live as reindeer herders, fishermen and hunters in the midst of oil fields in the Surgut Rayon. The article examines their emic point of view opposed to the evaluation of the state administration. Anthropological research can access the mobility of people in two ways. At first researchers map movement in physical and metaphysical time and space, they observe and record the practice of movement. The second important source for anthropological insight is what people say about their practices of movement and how they evaluate them and the spaces in which they move. The following article tries to show that these perspectives remain incomplete without a synthesis of both. The first perspective allows only for a functionalist classification and the second allows the researcher to be taken in by the black and white pictures of moral evaluations that render the complexity of everyday life invisible. Only a synthesis of both, a careful interpretation of indigenous narratives before the background of social and political circumstances let us understand the practices of movement we can observe in the everyday life of people. Khanty reindeer herders try to build up a distance from the world of intruders and try to defend their autonomy in the forest. By accessing everyday practices and motivations instead of ready-made explanations it is revealed that the Khanty are not doomed to adapt to new situations, but they try to negotiate and manipulate them in their favour. The article tries to prove that one has to skip the objectifying approach to a hermeneutic one to grasp their abilities to do so.

  10. From the Reindeer Path to the Highway and Back – Understanding the Movements of Khanty Reindeer Herders in Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Dudeck

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The following article explores the meaning of roads and the practices of movement for a small group of forest inhabitants in the Western Siberian lowlands on the middle Ob. The indigenous people known as the Khanty live as reindeer herders, fishermen and hunters in the midst of oil fields in the Surgut Rayon. The article examines their emic point of view opposed to the evaluation of the state administration. Anthropological research can access the mobility of people in two ways. At first researchers map movement in physical and metaphysical time and space, they observe and record the practice of movement. The second important source for anthropological insight is what people say about their practices of movement and how they evaluate them and the spaces in which they move. The following article tries to show that these perspectives remain incomplete without a synthesis of both. The first perspective allows only for a functionalist classification and the second allows the researcher to be taken in by the black and white pictures of moral evaluations that render the complexity of everyday life invisible. Only a synthesis of both, a careful interpretation of indigenous narratives before the background of social and political circumstances let us understand the practices of movement we can observe in the everyday life of people. Khanty reindeer herders try to build up a distance from the world of intruders and try to defend their autonomy in the forest. By accessing everyday practices and motivations instead of ready-made explanations it is revealed that the Khanty are not doomed to adapt to new situations, but they try to negotiate and manipulate them in their favour. The article tries to prove that one has to skip the objectifying approach to a hermeneutic one to grasp their abilities to do so.

  11. The Russian Government’s Policy on Control over the Religious Life of Moslem Communities within Western Siberia between the Second Half of the 19th and Early 20th Centuries

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    Petr K. Dashkovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of the Russian government in the set-up of the spiritual life of Moslem communities. Between the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Russian government saw its major objective in control over communities practicing faiths other than Orthodox Christianity – most importantly, the activity of Moslem communities. Such policy, in large part, was about control over the construction of cult buildings, as well as the set-up of confessional schools. Based on archive materials, the author provides an insight into the issue of the set-up of the spiritual life of the Moslem community of Western Siberia during the period under examination, as well as the major aspects of record management in the area. Special attention is devoted to the complexity of getting permits for the erection of Moslem facilities, which sometimes led to unauthorized construction. There was a similar trend in respect of opening academic institutions, since the government mostly supported the creation of new-type schools with Russian-based classes and their major objective was teaching Russian and familiarizing Moslems with Russian culture.

  12. TO THE QUESTION OF DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA PERFECTION IN VIEW CIRCANNUAL VARIATION OF ORGANISM FUNCTIONING ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS IN CONDITIONS OF WESTERN SIBERIA

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    L. V. Barabash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research was studying circannual variation of parameters of hormonal regulation, lipids, oxidative systems of an organism of healthy men and women in conditions of Western Siberia.Monthly, within five years (2005–2009 on conditions of the voluntary informed consent 580 healthy donors (370 men and 210 women in the age of from 25 up to 47 have been surveyed. In blood serum defined concentration of cortisol, insulin, thyroid hormones, concentration of cholesterol and other lipids, markers of stress and oxidative. Obtained data have been processed by adequate methods of the mathematical and statistical analysis.The analysis of results has shown that activity of functioning systems adaptation an of organism at all levels of the organization undergoes essential changes within a year. Revealed correlations are the certificate of cause and effect attitudes between the systems, providing adaptive mechanisms in constantly changing conditions of a living environment. The received results testify to an absolute must of revision of diagnostic criteria and expansions of concept of norm in view of circannual variation of functioning of physiological systems of an organism.

  13. Developing a western Siberia reference site for tropospheric water vapour isotopologue observations obtained by different techniques (in situ and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gribanov

    2014-06-01

    water cycle, affected by changes in air mass origin, non-convective and convective processes and continental recycling. Novel remote sensing and in situ measuring techniques have recently offered opportunities for monitoring atmospheric water vapour isotopic composition. Recently developed infrared laser spectrometers allow for continuous in situ measurements of surface water vapour δDv and δ18Ov. So far, very few intercomparisons of measurements conducted using different techniques have been achieved at a given location, due to difficulties intrinsic to the comparison of integrated with local measurements. Nudged simulations conducted with high-resolution isotopically enabled general circulation models (GCMs provide a consistent framework for comparison with the different types of observations. Here, we compare simulations conducted with the ECHAM5-wiso model with two types of water vapour isotopic data obtained during summer 2012 at the forest site of Kourovka, western Siberia: hourly ground-based FTIR total atmospheric columnar δDv amounts, and in situ hourly Picarro δDv measurements. There is an excellent correlation between observed and predicted δDv at surface while the comparison between water column values derived from the model compares well with FTIR estimates.

  14. THE NATURE OF CYCLIC STRUCTURE OF THE ICE COMPLEX, EAST SIBERIA

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    Vyacheslav Konishchev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The features of cyclic structure in the Karga-Sartan Ice Complex (IC deposits in Northern Yakutia have been studied for the coastal lowlands. We have analyzed cycles of different genesis (cryolithological, structural, lithological, and soil-vegetation and duration. Climate fluctuation was the major factor of cyclic structure in the IC deposits. Cyclic structure in the IC deposits develops in certain facial-genetic conditions characterized by cryogenic weathering and subsequent re-deposition of eroded soils in river valleys and alas depressions

  15. The Influence of State-Confessional Policy on the Situation of MuslimOrganizations in Western Siberia in 1905 – the beginning of 1917 years

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    Petr K. Dashkovskiy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the situation of Muslim communities in Western Siberia in the period between the two Russian revolutions (1905 – the beginning of 1917 years in the framework of the government's state-confessional policy. Based on the analysis of archival documents and legal acts the authors conclude that the attitude of the state towards muslims in the Russian empire, despite all political changes, was based on the attempts to consolidate the indigenous component with the Russian ethnos. The events of 1905 year engendered from the muslim population of the country hope to change their situation, and strengthened the desire to religious autonomy. However, the government continues to build its policy so that controlled virtually all spheres of life of the Muslim community. The events of the First Russian revolution contributed to the birth of activity in the muslim world in defending their rights, which led to the manifestation of some exemptions from the state in relation to the Ummah. It was during this period muslims see an opportunity to assert their rights at the legislative level, form their own political movements and are part of the State Duma. Quite noticeable was the participation of Muslims in the Russian army during the First world war. In this regard not by chance that the muslims received the right to perform prayers and approval of the clergy of the muslim faith to the troops. In this case they were equalized in rights with the regimental priests. At the same time, despite the active position of the muslim community, however, by the beginning of 1917 still have quite a lot of unresolved issues and problems related to the device life of the muslim community. One of the most difficult and unsolved problems remained a problem of national education for the aboriginal population professing islam.

  16. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen stock alteration under the influences of bushfires in tundra-forest permafrost ecosystems of the Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamilishvili, George; Abakumov, Evgeniy; Maksimova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    The study provides information on the alteration of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (N tot) stocks in postfire podzol soils of the tundra-forest permafrost ecosystem of the Western Siberia. Data was derived in August 2016, describing the consequence of the surface-crown bushfire on the permafrost affected tundra soils, previously occurred in Nadym region of the YaNAR, Russia. Obtained data on the SOC content in upper organic horizons show sharp decline of these parameters in postfire soil in comparison with control soil of the tundra area unexposed to fire (from 38,27 to 26,59% respectively). SOC stocks, calculated for the upper organic (O, 0-3 cm) and subsequent eluvial horizons (E, 3-10(20) cm), were found to be significantly lower in postfire soils (decreasing from 20,28 and 0,89 kg/m2 to 2,69 and 0,28 kg/m2 in postfire soil). The analytic data obtained showed a raise of N tot content in burned horizon of the postfire soil with a maximal level of 0,94% in the ash. Calculated nitrogen stocks also showed enrichment in postfire soils. This feature is explained by the release of nutrients from organic residues and plant material to the soil under the influence of high temperatures. The pyrogenic impact increases the portion of humic acids in the organic matter. Along with the transfer of the clay fraction, the translocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons resulting from the fires to the accumulative geochemical positions is also possible.

  17. Specific features of the development of soils of hydromorphic ecosystems in the northern taiga of Western Siberia under conditions of cryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyshak, G. V.; Bogatyrev, L. G.; Goncharova, O. Yu.; Bobrik, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Differently directed and heterochronous cryogenic processes have contributed to the contrasting soil cover patterns and spatial heterogeneity of the properties of soils in hydromorphic ecosystems of the discontinuous permafrost zone of the northern taiga in Western Siberia. Frost heave and permafrost thawing within ecosystems of highmoor bogs have led to the development of specific cryogenic landforms, such as flat-topped and large peat mounds. A set of cryogenic soils is developed in these ecosystems; it includes different variants of cryozems, gleyzems (Cryosols), and peat soils (Histosols). The distribution of these soil types is controlled by the local topography and thawing depth, other factors being insignificant. Alternation of peat horizons of different types and ages, whirl-like patterns of horizon boundaries, considerable variations in the thickness of soil horizons, and inversions of soil horizons under the impact of frost cracking, frost heave, and cryoturbation are typical of the considered soils. Thawing depth is the most significant factor affecting the thickness of organic horizons, the soil pH, and the degree of decomposition of peat. As a result of the upward movement of bog ecosystems under the impact of frost heave, peat soils are subjected to considerable transformation: peat horizons undergo mineralization, and the thickness of organic horizons decreases; in some cases, eluvial-illuvial differentiation of the mineral horizons takes place, and peat podzols are developed. However, the opposite process of the return of the soils to the bog stage of pedogenesis with peat accumulation may take place in any time in the case of activation of thermokarst processes.

  18. Multiculturalism of Tatar-Christians in Western Siberia as a result of confessional policy in the Russian Empire

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    Olga N. Naumenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main tasks of the Russian state and the European countries is a formation of the uniform multinational people which are capable to resist to internal and external threats. Multiculturalism solves this problem, but migratory crisis in Europe has forced politicians to recognize impossibility of his realization in conditions when Christian and Arab-Muslim cultures are forced to coexist nearby. The article considers opposite experience – combination of orthodox and Islamic components in culture of the Siberian Christian Tatars in XVIII – the beginning of the 20th centuries is considered. Interpenetration of cultures has happened without loss of national identity of the Siberian Tatars; their culture has gained new unique lines. Authors consider that this combination has created a certain ethnic and national psychology of the Siberian baptized Tatars which allows them to coexist harmoniously with other people – Christian and Muslim. In article is considered multiculturalism of the Siberian Tatars in life, legal customs and religious art. Authors analyze the reasons of this phenomenon and emphasize that his major prerequisite – readiness of the Siberian people for interaction. It was based on uniform system of moral values, was formed throughout long evolution of ethnic and confessional development under the influence of a state policy. Authors come to the conclusion that the idea of multiculturalism is real and feasible in a combination "Christianity/Islam", but other conditions, than those developed in Western Europe now.

  19. Metal ion complex formation in small lakes of the Western Siberian Arctic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremleva, Tatiana; Dinu, Marina

    2017-04-01

    be predominantly in free, ionic or bound form with inorganic ligands. This state means paradox consequence that the increase of dissolved Fe content will lead to toxicity rise of other elements having less affinity to organic material. For surface waters of Western Siberian Arctic zone this situation is quite common. The total concentration of iron and aluminum ions in most lakes of tundra and northern taiga zones is approximately equal to water complexing ability. From the other side humic substances participation in inactivation of other more toxic metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni et al.) will be poor. Arctic part of Western Siberia undergoes significant anthropogenic load due to extensive oil and gas recovery in this zone. Surface waters of Western Siberia are characterized by high natural content of iron, aluminum and copper ions and anthropogenic load of heavy metals makes the situation more serious.

  20. Diagnostics of hydromorphism in soils of autonomous positions on the Severo-Sos'vinsk Upland (Western Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetov, N. A.; Sopova, E. O.; Golovleva, Yu. A.; Kiryushin, A. V.; Krasilnikov, P. V.

    2014-11-01

    The complex studies of hydromorphism features in taiga weakly differentiated soils using morphological (color), chemical (iron content in different extracts, indicators of reducing conditions (IRIS)), and geobotanic (using the Ramenskii scale) methods have led to ambiguous conclusions. In all the soils, surface gleying was manifested. According to the results obtained by different methods, the maximum reduction processes were related to either the sublitter or the next deeper horizon. The Schwertmann coefficient, the criterion of Bodegom, and the Ramenskii scale indicated an increase of hydromorphism in the soils studied in the following sequence: the lower part of the ridge slopes drained by the small gullies depression between the ridges. The morphological diagnostics of gleying proved to be a less sensitive method, which can recognize only the most contrasting hydromorphic soils. The lower horizons in some taiga soils have a bluish gray color probably not related to the recent soil hydromorphism.

  1. [Differentiation of the mitochondrial subhaplogroup U4 in the populations of Eastern Europe, Ural, and Western Siberia: implication to the genetic history of the Uralic populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliarchuk, B A

    2004-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships between the sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1, belonging to subhaplogroup U4, were examined in the populations of Eastern Europe, Ural, and Northwest Siberia. It was shown that the frequency of subhaplogroup U4, as well as its proportion in the U-component of the gene pools, increased eastwards, reaching maximum values in the populations of Northwest Siberia. Phylogenetic analysis it was showed that the appearance of specific U4-lineage (16113C-16356-16362) in the ancestors of Mansi was most likely caused by its divergence from the East European cluster 16356-16362 in the Late Upper Paleolithic (18566 +/- 12915 years before present). Other U4 mtDNA lineages (16189-16356 and 16311-16356), typical mostly of the indigenous populations of Northwest Siberia (Mansi, Nganasans, and Kets) may have formed during the Neolithic-early Bronze Age (6055 +/- 3599 years before present, on average). It seems likely that the isolation of ancient populations inhabiting the region between the Ob' and Yenisei rivers was the key factor, providing the appearance of the unique Caucasoid mtDNA lineages in their gene pools. These results were consistent with the traditional point of view on the mixed origin of the Finno-Ugric populations of the Volga-Ural region and West Siberia, resulted from the genetic relationships between the populations of Europe and Asia.

  2. Dissolved organic carbon and major and trace elements in peat porewater of sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost zones of western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudina, Tatiana V.; Loiko, Sergey V.; Lim, Artyom G.; Krickov, Ivan V.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Istigechev, Georgy I.; Kuzmina, Daria M.; Kulizhsky, Sergey P.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2017-07-01

    Mobilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and related trace elements (TEs) from the frozen peat to surface waters in the permafrost zone is expected to enhance under ongoing permafrost thaw and active layer thickness (ALT) deepening in high-latitude regions. The interstitial soil solutions are efficient tracers of ongoing bio-geochemical processes in the critical zone and can help to decipher the intensity of carbon and metals migration from the soil to the rivers and further to the ocean. To this end, we collected, across a 640 km latitudinal transect of the sporadic to continuous permafrost zone of western Siberia peatlands, soil porewaters from 30 cm depth using suction cups and we analyzed DOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and 40 major elements and TEs in 0.45 µm filtered fraction of 80 soil porewaters. Despite an expected decrease in the intensity of DOC and TE mobilization from the soil and vegetation litter to the interstitial fluids with the increase in the permafrost coverage and a decrease in the annual temperature and ALT, the DOC and many major and trace elements did not exhibit any distinct decrease in concentration along the latitudinal transect from 62.2 to 67.4° N. The DOC demonstrated a maximum of concentration at 66° N, on the border of the discontinuous/continuous permafrost zone, whereas the DOC concentration in peat soil solutions from the continuous permafrost zone was equal to or higher than that in the sporadic/discontinuous permafrost zone. Moreover, a number of major (Ca, Mg) and trace (Al, Ti, Sr, Ga, rare earth elements (REEs), Zr, Hf, Th) elements exhibited an increasing, not decreasing, northward concentration trend. We hypothesize that the effects of temperature and thickness of the ALT are of secondary importance relative to the leaching capacity of peat, which is in turn controlled by the water saturation of the peat core. The water residence time in peat pores also plays a role in enriching the fluids in some elements

  3. Dissolved organic carbon and major and trace elements in peat porewater of sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost zones of western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Raudina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and related trace elements (TEs from the frozen peat to surface waters in the permafrost zone is expected to enhance under ongoing permafrost thaw and active layer thickness (ALT deepening in high-latitude regions. The interstitial soil solutions are efficient tracers of ongoing bio-geochemical processes in the critical zone and can help to decipher the intensity of carbon and metals migration from the soil to the rivers and further to the ocean. To this end, we collected, across a 640 km latitudinal transect of the sporadic to continuous permafrost zone of western Siberia peatlands, soil porewaters from 30 cm depth using suction cups and we analyzed DOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, and 40 major elements and TEs in 0.45 µm filtered fraction of 80 soil porewaters. Despite an expected decrease in the intensity of DOC and TE mobilization from the soil and vegetation litter to the interstitial fluids with the increase in the permafrost coverage and a decrease in the annual temperature and ALT, the DOC and many major and trace elements did not exhibit any distinct decrease in concentration along the latitudinal transect from 62.2 to 67.4° N. The DOC demonstrated a maximum of concentration at 66° N, on the border of the discontinuous/continuous permafrost zone, whereas the DOC concentration in peat soil solutions from the continuous permafrost zone was equal to or higher than that in the sporadic/discontinuous permafrost zone. Moreover, a number of major (Ca, Mg and trace (Al, Ti, Sr, Ga, rare earth elements (REEs, Zr, Hf, Th elements exhibited an increasing, not decreasing, northward concentration trend. We hypothesize that the effects of temperature and thickness of the ALT are of secondary importance relative to the leaching capacity of peat, which is in turn controlled by the water saturation of the peat core. The water residence time in peat pores also plays a role in enriching the

  4. Geochemistry of the Bayonplutonic ComplexWestern Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The BayonNeoproterozoic plutonic complex located in Western Cameroon intrudes gneisses of Paleo to Neo Proterozoic age. The complex is composed of gabbro, monzogabbro and monzonites frequently crosscut by trachytic and granitic veins. The primary mineral assemblages of the gabbro and monzogabbro is ...

  5. Droughts and Excessive Moisture Events in Southern Siberia in the Late XXth - Early XXIst Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazanova, A. A.; Voropay, N. N.

    2017-11-01

    In recent years much research has been devoted to global and regional climate changes. Special attention was paid to climate extremes, such as droughts and excessive moisture events. In this study the moisture and aridity of Southern Siberia are estimated using web-GIS called “CLIMATE”. The system “CLIMATE” is part of a hardware and software cloud storage complex for data analysis of various climatic data sets, with algorithms for searching, extracting, processing, and visualizing the data. The ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data for Southern Siberia (50-65°N, 60-120°E) from 1979 to 2010 with a grid cell of 0.75×0.75° is used. Some hydrothermal conditions are estimated using the so-called Ped index (Si), which is a normalized indicator of the ratio of air temperature to precipitation. The mountain regions of Eastern Siberia are becoming more and more arid each month during the last 30 years. In Western Siberia, aridity increases in May and decreases in June, in the other months positive and negative trends are found. The greatest differences between the trends of the aridity index (Si), air temperature, and precipitation are observed in July.

  6. Forecasting of reservoir pressures of oil and gas bearing complexes in northern part of West Siberia for safety oil and gas deposits exploration and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, P. A.; Vorobyov, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    In the paper the features of reservoir pressures changes in the northern part of West Siberian oil-and gas province are described. This research is based on the results of hydrodynamic studies in prospecting and explorating wells in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. In the Cenomanian, Albian, Aptian and in the top of Neocomian deposits, according to the research, reservoir pressure is usually equal to hydrostatic pressure. At the bottom of the Neocomian and Jurassic deposits zones with abnormally high reservoir pressures (AHRP) are distinguished within Gydan and Yamal Peninsula and in the Nadym-Pur-Taz interfluve. Authors performed the unique zoning of the territory of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District according to the patterns of changes of reservoir pressures in the section of the sedimentary cover. The performed zoning and structural modeling allow authors to create a set of the initial reservoir pressures maps for the main oil and gas bearing complexes of the northern part of West Siberia. The results of the survey should improve the efficiency of exploration drilling by preventing complications and accidents during this operation in zones with abnormally high reservoir pressures. In addition, the results of the study can be used to estimate gas resources within prospective areas of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.

  7. Pliocene and Quaternary climate evolution of the high Western Arctic derived from initial geochemistry and FTIRS data of the Lake El`gygytgyn sediments, NE Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennrich, V.; Kukkonen, M.; Meyer-Jacob, C.; Minyuk, P.; Rosen, P.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.; El'Gygytgyn Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    High arctic Lake El‘gygytgyn (67°30’ N, 172°05’ E) is a 3.6 Ma old meteorite crater lake located in Chukotka/NE Siberia, 100 km to the north of the Arctic Circle. With its continuous and undisturbed sequence since the Pliocene, the lake comprises the most long-lasting climate archive of the terrestrial Arctic. In spring 2009, the ICDP El‘gygytgyn Drilling Project recovered the 317-m long lacustrine sediment record from 170 m water depth at site D1 in the central lake part. Here we present initial results of elemental analyses as well as infrared spectroscopy of this record. The elemental composition of the lake sediment was investigated by a combination of high-resolution element analyses using an ITRAX X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner (Cox Analytics), and conventional XRF spectrometry. The results well reflect variations in sedimentation, weathering, lake hydrology and productivity mostly triggered by glacial-interglacial cycles. Furthermore, due to the high spatial resolution of the ITRAX even short-term fluctuations of those proxies could be detected, displaying the sensitivity of the Lake El‘gygytgyn sediments to regional and global climate changes on a decadal to centennial scale. Measurements of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIRS) in the mid-infrared (MIR) region were conducted to quantitatively estimate contents of biogenic silica (BSi), total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC), and total inorganic carbon (TIC) in Lake El‘gygytgyn sediments. Simultaneous inference of these components is possible because IR-spectra in the MIR-region contain a wide variety of information on minerogenic and organic substances. The technique requires only small amounts (0.01g dry weight) of sample material and negligible sample pre-treatments. FTIRS calibrations for BSi, TN, TOC, and TIC based on core catcher samples of the sediment sequence yielded good statistical performances and emphasize the potential of the technique for high

  8. Evaluation of the representation of the hydrological cycle in Western Siberia in the LMDZ general circulation model using ground-based and satellite measurements of water vapor and precipitation isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryazin, Victor; Risi, Camille; Jouzel, Jean; Zakharov, Vyacheslav; Gribanov, Konstantin; Rokotyan, Nikita; Bastrikov, Vladislav; Worden, John; Frankenberg, Christian; Kurita, Naoyuki

    2013-04-01

    The hydrological and biochemical cycles in regions of peatlands and permafrost are particularly sensitive to climate perturbations. Credible climate change projections in these regions require a realistic representation by climate models of atmospheric and hydrological processes specific to those regions. In this context, observations of the water vapor and precipitation composition are emerging as an additional constrain to better evaluate the realism of the representation of the hydrological cycle by models. In high latitude regions, the water isotopic composition keeps an imprint of various processes such as distillation of air masses, evaporation and transpiration recycling air masses along trajectories, cloud processes and vertical mixing. In this study we evaluate the isotopic composition simulated by LMDZ general circulation model in Western Siberia against a combination of isotopic measurements in precipitation and in water vapor. First, the GNIP and SNIP networks provide information on the geographical and seasonal variations of H218O and HDO composition (yielding δD and d-excess) in precipitation. Second, in-situ measurements by a Picarro analyzer and ground-based FTIR retrievals document hourly to seasonal variability in δD and d-excess in low-level water vapor at the site of Ekaterinburg in Western Siberia. Third, satellite measurements using the GOSAT and TES satellite instruments document the geographical and temporal (intra-seasonal to seasonal) variations of water vapor δD in the total column and at different levels of the troposphere respectively. To first order, observed geographical and temporal variations at different time scales are well captured by LMDZ, though the latitudinal gradient and the daily variability in water vapor δD are underestimated. Simulations are investigated to interpret these model-data differences in terms of physical processes. In particular, sensitivity tests to the representation of transport, cloud processes and

  9. New Holocene refugia of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia: updated extinction patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plicht, J.; Molodin, V. I.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Vasiliev, S. K.; Postnov, A. V.; Slavinsky, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    We obtained new data on the existence of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia during the Holocene. Bones and antler of giant deer from new localities in western (Baraba forest steppe) and eastern (Angara River basin) Siberia are dated by radiocarbon, ranging 7900-10,300 BP (ca

  10. TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN WESTERN SIBERIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE “THAW” DURING LATE 1950s-EARLY 1960s BASED ON MATERIALS OF REGIONAL TRADE UNIONS, PUBLIC ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONS, AND TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Николаевич Першиков

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the changes in the structure, personnel, and areas of practical activity of the trade unions, public engineering organizations and technical and scientific societies in the West Siberian region during late 1950s – early 1960s. The impact of national and regional factors on the transformation content, character, and results is investigated.Objective Analyze the transformation process of public organizations in Western Siberia during late 1950s-early 1960s, revel the characteristic trends and regional specific features.Method or methodology of the study: problem and chronological method, historical-and-systematic method, statistical method.Results: it was established that public organizations experienced certain changes, lost the dependence on government  institutions,  enlarged the area of  activity, but they complementely remained in the field of the party control and operations, did not aquire the proper self-reliance and independence of practical actions.Results application scope: scientific research and preparation of training in the field of historical knowledge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-29

  11. Relations between the Muslim communities and the Russian Orthodox Church in Western Siberia in the second half of XIX – early XX century in the context of confessional policy of the Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr K. Dashkovskiy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of relations between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Muslim communities of Western Siberia in the context of state-confessional policy of the Russia in the second half of XIX - early XX century is considered in the article. The dominant position of the Russian Orthodox Church led to the fact that the government regarded it as a companion for the policy of russification and degradation of the features of non-Orthodox religions, including Islam. This line of national policy in Russia forced the Muslim community to defend their rights. The government's attempts to interfere in religious affairs did not lead to result, but caused the indignation in the Muslim world. A decree on strengthening the foundations of religious tolerance, adopted in 1905, reduced the number of foreigners who wanted to embrace Orthodoxy. Since that time a great opportunity offers for the functioning of the Muslim communities in different regions of the Russian Empire, although total freedom of conscience was absent.

  12. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  13. A complex of mechanisms for moving and balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheykhot, I.; Timofeyev, V.

    1983-01-01

    The use is proposed of a complex of mechanisms in a drilling rig for moving and balancing the wells during cluster drilling in the deposits of Western Siberia. The complex is created at Ural machine building plant and is built on the basis of a bulk hydraulic drive.

  14. Fate of leaf-litter N in forest and grassland along a pedo-climatic gradient in south-western Siberia: an in situ 15N-labelling experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédoire, Félix; Zeller, Bernd; Nikitich, Polina; Barsukov, Pavel A.; Rusalimova, Olga; Bakker, Mark R.; Legout, Arnaud; Bashuk, Alexander; Kayler, Zachary E.; Derrien, Delphine

    2017-04-01

    The suitability of Siberia for agriculture is expected to increase in the next decades due to strong and rapid climatic changes, but little is known on the environmental drivers of soil fertility there, especially nitrogen (N). Plant-available N is mainly derived from litter decomposition. South-western (SW) Siberia is located on the transition between several bioclimatic zones that are predicted to shift and extend along with climate change (steppe, forest-steppe, sub-taiga). The soils of this region are formed on a common loess deposit but they are submitted to different climatic conditions and vegetation cover. In the south of the region, typically in steppe/forest-steppe, soil freezes over winter because of a relatively shallow snow-pack, and water shortages are frequent in summer. In the north, typically in sub-taiga, the soil is barely frozen in winter due to a thick snow-pack and sufficient soil moisture in summer. In this study, we characterized the dynamics of leaf litter decomposition and the transfer of N from leaf litter to the soil and back to plants. Four sites were chosen along a climate gradient (temperature, precipitation and snow depth). At each site, we applied 15N-labelled leaf litter on the soil surface in experimental plots in an aspen (Populus tremula L.) forest and in a grassland. Twice a year during three years, we tracked the 15N derived from the decomposing labelled-litter in the organic layers, in the first 15 cm of the soil, and in above-ground vegetation. Soil temperature and moisture were monitored at a daily timestep over three years and soil water budgets were simulated (BILJOU model, Granier et al. 1999). We observed contrasting patterns in the fate of litter-derived 15N between bioclimatic zones. Over three years, along with faster decay rates, the release of leaf litter-N was faster in sub-taiga than in forest-steppe. As such, higher quantities of 15N were transferred into the soil in sub-taiga. The transfer was also deeper there

  15. Museology History of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia D. Firer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the aspects of the establishment of the first museums and libraries in Eastern Siberia. The author considers the role of the museum in development of culture and public education in Minusinsk, Yeniseysk, notes the valuable contribution of the activities of merchants and intelligentsia to the museum business, as well as the reflection of the present and past of museums in Siberia.

  16. Sizing up the sub-Tommotian unconformity in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Kaufman, A. J.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Adams, W.

    1995-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks in the western Anabar region, northwestern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolution and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Carbon isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at 1 to 2 m intervals support correlation of the lower Anabar succession (Staraya Reckha and lower Manykai Formations) with sub-Tommotian carbonates of the Ust'-Yu-doma Formation in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, the upper Manykai and most of the overlying Medvezhya Formation appear to preserve a sedimentary and paleontological record of an evolutionary important time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlation of the Anabar section with other northern Siberian successions that contain well-dated volcanic rocks permits the estimate that the sub-Tommotian unconformity in southeastern Siberia spans approximately 3 to 6 m.y. Diverse small shelly fossils (but not archaeocyathans) previously thought to mark the base of the Tommotian Stage evolved sequentially throughout this earlier interval.

  17. Studies of Fire Nature in the Forests of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Tsvetkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical review of forest fires in the forests of Siberia from literature data published over the past 50 years is given. Prior to 1970 the main attention in publications was given to the investigation of fire nature in the southern taiga and mountain forests of Western and Central Siberia, Altai and Trans-Baikal. From 1971 to 1980, publications were characterized by wider aspects of forest fire research and expansion of the geographical area of coverage. In the next 15–20 years, the main consideration was given to the impact of fires on forest formation process, fire emissions, carbon balance, and fire management’ problems. Also in this paper, the main trends and goals for future research are determined.

  18. Tuberous sclerosis complex in the Western Cape, South Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetically inherited condition that manifests with benign non-invasive hamartomas in multiple organ systems and is associated with varied clinical presentations.[1,2]. The prevalence of TSC worldwide is reported as 1 in 6 000 newborns.[1-4]. Equivalent data from Africa are lacking.

  19. Tuberous sclerosis complex in the Western Cape, South Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic neurocutaneous condition, which affects multiple organ systems. This study aimed to determine the presenting features of children with TSC in Cape Town, South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a TSC clinic, and clinical features at presentation were ...

  20. Structural evolution of Mesozoic complexes in Western Chukotka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golionko, B. G.; Vatrushkina, E. V.; Verzhbitsky, V. E.; Degtiarev, K. E.

    2017-07-01

    Detailed structural investigations were carried out in the Pevek area in order to verify the tectonic evolution of the Mesozoic thrust and fold belt in Chukotka. South-vergent F1 folds in Triassic rocks were proved to be the earliest structures formed during the first deformation stage DI. These structures were deformed by north-vergent folds F2 that were formed during the second deformation stage DII. North-vergent folds are the main structures of the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous complex. The fold structures of the first two stages are deformed by shear folds F3 finishing the stage DII. All these structures are deformed by submeridionally trending normal faults referred to the deformation stage DIII.

  1. Reanalysis Data Evaluation to Study Temperature Extremes in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes are strongly pronounced in Siberia by significant warming in the 2nd half of 20th century and recent extreme events such as 2010 heat wave and 2013 flood in Russia's Far East. To improve our understanding of observed climate extremes and to provide to regional decision makers the reliable scientifically based information with high special and temporal resolution on climate state, we need to operate with accurate meteorological data in our study. However, from available 231 stations across Siberia only 130 of them present the homogeneous daily temperature time series. Sparse, station network, especially in high latitudes, force us to use simulated reanalysis data. However those might differ from observations. To obtain reliable information on temperature extreme "hot spots" in Siberia we have compared daily temperatures form ERA-40, ERA Interim, JRA-25, JRA-55, NCEP/DOE, MERRA Reanalysis, HadEX2 and GHCNDEX gridded datasets with observations from RIHMI-WDC/CDIAC dataset for overlap period 1981-2000. Data agreement was estimated at station coordinates to which reanalysis data were interpolated using modified Shepard method. Comparison of averaged over 20 year annual mean temperatures shows general agreement for Siberia excepting Baikal region, where reanalyses significantly underestimate observed temperature behavior. The annual temperatures closest to observed one were obtained from ERA-40 and ERA Interim. Furthermore, t-test results show homogeneity of these datasets, which allows one to combine them for long term time series analysis. In particular, we compared the combined data with observations for percentile-based extreme indices. In Western Siberia reanalysis and gridded data accurately reproduce observed daily max/min temperatures. For East Siberia, Lake Baikal area, ERA Interim data slightly underestimates TN90p and TX90p values. Results obtained allows regional decision-makers to get required high spatial resolution (0,25°×0

  2. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  3. Global warming and stress complexes in forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald McKenzie; David L. Peterson; Jeremy J. Littell

    2009-01-01

    A warmer climate in western North America will likely affect forests directly through soil moisture stress and indirectly through increased extent and severity of disturbances. We propose that stress complexes, combinations of biotic and abiotic stresses, compromise the vigor and ultimate sustainability of forest ecosystems. Across...

  4. Paleomagnetic dating of Phanerozoic kimberlites in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Dunia; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.; Konstantinov, Konstantin M.; Kabin, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Diamond bearing kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform. Three main time intervals are considered to be the age of emplacement: the Devonian-Early Carboniferous, Triassic, and Cretaceous. However, isotopic age data from of the pipes are scattered and provide a very broad age interval for the magmatic activity. New paleomagnetic poles from four kimberlite pipes (Eastern Udachnaya, Western Udachnaya, International and Obnazhennaya) are obtained to estimate their paleomagnetic age. The mean primary magnetization directions for the pipes are as follows: D = 4.3°, I = - 44.5° (k = 29.4, α95 = 7.4°, N = 14); D = 340.5°, I = - 65.6° (k = 12.9, α95 = 19.4°, N = 6); D = 291.1°, I = - 78.1° (k = 27.5, α95 = 14.9°, N = 5); and D = 306.7°, I = - 82.6° (k = 38.4, α95 = 5.8°, N = 17), respectively. On the basis of a comparison with the Siberian apparent polar wander path (APWP) we estimate the age of kimberlite magmatism, assuming primary magnetizations in these rocks. The paleomagnetic ages are as follows: 428 ± 13 Ma for Eastern Udachnaya; 251 ± 30 Ma for International pipe; and 168 ± 11 Ma for Obnazhennaya pipe. The Western Udachnaya pipe was remagnetized and no clear paleomagnetic age could be determined. The ages of magmatic activity span the Early Silurian to Middle Late Jurassic. Early Silurian magmatism could be associated with the formation of the Viluy rift. Middle to Late Jurassic magmatic activity is most likely related to subduction related to the accretion of surrounding terranes to Siberia.

  5. Nature management risks in Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plyusnin Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural human environment is a source not only of resources for development, but also of a variety of hazards that can hamper this development. Abrupt climate changes, enormous consumption of natural resources, and pollution of the environment inevitably lead to an increase in the probability of making wrong decisions in various aspects of nature management. The paper considers five basic types of anthropogenic impacts on the Earth's ecosystem, namely: destruction of the biosphere, intensification of natural disasters, pollution of natural environments, depletion of natural resources, and land degradation. The features of Siberian nature that create special environmental situation conditions are shown. A scheme for studying the natural-anthropogenic risk at the regional level is suggested. Economic development of new territories in Siberia, including the development of oil and gas fields, and pipelines, power lines, and roads construction, leads to increased natural hazards. Knowledge of natural processes, assessment of hazard and risk of nature management, forecast of environmental hazards development, and proposals development to reduce the natural-anthropogenic risk is required.

  6. Butterflies (Lepidoptera of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sondhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex in western Arunachal Pradesh, India, covering the protected areas of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakke Tiger Reserve and Sessa Orchid Wildlife Sanctuary were surveyed over a 5-year period (2009–2014.  A total of 421 butterfly species were recorded during the survey, including two species new to India (Gonepteryx amintha thibetana and Bhutanitis ludlowi and several species rediscoveries and range extensions in the Eastern Himalaya, most notably Arhopala belphoebe, Sovia separata magna, Aulocera saraswati vishnu, Calinaga aborica, Callerebia annada annada, and Callerebria scanda opima.  Here we provide an annotated checklist of butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, including historical records, distributions, abundance, habitats and other notes on these 421 species. An additional 42 species recorded in older literature or by other authors in recent times are also listed, taking the total number of species recorded in the landscape to 463.  

  7. Provenance trials of larch in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milyutin, L.I. [V.N. Sukachev Inst. of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Some results of provenance trials of larch in Siberia are given. These provenance trials were established in the last thirty years by efforts of V.N. Sukaczev Inst. of Forest. Provenances and species of larch were tested in some field trials distributed over Siberia between Lat. N 52 deg and 66 deg, Long. E 88 deg and 113 deg: near Krasnoyarsk, in Republic Khakasia (an altitudes of 800 and 1200 metres), in the Lower Yenisei near Turukhansk, in the west and south regions of Krasnoyarsk territory, in the Upper Lena, near Chita. 2 refs

  8. CONTINUITY BETWEEN EASTERN AND WESTERN BUSHVELD COMPLEX, SOUTH AFRICA, CONFIRMED BY XENOLITHS FROM KIMBERLITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Cawthorn, G.

    2009-12-01

    The eastern and western limbs of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa have been interpreted by some as dipping sheets of mafic cumulate rocks ever since the modeling of gravity and geoelectrical data by Meyer & de Beer (Nature 325, 610, 1987). However, re-interpretation of the regional gravity data by Cawthorn & Webb (Tectonophys. 330, 195, 2001), with consideration of isostatic crustal flexure and depressing of the Moho, allows Bushveld to be modeled as a single, connected body. This is consistent with the anomalously thick sub-Bushveld crust (to 48 km) as revealed by seismic data (Nguuri et al, Geophys. Res. Lett 28, 2501, 2001). Here we provide direct evidence from xenoliths in kimberlite for a regionally interconnected Bushveld Complex, implying its emplacement as a single sill-like body ~400 km across and ~8 km thick. The Cretaceous Palmietgat Group 1 kimberlites, located mid-way between the eastern and western lobes, about 70 km N of Pretoria, form a cluster of 6 pipes linked by dikes, over a distance of ~3 km. The K15W pipe is actively mined for diamonds. We recovered 5 small (~4 cm across) xenoliths of pyroxenitic rocks in the waste pile representing the high density portion of crushed material that was rejected for diamond recovery by a Sortex apparatus. The xenoliths are medium-grained orthopyroxene cumulates (80-90% opx) with interstitial zoned plagioclase (8-15%), clinopyroxene (chemistry and mg# to our measured xenoliths from Palmietgat. We suggest, therefore, that the recovered xenoliths provide strong evidence that significant thicknesses of Bushveld rocks occur at depth between the eastern and western lobes, hence supporting connectivity of the Complex, at least at the level of the Upper Critical Zone. The presence of a prominent gravity high near the Palmietgat kimberlites may indicate that high-density Bushveld cumulate rocks reside at shallow depths (~1-3 km?) due to diapiric doming or folding of the floor. In any case, our results imply that the

  9. An air quality assessment in the industrialised western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Venter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest industrialised economy in Africa, with significant mining and metallurgical activities. A large fraction of the South African mineral assets is concentrated in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC, with the western limb being the most exploited. Because the majority of the world’s platinum is produced in the BIC, this area is also of international interest. There are some indications that the western BIC should be considered an air pollution hotspot; however, inadequate data exist to substantiate these claims scientifically. To partially address this knowledge gap, a comprehensive air quality monitoring station was operated for more than 2 years in this area. Meteorological parameters, trace gas concentrations and total mass concentration of particulate matter up to 10 µm in size (PM10 were measured. Compared with South African and European ambient air quality standards, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations were generally acceptable. The major sources of SO2 were identified as high-stack industry emissions, while household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements was identified as the predominant source of NO2 and CO. In contrast, O3 exceeded the 8-h moving average more than 322 times per year. The main contributing factor was identified to be the influx of regional air masses, with high O3 precursor concentrations. PM10 exceeded the current South African 24-h standard 6.6 times per year, the future (2015 standard 42.3 times per year and the European standard more than 120 times per year. The main source of PM10 was identified as household combustion from semi-formal and informal settlements. The findings clearly indicate that atmospheric O3 and PM10 levels in the western BIC need to be addressed to avoid negative environmental and human health impacts.

  10. Assessment of atmospheric trace metals in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter G. Van Zyl"

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trace metal species emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources can cause various health-related and environmental problems. Limited data exist for atmospheric trace metal concentrations in South Africa, which has the largest industrialised economy in Africa, with significant mining and metallurgical activities. A large fraction of these mineral assets is concentrated in the Bushveld Igneous Complex, with the western limb being the most exploited. To partially address this knowledge gap, atmospheric trace metals were collected in the western Bushveld Igneous Complex at Marikana in the North West Province. Diurnal PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected for 1 year. A total of 27 trace metal species were determined. With the exception of Ni, none of the trace metals measured during the sampling period exceeded local or international air quality standard limit values. Total trace metal concentrations in the PM10 fraction peaked during the dry months and were regularly washed out during the wet season. A less significant seasonal trend was observed for the trace metal concentrations in the PM2.5 fraction; a finding attributed to a faster replenishment of smaller particles into the atmosphere after rain events. About 80% of the PM10 trace metal levels measured occurred in the PM2.5 fraction, while 40% or more of all metals emanated from the PM2.5 fraction. This finding indicated a strong influence of anthropogenic sources. Four meaningful emission sources were determined from explorative principal component factor analysis: crustal, vanadium related, base metal related and ferrochromium related, which correlated well with the anticipated atmospheric trace metal sources in the region.

  11. Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, L. Robin M.; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2007-05-01

    The old terrane of Siberia occupied a very substantial area in the centre of today's political Siberia and also adjacent areas of Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, and northwestern China. Siberia's location within the Early Neoproterozoic Rodinia Superterrane is contentious (since few if any reliable palaeomagnetic data exist between about 1.0 Ga and 540 Ma), but Siberia probably became independent during the breakup of Rodinia soon after 800 Ma and continued to be so until very near the end of the Palaeozoic, when it became an integral part of the Pangea Supercontinent. The boundaries of the cratonic core of the Siberian Terrane (including the Patom area) are briefly described, together with summaries of some of the geologically complex surrounding areas, and it is concluded that all of the Palaeozoic underlying the West Siberian Basin (including the Ob-Saisan Surgut area), Tomsk Terrane, Altai-Sayan Terranes (including Salair, Kuznetsk Alatau, Batenov, Kobdin and West Sayan), Ertix Terrane, Barguzin Terrane, Tuva-Mongol Terrane, Central Mongolia Terrane Assemblage, Gobi Altai and Mandalovoo Terranes, Okhotsk Terrane and much of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma region all formed parts of peri-Siberia, and thus rotated with the main Siberian Craton as those areas were progressively accreted to the main Siberian Terrane at various times during the latest Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic. The Ertix Terrane is a new term combining what has been termed the "Altay Terrane" or "NE Xinjiang" area of China, and the Baytag, Baaran and Bidz terranes of Mongolia. The Silurian Tuvaella brachiopod fauna is restricted only to today's southern parts of peri-Siberia. Thus, allowing for subsequent rotation, the fauna occurs only in the N of the Siberian Terrane, and, as well as being a helpful indicator of what marginal terranes made up peri-Siberia, is distinctive as being the only Silurian fauna known from northern higher latitudes globally. In contrast, the other terranes adjacent to peri-Siberia

  12. Composition, complexity, and tree mortality in riparian forests in the central Western Cascades of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Steve A.; Gregory, S.V.; Lienkaemper, G.; McKee, W.A.; Swanson, F.J.; Miller, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    Riparian forests contribute to the diversity and function of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To assess some of these contributions, we compared tree composition, stand complexity, and temporal patterns of tree mortality on permanent plots in seven mature and old-growth stands representing upland forests and forests along low- and mid-order streams in the Western Cascade Range of Oregon. We also assessed recruitment of large wood into stream channels due to tree mortality, both by direct measurement and by estimation from tree mortality and location data. Stands differed in composition due to both stream order and successional stage. Stands on mid-order streams had high abundance of hardwood trees and/or Thuja plicata. Stand complexity (variability in tree diameters, tree life-form diversity, and tree species diversity), was high in stands on mid-order streams and in the upland, old-growth stand. Tree mortality was exceptionally high in six of the seven stands in 1996, the year in which the largest flood during the study occurred. However, only in the one stand on an unconstrained reach of a mid-order stream was mortality primarily due to flooding. Estimated recruitment of wood was much higher from the stand on the unconstrained reach than from the other stands on mid-order streams, suggesting that unconstrained reaches may be important for efforts to maintain or restore large wood in streams.

  13. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    I. M. Danilin; I. A. Tselitan

    2016-01-01

    Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental clim...

  14. Roads and Roadlessness: Driving Trucks in Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Argounova-Low

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article relates to the studies of roads and engages with the experience of driving in Sakha (Yakutiia, Siberia. The article intends to contribute to the broad corpus of literature on mobility and argues that an alternative perspective on roads and road-users from a geographical area beyond the West might better inform and add another dimension to our notions of roads and our movement along them. The article examines the fluid nature of roads in Siberia and the social significance the roads carry by focussing on truck-drivers and their perception and engagement with the so-called winter roads through their sensory experiences. The article analyses narratives of the truckers who frame their experiences of the road with close reference to time and money and where notions of agency of the road become prominent.

  15. Modern nature and climate changes in Siberia: new methods and results of analysis of instrumented observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Mikhail V.

    2002-02-01

    Peculiarity of nature and climate changes in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in Siberia is that the temporal variability of meteorological quantities here has a wide range and their spatial variability has a complicated zone structure. Therefore, regional monitoring of modern nature and climate changes in Siberia is of scientific interest from the viewpoint of the global changes observed. Another Siberian peculiarity is associated with the fact that there are many unique objects that have global importance both as natural complexes (boreal forests, water- bog systems, Baikal lake, etc.) And as technogenic objects (oil and gas production, coal mining, metallurgy, transport, etc.). Therefore monitoring and modeling of regional nature and climate changes in Siberia have great practical importance, which is underestimated now, for industrial development of Siberia. Taking into account the above peculiarities and tendencies on investigation of global and regional environmental and climate changes, the multidisciplinary project on Climate and Ecological Monitoring of Siberia (CEMS) was accepted to the research and development program Sibir' since 1993. To realize this project, the Climate and Ecological Observatory was established in Tomsk at the Institute for Optical Monitoring (IOM) SB RAS. At the present time the stations (the basic and background ones) of this observatory are in a progress and theory and instruments for monitoring are being developed as well. In this paper we discuss some results obtained in the framework of CEMS project that were partially published in the monographs, in scientific journals, and will be published in the Proceedings of the 8th Joint International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics and Atmosphere Physics. This review has a purpose not only to discuss the obtained regularities but also to formulate scientific and technical tasks for further investigations into the regional changes of technogenic, natural, and

  16. Coogoon Valles, western Arabia Terra: Hydrological evolution of a complex Martian channel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Antonio; López, Iván; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Fernández-Remolar, David; de Pablo, Miguel Ángel; Gómez, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Coogoon Valles is an intricate fluvial system, and its main channel was formed during the Noachian period through the erosion of the clay-bearing basement of the Western Arabia Terra. This region is characterized by a thinner crust compared to the rest of the highlands and by the occurrence of massive phyllosilicate-bearing materials. The origin of this region is still under discussion. Its surface has been exposed to a large-scale volcanism, and several episodes of extensive denudation were primarily controlled by fluvial activity. In this regard, the study of the oldest channels in Arabia Terra is crucial for understanding the global geological evolution of early Mars. The reactivation of the hydrological system by sapping followed by aeolian erosion had reshaped the channel, as well as exposed ancient materials and landforms. The examination of the bed deposits suggests an old episode of detrital sedimentation covering the Noachian basement followed by an erosive event that formed the current Coogoon Valles configuration. A complex system of deltas and alluvial fans is situated at the termination of this channel, which has been proposed as a landing site for the upcoming ExoMars and Mars 2020 missions.

  17. Occurrence and petrological significance of graphite in the Upper Critical Zone, western Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhaus, Christian G.; Stumpfl, Eugen F.

    1985-06-01

    Graphite occurs as a major rock-forming constituent in pyroxenitic pegmatites near the platiniferous Merensky Reef in the western Bushveld. It is associated with amphibole, biotite, low-K phyllosilicates, chlorite, sulphides and platinum-group minerals (RhAsS-IrAsS). Locally, rocks with up to 80% graphite occur. Chlorine is a significant constituent in both, hydrous silicates (0.1-0.3% Cl) and graphite (0.2-1.9%). Magnetite and quartz also occur with the above association. This facilitates estimation of T (500-600°C) and fO 2 (10 -21 to 10 -23 bar) during graphite deposition, which took place from C sbnd O sbnd H sbnd S fluids at an oxygen fugacity in the vicinity of QMF in equilibrium with maximum H 2O mole fraction. The latter accounts for the widespread association of graphite with hydrous silicates. There is evidence for buffering of fO 2 of the melt by fluid phase; this process may be more widespread than hitherto assumed. C sbnd O sbnd H sbnd S fluids are considered instrumental not only in the formation of graphite-rich pegmatites and associated mineralization, but also in the genesis of pothole depressions, and in the general development of stratiform pegmatites (such as the Merensky Reef) in layered igneous complexes.

  18. Thermal niche evolution and geographical range expansion in a species complex of western Mediterranean diving beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Galiana, Amparo; Sánchez-Fernández, David; Bilton, David T; Cieslak, Alexandra; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-09-04

    Species thermal requirements are one of the principal determinants of their ecology and biogeography, although our understanding of the interplay between these factors is limited by the paucity of integrative empirical studies. Here we use empirically collected thermal tolerance data in combination with molecular phylogenetics/phylogeography and ecological niche modelling to study the evolution of a clade of three western Mediterranean diving beetles, the Agabus brunneus complex. The preferred mitochondrial DNA topology recovered A. ramblae (North Africa, east Iberia and Balearic islands) as paraphyletic, with A. brunneus (widespread in the southwestern Mediterranean) and A. rufulus (Corsica and Sardinia) nested within it, with an estimated origin between 0.60-0.25 Ma. All three species were, however, recovered as monophyletic using nuclear DNA markers. A Bayesian skyline plot suggested demographic expansion in the clade at the onset of the last glacial cycle. The species thermal tolerances differ significantly, with A. brunneus able to tolerate lower temperatures than the other taxa. The climatic niche of the three species also differs, with A. ramblae occupying more arid and seasonal areas, with a higher minimum temperature in the coldest month. The estimated potential distribution for both A. brunneus and A. ramblae was most restricted in the last interglacial, becoming increasingly wider through the last glacial and the Holocene. The A. brunneus complex diversified in the late Pleistocene, most likely in south Iberia after colonization from Morocco. Insular forms did not differentiate substantially in morphology or ecology, but A. brunneus evolved a wider tolerance to cold, which appeared to have facilitated its geographic expansion. Both A. brunneus and A. ramblae expanded their ranges during the last glacial, although they have not occupied areas beyond their LGM potential distribution except for isolated populations of A. brunneus in France and England. On

  19. Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: approaches, first results and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a NEESPI megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Needs for SIRS are caused by accelerated warming occurring in Siberia, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence, and lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The SIRS approaches include coordination of different scale national and international projects, capacity building targeted to early career researchers thematic education and training, and development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required in support of multidisciplinary teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for sharing of data, models and knowledge. Coordination within SIRS projects is devoted to major regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes and currently is concentrated on three interrelated problems, whose solution has strong regional environmental and socio-economical impacts and is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics: Permafrost border shift, which seriously threatens the oil and gas transporting infrastructure and leads to additional carbon release; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems changes, which might vary region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime changes, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus causing significant carbon release from the region under study. Some

  20. Palaeodistribution modelling of European vegetation types at the Last Glacial Maximum using modern analogues from Siberia: Prospects and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janská, Veronika; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Chytrý, Milan; Divíšek, Jan; Anenkhonov, Oleg; Korolyuk, Andrey; Lashchinskyi, Nikolai; Culek, Martin

    2017-03-01

    We modelled the European distribution of vegetation types at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) using present-day data from Siberia, a region hypothesized to be a modern analogue of European glacial climate. Distribution models were calibrated with current climate using 6274 vegetation-plot records surveyed in Siberia. Out of 22 initially used vegetation types, good or moderately good models in terms of statistical validation and expert-based evaluation were computed for 18 types, which were then projected to European climate at the LGM. The resulting distributions were generally consistent with reconstructions based on pollen records and dynamic vegetation models. Spatial predictions were most reliable for steppe, forest-steppe, taiga, tundra, fens and bogs in eastern and central Europe, which had LGM climate more similar to present-day Siberia. The models for western and southern Europe, regions with a lower degree of climatic analogy, were only reliable for mires and steppe vegetation, respectively. Modelling LGM vegetation types for the wetter and warmer regions of Europe would therefore require gathering calibration data from outside Siberia. Our approach adds value to the reconstruction of vegetation at the LGM, which is limited by scarcity of pollen and macrofossil data, suggesting where specific habitats could have occurred. Despite the uncertainties of climatic extrapolations and the difficulty of validating the projections for vegetation types, the integration of palaeodistribution modelling with other approaches has a great potential for improving our understanding of biodiversity patterns during the LGM.

  1. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  2. [Fauna of Rare and Poorly Studied Ectoparasites of bats in Southern Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, M V; Zhigalin, A V; Orlov, L; Kruskop, S V; Bogdanov, I I

    2015-01-01

    Forty-six chiropteran specimens from seven species have been captured on the territory of Southern Siberia. From them, 676 ectoparasites of 16 species (gamasid mites and insects) were collected. The bat fly Basilia mongolensis mongolensis Theodor, 1966 was found in Russia for the first time. The gamasid mites Spinturnix maedai Uchikawa et Wada, 1979 and Macronyssus hosonoi Uchikawa, 1979 have not previously been registered in Siberia. Several species have been recorded on new hosts. Three species of gamasid mites out of the genus Macronyssus are, probably, new to science. New data on the ecology of low-abundant and understudied bat species belonging to the Siberian-Far Eastern complex have been provided.

  3. Petroleum habitat of East Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J.W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. In the Lena-Tunguska province, rifts that developed during Riphean time are filled by thick sedimentary rocks, in which petroleum deposits have formed. In Early Cambrian time a barrier reef extended across the East Siberian craton from southeast to northwest. A lagoon to the west of this reef was the site of thick rhythmic salt deposits, which are the main seals for petroleum in the province. The sedimentary sections of the platform cover ranges in age from Late Proterozoic to Permian. More than 25 oil and gas fields have been discovered in the province, all in Riphean through Lower Cambrian rocks. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  4. The Helvella lacunosa species complex in western North America: cryptic species, misapplied names and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhu H; Landeros, Fidel; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Hansen, Karen; Vellinga, Else C

    2013-01-01

    Based on morphology, fungal species have been considered widespread and as a result names of species from Europe or eastern North America were applied to species in western North America. However, DNA sequences have shown that many western taxa are different from their European counterparts; one such case is presented here. Comparisons of ITS and LSU rDNA sequences from ectomycorrhizal root tips and ascomata of specimens identified as Helvella lacunosa from North America, Europe and Asia revealed that the taxa from western North America and Mexico formed a well supported clade different from the eastern North American, European and Asian taxa. Within this western North American clade there are at least four taxa. Here we describe two of these western taxa as new species: Helvella vespertina and Helvella dryophila. Helvella vespertina is a bigger version of H. lacunosa, is variable in hymenial color and shape and forms ectomycorrhizae with conifers; it fruits typically Oct-Jan. Helvella dryophila is characterized by a dark almost black, squat pileus, a light stipe when young, medium size and forms ectomycorrhizae with Quercus species; it fruits Jan-Jun. Due to insufficient material, the two other Helvella taxa are discussed but not formally described here. We also examined the Hypomyces and other mycoparasites associated with the ascomata of Helvella species and discuss misleadingly labeled sequences in public databases.

  5. Seewis Virus: Phylogeography of a Shrew-Borne Hantavirus in Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Sergey A.; Gutorov, Valery V.; Dupal, Tamara A.; Krivopalov, Anton V.; Panov, Victor V.; Danchinova, Galina A.; Vinogradov, Vladislav V.; Luchnikova, Ekaterina M.; Hay, John; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hantaviral antigens were originally reported more than 20 years ago in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in European and Siberian Russia. The recent discovery of Seewis virus (SWSV) in this soricid species in Switzerland provided an opportunity to investigate its genetic diversity and geographic distribution in Russia. Methods Lung tissues from 45 Eurasian common shrews, 4 Laxmann's shrews (Sorex caecutiens), 3 Siberian large-toothed shrews (Sorex daphaenodon), 9 pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus), 28 tundra shrews (Sorex tundrensis), and 6 Siberian shrews (Crocidura sibirica), captured in 11 localities in Western and Eastern Siberia during June 2007 to September 2008, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Results Hantavirus L and S segment sequences, detected in 11 S. araneus, 2 S. tundrensis, and 2 S. daphaenodon, were closely related to SWSV, differing from the prototype mp70 strain by 16.3–20.2% at the nucleotide level and 1.4–1.7% at the amino acid level. Alignment and comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed an intrastrain difference of 0–11.0% and 0% for the L segment and 0.2–8.5% and 0% for the S segment, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis, using neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian methods, showed geographic-specific clustering of SWSV strains in Western and Eastern Siberia. Conclusions This is the first definitive report of shrew-borne hantaviruses in Siberia, and demonstrates the impressive distribution of SWSV among phylogenetically related Sorex species. Coevolution and local adaptation of SWSV genetic variants in specific chromosomal races of S. araneus may account for their geographic distribution. PMID:20426688

  6. Forest Fires Under Abnormal Weather Conditions in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Valendik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of forest fires and their development to large and catastrophic wildfires are considered for Central Siberia taiga subzones under abnormal drought conditions. The combination of natural conditions that determine the appearance and spread of these fires are given for drought conditions. A map of the large wildfires distribution in the boreal forest subzones of Central Siberia is compiled for 1979 to 2011. A brief analysis is made of dry periods and their relation to the planetary atmospheric processes, as well as the possibility of wildfires escalating in boreal forests and mountain forests of southern Siberia under climate warming.

  7. Tectonic evolution of the western boundary of the Attico-Cycladic complex (Lavrio, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Tarantola, Alexandre; Lanari, Pierre; Ponthus, Leandre; France, Lyderic; Photiades, Adonis

    2015-04-01

    The Lavrio peninsula, South East of Athens, is located along the western boundary of the Attic-Cycladic Metamorphic Complex in the internal zone of the Hellenic orogenic belt, at the intersection between thrusts and detachments. It is thus a perfect target to decipher the tectonic evolution of an orogenic wedge from tectonic accretion to gravitational collapse. The nappe stack is overlain by a non-metamorphic limestone and is made, from top to bottom by (i) an ophiolitic melange, (ii) the Lavrio tectonic unit dominated by schists and displaying mineral paragenesis typical of blueschist facies, (iii) the Kamariza tectonic unit dominated by marbles and affected by pervasive greenschist facies metamorphism. The Lavrio and Kamariza tectonic units are juxtaposed by a low-angle mylonitic to cataclastic detachement. A more detailed investigation of the relationships between mineral paragenesis and microstructures indicates that the transition from the Lavrio to the Kamariza tectonic units, across the low-angle detachment, is marked by progressive transposition of the blueschist facies fabric coeval with retrogression under greenschist facies conditions. Indeed, the Kamariza unit is characterized by a relatively steep foliation associated with isoclinal folds of weakly organized axial orientation that is partially to totally transposed into a shallow dipping foliation bearing a N-S trending lineation. The degree of transposition increases from top to bottom and is particularly marked at the transition from the Lavrio to the Kamariza unit across the low-angle detachement. The blueschist facies foliation of the Lavrio schists is underlined by glaucophane and HP phengite intergrown with chlorite crystals. The Kamariza tectonic unit is dominated by LP phengite intergrown with chlorite but contains relics of the blueschist mineral paragenesis. Detailed microprobe mapping of the composition of the phengite and chlorite crystals reveal distinct variations of the PT conditions

  8. Teleseismic receiver functions imaging of Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    We map the lithosphere in Siberia by using the available broadband seismic data for calculation of Ps- and Sp-wave receiver functions (RF). RFs show converted waves from discontinuities in the vicinity of the seismic stations. The main objective is to image the Moho and upper mantle discontinuities......, including the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the study area. We construct the RF using the LQT method (Vinnik, 1977; Kind et al. 1995) in the version by Yuan et al. (1997). Rotation of ray coordinates uses the incidence angles predicted by the AK135 velocity model. This decomposes the wave...... by high-frequency S-RFs. Teleseismic converted Ps waves have higher frequency content (0.5–2 Hz) than Sp, which have an upper frequency of 0.1–0.2 Hz, and therefore Ps have about an order of magnitude better resolving power than Sp. The converted Sp-wave rarely resolve intracrustal structure, but can...

  9. First Records of Potamic Leech Fauna of Eastern Siberia, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaygorodova, Irina A.; Elena V. Dzyuba; Sorokovikova, Natalya V.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the fauna of leech and leech-like species inhabiting main water streams of Eastern Siberia and its tributaries, which are attributed to Lake Baikal basin and Lena River basin. Here we present their list for the first time. This study was mainly aimed for free-living parasitic and carnivorous leeches whereas piscine parasites were not included specially. In total, the potamic leech fauna of Eastern Siberia includes 12 described species belonging to 10 genera. Representatives of thre...

  10. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark A; Douglas, Marlis R; Collyer, Michael L; Douglas, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM) approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory 'big data' analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mt)DNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respectively). The GM data (i.e., 33 dorsal and 50 lateral head landmarks) were gleaned from 2,824 individuals located in 10 museum collections. We also downloaded and concatenated sequences for six mtDNA genes from the NCBI GenBank database. GM analyses revealed significant head shape differences attributable to size and subspecies-designation (but not their interactions). Pairwise shape distances among subspecies were significantly greater than those derived from ancestral character states via squared-change parsimony, with the greatest differences separating those most closely related. This, in turn, suggests the potential for historic character displacement as a diversifying force in the complex. All subspecies, save one, were significantly differentiated in a Bayesian discriminant function analysis (DFA), regardless of whether our priors were uniform or informative (i.e., mtDNA data). Finally, shape differences among sister-clades were significantly greater than expected by chance alone under a Brownian model of evolution, promoting the hypothesis that selection rather than drift was the driving force in the evolution of the complex. Lastly, we combine head shape and mtDNA data so as to derived an integrative taxonomy that produced robust boundaries for six OTUs (operational taxonomic units) of the C. viridis complex. We suggest these boundaries are concomitant with species-status and subsequently provide a relevant nomenclature for its recognition and representation.

  11. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Davis

    Full Text Available Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory 'big data' analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mtDNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respectively. The GM data (i.e., 33 dorsal and 50 lateral head landmarks were gleaned from 2,824 individuals located in 10 museum collections. We also downloaded and concatenated sequences for six mtDNA genes from the NCBI GenBank database. GM analyses revealed significant head shape differences attributable to size and subspecies-designation (but not their interactions. Pairwise shape distances among subspecies were significantly greater than those derived from ancestral character states via squared-change parsimony, with the greatest differences separating those most closely related. This, in turn, suggests the potential for historic character displacement as a diversifying force in the complex. All subspecies, save one, were significantly differentiated in a Bayesian discriminant function analysis (DFA, regardless of whether our priors were uniform or informative (i.e., mtDNA data. Finally, shape differences among sister-clades were significantly greater than expected by chance alone under a Brownian model of evolution, promoting the hypothesis that selection rather than drift was the driving force in the evolution of the complex. Lastly, we combine head shape and mtDNA data so as to derived an integrative taxonomy that produced robust boundaries for six OTUs (operational taxonomic units of the C. viridis complex. We suggest these boundaries are concomitant with species-status and subsequently provide a relevant nomenclature for its recognition and representation.

  12. The western Aeolian Islands volcanoes (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) : the temporal and chemical evolution of a complex magmatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Peccerillo, A.; Gillot, P.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Aeolian Archipelago is located on the northern continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. This volcanic province emplaces in the geodynamic system linked to the convergence of African and European plates. In this study, we focused on Alicudi, Filicudi, Salina, Lipari and Vulcano to understand the temporal and geochemical evolution of western Aeolian Islands magmatism. These volcanoes contain the whole geochemical compositions typical of convergence settings ranging from calc-alkaline (CA) and high-K CA (HKCA) to shoshonitic (SHO) and potassic rocks (KS). Moreover, these magmas were emitted over a short time span, which attests to the complexity of the geodynamical setting. Geochemical data, consisting in major and trace elements whole rock analysis, were carried out on dated samples, whose geochronological data are based on K-Ar technique. The first magmas, emitted at Filicudi, Salina and Lipari after 300 ka, have relatively the same CA composition, whereas some Lipari lavas have early HKCA affinity. Around 120-130 ka, Alicudi and Vulcano emerged simultaneously in the western and central volcanic province that is influenced by two contrasted magmatic systems. In fact, the SHO magmatism in the central sector is coeval with CA activity in the western arc. After 40 ka, the last activity of Filicudi consists of mafic magmas of HKCA affinity while Salina and Alicudi emitted CA products. In contrast, mainly differentiated magmas of HKCA-SHO affinity were emplaced at Lipari and Vulcano. Overall, the K and incompatible elements enrichments increase through time mostly in the central arc. At the scale of the archipelago, the magmatic changes occurring around 120 and 40 ka may be explained by deep and regional processes, as mantle source contamination variations. However, at smaller space and time-scales, the magmatic evolution is more complex reflecting peculiar processes, as crustal assimilation and fractional crystallisation, specific to each volcano

  13. Sources of origination of petroleum fatty acids. [Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhil' tsov, N.I.; Banzaraktsaev, B.M.; Ershov, V.A.; Samokhvalova, G.I.; Shakirova, A.Kh.

    1981-01-01

    The goal of experimental verification of a possible mechanism of formation of petrolum fatty acides as a result of the activity of microorganisms was pursued. Individual compositions of carboxylic acids obtained from mixtures of equal amounts of petroleums from the BV3( stratum of the Samaotlorsk deposit were investigated. The method of carrying out the investigation is described. The results obtained are presented in tabular and graphical forms. It is shown that the quantitative content of carboxylic acids in the petroluems and the character of the distribution of the individual fatty acids before and after microbiological treatment is not changed. In addition to that, it is observed that after treatment of petroluem with sulfate-reducing bacteria the content in it of unsaturated acids was increased and this holds true also for the content of palmitic acid. The content of dehydroabietic acid was not changed. Possibly, the latter is an end product in the genesis of the original organic matter of petroleum. Since in the products of metabolism and the lipids of microorganisms of all species unsaturated fatty acids are contained, it can be assumed that the presence in the native petroleum of Western Siberia of thermodynamically unstable oleic acid, as well as palmitic, results from the microbiological activity in the deposits. Also, their amino acid compositions can serve as direct evidence of the presence in petroleum of microorganisms. The revealed peculiarities of the individual composition of petroleum acids in deposits of Lower Cretaceous age and the Jurassic are characteristic also for petroleum in rocks of Cenomanian age (Russian and Van'egansk deposits).

  14. Strontium isotopes in the rocks of the ophiolite complex in the Khan-Tayshiri Range (Western Mongolia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, G.S.; Kuz' min, M.I.; Sandimirova, G.P.; Zonenshayn, L.P.

    1980-08-01

    The distribution of strontium isotopes has been examined in a section through the ophiolite complex of the Khan-Tayshiri Range (Western Mongolia). The basal parts of the complex consist of apo-dunites (/sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr = 0.7118 - 0.7124), and higher up in the section there are pyroxenites (0.7064 - 0.7095) and gabbros (0.7034-0.7065). The upper parts of the complex consist of pillow lavas (0.7068-0.7071), the conduits for which were a series of laminar dikes (0.7057-0.7087). An analysis of petrological and geochemical information with a selection of isotope data suggests that during the formation of the rocks of the Khan-Tayshiri Complex, three components, different in nature and chemical composition, were involved: the remains of the Earth's protolithosphere in the form of apo-dunites, a mantle quartz-tholeiite magma, and seawater. Variations in the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio are associated both with the isotope composition of the original magma, and also with the conditions of its emplacement. The ultrabasic rocks are regarded as relicts of the ancient ultrabasic layer or protolithosphere of the Earth.

  15. Erosion and sedimentation effects on soil : organic carbon redistribution in a complex landscape of western Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, M.D.; Schoorl, J.M.; Koning, de F.; López-Ulloa, M.; Veldkamp, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate how land-use changes affect the distribution of SOC within a complex tropical landscape through the processes of erosion and sedimentation. The objectives were: (i) to estimate the present SOC storage at a landscape scale using predictors such as slope,

  16. Cod Measuring And Correction At Siberia-2

    CERN Document Server

    Valentinov, A; Yupinov, I

    2004-01-01

    Electron closed orbit distortion (COD) is measured by 24 beam position monitors (BPM) with 10 micron accuracy at SIBERIA-2 storage ring. A number of linear mathematical methods for COD correction are available, such as RMS minimization, MICADO, SVD. Correction system now allows to achieve rather small rms values of COD (at azimuths of BPMs) which are close to 0.2 mm in vertical plane and 0.7 mm in horizontal one by using 12 correctors in each transversal direction, though we have less than 4 monitors for one betatron oscillation (working point Qx = 7.775, Qz = 6.695). In order to get a better COD control we used gradient correction coils, which are situated in each quadrupole lens. Change in gradient of one lens leads to orbit deviation on BPM azimuths if there is a difference Δy between beam position inside the lens and its magnetic axe. COD measured by BPMs can be matched with theoretically calculated one using Δy as a parameter. So we can find electron beam positions in 72 points (number ...

  17. Radioactive elements in Paleozoic coals of Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Volostnov, A.V.; Varlachev, V.A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-01

    The geochemistry of radioactive elements was examined in the Kuznetsk, Minusinsk, Tunguska, and Gorlovo Paleozoic coal basins in Siberia. Quantitative analytical techniques (INAA, delayed neutron analysis, and XRF) were used to study 2600 samples of coals and their host rocks. The average U and Th concentrations in the coals are 2 and 3 ppm, respectively. The lateral and vertical variability of the distribution of radioactive elements was examined on the scale of coal basins, deposits, and individual coal seams. It was determined that elevated U and Th concentrations in coals are often related to rock blocks enriched in radioactive elements in the surroundings of the basins or are correlated with volcanic activity during coal accumulation. High concentrations of these elements in coal seams are restricted to zones near the tops of the seams and the soil zones, the boundaries of partings, or to beds enriched in pyroclastic material. Using the f-radiography method, it was determined that the main mechanism of U accumulation in coals is its sorption on the organic matter. Thorium is contained in both the mineral and the organic constituents of coals. An increase in the ash contents of coals with clarke radioactivity is associated with an increase in the contents of U and Th in the mineral matter.

  18. Warmth and friendship abound in Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitworth, K.

    1978-08-01

    Despite the harsh climate, 20,000,000 people occupy 6,500,000 square kilometers of land, which contains approximately 60% of all the known fuel resources of the Soviet Union. More than 12% of the world's coal reserves are concentrated in Central Siberia between the Kuznetsk basin and the Yenisei, in an area no more than two percent of the land surface. It is for this reason and knowing that many technological advances in mining had been made in this area that, in discussion with the Soviet Coal Ministry, it was agreed that a WORLD COAL Editor, in pursuant to the agreement made between the Soviet coal magazine UGOL and WORLD COAL should visit surface openpit, deep mines and coal preparation plants and prepare this article in the issue specially devoted to Russian coal mining achievements. The trip was undertaken in the short summer months around July when the climate is unbelievably like that of the Mediterranean. Four main areas were visited, Novokusnetsk, Mezdurechensk, Irkutsk and Cheremhovo.

  19. Lower Jurassic palynostratigraphy of Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryacheva, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a palynological study of the natural outcrops of the Lower and Middle Jurassic on the Kelimyar River (Outcrops 5, 6, 7, 14, and 16) and two boreholes, Middle-Nakynskaya and Ygyata-Tyungskaya 1, in Eastern Siberia. The Ukugut, Tyung, Motorchuna, Suntar, Kyrin, and Kelimyar formations were studied. Six biostrata with dinocysts were established for the Upper Sinemurian-Toarcian. The analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of dinocysts in the sections allowed the identification of the stratigraphic ranges for important genera of dinocysts, which enabled the updating of the geochronology of some biostrata. Three main stages of the evolution of dinocysts in the Early Jurassic in the Siberian Paleobasin were characterized by the appearance, diversification, and disappearance of some orders of dinocysts at certain times. Seven biostrata (beds with characteristic palynoassemblages) were established for the upper Sinemurian-Toarcian on the basis of the study of the taxonomic composition of spores and pollen of land plants and successive changes in the composition of the palynospectra.

  20. Complicated secondary textures in zircon record evolution of the host granitic rocks: Studies from Western Tauern Window and Ötztal-Stubai Crystalline Complex (Eastern Alps, Western Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Harlov, Daniel; Klötzli, Urs

    2017-07-01

    Samples of metamorphosed and deformed granitic rocks were collected from two Alpine complexes with well-constrained metamorphic history: Western Tauern Window and Ötztal-Stubai Crystalline Complex. Zircon grains from these samples were investigated in situ by a combination of scanning electron microscope techniques, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and Raman spectroscopy. The aims were: to describe and interpret complicated secondary textures and microstructures in zircon; based on cross-cutting relationships between secondary microstructures, reconstruct the sequence of processes, affecting zircon crystals; link the evolution of zircon with the history of the host rocks. The results indicate that zircon in the sampled granitic rocks forms growth twins and multi-grain aggregates, which are unusual for this mineral. Moreover, various secondary textures have been found in the sampled zircon, often cross-cutting each other in a single crystal. These include: distorted oscillatory CL zoning with inner zones forming inward-penetrating, CL-bright embayments, which are the evidence of dry recrystallization via annealing/lattice recovery; CL mosaicism with no preservation of growth zoning, but abundant nano- and micro-scale pores and mineral inclusions, which are the evidence of recrystallization by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation and/or leaching; embayed zircon boundaries filled with apatite, monazite, epidote and mylonitic matrix, indicating mineral-fluid reactions resulting in zircon dissolution and fragmentation; overgrowth CL-dark rims, which contain nano-pores and point to transport and precipitation of dissolved zircon matter. We conclude that zircon in our meta-granites is sensitive to metamorphism/deformation events, and was reactive with metamorphic fluids. Additionally, we have found evidence of crystal-plastic deformation in the form of low angle boundaries and bent grain tips, which is a result of shearing and ductile deformation of the host rock. We

  1. Fossil oceanic core complexes recognized in the blueschist metaophiolites of Western Alps and Corsica

    OpenAIRE

    Lagabrielle, Yves; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Ildefonse, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Tethyan ophiolites show an apparent poorly organized association of ultramafic andmafic rocks. By contrast tothe complete mantle-crustal sections of Semail-type ophiolite sheets, Tethyan ophiolites are characterized by asmaller amount of mafic rocks (gabbros and basalts), by the absence of any sheeted dyke complex and by thefrequent occurrence of oceanic sediments stratigraphically overlying mantle-derived peridotites and associatedgabbroic intrusions. Therefore, they ...

  2. Microbiological assessment of technogenicaly disturbed forest ecosystems in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bogorodskaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The state of soil microbial complexes of forest ecosystems of Central Siberia, disturbed by cutting, fires, emissions of pollutants and mining was investigated. The most appropriate indicators for early diagnosis of the condition and sustainability assessment of soils were the contents of microbial biomass, the intensity of the basal respiration and microbial metabolic quotient. Recorded time quantitative and structural-taxonomic restructuring of ecological trophic groups of microorganisms exhibited orientation of the elementary soil-biological processes and allowed detail to assess the state of soils of disturbed forest ecosystems. Successions of soil microorganisms reflected stages of plant succession after cutting. Structural and functional changes in the microbial soil complexes marked by only one-two years after cutting of coniferous forests. For the grassy stage in deciduous young stands, there was an increase in soil microbial activity that accompanied the development of the sod process. Microbiological processes were balanced and comparable to the control at the stage of closed 30-year-old stands. Post-fire recovery of the microbial soil complexes was determined by fire severity and by the properties of soils and vegetation succession. Functional activity of microbial soil complexes were recovered in one or two years after a low-intensity fires, whereas after high-intensity fires – was not recovered in eight years. Indicative responses of soil microorganisms in the sustainable impact of aggressive pollutants tundra zone of the Norilsk industrial region were registered at the functional and at the structural level. In areas of moderate and weak disturbances of vegetation, there were quantitative changes, whereas strong disturbances and constant exposure to pollutants marked structural and taxonomic adjustment of microbial soil complexes, disturbed dynamic processes of synthesis-mineralization and reduced adaptive capacity saprophytic

  3. Petrogenesis of peralkaline granite dykes of the Straumsvola complex, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Chris; Dreyer, Tanya; le Roux, Petrus

    2018-01-01

    Peralkaline syenite and granite dykes cut the Straumsvola nepheline syenite pluton in Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The average peralkalinity index (PI = molecular Al/[Na + K]) of the dykes is 1.20 ( n = 29) and manifests itself in the presence of the Zr silicates eudialyte, dalyite and vlasovite, and the Na-Ti silicate, narsarsukite. The dykes appear to have intruded during slow cooling of the nepheline syenite pluton, and the petrogenetic relationship of the dykes and the pluton cannot be related to closed-system processes at low pressure, given the thermal divide that exists between silica-undersaturated and oversaturated magmas. Major and trace element variations in the dykes are consistent with a combination of fractional crystallization of parental peralkaline magma of quartz trachyte composition, and internal mineral segregation prior to final solidification. The distribution of accessory minerals is consistent with late-stage crystallization of isolated melt pockets. The dykes give an Rb-Sr isochron age of 171 ± 4.4 Ma, with variable initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.7075 ± 0.0032), and have an average ɛ Nd of - 12.0. Quartz phenocrysts have δ18O values of 8.4-9.2‰, which are generally in O-isotope equilibrium with bulk rock. Differences in the δ18O values of quartz and aegirine (average Δquartz-aegirine = 3.5‰) suggest aegirine formation temperatures around 500 °C, lower than expected for a felsic magma, but consistent with poikilitic aegirine that indicates subsolidus growth. The negative ɛ Nd (values averaging 8.6‰ (assuming Δquartz-magma = 0.6‰) are inconsistent with a magma produced by closed-system fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma. By contrast, the nepheline syenite magma had mantle-like δ18O values and much less negative ɛ Nd (average - 3.1, n = 3). The country rock has similar δ18O values to the granite dykes (average 8.0‰, n = 108); this means that models for the petrogenesis of the granites by

  4. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniy Zinovyev

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of th...

  5. Current state of forest mapping with Landsat data in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Farber, Sergey; Kalinicheva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    We review a current state of a forest type mapping with Landsat data in Siberia. Target algorithm should be based on dynamic vegetation approach to be applicable to the analysis of the forest type distribution for Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping Siberian forest landscapes for applications such as predicting response of forest composition to climate change. We present data for several areas in West Siberian middle taiga, Central Siberia and East Siberia near Yakutsk. Analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data was made to produce forest type classification accounting for several stages for forest succession and variations in habitats and landforms. Supervised classification was applied to the areas were the ground truth and inventory data are available, including several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects. In Laryegan basin in West Siberia the upland forest areas are dominated by mix of Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Abundance of Scots pine decreases to the west due to change in soils. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is generally difficult. Similar problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landform type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information can be a promising way to complement Landsat data.

  6. Microtextural characterisation of the Lower Zone in the western limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: evidence for extensive melt migration within a sill complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karykowski, Bartosz T.; Maier, Wolfgang D.

    2017-08-01

    The Lower Zone of the Bushveld Complex comprises an up to 2-km-thick package of different ultramafic rock types with an approx. 90-cm-thick, sulphide-bearing noritic interval that occurs in the western and eastern limbs. The distribution and geometry of the zone are highly variable across the Complex, showing pronounced, yet laterally discontinuous layering on different scales. Together with the ubiquitous lack of large-scale fractionation in the Mg# of orthopyroxene, variable Sr isotope compositions and erratic Pt/Pd ratios, these observations strongly suggest an emplacement of the Lower Zone as a sill complex, as these contrasting geochemical characteristics are difficult to account for in a large Bushveld magma chamber, as previously suggested. It is more likely that these sills were episodically fed from a sub-Bushveld staging chamber, and variably contaminated, while passing through the crust before their final emplacement in the Lower Zone. Detailed mineralogical and microtextural work based on high-resolution elemental mapping of a set of samples, covering the entire Lower Zone stratigraphy of the western Bushveld shows that the variations in the late crystallising interstitial mineral mode are different from what would be expect, if all phases crystallised from a fixed initial mass of interstitial liquid. The interstitial mineral mode, represented by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and other late stage phases, shows variable ratios of these minerals ranging from ca. 21:15:64 to 75:17:8. In comparison to modelled expected ratios, most of the analysed rocks have higher amounts of early crystallising interstitial phases (e.g. plagioclase, clinopyroxene), relative to late crystallising phases (e.g. quartz, alkali feldspar). Therefore, interstitial melt must have migrated at different stages of fractionation during cumulate solidification, as a consequence of either compaction or displacement by convecting interstitial liquids. Two samples, however, show the opposite

  7. Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ

  8. Western Faculty "Flight Risk" at a Korean University and the Complexities of Internationalisation in Asian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Does the internationalisation of Asian higher education give preference to Western faculty members, especially against the backdrop of internationalisation trends that call for an importation of Western pedagogical practices, ideas, and standards? This article seeks to complicate such a claim through close examination of the Western faculty…

  9. Systematics of the Podarcis hispanicus complex (Sauria, Lacertidae) III: valid nomina of the western and central Iberian forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniez, Philippe; Sá-Sousa, Paulo; Guillaume, Claude P; Cluchier, Alexandre; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2014-05-05

    Recent genetic works have suggested that the Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanicus (Steindachner, 1870) sensu lato is a species complex. Several forms have already been elevated to species rank and linked to available nomina, but at least three still have to be formally named, including the western Iberian forms currently designated as Podarcis hispanicus "type 1A", "type 1B" and "type 2". The aim of the present work is to assign a valid nomen to these taxa. Using multivariate analyses, we first checked that the morphological differences reported in Portugal between type 1 and type 2 are maintained over their distribution range. We then investigated phenotypic differentiation between type 1A and type 1B, which were found to be so similar that identification based on phenotype is currently not advisable. We propose to treat type 1 and type 2 as distinct species because of their level of genetic and phenotypic divergence, large area of distribution and ample evidence for reduced or absent introgression in contact zones. We maintain type 1A and 1B as subspecies for the time being, pending further analyses of their contact zone. The valid nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 1 (sensu lato)" is Lacerta muralis guadarramae Boscá, 1916 which becomes Podarcis guadarramae (Boscá, 1916). Lineage type 1A is here described as a new taxon: P. guadarramae lusitanicus ssp. nov., inhabiting northern Portugal and northwestern Spain. The type 1B lineage corresponds to the nominotypical subspecies that inhabits Spain, mostly the Central Iberian Mountains. We were unable to locate an available nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 2", which is here described as Podarcis virescens sp. nov. This species is widely distributed in the plains and plateaus of central and parts of south-western Spain as well as central and southern Portugal.

  10. Industrial Development of Siberia and the Soviet Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    21 (This argument is perhaps unintentionally fed by the central leadership’s emphasis on investing in renovation and technical reequipment of...Malov, "Po programme ’ energia ’," Pravda, May 12, 1982, p. 2. " M. Matafonov, "Open up Siberia’s Treasure Houses," Sotsialisticheskaia industriia

  11. Altered rocks of the Onguren carbonatite complex in the Western Tansbaikal Region: Geochemistry and composition of accessory minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, V. B.; Bazarova, E. P.; Sharygin, V. V.; Karmanov, N. S.; Kanakin, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The paper discusses the mineralogy and geochemistry of altered rocks associated with calcite and dolomite-ankerite carbonatites of the Onguren dyke-vein complex in the Western Transbaikal Region. The alteration processes in the Early Proterozoic metamorphic complex and synmetamorphic granite hosting carbonatite are areal microclinization and riebeckitization; carbonates, phlogopite, apatite, and aegirine occur in the near-contact zones of the dolomite-ankerite carbonatite veins; and silicification is displayed within separated zones adjacent to the veins. In aluminosilicate rocks, microclinization was accompanied by an increasing content of K, Fe3+, Ti, Nb (up to 460 ppm), Th, Cu, and REE; Na, Ti, Fe3+, Mg, Nb (up to 1500 ppm), Zr (up to 2800 ppm), Ta, Th, Hf, and REE accumulated in the inner zone of the riebeckitization column. High contents of Ln Ce (up to 11200 ppm), U (23 ppm), Sr (up to 7000 ppm), Li (up to 400 ppm), Zn (up to 600 ppm), and Th (up to 700 ppm) are typical of apatite-phlogopite-riebeckite altered rock; silicified rock contains up to (ppm): 2000 Th, 20 U, 13000 Ln Ce, and 5000 Ba. Ilmenite and later rutile are the major Nb carriers in alkali altered rocks. These minerals contain up to 2 and 7 wt % Nb2O5, respectively. In addition, ferrocolumbite and aeschynite-(Ce) occur in microcline and riebeckite altered rocks. Fluorapatite containing up to 2.7 wt % ( Ln Ce)2O3, monazite-(Ce), cerite-(Ce), ferriallanite-(Ce), and aeschynite-(Ce) are the REE carriers in riebeckite altered rock. Bastnäsite-(Ce), rhabdophane-group minerals, and xenotime-(Y) are typical of silicified rock. Thorite, monazite-(Ce), and rhabdophane-group minerals are the Th carriers.

  12. The recent decline of Montastraea annularis (complex coral populations in western Curaçao: a cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W Bruckner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shallow leeward reefs off the western end of Curaçao are dominated by extensive populations of M. annularis (complex. These species are larger in size (mean= 66 cm diameter than all other species, with few small colonies (10 cm observed within transects, and most exhibited low levels of partial mortality (mean= 22.5%. These species were less abundant (38% of all colonies in 2005. Partial mortality among live colonies of M. annularis and M. faveolata increased by 85% (mean = 42% partial mortality and numerous dead colonies of M. faveolata and M. annularis were observed; M. franksi colonies were generally in excellent condition (14% partial tissue mortality. A high prevalence of coral diseases (3-30% was documented among M. annularis and M. faveolata, while all other species were less frequently affected. Yellow band disease (YBD emerged shortly after the 1995 bleaching event, and rapidly spread throughout all depths, with the highest prevalence between 1997-1999. YBD caused slow rates of mortality (=1 cm/month, but multiple focal lesions appeared on individual colonies, and these progressively radiated outward as they killed the colonies. By 2005, 44% of the tagged corals were dead; the remainder exhibited active YBD infections (21% or were in remission (31.6% but were missing on average >90% of their tissue. Although the incidence of YBD has declined since 2000, white plague (WP prevalence was unusually high (4-12% in 2001 and 2005, with affected colonies exhibiting recent mortality of up to 70%. Dead Montastraea spp. surfaces are being colonized by other corals, including poritids, agaricids, and other faviids, while recruits of M. annularis (complex are absent. If diseases and other biotic stressors persist on these reefs, M. annularis and M. faveolata populations may undergo a decline similar to that observed in the 1980s among Caribbean acroporids. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 45- 58. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

  13. Geologic constraints and speleogenesis of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, a complex coastal cave from Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Ginés

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flat areas of eastern and southern Mallorca host a remarkable coastal karst, where Cova des Pas de Vallgornera stands out due to its length (more than 74 km and its special morphological suite. The pattern of the cave is quite heterogeneous showing sharp differences produced by the architecture of the Upper Miocene reef: spongework mazes and collapse chambers dominate in the reef front facies, whereas joint-guided conduits are the rule in the back reef carbonates. Regarding the speleogenesis of the system, a complex situation is envisaged involving three main agents: coastal mixing dissolution, drainage of meteoric diffuse recharge, and hypogene basal recharge related to local geothermal phenomena. The cave system is disposed in two main tiers of passages, of which geomorphologic interpretations are derived from their elevation data. The evolutionary trends as well as the chronology of the different cave sections are difficult to establish owing to the frequent shifting of the coastal base level during the Plio-Quaternary. In this respect, the genesis and evolution of the cave were fully controlled by sea-level fluctuations in the Western Mediterranean basin, with the main phases of cave formation, based on vertebrate paleontological data, going back to mid-Pliocene times.

  14. Past and present distribution of Myxas glutinosa (O.F. Müller, 1774 in the waterbodies of the Urals and Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Vinarski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the glutinous snail, Myxas glutinosa (O.F. Müller, 1774 in the waterbodies of the Urals and Western Siberia has been assessed on the basis of the literary and authors’ own data. This species belongs to the rarest among the Euro-Siberian freshwater snails, and the Ural-Siberian region is the eastern part of its range. The first records of M. glutinosa in this area date back to 1889 but to the date only 48 trustworthy findings of the species in this region are known. The map of these findings is provided. Currently, M. glutinosa is extremely rare in Siberia though in the South Uralian waterbodies its abundance is still relatively high. Possible causes of decline of the glutinous snail are briefly discussed. It is shown that this species may tolerate (to some extent water pollution, salinity and other factors that were invoked to explain its global decline.

  15. Radiative Characteristics of Aerosol During Extreme Fire Event over Siberia in Summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana B.; Kabanov, Dmitriy M.; Nasrtdinov, Ilmir M.; Russkova, Tatiana V.; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Smirnov, Alexander; Holben, Brent N.

    2017-01-01

    Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol were studied during a mega-fire event in summer 2012 over Siberia using ground-based measurements of spectral solarradiation at the AERONET site in Tomsk and satellite observations. The data were analyzed using multi-year (2003-2013) measurements of aerosol characteristics under back-ground conditions and for less intense fires, differing in burning biomass type, stage of fire, remoteness from observation site, etc. (ordinary smoke). In June-August 2012, the average aerosol optical depth (AOD, 500 nm) had been 0.95+/-0.86, about a factor of 6 larger than background values (0.16+/-0.08), and a factor of 2.5 larger than in ordinary smoke. The AOD values were extremely high on 24-28 July and reached 3-5. A comparison with satellite observations showed that ground-based measurements in the region of Tomsk not only reflect the local AOD features, but are also characteristic for the territory of Western Siberia as a whole. Single scattering albedo (SSA, 440 nm) in this period ranged from 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approx. 0.96 in the entire wavelength range of 440-1020 nm. The increase in absorptance of aerosol particles (SSA(440 nm)=0.92) and decrease in SSA with wavelength observed in ordinary smoke agree with the data from multi-year observations in analogous situations in the boreal zone of USA and Canada. Volume aerosol size distribution in extreme and ordinary smoke had a bimodal character with significant prevalence of fine-mode particles, but in summer 2012 the mean median radius and the width of the fine-mode distribution somewhat increased. In contrast to data from multi-year observations, in summer 2012 an increase in the volume concentration and median radius of the coarse mode was observed with growing AOD.

  16. Geologic characteristics and movement of the Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex, western Kane County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashland, Francis X.; McDonald, Greg N.; Carney, Stephanie M.; Tabet, David E.; Johnson, Cari L.

    2010-01-01

    The Meadow Creek landslide, part of the Coal Hill landslide complex in western Kane County, Utah, is about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide and 1.3 miles (2.1 km) long and contains six smaller historical slides. The upper part of the Meadow Creek landslide is gently sloping and consists of displaced and back-rotated blocks of Cretaceous Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations that form northeast- to locally east-trending ridges that are separated by sediment-filled half-grabens. The lower part of the landslide is gently to moderately sloping, locally incised, and consists of heterogeneous debris that overrides the Jurassic Carmel Formation near Meadow Creek. Monitoring using a survey-grade Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument detected movement of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide between October 2005 and October 2008, including movement of two of the historical slides-landslides 1 and 2. The most movement during the measurement period occurred within the limits of persistently moving landslide 1 and ranged from about 24 to 64 inches (61-163 cm). Movement of the abutting southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide ranged from approximately 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm). State Route 9 crosses over approximately a mile (1.6 km) of the southern part of the Meadow Creek landslide, including landslide 1. The highway and its predecessor (State Route 15) have been periodically displaced and damaged by persistent movement of landslide 1. Most of the landslide characteristics, particularly its size, probable depth, and the inferred weak strength and low permeability of clay-rich gouge derived from the Dakota and Cedar Mountain Formations, are adverse to and pose significant challenges to landslide stabilization. Secondary hazards include piping-induced sinkholes along scarps and ground cracks, and debris flows and rock falls from the main-scarp escarpment.

  17. The American Expeditionary Force Siberia: A Case Study of Operational Art with Ambiguous Strategic Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Siberia (AEF-S) with around 8,000 soldiers was the larger of the two American forces. They saw duty in the Eastern region of the Russian Empire primarily...Allies feared that Germany would capture the strategic northern Russia ports of Murmansk and Archangel along with vast stores of military supplies...in Siberia. The deplorable conditions in Siberia allowed guerilla bands on both sides to proliferate throughout the region . The Bolsheviks viewed the

  18. RUSSIAN STATE AND MISSIONARY ORTHODOX СHURCH IN SIBERIA IN XVII CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    V. D. Puzanov

    2016-01-01

    In 1620 Siberian diocese was founded in eastern Russia. In the scientific literature, it was noted that in Siberia XVII century representatives of the Orthodox Church were not deployed missionary activity among the peoples of the region. Historian Alexander Y. Konev, studying the state policy towards the peoples of Siberia, noted that the nature of religious policy in Siberia in the XVII century was defined "world outlook figures most of the Russian Orthodox Church." The head of the Siberian ...

  19. Siberia on Russian mental maps: The imperial and national space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the theoretical problem of understanding the nation-building process within continental empires, this paper investigates the various meanings of ‘Siberia’ in the Russian imperial and national imagination. Analyzing discursive practices that create various representations of the geographical space, this study shows the changes in Russian perceptions of Siberia from the ‘alien’ space and the ‘colony’, to an unalienable part of the national territory (‘Russian land’ or ‘homeland’. Tracing the creation of ‘Russianness’ of Siberia, the author interprets this concept as a part of broader debates about ‘Russian identity’ and the relationship between ‘European’ and ‘Asiatic’ Russia. Therefore, the principal aim of the present study is to examine one of the most important aspects of the process Russia’s transformation from imperial to a ‘nationalizing State’.

  20. Gravity Variation in Siberia: GRACE Observation and Possible Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Fong Chao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the finding, from the GRACE observation, of an increasing trend in the gravity anomaly in Siberia at the rate of up to 0.5 ugal yr-1 during 2003/1 - 2009/12, in the backdrop of a negative anomaly of magnitude on the order of ~-10 mgal. In consideration of the non-uniqueness of the gravitational inverse problem, we examine in some detail the various possible geophysical causes to explain the increasing gravity signal. We find two geophysical mechanisms being the most plausible, namely the melting of permafrost and the GIA post-glacial rebound. We conclude that these two mechanisms cannot be ruled out as causes for the regional gravity increase in Siberia, based on gravity data and in want of ancillary geophysical data in the region. More definitive identification of the contributions of the various causes awaits further studies.

  1. Snowchange Oral History - Work Among the Kolyma River Indigenous Societies in Siberia, Russia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes oral history accounts from Indigenous people participating in the Snowchange project in Siberia, Russia. It provides geographic and...

  2. Dinosaur evolution. A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroit, Pascal; Sinitsa, Sofia M; Dhouailly, Danielle; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Sizov, Alexander V; McNamara, Maria E; Benton, Michael J; Spagna, Paul

    2014-07-25

    Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these filaments can be regarded as part of the evolutionary lineage toward feathers remains controversial. Here we describe a new basal neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Siberia with small scales around the distal hindlimb, larger imbricated scales around the tail, monofilaments around the head and the thorax, and more complex featherlike structures around the humerus, the femur, and the tibia. The discovery of these branched integumentary structures outside theropods suggests that featherlike structures coexisted with scales and were potentially widespread among the entire dinosaur clade; feathers may thus have been present in the earliest dinosaurs. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Relict gas hydrates as possible reason of gas emission from shallow permafrost at the northern part of West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvilin, Evgeny; Bukhanov, Boris; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Istomin, Vladimir; Tipenko, Gennady

    2017-04-01

    Intra-permafrost gas (mostly methane) is represent a serious geological hazards during exploration and development of oil and gas fields. Special danger is posed by large methane accumulations which usually confined to sandy and silty sand horizons and overlying in the frozen strata on the depth up to 200 meters. Such methane accumulations are widely spread in a number of gas fields in the northern part of Western Siberia. According to indirect indicators this accumulations can be relic gas hydrates, that formed earlier during favorable conditions for hydrate accumulation (1, 2). Until now, they could be preserved in the frozen sediments due to geological manifestation of the self-preservation effect of gas hydrates at temperatures below zero. These gas hydrate formations, which are lying above the gas hydrate stability zone today, are in a metastable state and are very sensitive to various anthropogenic impacts. During drilling and operation of production wells in the areas where the relic of gas hydrates can occur, there are active gas emission and gas explosion, that can lead to various technical complications up to the accident. Mathematical and experimental simulations were were conducted to evaluate the possibility of existence of relic gas hydrates in the northern part of West Siberia. The results of math simulations revealed stages of geological history when the gas hydrate stability zone began virtually from the ground surface and saturated in shallow permafrost horizons. Later permafrost is not completely thaw. Experimental simulations of porous gas hydrate dissociation in frozen soils and evaluation of self-preservation manifestation of gas hydrates at negative temperatures were carried out for identification conditions for relic gas hydrates existence in permafrost of northern part of West Siberia. Sandy and silty sand sediments were used in experimental investigations. These sediments are typical of most gas-seeping (above the gas hydrate stability

  4. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  5. Rayleigh Wave Group Velocity Tomography of Siberia, China and the Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F. T.; Levshin, A. L.; Kozhevnikov, V. M.

    Rayleigh waves are used in a tomographic inversion to obtain group velocity maps of East Asia (40° E-160° E and 20° N-70° N). The period range studied is 30 to 70 seconds. Seismograms used for this study were recorded at CDSN stations, at a temporary broadband seismic array in Tibet, at several SRO stations, and Kirnos-equipped stations established in Asia by the former Soviet Union, in Siberia, in the Sakhalin and in Mongolia. Altogether more than 1200 paths were available in the tomographic inversion. The study area includes the Angara craton, the geologically ancient core of Asia, and the subsequently accreted units, the Altaids (a Paleozoic collision complex), the Sino-Korean platform (a chain of Archaen terranes separated by belts of active structures), the south China platform (a collage of Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphic and igneous terranes), as well as the Tibetan plateau (an active tectonic feature created in late Cenozoic through collision of the Indian subcontinent and the Asian continent). Many of these main units are recognizable in the tomographic images as distinctive units; Tibet appears as a prominent low velocity (about -15% from the average) structure, with western and central Tibet often appearing as the areas with the lowest velocities, the Central Asian fold-belt, and the Angara craton are consistently high group velocity areas. Some lesser tectonic features are also recognizable. For example, Lake Baikal is seen as a high velocity feature at periods greater than 40 seconds. However, the high group velocity feature does not stop near the southern end of Lake Baikal; it extends south-southwestward across Mongolia. The North China Plain, a part of the platform where extensional tectonics dominate, is an area of high velocities as a result of relatively thin crust. The south China block, the least tectonically active region of China, is generally an area of high velocity. For periods longer than 40 seconds, a NNE trending

  6. Geodynamics of the western part of the Mongolia Okhotsk collisional belt, Trans-Baikal region (Russia) and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, Yu. A.

    1999-05-01

    After the western edge of the Mongolian microcontinent joined the Siberian continent in the region of Central Mongolia in the earliest Permian, these two continental blocks remained turned at an angle of about 120° with respect to each other and separated (on greater extent of their present-day boundary) by an enormous gulf of the Paleopacific called the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean. Closure of this ocean at the Early/Middle Jurassic boundary led to the complete collision of Siberia and Mongolia, which by then had already become part of the Mongolia-North China continent. This main collisional episode, which lasted through the Middle and Late Jurassic, involved thrusting, folding and magmatism and produced the Mongolia-Okhotsk belt. The Onon island-arc, which was located in the Mongolia-Okhotsk ocean, was squeezed between the two major continents. Inasmuch as the third element (the island arc) was involved in the collision it is reasonable to distinguish two branches of the Mongolia-Okhotsk suture. These branches control the spatial distribution of gold mineralization in the Trans-Baikal region. On the southeastern periphery of Siberia the crust thickened considerably after the collision and a plateau-like uplift formed. In the Early Cretaceous, when compression ceased, the collisional uplift collapsed and the thrusts were transformed into low-angle normal faults, the motions on which were responsible for the formation of rift basins and exhumation of metamorphic core complexes.

  7. The post-collisional stage of the Yenisey Ridge orogeny (Siberia): geological, geochemical, geochronological and paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Vernikovskaya, Antonina E.; Kazansky, Alexey Yu.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.; Metelkin, Dmitriy V.; Veyalko, Irina V.; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Wingate, Michael T. D.; Wilde, Simon

    2013-04-01

    last tectonic-thermal events for the pluton, registered in Ar-Ar data took place 687 Ma and were due to the accretion of the Yenisey island arc system from the western margin of the craton. The endocontact of the pluton intruding deformed sedimentary host rocks is vertical and submeridional as are the schlieren structures, which indicates that the pluton did not change its vertical position. This makes it a favourable object of paleomagnetic investigations. Magnetite is the main magnetization carrier in the leucogranites and their endo- and exocontact zones, while pyrrhotine is the one in the host limestones as well as in the farthest parts of the exocontact zones. The paleomagnetic pole calculated for the Strelka pluton is in good accordance with the apparent polar wander path for Siberia proposed to this day [Metelkin et al., 2007]. It is located between the paleomagnetic pole of the Nersa complex of the Prisayan basin (741 Ma) and the pole of the Yenisey island arc complex of the Yenisey Ridge (637 Ma). Therefore we can affirm that when the Strelka pluton was emplaced the Central Angara terrane was already a part of the Siberian craton.

  8. Solid Inclusions in Au-nuggets, genesis and derivation from alkaline rocks of the Guli Massif, Northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorani, Sami N.

    2016-04-01

    A total of 112 Au-nuggets, collected from alluvial placer deposits of the Ingarinda River from the Guli massif, located in northem Siberia, Russia, were investigated. The Guli massif consists of a huge dunite-clinopyroxenite complex (the largest complex in the world), an alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite (melilite, nephelinite, ijolite) enveloping the dunite and carbonatite intrusions, associated with disseminated schlieren type chromitite and Au-Ag, Pt placer deposits. The nuggets are characterized by various sizes and shapes and show chemical compositions Au, Au-Ag and AuCu, typical for a derivate of carbon-atites and/or ultramafic complexes. A great variety of oxide, silicate, REE-minerals, carbonate and sulphide inclusions have been detected in the nuggets, which are identical in mineralogy and chemical composition to mineral constituents of the alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite surrounding the Guli dunite core complex thus, considered as the source for Au-nuggets.

  9. Solid Inclusions in Au-nuggets, genesis and derivation from alkaline rocks of the Guli Massif, Northern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvorani Sami N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 112 Au-nuggets, collected from alluvial placer deposits of the Ingarinda River from the Guli massif, located in northem Siberia, Russia, were investigated. The Guli massif consists of a huge dunite-clinopyroxenite complex (the largest complex in the world, an alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite (melilite, nephelinite, ijolite enveloping the dunite and carbonatite intrusions, associated with disseminated schlieren type chromitite and Au-Ag, Pt placer deposits. The nuggets are characterized by various sizes and shapes and show chemical compositions Au, Au-Ag and AuCu, typical for a derivate of carbon-atites and/or ultramafic complexes. A great variety of oxide, silicate, REE-minerals, carbonate and sulphide inclusions have been detected in the nuggets, which are identical in mineralogy and chemical composition to mineral constituents of the alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite surrounding the Guli dunite core complex thus, considered as the source for Au-nuggets.

  10. METABOLIC ASPECTS OF GASTRODUODENAL PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Vilyamovich Kasparov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a review shown the main aspects of the research work on the study of metabolic issues of formation, progression and rehabilitation of gastroduodenal pathology in children of Siberia as one of the most important pathophysiological aspects, along with other equally important factors that determine the epidemiological situation of pathology in the region. Within the exposition of this issue is emphasized on special actuality of this direction for the Siberian region, and primarily for its northern territories. It was concluded that the population features of the gastroduodenal diseases course in children should be considered in their treatment and prevention, what, unfortunately, not taken into account.

  11. The recent decline of Montastraea annularis (complex coral populations in western Curaçao: a cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W Bruckner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Shallow leeward reefs off the western end of Curaçao are dominated by extensive populations of M. annularis (complex. These species are larger in size (mean= 66 cm diameter than all other species, with few small colonies (10 cm observed within transects, and most exhibited low levels of partial mortality (mean= 22.5%. These species were less abundant (38% of all colonies in 2005. Partial mortality among live colonies of M. annularis and M. faveolata increased by 85% (mean = 42% partial mortality and numerous dead colonies of M. faveolata and M. annularis were observed; M. franksi colonies were generally in excellent condition (14% partial tissue mortality. A high prevalence of coral diseases (3-30% was documented among M. annularis and M. faveolata, while all other species were less frequently affected. Yellow band disease (YBD emerged shortly after the 1995 bleaching event, and rapidly spread throughout all depths, with the highest prevalence between 1997-1999. YBD caused slow rates of mortality (=1 cm/month, but multiple focal lesions appeared on individual colonies, and these progressively radiated outward as they killed the colonies. By 2005, 44% of the tagged corals were dead; the remainder exhibited active YBD infections (21% or were in remission (31.6% but were missing on average >90% of their tissue. Although the incidence of YBD has declined since 2000, white plague (WP prevalence was unusually high (4-12% in 2001 and 2005, with affected colonies exhibiting recent mortality of up to 70%. Dead Montastraea spp. surfaces are being colonized by other corals, including poritids, agaricids, and other faviids, while recruits of M. annularis (complex are absent. If diseases and other biotic stressors persist on these reefs, M. annularis and M. faveolata populations may undergo a decline similar to that observed in the 1980s among Caribbean acroporids. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 45- 58. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Los arrecifes someros a sotavento

  12. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”. PMID:21738409

  13. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas".

  14. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Zinovyev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”.

  15. International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablyazina, D.; Boitsov, A.; Grebenets, V.; Kaverin, D.; Klene, A.; Kurchatova, A.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Zschocke, A.; Shiklomanov, N.; Streletskiy, D.

    2009-04-01

    During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow State University (MSU) and the Tumen' Oil and Gas University (TOGU) with the help from German and U.S. institutions. The program attracted undergraduate and graduate students with diverse interests and backgrounds from Germany, Russia and the U.S. and involved instructors specializing in different aspects of permafrost research. Courses were designed to address three major topics of permafrost-related research: a) permafrost environments characteristic of the discontinuous and continuous zones; b) field instrumentation and techniques; c) permafrost engineering and problems of development in permafrost regions. Methodologically, courses consisted of systematic permafrost investigations at long-term monitoring sites and survey-type expeditions. Systematic, process-based investigations were conducted at a network of sites which constitute the TEPO established by TOGU in collaboration with the gas company NadymGasProm. The observation complex includes an array of 30-m deep boreholes equipped with automatic data collection systems and representing characteristic permafrost landscapes of West Siberia. Boreholes are complemented by sites for snow cover, vegetation, soil, ground ice, and geomorphologic investigations. As part of student research activities, four new Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were established in proximity to boreholes for monitoring spatial distribution and long-term dynamic of the active layer. New sites represent diverse landscapes characteristic of the West Siberian previously underrepresented in the CALM network

  16. Babesia genotypes in Haemaphysalis concinna collected from birds in Hungary reflect phylogeographic connections with Siberia and the Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaisz, Barbara; Sulyok, Kinga M; Kováts, Dávid; Kontschán, Jenő; Csörgő, Tibor; Csipak, Ármin; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Hornok, Sándor

    2017-06-01

    Haemaphysalis concinna is the second most common tick species attaching to birds in Hungary. Recently, Babesia genotypes, found in Siberia and the Far East, have been detected in this tick species collected from the vegetation in Hungary and Slovakia. The aim of this study was to molecularly investigate if these piroplasms also occur in H. concinna carried by migratory birds, which might explain their occurrence in the western Palaearctic. During a 2-year period, 321 H. concinna larvae and nymphs were collected from 121 passerine birds (of 19 species) in Hungary. These were molecularly investigated for the presence of piroplasm DNA with PCR and sequencing. The prevalence of PCR positive ticks was 15.9% (51 out of 321). Piroplasm PCR positivity of H. concinna ticks was significantly more frequent during the summer and autumn compared to spring, suggesting that migratory birds arriving in Hungary from the north or north east are the most important in the dispersal of H. concinna-associated piroplasms. Three genotypes, i.e. Babesia sp. "Irk-Hc133", "Irk-Hc130" (originally found in Irkutsk, Siberia) and "Kh-Hc222" (originally found in Khabarovsk, Far East) were detected. Phylogenetically all these belonged to the group formed by Babesia spp. of ruminants. Four bird species, which had 14-60% prevalence of PCR positive ticks, are known to be associated with northeast to southwest autumn migration. In conclusion, the presence of Central and East Asian Babesia genotypes in Central Europe are most likely related to bird species with known eastern migratory habit and/or phylogenetically substantiated connections between their eastern and western Eurasian populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Continuous measurements of methane from a tower network over Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Saeki, T.; Koyama, Y.; Maksyutov, S. (Center for Global Environmental Research, National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Shimoyama, K. (Inst. of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido Univ., Hokkaido (Japan)); Tsuda, N. (Global Environmental Forum, Tokyo (Japan)); Suto, H. (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan)); Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O. (Inst. of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation))

    2010-11-15

    We have been conducting continuous measurements of Methane (CH{sub 4}) concentration from an expanding network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe and wetland biomes of Siberia since 2004. High daytime means (>2000 ppb) observed simultaneously at several towers during winter, together with in situ weather data and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, indicate that high pressure systems caused CH{sub 4} accumulation at subcontinental scale due to the widespread formation of an inversion layer. Daytime means sometimes exceeded 2000 ppb, particularly in the summer of 2007 when temperature and precipitation rates were anomalously high over West Siberia, which implies that CH{sub 4} emission from wetlands were exceptionally high in 2007. Many hot spots detected by MODIS in the summer of 2007 illustrate that the contribution of biomass burning also cannot be neglected. Daytime mean CH{sub 4} concentrations from the Siberian tower sites were generally higher than CH{sub 4} values reported at NOAA coastal sites in the same latitudinal zone, and the difference in concentrations between two sets of sites was reproduced with a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport model. Simulations of emissions from different CH{sub 4} sources suggested that the major contributor to variation switched from wetlands during summer to fossil fuel during winter.

  18. Conditions and development case studies for mountainous deposits in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talgamer, B. L.; Franchuk, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The article contains the materials on deposits development intensification under challenging climatic and mining conditions, including mountainous areas of Siberia. The exploitation case studies for mountainous deposits all over the world and in Russia have been described. The authors have been set out the factors impeding the development of such deposits, and the extent of mining and transportation equipment performance degradation is also indicated. There have been stated the characteristics and the description of one of the newly mountainous gold ore deposits in Siberia which is being developed at an altitude of 2684m. A number of specific factors concerning its development have also been introduced as well as the description of mining technologies engineered by Irkutsk National Research Technical University (IRNRTU) specialists. The depth and principal dimensions of the open pit together with the mining and transportation equipment and facilities have been justified. The prime cost analysis of mineral extraction has been made, which results showed the substantial growth in expenditures for the transportation of the overburden rocks and ores. In view of the above mentioned research, there appeared the necessity for the search of new and the enhancement of current transport vehicles and communications.

  19. Flavonoids in Adaptation of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis Introduced in West Siberia (Novosibirsk

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    Karpova E.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flavonoids (flavones and flavonols in leaves of Begonia grandis Dryander subsp. grandis plants introduced in Western Siberia (Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk during the growing season in the greenhouse and the open ground were studied for the first time. The ranges of flavonoid fractions and individual flavonoids contents in a favorable environment and during periods of temperature drops and frost were established. Under favorable conditions in the greenhouse and in the open ground B. grandis subsp. grandis leaves were characterized by relatively low content of the sum of flavonoids (up to 10.1 mg/g. During periods of temperature drops in the greenhouse it was decreased (down to 5.2 mg/g, and in conditions of more considerable temperature drops and frost in open ground it was increased by several times (up to 28.3 mg/g. During the period of the action of stress factors content of the sum of flavonoid aglycones in the leaves was increased both in the greenhouse (including quercetin, luteolin and in the open ground (including quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, in the open ground content of major constituent, luteolin 8-C-glucoside (orientin, was increased. The most significant transformations during the growing season were observed in the O-glycosides and free aglycones fractions, their contents of compounds and composition were varied. Four O-glycosides, including isoquercitrin, are detected only in the leaves of open ground plants.

  20. Ethnosocial processes in Siberia: Topical issues of theory and practice

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    Yuri V. Popkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article brings together the outcomes of a number of studies conducted by the Novosibirsk school of ethnosociological research and led by the author. For many years, the school has been involved in theoretical and empirical research of ethnosocial processes in Siberia and neighboring regions. In this article, we also make use of an expert survey on assessing the state and trends in ethnosocial developments of peoples of Siberia during the 1990s (Tuva, Khakassia, Buryatia, Altai and Evenk Autonomous Okrug; the survey was held in 1999-2001 and covered 780 participants; expert and mass survey on ethnosocial development and ethnosocial policy held in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra, Novosibirsk Oblast and Altai Republic in 2013-2014 (over 2000 participants; and expert surveys of civil servants on the regional and municipal levels in various regions of the Siberian Federal District (2011-2016, 120 participants were asked to assess the ethnosocial situation in their region and the current ethnonational policy. Ethnosocial processes are to be understood as a system of mutual transformation of ethnosocial subjects in the course of their interaction, rather than as simply a connection between separate social and ethnic processes. Furthermore, ethnosocial processes do not imply transformation only; they feature a balance between changeability and continuity under various guises, including their ‘vertical structuring’ from ethno-environmental and ethno-demographic issues to ethno-political and ethno-legal ones. We have shown that a single ethnosocial process should be described and differentiated by its territorial location, rather than its ethnic or social basis. This allows us to represent the local community in its integrity. As a rule, it is rarely monoethnic, and frequently polyethnic or interethnic. The community develops through interactions between its ethnosocial subjects. Hence, any description of an ethnosocial process should

  1. Changes in CO_{2} trends observed in the lower troposphere over West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Maksyutov, Shamil; Davydov, Denis; Fofonov, Alexandr; Arshinov, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Long-term airborne observations of greenhouse gases carried out in the troposphere over south-western area of West Siberia since 1997 allowed some specific features in CO2 trends to be revealed at different heights. At an altitude of 7 km above ground level (AGL), the average annual rate of CO2 increase was 1.72 ppm yr-1. The main distinctive features in the tendencies of CO2 mixing ratio have been found in the lower troposphere. Thus, for the period from 1997 to 2004, July concentrations of CO2 at an altitude of 500 m AGL increased slightly with a rate of 0.17 ppm yr-1, while since 2005 they began to rise dramatically with a rate of 3.64 ppm yr-1. Analysis of the possible causes of such long-term behavior showed that it was resulted from neither reduction of forest area, nor wildfires, nor forest diseases. Also it is impossible to state that reducing CO2 sink has been caused by the impact of climate changes on ecosystems. Possibly, anthropogenic CO2 accumulation resulted in that Siberian forests cannot assimilate such additional amount of carbon dioxide. A decrease in the sink for atmospheric CO2 is also observed in the Amazon (Brienen et al. 2015). Brienen et al. (2015) assume that it may be caused by a sustained long-term increase in tree mortality. There is also a supposition that it can be a result of a vegetation replacement by other types of plants or young trees, which absorb less amount of CO2 (Kunstler et al., 2015; Crowther T. W., 2015). However, it seems highly unlikely to test these hyposeses in the near future due to a huge area of West Siberia, most regions of which are difficult to access. This work was funded by the Global Environment Research Account for National Institutes of the Ministry of the Environment (Japan) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00590). Brienen R.J.W. et al. 2015. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink. Nature. 519 (7543), 344-348. Kunstler G. et al. 2015. Plant functional traits have globally

  2. Parallelisms and Contrasts in the Diverse Ecologies of the Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi Complexes of Bacteria in the Far Western United States

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    Nicole Stephenson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi are two tick-borne bacteria that cause disease in people and animals. For each of these bacteria, there is a complex of closely related genospecies and/or strains that are genetically distinct and have been shown through both observational and experimental studies to have different host tropisms. In this review we compare the known ecologies of these two bacterial complexes in the far western USA and find remarkable similarities, which will help us understand evolutionary histories and coadaptation among vertebrate host, tick vector, and bacteria. For both complexes, sensu stricto genospecies (those that infect humans share a similar geographic range, are vectored mainly by ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-complex, utilize mainly white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus as a reservoir in the eastern USA and tree squirrels in the far west, and tend to be generalists, infecting a wider variety of vertebrate host species. Other sensu lato genospecies within each complex are generally more specialized, occurring often in local enzootic cycles within a narrow range of vertebrate hosts and specialized vector species. We suggest that these similar ecologies may have arisen through utilization of a generalist tick species as a vector, resulting in a potentially more virulent generalist pathogen that spills over into humans, vs. utilization of a specialized tick vector on a particular vertebrate host species, promoting microbe specialization. Such tight host-vector-pathogen coupling could also facilitate high enzootic prevalence and the evolution of host immune-tolerance and bacterial avirulence.

  3. P- T- t constraints on the development of the Doi Inthanon metamorphic core complex domain and implications for the evolution of the western gneiss belt, northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, A. S.; Barr, S. M.; Miller, B. V.; Reynolds, P. H.; Rhodes, B. P.; Yokart, B.

    2010-01-01

    The western gneiss belt in northern Thailand is exposed within two overlapping Cenozoic structural domains: the extensional Doi Inthanon metamorphic core complex domain located west of the Chiang Mai basin, and the Mae Ping strike-slip fault domain located west of the Tak batholith. New P- T estimates and U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations from the Doi Inthanon domain show that the gneiss there records a complex multi-stage history that can be represented by a clockwise P- T- t path. U-Pb zircon and titanite dating of mylonitic calc-silicate gneiss from the Mae Wang area of the complex indicates that the paragneissic sequence experienced high-grade, medium-pressure metamorphism (M1) in the Late Triassic - Early Jurassic (ca. 210 Ma), in good agreement with previously determined zircon ages from the underlying core orthogneiss exposed on Doi Inthanon. Late Cretaceous monazite ages of 84 and 72 Ma reported previously from the core orthogneiss are attributed to a thermal overprint (M2) to upper-amphibolite facies in the sillimanite field. U-Pb zircon and monazite dating of granitic mylonite from the Doi Suthep area of the complex provides an upper age limit of 40 Ma (Late Eocene) for the early stage(s) of development of the actual core complex, by initially ductile, low-angle extensional shearing under lower amphibolite-facies conditions (M3), accompanied by near-isothermal diapiric rise and decompression melting. 40Ar/ 39Ar laserprobe dating of muscovite from both Doi Suthep and Doi Inthanon provided Miocene ages of ca. 26-15 Ma, representing cooling through the ca. 350 °C isotherm and marking late-stage development of the core complex by detachment faulting of the cover rocks and isostatic uplift of the sheared core zone and mantling gneisses in the footwall. Similarities in the thermochronology of high-grade gneisses exposed in the core complex and shear zone domains in the western gneiss belt of northern Thailand (and also in northern Vietnam, Laos, Yunnan

  4. The Yudomian of Siberia, Vendian and Ediacaran systems of the International stratigraphic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomentovsky, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    In Russia, the terminal Neoproterozoic formally includes the Vendian of western part of the East European platform and the concurrent Yudoma Group of Siberia. As is shown in this work, the designated subdivisions correspond in the stratotypes only to the upper, Yudomian Series of the Vendian. In the Siberian platform, the Ust-Yudoma and Aim horizons of the Yudomian are tightly interrelated. The lower of them, bearing remains of Ediacaran Fauna, represents the Ediacarian Stage, whereas the upper one containing small-shelled fossils (SSF) corresponds to the Nemakit-Daldynian Stage divided into the trisulcatus and antiqua superregional zones. In more complete sections of the platform periphery, sediments of these subdivisions conformably rest on siliciclastic succession that should be ranked as basal subdivision of the Yudomian. The succession is concurrent to the Laplandian Stage of the East European platform. According to geochronological dates obtained recently, the Yudomian Series spans interval of 600-540 Ma. In the East European platform, the Upper Vendian (Yudomian) begins with the Laplandian basal tillites of synonymous stage. In the west of the platform, tillites are dated at 600 Ma like the Upper Vendian base in Siberia. The next Ediacarian Stage of the East European platform is stratigraphic equivalent of the Redkino Horizon, while summary range of the Kotlin and Rovno horizons is concurrent to that of the Nemakit-Daldynian Stage. The Vendian of Russia is conformably overlain by the Tommotian Stage of the Lower Cambrian. Intense pre-Vendian events constrained distribution areas of the Lower Vendian sediments in Russia. The Lower Vendian deposits of the East European platform are most representative and well studied in the central Urals, where they are attributed to the Serebryanka Group. In Siberia, separate subdivisions representing the Lower Vendian are the Maastakh Formation of the Olenek Uplift, two lower members of the Ushakovka Formation in the Baikal

  5. Contradicting climate versus vegetation history in NE-Siberia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, M.; Zech, R.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Siberia may play a key role for the climate on the entire Earth. The classical Milankovitch Theory suggests that changes in summer insolation due to the Earth' orbital parameters caused build-up of snow and ice over the extensive continental masses at high northern latitudes. Various positive feedback mechanisms, like surface albedo and sequestration/release of atmospheric carbon dioxide in/from frozen, organic-rich soils, could then be responsible for the onset of global glaciations. More recently, high northern latitudes have also gained a lot of attention due to the potential of their soils and peats to release large amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. The Siberian ecosystems may turn into significant greenhouse gas sources as global warming continues and causes melting of permafrost and mineralisation of soil organic material that has been built up and stored over thousands of years. Quaternary scientists are therefore searching for long-term and continuous archives in order to reconstruct the Siberian climate and landscape history. A wide range of different analytical tools (e.g. different dating techniques, elemental composition, mineralogy, magnetic properties, grain size distribution, characterisation of organic matter and palynology) is used to infer palaeoclimatically and palaeoecologically relevant information. All of these methods have their advantages and their disadvantages. For instance, pollen analyses allow a high taxonomic differentiation, but variable pollination rates of different plant species, influx of long-distance transported pollen, and variable preservation of different pollen taxa have to be considered. Concerning the interpretation of pollen spectra in NE-Siberia, arboreal pollen, especially larch pollen, are traditionally considered to be ‘warm plant taxa', hence the occurrence of these pollen in archives is interpreted as reflecting warm interglacial or interstadial conditions. We have recently presented a multi

  6. Paleomagnetic data for Siberia and Baltica in the context of testing some geodynamic models of the formation of the Central Asian Mobile Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatsillo, A. V.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Dronov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The synthesis of the paleomagnetic data for the Siberian (Siberia) and East European (Baltica) platforms shows that since the Early Paleozoic they could have experienced coherent movements as a part of consolidated continental agglomeration (a composite continent), which also includes the Arctida continent. Based on the paleomagnetic data, the relative positions of the Siberia and Baltica during the Ordovician is reconstructed, and a series of paleogeographical reconstructions describing the drift of the composite continent is suggested. The results of the lithologic-facial analysis of the sedimentation settings within the Ordovician basins of the Siberian and East European platforms and paleoclimatic markers are consistent with the suggested configuration and paleogeographical position of the composite continent. The suggested reconstructions and the ages of detrital zircons from the Early Paleozoic complexes of the platform margins and some objects of the Central Asian Mobile Belt (CAMB) reasonably well agree with the hypothesis (Sengör et al., 1993) which interprets the formation of the structure of CAMB Paleozoides as a result of the evolution of the island arc stretching along the margins of Siberia and Baltica.

  7. Seasonal spatial patterns of projected anthropogenic warming in complex terrain: a modeling study of the western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, David E.; Li, Sihan; Mote, Philip W.; Shell, Karen M.; Massey, Neil; Sparrow, Sarah N.; Wallom, David C. H.; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in near surface air temperature (Δ T) in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing are expected to show spatial heterogeneity because energy and moisture fluxes are modulated by features of the landscape that are also heterogeneous at these spatial scales. Detecting statistically meaningful heterogeneity requires a combination of high spatial resolution and a large number of simulations. To investigate spatial variability of projected Δ T, we generated regional, high-resolution (25-km horizontal), large ensemble (100 members per year), climate simulations of western United States (US) for the periods 1985-2014 and 2030-2059, the latter with atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5. Using the large ensemble, 95 % confidence interval sizes for grid-cell-scale temperature responses were on the order of 0.1 °C, compared to 1 °C from a single ensemble member only. In both winter and spring, the snow-albedo feedback statistically explains roughly half of the spatial variability in Δ T. Simulated decreases in albedo exceed 0.1 in places, with rates of change in T per 0.1 decrease in albedo ranging from 0.3 to 1.4 °C. In summer, Δ T pattern in the northwest US is correlated with the pattern of decreasing precipitation. In all seasons, changing lapse rates in the low-to-middle troposphere may account for up to 0.2 °C differences in warming across the western US. Near the coast, a major control of spatial variation is the differential warming between sea and land.

  8. Magmatism evolution on the last Neoproterozoic development stage of the western Siberian active continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikovskaya, Antonina E.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Matushkin, Nikolay Yu.; Kadilnikov, Pavel I.; Romanova, Irina V.

    2017-04-01

    Rocks from active continental margin complexes are characterized by a wide variety of chemical compositions from depleted in alkali to alkali differentiates. When addressing issues of geodynamic settings in which such rocks form, it is important to understand the evolution of the host tectonic structure, as well as the chemical affiliation of the various rocks composing it. The Yenisey Ridge orogen located in the south-western framing of Siberia is one of the more studied regions with a long history of Neoproterozoic magmatic events. This orogen was formed during the collision of the Central Angara terrane with Siberia, which took place 761-718 Ma. Subsequent subduction-related events in the orogen have been recorded in the coeval magmatism (711-629 Ma) of two complexes: one is the active continental margin complex (Nb enriched igneous rocks - gabbroids, trachybasalts, A-type granites and carbonatites, including contact metasomatites zones with Nb mineralization), and the other one is an island arc complex (differentiated series volcanics, gabbroids and plagiogranites). The rocks of these complexes are respectively located in two suture zones: the Tatarka-Ishimba zone that formed due to the collision mentioned above, and the Yenisei suture marking the subduction zone [Vernikovsky et al., 2003; 2008]. The final Neoproterozoic stage in the evolution of the active margin of Siberia is manifested as adakite-gabbro-anorthosite magmatism in the 576-546 Ma interval. Our results indicate a genetic relationship between the adakites and their host NEB-type metabasites of the Zimovey massif. These Neoproterozoic adakites could have formed in a setting of transform-strike-slip drift of lithospheric plates after the subduction stopped, both from a crustal and mantle-crustal source, similarly to the Cenozoic magmatic complexes of the transform margin in the eastern framing of Eurasia [Khanchuk et al., 2016]. Vernikovsky V.A., Vernikovskaya A.E., Kotov A.B., Sal'nikova E

  9. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of the Uradzhongqi magmatic complex in western Inner Mongolia, China: A record of early Permian post-collisional magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xueyuan; Li, Wenbo; Zhong, Richen; Hu, Chuansheng; Zhu, Feng; Li, Zhihua

    2017-08-01

    The magmatic complex in Uradzhongqi, Inner Mongolia, is located in the western segment of the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The dominant components in the complex include syenogranite, monzogranite, granodiorite, diorite and gabbro. Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) are common in syenogranite and granodiorite. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the ages of these rocks range from 283 to 270 Ma, suggesting an early Permian emplacement. The syenogranite and monzogranite are peraluminous I-type granites, exhibiting conspicuous negative Eu anomaly, enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). The granodiorites, diorites and MMEs are metaluminous in composition, show high Al2O3, MgO and Fe2O3T contents and weak negative Eu anomaly, as well as LREE and LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion. The gabbros show weak positive Eu anomaly and slight REE differentiation. The Sr-Nd isotope compositions show that the source of mafic magma was depleted mantle (DM) with possible involvement of enriched mantle II (EM II), whereas the felsic magma was derived from the Archean lower crust. Petrographic observation and analytical results of mineralogy, geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes indicate that the main petrogenesis of these magmatic rocks is the mixing of underplating mafic magma and felsic magma. Tectonically, the complex pluton was formed within a post-collisional regime, and the underplating in this area provides another piece of evidence for the vertical growth of the western segment of the northern margin of the NCC.

  10. Hirnantian Isotope Carbon Excursion in Gorny Altai, southwestern Siberia

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    Nikolay V. Sennikov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hirnantian Isotope Carbon Excursion (HICE, a glaciation-induced positive δ13C shift in the end-Ordovician successions, has been widely used in chemostratigraphic correlation of the Ordovician–Silurian boundary beds in many areas of the world. However, large regions with Ordovician sediments in Siberia are almost unstudied for stable isotope chemostratigraphy. The Burovlyanka section in the Altai area is one of the rare Hirnantian–Rhuddanian sections with both carbonates and graptolitiferous shales occurring in the succession. Here we report the discovery of the HICE in the uppermost beds of the Tekhten¢ Formation, the Dalmanitina Beds in the Burovlyanka section. The Dalmanitina limestone Member between the graptolitiferous shales may correspond to the mid-Hirnantian glacial episode, which led to a global sea level drop and major extinction of marine fauna.

  11. Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA

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    Bouakaze Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations. This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia. Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today.

  12. The first record of "spelaeoid" bears in Arctic Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Andrei V.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Baryshnikov, Gennady F.; Davydov, Sergey P.; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Nikolskiy, Pavel A.

    2011-08-01

    For a long time, "spelaeoid" (cave-bear-like) bears, Ursus ( Spelearctos) spp., were believed to be almost purely European animals. Their geographic range has recently been extended to the east, in southern Siberia, Transbaikalia, Kirghizia, Mongolia and Korea. Two unexpected new findings, presented here in detail, significantly change existing views on the distribution of cave bears; both were found in North-Eastern Siberia, far beyond the Arctic Circle, more than 1500 km to the north-east of the previously accepted range. One of the fossils is a mandible, found near the town of Cherskiy at 68.73°N, 161.38°E. The analysis of local geology and accompanying mammal fossils suggests that it comes from the Olyorian Fauna (Early to early Middle Pleistocene). Morphologically, the Cherskiy mandible is closest to Ursus savini, a small middle Pleistocene cave bear from the British Cromer Forest-bed Formation, but differs in having a slightly more advanced dentition, and thus it is described as a new subspecies Ursus savini nordostensis. Another newly recognized fossil of the "spelaeoid" bear is an astragalus found at the Oskhordokh site at 67.54°N, 135.67°E, on a large gravel bar on the right bank of the Adycha River. This specimen is attributed to Ursus cf . deningeri. The paper also presents an interesting example of the interaction between classical and "molecular" palaeontology. The new finds significantly change existing ideas on the ecology and evolution of cave bears, some of the most remarkable members of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna.

  13. Transient peat properties in two pond-peatland complexes in the sub-humid Western Boreal Plain, Canada

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    R.M. Petrone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Canadian Western Boreal Plain (WBP, wetlands (ponds and peatlands comprise up to 50% of the landscape and represent unique habitat where summer precipitation is often outpaced by evapotranspiration and hillslope groundwater position does not follow topography. In this sub-humid location, groundwater fluxes and stores in riparian peatlands influence pond water levels and root zone moisture sources for forested uplands. To accurately describe the transport and retention of water in peat, it is important to consider peat subsidence. This paper quantifies the amount and effect of seasonal subsidence in a riparian peatland in the Utikuma Lake region in north-central Alberta, Canada. Results demonstrate that the deep and poorly decomposed peat deposits are resistant to compression, and that thick (and persistent ground frost hinders pore collapse (shrinkage above the water table until late summer when the ground has thawed. Even then, subsidence is still limited to the top 50 cm and is not closely related to changes in peatland water table or pond water level. Thus the water balance of these ponds and riparian areas appears to be less sensitive to peat volume changes than it is to the persistence of a substantial frost layer well into the snow-free period.

  14. Differentiation of Clonal Complex 59 Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Western Australia▿ ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Slickers, Peter; Pearson, Julie C.; Tan, Hui-leen; Christiansen, Keryn J.; O'Brien, Frances G.

    2010-01-01

    Clonal complex 59 (CC59) community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains were characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing, diagnostic DNA microarrays, and PCRs targeting staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Six distinct groups within CC59 were characterized. At least seven different variants of SCCmec elements were identified (IVa [2B], IVb [2B], IVd [...

  15. The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E [V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: ncheby@forest.akadem.r, E-mail: Amber.J.Soja@nasa.go [National Institute of Aerospace (NIA), NASA Langley Research Center, Climate Sciences, 21 Langley Boulevard, Mail Stop 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

  16. [Complex network analysis on Shenxiong glucose injection in combined use with Chinese and Western medicine for cerebral infarction in real world study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Yin; Jia, Ping-Ping; Zhuang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    In order to analyze Shenxiong glucose injection in combined use with other medicines for cerebral infarction in real world, the basic information, Chinese and western medicine diagnosis information, doctors'advice information, and laboratory checking information for the patients with Shenxiong glucose injection in treatment of cerebral infarction were extracted from the hospital information system (HIS) of sixteen 3A hospitals. Apriori Algorithm was used to establish models, and Clementine 12.0 was used for correlation analysis. Then complex network was established to analyze the combined drug use and visualize the results. A total of 635 patients were included in the study, among which 599 patients (94.33%) showed superior effect. Shenxiong glucose injection was often used with platelet suppressant drug, neuroprotective agent, lipid regulating agents, free radical scavenger, vitamins and Chinese medicine blood activating and stasis eliminating agent in the treatment of cerebral infarction. In the patients with superior effect, neuroprotective agent and free radical scavengers were also used based on the combined use with Aspirin, hypolipidemic drugs and blood activating and stasis removing agents, highlighting the rain protection strategies. Shenxiong glucose injection in combined use with Chinese and western medicines for cerebral infarction complied with the latest clinical practice guideline on the treatment of cerebral infarction, and the application of neuroprotective agent was propitious to improve the therapeutic effect. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Speciation on the rocks: integrated systematics of the Heteronotia spelea species complex (Gekkota; Reptilia from Western and Central Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzy Pepper

    Full Text Available The isolated uplands of the Australian arid zone are known to provide mesic refuges in an otherwise xeric landscape, and divergent lineages of largely arid zone taxa have persisted in these regions following the onset of Miocene aridification. Geckos of the genus Heteronotia are one such group, and have been the subject of many genetic studies, including H. spelea, a strongly banded form that occurs in the uplands of the Pilbara and Central Ranges regions of the Australian arid zone. Here we assess the systematics of these geckos based on detailed examination of morphological and genetic variation. The H. spelea species complex is a monophyletic lineage to the exclusion of the H. binoei and H. planiceps species complexes. Within the H. spelea complex, our previous studies based on mtDNA and nine nDNA loci found populations from the Central Ranges to be genetically divergent from Pilbara populations. Here we supplement our published molecular data with additional data gathered from central Australian samples. In the spirit of integrative species delimitation, we combine multi-locus, coalescent-based lineage delimitation with extensive morphological analyses to test species boundaries, and we describe the central populations as a new species, H. fasciolatus sp. nov. In addition, within the Pilbara there is strong genetic evidence for three lineages corresponding to northeastern (type, southern, and a large-bodied melanic population isolated in the northwest. Due to its genetic distinctiveness and extreme morphological divergence from all other Heteronotia, we describe the melanic form as a new species, H. atra sp. nov. The northeastern and southern Pilbara populations are morphologically indistinguishable with the exception of a morpho-type in the southeast that has a banding pattern resembling H. planiceps from the northern monsoonal tropics. Pending more extensive analyses, we therefore treat Pilbara H. spelea as a single species with

  18. CYP2C19 polymorphism frequency in Russian patients in Central Russia and Siberia with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaev KB

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Karin B Mirzaev,1 Elena M Zelenskaya,2 Olga L Barbarash,3 Vladimir I Ganyukov,3 Konstantin A Apartsin,4,5 Natalya O Saraeva,4 Konstantin Y Nikolaev,6,7 Kristina A Ryzhikova,1 Galina I Lifshits,2,5,7 Dmitry A Sychev1 1Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, 2Federal State-Financed Research Institution “Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine”, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 3Federal State-Financed Research Institution “Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases”, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo, 4State-Financed Health Institution “Irkutsk Regional Badge of Honour Clinical Hospital”, 5Federal State-Financed Research Institution “Irkutsk Research Center”, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk City, 6Federal State-Financed Research Institution “Research Institute of Internal and Preventive Medicine”, 7Federal State Autonomous Institution of Higher Education “Novosibirsk National Research State University”, Novosibirsk, Russia Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of CYP2C19*2, *3 allelic variants, associated with poor response to clopidogrel, and CYP2C19*17, associated with excessive response to clopidogrel, in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS from Siberia and Moscow regions of Russia.Patients and methods: The study included 512 ACS patients who were subsequently treated with coronary arterial stenting. The subjects assigned were from the cities of Central (Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, Eastern (Irkutsk, Northern (Surgut Siberia regions and from Moscow region. The mean age of patients enrolled was 63.9±10.9 years. Among the assigned subjects, the proportion of men accounted for 80% and women 20%.Results: According to the results obtained in the present study, from 16% up to 27.5% of patients in

  19. Carbon exchange in Western Siberian watershed mires and implication for the greenhouse effect : A spatial temporal modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borren, W.

    2007-01-01

    The vast watershed mires of Western Siberia formed a significant sink of carbon during the Holocene. Because of their large area these mires might play an important role in the carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. However, estimation of the Holocene and future carbon

  20. CLONAL MICROPROPAGATION OF POTATO VARIETIES BY WESTERN SIBERIA SELECTION– THE NEW FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Miakisheva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is sanctified urgent need to use methods of modern biotechnology in primary seed farming of potatoes in the territory of the Russian Federation. Lack of required amount of good quality planting material is a major factor limiting stable high yield. The crop of potatoes, annually produced in Russia, significantly below global, and does not meet genetic capabilities of the species. Many viral infections tend to accumulate in the tubers, reducing their quality and keeping quality during storage. For the first time peculiarities of clonal micropropagation and in vitro culture of early-maturing potato varieties Lubava Russian breeding (agricultural research Institute of the city of Kemerovo, the Kemerovo region of the Russian Federation. At the stage of introduction to the culture of the parameters, providing pure cultures using lizoformin as sterilizing compounds. At the stage of actually breeding to obtain plants-regenerants of a certain morphological structure was studied the influence of certain components of the nutrient medium. The influence of agar, sucrose and vitamins such morphological indicators of development of regenerated plants as number of internodes and plant height. In the rooting stage the effect of different of growth regulators auxin nature: α-naphthyloxy acid, β-indoleacetic acid and β-indolebutyric acid, in concentrations of 0.1-5 μm. Selected concentrations of these compounds, the introduction of which in the nutrient medium provided the maximum indices of rhisogenesis: the number and length of roots. At the stage of adaptation to non-sterile growing conditions ex vitro the efficiency of the hydroponic plants, filled with a liquid nutrient solution. A successful stage adaptation has characterizability 100% survival rate of plants and increase the morphological characteristics of regenerants.

  1. Assessment of soil salinity in an agro-ecosystem under climate change in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Hasmik; Kiesel, Jens; Sheludkov, Artyom; Schmalz, Britta; Khoroshavin, Vitaly; Fohrer, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Soil salinization, which can be a serious environmental problem, poses critical challenges for the management of agricultural and the status of natural areas. Strongly influenced by climate, topography, soil and land-use it requires sound adaptation strategies in order to cope with recent and future ecological changes and landscape transformation. Our studies on soil salinity were carried out in the Loktinka river basin with a catchment area of 334 km2. The Loktinka is a slow moving, meandering lowland river, passing along the south-eastern part of an agricultural zone of Tyumen region, nearby the town of Ishim. The Loktinka river, with 25 km in length, is a left tributary of the River Ishim which originates in a relatively small wetland, flows east and terminates in Lake Mergen. The area is representative for the southern part of the forest steppe zone with less favourable conditions for agriculture due to low soil qualities and salinization problems. The area is highly influenced by climate change. Reduced rainfall and increased evapotranspiration can intensify the salinity problem in the catchment and thus, there is a strong need for present and future research. A field program was designed in order to assess the current situation of soils within the catchment area in terms of salinity. Soil profiles and soil texture were identified and soil electrical conductivity as well as pH were measured. The electrical conductivity of horizons ranged from 78 to 1742 μScm-1. The soils were alkaline in reaction (pH 7.1 to 9.47), irrespective of depth. The texture was mainly clay loam. For the prediction of long-term hydro-salinity under climate change, the agro-hydro-salinity model SaltMod (Oosterbaan et al., 2008) was chosen. The model is based on seasonal water balances of agricultural lands for prediction of future trends made on a seasonal basis. Salinity in the soils column is simulated with SaltMod on different soil type and crop combinations.

  2. Integrated approaches to terminal Proterozoic stratigraphy: an example from the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kaufman, A. J.; Kolosov, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the Olenek Uplift of northeastern Siberia, the Khorbusuonka Group and overlying Kessyusa and Erkeket formations preserve a significant record of terminal Proterozoic and basal Cambrian Earth history. A composite section more than 350 m thick is reconstructed from numerous exposures along the Khorbusuonka River. The Khorbusuonka Group comprises three principal sedimentary sequences: peritidal dolomites of the Mastakh Formation, which are bounded above and below by red beds; the Khatyspyt and most of the overlying Turkut formations, which shallow upward from relatively deep-water carbonaceous micrites to cross-bedded dolomitic grainstones and stromatolites; and a thin upper Turkut sequence bounded by karst surfaces. The overlying Kessyusa Formation is bounded above and below by erosional surfaces and contains additional parasequence boundaries internally. Ediacaran metazoans, simple trace fossils, and vendotaenids occur in the Khatyspyt Formation; small shelly fossils, more complex trace fossils, and acritarchs all appear near the base of the Kessyusa Formation and diversify upward. The carbon-isotopic composition of carbonates varies stratigraphically in a pattern comparable to that determined for other terminal Proterozoic and basal Cambrian successions. In concert, litho-, bio-, and chemostratigraphic data indicate the importance of the Khorbusuonka Group in the global correlation of terminal Proterozoic sedimentary rocks. Stratigraphic data and a recently determined radiometric date on basal Kessyusa volcanic breccias further underscore the significance of the Olenek region in investigations of the Proterozoic-cambrian boundary.

  3. The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773 and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrino Paulo

    2008-02-01

    their respective distributions. Conclusion Sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok have apparently undergone a long, independent, and demographically dynamic evolutionary history in Siberia, supporting their recognition as two good biological species. Considering the timing and extent of expansions and trans-basin dispersal, it is doubtful that these historical dynamics could have been generated without major rearrangements in the paleo-hydrological network, stemming from the formation and melting of large-scale glacial complexes much older than the LGM.

  4. Systematics and biogeography of the Automolus infuscatus complex (Aves; Furnariidae): Cryptic diversity reveals western Amazonia as the origin of a transcontinental radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eduardo D; Burney, Curtis W; Brumfield, Robb T; Polo, Erico M; Cracraft, Joel; Ribas, Camila C

    2017-02-01

    A revision of the avian Neotropical genus Automolus and the Furnariidae family points to the paraphyly of A. infuscatus and reveals a species complex comprising A. infuscatus, A. ochrolaemus, A. paraensis, A. leucophthalmus, A. lammi and A. subulatus, the latter historically classified in the genus Hyloctistes. Detailed knowledge of the taxonomy, geographic distribution, phylogenetic relationship and divergence times of a taxon allows exploration of its evolutionary history and the testing of different scenarios of diversification. In this context, we studied the A. infuscatus complex using molecular data in order to unveil its cryptic diversity and reveal its evolutionary history. For that we sequenced two mitochondrial (ND2 and cytb) and three nuclear markers (G3PDH, ACO, Fib7) for 302 individuals belonging to all species in the complex and most described subspecies. Our analysis supports the paraphyly of A. infuscatus, indicating the existence of at least two distinct clades not closely related. The remaining species were all recovered as monophyletic. Notwithstanding, a well-structured intraspecific diversity was found with 19 lineages suggesting substantial cryptic diversity within the described species. A. subulatus was recovered within the complex, corroborating its position inside the genus. In spite of the high congruence between distributions of different lineages, with several sister lineages currently separated by the same barriers, the temporal incongruence between divergences over the same barriers reveals a complex evolutionary history. While older events might be related to the emergence of barriers such as the Andes and major Amazonian rivers, younger events suggest dispersal after the consolidation of those barriers. Our analysis suggests that the complex had its origin around 6million years (Ma) and inhabited Western Amazonia in Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. Considering the riparian habit of species in its sister clade, the rise and early

  5. Gravimetric and magnetic fabric study of the Sintra Igneous complex: laccolith-plug emplacement in the Western Iberian passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrinha, Pedro; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Aranguren, Aitor; Kullberg, José Carlos; Kullberg, Maria Carla; Casas-Sainz, Antonio; Azevedo, Maria do Rosário

    2017-12-01

    The geometry and emplacement of the 96 km2, Late Cretaceous Sintra Igneous complex (SIC, ca. 80 Ma) into the West Iberian passive margin is presented, based on structural data, gravimetric modeling, and magnetic fabrics. A granite laccolith ( 76 km2, gravimetric modeling) surrounds a suite of gabbro-diorite-syenite plugs ( 20 km2, 4 km deep) and is encircled by cone sheets and radial dykes. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility was interpreted from 54 sites showing fabrics of para- and ferro-magnetic origin. Most fabrics can be interpreted to have a magmatic origin, according to the scarcity of solid-state deformation in most part of the massif. Magnetic foliations are shallowly dipping in the granite laccolith and contain a sub-horizontal ENE-WSW lineation. The gabbro-syenite body displays concentric magnetic foliations having variable dips and steeply-plunging lineations. The SIC can be interpreted to be intruded along an NNW-SSE, 200 km-long fault, perpendicular to the magnetic lineation within the laccolith, and was preceded by the intrusion of basic sills and plugs. The SIC intruded the Mesozoic series of the Lusitanian Basin during the post-rift, passive margin stage, and its geometry was only slightly modified during the Paleogene inversion that resulted in thrusting of the northern border of the intrusion over the country rocks.

  6. The role of conodonts in the global stratigraphic correlation on example of southern Siberia (Russia and eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodygin Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts are very precise tools for global stratigraphic correlation of Devonian deposits. They can be correlated at the level of standard conodont zones even for basins having very different geological structure. In this paper Devonian conodont correlations between north-western margin of the Kuznetsk Basin (Siberia and eastern Serbia are demonstrated. The geology of both regions is quite different. East Serbian zone is the southern tip of the Carpathian folded area (Carpatho-Balkanides. Middle Paleozoic carbonate and terrigenous deposits (Silurian, Devonian and Lower Carboniferous are replaced by Hercynian molasse, and sedimentation continued throughout the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. Rocks were exposed to repeatedly tectonic effects, olistoliths, olistostromes are widespread. Middle Paleozoic sediments, including Devonian, are localized within separate small tectonic blocks, often shifted from its place and form allochthons. In the western part of the Altai-Sayan folded area the Middle Paleozoic sediments have undergone folding and orogeny during the Hercynian phase of tectonic and magmatic activity, but since that time the continental conditions have been dominant in this region. The Devonian deposits are well represented in the marginal parts of the Kuznetsk Basin. In both regions the Devonian rocks have been well studied and the standard conodont zones varcus, gigas (rhenana - linguiformis, crepida, expansa and praesulcata were established.

  7. Is the shaman indeed risen in post-Soviet Siberia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Sundström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his exhaustive study of ‘shamanism’ among the Altaic peoples in Southern Siberia, the renowned Soviet ethnographer Leonid P. Potapov contends that ‘under the present conditions there are no remnants or survivals of Shamanism as such left in Altai’. What remains are legends and reminiscences, but these can no longer be told by people with personal experiences of Altaic ‘shamans’ and their rituals. According to Potapov, modern socialist culture has changed the minds of the Altaic peoples to the degree that they are now a materialistically thinking people, and ‘shamanism’ has completely disappeared. In addition, he contends that there are no prospects of its return after the deathblow dealt by Soviet anti-religious repression in the 1930s ‘shamanic’ rituals were forbidden and ritual paraphernalia such as drums and costumes were expropriated by the authorities. Considering that Potapov in his study follows Altaic ‘shamanism’ through 1500 years, depicting it as a ‘religion’ and ‘theology’ which stayed more or less intact over the centuries, his statement seems more like a pious hope based on the Soviet vision of a society liberated from superstition, religion, and spiritual exploitation. Potapov himself delineates Altaic ‘shamanism’s’ development from a ‘state religion’to a ‘folk religion’. From this perspective it might seem remarkable that ‘shamanism’ should not have survived 70 years of atheist repression, missionary work and the Soviet transformation of society. Already by the time Potapov’s book was published, during the very last months of the existence of the Soviet Union, there had, in fact, appeared a number of persons claiming to be ‘shamans’, with an ancestry dating from the time of ‘shamans’ of the first half of the twentieth century. These individuals were also part of organisations and movements promoting the revival of ‘shamanism’ in the autonomous Altai Republic. In

  8. Season - dependent and source-influenced aerosol in Northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovicheva, Olga; Makshtas, Alexander; Bogorodsky, Peter; Eleftheriadis, Kostantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Shonia, Natalia; Uttal, Taneil

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol may serve as a tracer of arctic pollution, allowing a link to climate response if its major characteristics relating to natural and anthropogeneous sources are defined. It has been shown that BC and sulfates are the most important aerosol constituents measured in the Arctic boundary layer; these species demonstrate similar seasonal variations with a peak during winter to early spring and a minimum in summer. Long - time gap in consistent aerosol observations in the Russian Arctic strongly limits the assessment of air pollution and climate impacts. On-line monitoring, sampling, and analyses of atmospheric aerosols were carried out at the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory, Northern Siberia, during one year from September 2014 to 2015. Physico-chemical characterization combining aethalometry, thermo-optical analysis, and analytical chemistry was used in order to identify the seasonal variability of aerosols and to link their composition to possible sources, as well as to characterize the differences in aerosol chemical composition between natural background conditions and BC-pollution episodes. The present study reports the first results from the Tiksi Observatory on season-dependent and source-influenced characteristics of aerosol species, such as carbon fractions (OC, EC), inorganic and organic functionalities of chemical compounds, sulfates, nitrates and other ion components, and elements. In addition, data obtained by individual particles analysis provide insight into micromarkers of combustion sources. Aerosol at the Tiksi Observatory is found to be originated from natural marine, biogenic, and continental sources as well as influenced by local residential activity and regional pollution. Characterization of aerosols during OC and BC-pollution episodes, combined with analysis of the wind direction, atmosphere stability, and air mass trajectories, allows for the identification of the sources which are responsible for the emission of hazardous compounds

  9. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  10. Complex mountain terrain and disturbance history drive variation in forest aboveground live carbon density in the western Oregon Cascades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zald, Harold S J; Spies, Thomas A; Seidl, Rupert; Pabst, Robert J; Olsen, Keith A; Steel, E Ashley

    2016-04-15

    was also affected by finer scale topographic conditions associated with sheltered sites. Past wildfires only had a small influence on current ALC density, which may be a result of long times since fire and/or prevalence of non-stand replacing fire. Our results indicate that forest ALC density depends on a suite of multi-scale environmental drivers mediated by complex mountain topography, and that these relationships are dependent on stand age. The high and context-dependent spatial variability of forest ALC density has implications for quantifying forest carbon stores, establishing upper bounds of potential carbon sequestration, and scaling field data to landscape and regional scales.

  11. Early Cambrian palaeogeography and the probable Iberia Siberia connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubanov, Alexander P.

    2002-07-01

    The end of the Proterozoic-beginning of the Cambrian is marked by some of the most dramatic events in the history of Earth. The fall of the Ediacaran biota, followed by the Cambrian Explosion of skeletonised bilaterians, a pronounced shift in oceanic and atmospheric chemistry and rapid climatic change from 'snowball earth' to 'greenhouse' conditions all happened within a rather geologically short period of time. These events took place against a background of the rearrangement of the prevailing supercontinent; some authors view this as a sequence of individual supercontinents such as Mesoproterozoic Midgardia, Neoproterozoic Rodinia and Early Cambrian Pannotia. Assembled in the Mesoproterozoic, this supercontinent appears to have existed through the Neoproterozoic into the Early Cambrian with periodic changes in configuration. The final rearrangement took place during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition with the Cadomian and related phases of the Pan-African orogeny. The distribution of Early Cambrian molluscs and other small shelly fossils (SSF) across all continents indicates a close geographic proximity of all major cratonic basins that is consistent with the continued existence of the supercontinent at that time. Subsequently, Rodinia experienced breakup that led to the amalgamation of Gondwana, separation of Laurentia, Baltica, Siberia and some small terranes and the emergence of oceanic basins between them. Spreading oceanic basins caused a gradual geographic isolation of the faunal assemblages that were united during the Vendian-Early Cambrian.

  12. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  13. Communities of larger fungi of ombrotrophic bogs in West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Filippova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bogs are common ecosystems in the Taiga of West Siberia. Little is known about mycological diversity in these important ecosystems. This article summarises the results of a two-year study of the macrofungi in two bogs near the town of Khanty-Mansiysk. Sporocarps were collected in 20 plots (about 300 m2 established in Mukhrino Bog as well as during random walks in Mukhrino Bog and Chistoe Bog in the late summer–autumn of 2012 and 2013. The plots were established in two common bog habitats representing the Ledo-Sphagnetum fusci (LS and Scheuchzerio palustris-Sphagnetum cuspidati (SS plant community associations. A total of 59 distinct fungal taxa were collected from the two bogs, with the LS association having a higher species richness and diversity than the SS association (50 taxa vs. 16 taxa and 30–40 taxa per 1000 m2 vs. 6–10 taxa per 1000 m2, respectively. Each of the two plant community associations has its own characteristic fungal taxa, with the LS association having 13 characteristic taxa and the SS association having five. Nearly two thirds of the fungal taxa are saprotrophic, mainly of Sphagnum spp., while others are mycorrhizal, mainly with Pinus spp. Most taxa were collected fewer than ten times during the study period and, hence, are considered rare and may need to be recognised for conservation programmes in this region.

  14. Some features of the Holocene insect faunas of northeastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Svetlana; Sher, Andrei

    2006-08-01

    The composition of fossil insect faunas from northeastern Siberia changed significantly during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The Late Pleistocene insect fauna reflects tundra-steppe environments, and was dominated by xerophilic species. This fauna persisted regionally until ca 12,000 yr BP. A radical transformation of the environment occurred between 12,000 and 10,000 yr BP, marked by the permafrost degradation and invasion of tall shrubs and later trees into the higher latitudes. The early Holocene insect assemblages are dominated by mesophilic tundra species, but also include small number of more thermophilic species, which are currently restricted to the taiga zone. Tree-dependent species, however, were virtually absent. This early Holocene fauna has no modern analogue. The faunal assemblages indicate that the early Holocene climate was more humid than that of the Late Pleistocene, and warmer than today. Post-glacial sea level rise was in progress at that time, but the shoreline was still much further north, and the New Siberian Islands were still a part of the mainland. During the second-half of the Holocene, sea level continued to rise, and trees and tall shrubs retreated to the south. Regional ecosystems, including insect faunas, approached their modern compositions and boundaries.

  15. Surface ultraviolet radiation over east Siberia: seasonal variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhalev

    Full Text Available The results of spectral measurements of the daily near-noon surface direct solar ultraviolet radiation in the wavelength range of 295–345 nm obtained in Irkutsk (East Siberia for the time interval of 1998–2000 are presented. For the period under consideration, the seasonal UV radiation variations are analysed that are associated with the total ozone dynamics, the transition of cyclonic and anticyclonic (Siberian anticyclone periods, the presence of snow cover, and other factors. The analysis reveals an asymmetric behaviour of the seasonal course in ground-level UV radiation around the time of the summer solstice, with seasonal variation dependence on the wavelength. We have determined the irregular variations of surface UV radiation that is typical for the region, with their properties dependent on the season and on the spectral range analysed. The similarity of the above noted features from year to year was revealed.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (Transmission and scattering of radiation; instruments and techniques – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics

  16. Conceptualizing the regional hydrology of a complex low relief terrain: Climate - geology interactions on sink-source dynamics of Western Boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devito, K. J.; Mendoza, C. A.; Petrone, R. M.; Landhäusser, S.; Silins, U.; Qualizza, C.; Gignac, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Western Boreal Plain (WBP) eco-region of western Canada is experiencing unprecedented industrial development for forest, oil and gas resources, stressing the need to assess and understand the sink and source areas of regional water flow. This requires the development of models that can be use to predict and mitigate the impacts of land use changes on water quantity and quality. The WBP is characterized by low relief, hummocky terrain with complexes of forestland and wetlands, especially peatlands. A paired aspen forest harvest experiment (HEAD2) was conducted on adjacent pond-peatland-aspen forestland complexes of a moraine landform, ubiquitous throughout the WBP, to determine the influence of aspen vegetated forestlands and harvesting relative to wetlands on local and regional water cycling. Reductions in transpiration and interception following aspen harvest resulted in some increase in soil moisture. However, excess water was largely absorbed into deep moraine substrates and resulted in groundwater recharge with little or no lateral flow to adjacent wetlands and aquatic systems. As a result of high soil and groundwater storage there was no observable difference in runoff from the harvested catchment compared to the adjacent reference (uncut) catchment confirming that in most years runoff originates from the wetland (peatland) rather than forestland hydrologic units. Furthermore, soil moisture increases were short lived due to rapid redevelopment of leaf area as result of high-density regeneration of aspen through root suckering. Recovery of transpiration and interception to near pre-harvest conditions occurred within 3 years. Climate cycles, primarily inter-annual variation in snow pack, can overwhelm the influence of aspen harvest in the WBP, as during the harvest experiment large water table rises were observed in both the uncut and the harvested forestlands. This study illustrates that forestlands on deep moraine hummocky substrates of the WBP act

  17. INTERBLOCK ZONES IN THE CRUST OF THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF EAST SIBERIA: TECTONOPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2013-01-01

    southern regions of East Siberia (e.g., the southern part of the Siberian platform and subvertical plates in the areas being active in the Cenozoic (e.g., the Baikal rift. Within the framework of the given model of the zone-block structure of the southern regions of East Siberia, strict hierarchical subordination is established that manifests in spatial relationships of interblock zones (the closed network of the zones, imbedded blocks; its quantitative characteristics are stated at the global, trans-regional and three regional levels (Table 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 22. Average sizes of the zones, that were crossed by the transect, are estimated from the depth of their penetration into the crust; it is shown that Scale Invariant 2.2 (previously set for estimates of square areas is valid also for the analysis of volumes of interblock structures. Detailed observations show that interblock structures are usually wider towards the earth surface; in the 1st order active zones, dimensions of the interblock structures may exceed dimensions of the adjacent, slightly disturbed blocks of the corresponding hierarchic level (Fig. 6, 11, 14, and 16. This pattern is typical of the actively developing Baikal rift and determines specific features of its structure with regards to the zone-block divisibility of the lithosphere.2. The Baikal interblock zone is a global one in the hierarchy of the zone-block structure of Asia. It develops under tension conditions at the contact of the Siberian and Trans-Baikal lithospheric blocks (Fig. 16. Within the transect, the width of the Baikal interblock zone is about 200 km. At the trans-regional level of the hierarchy, the zone is comprised of the Obruchevsky, Chersky-Barguzin and Dzhida-Vitim fault systems (Fig. 6, 11, and 14. The first two of them act as the western and eastern borders of the subsided block of the Baikal basin and thus constitute the major area of the lithospheric extension. The second area is the Dzhida-Vitim fault system separating from

  18. Spatiotemporal Modeling for Fine-Scale Maps of Regional Malaria Endemicity and Its Implications for Transitional Complexities in a Routine Surveillance Network in Western Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okami, Suguru; Kohtake, Naohiko

    2017-01-01

    Due to the associated and substantial efforts of many stakeholders involved in malaria containment, the disease burden of malaria has dramatically decreased in many malaria-endemic countries in recent years. Some decades after the past efforts of the global malaria eradication program, malaria elimination has again featured on the global health agenda. While risk distribution modeling and a mapping approach are effective tools to assist with the efficient allocation of limited health-care resources, these methods need some adjustment and reexamination in accordance with changes occurring in relation to malaria elimination. Limited available data, fine-scale data inaccessibility (for example, household or individual case data), and the lack of reliable data due to inefficiencies within the routine surveillance system, make it difficult to create reliable risk maps for decision-makers or health-care practitioners in the field. Furthermore, the risk of malaria may dynamically change due to various factors such as the progress of containment interventions and environmental changes. To address the complex and dynamic nature of situations in low-to-moderate malaria transmission settings, we built a spatiotemporal model of a standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) of malaria incidence, calculated through annual parasite incidence, using routinely reported surveillance data in combination with environmental indices such as remote sensing data, and the non-environmental regional containment status, to create fine-scale risk maps. A hierarchical Bayesian frame was employed to fit the transitioning malaria risk data onto the map. The model was set to estimate the SMRs of every study location at specific time intervals within its uncertainty range. Using the spatial interpolation of estimated SMRs at village level, we created fine-scale maps of two provinces in western Cambodia at specific time intervals. The maps presented different patterns of malaria risk distribution at

  19. Otolith shape analysis and mitochondrial DNA markers distinguish three sand smelt species in the Atherina boyeri species complex in western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinar, A. S.; Chaoui, L.; Quignard, J. P.; Aurelle, D.; Kara, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Atherina boyeri is a common euryhaline teleost fish in the Mediterranean and adjacent areas, which inhabits coastal and estuarine waters, including coastal lagoons and more rarely inland waters. Several recent studies have pointed the possible existence of three distinct groups or species, one lagoon/freshwater group and two 'punctuated and unpunctuated on the flanks' marine groups, within an A. boyeri species complex. This study is a combined approach using otolith shape and molecular markers to better define the structure of the species in the western Mediterranean. Genetic differentiation and species delimitation among nine Atherina boyeri populations from several marine and lagoon/brakish habitat sites in Algeria, Tunisia and France were investigated using three mitochondrial (control region, Cyt b and 16S) and one nuclear markers (2nd intron of S7). For further phylogenetic and phylogeographic study, we added sequences from Genbank covering more areas (Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Black Sea, Atlantic). Five groups were found. Two of them perfectly corresponded to two species already recognized Atherina presbyter and Atherina hepsetus, both living in marine waters; and three additional, including Atherina boyeri (brackish and freshwater environments) and two independent groups of marine punctated and unpunctated individuals. Those findings are corroborated by the study of the otolith contour shape of 362 individuals of seven populations from different habitats using Fourier analysis. Individuals could be discriminated into five groups based on the first two functions (Wilk's lambda = 0.07, p < 0.001). Samples from Ziama inlet, marine punctuated individuals and unpunctuated marine specimens from Annaba's Gulf formed three well separated groups. Specimens from Mellah and Mauguio lagoons formed another group. The last one includes individuals from Bizerte and Thau lagoons. The divergences between them strongly support the potential species within the

  20. A Mesoscale Model-Based Climatography of Nocturnal Boundary-Layer Characteristics over the Complex Terrain of North-Western Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stefano; De Wekker, Stephan F J; Knievel, Jason C

    Nocturnal boundary-layer phenomena in regions of complex topography are extremely diverse and respond to a multiplicity of forcing factors, acting primarily at the mesoscale and microscale. The interaction between different physical processes, e.g., drainage promoted by near-surface cooling and ambient flow over topography in a statically stable environment, may give rise to special flow patterns, uncommon over flat terrain. Here we present a climatography of boundary-layer flows, based on a 2-year archive of simulations from a high-resolution operational mesoscale weather modelling system, 4DWX. The geographical context is Dugway Proving Ground, in north-western Utah, USA, target area of the field campaigns of the MATERHORN (Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program) project. The comparison between model fields and available observations in 2012-2014 shows that the 4DWX model system provides a realistic representation of wind speed and direction in the area, at least in an average sense. Regions displaying strong spatial gradients in the field variables, thought to be responsible for enhanced nocturnal mixing, are typically located in transition areas from mountain sidewalls to adjacent plains. A key dynamical process in this respect is the separation of dynamically accelerated downslope flows from the surface.

  1. Parameterization of tree-ring growth in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychkov, Ivan; Popkova, Margarita; Shishov, Vladimir; Vaganov, Eugene

    2016-04-01

    No doubt, climate-tree growth relationship is an one of the useful and interesting subject of studying in dendrochronology. It provides an information of tree growth dependency on climatic environment, but also, gives information about growth conditions and whole tree-ring growth process for long-term periods. New parameterization approach of the Vaganov-Shashkin process-based model (VS-model) is developed to described critical process linking climate variables with tree-ring formation. The approach (co-called VS-Oscilloscope) is presented as a computer software with graphical interface. As most process-based tree-ring models, VS-model's initial purpose is to describe variability of tree-ring radial growth due to variability of climatic factors, but also to determinate principal factors limiting tree-ring growth. The principal factors affecting on the growth rate of cambial cells in the VS-model are temperature, day light and soil moisture. Detailed testing of VS-Oscilloscope was done for semi-arid area of southern Siberia (Khakassian region). Significant correlations between initial tree-ring chronologies and simulated tree-ring growth curves were obtained. Direct natural observations confirm obtained simulation results including unique growth characteristic for semi-arid habitats. New results concerning formation of wide and narrow rings under different climate conditions are considered. By itself the new parameterization approach (VS-oscilloscope) is an useful instrument for better understanding of various processes in tree-ring formation. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF # 14-14-00219).

  2. Forms of Wages for Miners of Siberia in the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinovyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the question of forms of wages paid to workers in the mining industry of Siberia in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Of the two main forms of labor compensation – hourly rate and piecework pay, the latter was more corresponding to the spirit of capitalism, and it was most widespread in the mining enterprises of Siberia. The piecework pay was also the main instrument for intensifying labor productivity. This episode in the history of labor is studied on the basis of paperwork materials of mining companies and reporting documents of the mining inspectorate.

  3. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  4. Predicting global change effects on forest biomass and composition in south-central Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Eric J; Shvidenko, Anatoly Z; Sturtevant, Brian R; Scheller, Robert M

    2010-04-01

    Multiple global changes such as timber harvesting in areas not previously disturbed by cutting and climate change will undoubtedly affect the composition and spatial distribution of boreal forests, which will, in turn, affect the ability of these forests to retain carbon and maintain biodiversity. To predict future states of the boreal forest reliably, it is necessary to understand the complex interactions among forest regenerative processes (succession), natural disturbances (e.g., fire, wind, and insects), and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., timber harvest). We used a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to study the relative effects of climate change, timber harvesting, and insect outbreaks on forest composition, biomass (carbon), and landscape pattern in south-central Siberia. We found that most response variables were more strongly influenced by timber harvest and insect outbreaks than by the direct effects of climate change. Direct climate effects generally increased tree productivity and modified probability of establishment, but indirect effects on the fire regime generally counteracted the direct effects of climate on forest composition. Harvest and insects significantly changed forest composition, reduced living aboveground biomass, and increased forest fragmentation. We concluded that: (1) Global change is likely to significantly change forest composition of south-central Siberian landscapes, with some changes taking ecosystems outside the historic range of variability. (2) The direct effects of climate change in the study area are not as significant as the exploitation of virgin forest by timber harvest and the potential increased outbreaks of the Siberian silk moth. (3) Novel disturbance by timber harvest and insect outbreaks may greatly reduce the aboveground living biomass of Siberian forests and may significantly alter ecosystem dynamics and wildlife populations by increasing forest fragmentation.

  5. Systematics of the Rhinella margaritifera complex (Anura, Bufonidae) from western Ecuador and Panama with insights in the biogeography of Rhinella alata

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sueny P.; Ibáñez, Roberto; Ron, Santiago R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Rhinella margaritifera species group consists of 17 species of toads distributed in tropical and subtropical South America and eastern Central America. The identity of some of its species is poorly understood and there are numerous undescribed cryptic species. Among them, the status of Rhinella margaritifera is one of the most problematic. Its range includes lowland rainforests separated by the Andes, the Chocoan rainforest to the west and the Amazonian rainforest to the east. This distribution is puzzling because the Andes are an old and formidable barrier to gene flow and therefore should generate vicariant speciation between disjunct lowland populations. Herein we clarify the taxonomy of populations of the Rhinella margaritifera complex from Central America and the Chocó region of South America. The morphological and genetic variation of Rhinella margaritifera was examined from 39 populations from Chocó, 24 from the upper Amazon region of Ecuador, and 37 from Panama, including the holotype of the Panamanian Rhinella alata. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and the nuclear gene Tyrosinase (Tyr). The genetic and morphological data show that Panamanian and Chocoan populations are conspecific. In the phylogeny, populations from Chocó and Panama form a well-supported clade. The morphology of the holotype of Rhinella alata falls within the variation range of Panamanian and Chocoan populations. Based on all this evidence, we assign the populations from western Ecuador and Panama to Rhinella alata and demonstrate that the unusual distribution pattern of “Rhinella margaritifera” on both sides of the Andes was an artifact of incorrectly defined species boundaries. PMID:25987881

  6. Whole-genome sequence analyses of Western Central African Pygmy hunter-gatherers reveal a complex demographic history and identify candidate genes under positive natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Veeramah, Krishna R; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Hammer, Michael F; Gutenkunst, Ryan N

    2016-03-01

    African Pygmies practicing a mobile hunter-gatherer lifestyle are phenotypically and genetically diverged from other anatomically modern humans, and they likely experienced strong selective pressures due to their unique lifestyle in the Central African rainforest. To identify genomic targets of adaptation, we sequenced the genomes of four Biaka Pygmies from the Central African Republic and jointly analyzed these data with the genome sequences of three Baka Pygmies from Cameroon and nine Yoruba famers. To account for the complex demographic history of these populations that includes both isolation and gene flow, we fit models using the joint allele frequency spectrum and validated them using independent approaches. Our two best-fit models both suggest ancient divergence between the ancestors of the farmers and Pygmies, 90,000 or 150,000 yr ago. We also find that bidirectional asymmetric gene flow is statistically better supported than a single pulse of unidirectional gene flow from farmers to Pygmies, as previously suggested. We then applied complementary statistics to scan the genome for evidence of selective sweeps and polygenic selection. We found that conventional statistical outlier approaches were biased toward identifying candidates in regions of high mutation or low recombination rate. To avoid this bias, we assigned P-values for candidates using whole-genome simulations incorporating demography and variation in both recombination and mutation rates. We found that genes and gene sets involved in muscle development, bone synthesis, immunity, reproduction, cell signaling and development, and energy metabolism are likely to be targets of positive natural selection in Western African Pygmies or their recent ancestors. © 2016 Hsieh et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Magnetic fabrics in sub-caldera plutons recording magma ascent and fault-caldera interactions, the Etiavnica volcano-plutonic complex, Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Filip; Žák, Jiří

    2013-04-01

    The Štiavnica volcano-plutonic complex in the Western Carpatians exposes a spectacular section through middle Miocene stratovolcano (50 km in diameter) built on Variscan basement and late Paleozoic to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The stratovolcano consists of early andesite lava flows, extrusive domes, and pyroclastic flow deposits intruded by andesite and andesite porphyry sills and laccoliths. At around 14.5-15.5 Ma, the pre-volcanic basement beneath the central portion of the stratovolcano was intruded by a diorite stock and a voluminous bell-jar granodiorite pluton followed by quartz diorite to granodiorite porphyry dikes and stocks. The pluton emplacement led to the development of a 20 km wide collapse caldera associated with late andesite and dacite extrusive domes, dome flows, pyroclastic deposits, and quartz-diorite porphyry dikes and sills. Subsequently, the central domain underwent resurgence accompanied by intrusion of small rhyolitic and granite porphyry bodies. The present-day exposure with significant vertical relief cuts through all these units including the sub-caldera plutons and their flat roof which represents the volcano basement. The sub-caldera plutons exhibit contrasting magnetic fabrics as revealed by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). The diorite is characterized by very low degree of magnetic anisotropy (less than 10 %) and both prolate and oblate AMS ellipsoids. Magnetic foliations are mostly sub-parallel to the nearby pluton roof margin and are associated with steep lineations. In contrast, the younger granodiorite shows slightly higher degree of magnetic anisotropy (up to 12 %) and chiefly oblate susceptibility ellipsoids for the same magnetic mineralogy (both plutons are ferromagnetic, with the AMS carried predominantly by magnetite). Unlike fabric in the diorite, magnetic foliations are homogeneously oriented and dip moderately to the W to WNW whereas magnetic lineations vary from down-dip to subhorizontal. We interpret

  8. The Støren Group greenstones and their relationship to the ophiolite fragments of the western Trondheim Nappe Complex, central Norwegian Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenne, Tor; Gasser, Deta

    2017-04-01

    The stratigraphy of the western part of the Trondheim Nappe Complex has traditionally been divided into greenstones and related rocks belonging to the Late Cambrian/Early Ordovician Støren Group at the base, overlain by predominantly Mid- to Upper Ordovician sedimentary rocks of the Hovin and Horg Groups. Rocks that have been assigned to the Støren Group sensu lato crop out in several geographically isolated areas. To the southeast, an up to 6 km thick northeast-striking belt of mainly pillow lava with intercalated phyllite, metachert and black shale, here referred to as the Støren Group sensu stricto (s.s.), is exposed over a distance of more than 100 km from Rennebu in the south, through the town of Støren to Stjørdalen in the north. These have been correlated, across an inferred Horg syncline, with several ophiolite fragments to the northwest, e.g. at Løkken, Vassfjellet and Bymarka, here referred to as the LVB ophiolites. In this contribution we present new field observations and geochemical data demonstrating that the Støren Group s.s. and the LVB ophiolites are not correlatable. Lithologically, gabbros and sheeted dyke complexes are characteristic of the ophiolites but are missing in the Støren s.s., while ribbon chert and graphitic shale occur in Støren s.s. and are virtually absent in the ophiolites. Plagiogranites in the ophiolitic gabbros have yielded U-Pb zircon ages of 480-487 Ma. Datable syn-volcanic felsic rocks are absent or very rare in the Støren s.s. and its absolute age is still unknown. Geochemically the LVB ophiolites are dominated by basalts that are broadly comparable to N-MORB but that have a superimposed subduction signature reflected, e.g., in significantly elevated Th/Ta ratios. By contrast, the Støren s.s. basalts, ranging from typical N-MORB to E-MORB compositions, have absolutely no indications of a subduction signature in their geochemistry. Our new field and geochemical data demonstrate that the Støren Group s.s. and the

  9. Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, S.; Sher, A.; Boeskorov, G.; Lazarev, P.; Binladen, J.; Willerslev, E.; Tikhonov, A.

    2009-12-01

    A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them in perfect condition. The fossils, and especially mummies, present a perfect material for genetic studies. Woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blum.), is one of the symbols of the Ice Age and one of few large mammal species that disappeared from Eurasia about 14 000 years ago. Recently, a substantially complete mummy of woolly rhinoceros was found in permafrost at the Rodinka site near Cherskiy, northeastern Yakutia, Russia (68.76°N, 161.63°E). It is the body of an adult female, weighing almost 900 kg, with the preserved skull, two horns, lower jaw, one ear, and tail. The length of the carcass is about 2 m, the live length of the animal is estimated as more than 3 m. The right legs are partly preserved and the chest and belly cavities are partly empty; almost all hair has been lost. Despite these defects, it is the most complete mummy of woolly rhino ever found in permafrost. A fragment of rib from the body has been AMS dated to 39140±390 BP (OxA-18755). In recent years the Rodinka site has yielded an unprecedented number of woolly rhino fossils and is so far the richest locality for this extinct species. The woolly rhino had a very wide distribution in the Late Pleistocene - from France to the Bering Strait and from China to the high-arctic islands. It was perfectly adapted to the variety of severe periglacial (tundra-steppe) environments. Intriguingly, it was the only large Siberian mammal that never crossed the Bering Land Bridge to Alaska. In the vast lowlands of Arctic Siberia Coelodonta fossils are common, but much less abundant (below 1%) compared to those of other large Ice Age

  10. The Deep Permafrost Carbon Pool of Siberia and Alaska (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Grosse, G.; Ulrich, M.; Wetterich, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Hubberten, H. W.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating the amount of organic carbon stored in Arctic permafrost and its biogeochemical characteristics are important topics in today's permafrost research. While the uppermost cryosoil horizons are reasonably studied and recorded in the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD), there are large uncertainties concerning the quantity and distribution of permafrost deep organic carbon. We studied the organic carbon content of the Yedoma region of unglaciated Siberia and Alaska. This region is unique because of its long-term accumulation of organic carbon, which was deeply incorporated into permafrost during the late Quaternary. Inclusion of labile organic matter into permafrost halted decomposition and resulted in a deep long-term carbon sink. Organic carbon in the Yedoma region occurs mainly as peat inclusions, twigs and root fragments, other solid and fine detrital plant remains, fossil remains of mammals, insects, aquatic plankton and soil microorganisms, and finally their decompositional and metabolic products in terms of particulate and dissolved organic matter. With our study we show that two major sub-reservoirs compose the Yedoma region deep frozen organic carbon; Yedoma deposits (late Pleistocene ice- and organic-rich silty sediments) and deposits formed in thaw-lake basins (generalised as thermokarst deposits). Thaw-lake basins result when lake formation degrades Yedoma deposits, then the lakes drain and deposits refreeze. Therefore, the deep Yedoma region organic carbon pool is far from homogeneous and strongly linked to depositional and permafrost dynamics as well as the ecological and climatic history. Using of approximately 1000 frozen samples from 23 Siberian and Alaskan study sites and a new approach for upscaling, we find significant differences to former estimates of the Yedoma coverage area, thickness of the relevant frozen deposits, ground ice content and finally in organic carbon content that lead to a reassessment of the deep

  11. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Gustafson; Anatoly Shvidenko; Robert Scheller; Brian. Sturtevant

    2011-01-01

    Siberian forest ecosystems are experiencing multiple global changes. Climate change produces direct (temperature and precipitation) and indirect (altered fire regimes and increase in cold-limited insect outbreaks) effects. Although much of Siberia has not yet been subject to timber harvest, the frontier of timber cutting is advancing steadily across the region. We...

  12. Effectiveness of forest management strategies to mitigate effects of global change in south-central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Robert M. Scheller

    2011-01-01

    We investigated questions about the ability of broad silvicultural strategies to achieve multiple objectives (reduce disturbance losses, maintain the abundance of preferred species, mitigate fragmentation and loss of age-class diversity, and sequester aboveground carbon) under future climate conditions in Siberia. We conducted a factorial experiment using the LANDIS-II...

  13. Crustal and upper mantle structure of Siberia from teleseismic receiver functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    . The current results of RF analysis of the crustal and mantle structure will help to build a model for tectonic and geodynamic evolution of different provinces of Siberia. We compare our results to the recent detailed models of crustal structure in the area and with seismic models for similar geodynamic...

  14. Multielemental composition of atmospheric aerosol in the South of West Siberia

    CERN Document Server

    Koutsenogii, K P; Smirnova, A I; Makarov, V I; Kirov, E I

    2000-01-01

    The data on the multielemental composition of atmospheric aerosols for the typical landscapes of Novosibirsk region have been obtained using SR XRF. The peculiarities of seasonal variations in the multielemental composition of atmospheric aerosols in the South of West Siberia have been analyzed.

  15. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

  16. An Illustrated Checklist of Leech Species from Lake Baikal (Eastern Siberia, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaygorodova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    New data on Lake Baikal fauna of Hirudinida (Annelida, Clitellata) are presented. The species composition of Baikal leeches extends to 20 species belonging to two orders, four families, and 12 genera. An updated checklist includes information on five species recorded in Eastern Siberia for the first time. All specimens from author’s collection are provided with illustration.

  17. Results of the CERPOLEX/Mammuthus Expeditions on the Taimyr Peninsula, Arctic Siberia, Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, D.; Tikhonov, A.; van der Plicht, J.; Kahlke, R.D.; Debruyne, R.; van Geel, B.; van Reenen, G.B.A.; Pals, J.P.; de Marliave, C.; Reumer, J.W.F.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract During a series of expeditions organized by CERPOLEX/Mammuthus to the Taimyr region in northern Siberia several mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) carcasses were discovered and subsequently excavated and studied. The oldest specimen is the Arilakh Mammoth (ca. 55,800 BP). Much younger are the

  18. Correlation of different-facies Triassic deposits of the eastern Urals and Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirichkova, A.I.; Kulikova, N.K. [All Russian Research Institute of Oil Prospecting, Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Some Triassic key sections of Siberia and the eastern Urals are characterized in terms of palaeontology. In the northeastern Siberia, these are sequences of the Cape Tsvetkov (the eastern Taimyr Peninsula) and the Ust-Anabar and Buur-Olenek structural-facies zones. Marine and continental deposits of these sections contain six palynological assemblages of the Induan, Olenekian, late Anisian, Ladinian-early Carnian, Carnian, and early Norian ages. The dating is supported by marine fauna identifications. Analogous palynological assemblages were detected in volcano-sedimentary coastal-marine Triassic sequences recovered by the Tyumen' superdeep borehole and by deep Nikol'skaya-1 borehole in West Siberia. In the eastern Urals, the palynological assemblages of similar composition were found in continental volcano-sedimentary coal-bearing sequences of the Chelyabinsk and Anokhino grabens. This allows correlation of the different-facies Triassic deposits. Distribution patterns of the distinguished spore-pollen and macrofossil plant assemblages are compared for the first time. The correspondence between evolutionary stages of Triassic taphofloras in East Siberia and the eastern Urals is established.

  19. Results of the CERPOLEX/Mammuthus expeditions on the Taimyr peninsula, Arctic Siberia, Russian federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, D; Tikhonov, A; van der Plicht, J; Kahlke, RD; Debruyne, R; van Geel, B; van Reenen, G; Pals, JP; de Marliave, C; Reumer, JWF; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich; Pals, Jan Peter; Reumer, Jelle W.F.

    During a series of expeditions organized by CERPOLEX/Mammuthus to the Taimyr region in northern Siberia several mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) carcasses were discovered and subsequently excavated and studied. The oldest specimen is the Arilakh Mammoth (ca. 55,800 BP). Much younger are the Jarkov

  20. Chronology of holocene climate and vegetation changes and their connection to cultural dynamics in Southern Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, V. G.; van Geel, B.; Koulkova, M. A.; Zaitseva, G. I.; Sementsov, A. A.; Scott, E. M.; Cook, G. T.; van der Plicht, J.; Lebedeva, L. M.; Bourova, N. D.; Bokovenko, N. A.

    2007-01-01

    Two sediment sequences from Big Kyzykul Lake and the Shushenskoe paleolake in the Minusinsk depression, Southern Siberia, were studied by pollen, microfossil, and geochemical analyses, as well as radiocarbon dating. The records indicate the persistence of an and period between similar to 11.7-7.6

  1. Chronology of Holocene climate and vegetation changes and their connection to cultural dynamics in Southern Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, V.G.; van Geel, B.; Koulkova, M.A.; Zaitseva, G.I.; Sementsov, A.A.; Scott, E.M.; Cook, G.T.; van der Plicht, J.; Lebedeva, L.M.; Bourova, N.D.; Bokovenko, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    Two sediment sequences from Big Kyzykul Lake and the Shushenskoe paleolake in the Minusinsk depression, Southern Siberia, were studied by pollen, microfossil, and geochemical analyses, as well as radiocarbon dating. The records indicate the persistence of an arid period between ~11.7-7.6 cal kyr BP,

  2. Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Daniel C.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Buigues, Bernard; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A well-preserved woolly mammoth calf found in northwest Siberia offers unique opportunities to investigate mammoth anatomy, behavior, life history and taphonomy. Analysis of the fluvial setting where the specimen was found suggests it was derived from eroding bluffs during ice-out flooding in June

  3. Multiple low‐temperature thermochronology constraints on exhumation of the Tatra Mountains: New implication for the complex evolution of the Western Carpathians in the Cenozoic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anczkiewicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Danišík, Martin; Środoń, Jan

    2015-01-01

    ...—the Tatra Mountains— is investigated by zircon and apatite fission track and zircon (U‐Th)/He (ZHe) dating methods in order to unravel the disputed exhumation and geodynamic processes in the Western Carpathians...

  4. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  5. Arctic East Siberia had a lower latitude in the Pleistocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Woelfli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Remains of mammoths in Arctic East Siberia, where there is not sufficient sunlight over the year for the growth of the plants on which these animals feed, indicate that the latitude of this region was lower before the end of the Pleistocene than now. Reconstructing this geographic pole shift, we introduce a massive object, which moved in an extremely eccentric orbit and was hot from tidal work and solar radiation. Evaporation produced a disk-shaped cloud of ions around the Sun. This cloud partially shielded the solar radiation, producing the cold and warm periods characterizing the Pleistocene. The shielding depends on the inclination of Earth's orbit, which has a period of 100. 000 years. The cloud builds up to a point where inelastic particle collisions induce its collapse The resulting near-periodic time dependence resembles that of Dansgaard-Oeschger events. The Pleistocene ended when the massive object had a close encounter with the Earth, which suffered a one per mil extensional deformation. While the deformation relaxed to an equilibrium shape in one to several years, the globe turned relative to the rotation axis: The North Pole moved from Greenland to the Arctic Sea. The massive object split into fragments, which evaporated.Na Sibéria Oriental Ártica, onde há sobras de mamutes, a luzsolar durante o ano é insuficiente para sustentar as plantas que alimentam esses animais. Isto prova que a latitude dessas regiões era menor durante o Pleistoceno. Reconstruindo esse deslocamento geográfico dos pólos introduzimos um planeta adicional numa órbita tão excêntrica que a energia da maré e da radiação solar o esquentou. A sua evaporação criava em torno do sol uma nuvem de íons que espalhava a radiação solar e assim causava os períodos quentes e frios do Pleistoceno. O efeito depende da inclinação da órbita da terra, que varia com um período de 100. 000 anos. Quase periodicamente anuvem se formava até o ponto em que as colis

  6. Vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in two saline lakes Shira and Shunet (South Siberia, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degermendzhy, A.G.; Zadereev, E.S.; Rogozin, D.Y.; Prokopkin, I.; Barkhatov, Y.V.; Tolomeev, A.; Khromechek, E.B.; Janse, J.H.; Mooij, W.M.; Gulati, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    A feature of meromictic lakes is that several physicochemical and biological gradients affect the vertical distribution of different organisms. The vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in saline, fishless meromictic lakes Shira and Shunet (Siberia, Russia) is quite

  7. A 9,000 Year History of Seal Hunting on Lake Baikal, Siberia: The Zooarchaeology of Sagan-Zaba II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nomokonova, Tatiana; Losey, Robert J; Goriunova, Ol'ga I; Novikov, Alexei G; Weber, Andrzej W

    2015-01-01

    Sagan-Zaba II, a habitation site on the shore of Siberia's Lake Baikal, contains a record of seal hunting that spans much of the Holocene, making it one of the longest histories of seal use in North Asia...

  8. New and rare findings of lignicolous lichen species for the Southern Siberia from the Baikal nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Urbanavichene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on field trips between 2009–2014, rare and noteworthy lichens from the Baikal Nature Reserve (Baikal nature reserve, Khamar-Daban ridge are described. These are mostly lignicolous lichens growing on wood and bark of Abies sibirica and Pinus sibirica, such as Absconditella lignicola, Strangospora moriformis, Trapeliopsis gelatinosa, T. viridescens. Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa is new for Siberia, Lepraria jackii – new for South Siberia.

  9. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Results Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages – 0.2–2

  10. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods . Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized and of drinking water. Results . Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80% and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions, mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51% were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12% everywhere except Evenki AO (27%, and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly. The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages

  11. Food and water security issues in Russia II: water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Dushkina, Eugenia V; Sladkova, Yuliya N; Alloyarov, Pavel R; Chupakhin, Valery S; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A; Fridman, Kirill B; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M

    2013-01-01

    Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000-2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized--underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40-80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32-90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5-12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages--0.2-2.7%, Clostridia spores, Giardia cysts, pathogenic bacteria, Rotavirus

  12. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY WESTERN TRAVELLERS’ CONCEPTION OF THE ARĪM: RESTORING THE CULTURAL COMPLEXITY OF THE IJĀB IN ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Faredah Mohsen al-Murahhem

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines 19th   century Western travellers’ understanding of the ḥarīm. Focusing in  particular on visual  depictions,  it  investigates  the  misconception  and  misrepresentation  of  the  ḥarīm  in  Orientalists’ paintings and Western culture, using thework of the artist John Frederick Lewis as a main case study. Arguing that such representations oversimplify and fantasise sacred Islamic cultural experience,  this  paper,  as a counterpoint, restores a detailed understanding of ...

  13. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    partners. Conclusions Devoted to regional-global linkages, understanding, monitoring and assessment of global change impacts on a regional level, SIRS targets provide substantiated recommendations for regional decision makers to understand and work towards mitigating the negative effects of climate change for Siberia and its population. This approach will allow the Siberian Branch of the Russian National Committee for IGBP to perform its mission, ensuring the growth of scientific knowledge of the dynamic Siberian environment and its subsystems, and to develop a solid basis for mitigation and adaptation strategies for the negative consequences of global change. 1 For example, 'Complex monitoring of the Great Vasyugan Bog: modern state and development processes investigations' and 'Ecological problems of Siberian cities'. 2 For example, 'Models of biosphere change based on the boreal ecosystems' carbon balance using field and satellite data observations' and 'Information technologies, mathematical models and methods for monitoring and control of ecosystems intended for stationary, mobile and remote observations'. 3 'Environmental observations, modeling and information systems' (http://enviromis.scert.ru/) and 'Man-induced environmental risks: monitoring, management and mitigation of man-made changes in Siberia (Enviro-RISKS)'. References [1] Brasseur G 2003 IGBP Newsletter No 50 (June 2002) IGBP II - Special Edition Issue 3rd IGBP Congress Overview Global Change Newsletter No 55 pp 2-4 [2] 2005 Bulletin of the Russian National Committee for the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme 4 [3] Ippolitov I I, Kabanov M V, Komarov A I and Kuskov A I 2004 Patterns of modern natural-climatic changes in Siberia: observed changes of annual temperature and pressure Geogr. Nat. Resources 3 90-6 [4] Volodin E M and Dianskii N A 2003 Response of a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to increased carbon dioxide Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics 239 170-86 [5

  14. Long-term measurements (2010-2014) of carbonaceous aerosol and carbon monoxide at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Eugene F.; Mironova, Svetlana; Mironov, Gregory; Vlasenko, Sergey; Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Walter, David; Carbone, Samara; Artaxo, Paulo; Heimann, Martin; Lavric, Jost; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2017-12-01

    We present long-term (5-year) measurements of particulate matter with an upper diameter limit of ˜ 10 µm (PM10), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosol filter samples collected at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory in the middle-taiga subzone (Siberia). The data are complemented with carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. Air mass back trajectory analysis and satellite image analysis were used to characterise potential source regions and the transport pathway of haze plumes. Polluted and background periods were selected using a non-parametric statistical approach and analysed separately. In addition, near-pristine air masses were selected based on their EC concentrations being below the detection limit of our thermal-optical instrument. Over the entire sampling campaign, 75 and 48 % of air masses in winter and in summer, respectively, and 42 % in spring and fall are classified as polluted. The observed background concentrations of CO and EC showed a sine-like behaviour with a period of 365 ± 4 days, mostly due to different degrees of dilution and the removal of polluted air masses arriving at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) from remote sources. Our analysis of the near-pristine conditions shows that the longest periods with clean air masses were observed in summer, with a frequency of 17 %, while in wintertime only 1 % can be classified as a clean. Against a background of low concentrations of CO, EC, and OC in the near-pristine summertime, it was possible to identify pollution plumes that most likely came from crude-oil production sites located in the oil-rich regions of Western Siberia. Overall, our analysis indicates that most of the time the Siberian region is impacted by atmospheric pollution arising from biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions. A relatively clean atmosphere can be observed mainly in summer, when polluted species are removed by precipitation and the aerosol burden returns to

  15. A 33,000-year-old incipient dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: evidence of the earliest domestication disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai D Ovodov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Virtually all well-documented remains of early domestic dog (Canis familiaris come from the late Glacial and early Holocene periods (ca. 14,000-9000 calendar years ago, cal BP, with few putative dogs found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 26,500-19,000 cal BP. The dearth of pre-LGM dog-like canids and incomplete state of their preservation has until now prevented an understanding of the morphological features of transitional forms between wild wolves and domesticated dogs in temporal perspective. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We describe the well-preserved remains of a dog-like canid from the Razboinichya Cave (Altai Mountains of southern Siberia. Because of the extraordinary preservation of the material, including skull, mandibles (both sides and teeth, it was possible to conduct a complete morphological description and comparison with representative examples of pre-LGM wild wolves, modern wolves, prehistoric domesticated dogs, and early dog-like canids, using morphological criteria to distinguish between wolves and dogs. It was found that the Razboinichya Cave individual is most similar to fully domesticated dogs from Greenland (about 1000 years old, and unlike ancient and modern wolves, and putative dogs from Eliseevichi I site in central Russia. Direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the skull and mandible of the Razboinichya canid conducted in three independent laboratories resulted in highly compatible ages, with average value of ca. 33,000 cal BP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Razboinichya Cave specimen appears to be an incipient dog that did not give rise to late Glacial-early Holocene lineages and probably represents wolf domestication disrupted by the climatic and cultural changes associated with the LGM. The two earliest incipient dogs from Western Europe (Goyet, Belguim and Siberia (Razboinichya, separated by thousands of kilometers, show that dog domestication was multiregional, and thus had no single place of

  16. Syn- to post-orogenic exhumation of metamorphic nappes: Structure and thermobarometry of the western Attic-Cycladic metamorphic complex (Lavrion, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Lanari, Pierre; Tarantola, Alexandre; Ponthus, Léandre; Photiades, Adonis; France, Lydéric

    2016-05-01

    The Lavrion peninsula is located along the western boundary of the Attic-Cycladic metamorphic complex in the internal zone of the Hellenic orogenic belt. The nappe stack is well exposed and made, from top to bottom, of (i) a non-metamorphic upper unit composed of an ophiolitic melange, (ii) a middle unit mainly composed of the Lavrion schists in blueschist facies, (iii) and a basal unit mainly composed of the Kamariza schists affected by pervasive retrogression of the blueschist facies metamorphism in greenschist facies. The middle unit is characterized by a relatively steep-dipping foliation associated with isoclinal folds of weakly organized axial orientation. This foliation is transposed into a shallow-dipping foliation bearing a N-S trending lineation. The degree of transposition increases with structural depth and is particularly marked at the transition from the middle to the basal unit across a low-angle mylonitic to cataclastic detachment. The blueschist facies foliation of the Lavrion schists (middle unit) is underlined by high pressure phengite intergrown with chlorite. The Kamariza schists (basal unit) contains relics of the blueschist mineral paragenesis but is dominated by intermediate pressure phengite also intergrown with chlorite and locally with biotite. Electron probe micro-analyzer chemical mapping combined with inverse thermodynamic modeling (local multi-equilibrium) reveals distinct pressure-temperature conditions of crystallization of phengite and chlorite assemblages as a function of their structural, microstructural and microtextural positions. The middle unit is characterized by two metamorphic conditions grading from high pressure (M1, 9-13 kbar) to lower pressure (M2, 6-9 kbar) at a constant temperature of ca. 315 °C. The basal unit has preserved a first set of HP/LT conditions (M1-2, 8-11 kbar, 300 °C) partially to totally transposed-retrogressed into a lower pressure mineral assemblage (M3, 5-8.5 kbar) associated with a slight but

  17. Local Feedback System To Correct Synchrotron Radiation Beam Position At Siberia-2 Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Valentinov, A; Krylov, I; Rezvov, V; Yupinov, I

    2004-01-01

    After beginning of long experimental runs at SIBERIA-2 storage ring users of synchrotron radiation (SR) found that SR beam position in experimental stations slowly changed. To correct this, local orbit correction feedback system was organized. The system is based on SR beam position monitor forming TV image of SR beam at experimental station entry (15 meters far from radiation point). PC calculates position of beam center and sends it to storage ring control system one time in a few seconds. Control system forms local orbit bump to correct SR beam position. Achieved accuracy of stabilization is 10 microns. Now two such systems operate at SIBERIA-2 and we plan to extend this number. Reasons of SR beam movement, monitor design, data transmission system are described in the report. Features of storage ring correction system and optic are discussed.

  18. Experience of studying of formation the morpho-functional status of the population of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Nikolaev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In a review results more than 20-years studying age, sexual, constitutional and ethnic laws of morpho-functional variability of the population of Eastern Siberia are presented. Distinctions between groups of the population on overall dimensions, body composition, proportionality of a constitution are shown. The phenomena secular trend, a phenomenon long living people are studied and influence of ecological factors on the physical status of a growing organism is shown

  19. Communicating Hydrocephalus Following Eosinophilic Meningitis Is Pathogenic for Chronic Viliuisk Encephalomyelitis in Northeastern Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Storch; Jan Kassubek; Hayrettin Tumani; Vladimirtsev, Vsevolod A.; Andreas Hermann; Vladimir L Osakovsky; Vladimir A Baranov; Vadim G Krivoshapkin; Ludolph, Albert C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE) is an endemic neurological disease in Northeast Siberia and generally considered to be a chronic encephalomyelitis of unknown origin actually spreading in the Sakha (Yakutian) Republic. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In search for the pathophysiology and causative agent of VE, we performed a cross-sectional study on clinical, serological and neuroimaging data on chronic VE patients during two medical expeditions to three villages within the Vil...

  20. Chemical and dispersal characteristics of particulate emissions from forest fires in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. N. Samsonov; V. A. Ivanov; D. J. McRae; S. P. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 20 experimental fires were conducted on forest plots of 1-4 ha each in 2000-07 in two types of boreal forests in central Siberia, and 18 on 6 x 12-m plots in 2008-10. These experiments were designed to mimic wildfires under similar burning conditions. The fires were conducted in prescribed conditions including full documentation on pre-fire weather, pre-...

  1. Early investigations of permafrost in Siberia by Baltic-German and German scientists

    OpenAIRE

    FRITZSCHE, Diedrich; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2016-01-01

    In the 18th and 19th century several German and Baltic-German scientists investigated almost unknown territories of the Russian Empire. Many of them were invited by the Russian Imperators and some became academicians of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences,and later had considerable influence on the development of science in Russia in general and on the organization of expeditions to the Far East and Siberia in particular. German naturalists like Georg Wilhelm Steller (1709-1746...

  2. Air Pollution in Siberia. A Volume and Risk-Weighted Analysis of a Siberian Pollution Database

    OpenAIRE

    N.K. Warner-Merl

    1998-01-01

    Air pollution from industrial centers in Siberia pose observable environmental threats. Siberian ecosystems have begun to show stress from the accumulation of pollution depositions that come from cities and industrial plants. While some uncertainty exists as to the long-term effects of air pollution upon forests, in measurable terms such as human mortality and incidence of disease, forest species decline or forest dieback, observable impacts indicate that there is a cause for concern. Industr...

  3. [The data on helminth infestation of the Siberian tree frog (Rana amurensis Boulenger, 1886) in the western boundary of the range].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigileva, O N; Kirina, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    Helminth species composition and infection rates of the Siberian tree frog Rana amurensis in Western Siberia were studied. Four species of helminthes--nematodes Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and the trematode Haplometra cylindracea were found. Prevalence of helminths in the Siberian tree frog is 100%, and mean abundance is 27.5 +/- 4.8. Helminth species richness in the Siberian tree frog in the western periphery of their distribution area is lower than in the center of the range, in Yakutia and Transbaikalia, and is approximately equal to that in the northeastern boundary of the range, in Magadan Province. R. bufonis, a highly pathogenic nematode species, dominates in prevalence and abundance in the Siberian tree frog in Western Siberia as well as in other parts of the geographical range of this species.

  4. Palynofacies in upper cretaceous sediments of northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, N. K.

    2010-10-01

    Different palynomorph groups (spores and pollen of terrestrial plants, dinoflagellate cysts, prasinophytes, acritarchs, Zygnemataceae algae, and others) have been thoroughly studied to define major patterns in their distribution depending on the impact of different environmental factors and to establish their paleoecological characteristics. The comparative analysis of palynomorph assemblages from coeval Cenomanian-Coniacian sediments of the Ust’-Yenisei area, Berezovskaya 23k, Yuzhno-Russkaya 113, Leningradskaya-1 boreholes and Santonian-Campanian sequences of the Ust’-Yenisei, Khatanga and Polar Urals regions reveals transgressive-regressive cycles, which are best evident in coastal sections and smoothed in their marine counterparts. The biofacies and compositions of palynomorphs form the regular succession from the periphery toward central parts of the West Siberian basin. The facies successions in Santonian-Campanian sections of the eastern and western parts of the basin are inconsistent with each other, which may be explained by influence of both the West Siberian and Russian seas on sedimentation in its western areas.

  5. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Climatic Changes Based on a Multiproxy Lacustrine Sediment Record from Northeast Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorowski, H D; Anderson, P M; Sletten, R S; Lozhkin, A V; Brown, T A

    2008-05-20

    Palynological (species assemblage, pollen accumulation rate), geochemical (carbon to nitrogen ratios, organic carbon and biogenic silica content), and sedimentological (particle size, magnetic susceptibility) data combined with improved chronology and greater sampling resolution from a new core from Elikchan 4 Lake provide a stronger basis for defining paleoenvironmental changes than was previously possible. Persistence of herb-dominated tundra, slow expansion of Betula and Alnus shrubs, and low percentages of organic carbon and biogenic silica suggest that the Late-Glacial transition (ca. 16,000-11,000 cal. yr BP) was a period of gradual rather than abrupt vegetation and climatic change. Consistency of all Late-Glacial data indicates no Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. A dramatic peak in pollen accumulation rates (ca. 11,000-9800 cal. yr BP) suggests a possible summer temperature optimum, but finer grain-sizes, low magnetic susceptibility, and greater organic carbon and biogenic silica, while showing significant warming at ca. 11,000 cal. yr BP, offer no evidence of a Holocene thermal maximum. When compared to trends in other paleo-records, the new Elikchan data underscore the apparent spatial complexity of climatic responses in Northeast Siberia to global forcings between ca. 16,000-9000 cal. yr BP.

  6. Temporal and Spatial Wildfire Dynamics of Northern Siberia: Larch Forests and Insect Outbreak Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav; Antamoshkina, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2017-04-01

    Wildfire number and burned area temporal dynamics within all of Siberia and along a south-north transect in central Siberia (45 - 73°N) were studied based on NOAA/AVHRR and Terra/MODIS data and field measurements for the period since 1996. In addition, fire return interval along the south-north transect was analyzed. Third, pest outbreak (Siberian silkmoth) impact on the wildfires was studied. Both, number of forest fires and burned area in Siberia increased during recent decades. Significant correlations were found between forest fires, burned areas and air temperature (r = 0.5) and drought index (SPEI) (r = -0.43). Within larch stands along the transect wildfire frequency was strongly correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = 0.91). Fire danger period length decreased linearly from south to north along the transect. Fire return interval increased from 80 years at 62°N to 200 years at the Arctic Circle (66°33'N), and to about 300 years near the northern limit of closed forest stands ( 71+°N). That increase was negatively correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = -0.95). Siberian silkmoth outbreaks leads to an order of magnitude increase in burned area and fire frequency. Multiple fires turns former "dark needle conifer" taiga into grass and bush communities for decades.

  7. PGE mineralization and melt composition of chromitites in Proterozoic ophiolite complexes of Eastern Sayan, Southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kiseleva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ospino-Kitoi and Kharanur ultrabasic massifs represent the northern and southern ophiolite branches respectively of the Upper Onot ophiolitic nappe and they are located in the southeastern part of the Eastern Sayan (SEPES ophiolites. Podiform chromitites with PGE mineralization occur as lensoid pods within dunites and rarely in harzburgites or serpentinized peridotites. The chromitites are classified into type I and type II based on their Cr#. Type I (Cr# = 59–85 occurs in both northern and southern branches, whereas type II (Cr# = 76–90 occurs only in the northern branch. PGE contents range from ∑PGE 88–1189 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.04–0.42 to ∑PGE 250–1700 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.03–0.25 for type I chromitites of the northern and southern branches respectively. The type II chromitites of the northern branch have ∑PGE contents higher than that of type I (468–8617 ppb, Pt/Ir 0.1–0.33. Parental melt compositions, in equilibrium with podiform chromitites, are in the range of boninitic melts and vary in Al2O3, TiO2 and FeO/MgO contents from those of type I and type II chromitites. Calculated melt compositions for type I chromitites are (Al2O3melt = 10.6–13.5 wt.%, (TiO2melt = 0.01–0.44 wt.%, (Fe/Mgmelt = 0.42–1.81; those for type II chromitites are: (Al2O3melt = 7.8–10.5 wt.%, (TiO2melt = 0.01–0.25 wt.%, (Fe/Mgmelt = 0.5–2.4. Chromitites are further divided into Os-Ir-Ru (I and Pt-Pd (II based on their PGE patterns. The type I chromitites show only the Os-Ir-Ru pattern whereas type II shows both Os-Ir-Ru and Pt-Pd patterns. PGE mineralization in type I chromitites is represented by the Os-Ir-Ru system, whereas in type II it is represented by the Os-Ir-Ru-Rh-Pt system. These results indicate that chromitites and PGE mineralization in the northern branch formed in a suprasubduction setting from a fluid-rich boninitic melt during active subduction. However, the chromitites and PGE mineralization of the southern branch could have formed in a spreading zone environment. Mantle peridotites have been exposed in the area with remnants of mantle-derived reduced fluids, as indicated by the occurrence of widespread highly carbonaceous graphitized ultrabasic rocks and serpentinites with up to 9.75 wt.%. Fluid inclusions in highly carbonaceous graphitized ultrabasic rocks contain CO, CO2, CH4, N2 and the δ13C isotopic composition (−7.4 to −14.5‰ broadly corresponds to mantle carbon.

  8. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY WESTERN TRAVELLERS’ CONCEPTION OF THE ARĪM: RESTORING THE CULTURAL COMPLEXITY OF THE IJĀB IN ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faredah Mohsen al-Murahhem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines 19th   century Western travellers’ understanding of the ḥarīm. Focusing in  particular on visual  depictions,  it  investigates  the  misconception  and  misrepresentation  of  the  ḥarīm  in  Orientalists’ paintings and Western culture, using thework of the artist John Frederick Lewis as a main case study. Arguing that such representations oversimplify and fantasise sacred Islamic cultural experience,  this  paper,  as a counterpoint, restores a detailed understanding of the ḥarīm and defines its wider Islamic implication within Arabic culture. Applying etymology and Islamic scripture to the study of architectural design,  this study explores the centrality of the concept of ḥijāb (veil to the organisation of physical space for women in the Islamic home. Written from the perspective of an Arabic Muslim  woman, this study seeks to explore the concept of the ḥarīm from the “Others” perspective. Keyword: Western travellers, Orientalists, Muslim women, ḥarīm, Arabic culture

  9. Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of bioavailable iron from forests to the ocean

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    A. Ito

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of trace gases and aerosols. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM. The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of bioavailable iron (Fe into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia.

    Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (>30° N latitude over a 5-yr period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001–2005 (13–49 × 103 km2 yr−1 which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO (14–81 Tg CO y−1. Satellite observations of CO column from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. The model results for CO enhancements due to eastern Siberian fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These validation results suggest that the model using emission rates estimated in this work is able to describe the interannual changes in CO due to intense forest fires.

    Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources by anthropogenic pollutants (mainly sulfuric acid formed

  10. Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of bioavailable iron from forests to the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.

    2011-06-01

    Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of trace gases and aerosols. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM). The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of bioavailable iron (Fe) into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia. Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (>30° N latitude) over a 5-yr period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001-2005 (13-49 × 103 km2 yr-1) which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) (14-81 Tg CO y-1). Satellite observations of CO column from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. The model results for CO enhancements due to eastern Siberian fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These validation results suggest that the model using emission rates estimated in this work is able to describe the interannual changes in CO due to intense forest fires. Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources by anthropogenic pollutants (mainly sulfuric acid formed from oxidation of SO2) and from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources

  11. Reconstructing the landscape structure of the Lena-Angara interfluve (south part of Eastern Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atutova, Zhanna

    2015-04-01

    which were sown as a test and as frost/freeze protection for grain crops. The meadow complexes in this territory are the result of the economic activities; therefore, they were concentrated mainly nearby human residence. The banks of the Ilga river were populated by Tungus tribes, who were engaged in hunting, because they fell short of meadow spaces. The upper reaches of the Kulenga were the home for uluses (inhabited summer localities of the Buryats) with nearby utuks, a peculiar kind of artificial meadows where grasses were not sown but grew by themselves, without any human participation. The research done in this study forms part of the program focusing on the study into different-time characteristics of the landscape structure for the southern areas of the Angara-Lena interfluve. The findings will be compared with the contemporary landscape structure in order to determine the spatiotemporal specific character of variability in natural and transformed complexes. The reported study was partially supported by RFBR and Government of Irkutsk region, project No 14-45-04002 r_siberia_a.

  12. Polyphyly of the spring-parsleys (Cymopterus): molecular and morphological evidence suggests complex relationships among the perennial endemic genera of western North American Apiaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downie, S.R. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Dept. of Plant Biology, Urbana, Illinois (United States)]. E-mail: sdownlie@life.uiuc.edu; Hartman, R.L. [Univ. of Wyoming, Dept. of Botany, Laramie, Wyoming (United States); Sun, F.-J.; Katz-Downie, D.S. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Dept. of Plant Biology, Urbana, Illinois (United States)

    2002-12-15

    Cladistic analyses of DNA sequences from the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region and cpDNA rps16 intron and, for a subset of taxa, the cpDNA trnF-trnL-trnT locus were carried out to evaluate the monophyly of Cymopterus and to ascertain its phylogenetic placement among the other perennial genera of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) subfamily Apioideae endemic to western North America. To elucidate patterns in the evolution of specific fruit characters and to evaluate their utility in circumscribing genera unambiguously, additional evidence was procured from cross-sections of mature fruits and the results of cladistic analysis of 25 morphological characters. Analyses of the partitioned data sets resulted in weakly supported and largely unresolved phylogenetic hypotheses, possibly due to the rapid radiation of the group, whereas the combined analysis of all molecular evidence resulted in a well-resolved phylogeny with higher bootstrap support. The traditionally used fruit characters of wing shape and composition and orientation of mericarp compression are highly variable. The results of these analyses reveal that Cymopterus and Lomatium, the two largest genera of western North American Apiaceae, are polyphyletic, and that their species are inextricably linked with those of other endemic perennial genera of the region (such as, Aletes, Musineon, Oreoxis, Pseudocymopterus, Pteryxia, and Tauschia), many of which are also not monophyletic. Prior emphasis on characters of the fruit in all systems of classification of the group has led to highly artificial assemblages of species. A complete reassessment of generic limits of all western endemic Apiaceae is required, as is further systematic study of this intractable group. (author)

  13. GENETIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF POPULATIONS BELONGING TO THE BULINUS TRUNCATUS/TROPICUS COMPLEX (GASTROPODA; PLANORBIDAE) IN SOUTH WESTERN ZIMBABWE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratirwa, S.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    1998-01-01

    , in respect of allozyme variation (5 polymorphic loci), shell morphology (9 variables), copulatory organ and chromosome number. Comparative data were obtained from snails from north western Zimbabwe identified definitely as B. tropicus. Analysis of the genetic structure revealed a high degree of polymorphism...... among populations. Snails analyzed for chromosome number were all diploid (2n = 36). Snails exposed to Schistosoma haematobium mira-cidia were all refractory. This information supports the view of a single species, B. tropicus, which is differentiated due to migration barriers and where...

  14. The Registry and Follow-Up of Complex Pediatric Therapies Program of Western Canada: A Mechanism for Service, Audit, and Research after Life-Saving Therapies for Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene M. T. Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly emerging health technologies are being developed to care for children with complex cardiac defects. Neurodevelopmental and childhood school-related outcomes are of great interest to parents of children receiving this care, care providers, and healthcare administrators. Since the 1970s, neonatal follow-up clinics have provided service, audit, and research for preterm infants as care for these at-risk children evolved. We have chosen to present for this issue the mechanism for longitudinal follow-up of survivors that we have developed for western Canada patterned after neonatal follow-up. Our program provides registration for young children receiving complex cardiac surgery, heart transplantation, ventricular assist device support, and extracorporeal life support among others. The program includes multidisciplinary assessments with appropriate neurodevelopmental intervention, active quality improvement evaluations, and outcomes research. Through this mechanism, consistently high (96% follow-up over two years is maintained.

  15. Ruthenium(II) complexes: DNA-binding, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cellular localization, cell cycle arrest, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential and western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Yao, Jun-Hua; Wang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Ji; Han, Bing-Jie; Xie, Yang-Yin; Lin, Gan-Jian; Huang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2014-11-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate DNA-binding and cytotoxic activity of the four new Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(dmb)₂(HMHPIP)](ClO₄)₂ (1), [Ru(bpy)₂(HMHPIP)](ClO₄)₂ (2), [Ru(phen)₂(HMHPIP)](ClO₄)₂ (3) and [Ru(dmp)₂(HMHPIP)](ClO₄)₂ (4). The complexes interact with DNA through intercalative mode and show relatively high cytotoxic activity against A549 cells, no cytotoxicity toward MG-63 cells. Complexes 1-4 can enhance the levels of ROS in A549 cells and induce the decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential. These complexes inhibit the cell growth in A549 cells at G0/G1 or S phase. Complex 3 activated caspase 7, and down-regulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Complexes 1-4 induce apoptosis in A549 cells through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of climatic variability on population dynamics of the Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex and the rise of the Western Tripolye giant-settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harper, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a multi-scalar analysis of 1800 years of Cucuteni-Tripolye population dynamics, with particular emphasis on the rapid Western Tripolye migrations beginning c. 4150 B.C.E. that led to the development of the giant-settlement phenomenon in Central Ukraine. In addition to macro-scale population modeling, statistical analysis is performed to demonstrate a significant correlation between giant-settlement formation in the Southern Bug-Dnieper interfluve and proxies for a concurrent period of sudden, global climate change. Through the use of high-resolution climate data, this research compliments and expands upon existing theories of climate effects on Cucuteni-Tripolye population dynamics and settlement agglomeration.

  17. Complex movements, philopatry and expanded depth range of a severely threatened pelagic shark, the oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus in the western North Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy A Howey-Jordan

    Full Text Available Oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus have recently been targeted for conservation in the western North Atlantic following severe declines in abundance. Pop-up satellite archival tags were applied to 11 mature oceanic whitetips (10 females, 1 male near Cat Island in the central Bahamas 1-8 May 2011 to provide information about the horizontal and vertical movements of this species. Another large female was opportunistically tagged in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Data from 1,563 total tracking days and 1,142,598 combined depth and temperature readings were obtained. Sharks tagged at Cat Island stayed within 500 km of the tagging site for ~30 days before dispersing across 16,422 km(2 of the western North Atlantic. Maximum individual displacement from the tagging site ranged from 290-1940 km after times at liberty from 30-245 days, with individuals moving to several different destinations (the northern Lesser Antilles, the northern Bahamas, and north of the Windward Passage. Many sharks returned to The Bahamas after ~150 days. Estimated residency times within The Bahamas EEZ, where longlining and commercial trade of sharks is illegal, were generally high (mean = 68.2% of time. Sharks spent 99.7% of their time shallower than 200 m and did not exhibit differences in day and night mean depths. There was a positive correlation between daily sea surface temperature and mean depth occupied, suggesting possible behavioral thermoregulation. All individuals made short duration (mean = 13.06 minutes dives into the mesopelagic zone (down to 1082 m and 7.75°C, which occurred significantly more often at night. Ascent rates during these dives were significantly slower than descent rates, suggesting that these dives are for foraging. The sharks tracked appear to be most vulnerable to pelagic fishing gear deployed from 0-125 m depths, which they may encounter from June to October after leaving the protected waters of The Bahamas EEZ.

  18. Preface to the Special Issue on Geodynamic and Climate-Change Processes over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia

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    Cheinway Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS are regions with active plate tectonics. Evidence from satellite gravimetry and altimetry shows the hydrological evolutions over these regions are sensitive to global climate change. For example, inter-annual lake level changes over Tibet and Xinjiang from satellite altimetry are found to be connected to the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Lakes in central Asia, Xinjiang and Siberia show sharp changes in lake levels that can be explained by climate change. Recent terrestrial gravity, GRACE and GPS observations suggest that the crust over the Tibetan plateau is thickening, and the Himalayan glaciers appear to be thinning. Satellite altimetry is a potential tool to study vertical displacement and permafrost thawing and changes in the active layers in Siberia and Tibet.

  19. PICASSO: Shear velocities in the Western Mediterranean from Rayleigh Wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Mediterranean has been affected by complex subduction and slab rollback, simultaneously with compression due to African-European convergence. The deformed region occupies a wide area from the intra-continental Atlas mountain belt in Morocco to the southern Iberian Massif in Spain. Evolutionary models of the Western Mediterranean invoke extensive slab rollback and compression in the Cenozoic, as well as likely upper mantle delamination scenarios during formation of the Alboran domain, the Betics, Rif, and Atlas Mountains. PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) is a multidisciplinary, international investigation of the Alboran System and surrounding areas. In this study we have analyzed data from the 95 PICASSO broadband stations with data from the Spanish IberArray and Siberia Array in Spain and Morocco, the University of Muenster array in the Atlas Mountains and the permanent Spanish and Portuguese networks. We present Rayleigh wave tomography results made from 168 teleseimic events recorded by 237 stations from April 2009 to April 2011. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities using the two-plane-wave method to remove complications due to multi-pathing, and finite-frequency kernels to improve lateral resolution. Phase velocities were then inverted for shear velocity structure on a grid of 0.5 by 0.5 degree to form a well-resolved 3D shear velocity model to 230 km depth. Our results show low S-velocities (2.9 km/s) in the crust beneath the Gibraltar Strait. Low upper mantle S-velocities are mapped beneath the Middle and High Atlas at ~60 km depth suggesting an elevated asthenosphere beneath these young mountain belts, in agreement with receiver functions analysis (Thurner et al, this session). Beneath the Western Alboran Sea, upper-mantle velocities change laterally from high velocities (>4.5 km/s) in the east to lower velocities to the west (~4.3 km/s). The Rayleigh wave tomography is consistent with P-tomography that

  20. Dynamics of the larch taiga-permafrost coupled system in Siberia under climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ningning [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Yasunari, Tetsuzo [Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ohta, Takeshi, E-mail: zhangningning@lasg.iap.ac.cn [Study Consortium for Earth-Life Interactive Systems (SELIS) of Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Larch taiga, also known as Siberian boreal forest, plays an important role in global and regional water-energy-carbon (WEC) cycles and in the climate system. Recent in situ observations have suggested that larch-dominated taiga and permafrost behave as a coupled eco-climate system across a broad boreal zone of Siberia. However, neither field-based observations nor modeling experiments have clarified the synthesized dynamics of this system. Here, using a new dynamic vegetation model coupled with a permafrost model, we reveal the processes of interaction between the taiga and permafrost. The model demonstrates that under the present climate conditions in eastern Siberia, larch trees maintain permafrost by controlling the seasonal thawing of permafrost, which in turn maintains the taiga by providing sufficient water to the larch trees. The experiment without permafrost processes showed that larch would decrease in biomass and be replaced by a dominance of pine and other species that suffer drier hydroclimatic conditions. In the coupled system, fire not only plays a destructive role in the forest, but also, in some cases, preserves larch domination in forests. Climate warming sensitivity experiments show that this coupled system cannot be maintained under warming of about 2 deg. C or more. Under such conditions, a forest with typical boreal tree species (dark conifer and deciduous species) would become dominant, decoupled from the permafrost processes. This study thus suggests that future global warming could drastically alter the larch-dominated taiga-permafrost coupled system in Siberia, with associated changes of WEC processes and feedback to climate.

  1. Factors promoting larch dominance in Eastern Siberia: fire versus growth performance and implications for carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Wirth, C.; Mollicone, D.; von Lüpke, N.; Ziegler, W.; Achard, F.; Mund, M.; Prokushkin, A.; Scherbina, S.

    2012-01-01

    The relative roles of fire and climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of Central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of Eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in canopy species composition is based (1) on climate-driven performance only, (2) on fire only, or (3) on fire-performance interactions. We show that the evergreen conifers Picea obovata and Abies sibirica are the natural late-successional species both in Central and Eastern Siberia, provided there has been no fire for an extended period of time. There are no changes in the climate-driven performance of the observed species. Fire appears to be the main factor explaining the dominance of Larix. Of lesser influence were longitude, hydrology and active-layer thickness. Stand-replacing fires decreased from 300 to 50 yr between the Yenisei Ridge and the upper Tunguska. Repeated non-stand-replacing surface fires eliminated the regeneration of Abies and Picea. With every 100 yr since the last fire, the percentage of Larix decreased by 20 %. Biomass of stems of single trees did not show signs of age-related decline. Relative diameter increment was 0.41 ± 0.20 % at breast height and stem volume increased linearly over time with a rate of about 0.36 t C ha-1 yr-1 independent of age class and species. Stand volumes reached about 130 t C ha-1 (equivalent to about 520 m3 ha-1). Individual trees of Larix were older than 600 yr. The maximum age and biomass seemed to be limited by fungal rot of heart wood. 60 % of old Larix and Picea and 30 % of Pinus sibirica trees were affected by stem rot. Implications for the future role of fire and of plant diseases are discussed.

  2. Ecosystem resilience to abrupt late Quaternary change in continental southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Poppy; Mackay, Anson; Bezrukova, Elena; Shchetnikov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Quaternary climate variability is dominated by long term orbital forcing along with abrupt sub-Milankovitch events on the scales of millennia to centuries, driven by internal feedback mechanisms, volcanic forcing and fluctuating solar activity. Although these are well documented in the North Atlantic region, their expression is poorly understood in Siberia, particularly in relation to abrupt climatic events. Siberia has the world's highest level of continentality offering an opportunity to study changes remote from oceanic influences and improving understanding of interactions between the Siberian High and other atmospheric systems including the Aleutian Low, Arctic oscillation and Icelandic Low1 and ENSO2. Understanding of palaeoenvironmental change in Siberia is essential due to the region's high sensitivity to climatic change, with warming rates considerably higher than the global average over the past 50 years3, triggering significant environmental changes, including permafrost degradation, shifts in the forest-steppe biome, increases in forest fires and warming of seasonally ice-covered lakes. Additionally, the region provides essential palaeoenvironmental context for early hominins, for example at globally important sites such as Denisova cave4, and megafauna extinctions5. This presentation outlines ongoing work at Lake Baunt, SE Siberia including: key quaternary climate forcings, the site and its regional context, the key methods and preliminary results. These include a dated record back to ˜30ka BP (based on multiple 14C dates and Bayesian age modelling), multiproxy indicators of palaeoproductivity (e.g. biogenic silica and diatom analyses) and lake mixing regimes (inferred from diatom analyses). Together these highlight several key Quaternary fluctuations potentially correlated to events recorded in Greenland Ice Cores (GS2, GS2.1, GI1, GS1), and these are considered against key Quaternary records including those from nearby Lake Baikal and Hulu Cave in

  3. The Evenki Memorial Tree and Trail: Negotiating with a Memorial Regime in the North Baikal, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika V. Simonova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Based upon the ethnography gathered among Evenkis living in Kholodnoye village in the northern coastal area of Lake Baikal in Siberia this article discusses relationships between local memorial practices and official memorial regimes. Although negotiation between authoritative and alternative memories and histories is typically portrayed in terms of resistance, in North Baikal it should be approached differently. Thus Evenkis in alliance with the Taiga creatively engage with official memorial regime in a way local practices of remembering serve positively for the local community. Remembering becomes a 'language' to interact with state powers and external audiences.

  4. Ethnomyocological data from Siberia and North-East Asia on the effect of Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M

    1991-02-01

    The paper includes literary data on the use of Amanita muscaria in Siberia and North-East Asia as well as information collected from ethnographers investigating these areas during the past decades. A survey is given on the cases and rules of Amanita muscaria consumption and the ways of its administration. The peoples having the tradition of Amanita muscaria consumption were aware of its different psychotrophic qualities and were able to use for several purposes. The fungus has been used by them as a psychostimulant having a simultaneous effect on several psychic functions.

  5. Glaciation of West Siberia – disputable questions and means of their solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Sheinkman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different approaches to the problem of Quaternary glaciation of the North-West Siberia have been considered in the present paper, in which also analysis of glaciological situation has been done for the region. New obtained materials are given to show evidence of ancient glaciation in the Near-Ural region. As well the middle reach of the Ob’ River along its right-hand bank has been elucidated. The stated data have clearly demonstrated that diverse geological processes occurred to form the Quaternary deposits in the North-West Siberia. Partly it was an activity of glaciers advanced to the lowland from the centers of glaciation in the surrounding mountains. A role of not small importance belonged also to tectonic processes, which Ob’ erosion-accumulative influence and sea transgressions from the Arctic Ocean were connected with. At that all these occurred at the background of deep rock freezing. Study of moraines along the whole length of valleys from the ends of the modern glaciers until the formations of the maximal advance of ancient glaciers confirm our previous conclusion that glaciation also in this part of Siberia could be morphologically of a mountain-valley form only. Developing under conditions of strong permafrost and cryoaridization, the Pleistocene glaciers in the North-West Siberia concentrated in its mountains and did not advance farther than to the foothills. The upland of Siberian Uval, which sometimes has been considered as a moraine relic, presents another formation. It is a completely built system of Ob’ terraces representing the blocks of uplift deposits elevated by tectonics along the renewed ancient faults. The conclusion demonstrates that the subsequent spread of the stone moraine material happened as a result of movement of icebergs which broke of the glaciers with the trapped rock debris during sea transgressions from the Arctic Ocean. It has been established that, according to the results of absolute dating of the

  6. Cap-shaped gastropods from Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of northern East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzhov, A. V.; Zakharov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    Cap-shaped gastropods are first identified in Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sections of northern East Siberia. They belong to three new genera of the subclass Pectinibranchia ( Boreioconus gen. nov., Nixepileolus gen. nov., and Taimyroconus gen. nov.), which are identified at the species level ( B. bojarkensis sp. nov., N. depressus sp. nov., T. zakharovi sp. nov.), and several species with the open nomenclature. The genus Taimyroconus attributed to the family Calyptraeidae is considered as an ancestral form of the genus Crepidula. The stratigraphic position of each taxon is determined for several sections. The facies confinement, habitat conditions, and ethology of defined genera are considered with the analysis of their geographic distribution.

  7. Complex Movements, Philopatry and Expanded Depth Range of a Severely Threatened Pelagic Shark, the Oceanic Whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus) in the Western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey-Jordan, Lucy A.; Brooks, Edward J.; Abercrombie, Debra L.; Jordan, Lance K. B.; Brooks, Annabelle; Williams, Sean; Gospodarczyk, Emily; Chapman, Demian D.

    2013-01-01

    Oceanic whitetip sharks (Carcharhinus longimanus) have recently been targeted for conservation in the western North Atlantic following severe declines in abundance. Pop-up satellite archival tags were applied to 11 mature oceanic whitetips (10 females, 1 male) near Cat Island in the central Bahamas 1–8 May 2011 to provide information about the horizontal and vertical movements of this species. Another large female was opportunistically tagged in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Data from 1,563 total tracking days and 1,142,598 combined depth and temperature readings were obtained. Sharks tagged at Cat Island stayed within 500 km of the tagging site for ∼30 days before dispersing across 16,422 km2 of the western North Atlantic. Maximum individual displacement from the tagging site ranged from 290–1940 km after times at liberty from 30–245 days, with individuals moving to several different destinations (the northern Lesser Antilles, the northern Bahamas, and north of the Windward Passage). Many sharks returned to The Bahamas after ∼150 days. Estimated residency times within The Bahamas EEZ, where longlining and commercial trade of sharks is illegal, were generally high (mean = 68.2% of time). Sharks spent 99.7% of their time shallower than 200 m and did not exhibit differences in day and night mean depths. There was a positive correlation between daily sea surface temperature and mean depth occupied, suggesting possible behavioral thermoregulation. All individuals made short duration (mean = 13.06 minutes) dives into the mesopelagic zone (down to 1082 m and 7.75°C), which occurred significantly more often at night. Ascent rates during these dives were significantly slower than descent rates, suggesting that these dives are for foraging. The sharks tracked appear to be most vulnerable to pelagic fishing gear deployed from 0–125 m depths, which they may encounter from June to October after leaving the protected waters of The Bahamas EEZ

  8. Release of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from small wetland lakes in western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repo, M.E.; Huttunen, J.T.; Martikainen, P.J. [Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Env ironmental Science, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Naumov, A.V.; Chichulin, A.V. [I nst. of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Russian Academy of Science, 630099 Novos ibirsk (Russian Federation); Lapshina, E.D. [Yugra State Univ., 628012, Khanty-Mansiysk (Russian Federation); Bleuten , W. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Physical Geography,3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-11-15

    CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes were measured from three small wetland lakes located in the middle taiga and forest tundra zones on West Siberian Lowlands (WSL), the world's largest wetland area. Fluxes were measured during summer 2005 using floating chambers and were validated against the thin boundary layer model based on the relationship between gas exchange and wind speed. All studied lakes were supersaturated with CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}, and acted on a seasonal basis as sources of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Daily mean CO{sub 2} fluxes measured with chambers ranged from near the zero to 3.1 g CO{sub 2}/m{sup 2}/d and corresponding CH{sub 4} fluxes from 1.1 to 120 mg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2}/d. CH{sub 4} ebullition (0.65-11 mg CH{sub 4}/m{sup 2}/d) was detected in two of the lakes. Total carbon evasion from the studied lakes during the active season was 23-66 g C/m{sup 2}, of which more than 90% was released as CO{sub 2}-C. The carbon loss per unit area from the studied lakes was of similar magnitude as previously reported values of net carbon uptake of Siberian peatlands. This emphasizes the importance of small water-bodies in the carbon balance of West Siberian landscape.

  9. Epidemiological evaluation of iodine deficiencyand thyroid disorders in the megalopolis of western Siberia in 1995–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O D Rymar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze iodine sufficiency and to evaluate thyroid structural and functional status in Novosibirsk citizens for the 1995–2010 periods.Methods and materials. Thyroid structural and functional status, as well as iodine deficiency, were evaluated in Novosibirsk population of adults and adolescents within the international projects MONIСA (1994–1995 and HAPIEE (2004–2005 and cross-sectional populational screening of random representative sample of school students. Results. In 1994–1995 iodine deficiency (mainly minor or moderate was revealed at 83% of adult Novosibirsk citizens at age 25–34. Median urinary iodine concentration was 47 μg/l. In adolescent population subclinical hypothyreosis was initially revealed in 1,5%. Another 1,5% of adolescents had initially diagnosed subclinical hyperthyreosis. In 2005 median urinary iodine concentration in adult (45–69 years old was 107 μg/l. Among all urine samples median urinary iodine concentration of more than 100 μg/l (100–360 μg/l was revealed in 54%, 13% had median urinary iodine concentration less than 50 μg/l. During the period 2009–2010 median urinary iodine concentration in adolescents (14–17 years old was 93 μg/l. Among all urine samples median urinary iodine concentration of more than 100 μg/l (100–360 μg/l was revealed in 39%, 7% had median urinary iodine concentration less than 50 μg/l. According to the above mentioned results mass iodine deficiency preventive actions lead to the increase of urinary iodine concentration in Siberian. However to the moment iodine deficiency in Novosibirsk is still exists. Persistent community oriented measures are necessary for the prevention of iodine deficiency.

  10. Reasons for the outbreak of microphytoplankton productivity in the late Oligocene Turtas Lake-Sea, Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, O. B.; Kuzmin, D. V.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2017-06-01

    Palynological (dinocysts) and geochemical data were compared for the first time for Paleogene sediments of borehole no. 8 (settlement of Russkaya Polyana, Omsk oblast). The layers with a concentrated amount of dinocysts of the genus Pseudokomewuia (20.5% of the palynocomplex) are characterized by higher contents of Fe, P, Ti, Nb, Ta, and W. The microphytoplankton bloom (an analog of the present-day red tides) in the late Oligocene Turtas Lake-Sea was probably caused by a greater contribution of nutrient substances from the continent during the transgression of this basin. Comparative analysis of the geochemical features of marine and continental Paleogene sediments from borehole no. 8 showed that the Turtas basin was either freshwater or had brackish water.

  11. [On the fauna and ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in forest-steppe and steppe regions of Western Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaeva, A G; Smirnova, Iu A; Iurchenko, Iu A; Kononova, Iu A

    2007-01-01

    Fauna and ecology of the mosquitoes from the southern forest-steppe (Chany Lake) and the northern steppe (Karasuksky lakes) have been investigated during 2004-2006. Species composition, dominant species, biotopical and seasonal distribution are examined. Detailed data on the biotopical and seasonal distribution, sex ratio and terms of development for the dominant species Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889) are reported.

  12. Structure of sediments of the final stage of the Kazantsevo transgression (MIS 5) in the north of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, E. A.; Molod'kov, A. N.

    2012-04-01

    The section of Kazanian marine sediments in the mouth of the Yenisei in the area of Ladygin Yar is studied with use of electron spin resonance analysis of shell remains of malacofauna and infrared optically stimulated luminescence analyses of grains of field spars. The results obtained fall within the interval from 77 000 to 71 000 years, which allows one to associate this strata with the final stage of the Kazanian transgression. Transgress sediments with vast boreal fauna of marine mollusks including representative species Arctica islandica accumulated during the MIS 5 period eliminate the possibility of existence of a glacial environment in the lower courses of the Yenisei and, moreover, the location of the region under the shield of ice sheet within this period.

  13. Characterization of solid airborne particles deposited in snow in the vicinity of urban fossil fuel thermal power plant (Western Siberia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talovskaya, A V; Yazikov, E G; Filimonenko, E A; Lata, J-C; Kim, J; Shakhova, T S

    2017-07-20

    Recognition and detailed characterization of solid particles emitted from thermal power plants into the environment is highly important due to their potential detrimental effects on human health. Snow cover is used for the identification of anthropogenic emissions in the environment. However, little is known about types, physical and chemical properties of solid airborne particles (SAP) deposited in snow around thermal power plants. The purpose of this study is to quantify and characterize in detail the traceable SAP deposited in snow near fossil fuel thermal power plant in order to identify its emissions into the environment. Applying the scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, mineral and anthropogenic phase groups in SAP deposited in snow near the plant and in fly ash were observed. We identified quartz, albite and mullite as most abundant mineral phases and carbonaceous matter, slag and spherical particles as dominate anthropogenic phases. This is the first study reporting that zircon and anthropogenic sulphide-bearing, metal oxide-bearing, intermetallic compound-bearing and rare-earth element-bearing particles were detected in snow deposits near thermal power plant. The identified mineral and anthropogenic phases can be used as tracers for fossil fuel combustion emissions, especially with regard to their possible effect on human health.

  14. On the Variability of the Family Names of Czech Migrants’ Descendants in the Northern Caucasus and Western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Skorvid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the systems of family names characteristic for the communities of Czech migrants living in Russia in several villages near Novorossiysk and Anapa in the Northern Caucasus and in the Middle Irtysh area in Omsk Region which emerged in the 1860s and in the early 20th century respectively, as a result of migration of two different groups of Czech peasants. The article also takes into account, though selectively, family names of the Polish dialect speakers living in the Republic of Khakassia in Russia. The author points out that both Czech groups preserve unofficial local family names typical of the community’s initial Czech dialectal zones, southwestern in the first case and northeastern in the second. These unofficial names seem to be opposed to Russified official family names which are used in communication with the world outside the community. The semantic base of local, “internal” family names coming, in general, from possessive adjectives, is built on the expression of belonging to a family or to a house, these meanings being particularly important in female family names which display some notable parallels between the observed groups of Czech and Polish migrants in Russia.

  15. Cytotoxic activity, DNA damage, cellular uptake, apoptosis and western blot analysis of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex against human lung decarcinoma A549 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shang-Hai; Jiang, Guang-Bin; Yao, Jun-Hua; Li, Wei; Han, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Cheng; Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2015-11-01

    A new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex [Ru(dmp)2(pddppn)](ClO4)2Ru1 was synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxic activity in vitro of the complex was evaluated by MTT method. Ru1 shows high effect on the inhibition of the cell growth against BEL-7402, HeLa, MG-63 and A549 cells with low IC50 values of 1.6±0.4, 9.0±0.8, 1.5±0.2 and 1.5±0.3 μM, respectively. The cellular uptake indicates that Ru1 can enter into the cytoplasm and accumulate in the cell nuclei. Ru1 can induce apoptosis in A549 cells and enhance the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, Ru1 can down-regulate the levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bak, and Bim expression and up-regulate the expression of Bag-1 and Bad. The complex induces apoptosis of A549 cells through an intrinsic ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway, which was accompanied by regulating the expression of caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring of iodine deficiency in Central Siberia according the results of neonatal TSHscreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Osokina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to estimate the iodine deficiency and the effectiveness of IDD prevention in Central Siberia according the results of neonatal TSHscreening. Methods. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism used as an indicator of the degree of iodine deficiency and of its control. We analyzed the neonatal TSH values of 34980 infants born in 2008–2009. Results. According to the data of the congenital hypothyroidism screening the rate of TSH < 5 mU/1 was 11.8% in the Krasnoyarsk territory (23.9% in 2000 and corresponded to mild iodine deficiency. In different regions of the Krasnoyarsk territory the rate of TSH < 5 mU/1 in the newborn varied from 3.5% to 23.7%. The highest values were marked in the Taimyr, in Irbeysky, Suchobuzimsky, Eniseysky, Tuchtetsky, Novoselovsky regions, in Zheleznogorsk and Sosnovoborsk city (20.9–23.7%. In Khakasia the rate of TSH < 5 mU/1 was 12.2%. In the Republic of Tyva – 6.6% (38.6% in 1997; 11.5% in 2000. It corresponding to mild iodine deficie ncy. Conclusion. Our investigations show that in Central Siberia there is mild iodine deficiency demanding continuous adequate iodine prevention.

  17. Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Forest Dynamics in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, K. J.; Sun, G.; Kharuk, V. I.; Howl, J.

    2011-01-01

    The forested regions of Siberia, Russia are vast and contain about a quarter of the world's forests that have not experienced harvesting. However, many Siberian forests are facing twin pressures of rapidly changing climate and increasing timber harvest activity. Monitoring the dynamics and mapping the structural parameters of the forest is important for understanding the causes and consequences of changes observed in these areas. Because of the inaccessibility and large extent of this forest, remote sensing data can play an important role for observing forest state and change. In Central Siberia, multi-sensor remote sensing data have been used to monitor forest disturbances and to map above-ground biomass from the Sayan Mountains in the south to the taiga-tundra boundaries in the north. Radar images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C)/XSAR mission were used for forest biomass estimation in the Sayan Mountains. Radar images from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1), European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) and Canada's RADARSAT-1, and data from ETM+ on-board Landsat-7 were used to characterize forest disturbances from logging, fire, and insect damage in Boguchany and Priangare areas.

  18. Climate-Induced Mortality of Siberian Pine and Fir in the Lake Baikal Watershed, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Petrova, IIya A.; Golyukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Yagunov, Mikhail N.

    2016-01-01

    Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) and fir (Abies sibirica) (so called "dark needle conifers", DNC) showed decreased radial growth increment within the Lake Baikal watershed since the 1980s with increasing mortality recorded since the year 2000. Tree ring width was strongly correlated with vapor pressure deficit, aridity and root zone moisture. Water stress from droughts made trees more susceptible to insect attacks causing mortality in about 10% of DNC stands within the Lake Baikal watershed. Within Siberia DNC mortality increased in the southern part of the DNC range. Biogeographically, tree mortality was located within the DNC - forest-steppes transition. Tree mortality was significantly correlated with drought and soil moisture anomalies. Within the interior of the DNC range mortality occurred within relief features with high water stress risk (i.e., steep convex south facing slopes with shallow well-drained soils). In general, DNC mortality in Siberia was induced by increased aridity and severe drought (inciting factors) in synergy with biotic attacks (contributing factor). In future climate scenarios with predicted increase in aridity DNC could be eliminated from the southern part of its current range and will be replaced by drought-resistant conifers and broadleaf species (e.g., Larix sibirica, Pinus silvestris, and Betula pubescence).

  19. Mayer Kangri metamorphic complexes in Central Qiangtang (Tibet, western China): implications for the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics associated with the Paleo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Genhou; Yuan, Guoli; Bons, Paul D.

    2017-09-01

    The Mesozoic orogeny in Central Qiangtang Metamorphic Belt, northern Tibet, provides important insights into the geological evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. However, the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics, particularly those associated with the continental collisionstage, remains poorly constrained. Here we present results from geological mapping, structural analysis, P-T data, and Ar-Ar geochronology of the Mayer Kangri metamorphic complex. Our data reveal an E-W-trending, 2 km wide dome-like structure associated with four successive tectonic events during the Middle Triassic and Early Jurassic. Field observations indicate that amphibolite and phengite schist complexes in this complex are separated from the overlying lower greenschist mélange by normal faulting with an evident dextral shearing component. Open antiform-like S2 foliation of the footwall phengite schist truncates the approximately north-dipping structures of the overlying mélange. Microtextures and mineral chemistry of amphibole reveal three stages of growth: Geothermobarometric estimates yield temperatures and pressures of 524 °C and 0.88 GPa for pargasite cores, 386 °C and 0.34 GPa for actinolite mantles, and 404 °C and 0.76 GPa for winchite rims. Peak blueschist metamorphism in the phengite schist occurred at 0.7-1.1 GPa and 400 °C. Our Ar-Ar dating of amphibole reveals rim-ward decreasing in age bands, including 242.4-241.2 Ma, ≥202.6-196.8, and 192.9-189.8 Ma. The results provide evidence for four distinct phases of Mesozoic tectonic evolution in Central Qiangtang: (1) northward oceanic subduction beneath North Qiangtang ( 244-220 Ma); (2) syn-collisional slab-break off (223-202 Ma); (3) early collisional extension driven by buoyant extrusion flow from depth ( 202.6-197 Ma); and (4) post-collision contraction and reburial (195.6-188.7 Ma).

  20. Spontaneous occurrence and dispersion of Aronia ×prunifolia (Marshall Rehder (Rosaceae in Poland on the example of the "Bagna" bog complex near Chlebowo (western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Celka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents information on a new to Poland synanthropic species - Aronia ×prunifolia (purple chokeberry.Purple chokeberry is cultivated worldwide as a fruit and decorative plant. In various regions of the world the process of its naturalisation outside the places of cultivation has been observed. In Europe, it is visible, among others, in Holland and Germany. In Poland, the first case was recorded in the "Bagna" bog complex near Chlebowo (Wielkopolska region. In this study, the distribution of Aronia ×prunifolia in Poland has been presented (square ATPOL BC67, BC68 as well as its spread and conditions of occurrence.

  1. Understanding the mechanisms of blooming of phytoplankton in Lake Shira, a saline lake in Siberia (the Republic of Khakasia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degermendzhy, A.G.; Gulati, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarises the results of a three-year research study (European Union Grant: INTAS 97-O519) aimed at investigating the planktonic populations and trophic organization of the Lake Shira ecosystem – a saline lake in Khakasia, Siberia. The lake exhibits a stable summer-autumn stratification

  2. Experience and Perspectives of Art History Development in Educational Space of Siberia at the Turn of XX-XXI ?enturies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhvyadovich, Larisa Ivanovna; Chernyaeva, Irina Valerievna

    2016-01-01

    The article has a program-analytical nature, contains an analysis and assessment of the scientific school of T. M. Stepanskaya, Doctor of Arts, professor, member of Russian Union of Artists. The goal of T. M. Stepanskaya's professional activity is incorporation of Art History in higher educational institutions in Siberia. The authors consider the…

  3. Long-term measurements (2010–2014 of carbonaceous aerosol and carbon monoxide at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO in central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Mikhailov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present long-term (5-year measurements of particulate matter with an upper diameter limit of ∼ 10 µm (PM10, elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC in aerosol filter samples collected at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory in the middle-taiga subzone (Siberia. The data are complemented with carbon monoxide (CO measurements. Air mass back trajectory analysis and satellite image analysis were used to characterise potential source regions and the transport pathway of haze plumes. Polluted and background periods were selected using a non-parametric statistical approach and analysed separately. In addition, near-pristine air masses were selected based on their EC concentrations being below the detection limit of our thermal–optical instrument. Over the entire sampling campaign, 75 and 48 % of air masses in winter and in summer, respectively, and 42 % in spring and fall are classified as polluted. The observed background concentrations of CO and EC showed a sine-like behaviour with a period of 365 ± 4 days, mostly due to different degrees of dilution and the removal of polluted air masses arriving at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO from remote sources. Our analysis of the near-pristine conditions shows that the longest periods with clean air masses were observed in summer, with a frequency of 17 %, while in wintertime only 1 % can be classified as a clean. Against a background of low concentrations of CO, EC, and OC in the near-pristine summertime, it was possible to identify pollution plumes that most likely came from crude-oil production sites located in the oil-rich regions of Western Siberia. Overall, our analysis indicates that most of the time the Siberian region is impacted by atmospheric pollution arising from biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions. A relatively clean atmosphere can be observed mainly in summer, when polluted species are removed by precipitation and

  4. THE GEOCHEMISTRY AND AGES OF ROCKS IN THE FOOTWALL OF THE BUTULIYN-NUR AND ZAGAN METAMORPHIC CORE COMPLEXES (NORTH MONGOLIA – WESTERN TRANSBAIKALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Donskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews data on ages of rocks in the footwall of the Butuliyn-Nur and Zagan metamorphic core complexes (MCC and provides new data on the geochemistry of the rock complexes. It is noted that the oldest rocks are mylonitized gneisses on rhyolites (554 Ma in the footwall of the Butuliyn-Nur MCC. The Late Permian – Triassic (249–211 Ma igneous rocks are ubiquitous in the footwall of the Butuliyn-Nur and Zagan MCC. The youngest rocks in the studied MCC are the Jurassic granitoids (178–152 Ma of the Naushki and Verhnemangirtui massifs. In the footwall of the Butuliyn-Nur and Zagan MCC, the most common are granitoids and felsic volcanic rocks (249–211 Ma with many similar geochemical characteristics, such as high alkalinity, high contents of Sr and Ba, moderate and low concentrations of Nb and Y. Considering the contents of trace elements and REE, the granitoids and the felsic volcanic rocks are similar to I-type granites. Specific compositions of these rocks suggest that they might have formed in conditions of the active continental margin of the Siberian continent over the subducting oceanic plate of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. The granitoids of the Naushki and Verhnemangirtui massifs, which are the youngest of the studied rocks (178–152 Ma, also have similar geochemical characteristics. In both massif, granitoids are ferriferous, mostly alkaline rocks. By contents of both major and trace elements, they are comparable to A-type granites. Such granitoids formed in conditions of intracontinental extension while subduction was replaced by collision. Based on ages and geochemical characteristics of the rocks in the footwall of the Butuliyn-Nur and Zagan MCC, a good correlation is revealed between the studied rocks  and the rock complexes of the Transbaikalian and North-Mongolian segments of the Central Asian fold belt (CAFB, and it can thus be suggested that the regions under study may have a common evolutionary history.

  5. Controls on the formation of Cu-rich magmas: Insights from the Late Triassic post-collisional Saishitang complex in the eastern Kunlun Orogen, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyang; Yang, Zhibing; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Changqian; Li, Jianwei; Pan, Yuanming

    2017-05-01

    Petrogenesis of high Sr/Y andesitic to dacitic Cu-rich magmas remains highly controversial and has been attributed to be related to either particular sources or differentiation processes/conditions. This study provides a comprehensive petrological and geochemical dataset including Cu, Au and Pt systematics in the Saishitang complex in the eastern Kunlun Orogen to investigate the influence of the magmatic source and differentiation processes on Cu enrichment in a post-collisional, slab-derived magmatic system. The Saishitang complex contains a 233 Ma plutonic main body and tens of porphyritic dykes intruded at 218 Ma, and hosts skarn copper mineralization formed at 218-224 Ma. The main intrusion consists of quartz diorite, granodiorite and minor amounts of monzogranite, whereas the porphyritic dykes vary from diorite to quartz diorite, granodiorite and granite. The porphyritic diorites, with high MgO, Ni and Cr contents and moderately high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, were most likely derived from partial melting of the subducted slab and overlying sediments and then interacted with mantle peridotite. Mineral compositions and geochemical data, as well as mass-balance, Rayleigh fractionation and isotopic mixing modeling show that the parent magmas subsequently experienced simultaneous assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) at both the lower and the mid-to-upper crustal levels, and were finally emplaced to different upper crustal levels. Systematic Cu and Au variations during the Saishitang magmatic evolution suggest that the lower crustal AFC process improved the Cu budget by approximately one order of magnitude and therefore was the most critical factor in controlling the formation of Cu-rich magmas, although other processes such as slab melting and sulfide saturation were also important.

  6. «Society for Welfare of Workers and Employees of Gold and Mining Fields» as a Source on Research of Economic and Social Status of Employees of the Gold-Mining Fields of Siberia at the End of XIX – the Beginning of the XX Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Rumyantsev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of materials of Tomsk society for welfare of workers and employees of gold and mining fields originated in 1894, the author makes an attempt to analyze the social and economic situation of the staff of gold mining companies in Western Siberia (social origin, age, work experience, and so on. The main sources for the study are petitions of mine employees to the named society about determining their pensions or issuance of lump-sum grants. The author makes an attempt to compare the social and economic position of the staff with the same one of the mining workers, using the results of the V.P. Zinoviev’s analysis of worker’s petitions to the concerned society about setting them pensions. During research the author came to the conclusion that the main indications such as social class background, work experience, financial status of staff of gold mining companies in Western Siberia and of workers were the same. This fact allows to make a conclusion that the majority of mining employees was made up mainly from the working environment. Also the analysis of petitions about setting of pensions allows to make a conclusion that at the turn of XIX–XX centuries took place the forming of personnel of professional industrial workers who had worked a long time in the gold mining sector and often were so-called «skilled» workers, i.e. workers not in the first generation. Another conclusion is that the material position of gold mining employees in Siberia was at a very low level, as well as the degree of their social security. It was forcing many of them due to illness, inability to work or loss of a breadwinner to appeal to the named society in order to receive pensions or lump-sum grants.

  7. Southern East Siberia Pliocene–Quaternary faults: Database, analysis and inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Lunina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first release of an Informational System (IS devoted to the systematic collection of all available data relating to Pliocene–Quaternary faults in southern East Siberia, their critical analysis and their seismotectonic parameterization. The final goal of this project is to form a new base for improving the assessment of seismic hazard and other natural processes associated with crustal deformation. The presented IS has been exploited to create a relational database of active and conditionally active faults in southern East Siberia (between 100°–114° E and 50°–57° N whose central sector is characterized by the highly seismic Baikal rift zone. The information within the database for each fault segment is organized as distinct but intercorrelated sections (tables, texts and pictures, etc. and can be easily visualized as HTML pages in offline browsing. The preliminary version of the database distributed free on disk already highlights the general fault pattern showing that the Holocene and historical activity is quite uniform and dominated by NE–SW and nearly E–W trending faults; the former with a prevailing dip-slip normal kinematics, while the latter structures are left-lateral strike-slip and oblique-slip (with different proportion of left-lateral and normal fault slip components. These faults are mainly concentrated along the borders of the rift basins and are the main sources of moderate-to-strong (M ≥ 5.5 earthquakes on the southern sectors of East Siberia in recent times. As a whole, based on analyzing the diverse fault kinematics and their variable spatial distribution with respect to the overall pattern of the tectonic structures formed and/or activated during the late Pliocene–Quaternary, we conclude they were generated under a regional stress field mainly characterized by a relatively uniform NW–SE tension, but strongly influenced by the irregular hard boundary of the old Siberian craton. The

  8. [Ethnic aspects of hereditary breast cancer in the region of Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdyntseva, N V; Pisareva, L F; Ivanova, A A; Panferova, Ye V; Malinovskaya, E A; Odintsova, I N; Doroshenko, A V; Gervas, P A; Slonimskaya, E M; Shivit-ool, A A; Dvornichenko, V V; Choinzonov, Ye L

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic diversity of the population in the region of Siberia suggests the existence of different germline mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer in different ethnic populations, but spectrum of these mutations has not been studied. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency of the most common mutations BRCA1/2 (BRCA1 5382insC, BRCA1 185delAG, BRCA1 4153delAG, BRCAI T300G, BRCA2 6174delT) in women diagnosed with breast cancer among indigenous people and newcomers living in Siberia. We tested 1281 genomic DNA samples for the presence of BRCA1 5382insC mutation in patients diagnosed with breast cancer considering no family history. 72 patients having hereditary cancer signs were tested for the mutations BRCA1 185delAG, BRCA1 4153delAG, BRCA1 T300G, BRCA2 6174delT. Out of 765 patients of Slavic ethnic group, 27 women (3.5%) were carriers of allele BRCA1 5382insC. The frequencies of mutations in patients with signs of hereditary cancer were: 8.3% in group of young patients (under 40 years), 20.0% in patients with bilateral cancer and 5.7% in patients with family history of breast or ovarian cancers. We tested 516 BC patients residing on the territory of the Buryat-Aginsky district, Republics of Tyva and Altai. Out of them, there were 197 patients among the indigenous population (buryats, tuvinians, altaians), and 319 patients among newcomers (Slavic ethnics). Mutations BRCA1 5382insC were detected only in women from Slavic ethnic groups. The frequency of BRCA1 5382insC mutation was 6% in the group where family history was excluded and 14% in the group of patients with characteristics of family cancer. Allele BRCA1 5382insC was not found in indigenous breast cancer patients, although 59 patients had signs of hereditary cancer. In women from Slavic ethnic group, the BRCA1 185delAG, BRCA1 4153delAG and BRCA1 T300G mutations were detected in 9.1% of cases and were not found in patients among the indigenous population. studies of mutations in the

  9. Origins of cryptic variation in the Ediacaran-Fortunian rhyolitic ignimbrites of the Saldanha Bay Volcanic Complex, Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J. D.; Stevens, G.; Frei, D.; Joseph, C. S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Saldanha eruption centre, on the West Coast of South Africa, consists of 542 Ma, intracaldera, S-type, rhyolite ignimbrites divided into the basal Saldanha Ignimbrite and the partly overlying Jacob's Bay Ignimbrite. Depleted-mantle Nd model ages suggest magma sources younger than the Early Mesoproterozoic, and located within the Neoproterozoic Malmesbury Group and Swartland complex metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that form the regional basement. The Sr isotope systematics suggest that the dominant source rocks were metavolcaniclastic rocks and metagreywackes, and that the magmas formed from separate batches extracted from the same heterogeneous source. No apparent magma mixing trends relate the Saldanha to the Jacob's Bay Ignimbrites, or either of these to the magmas that formed the Plankiesbaai or Tsaarsbank Ignimbrites in the neighbouring Postberg eruption centre. The magmas were extracted from their source rocks carrying small but significant proportions of peritectic and restitic accessory minerals. Variations in the content of this entrained crystal cargo were responsible for most of the chemical variations in the magmas. Although we cannot construct a cogent crystal fractionation model to relate these groups of magmas, at least some crystal fractionation occurred, as an overlay on the primary signal due to peritectic assemblage entrainment (PAE). Thus, the causes of the cryptic chemical variation among the ignimbrite magmas of the Saldanha centre are variable, but dominated by the compositions of the parent melts and PAE. The preservation of clear, source-inherited chemical signatures, in individual samples, calls into question the common interpretation of silicic calderas as having been formed in large magma reservoirs, with magma compositions shaped by magma mingling, mixing, and fractional crystallization. The Saldanha rocks suggest a more intimate connection between source and erupted magma, and perhaps indicate that silicic magmas are too

  10. Net ecosystem exchange in a sedge-sphagnum fen at the South of West Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyukarev, Egor

    2017-04-01

    The model of net ecosystem exchange was used to study the influence of different environmental factors and to calculate daily and growing season carbon budget for minerotrophic fen at South of West Siberia, Russia. Minerotrophic sedge-sphagnum fen occupies the central part of the Bakcharskoe bog. The model uses air and soil temperature, incoming photosynthetically active radiation, and leaf area index as the explanatory factors for gross primary production, heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration. The model coefficients were calibrated using data collected by automated soil CO2 flux system with clear long-term chamber. The studied ecosystem is a sink of carbon according to modelling and observation results. This study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Researches (grant numbers 16-07-01205 and 16-45-700562.

  11. Energy and Resource-Saving Sources of Energy in Small Power Engineering of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranova Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of distant areas of Siberia is associated with the structures of energy demand and supply, the implementation and promotion of the process of environmentally safe restructuring of the energy supply system. It has been established that suspension coal fuels derived from brown coal, coal mining, coal processing wastes can be used as fuel. The results of experimental and industrial boilers on suspension water coal fuel are presented. The designs of vortex combustion chambers of various powers are developed and tested. The possibility of using coal-enrichment wastes and substandard coals for the production of manure-coal fuel briquettes was studied. It is shown that the strength and thermal power characteristics of briquettes depend on the moisture content and degree of metamorphism of the raw materials. The most effective percentage of the solid phase and manure, as a binder, was determined.

  12. Energy and Resource-Saving Sources of Energy in Small Power Engineering of Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Marina

    2017-11-01

    The sustainable development of distant areas of Siberia is associated with the structures of energy demand and supply, the implementation and promotion of the process of environmentally safe restructuring of the energy supply system. It has been established that suspension coal fuels derived from brown coal, coal mining, coal processing wastes can be used as fuel. The results of experimental and industrial boilers on suspension water coal fuel are presented. The designs of vortex combustion chambers of various powers are developed and tested. The possibility of using coal-enrichment wastes and substandard coals for the production of manure-coal fuel briquettes was studied. It is shown that the strength and thermal power characteristics of briquettes depend on the moisture content and degree of metamorphism of the raw materials. The most effective percentage of the solid phase and manure, as a binder, was determined.

  13. Geochemistry of obsidian from Krasnoe Lake on the Chukchi Peninsula (Northeastern Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. K.; Grebennikov, A. V.; Kuzmin, Ya. V.; Glascock, M. D.; Nozdrachev, E. A.; Budnitsky, S. Yu.; Vorobey, I. E.

    2017-09-01

    This report considers features of the geochemical composition of obsidian from beach sediments of Krasnoe Lake along the lower course of the Anadyr River, as well as from lava-pyroclastic rocks constituting the lake coastal outcrops and the surrounding branches of Rarytkin Ridge. The two geochemical types of obsidian, for the first time distinguished and researched, correspond in their chemical composition to lavas and ignimbrite-like tuffs of rhyolites from the Rarytkin area. The distinguished types represent the final stage of acidic volcanism in the West Kamchatkan-Koryak volcanic belt. It was assumed that the accumulation of obsidian in coastal pebble beds was caused by the erosion of extrusive domes and pyroclastic flows. The geochemical studies of obsidian artifacts from archeological sites of the regions of the Sea of Okhotsk, the Kolyma River, and the Chukchi Peninsula along with the correlation of geological and archeological samples show that Krasnoe Lake was an important source of "archeological" obsidian in Northeastern Siberia.

  14. THE STRATEGY OF SIBERIA SOCIAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: INSTITUTIONAL CONDITIONS AND MECHANIZMS OF REALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kuleshov

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Forming of new economic base of state building in Russia, appearance of new economic problems and new conditions of their solution – all this demands changes in state regional policy and system of its realization in the scale of the country as a whole and also country's regions. The necessary conditions for state regional policy effectiveness increasing in Russia are the development of the country's territorial development strategy as a main part of the state's social-economical development strategy. In turn, this strategy should be a synthesis of Russia macroregions development strategy on the base of federal districts development strategy. Here the "pioneer" is the Siberian federal district, where on behalf of the President of Russian Federation was developed Siberia economical development strategy, approved by the decision of Russian Federation Government. This strategies, in turn, should be coordinated with middle-term and long-term programmes of Federation subjects and most important cities development.

  15. Carbon balance assessment of a natural steppe of southern Siberia by multiple constraint approach

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    L. Belelli Marchesini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Steppe ecosystems represent an interesting case in which the assessment of carbon balance may be performed through a cross validation of the eddy covariance measurements against ecological inventory estimates of carbon exchanges (Ehman et al., 2002; Curtis et al., 2002.

    Indeed, the widespread presence of ideal conditions for the applicability of the eddy covariance technique, as vast and homogeneous grass vegetation cover over flat terrains (Baldocchi, 2003, make steppes a suitable ground to ensure a constrain to flux estimates with independent methodological approaches.

    We report about the analysis of the carbon cycle of a true steppe ecosystem in southern Siberia during the growing season of 2004 in the framework of the TCOS-Siberia project activities performed by continuous monitoring of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem scale by the eddy covariance method, fortnightly samplings of phytomass, and ingrowth cores extractions for NPP assessment, and weekly measurements of heterotrophic component of soil CO2 effluxes obtained by an experiment of root exclusion.

    The carbon balance of the monitored natural steppe was, according to micrometeorological measurements, a sink of carbon of 151.7±36.9 g C m−2, cumulated during the growing season from May to September. This result was in agreement with the independent estimate through ecological inventory which yielded a sink of 150.1 g C m−2 although this method was characterized by a large uncertainty (±130% considering the 95% confidence interval of the estimate. Uncertainties in belowground process estimates account for a large part of the error. Thus, in particular efforts to better quantify the dynamics of root biomass (growth and turnover have to be undertaken in order to reduce the uncertainties in the assessment of NPP. This assessment should be preferably based on the application of multiple methods, each one characterized by its

  16. The influence of atmospheric circulation on the formation of snow cover on the north eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Kononova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on daily data of the five meteorological stations located in different parts of northeastern Siberia (Anadyr, Chokurdakh, Wrangell Island, Verkhoyansk, Markovo the change of dates of formation, occurrence and maximum snow depth from year to year for the entire period of observation to 2008 is analyzed. The results are compared with long-term changes of the atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere and in a particular region (according to classification by B.L. Dzerdzeevskii, V.M. Kurganskaya and Z.M. Vitvitskaya. The differences in the fluctuations of selected indicators in circulation epochs are considered. The types of circulation, contribute to early or late formation of snow cover, as well as early or late it outright are identified. Macro-circulation processes which correspond with snowy or little snowy winters are defined. Time changing of maximum snow depth formation is considered. The change in frequency of extreme values of considered characteristics par circulation epochs and their relationship with macro-circulation processes, including possible tends, are analyzed. During recent years, in the Northeastern Siberia with sharp inter-annual fluctuations of atmosphere processes the later dates of setting and earlier dates of disappearance of snow cover dominate, which reduces the duration of snow cover, in comparison with long-term average. Maximum snow depth in all stations, except Anadyr, are above the average long-term value. There is a trend of increase the maximum snow depth, its duration, as well as its later formation, compare with the average, which indicates the increase in proportion of solid precipitation at the end of winter. These are facilitated by increasing of blocking atmospheric processes duration.

  17. Simulating carbon fluxes in Siberia using assimilation of remotely sensed soil moisture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Michiel; de Jeu, Richard; Belelli Marchesini, Luca; Peters, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    Simulating biogenic carbon fluxes in Siberia is difficult, because the growing season is short and the transitions between the seasons are fast. At the start of the growing season, when the snow has melted, the soil is still frozen. The melt water therefore either runs off quickly in non-flat terrain, or waterlogs the soil in flat terrain. Consequently, the soil moisture content during soil thawing tends to the extremes, either very wet or towards dry. This 'bi-modal' behaviour of soil moisture at the start of the growing season is difficult to capture by vegetation models. Consequently, the carbon fluxes and transpiration rates are either too much limited by anticipated water stress, or too little limited during waterlogging. We present here a method to improve the simulated soil moisture in a vegetation model, SiBCASA (Schaefer et al., 2008) by assimilating remotely sensed soil moisture into the SiBCASA. We use the blended active and passive microwave soil moisture data set of Liu et al., (2011, 2012) for this purpose, which has a time resolution of 1 day and a horizontal resolution of 0.25°×0.25°. We explain the methodology for relating the top soil moisture observations to whole profile simulated soil moisture, and for translating the meaning of mean and extremes of soil moisture between remote sensing observations and SiBCASA. Ultimately, we present the effect of better representing soil moisture content on simulating the carbon fluxes in Siberia, and we compare the simulated data with observations of soil moisture and carbon fluxes at 14 locations across Boreal Eurasia.

  18. Thermal analysis of wood of the main tree species of Central Siberia

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    S. R. Loskutov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal decomposition of wood from coniferous and deciduous species of Siberia has been studied using thermogravimetry (TG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The tree species were larch Larix sibirica Ledeb., Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L., spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., fir Abies sibirica Ledeb., Siberian pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour., birch Betula pendula Roth., and aspen Populus tremula L. Thermal analysis of wood samples was carried out under oxidative (air and inert (argon atmospheres from 25 to 700 °С at heating rates 10, 20, 40 °С • min–1 (TG/DTG and from 25 to 590 °С at heating rates 10, 40 °С • min–1 (DSC. The stages of thermal decomposition, the temperature intervals, the mass loss, the mass loss rate, the temperature of DTG/DSC peaks, and heating effects were determined for each tree species. The kinetic thermal degradation parameters of wood were obtained by the Broido and Ozawa–Flynn–Wall models. The wood of coniferous and deciduous species of Siberia was characterized on the base of analysis of activation energy values at various stages of thermal decomposition and the relations of activation energy on conversion level of wood substance of different tree species, and also the comparison of mass loss at the same stages of thermal destruction, heating effects, residual mass and other parameters of TG/DTG, DSC. In our opinion, the results of this work present interest for researchers and specialists in the field of forest pyrology, wood science, dendrochemistry.

  19. Climate-Induced Landslides within the Larch Dominant Permafrost Zone of Central Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I; Shushpanov, Alexandr S; Im, Sergei T; Ranson, Kenneth J

    2016-04-01

    Climate impact on landslide occurrence and spatial patterns were analyzed within the larch-dominant communities associated with continuous permafrost areas of Central Siberia. We used high resolution satellite imagery (i.e. QuickBird, WorldView) to identify landslide scars over an area of 62000 km2. Landslide occurrence was analyzed with respect to climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, drought index SPEI), and GRACE satellite derived equivalent of water thickness anomalies (EWTA). Landslides were found only on southward facing slopes, and the occurrence of landslides increased exponentially with increasing slope steepness. Lengths of landslides correlated positively with slope steepness. The observed upper elevation limit of landslides tended to coincide with the tree line. Observations revealed landslides occurrence was also found to be strongly correlated with August precipitation (r = 0.81) and drought index (r = 0.7), with June-July-August soil water anomalies (i.e., EWTA, r = 0.68-0.7), and number of thawing days (i.e., a number of days with tmax > 0°C; r = 0.67). A significant increase in the variance of soil water anomalies was observed, indicating that occurrence of landslides may increase even with a stable mean precipitation level. The key-findings of this study are (1) landslides occurrence increased within the permafrost zone of Central Siberia in the beginning of the 21st century; (2) the main cause of increased landslides occurrence are extremes in precipitation and soil water anomalies; and (3) landslides occurrence are strongly dependent on relief features such as southward facing steep slopes.

  20. Additions To The Lichen Biota Of SE Siberia: Records From The Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands (Trans-Baikal Region, Russia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergey Chesnokov; Lydmila Konoreva

    2015-01-01

    ... Nagor’e Highlands in southeastern Siberia, including 64 species new for the area. Some of the newly recorded species are extremely rare in Russia [e.g., (Mudd) Poelt, Noble & Vězda and Nyl. Cromb...

  1. A 9,000 Year History of Seal Hunting on Lake Baikal, Siberia: The Zooarchaeology of Sagan-Zaba II: e0128314

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tatiana Nomokonova; Robert J Losey; Ol'ga I Goriunova; Alexei G Novikov; Andrzej W Weber

    2015-01-01

      Sagan-Zaba II, a habitation site on the shore of Siberia's Lake Baikal, contains a record of seal hunting that spans much of the Holocene, making it one of the longest histories of seal use in North Asia...

  2. Morphology and biology of Cyclops scutifer Sars, 1863 in high mountain lakes of East Siberia (including Lake Amut)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, Natalya G.; Itigilova, Mydygma Ts.; Chananbaator, Ayushcuren

    2017-03-01

    Data on zooplankton from 13 high-mountain lakes of East Siberia have shown that the Holarctic copepod Cyclops scutifer Sars, 1863 dominates among crustaceans. In July, its abundance comprised 64%-98% of the total plankton fauna in the pelagial of these lakes, approximately 30% in the littoral zone and 10% in small northern thermokarst lakes. Biometric measurements and morphological descriptions based on scanning microscope images are supplemented by the data on its geographic distribution and phenology.

  3. Moho Interface Modeling Beneath the Himalayas, Tibet and Central Siberia Using GOCO02S and DTM2006.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tenzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply a newly developed method to estimate the Moho depths and density contrast beneath the Himalayas, Tibet and Central Siberia. This method utilizes the combined least-squares approach based on solving the inverse problem of isostasy and using the constraining information from the seismic global crustal model (CRUST2.0. The gravimetric forward modeling is applied to compute the isostatic gravity anomalies using the global geopotential model (GOCO02S and the global topographic/bathymetric model (DTM2006.0. The estimated Moho depths vary between 60 - 70 km beneath most of the Himalayas and Tibet and reach the maxima of ~79 km. The Moho depth under Central Siberia is typically 50 - 60 km. The Moho density contrast computed relative to the CRUST2.0 lower crustal densities has the maxima of ~300 kg m-3 under Central Tibet. It substantially decreases to 150 - 250 kg m-3 under Himalayas and north Tibet. The estimated Moho density contrast under central Siberia is within 100 - 200 kg m-3.

  4. Database of Alluvial Radiocarbon Dates in European Russia and Siberia and its Palaeohydrological Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Panin, Andrei

    2017-04-01

    We collected and analyzed published radiocarbon dates from East European Plain (EEP) and Siberia to pick absolute dates on alluvial and associated deposits. After filtering unreliable dates, 1000 radiocarbon dates from EEP and 500 from Siberia were included into the database. Each date was supplied with information on geographic location and coordinates, catchment area, geomorphological position, characteristics of geological section and dated materials. Also the information about published sources was given. Documented sections refer to fluvial forms in a wide range of catchment sizes. To extract palaeohydrological signal we used two kinds of proxies: sedimentological and geomorphological. We used the following indicators of low activity: organic horizons (soil, peat) in overbank alluvium, balka bottoms and gully fans, small river palaeochannels; and the following indicators of high activity: active sedimentation on river floodplains (burial of organic horizons), balka bottoms and gully fans, erosion by flood flows on floodplains, in bottoms of balkas and gullies, river incision, big palaeochannels, channel avulsions and chute cutoffs. 
 Each date that received palaeohydrological interpretation was regarded as the indicator of a particular Local Palaeohydrological Event. Combined probability density functions of high- and low-activity dates were used to detect time intervals of different palaeohydrological status. For EEP after low fluvial activity during LGM two palaeohydrological epochs were designated: extremely high activity in the end of MIS 2 (ca. 18-11.7 ka b2k), and much lower activity in the Holocene. Within the Holocene two hierarchical levels of hydroclimatic variability were designated according to their duration and magnitude - regional palaeohydrological phases (centuries to few millennia) and regional palaeofluvial episodes (decades to few centuries). Tendency is rather clear of activity lowering in the first half and rise in the second half of

  5. The Last Glacial Ecosystems of North Siberia: Permafrost-Sealed Evidence from Fossiliferous Cryolithic Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlachula, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Multi-proxy palaeoecology and geoarchaeology records released from degrading permafrost in the Yana River Basin and the tributary valleys (66-67°N) confirm the past existence of natural conditions for sustainment of the Pleistocene megafauna as well as the last glacial peopling of this sub-polar area. Well-preserved and taxonomically diverse large fossil fauna skeletal remains sealed in the Pleistocene colluvial and alluvial-plain formations in intact geological positions 10-20 m above the present river and scattered on gravelly river banks after their erosion from the primary geo-contexts attest to a high biotic potential of the Late Pleistocene (MIS 3-2) sub-Arctic forest-tundra. Pollen records from the ancient interstratified boggy sediments and megafauna coprolites (14C-dated to 41-38 ka BP) show a predominance of the Siberian larch, dwarf birch and willow in the local vegetation cover accompanied by grassy communities during the mid-Last Glacial stage not dissimilar from the present northern taiga forest. Articulated and humanly used/worked fauna bones (mammoth, rhinoceros, horse, bison and reindeer among other species) point to co-existence of the large animals with the Upper Palaeolithic people within the mosaic open riverine ecosystems of the late Last Ice Age. The time-trangressive macro-lithic stone industry produced from pre-selected river gravel cobbles document some specific ways of human environmental adjustment to past periglacial settings. Geomorphology and hydrogeology indices of field mappings in congruence with the long-term statistical meteorology data illustrate a steadily increasing annual temperature trend in the broader Yana-Adycha Basins (current MAT -14.5°C) that triggers accelerated permafrost thaw across the Verkhoyansk Region of NE Siberia, particularly the lowlands, similarly as in the Indigirka and Kolyma Basins further East. The regional fluvial discharge is most dynamic during late spring due to the cumulative effects of snow

  6. Paleomagnetism of Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic volcanic rocks of Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.

    2016-12-01

    The main objects of the present study are late Permian and Mesozoic volcanic rocks from Selengin-Vitim volcano-plutonic belt (South Siberia). The belt was formed in the back area of Siberian continent active margin. Volcanic rocks are presented by contrastive volcanites more than 5 km thick. The deposits are subdivided into three suits: Ungurkuy (basalts and andesites), Chernoyar (basalts, andesites and tuffs) and Hilok (basalts, pyroclastic flows and tuffs). The age of Ungurkuy suite is deemed to be between Late Carboniferous and Late Permian. The age of Chernoyar suite is Middle-late Triassic. The age og Hilok suite is Late Jurassic. Volcanic deposits of the three suits were studied to create APWP for the Siberian craton. 250 oriented samples from 40 sites were collected from the Chikoy river valley within South Siberia. All samples were characterized by interpretable paleomagnetic signal. The Ungurkuy suite has different dip and strike: from subhorizontal to 40 degrees inclination and NE course. Chernoyar rocks were collected from monoclinal structure with the dip and strike around NW declination and 5-10 degrees inclination. Hilok suite represents large subhorizontal eruptive bodies. Volcanic rocks of Ungurkuy suite show mostly monopolar (normal polarity) magnetization direction between Early Permian and Permian-Triassic Siberian poles, which indicates its Late Permian age. The normal polarity of the deposits indicates its formation in the period between Kiama superchron, characterized by reversal polarity, and Illavara hyperchron with mixed polarity - 265 Ma. Direction from Chernoyar suite is well-correlated with Late Triassic APWP of Europe, directions of magnetization are bipolar. From Hilok suite several sites show direction of magnetization similar to directions revealed from Early Cretaceous volcanites from nearby area. The magnetization is metachronous. In the other sites the directions of magnetization well-correlated with Late Jurassic APWP of Europe

  7. THE INTERNET PRESENTATION OF DATABASES OF GLACIERS OF THE SOUTH OF EASTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kitov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the technology for creating databases of glaciers in Southern Siberia and the presentation of these databases on the Internet. The technology consists in the recognition and vectorization of spatial, multi-temporal data using GIS techniques, followed by the formation of databases that reflect the spatial and temporal variation of nival-glacial formations. The results of GIS design are presented on the website IG SB RAS and with the help of Internet service ArcGISonline on the public map. The mapping of databases shows the dynamic of nival-glacial formations for three time phases: the beginning of the 20th century (if you have data, its middle (the catalogs of glaciers and topographic maps and the beginning of the 21st century (according to satellite images and field research. Graphic objects are represented as point, line, and polygonal GIS-themes. Point-themes indicate parameters such as the center, lower and upper boundaries of the glacier. Line-themes determine the length and perimeter of the glacier. Polygonal-themes define the contour of the glacier and its area. The attributive table corresponds to the international standard World Glacier Inventory (WGI. The contours of the glaciers of northern Asia are represented conditionally (ellipses at international portals, and attribute characteristics correspond to the state that was displayed in catalogs of glaciers of the USSR, and they are inaccurate. Considered databases are devoid of these shortcomings. Coordinates of the center of glaciers have been refined. Glaciers contours have boundaries, appropriate to space images or topographic maps, in shp-file format. New glaciers of Baikalskiy and Barguzinskiy ridges are also presented. Existing catalogs and databases still do not include these glaciers. Features of the glaciers are examined in the context of the latitudinal transect of southern Siberia, from the Kodar ridge to the Eastern Sayan. GIS-analysis of the Databases

  8. Origin of carbon released from ecosystems affected by permafrost degradation in Northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandois, L.; Hoyt, A.; Xu, X.; Hatte, C.; Teisserenc, R.; Tananaev, N.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost soils and peatlands store half of the soil organic carbon stock worldwide, and are rapidly evolving as a result of permafrost thaw. Determining the origin (permafrost or recent photosynthesis) of carbon which is released to surface waters and the atmosphere is crucial to assess Arctic ecosystems' potential feedback to climate change. In order to evaluate it, we investigated the stable and radioactive content of carbon in solid organic matter, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and dissolved CO2 and CH4 in a discontinuous permafrost area of Siberia affected by permafrost degradation (Igarka, Graviyka catchment (67°27'11''N, 86°32'07''E)). We collected samples from the active layer, permafrost, surface water and bubbles from thermokarst lakes. We further investigated DOM and dissolved CO2 and CH4 in porewater profiles, streams and the catchment outlet. In thermokarst lakes, DOM of surface water as well as CO2 and CH4 from bubbles from lake sediments predominantly originate from modern carbon. In two locations, CO2 and CH4 from bubbles have relatively low 14C contents, with ages greater than 700 yr BP, but still younger that what was previously reported in Eastern Siberia. In all samples the Δ14C of CH4 and CO2 were strongly correlated, with CH4 being consistently older than CO2, indicating strong interrelation between CO2 and CH4 cycles. In our study, permafrost influenced CO2 and CH4 is found in small ponds where palsa collapse and the resulting bank erosion has mobilized sequestered carbon. In peatland porewater, the Δ14C of DOM, CO2 and CH4 increases with depth (DOM: 1385 ±45 yr BP at 2m), indicating a contribution from Holocene peatlands affected by permafrost. In deep layers, CO2 reduction is the dominant pathway of CH4 production, whereas acetate fermentation dominates in thermokarst lakes. In summary, the majority of dissolved CO2 and CH4 analyzed from thermokarst lakes and degraded peatlands is modern and originates from recently fixed carbon

  9. Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery

  10. Development of provisions for oil contaminated soil neutralizing in the conditions of Siberia and the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtripling, L. O.; Kholkin, E. G.

    2017-08-01

    Siberia and the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation occupy a large area of the country and they differ from other regions in special climatic conditions, in particular, a long period of freezing temperatures and relatively poor infrastructure. The main problem of neutralizing soils contaminated with oil products in conditions of negative ambient temperature is that the contaminated soil is in a frozen state, and it prevents the normal course of neutralization process, so additional energy is required for preparing the soil. There is proposed a technology adapted to the conditions of Siberia and the Arctic for the operational elimination of emergency situations consequences accompanied with oil spills. The technology for neutralizing soils contaminated with petroleum products is based on the encapsulation of a pollutant (reagent capsulation technology) using an alkaline calcium-based reagent. Powdered building quicklime is used as a reagent, and it is a product of roasting carbonate rocks or a mixture of this product with mineral additives (calcium oxide). The encapsulated material obtained as a result of neutralizing soils contaminated with petroleum products is resistant to natural and man-made factors such as moisture, temperature fluctuations, acid rain and high pressure. Energy use from the chemical detoxification exothermic process of soils contaminated with petroleum products in combination with the forced supply of carbon dioxide to the neutralization zone during the formation of a shell from calcium carbonate on the surface of the pollutant makes it possible to neutralize soils contaminated with oil products in the extreme climatic conditions of the Arctic using reagent Encapsulation. The principle of equipment operation that allows neutralizing soils contaminated with petroleum products in the natural and climatic conditions of the Arctic using reagent capsulation technology has been described. The results of experimental studies have been presented that

  11. Geochemistry of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (central Western Carpathians – evidence for relics of the Variscan ophiolite complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Peter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three small bodies of amphibolites and associated graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (Tatric Megaunit, central Western Carpathians have been studied by petrographic and geochemical methods. Isolated, fault-bounded bodies first hundreds of meters in size are located in the complex of the Early Paleozoic paragneisses and migmatites intruded by the Lower Carboniferous granitoid rocks. Amphibolites (locally actinolite schists were formed from effusive basalts, dolerites or isotropic gabbros hydrothermally altered and veined before the regional metamorphic transformation. Distribution of the trace elements relatively immobile during the metamorphic alteration (HFSE, REE, Cr, V, Sc is similar to E-MORB type in the Malá Magura Mountain or to N-MORB/E-MORB types in the Suchý Mountain. Graphitic gneisses to metacherts are rich in silica (up to 88 wt. % and Ctot, poor in other major element contents and display negative Ce-anomaly, enrichment in HREE, V, Cr and U. They were probably originally deposited as non-carbonate and silica-rich deep-sea sediments in anoxic conditions. The oceanic provenance of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses clearly indicates their oceanic crust affinity and identity with the uppermost part of the ophiolite sequence. Ophiolite bodies from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains are supposed to be relic fault blocks identical with the Upper Devonian Pernek Group which represents a Variscan ophiolite nappe preserved to large extent in the Malé Karpaty Mountains located in the Tatric Megaunit further to the southwest. All these ophiolite relics are vestiges of the original ophiolite suture created by oceanic closure in the Lower Carboniferous.

  12. Geochemistry of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (central Western Carpathians) - evidence for relics of the Variscan ophiolite complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Peter; Méres, Štefan

    2015-10-01

    Three small bodies of amphibolites and associated graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (Tatric Megaunit, central Western Carpathians) have been studied by petrographic and geochemical methods. Isolated, fault-bounded bodies first hundreds of meters in size are located in the complex of the Early Paleozoic paragneisses and migmatites intruded by the Lower Carboniferous granitoid rocks. Amphibolites (locally actinolite schists) were formed from effusive basalts, dolerites or isotropic gabbros hydrothermally altered and veined before the regional metamorphic transformation. Distribution of the trace elements relatively immobile during the metamorphic alteration (HFSE, REE, Cr, V, Sc) is similar to E-MORB type in the Malá Magura Mountain or to N-MORB/E-MORB types in the Suchý Mountain. Graphitic gneisses to metacherts are rich in silica (up to 88 wt. %) and Ctot, poor in other major element contents and display negative Ce-anomaly, enrichment in HREE, V, Cr and U. They were probably originally deposited as non-carbonate and silica-rich deep-sea sediments in anoxic conditions. The oceanic provenance of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses clearly indicates their oceanic crust affinity and identity with the uppermost part of the ophiolite sequence. Ophiolite bodies from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains are supposed to be relic fault blocks identical with the Upper Devonian Pernek Group which represents a Variscan ophiolite nappe preserved to large extent in the Malé Karpaty Mountains located in the Tatric Megaunit further to the southwest. All these ophiolite relics are vestiges of the original ophiolite suture created by oceanic closure in the Lower Carboniferous.

  13. The role of large arthropods in the development of halomorphic soils in the south of Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordkovich, V. G.; Lyubechanskii, I. I.

    2017-06-01

    Soil sequences along catenas crossing the peripheral parts of shallow-water drying lakes in the south of Siberia have been studied. They include the sulfidic and typical playa (sor) solonchaks (Gleyic Solonchaks), playa solonchak over the buried solonetz (Gleyic Solonchak Thapto-Solonetz)), shallow solonetz-solonchak (Salic Solonetz), and solonetzic and solonchakous chernozemic-meadow soil (Luvic Gleyic Chernozem (Sodic, Salic)). This spatial sequence also represents a series of historical stages of the development of halomorphic soils: the amphibian, hydromorphic, semihydromorphic, and automorphic-paleohydromorphic stages. During all of them, the biogenic component plays a significant role in the matter budget of halomorphic soils. The diversity, number, and functional activity of large insects and spiders are particularly important. Their total abundance in the course of transformation of the halomorphic soils decreases from several thousand to about 100 specimens/(m2 day), whereas their species diversity increases from 17 to 45 species. Changes in the functional structure of the soil zoocenosis and its impact on the character and intensity of pedogenetic processes can be considered driving forces of the transformation of hydromorphic soils. This is ensured by the sequential alteration of the groups of invertebrates with different types of cenotic strategy and different mechanisms of adaptation to biotic and abiotic components of the soil in the course of the development of the soil zoocenosis.

  14. Tree-ring dating of meteorite fall in Sikhote-Alin, Eastern Siberia - Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantucci, R.; Di Martino, Mario; Serra, Romano

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the fall of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite on the morning of 12 February 1947, at about 00:38 h Utrecht, in a remote area in the territory of Primorsky Krai in Eastern Siberia (46°09‧36″N, 134°39‧22″E). The area engulfed by the meteoritic fall was around 48 km2, with an elliptic form and thousands of craters. Around the large craters the trees were torn out by the roots and laid radially to the craters at a distance of 10-20 m; the more distant trees had broken tops. This research investigated through dendrocronology n.6 Scots pine trees (Pinus Sibirica) close to one of the main impact craters. The analysis of growth anomalies has shown a sudden decrease since 1947 for 4-8 years after the meteoritic impact. Tree growth stress, detected in 1947, was analysed in detail through wood microsection that confirmed the winter season (rest vegetative period) of the event. The growth stress is mainly due to the lost crown (needle lost) and it did not seem to be caused due to direct damages on trunk and branches (missing of resin ducts).

  15. Studying the NDVI dynamics features for vegetation monitoring method development in the south of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, Irina

    Monitoring of vegetation state can be based on studying their dynamics features. Effective methods of satellite data interpretation using spectral feature distinctions should be applied for this purpose. Studying the time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during growth period is one of such approaches. The analysis of NDVI temporal profile shape allows to identify vegetation objects on satellite image. The NDVI curve transformation regularities during growth period are studied in the process of study carried out. Growth rate in specific phenological phases (growth of vegetative organs; maturation and fruiting) and extreme NDVI values during total growth period are detected. Growth rate is calculated as a NDVI curve slope. The NDVI dynamics of different vegetation types (agricultural crops - wheat, oats, buckwheat; abandoned fields of different age, meadow steppe, stony steppe, feather-grass steppe, flood meadow etc.), located in the south of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk krai, Khakasia), has been derived and analyzed. Results of this study are as the basis for developed software, which produces the automatic identification of canopy using Terra Modis satellite measurement data.

  16. Chronic disease prevention research in Central Asia, the Urals, Siberia and Mongolia - past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Aitmurzaeva, Gulmira; Arsykulov, Zhetkergen A; Bozgunchiev, Maratbek; Dikanbayeva, Saule Alkeeva; Igisinov, Gulnara; Igisinov, Nurbek; Igisinov, Saginbek; Karzhaubayeva, Sholpan; Oyunchimeg, Dondov; Oyunsuren, Tsendsuren; Soipova, Mashhura; Tumubaatar, T

    2009-01-01

    Central Asia, the Urals, Siberia and Mongolia cover an immense section of Asia and although relatively sparsely populated the total inhabitants number well in excess of 100 million. Furthermore, there is an increasing tendency for urbanization of the populations, which in many cases are growing. The ethnic make-up is diverse, with various degrees of admixture of Russians to the Turkish, Mongolian and other indigenous peoples of the region, and there is evidence of major variation in the burden of different cancers among the groups, although oesophageal and gastric neoplasias are relatively prevalent in common. Clearly there is a need for cooperation for cancer and other chronic disease prevention and the presence of Russian as a shared language of science, commerce and industry means that there should be no major communication difficulties. However, collaborative efforts at present are limited and the research output is low, even in the non-English literature. Here we focus on published work from the individual countries, as assessed by PubMed searches using the country name with cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome and diabetes as search terms, with an especial focus on epidemiology, environmental carcinogenicity and screening. One major aim is to identify active groups with an interest in participation in a regional meeting and collaborative research, so that a coordinated approach to granting agencies can be made to fund such a collective endeavour.

  17. Simulating Changes in Fires and Ecology of the 21st Century Eurasian Boreal Forests of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Brazhnik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires release the greatest amount of carbon into the atmosphere compared to other forest disturbances. To understand how current and potential future fire regimes may affect the role of the Eurasian boreal forest in the global carbon cycle, we employed a new, spatially-explicit fire module DISTURB-F (DISTURBance-Fire in tandem with a spatially-explicit, individually-based gap dynamics model SIBBORK (SIBerian BOReal forest simulator calibrated to Krasnoyarsk Region. DISTURB-F simulates the effect of forest fire on the boreal ecosystem, namely the mortality of all or only the susceptible trees (loss of biomass, i.e., carbon within the forested landscape. The fire module captures some important feedbacks between climate, fire and vegetation structure. We investigated the potential climate-driven changes in the fire regime and vegetation in middle and south taiga in central Siberia, a region with extensive boreal forest and rapidly changing climate. The output from this coupled simulation can be used to estimate carbon losses from the ecosystem as a result of fires of different sizes and intensities over the course of secondary succession (decades to centuries. Furthermore, it may be used to assess the post-fire carbon storage capacity of potential future forests, the structure and composition of which may differ significantly from current Eurasian boreal forests due to regeneration under a different climate.

  18. The surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia – Part 2: Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boike

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the winter time surface energy balance at a polygonal tundra site in northern Siberia based on independent measurements of the net radiation, the sensible heat flux and the ground heat flux from two winter seasons. The latent heat flux is inferred from measurements of the atmospheric turbulence characteristics and a model approach. The long-wave radiation is found to be the dominant factor in the surface energy balance. The radiative losses are balanced to about 60 % by the ground heat flux and almost 40 % by the sensible heat fluxes, whereas the contribution of the latent heat flux is small. The main controlling factors of the surface energy budget are the snow cover, the cloudiness and the soil temperature gradient. Large spatial differences in the surface energy balance are observed between tundra soils and a small pond. The ground heat flux released at a freezing pond is by a factor of two higher compared to the freezing soil, whereas large differences in net radiation between the pond and soil are only observed at the end of the winter period. Differences in the surface energy balance between the two winter seasons are found to be related to differences in snow depth and cloud cover which strongly affect the temperature evolution and the freeze-up at the investigated pond.

  19. Operational Forest Monitoring in Siberia Using Multi-source Earth Observation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hüttich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest cover disturbance rates are increasing in the forests of Siberia due to intensification of human activities and climate change. In this paper two satellite data sources were used for automated forest cover change detection. Annual ALOS PALSAR backscatter mosaics (2007–2010 were used for yearly forest loss monitoring. Time series of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, 2000–2014 from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS were integrated in a web-based data middleware system to assess the capabilities of a near-real time detection of forest disturbances using the break point detection by additive season and trends (Bfast method. The SAR-based average accuracy of the forest loss detection was 70 %, whereas the MODIS-based change assessment using breakpoint detection achieved average accuracies of 50 % for trend-based breakpoints and 43.4 % for season-based breakpoints. It was demonstrated that SAR remote sensing is a highly accurate tool for up-to-date forest monitoring. Web-based data middleware systems like the Earth Observation Monitor, linked with MODIS time series, provide access and easy-to-use tools for on demand change monitoring in remote Siberian forests.

  20. Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, and Environmental Risk: Evidence from Field Experiments in Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lance Howe

    Full Text Available Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective. We also find high levels of voluntary sharing without a strong commitment device; however, this form of cooperation does not increase contributions to the public good. Our results are consistent with previous experiments and theoretical models, suggesting strategic risks tied to rewards, punishments, and reputations are important. However, unlike studies that focus solely on strategic risks, we find the effects of rewards, punishments, and reputations are altered by the presence of environmental factors. Unexpected changes in resource abundance increase interdependence and may alter the costs and benefits of cooperation, relative to defection. We suggest environmental factors that increase interdependence are critically important to consider when developing and testing theories of cooperation.

  1. Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to temperature change,Sayan Mountains, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, K Jon; Kharuk, Vyetcheslav I.

    2007-01-01

    Models of climate change predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation change on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these changes occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive temperature (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer temperatures and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for temperature increase.

  2. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  3. MERIS/Envisat- Images for Modeling of Chlorophyll Concentration Fields for Novosibirks Reservoir (South West Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevskaya, Nelley; Kirillov, Vladimir; Kirilllova, Tatiana; Lovtskaya, Olga

    2010-12-01

    In the recent decades, concerns regarding the state of the environment have increased as human induced pollution affects not only the functioning of ecosystems, but also the quality of life. Clean water is essential to sustain human life, but it is in danger of contamination from various pollutants. Indeed, lakes and rivers are large ecosystems containing a large diversity of flora and fauna that need to be protected. In this paper, in situ data from the Novosibirsk reservoir on Southwest Siberia (180 km long, 1070 km2 water area) are used to evaluate the water constituent estimations. The reservoir was designed in 1957 mainly as a source of hydropower but it also serves as a source of drinking water. Excessive algal blooms in summer limits the intake of reservoir water for the water supply system; hence, real- time data about the algal development in this reservoir is vital. The objective of the study is to validate MERIS lake water processors, that allow the retrieval of water quality parameters, using in situ data from Novosibirsk reservoir. Interpretation of MERIS/Envisat data is done in conjunction with a survey of chlorophyll concentration that serves as indicator of phytoplankton development. Due to the significant heterogeneity of observed biological elements, a more detailed zoning of the reservoir is required; the research is planned to be continued along this line. Data provided by the European Space Agency.

  4. Climatic and environmental records from Altai glaciers, Siberia, recovered from ice-cores and snow samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Kreutz, K. J.; Fujita, K.; Cecil, D.; Nikitin, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    A depth/accumulation scale for the Altai glaciers, Siberia, established based on δ18O and δD firn-ice cores analysis. In sequences of annual layers in the firn-ice cores recovered in 2001 and 2002, the mean annual snow accumulation was found to be 800 mm at 4115 m of the Belukha Snow-Firn Plateau. The transfer function was developed using the seasonality of accumulation layer profile with normalization of data from the nearby meteorological station. The δ18O and δD firn-ice core records compared with meteorological data and indices of atmospheric circulation patterns using regression analyses revealed a dominant source of moisture from Atlantic Ocean during summer and Pacific Ocean moisture during autumn. At the equal air temperatures the most remote source of moisture from Atlantic Ocean resulted in more negative values of δ18O composition under the negative values of North Atlantic Oscillation. Changes in the prevailing atmospheric circulation patterns (e.g., NAO, WPO) over the Altai Mountains are also reflected in the major ions content in snow, firn and ice samples. The anthropogenic emission inventory for Altai glaciers developed using ice-cores and snow pits sulfate and nitrate records.

  5. Air temperature changes and their impact on permafrost ecosystems in eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desyatkin Roman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant increasing of mean annual air temperatures, freezing index and thawing index - have exerted a considerable impact on the state of permafrost landscapes and ecosystems in Eastern Siberia on the last few decades. Many animals and plants have shifted their ranges and this may be the precursor of northward shifts of the landscape zones. Landscapes that contain ground ice bodies in the underlying permafrost are especially sensitive to climate warming. Increase of mean annual air temperature for 2-3°C over the last three decades has resulted an increase in ground temperature by 0.4-1.3°C in the upper part of permafrost, which in turn has led intensification of negative cryogenic processes. Previous year’s measurements of greenhouses gases emission in the Middle Taiga forest of central Yakutia were found to show high values and spatial variability. The wet meadow soils and shallow lakes have highest methane fluxes, almost comparable with emissions from tropical peatlands. Permafrost ecosystems respond to global warming quite rapidly. This makes the study of their changes somewhat easier, but still requires meticulous attention to observations, research, and analysis of the processes under way.

  6. Estimation of Continental-Basin-Scale Sublimation in the Lena River Basin, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Suzuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lena River basin in Siberia produces one of the largest river inflows into the Arctic Ocean. One of the most important sources of runoff to the river is spring snowmelt and therefore snow ablation processes have great importance for this basin. In this study, we simulated these processes with fine resolution at basin scale using MicroMet/SnowModel and SnowAssim. To assimilate snow water equivalent (SWE data in SnowAssim, we used routine daily snow depth data and Sturm’s method. Following the verification of this method for SWE estimation in the basin, we evaluated the impact of snow data assimilation on basin-scale snow ablation. Through validation against MODIS snow coverage data and in situ snow survey observations, we found that SnowAssim could not improve on the original simulation by MicroMet/SnowModel because of estimation errors within the SWE data. Vegetation and accumulated snowfall control the spatial distribution of sublimation and we established that sublimation has an important effect on snow ablation. We found that the ratio of sublimation to snowfall in forests was around 26% and that interannual variation of sublimation modulated spring river runoff.

  7. Genetic diversity and genomic signatures of selection among cattle breeds from Siberia, eastern and northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Touru, T; Tapio, M; Vilkki, J; Kiseleva, T; Ammosov, I; Ivanova, Z; Popov, R; Ozerov, M; Kantanen, J

    2016-12-01

    Domestication in the near eastern region had a major impact on the gene pool of humpless taurine cattle (Bos taurus). As a result of subsequent natural and artificial selection, hundreds of different breeds have evolved, displaying a broad range of phenotypic traits. Here, 10 Eurasian B. taurus breeds from different biogeographic and production conditions, which exhibit different demographic histories and have been under artificial selection at various intensities, were investigated using the Illumina BovineSNP50 panel to understand their genetic diversity and population structure. In addition, we scanned genomes from eight breeds for signatures of diversifying selection. Our population structure analysis indicated six distinct breed groups, the most divergent being the Yakutian cattle from Siberia. Selection signals were shared (experimental P-value selection signals in the Yakutian cattle were found on chromosomes 7 and 21, where a miRNA gene and genes related to immune system processes are respectively located. In general, genomic regions indicating selection overlapped with known QTL associated with milk production (e.g. on chromosome 19), reproduction (e.g. on chromosome 24) and meat quality (e.g. on chromosome 7). The selection map created in this study shows that native cattle breeds and their genetic resources represent unique material for future breeding. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Atmospheric methane over Siberia: measurements from the 2014 YAK-AEROSIB aircraft campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jean-Daniel; Pisso, Ignacio; Ancellet, Gérard; Law, Kathy; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Nédélec, Philippe; Myhre, Cathrine Lund

    2017-04-01

    The YAK-AEROSIB program collects high-precision in-situ measurements of the vertical distribution of CO2, CH4, CO, O3, black carbon and ultrafine particles distribution in the Siberian troposphere, as well as other parameters including aerosol lidar profiles, on a pan-Siberian aircraft transect. Recent efforts aim at better understanding the respective role of CH4 emission processes in driving its large scale atmospheric variability over the region. The October 2014 YAK-AEROSIB/MOCA campaign from Novosibirsk to Salekhard and over the Kara sea and the Yamal peninsula sampled air masses affected by local, regional and remote pollution. We analyse the contribution of local anthropogenic sources to measured CH4 enhancements, in relation to atmospheric mixing and transport conditions. Our analysis also attempts to detect CH4 signal from sources of methane in the Siberian shelf and the Arctic ocean during low level flight legs over the Kara sea using the airborne measurements and a Lagrangian model coupled to potential CH4 hydrate and geological sources. The measured CH4 concentrations do not contradict a potential source upstream of our measurements, but the interpretation is challenging due to a very low CH4 signal. The challenging question of the methane budget and its evolution in Siberia leads to a need for new approaches. A new generation of airborne measurements, more flexible, is now needed.

  9. Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, and Environmental Risk: Evidence from Field Experiments in Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, E Lance; Murphy, James J; Gerkey, Drew; West, Colin Thor

    2016-01-01

    Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective. We also find high levels of voluntary sharing without a strong commitment device; however, this form of cooperation does not increase contributions to the public good. Our results are consistent with previous experiments and theoretical models, suggesting strategic risks tied to rewards, punishments, and reputations are important. However, unlike studies that focus solely on strategic risks, we find the effects of rewards, punishments, and reputations are altered by the presence of environmental factors. Unexpected changes in resource abundance increase interdependence and may alter the costs and benefits of cooperation, relative to defection. We suggest environmental factors that increase interdependence are critically important to consider when developing and testing theories of cooperation.

  10. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Afforestation at the South of Central Siberia (To 55 Years of Foundation of Khakass Erosion Preventive Station of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lobanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of fundamental and applied studies of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch and the Research Institute for Agrarian Problems of Khakassia, Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations of Russia in soil deflation control using management, also agrotechnological and agroafforestation measures, have been given in this scientific review. These activities were undertaken for 55 years. It was established that an average annual humus loss on arable lands in the south of Central Siberia made 1.6 t per 1 ha in the result of soil erosion. The system of usage and protection of soils subjected to erosion has been considered which covers the net of forest shelter belts, strip planting of agricultural crops, application of soil protective farming equipment and fertilizing. In the result of complex studies of soils prone to erosion the following activities were worked out: the way for fertility increase of sandy-loam soils by deep application of organic fertilizers; the way for growing the Siberian larch shelter forests; the way for growing the shelter stands using diagonally- wide meshed construction; the way for growing stands on slope pastures; the technology for growing the two-row shelter forests with a wide row- spacing; ways for growing stands for cattle-breeding purpose; ways for growing massive Scots pine stands; principles of choice of trees and bushes for shelter forests; the main standards for evaluation of linear steppe stands in the south of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Khakass Republic and the Republic of Tyva; concept for growing a new generation of shelter forests ect. Protective forest stands established in the south of Central Siberia in the area more than 50 thousand ha are shown to give a new environmental effect resulting in an increase of soil fertility and crop capacity. Studies of tactical and perspective levels have been shown in the paper, realization of which will promote solving the problems of

  11. Numeral Modeling of Smoke Aerosol Interaction with Cloudiness over Catastrophic Wild Fires in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskaya, O. A.; Malbakhov, V. M.; Sukhinin, A. I.; Shlychkov, V. A.

    2009-04-01

    The increase of burning area in Siberia, the extension of fire season and fires intensity leads to significant carbon emission. One of the important tasks is to describe the spread of smoke aerosol and other combustion products using actual meteorological data and fire state information. A smoke aerosol covers territory a hundreds times larger then the burning area and has an effect on forming of the cloud and sediment formation exactly above the fire zone. Well known that smoke particles are condensation nucleus of water vapor and of water droplets coagulation and of crystallization. The no-hydrostatical model of atmospheric boundary layer, taking into account the phase change in the system vapor-water-ice, was developed for calculation of different scenarios of convective cloudiness forming over catastrophic wild fires. The analysis of remote sensing data relating to catastrophic fires is carried out for Asian part of Russia for the period from 2002 to 2008. The followings regular dependences were of interest: • the anomalously dry weather is set during long period on the areas of catastrophic fires • the expected reserve cloudiness which would partly suppress such fires does not spread through this areas. Calculations showed that increasing of the smoke aerosol concentration at the top of cloud can result in decreasing of total precipitations amount. The penetration of smoke aerosol in the atmospheric boundary layer stimulates rapid water drops crystallization. Clouds with an «icy top» provide more weak precipitation, than the clouds, which tops consist of mixture of icy crystals, snow and raindrops. This is in accordance with theoretical considerations and experimental investigations of micro physical processes in clouds. Monitoring of meteorological situation from space, cyclones and clouds dynamics, specifies air circulation transformation which takes place above the catastrophic fires area. We can suppose a positive feed-back between heat and mass

  12. Peculiarities of the vertical and geographical distribution of particulate organic matter over West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Voronetskaya, Natalia G.; Pevneva, Galina S.; Golovko, Anatoly K.; Kozlov, Alexandre S.; Malyshkin, Sergey B.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Davydov, Denis K.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have performed aerosol sampling in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL) over different regions of West Siberia in order to reveal peculiarities of the geographical distribution of particulate organic matter (POM). Investigation of the vertical distribution of POM in the troposphere was undertaken by means of aerosol sampling from Optik TU-134 aircraft laboratory in the atmospheric layer from 2 to 8 km during three YAK-AEROSIB campaigns (2012, 2013, and 2014). Aerosol samples were collected onto Teflon filters (PTFE membranes, GRIMM 1.113). The collected aerosol samples were treated as follows: the organic part was extracted from the filter, using chromatographic acetone in an ultrasonic bath; then, it was concentrated in vacuum up to 50 μL, with the subsequent analysis using a chromatography mass spectrometer Agilent 6890N (50 - 250 °C with a rate of 5 °C/min., isotherm at the initial and final temperature - 3 and 45 min, respectively). Hydrocarbons were identified using mass spectral library databases NIST, Wiley, as well as by comparing retention times of reference compounds in model mixtures (Alkane Standard Solutions C8 - C20 and C21 - C40 by SIGMA -ALDRICH). Total organic matter varied from 244.56 ng/m3 in aerosol samples collected in the ASL to 0.08 ng/m3 in the free troposphere (FT) over the Kara Sea. Significant differences were also found in the geographical distribution of POM due to different volatile organic compounds emitted by vegetation in specific regions. Differences between concentrations of POM sampled in the free troposphere over the continent and ocean can exceed an order of magnitude. Average concentration of organic compounds in the ASL is close to 30 ng/m3 and it decreases exponentially with height down to 14 ng/m3 at the top of the atmospheric boundary layer and 5 ng/m3 in the FT.

  13. The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, A [Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Balzter, H [Department of Geography, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); George, C, E-mail: ab@ipf.tuwien.ac.a [Earth Observation, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions, and prolonged fire seasons caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency at a regional scale. Here, we present an analysis of satellite derived soil moisture anomaly data from ERS-1/2 (ERS: Earth Resources Satellite) scatterometer data and burned area maps from MODIS/AVHRR/ATSR (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) over Central Siberia for the years 1992-2000. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship of remotely sensed soil moisture deviations from the long-term mean and fire within the boreal biome on a sub-continental scale. Results show that wet surface soil moisture conditions limit the extent of burned area. They can prevent the outbreak of fires but the magnitude of a negative (dry) deviation does not determine the maximum size of fire affected areas. It is known from the literature, however, that an ignition is more likely to occur under low surface wetness conditions, such as those that we observed during July and August in both permafrost and non-permafrost regions. Although the burned area under drier conditions in July is lowest over non-permafrost, the actual number of fires is as high as over continuous permafrost. Approximately 80% of all events occurred under such conditions during that month. The fire size was below 50 km{sup 2} under moist conditions. Larger burned areas have in general not been detected when the surface wetness deviation exceeded +5%.

  14. Trends in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI associated with urban development in northern West Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Esau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves of northern West Siberia has promoted rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development leaves significant footprints on the sensitive northern environment, which is already stressed by the global warming. This study reports the region-wide changes in the vegetation cover as well as the corresponding changes in and around 28 selected urbanized areas. The study utilizes the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from high-resolution (250 m MODIS data acquired for summer months (June through August over 15 years (2000–2014. The results reveal the increase of NDVI (or “greening” over the northern (tundra and tundra-forest part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern, forested part shows the widespread decrease of NDVI (or “browning”. These region-wide patterns are, however, highly fragmented. The statistically significant NDVI trends occupy only a small fraction of the region. Urbanization destroys the vegetation cover within the developed areas and at about 5–10 km distance around them. The studied urbanized areas have the NDVI values by 15 to 45 % lower than the corresponding areas at 20–40 km distance. The largest NDVI reduction is typical for the newly developed areas, whereas the older areas show recovery of the vegetation cover. The study reveals a robust indication of the accelerated greening near the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the wider browning trends at their background. Literature discussion suggests that the observed urban greening could be associated not only with special tending of the within-city green areas but also with the urban heat islands and succession of more productive shrub and tree species growing on warmer sandy soils.

  15. Present Permafrost Thaw in Central Yakutia, North-East Siberia: Surficial Geology and Hydrology Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawska, Jolanta; Chlachula, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Current climate change in the high-latitudes of Eurasia is a generally accepted phenomenon characterized by increased annual temperature values and marked weather anomalies observed in the sub-polar and polar regions. In the northern and NE Siberia, this trend of the MAT rise, documented particularly over the last three decades, is believed to account for the territorial lowland as well as insular mountain frozen ground thaw that in turn has triggered ecosystem feedbacks on the local as well as regional scales. In the northern regions of Yakutia, this is principally witnessed by accelerated near-surface dynamics of seasonally activated de-freezing grounds and inter-linked geomorphic and hydrological actions affecting large-scale tundra landscape settings. In the southern and central taiga-forest areas with perennial alpine and continuous permafrost conditions, respectively, an increased depth of the seasonally melted top-soil layers has become evident accompanied by thermokarst lake expansion and ground surface collapsing. Some cryogenic depressions generated from small gullies over the past decades eloquently demonstrate the intensity and scales of the current permafrost degradation in the Siberian North. The fluvial discharge is most dynamic in late spring to mid-summer because of the cumulative effect of snow-melting because of a high solar radiation and short intervals of torrential rains. Yet, the climate-change-dependent and most active geomorphic agent is the accelerated permafrost thaw seen in landslides and tundra-forest cover decay due to a higher water table. Numerous preserved biotic fossiliferous records Pleistocene and early Holocene in age are being exposed in this process providing unique palaeoecology evidence at particular sites. These climate-generated processes have mostly highly negative effects to the natural habitats (migratory animal routes and riverine biota due to an earlier ice-melting) as well as the local settlement communities

  16. Holocene carbon dynamics at the forest-steppe ecotone of southern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Anson William; Seddon, Alistair W R; Leng, Melanie J; Heumann, Georg; Morley, David W; Piotrowska, Natalia; Rioual, Patrick; Roberts, Sarah; Swann, George E A

    2017-05-01

    The forest-steppe ecotone in southern Siberia is highly sensitive to climate change; global warming is expected to push the ecotone northwards, at the same time resulting in degradation of the underlying permafrost. To gain a deeper understanding of long-term forest-steppe carbon dynamics, we use a highly resolved, multiproxy, palaeolimnological approach, based on sediment records from Lake Baikal. We reconstruct proxies that are relevant to understanding carbon dynamics including carbon mass accumulation rates (CMAR; g C m-2  yr-1 ) and isotope composition of organic matter (δ13 CTOC ). Forest-steppe dynamics were reconstructed using pollen, and diatom records provided measures of primary production from near- and off-shore communities. We used a generalized additive model (GAM) to identify significant change points in temporal series, and by applying generalized linear least-squares regression modelling to components of the multiproxy data, we address (1) What factors influence carbon dynamics during early Holocene warming and late Holocene cooling? (2) How did carbon dynamics respond to abrupt sub-Milankovitch scale events? and (3) What is the Holocene carbon storage budget for Lake Baikal. CMAR values range between 2.8 and 12.5 g C m-2  yr-1 . Peak burial rates (and greatest variability) occurred during the early Holocene, associated with melting permafrost and retreating glaciers, while lowest burial rates occurred during the neoglacial. Significant shifts in carbon dynamics at 10.3, 4.1 and 2.8 kyr bp provide compelling evidence for the sensitivity of the region to sub-Milankovitch drivers of climate change. We estimate that 1.03 Pg C was buried in Lake Baikal sediments during the Holocene, almost one-quarter of which was buried during the early Holocene alone. Combined, our results highlight the importance of understanding the close linkages between carbon cycling and hydrological processes, not just temperatures, in southern Siberian environments.

  17. Communicating hydrocephalus following eosinophilic meningitis is pathogenic for chronic Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Northeastern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Alexander; Kassubek, Jan; Tumani, Hayrettin; Vladimirtsev, Vsevolod A; Hermann, Andreas; Osakovsky, Vladimir L; Baranov, Vladimir A; Krivoshapkin, Vadim G; Ludolph, Albert C

    2014-01-01

    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE) is an endemic neurological disease in Northeast Siberia and generally considered to be a chronic encephalomyelitis of unknown origin actually spreading in the Sakha (Yakutian) Republic. In search for the pathophysiology and causative agent of VE, we performed a cross-sectional study on clinical, serological and neuroimaging data on chronic VE patients during two medical expeditions to three villages within the Viliuiski river basin in the Republic of Sakha in 2000 and to the capital Yakutsk in 2006. The severity of the core clinical picture with predominant sensory ataxia, gait apraxia, lower limb spasticity, cognitive impairment and bladder dysfunction correlated with the degree of MRI findings showing enlargement of inner ventricular spaces as in communicating hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies revealed transient eosinophilia during the preceding acute meningitis-like phase, but no ongoing inflammatory process in the CSF. We found immune reactions against Toxocara canis in the majority of chronic VE patients but rarely in controls (P = 0.025; Fisher's exact test). Histological analysis of subacute to subchronic VE brain samples showed eosinophilic infiltrations with no signs of persistent Toxocara canis infection. Our data showed that pressure by the communicating hydrocephalus as a mechanical factor is the major pathogenic mechanism in chronic VE, most likely triggered by eosinophilic meningitis. There are no signs for an ongoing inflammatory process in chronic VE. The past eosinophilic reaction in VE might be caused by Toxocara ssp. infection and might therefore represent the first hint for an initial cause leading to the development of chronic VE. Our data provide a framework for future studies and potential therapeutic interventions for this enigmatic epidemic neurological disease potentially spreading in Sakha Republic.

  18. The relationship between needle sugar carbon isotope ratios and tree rings of larch in Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, K T; Saurer, M; Kirdyanov, A V; Loader, N J; Bryukhanova, M V; Werner, R A; Siegwolf, R T W

    2015-11-01

    Significant gaps still exist in our knowledge about post-photosynthetic leaf level and downstream metabolic processes and isotopic fractionations. This includes their impact on the isotopic climate signal stored in the carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of leaf assimilates and tree rings. For the first time, we compared the seasonal δ(13)C variability of leaf sucrose with intra-annual, high-resolution δ(13)C signature of tree rings from larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.). The trees were growing at two sites in the continuous permafrost zone of Siberia with different growth conditions. Our results indicate very similar low-frequency intra-seasonal trends of the sucrose and tree ring δ(13)C records with little or no indication for the use of 'old' photosynthates formed during the previous year(s). The comparison of leaf sucrose δ(13)C values with that in other leaf sugars and in tree rings elucidates the cause for the reported (13)C-enrichment of sink organs compared with leaves. We observed that while the average δ(13)C of all needle sugars was 1.2‰ more negative than δ(13)C value of wood, the δ(13)C value of the transport sugar sucrose was on an average 1.0‰ more positive than that of wood. Our study shows a high potential of the combined use of compound-specific isotope analysis of sugars (leaf and phloem) with intra-annual tree ring δ(13)C measurements for deepening our understanding about the mechanisms controlling the isotope variability in tree rings under different environmental conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Impact of climate change on permafrost degradation in Far North-Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T.; Matsunaga, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Gotovtsev, S.; Gagarin, L.; Hiyama, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost degradation is one of the major consequences of the changes in the Arctic climate. The object of this study is to evaluate recent climate change and the impact on the permafrost degradation in far northeastern Siberia. The time-series of area-averaged GPCP precipitation showed a positive trend as well as that of air temperature, because the warmer air temperature increased the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. Especially, heavy precipitation was observed in 2006. On the other hand, the time-series of area-averaged summer AVHRR brightness temperature (BT) did not show a clear trend. However, when looking at anomalies, the summer AVHRR BT was totally high in 2007 when air temperature was the highest during the observation period, except for some riverbanks and lakeshores. These waterfronts were more sensitive to permafrost degradation because the water temperature was always higher than the soil temperature of permafrost. The waterfront areas were expanded by thermal erosion of permafrost. Therefore, the summer AVHRR BT was conversely cooler than normal around waterfronts. Then, the unparalleled permafrost-melt-induced flood occurred along the Alazeya River where the bulkhead between the main river channel and thermokarst lakes was destroyed by thermal erosion. Although the trigger of the flood was permafrost melting by heat wave in 2007, the increase in soil water content by heavy precipitation in 2006 seemed to contribute the magnitude of flood. The flood behavior was characterized as very slow streamflow velocity, because there is little inclination in the Kolyma Lowland. Therefore, villagers suffered from the flood effects for a long time. Information from remote sensing data gives insights to understand the actual mechanisms and pathways from the exacerbation of climatic change to the occurrence of permafrost-melt-induced flood. Such insights will help in efforts to manage flood risk under the future climate change.

  20. The evolution of supraglacial moraine and its impact on glacier melt in Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Hagg, W.; Narozhny, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Glaciers act as water reservoirs on different time scales. Especially high mountain ranges in arid regions can provide glacial melt water as an important source for irrigation during the growing season. This is also the situation in the Altay mountains in Southern Siberia, where a considerable ice cover of >700 km² is slowly decreasing. The observed glacier retreat is accompanied by an expansion of supra-glacial debris cover, which itself strongly influences the ablation rates. To quantify the effects of debris cover on ice melt and glacier reaction, the spatial evolution of debris cover since 1952 was analysed for three glaciers in the North Chuya Ridge using satellite and airborne imagery, as well as suitable field measurements. In the ablation season of 2007, the debris covered parts of Maliy Aktru glacier were investigated in detail. Thermistors in different depths within the moraine provided data of temperature gradients which were used to calculate thermal resistance of the debris. Ablation stakes were installed at locations with differing debris thickness and observed regularly throughout the entire melt season. Air temperature recorded by a nearby automatic weather station was used for determining degree day factors. This allowed the calibration of ice melt on the basis of the calculated thermal resistance of the debris cover. Also the influence of the topography of the glaciers and the entire mountain range on solar radiation was considered in the ablation calculations by including the varying shading effect throughout the summer. With this methodology we were able to extrapolate the measurements from Maliy Aktru glacier to the other glaciers and to estimate ice melt rates for the entire basin. This melt model was then used to investigate variations in summer runoff for available data from the 1960s and compare changes in potential melt with the evolution of the debris cover.

  1. Benthic bioindicators from the lakes of Northern Yakutia (Siberia, Russia) in paleoclimatic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, O. N.; Nazarova, L. B.; Frolova, L. A.; Pestryakova, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    High latitude regions are particularly affected by global climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are known to respond quickly and sensitively to such changes (Carpenter et al., 1992; Findlay et al. 2001; Smol et al., 2005). This effect is especially dramatic in regions with continental climates such as Northern and Eastern Siberia. In 2008, Russian-German expedition investigated 33 lakes of Kolyma river basin, North-Eastern Yakutia. The region of investigation is located in the mouth of Kolyma river between approximately 68°2' and 69°4' N and between 159°8' and 161°9' E. It's a most north-eastern region of Yakutia, so it's suitable for paleolimnological investigations. The investigated lakes are situated along the 200 km transect crossing 3 vegetation zones: polygonal tundra, forest tundra and northern taiga. The main aims were establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions by using aquatic organisms, investigation of limnological variables and the influence of the environmental conditions on distribution of aquatic organisms in Yakutian lakes. The modern benthic fauna of the lakes is represented by 89 taxa from 14 taxonomic groups. The most abundant group was Mollusca. The most taxonomically diverse group was Chironomidae. A unique for this region species were discovered, such as Cincinna kamchatica, Physa jarochnovitschae, Colymbetes dolabratus, Ilybius wasastjernae, Xestochironomus sp., Agrypnia sp. etc. Cluster analysis of taxonomical composition of the benthic fauna of these lakes showed high dependency to vegetation zones. The highest levels of hydrobiological indexes (Shannon, Evenness, species richness) were registered in forest tundra. CCA analysis showed that the most influential factors in species distribution were climate-dependant factors, such as mean Tair of July, pH and water depth. Data from taxonomical analysis of Chironomidae group were used for establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  2. Trends in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with urban development in northern West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Igor; Miles, Victoria V.; Davy, Richard; Miles, Martin W.; Kurchatova, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves of northern West Siberia has promoted rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development leaves significant footprints on the sensitive northern environment, which is already stressed by the global warming. This study reports the region-wide changes in the vegetation cover as well as the corresponding changes in and around 28 selected urbanized areas. The study utilizes the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from high-resolution (250 m) MODIS data acquired for summer months (June through August) over 15 years (2000-2014). The results reveal the increase of NDVI (or "greening") over the northern (tundra and tundra-forest) part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern, forested part shows the widespread decrease of NDVI (or "browning"). These region-wide patterns are, however, highly fragmented. The statistically significant NDVI trends occupy only a small fraction of the region. Urbanization destroys the vegetation cover within the developed areas and at about 5-10 km distance around them. The studied urbanized areas have the NDVI values by 15 to 45 % lower than the corresponding areas at 20-40 km distance. The largest NDVI reduction is typical for the newly developed areas, whereas the older areas show recovery of the vegetation cover. The study reveals a robust indication of the accelerated greening near the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the wider browning trends at their background. Literature discussion suggests that the observed urban greening could be associated not only with special tending of the within-city green areas but also with the urban heat islands and succession of more productive shrub and tree species growing on warmer sandy soils.

  3. Communicating hydrocephalus following eosinophilic meningitis is pathogenic for chronic Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Northeastern Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Storch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE is an endemic neurological disease in Northeast Siberia and generally considered to be a chronic encephalomyelitis of unknown origin actually spreading in the Sakha (Yakutian Republic. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In search for the pathophysiology and causative agent of VE, we performed a cross-sectional study on clinical, serological and neuroimaging data on chronic VE patients during two medical expeditions to three villages within the Viliuiski river basin in the Republic of Sakha in 2000 and to the capital Yakutsk in 2006. The severity of the core clinical picture with predominant sensory ataxia, gait apraxia, lower limb spasticity, cognitive impairment and bladder dysfunction correlated with the degree of MRI findings showing enlargement of inner ventricular spaces as in communicating hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies revealed transient eosinophilia during the preceding acute meningitis-like phase, but no ongoing inflammatory process in the CSF. We found immune reactions against Toxocara canis in the majority of chronic VE patients but rarely in controls (P = 0.025; Fisher's exact test. Histological analysis of subacute to subchronic VE brain samples showed eosinophilic infiltrations with no signs of persistent Toxocara canis infection. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our data showed that pressure by the communicating hydrocephalus as a mechanical factor is the major pathogenic mechanism in chronic VE, most likely triggered by eosinophilic meningitis. There are no signs for an ongoing inflammatory process in chronic VE. The past eosinophilic reaction in VE might be caused by Toxocara ssp. infection and might therefore represent the first hint for an initial cause leading to the development of chronic VE. Our data provide a framework for future studies and potential therapeutic interventions for this enigmatic epidemic neurological disease potentially spreading in Sakha Republic.

  4. MIKHAIL M. ODINTSOV’S CONTRIBUTION TO DEVELOPMENT OF THE MINERAL AND RAW MATERIALS COMPLEX OF THE EASTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin N. Egorov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The publication is devoted to the role of Mikhail M. Odintsov, Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and his scientific school in solution of fundamental problems related to regularities of occurrence of endogenic mineral resources at ancient platforms. Based on mineragenic zonation data on the southeastern segment of the Siberian platform, Mikhail M. Odintsov determined the location of the AngaroViluisky ore belt that controls deposits and ore occurrences of magnetite, sulfates of copper and nickel, gold, base metals, barite, сelestine, and diamonds. Fundamental concepts proposed and developed by Mikhail M. Odintsov contributed significantly to studies of structures and evolution of ancient platforms and facilitated development of modern forecasting concepts concerning exploration of primary and alluvial deposits of diamonds in the southern part of the Siberian craton.

  5. An assessment of the health and environmental situation in the mining community Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehdwall, H.; Rising, A.; Hjalmar, A.; Lindholm, I.; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H.

    1995-12-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the uranium activities as such have not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 15 tabs.

  6. Establishment of Provincial Unions of the Cities of Siberia: Experience of Regional Identity Construction in Wartime (1914–1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Kharus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the approach to the detection of the role and place of provincial organizations of All-Russian Union of Cities in the social life of the Siberia, which is based on the analysis of the social practices, concerned with their establishment in the context of the regional identity construction. The paper detects the specific character of the forms and methods of Siberian identity representation, used by the liberal initiative minority in the First World War. The reasons, preventing the implementation of the project of creating of broad coalition of the public, based on the development of self-government institutions development are determined.

  7. Density heterogeneity of the upper mantle beneath Siberia from satellite gravity and a new regional crustal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2013-01-01

    We present a new regional model for the density structure of the upper mantle below Siberia. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE gravity gradients and geopotential models, with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a new...... on regional and global crustal models. We analyze how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. The new regional density model for the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin complements...

  8. Western blot: technique, theory, and trouble shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tahrin; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-09-01

    Western blotting is an important technique used in cell and molecular biology. By using a western blot, researchers are able to identify specific proteins from a complex mixture of proteins extracted from cells. The technique uses three elements to accomplish this task: (1) separation by size, (2) transfer to a solid support, and (3) marking target protein using a proper primary and secondary antibody to visualize. This paper will attempt to explain the technique and theory behind western blot, and offer some ways to troubleshoot.

  9. Short communication: Molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, and phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1, a recently originated HIV-1 circulating recombinant form spreading in Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Nadezhda S; Shalamova, Lyudmila A; Delgado, Elena; Fernández-García, Aurora; Vega, Yolanda; Karpenko, Larissa I; Ilyichev, Alexander A; Sokolov, Yuri V; Shcherbakov, Dmitry N; Pérez-Álvarez, Lucía; Thomson, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Russia is dominated by the former Soviet Union subtype A (A(FSU)) variant, but other genetic forms are circulating in the country. One is the recently described CRF63_02A1, derived from recombination between a CRF02_AG variant circulating in Central Asia and A(FSU), which has spread in the Novosibirsk region, Siberia. Here we phylogenetically analyze pol and env segments from 24 HIV-1 samples from the Novosibirsk region collected in 2013, with characterization of three new near full-length genome CRF63_02A1 sequences, and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) and the demographic growth of CRF63_02A1 using a Bayesian method. The analyses revealed that CRF63_02A1 is highly predominant in the Novosibirsk region (81.2% in pol sequences) and is transmitted both among injecting drug users and by heterosexual contact. Similarity searches with database sequences combined with phylogenetic analyses show that CRF63_02A1 is circulating in East Kazakhstan and the Eastern area of Russia bordering China. The analyses of near full-length genome sequences show that its mosaic structure is more complex than reported, with 18 breakpoints. The tMRCA of CRF63_02A1 was estimated around 2006, with exponential growth in 2008-2009 and subsequent stabilization. These results provide new insights into the molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, and phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1.

  10. Was the Devonian geomagnetic field dipolar or multipolar? Palaeointensity studies of Devonian igneous rocks from the Minusa Basin (Siberia) and the Kola Peninsula dykes, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Biggin, A. J.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Shatsillo, A. V.; Hawkins, L. M. A.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2017-05-01

    Defining variations in the behaviour of the geomagnetic field through geological time is critical to understanding the dynamics of Earth's core and its response to mantle convection and planetary evolution. Furthermore, the question of whether the axial dipole dominance of the recent palaeomagnetic field persists through the whole of Earth's history is fundamental to determining the reliability of palaeogeographic reconstructions and the efficacy of the magnetosphere in shielding Earth from solar wind radiation. Previous palaeomagnetic directional studies have suggested that the palaeofield had a complex configuration in the Devonian period (419-359 Ma). Here we present new high-quality palaeointensity determinations from rocks aged between 408 and 375 Ma from the Minusa Basin (southern Siberia), and the Kola Peninsula that enable the first reliable investigation of the strength of the field during this enigmatic period. Palaeointensity experiments were performed using the thermal Thellier, microwave Thellier and Wilson methods on 165 specimens from 25 sites. Six out of eight successful sites from the Minusa Basin and all four successful sites from the Kola Peninsula produced extremely low palaeointensities (<10 μT). These findings challenge the uniformitarian view of the palaeomagnetic field: field intensities of nearly an order of magnitude lower than Neogene values (except during relatively rare geomagnetic excursions and reversals) together with the widespread appearance of strange directions found in the Devonian suggest that the Earth's field during this time may have had a dominantly multipolar geometry. A persistent, low intensity multipolar magnetic field and associated diminished magnetosphere would increase the impact of solar particles on the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere with potential major implications for Earth's climate and biosphere.

  11. The Third All-Russian Research Conference (with International Participation “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turkic-Tatar States of the Western Siberia”, Kurgan, 21–22 April, 2017

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    D.N. Maslyuzhenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises the work of the Third all-Russian research conference (with international participation “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turkic-Tatar States of the Western Siberia”, which was held in the city of Kurgan on April 21–22, 2014. In total, 32 researchers from Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan took part in the conference. The first roundtable was dedicated to the topic “Western Siberia and the Shibanids during the period of the Golden Horde (13th–14th centuries”. Special attention was given to the problems of source studies of the history of this dynasty, the localisation of the territory and borders of the Shibanids’ possessions, the possibility of other Chingisid dynasties’ claims to the territory of southwestern Siberia, and the Shibanids’ engagement in the events of Great Zamyatnya and the steppe feuds of the 1420s. The second roundtable was linked to the history of “The Tyumen and Siberian Khanates and Their Neighbours (15th–16th centuries”. The greater part of the talks was dedicated to international relations in the post-Horde era and in its former territories, including Russian-Siberian and Siberian-Bukharian interactions. The possibility of the investigation of Kuchum Khan’s imagology and its relationship with historical realities, the issues of interaction between the central government and regional elites during Kuchum Khan’s reign, and some problems of historiography were considered at the conference. The researchers again noted the need for an interdisciplinary approach combining the involvement of specialists in history, archaeology, ethnography, anthropology, and linguistics. Special attention was drawn to the phase-down of archaeological research of the late medieval sites of western Siberia. In the framework of the third roundtable, the issues of the history of “Turkic Population of the southwestern Siberia in the end of the 16th–17th centuries” were

  12. Freshwater ostracods (Crustacea and environmental variability of polygon ponds in the tundra of the Indigirka Lowland, north-east Siberia

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    Andrea Schneider

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ostracods (Crustacea, Ostracoda are valuable biological indicators. In Arctic environments, their habitat conditions are barely known and the abundance and diversity of ostracods is documented only in scattered records with incomplete ecological characterization. To determine the taxonomic range of ostracod assemblages and their habitat conditions in polygon ponds in the Indigirka Lowland, north-east Siberia, we collected more than 100 living ostracod individuals per site with a plankton net (mesh size 65 µm and an exhaustor system from 27 water bodies and studied them in the context of substrate and hydrochemical data. During the summer of 2011, a single pond site and its ostracod population was selected for special study. This first record of the ostracod fauna in the Indigirka Lowland comprises eight species and three additional taxa. Fabaeformiscandona krochini and F. groenlandica were documented for the first time in continental Siberia. Repeated sampling of a low-centre polygon pond yielded insights into the population dynamics of F. pedata. We identified air temperature and precipitation as the main external drivers of water temperatures, water levels, ion concentrations and water stable isotope composition on diurnal and seasonal scales.

  13. The carbon balance in natural and disturbed forests of the southern taiga in central Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedrova, E.F.; Shugalei, L.S.; Stakanov, V.D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kasnoyarsk (Russian Federation) V.N. Sukachev Inst. of Forest and Wood

    2002-06-01

    We evaluated the balance of production and decomposition in natural ecosystems of Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Betula pendula in the southern boreal forests of central Siberia, using the Yenisei transect. We also investigated whether anthropogenic disturbances (logging, fire and recreation pressure) influence the carbon budget. Pinus and Larix stands up to age class VI act as a net sink for atmospheric carbon. Mineralization rates in young Betula forests exceed rates of uptake via photosynthesis assimilation. Old-growth stands of all three forest types are CO{sub 2} sources to the atmosphere. The prevalence of old-growth Larix in the southern taiga suggests that Larix stands are a net source of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere exceeds the uptake of atmospheric carbon via photosynthesis by 0.23 t C/ha/yr (47%). Betula and Pinus forests are net sinks, as photosynthesis exceeds respiration by 13% and 16% respectively. The total carbon flux from Pinus, Larix and Betula ecosystems to the atmosphere is 10,387 thousand tons C/yr. Net Primary Production (0.935 t-C/ha) exceeds carbon release from decomposition of labile and mobile soil organic matter (Rh) by 767 thousand tons C (0.064 t-C/ha), so that these forests are net C-sinks. The emissions due to decomposition of slash (101 thousand tons C; 1.0%) and from fires (0.21%) are very small. The carbon balance of human-disturbed forests is significantly different. A sharp decrease in biomass stored in Pinus and Betula ecosystems leads to decreased production. As a result, the labile organic matter pool decreased by 6-8 times; course plant residues with a low decomposition rate thus dominate this pool. Annual carbon emissions to the atmosphere from these ecosystems are determined primarily by decomposing fresh litterfall. This source comprises 40-79% of the emissions from disturbed forests compared to only 13-28% in undisturbed forests. The ratio of emissions to production (NPP) is 20-30% in disturbed

  14. Deciduous shrub growth and the greening of the Arctic in West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2010-12-01

    Salix lanata and Alnus fruticosa are common and widespread shrub species in the low arctic tundra zone of West Siberia. They often occur in similar local habitats with the live portions of genets up to 100 years old. We have recently established that growth rings of S. lanata provide an excellent proxy for summer temperature. In that study our data were derived from shrubs growing on organic soils near the arctic coast of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO), west of the Ural Mountains. East of the Urals, in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO), climate is more continental and sandy soils provide a relatively nutrient-poor substrate for plant growth. By sampling two different species side by side on the Yamal Peninsula, we shed light on the relationship between deciduous shrubs and growing season temperatures in the last half century or so, a period of pronounced regional warming. We discern differences in the climate signal within a single species (S. lanata) as well as between it and a neighboring species with a strongly overlapping ecological amplitude (A. fruticosa). July is the main month for temperature correlation in Alnus, whereas Salix responds to June-July-August temperatures in both regions. The high correlations of shrub growth with summer temperature (r > 0.7 over the period 1956-2004) strongly suggest a link between increased shrub growth and recent decadal warming in both regions (~2°C). Both species showed significant correlation with the regional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), although it was somewhat lower in YNAO compared to NAO, probably due to the relative land cover (10% vs. 20%, respectively) of erect shrubs in both areas, which affects their overall contribution to the NDVI. In both regions Salix lanata biomass peaks in the second half of July. Hand-held leaf area index data from Yamal indicate a significant difference between loamy/clayey and sandy sites. We hypothesized that this same variation would be evident at the

  15. Impact of hydrology on methane flux patterns in a permafrost-affected floodplain in Northeast Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min Jung; Beulig, Felix; Kuesel, Kirsten; Wildner, Marcus; Heimann, Martin; Zimov, Nikita; Zimov, Sergei; Goeckede, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    A large fraction of organic carbon stored in Arctic permafrost soil is at risk to be decomposed and released to the atmosphere under climate change. Thawing of ice-rich permafrost will re-structure the surface topography, with potentially significant effects on hydrology: water table depth (WTD) of depressed areas will increase, while that of the surrounding area will decrease. Changes in hydrology will trigger modifications in soil and vegetation, e.g. soil temperature, vegetation and microbial community structure. All of these secondary effects will alter carbon cycle processes, with the magnitude and even sign of the net effect yet unknown. The objective of this study is to investigate effects of drainage on methane fluxes in a floodplain of the Kolyma River near Cherskii, Northeast Siberia. The study site is separated into two areas, one that has been drained since 2004, and a nearby reference site. Methane flux was measured for ~16 weeks during summer and early winter of 2013, and summer of 2014. In addition, to separate different methane emission pathways, plant-mediated methane transport (through aerenchyma) as well as the proportion of ebullition were measured in 2014. Vegetation and microbial community structures were investigated and compared. After a decade of drainage history that lowered WTD by about 20cm in the drained area, Eriophorum (cotton grass) that previously dominated have to a large part been replaced by Carex (tussock-forming sedge) and shrub species. While WTD primarily influenced the methane flux rate, this vegetation change indirectly altered the flux as well in a way that sites with Eriophorum emitted more methane. Concerning the microbial community structure, the relative abundance of methanogen and ratio of methanotrophs to methanogens were well correlated with methane flux rates, implying that the methane flux is highly influenced by microorganisms. As a consequence of these changes, in the drained area less amount of methane was

  16. Transient modeling of the ground thermal conditions using satellite data in the Lena River delta, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Sebastian; Peter, Maria; Langer, Moritz; Schwamborn, Georg; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Permafrost is a sensitive element of the cryosphere, but operational monitoring of the ground thermal conditions on large spatial scales is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate a remote-sensing-based scheme that is capable of estimating the transient evolution of ground temperatures and active layer thickness by means of the ground thermal model CryoGrid 2. The scheme is applied to an area of approximately 16 000 km2 in the Lena River delta (LRD) in NE Siberia for a period of 14 years. The forcing data sets at 1 km spatial and weekly temporal resolution are synthesized from satellite products and fields of meteorological variables from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. To assign spatially distributed ground thermal properties, a stratigraphic classification based on geomorphological observations and mapping is constructed, which accounts for the large-scale patterns of sediment types, ground ice and surface properties in the Lena River delta. A comparison of the model forcing to in situ measurements on Samoylov Island in the southern part of the study area yields an acceptable agreement for the purpose of ground thermal modeling, for surface temperature, snow depth, and timing of the onset and termination of the winter snow cover. The model results are compared to observations of ground temperatures and thaw depths at nine sites in the Lena River delta, suggesting that thaw depths are in most cases reproduced to within 0.1 m or less and multi-year averages of ground temperatures within 1-2 °C. Comparison of monthly average temperatures at depths of 2-3 m in five boreholes yielded an RMSE of 1.1 °C and a bias of -0.9 °C for the model results. The highest ground temperatures are calculated for grid cells close to the main river channels in the south as well as areas with sandy sediments and low organic and ice contents in the central delta, where also the largest thaw depths occur. On the other hand, the lowest temperatures are modeled for the eastern part, which is an

  17. Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi biomass distribution, fire regime and post-fire recovery in northeastern Siberia

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    M. C. Mack

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and land-use activities are increasing fire activity across much of the Siberian boreal forest, yet the climate feedbacks from forest disturbances remain difficult to quantify due to limited information on forest biomass distribution, disturbance regimes and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery. Our primary objective here was to analyse post-fire accumulation of Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr. aboveground biomass for a 100 000 km2 area of open forest in far northeastern Siberia. In addition to examining effects of fire size and topography on post-fire larch aboveground biomass, we assessed regional fire rotation and density, as well as performance of burned area maps generated from MODIS satellite imagery. Using Landsat imagery, we mapped 116 fire scar perimeters that dated c. 1966–2007. We then mapped larch aboveground biomass by linking field biomass measurements to tree shadows mapped synergistically from WorldView-1 and Landsat 5 satellite imagery. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be low during early succession (≤ 25 yr, 271 ± 26 g m−2, n = 66 [mean ± SE] and decreased with increasing elevation and northwardly aspect. Larch aboveground biomass tended to be higher during mid-succession (33–38 yr, 746 ± 100 g m−2, n = 32, though was highly variable. The high variability was not associated with topography and potentially reflected differences in post-fire density of tree regrowth. Neither fire size nor latitude were significant predictors of post-fire larch aboveground biomass. Fire activity was considerably higher in the Kolyma Mountains (fire rotation = 110 yr, fire density = 1.0 ± 1.0 fires yr−1 × 104 km−2 than along the forest-tundra border (fire rotation = 792 yr, fire density = 0.3 ± 0.3 fires yr−1 × 104 km−2. The MODIS burned area maps underestimated the total area burned in this region from 2000–2007 by 40%. Tree shadows mapped jointly using high and medium resolution satellite imagery

  18. Ground and aircraft-based methane measurements in Siberia: source attribution using tracers and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzoumanian, E.; Paris, J. D.; Pruvost, A.; Peng, S.; Turquety, S.; Berchet, A.; Pison, I.; Helle, J.; Arshinov, M.; Belan, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. It is also naturally emitted by a number of processes, including microbial activity in wetlands, permafrost degradation and wildfires. Our current understanding of the extent and amplitude of its natural sources, as well as the large scale driving factors, remain highly uncertain (Kirschke et al., Nature Geosci., 2013). Furthermore, high latitude regions are large natural sources of CH4 in the atmosphere. Observing boreal/Arctic CH4 variability and understanding its main driving processes using atmospheric measurements and transport model is the task of this work. YAK-AEROSIB atmospheric airborne campaigns (flights in the tropospheric layer up to 9 km connecting the two cities of Novosibirsk and Yakutsk) and continuous measurements at Fonovaya Observatory (60 km west of Tomsk - 56° 25'07"N, 84° 04'27"E) have been performed in order to provide observational data on the composition of Siberian air. The study is focused on 2012, during which a strong heat wave impacted Siberia, leading to the highest mean daily temperature values on record since the beginning of the 20th century. This abnormal drought has led to numerous large forest fires. A chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE), combined with datasets for anthropogenic (EDGAR) emissions and models for wetlands (ORCHIDEE) and wildfires (APIFLAME), is used to determine contributions of CH4 sources in the region. Recent results concerning CH4 fluxes and its atmospheric variability in the Siberian territory derived from a modeled-based analysis will be shown and discussed. This work was funded by CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590). Kirschke, S

  19. Epidemiological study of vital exhaustion and sleep disorders in dwellers of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Gagulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the prevalence of vital exhaustion (VI and sleep disorders, the pattern of the latter in 45–69-year-old Novosibirsk dwellers (Siberia with different levels of VI.Patients and methods. A random representative sample of 45–69-year-old women (n=2401 from two Novosibirsk districts were examined within the 2003–2005 HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors In Eastern Europe prospective cohort study. Another random representative sample of 45–69 men (n=1770 from two Novosibirsk districts were examined within a subsequent screening study. The entire sample consisted of 4171 residents: men and women were 42.4% and 57.6%, respectively. The mean age of the men was 56.5±7.01 and that of the women was 56.3±7.07. The response rate was as high as 61%. Testing was carried out using the short 14-item version of the Maastricht Questionnaire (MQ to evaluate VE and the 4-item Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire (JSQ to investigate sleep quality and duration.Results. The leading determinants of VE were the incidence of fatigue, interrupted sleep, lethargy, the degree of irritability, and a feeling of exhaustion and tiredness. The population examined was found to have a high prevalence of VE and sleep disorders. There was a close correlation between high VE and impaired sleep quality and duration.Conclusion. The high rate of impaired sleep quality and duration in the Novosibirsk population, which is sometimes twice greater than that in other populations, is associated with the high prevalence of depression, anxiety, VE, and hostility among the population. This is due to the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. A sleep disorder may cause VE. It is important to promptly establish a psychotherapeutic diagnosis of these conditions, followed by their subsequent correction.

  20. Paleomagnetic studies of volcanic rocks in Siberia and sedimentary rocks in Southern Alberta: From long-term geomagnetic field variations to age determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Acuna, Dunia

    Paleomagnetism is a fundamental tool to understand the ancient variations of Earth's magnetic field through time. Important applications to geochronology and paleography come from interpreting the variations of the planetary magnetic vector. This dissertation explores the different applications of paleomagnetism to uncover important characteristics of the paleointensity magnetic field during the Permo-Triassic boundary and the nature of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) of Siberia, and to create geochronological frameworks for kimberlites in the Siberian platform and for sediments at the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Detailed absolute paleointensity measurements from Permo-Triassic sills at the Siberian platform are studied to determine the existence of a low dipole field, which has been previously reported in the area. We found a mean virtual dipolar moment value of 6.01 +/- 1.45 x 1022 Am 2 which is over 50% higher than the results previously obtained by other authors. Diamondiferous kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform. The age of the magmatic activity cannot be clearly determined from isotopic age data---this is the reason why new paleomagnetic poles from four kimberlite pipes are obtained to study their paleomagnetic age. On the basis of a comparison with the Siberian APWP, we estimate the age of the kimberlite magmatism. The acquired paleomagnetic ages span from the Early Silurian to the Middle Late Jurassic. Magnetostratigraphic analysis is used as a dating tool on three deep drilling cores that penetrate Santonian-Campanian strata in southern Alberta, Canada. Chrons 34n and 33r are clearly identified from the studied sections---providing a high-resolution age boundary that creates new age boundaries between adjacent stratigraphic units. In addition, normal polarity zones are observed within C33r, previously described as reverse polarity over its entire length. Siberian APWP contains long unresolved

  1. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

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    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  2. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  3. Database of in-situ field measurements for estimates of fuel consumption and fire emissions in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Buryak, Ludmila; Ivanova, Galina; Soja, Amber; Kalenskaya, Olga; Zhila, Sergey; Zarubin, Denis; Groisman, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires show great variability in the amount of fuel consumed and carbon emitted to the atmosphere. Various types of models are used to calculate global or large scale regional fire emissions. However, in the databases used to estimate fuel consumptions, data for Russia are typically under-represented. Meanwhile, the differences in vegetation and fire regimes in the boreal forests in North America and Eurasia argue strongly for the need of regional ecosystem-specific data. For about 15 years we have been collecting field data on fuel loads and consumption in different ecosystem types of Siberia. We conducted a series of experimental burnings of varying fireline intensity in Scots pine and larch forests of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions. In addition, we examined wildfire behavior and effects in different vegetation types including Scots pine, Siberian pine, fir, birch, poplar, and larch-dominated forests; evergreen coniferous shrubs; grasslands, and peats. We investigated various ecosystem zones of Siberia (central and southern taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, mountains) in the different subjects of the Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk Kray, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of Buryatia, Tuva Republic, Zabaikalsky Kray). To evaluate the impact of forest practices on fire emissions, burned and unburned logged sites and forest plantations were examined. We found large variations of fuel consumption and fire emission rates among different vegetation types depending on growing conditions, fire behavior characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Changes in the climate system result in an increase in fire frequency, area burned, the number of extreme fires, fire season length, fire season severity, and the number of ignitions from lightning. This leads to an increase of fire-related emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The field measurement database we compiled is required for improving accuracy of existing

  4. Regional competitiveness: The case of Western China

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    Vuković Darko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the concept of regional competitiveness and the factors that influence on it. A large number of various authors explain this concept, based on its different aspects, including: productivity, mikroaspekts (firm, quality of human capital, innovation, technology, infrastructure, social capital, etc.. Taking into account complex nature of regional competitiveness, it is difficult to determine a standard definition of this term. The second part of this paper refers to the case of western China. Substantial disparity in regional development is a reality in every geographically large country, and the causes of the disparity are numerous and complex. Regional inequality has been an important issue in China. This paper generally summarized China's Western regions geography, government policies and development situation. The authors put forward some practical strategies on how to help the western regions create a favorable environment to attract national and international investment.

  5. Prognosis, prospecting and development of gas fields in the far north of Siberia - as a single methodological approach to an optimal development of the territorial resources; Prevision, prospection et developpement des champs de gaz naturel du grand nord Siberien - approche methodologique unique pour un developpement optimal des ressources du territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remizov, V.V.; Dmitrievsky, A.N.; Ermilov, O.M.; Neelov, Y.V.; Chugunov, L.S.; Gurari, F.G.; Goldin, S.V.; Karagodin, Y.N. [OJSC Gaprom, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    This presentation realizes a systems approach to the study of the oil and gas complex of the Far North of Siberia as a single sophisticated system starting from prognosis and prospecting of fields to their development at different stages of operation. This paper shows for the first time the whole complex of studies, including the methodology of systems studies of the structure, evolution and genesis of oil and gas reservoirs, the model of geologic structure and the evaluation of oil and gas resources, the technique of prospecting and surveys of oil and gas fields, techniques and methods of an effective system of prospecting and development, particularly at the stage of achieving maximum and the onset of production decrease. (authors)

  6. Palaeoclimate characteristics in interior Siberia of MIS 6-2: first insights from the Batagay permafrost mega-thaw slump in the Yana Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashastina, Kseniia; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Fuchs, Margret; Kienast, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Syngenetic permafrost deposits formed extensively on and around the arising Beringian subcontinent during the Late Pleistocene sea level lowstands. Syngenetic deposition implies that all material, both mineral and organic, freezes parallel to sedimentation and remains frozen until degradation of the permafrost. Permafrost is therefore a unique archive of Late Pleistocene palaeoclimate. Most studied permafrost outcrops are situated in the coastal lowlands of northeastern Siberia; inland sections are, however, scarcely available. Here, we describe the stratigraphical, cryolithological, and geochronological characteristics of a permafrost sequence near Batagay in the Siberian Yana Highlands, the interior of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Russia, with focus on the Late Pleistocene Yedoma ice complex (YIC). The recently formed Batagay mega-thaw slump exposes permafrost deposits to a depth of up to 80 m and gives insight into a climate record close to Verkhoyansk, which has the most severe continental climate in the Northern Hemisphere. Geochronological dating (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL, and 14C ages) and stratigraphic implications delivered a temporal frame from the Middle Pleistocene to the Holocene for our sedimentological interpretations and also revealed interruptions in the deposition. The sequence of lithological units indicates a succession of several distinct climate phases: a Middle Pleistocene ice complex indicates cold stage climate. Then, ice wedge growth stopped due to highly increased sedimentation rates and eventually a rise in temperature. Full interglacial climate conditions existed during accumulation of an organic-rich layer - plant macrofossils reflected open forest vegetation existing under dry conditions during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e. The Late Pleistocene YIC (MIS 4-MIS 2) suggests severe cold-stage climate conditions. No alas deposits, potentially indicating thermokarst processes, were detected at the site. A detailed comparison

  7. Middle-Late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda (Southwestern Siberia): vegetation, climate, humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaya, N.; Nazarova, L.; Papin, D.; Nourgaliev, D.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental reconstruction of Mid-Late Holocene vegetation and climate was inferred from pollen records of Lake Big Yarovoe (Kulunda steppe, Southwestern Siberia). Reconstruction suggests generally prevalence of steppe during last 4.45 ka. Relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.45 and 3.80 ka BP. The largest development of conifers forest started in Kulunda after 3.80 ka BP. Constant presence of dark-coniferous trees Abies and especially Picea between 3.80 and 2.7 ka BP indicates the most humid period in the region during studied time. Onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominated parallel to sharp reduction of conifers in Kulunda. These results are in agreement with general scheme of Holocene environmental history of surrounding areas including Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. Territory of Kulunda consists many archaeological sites of Bronze, Iron and Middle Ages. Second half of Bronze Age (4.45-3.80 ka BP) was represented by local human cultures or migrants from the North Kazakhstan. The main archaeological culture of Kulunda alike in the whole Ob`-Irtysh interfluve in this period was Elunino culture. The economical activities of Elunino community were connected with animal breeding especially with sheep and goats. The most humid period (~1795-710 BC; 3.8-2.7 ka BP) in Kulunda corresponded to the end of early Bronze Age and to the onset of the Iron Age. In 18 century BC Andronovo culture, associated with the Indo-Iranians and migrants from Central Kazakhstan, spread in the region. Cattle breeding economy was distinctive features of Andronovo people, however, increase of sheep, goats and horses with transition to nomadic life style was characteristic of the late Bronze Age. This trend is in

  8. Transient modeling of the ground thermal conditions using satellite data in the Lena River delta, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Westermann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost is a sensitive element of the cryosphere, but operational monitoring of the ground thermal conditions on large spatial scales is still lacking. Here, we demonstrate a remote-sensing-based scheme that is capable of estimating the transient evolution of ground temperatures and active layer thickness by means of the ground thermal model CryoGrid 2. The scheme is applied to an area of approximately 16 000 km2 in the Lena River delta (LRD in NE Siberia for a period of 14 years. The forcing data sets at 1 km spatial and weekly temporal resolution are synthesized from satellite products and fields of meteorological variables from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. To assign spatially distributed ground thermal properties, a stratigraphic classification based on geomorphological observations and mapping is constructed, which accounts for the large-scale patterns of sediment types, ground ice and surface properties in the Lena River delta. A comparison of the model forcing to in situ measurements on Samoylov Island in the southern part of the study area yields an acceptable agreement for the purpose of ground thermal modeling, for surface temperature, snow depth, and timing of the onset and termination of the winter snow cover. The model results are compared to observations of ground temperatures and thaw depths at nine sites in the Lena River delta, suggesting that thaw depths are in most cases reproduced to within 0.1 m or less and multi-year averages of ground temperatures within 1–2 °C. Comparison of monthly average temperatures at depths of 2–3 m in five boreholes yielded an RMSE of 1.1 °C and a bias of −0.9 °C for the model results. The highest ground temperatures are calculated for grid cells close to the main river channels in the south as well as areas with sandy sediments and low organic and ice contents in the central delta, where also the largest thaw depths occur. On the other hand, the lowest temperatures

  9. Soil respiration dynamics in the middle taiga of Central Siberia region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnykina, Anastasia; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Polosukhina, Daria

    2017-04-01

    A large amount of carbon in soil is released to the atmosphere through soil respiration, which is the main pathway of transferring carbon from terrestrial ecosystems (Comstedt et al., 2011). Considering that boreal forests is a large terrestrial sink (Tans et al., 1990) and represent approximately 11 % of the Earth's total land area (Gower et al., 2001), even a small change in soil respiration could significantly intensify - or mitigate - current atmospheric increases of CO2, with potential feedbacks to climate change. The objectives of the present study are: (a) to study the dynamic of CO2 emission from the soil surface during summer season (from May to October); (b) to identify the reaction of soil respiration to different amount of precipitation as the main limiting factor in the region. The research was located in the pine forests in Central Siberia (60°N, 90°E), Russia. Sample plots were represented by the lichen pine forest, moss pine forest, mixed forest and anthropogenic destroyed area. We used the automated soil CO2 flux system based on the infrared gas analyzer -LI-8100 for measuring the soil efflux. Soil temperature was measured with Soil Temperature Probe Type E in three depths -5, 10, 15 cm. Volumetric soil moisture was measured with Theta Probe Model ML2. The presence and type of ground cover substantially affects the value of soil respiration fluxes. The carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface averaged 5.4 ±2.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The destroyed area without plant cover demonstrated the lowest soil respiration (0.1-5.6 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The lowest soil respiration among forested areas was observed in the feathermoss pine forest. The lichen pine forest was characterized by the intermediate values of soil respiration. The maximum soil respiration values and seasonal fluctuations were obtained in the mixed forest (2.3-29.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The analysis of relation between soil CO2 efflux and climatic conditions identified the parameters with

  10. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  11. Biostratigraphy of the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary deposits in the Arctic region of West Siberia (Implications of Foraminifers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrova, E. M.

    2008-02-01

    Benthic foraminifers from borehole sections recovered by drilling in the Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia, characterize the Ceratobulimina cretacea Beds (the upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian) and the Spiroplectammina variabilis-Gaudryina rugosa spinulosa and Spiroplectammina kasanzevi-Bulimina rosenkrantzi regional zones of the lower and upper Maastrichtian, respectively. The Danian Stage is missing from the sections, which include marine deposits of the Selandian Stage attributed to the Ceratolamarckina tuberculata Beds. Foraminiferal assemblages of the beds include the Siberian endemic species associated with Paleocene foraminifers of the Midway-type fauna of subglobal distribution range. Occurrence of the latter suggests that warm-water surface currents from the North Atlantic reached southern areas of the Kara Sea.

  12. Revising the archaeological record of the Upper Pleistocene Arctic Siberia: Human dispersal and adaptations in MIS 3 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitulko, Vladimir; Pavlova, Elena; Nikolskiy, Pavel

    2017-06-01

    As the main external driver, environmental changes largely predetermine human population distribution, especially in the Arctic, where environmental conditions were often too extreme for human survival. Not that long ago the only evidence of human presence here was the Berelekh site in the lower reaches of the Indighirka River. This landmark dates to 13,000-12,000 years ago but it was widely accepted as documentation of the earliest stage of human dispersal in the Arctic. New research discussed here, shows that humans began colonizing the Siberian Arctic at least by the end of the early stage of MIS 3 at around 45,000 years ago. For now, this earliest known stage of human occupation in the arctic regions is documented by the evidence of human hunting. The archaeological record of continued human occupation is fragmentary; nevertheless, evidence exists for each significant phase including the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Siberian Arctic human populations were likely supported by the local mammoth population, which provided humans with food and raw material in the form of mammoth tusks. Processing of mammoth ivory is recognized widely as one of the most important peculiarities of the material culture of ancient humans. In fact, ivory tool manufacturing is one of the most important innovations of the Upper Palaeolithic in northern Eurasia. Technology that allowed manufacturing of long ivory shafts - long points and full-size spears - was critical in the tree-less open landscapes of Eurasian mammoth steppe belt. These technological skills reach their greatest extent and development shortly before the Last Glacial Maximum but are recognizable until the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary across Northern Eurasia in all areas populated by mammoths and humans. Loss of this stable source of raw material due to the late Pleistocene mammoth extinction may have provoked a shift in post-LGM Siberia to the Beringian microblade tradition. This paper reviews the most important

  13. Siberia snow depth climatology derived from SSM/I data using a combined dynamic and static algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippa, M.; Mognard, N.; Le, Toan T.; Josberger, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges in determining snow depth (SD) from passive microwave measurements is to take into account the spatiotemporal variations of the snow grain size. Static algorithms based on a constant snow grain size cannot provide accurate estimates of snow pack thickness, particularly over large regions where the snow pack is subjected to big spatial temperature variations. A recent dynamic algorithm that accounts for the dependence of the microwave scattering on the snow grain size has been developed to estimate snow depth from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) over the Northern Great Plains (NGP) in the US. In this paper, we develop a combined dynamic and static algorithm to estimate snow depth from 13 years of SSM/I observations over Central Siberia. This region is characterised by extremely cold surface air temperatures and by the presence of permafrost that significantly affects the ground temperature. The dynamic algorithm is implemented to take into account these effects and it yields accurate snow depths early in the winter, when thin snowpacks combine with cold air temperatures to generate rapid crystal growth. However, it is not applicable later in the winter when the grain size growth slows. Combining the dynamic algorithm to a static algorithm, with a temporally constant but spatially varying coefficient, we obtain reasonable snow depth estimates throughout the entire snow season. Validation is carried out by comparing the satellite snow depth monthly averages to monthly climatological data. We show that the location of the snow depth maxima and minima is improved when applying the combined algorithm, since its dynamic portion explicitly incorporate the thermal gradient through the snowpack. The results obtained are presented and evaluated for five different vegetation zones of Central Siberia. Comparison with in situ measurements is also shown and discussed. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using a Whole-stream Approach to Quantify Headwater Yedoma DOC Processing Rates in NE Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, J.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Davydova, A.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming triggers the release of permafrost organic carbon (OC) via permafrost thaw and erosion, exporting large amounts of terrestrial C to aquatic environments and making previously frozen OC from a range of soil depths available for microbial processing. It is estimated 210-476 Pg C is stored in deep, ice-rich loess-dominated soils referred to as yedoma. Yedoma is extensive in NE Siberia and Alaska, where it underlies an area of over 1,000,000 km2 and averages 25 m in thickness. Recent research suggests ancient (Pleistocene-aged) permafrost OC, such as yedoma OC, is rapidly and preferentially utilized by microbial communities in Arctic headwater streams. We utilized a combination of short-term laboratory incubations and a whole-stream approach to examine permafrost-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) uptake, processing, and transport rates in a small stream which drains yedoma uplands in Cherskii, NE Siberia. Short-term incubations were conducted on permafrost leachates mixed with stream water to quantify microbial processing rates of permafrost-derived DOC from leachates made with surface (0-15 cm), shallow (70-100 cm), and deep (nutrient-release experiments was characterized using absorbance measurements (SUVA254 and SR) and florescence spectrometry (EEMs) to quantify how DOC composition correlates to and changes with permafrost DOC bioavailability and processing parameters. Preliminary results suggest DOC processing rates may be highest in leachates made from surface sediments, which receive fresh OC input from modern ecosystems, and from deep sediments, which contain ancient, previously immobile OC. Shallow permafrost OC, which experiences degradation from annual freeze-thaw cycles without receiving fresh OC input, may have the lowest DOC processing rates.

  15. Silvics of western redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  16. Adaptation of The Western Aphasia Battery in Bangla

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nirnay Kumar Keshree; Suman Kumar; Shriya Basu; Madhushree Chakrabarty; Thomas Kishore

    2013-01-01

    .... Of all the tools available for aphasia diagnosis, the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB; Kertesz, 1982) has proved to be one of the most comprehensive test batteries for describing the aphasia symptom complex...

  17. Daily and seasonal variation of aerosol concentration in the atmosphere near the surface in continental climate of Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsenogii, P. [Inst. of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Novosibirsk region is the area in southern part of West-Siberian lowland, covering about 200,000 km{sup 2}. The properties of atmospheric aerosol in Novosibirsk region were studied during few campaigns in the years 1992 and 1993, one complex expedition in Summer of 1994 and durable observations in Akademgorodok in the years 1993, 1994. Akademgorodok is situated 25 km S from the city Novosibirsk, has population of about 100,000 and no industry. Three different locations in remote areas of Novosibirsk region were used for the measurements. The first was situated 12 km E from Akademgorodok, and 30 km from Novosibirsk near the village Kljutchi. The second location was situated close to Lake Tchany in western part of Novosibirsk region. The third location was situated in south-western part of Novosibirsk region, 12 km from the town Karasuk. The total aerosol light scattering by aerosol particles was measured by commercially available nephelometer FAN-A in terms of units, related to the molecular scattering of clean air, measured by the same nephelometer. Aerosol samples in which the content of sulfate-, nitrate-, and cloride-anions was determined, using ion liquid chromatography, were collected with Whatman 41 or AFA-HA filters. Aerosol mass concentration was measured by weighting of AFA-HA filters. Aerosol particles were sampled on the filters with the volume velocity of about 500 l/min for Whatman 41 and 120 l/min for AFA-HA and mean sampling duration of 24 hours. The total aerosol number concentration was measured with a condensation nuclei counter TSI 3020

  18. Physical and optical properties of aged biomass burning aerosol from wildfires in Siberia and the Western USA at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Laing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The summer of 2015 was an extreme forest fire year in the Pacific Northwest. Our sample site at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO, 2.7 km a.s.l. in central Oregon observed biomass burning (BB events more than 50 % of the time during August. In this paper we characterize the aerosol physical and optical properties of 19 aged BB events during August 2015. Six of the 19 events were influenced by Siberian fires originating near Lake Baikal that were transported to MBO over 4–10 days. The remainder of the events resulted from wildfires in Northern California and Southwestern Oregon with transport times to MBO ranging from 3 to 35 h. Fine particulate matter (PM1, carbon monoxide (CO, aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat, aerosol light absorption coefficients (σabs, and aerosol number size distributions were measured throughout the campaign. We found that the Siberian events had a significantly higher Δσabs∕ΔCO enhancement ratio, higher mass absorption efficiency (MAE; Δσabs∕ΔPM1, lower single scattering albedo (ω, and lower absorption Ångström exponent (AAE when compared with the regional events. We suggest that the observed Siberian events represent that portion of the plume that has hotter flaming fire conditions and thus enabled strong pyroconvective lofting and long-range transport to MBO. The Siberian events observed at MBO therefore represent a selected portion of the original plume that would then have preferentially higher black carbon emissions and thus an enhancement in absorption. The lower AAE values in the Siberian events compared to regional events indicate a lack of brown carbon (BrC production by the Siberian fires or a loss of BrC during transport. We found that mass scattering efficiencies (MSE for the BB events ranged from 2.50 to 4.76 m2 g−1. We measured aerosol size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS. Number size distributions ranged from unimodal to bimodal and had geometric mean diameters (Dpm ranging from 138 to 229 nm and geometric standard deviations (σg ranging from 1.53 to 1.89. We found MSEs for BB events to be positively correlated with the geometric mean of the aerosol size distributions (R2 = 0.73, which agrees with Mie theory. We did not find any dependence on event size distribution to transport time or fire source location.

  19. Indicative capacity of NDVI in predictive mapping of the properties of plow horizons of soils on slopes in the south of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopp, N. V.; Nechaeva, T. V.; Savenkov, O. A.; Smirnova, N. V.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    The informativeness of NDVI for predictive mapping of the physical and chemical properties of plow horizons of soils on different slope positions within the first (280-310 m a.s.l.) and second (240-280 m a.s.l.) altitudinal steps has been examined. This index is uninformative for mapping soil properties in small hollows, whose factual width is less than the Landsat image resolution (30 m). In regression models, NDVI index explains 52% of variance in the content of humus; 35 and 24% of variance in the contents of total and nitrate nitrogen; 19 and 29% of variance in the contents of total and available phosphorus; 25 and 50% of variance in the contents of exchangeable calcium and manganese; and 30 and 29% of variance in the contents of fine silt and soil water, respectively. On the basis of the models obtained, prognostic maps of the soil properties have been developed. Spatial distribution patterns of NDVI calculated from Landsat 8 images (30-m resolution) serve as the cartographic base and the main indicator of the soil properties. The NDVI values and the contents of humus, physical clay (soils of the first altitudinal step are higher than those in the soils of the second altitudinal step. An opposite tendency has been found for the available phosphorus content: in the soils of the second altitudinal step and the hollow, its content is higher than that in the soils of the first altitudinal step by 1.8 and 2.4 times, respectively. Differences in the pH of soil water suspensions, easily available phosphorus, and clay in the soils of the compared topographic positions (first and second altitudinal steps and the hollow) are statistically unreliable.

  20. Genetic Similarity of Puumala Viruses Found in Finland and Western Siberia and of the Mitochondrial DNA of Their Rodent Hosts Suggests a Common Evolutionary Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    New Mexico, 915 Camino de Salud NE CRF307, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA. Tel.: +1-505-272-4319; fax: +1-505-272-9912. E-mail address: adekonenko...prepared by bringing them to a final concentration of 10 ng/l in TE buffer (10 mM Tris–HCl, pH 7.4, 0.1 mM EDTA). Forty (40) random amplification of... pH 8.3), 50 mM KCl, 2.0 mM MgCl2, 100 M of each dNTP, 5 pmol of RAPD primer, 50 ng of genomic DNA and 0.5 U of Taq DNA polymerase. Ampli- fications

  1. Use of overburden rocks from open-pit coal mines and waste coals of Western Siberia for ceramic brick production with a defect-free structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Ivanov, A. I.; Storozhenko, G. I.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Akst, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    The rational technology for the production of ceramic bricks with a defect-free structure from coal mining and processing wastes was developed. The results of comparison of physical and mechanical properties and the structure of ceramic bricks manufactured from overburden rocks and waste coal with traditional for semi-dry pressing mass preparation and according to the developed method are given. It was established that a homogeneous, defect-free brick texture obtained from overburden rocks of open-pit mines and waste coal improves the quality of ceramic wall materials produced by the method of compression molding by more than 1.5 times compared to the brick with a traditional mass preparation.

  2. Assessment of fresh groundwater vulnerability to contamination caused by production operations in oil and gas fields of Nizhnevartovsk Region (Western Siberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespalova, Yu V.; Matusevich, V. M.; Popov, V. K.; Kuzevanov, K. I.

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater quality is possible to provide under the condition of aquifers effective protection from surface contamination and bottom pollution prevention in the areas of intense oil-gas production operations. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of groundwater vulnerability is based on regional characteristics of lithological composition and thickness of impermeable deposits in unsaturated zone and overlying deposits. The correlation of head and water table levels, absorption capacity of soils and clay rocks are also considered. An integrated approach to natural vulnerability analysis of groundwater has been presented. It suggests a combination of three most common methods. Based on performed calculations, the map has been made to plot fresh groundwater vulnerability of Atlym-Novomikhailovsk aquifer system (Nizhnevaryovsk Region, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomus Okrug).

  3. Finding the way: a critical discussion of anthropological theories of human spatial orientation with reference to reindeer herders of northeastern Europe and western Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Kirill V; Dwyer, Mark J

    2009-02-01

    In anthropology, research on human spatial orientation (wayfinding) has centered on two conflicting theories: the "mental map," whereby humans build abstract cognitive representations of the spatial relations between objects, and "practical mastery," which rejects the idea that such abstract representations exist and, in its most developed form, suggests that wayfinding is a process of moving from one recognized visual perspective (vista) to another (transitions between vistas). In this paper we reveal, on the basis of existing psychology and geography research, that both wayfinding theories are in fact complementary: humans rely on mental maps but also memorize vistas while navigating, and an individual's navigation method, ability, and the form of the mental map is likely to depend on a situation as well as on factors such as age, sex, familiarity with the environment, and life history. We demonstrate (using research material obtained during fieldwork carried out among Komi and Nenets reindeer herders) that anthropology can contribute to human spatial cognitive research, which has traditionally been an interdisciplinary endeavor, by identifying differences in spatial representation between different people and peoples. However, future contributions can be achieved only if anthropologists accept that mental maps and route knowledge (as advocated by practical mastery) are part and parcel of spatial cognition.

  4. Impacts of global change on the biogeochemical cycling of water and nutrients in the soil-plant system and consequences for vegetation growth in south-western Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Bredoire, Félix

    2016-01-01

    Dans un contexte de changement global, prédire l’évolution de la productivité de la végétation dans le sud-ouest (SO) Sibérien reste un défi du fait d’incertitudes fortes sur les processus régulant la disponibilité en eau et en nutriments. Nous avons mis en évidence des relations entre cycles biogéochimiques, climat et propriétés du sol sur six sites contrastés.La croissance radiale des tiges de peuplier est principalement sensible au bilan hydrique du sol en forêt de steppe, au sud du SO Sib...

  5. Using LANDIS II to study the effects of global change in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Brian R. Sturtevant; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Robert M. Scheller

    2010-01-01

    Landscape dynamics are characterized by complex interactions among multiple disturbance regimes, anthropogenic use and management, and the mosaic of diverse ecological conditions. LANDIS-IT is a landscape forest succession and disturbance model that independently simulates multiple ecological and disturbance processes, accounting for complex interactions to predict...

  6. Frozen ponds: production and storage of methane during the Arctic winter in a lowland tundra landscape in northern Siberia, Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, M.; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. M. Walter; Wischnewski, K.; Boike, J.

    2014-07-01

    Lakes and ponds play a key role in the carbon cycle of permafrost ecosystems, where they are considered to be hotspots of carbon dioxide CO2 and methane CH4 emission. The strength of these emissions is, however, controlled by a variety of physical and biogeochemical processes whose responses to a warming climate are complex and only poorly understood. Small waterbodies have been attracting an increasing amount of attention since recent studies demonstrated that ponds can make a significant contribution to the CO2 and CH4 emissions of tundra ecosystems. Waterbodies also have a marked effect on the thermal state of the surrounding permafrost; during the freezing period they prolong the period of time during which thawed soil material is available for microbial decomposition. This study presents net CH4 production rates during the freezing period from ponds within a typical lowland tundra landscape in northern Siberia. Rate estimations were based on CH4 concentrations measured in surface lake ice from a variety of waterbody types. Vertical profiles along ice blocks showed an exponential increase in CH4 concentration with depth. These CH4 profiles were reproduced by a 1-D mass balance model and the net CH4 production rates then inferred through inverse modeling. Results revealed marked differences in early winter net CH4 production among various ponds. Initial state ponds underlain by stable permafrost with little or no signs of degradation yielded low net production rates, of the order of 10-11 to 10-10 mol m-2 s-1 (0.01 to 0.14 mgCH4 m-2 d-1). In contrast, advanced state ponds exhibiting clear signs of thermal erosion yielded net CH4 production rates of the order of 10-7 mol m-2 s-1 (140 mgCH4 m-2 d-1). The net production rate per square meter of advanced state ponds exceeded the maximum summer CH4 emission rates per square meter which was measured for the average tundra landscape at the study site. Our results therefore indicate that, once a particular threshold in

  7. Draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain B9741 of Beijing B0/W lineage from HIV positive patient from Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Shur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a draft genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain B9741 belonging to Beijing B0/W lineage isolated from a HIV patient from Siberia, Russia. This clinical isolate showed MDR phenotype and resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin and pyrazinamide. We analyzed SNPs associated with virulence and resistance. The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession NZ_LVJJ00000000.

  8. Glimpse of the Early History of the Russian Accession of Siberia (controversial interpretations of “Yermak’s Seizure” of “Kuchum’s Kingdom”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov G. Solodkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of Soviet and post-Soviet historians, following their predecessors since N.M. Karamzin and proceeding from the Stroganovsky Chronicle, developed in the 1630s, share the view that the participants of “Yermak’s Seizure” of Siberia involved several hundreds of foreigners, who served the Stroganovs. This version, seriously challenged by some scholars, for instance, by R.G. Skrynnikov, should be refuted as it contradicts the evidence from other sources, especially the early ones that date back to the late 16th century, alongside with some implicit facts. It appears to have originated from the desire of the famous Kama salt industry merchants to emphasize the role of their ancestors in the Russian accession of Siberia, though their involvement had never been reflected in the Russian official chronicles. A number of scholars side with the opinion that Yermak became the ruler (bek of the Siberian Khanate following the battle at the Chuvashev Mys and the seizure of the town of Siberia (Kashlyk by the Cossacks that put Kuchum to flight. This assumption seems to be unfounded. According to the Cossack tradition, throughout the raid into Siberia, all the decisions were made collectively, never by the chief ataman alone. Kuchum’s forces in autumn of 1582 were not defeated once and for all, and when Yermak was killed in a skirmish with the Tatars at the Vagay mouth in summer of 1584, his authority was not firmly established within the Siberian territories. Yermak notified Ivan IV, seemingly via the Stroganovs, of the victory over the khan, thus accepting the rule of Muscovy, its support was vital for him to hold the newly acquired territories. To assist him, the czar sent a detachment headed by Prince S.D. Bolkhovsky, and when the latter died of starvation in winter of 1584–1585, the Cossacks subsequently abandoned Kashlyk to join the troops of voivode I.V. Glukhov.

  9. Additions To The Lichen Biota Of SE Siberia: Records From The Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands (Trans-Baikal Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chesnokov Sergey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports 120 species of lichens and one lichenicolous fungus from the Stanovoye Nagor’e Highlands in southeastern Siberia, including 64 species new for the area. Some of the newly recorded species are extremely rare in Russia [e.g., Bryonora curvescens (Mudd Poelt, Gyalideopsis alnicola Noble & Vězda and Pilophorus strumaticus Nyl. ex Cromb.]. The distribution and habitat preferences of several rare species are briefly discussed.

  10. Additions to the type collection of Cruciferae Juss. (Brassicaceae Burnett) of Siberia and Russian Far East kept in Herbarium of V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute (LE)

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Dorofeyev

    2017-01-01

    A complete set of the type specimens of Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) of Siberia and Far East stored in the Komarov Botanical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences was investigated. Previously uncounted samples of 130 taxa from 23 genera have been identified. Lectotypification of 119 taxa is done in the paper. Most valuable contribution into the study of Siberian and the Far Eastern Cruciferae biodiversity was made by the works of N. A. Busch (genera Arabis, Draba, Erysimum, Nasturtium), E. Re...

  11. Who were the Clerks in Siberia? Professional Characteristics of Russian Empire Local Governmental Officials from the 19th to the early 20ies century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana G. Karchaeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the history of the Siberian grassroots and their professional composition as Siberian government participation may reflect the processes taking place in Russian Imperia. The aim of this article is to look at the long-term evolution of Siberian employees' participation in the province’s administration in Yenisei province from 1822 to the 1917. The data on the officials in grassroots governance came from archival research, involving 447 clerks' biographies from Eastern Siberia. The documents were stored in the Russian State Historical Archive (St Petersburg, Russia and the State Archive of Krasnoyarsk Region (Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, Russia. It was an important source of empirical data on the work of the Siberian grassroots governance that was not available elsewhere. Social composition, education, working experience and criminal record were considered to identify a group of officials prevailing in local and regional government structures. In conclusion, we found that, in the first, dominance of Siberian clerks with primary education, quite an insignificant number of clerks with secondary and higher education confirm the idea that involving state employees in governance participation was complicated by their educational level. Secondly, clerks low socio‐economic stratums constituted the majority in the governance grassroots in the Eastern Siberia. In this region nobles were represented in much smaller numbers. Third, Service work experience from 2 to 5 years allowed working more professionally. Consequently, frames of the Russian Imperia in Siberia began to form more experienced employees during 1822–1917. However, 1–2 years was the average term of office. Fourthly, at the time the proportion of Siberian clerks with criminal record composed 7–8 per cent as figures was in the Central regions of the Russian Imperia.

  12. New approach to Ice Complex investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumskoy, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    Ice Complex (IC) is the most well-known type of syncryogenic permafrost deposit. ICs are widely distributed in the northern-eastern part of Russia (Siberia) and in Alaska. These deposits are an important source of paleo-climatic information, because they contain well-preserved remains of flora and fauna typical for the time of preservation. The isotope signature of ice preserved in an IC can help to reconstruct specific features of the freezing period and freezing conditions. However, the best methods to use to determine the origin and age of ICs and what constitutes typical IC morphological structure are still being discussed. Conventionally, syncryogenic permafrost deposits of Pleistocene age, consisting of an ice-wedge net, are considered ICs. In our multi-year study, we applied a new approach, defining ICs using cryolithological criteria. Our results allow us to conclude that the initial composition of an IC is determined by the sediments (silt, sand, gravel) and processes (fluvial, slope, aeolian) involved in IC genesis. Further alteration of IC composition occurs via cryogenic processes during glacial epochs and partial/complete thawing during inter-glacial epochs; usually such alteration leads to an increase in the fine-grain fraction of IC sediments and the formation of separate IC layers, which should be considered as separate stratigraphic units. Only the uppermost unit of an IC should be called an edoma ice complex (EIC); this unit creates specific relief features, for which EICs are known, in Siberia and Yakutia. The most important task to which attention should be paid in further investigations is the development of criteria that will allow reconstructive modeling of the processes and conditions that existed in the past, processes and conditions which determined initial IC composition and alteration of properties over time.

  13. Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  14. Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean

  15. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  16. Late Quaternary pollen data collection and application in land-cover reconstruction for East Asia and Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianyong; Tian, Fang; Ni, Jian; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    -eastern part of China during the Holocene. Recently, we have extended our pollen dataset to Siberia by collecting 178 fossil pollen records and 2100 modern pollen data from Siberia and its surrounding areas. We believe the improved pollen dataset can support us more accurate and comprehensive understanding in palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology.

  17. PLEISTOCENE-HOLOCENE PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL RECORDS FROM PERMAFROST SEQUENCES AT THE KARA SEA COAST (NW SIBERIA, RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Streletskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kara Sea coasts were studied using comprehensive stratigraphic and geocryological methods. The paper presents the new analytical studies of ground ice and Quaternary deposits of Western Taymyr and presents the results of spore and pollen, foraminifera, grain-size, mineralogical, geochemical, oxygen isotopic, and other analyses. Several stratigraphic-geocryological transects from Yenisey and Gydan Bays enable us to refine the stratigraphy and palaeogeographical reconstruction of the environments and freezing of Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments. Marine sedimentation conditions during the late Kargino time (MIS3 changed to continental conditions in MIS2 and MIS1. Marine sediments were frozen syn- and epigenetically with cryotexture and ground ice formation. Ice wedges formation corresponds to the end of the Pleistocene (MIS2 and during cooler periods of the Holocene.

  18. Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean. II: The sandfish Holothuria scabra (ja'éger, 1833). Richard Rasolofonirina”, Devaraien Vai'tilingon“, Igor Eeckhaut"3 and Michel jangouxm”. IInstitut Halieurique et des Sciences Marines, Universite' de Toliara, BP 141, Toliara 601, Madagascar;. 2Labarrataire de Biologie Marine (CP 160/15), ...

  19. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  20. Western USA groundwater drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.

  1. Dispatches from the Trench: Insights into the Complex Relationship Between the Short-Term Elastic Earthquake Cycle and Longer-Term Permanent Tectonic Deformation from the Coral Record at Ranongga, Western Solomons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Shen, C. C.; Lavier, L. L.; Frohlich, C.; Wallace, L. M.; WU, C. C.; Sun, H.; Papabatu, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Key insights into the amounts of plate convergence that have been accommodated as coseismic slip vs. other mechanisms over Holocene time scales are inferred from the timing and amounts of uplift associated with past megathrust earthquakes. A Mw 8.1 earthquake in 2007 helped us calibrate the relationship between megathrust rupture and the geography and amount of vertical displacement by measuring the amounts of coseismic uplift of shallow-living corals. We discovered, mapped and used 230Th ages of ancient in-situ corals extending 20 m higher than those killed by the 2007 uplift to build an uplift history on Ranongga and adjacent islands to reconstruct a series of forearc paleouplifts overlying the seismogenic zone extending from ~4 - 40 km from the trench. Our results are surprising: from mid-Holocene to present, we find distinct spatio-temporal heterogeneity in uplift across different sites that are located close together and find that there are far too few events (by ~50%) in our coral record to accommodate the current Australian-Pacific convergence rate of ~97mm/yr. These findings lead us to suggest that 1. uplift imposed during the 2007 Mw 8.1 event may be retained in some locations but removed in others prior to the next megathrust rupture; and 2. apart from large coseismic megathrust rupture, additional mechanisms such as smaller ruptures, slow slip events or aseismic creep, and/or splay faulting must help to accommodate at least half of the interplate convergence. Thus, we propose that the Western Solomon thrust be visualized as a fault zone, and not simply a fault plane: every time the system accommodates slip, a new set of cards is dealt. Though such a situation may or may not be unique to this region, coral paleogeodesy can provide detailed histories of vertical deformation at locations accruing uplift that can provide a foundation for hypotheses concerning the accommodation of interplate slip.

  2. Human maternal heritage in Andalusia (Spain): its composition reveals high internal complexity and distinctive influences of mtDNA haplogroups U6 and L in the western and eastern side of region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Candela L; Reales, Guillermo; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Novelletto, Andrea; Rodríguez, Juan Nicolás; Cuesta, Pedro; Calderón, Rosario

    2014-01-24

    The archeology and history of the ancient Mediterranean have shown that this sea has been a permeable obstacle to human migration. Multiple cultural exchanges around the Mediterranean have taken place with presumably population admixtures. A gravitational territory of those migrations has been the Iberian Peninsula. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the maternal gene pool, by means of control region sequencing and PCR-RFLP typing, of autochthonous Andalusians originating from the coastal provinces of Huelva and Granada, located respectively in the west and the east of the region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition of these two southern Spanish populations has revealed a wide spectrum of haplogroups from different geographical origins. The registered frequencies of Eurasian markers, together with the high incidence and diversification of African maternal lineages (15% of the total mitochondrial variability) among Huelva Andalusians when compared to its eastwards relatives of Granada and other Iberian populations, constitute relevant findings unknown up-to-date on the characteristics of mtDNA within Andalusia that testifies a female population substructure. Therefore, Andalusia must not be considered a single, unique population. The maternal legacy among Andalusians reflects distinctive local histories, pointing out the role of the westernmost territory of Peninsular Spain as a noticeable recipient of multiple and diverse human migrations. The obtained results underline the necessity of further research on genetic relationships in both sides of the western Mediterranean, using carefully collected samples from autochthonous individuals. Many studies have focused on recent North African gene flow towards Iberia, yet scientific attention should be now directed to thoroughly study the introduction of European genes in northwest Africa across the sea, in order to determine its magnitude, timescale and methods, and to compare them to those terrestrial movements

  3. Activation of old carbon by erosion of coastal and subsea permafrost in Arctic Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J. E.; Sanchez-Garca, L.; Van Dongen, B. E.; Alling, Vanja; Kosmach, D.; Charkin, A. N.; Semiletov, I. P.; Dudarev, O. V.; Shakhova, Natalia; Roos, P.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Andersson, A.; Gustafsson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The future trajectory of greenhouse gas concentrations depends on interactions between climate and the biogeosphere. Thawing of Arctic permafrost could release significant amounts of carbon into the atmosphere in this century. Ancient Ice Complex deposits outcropping along the ĝ̂1/47,000-

  4. Vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration in the troposphere over Siberia derived from airborne in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Machida, Toshinobu; Kozlov, Alexandr; Malyskin, Sergei; Simonenkov, Denis; Davydov, Denis; Fofonov, Alexandr

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the vertical distribution of aerosols particles is very important when estimating aerosol radiative effects. To date there are a lot of research programs aimed to study aerosol vertical distribution, but only a few ones exist in such insufficiently explored region as Siberia. Monthly research flights and several extensive airborne campaigns carried out in recent years in Siberian troposphere allowed the vertical distribution of aerosol number concentration to be summarized. In-situ aerosol measurements were performed in a wide range of particle sizes by means of improved version of the Novosibirsk-type diffusional particle sizer and GRIMM aerosol spectrometer Model 1.109. The data on aerosol vertical distribution enabled input parameters for the empirical equation of Jaenicke (1993) to be derived for Siberian troposphere up to 7 km. Vertical distributions of aerosol number concentration in different size ranges averaged for the main seasons of the year will be presented. This work was supported by Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00526). Jaenicke R. Tropospheric aerosols, in Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interactions, edited by P.V. Hobs. -Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1993.- P. 1-31.

  5. Long-term forest resilience to climate change indicated by mortality, regeneration, and growth in semiarid southern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chongyang; Liu, Hongyan; Anenkhonov, Oleg A; Korolyuk, Andrey Yu; Sandanov, Denis V; Balsanova, Larisa D; Naidanov, Bulat B; Wu, Xiuchen

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have documented that regional climate warming and the resulting increase in drought stress have triggered increased tree mortality in semiarid forests with unavoidable impacts on regional and global carbon sequestration. Although climate warming is projected to continue into the future, studies examining long-term resilience of semiarid forests against climate change are limited. In this study, long-term forest resilience was defined as the capacity of forest recruitment to compensate for losses from mortality. We observed an obvious change in long-term forest resilience along a local aridity gradient by reconstructing tree growth trend and disturbance history and investigating postdisturbance regeneration in semiarid forests in southern Siberia. In our study, with increased severity of local aridity, forests became vulnerable to drought stress, and regeneration first accelerated and then ceased. Radial growth of trees during 1900-2012 was also relatively stable on the moderately arid site. Furthermore, we found that smaller forest patches always have relatively weaker resilience under the same climatic conditions. Our results imply a relatively higher resilience in arid timberline forest patches than in continuous forests; however, further climate warming and increased drought could possibly cause the disappearance of small forest patches around the arid tree line. This study sheds light on climate change adaptation and provides insight into managing vulnerable semiarid forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A 9,000 Year History of Seal Hunting on Lake Baikal, Siberia: The Zooarchaeology of Sagan-Zaba II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomokonova, Tatiana; Losey, Robert J; Goriunova, Ol'ga I; Novikov, Alexei G; Weber, Andrzej W

    2015-01-01

    Sagan-Zaba II, a habitation site on the shore of Siberia's Lake Baikal, contains a record of seal hunting that spans much of the Holocene, making it one of the longest histories of seal use in North Asia. Zooarchaeological analyses of the 16,000 Baikal seal remains from this well-dated site clearly show that sealing began here at least 9000 calendar years ago. The use of these animals at Sagan-Zaba appears to have peaked in the Middle Holocene, when foragers used the site as a spring hunting and processing location for yearling and juvenile seals taken on the lake ice. After 4800 years ago, seal use declined at the site, while the relative importance of ungulate hunting and fishing increased. Pastoralists began occupying Sagan-Zaba at some point during the Late Holocene, and these groups too utilized the lake's seals. Domesticated animals are increasingly common after about 2000 years ago, a pattern seen elsewhere in the region, but spring and some summer hunting of seals was still occurring. This use of seals by prehistoric herders mirrors patterns of seal use among the region's historic and modern groups. Overall, the data presented in the paper demonstrate that Lake Baikal witnessed thousands of years of human use of aquatic resources.

  7. The carbon-isotopic composition of Proterozoic carbonates: Riphean successions from northwestern Siberia (Anabar Massif, Turukhansk Uplift)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Kaufman, A. J.; Semikhatov, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    Thick carbonate-dominated successions in northwestern Siberia document secular variations in the C-isotopic composition of seawater through Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic (Early to early Late Riphean) time. Mesoproterozoic dolomites of the Billyakh Group, Anabar Massif, have delta 13C values that fall between 0 and -1.9 permil versus PDB, with values in the upper part of the succession (Yusmastakh Formation) consistently higher than those of the lower (Ust'-Il'ya and Kotuikan formations). Consistent with available biostratigraphic and radiometric data, delta 13C values for Billyakh carbonates compare closely with those characterizing early Mesoproterozoic carbonates (about 1600-1200 Ma) worldwide. In contrast, late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic limestones and dolomites in the Turukhansk Uplift exhibit moderate levels of secular variation. Only the lowermost carbonates in the Turukhansk succession (Linok Formation) have delta 13C values that approximate Billyakh values. Higher in the Turukhansk succession, delta 13C values vary from -2.7 to +4.6 permil (with outliers as low as -5.0 permil interpreted as diagentically altered). Again, consistent with paleontological and radiometric data, these values compare well with isotopic values from 1200 to 850 Ma successions elsewhere. Five sections measured in different parts of the Turukhansk basin show nearly identical patterns of variation, confirming that carbonate delta 13C correlates primarily with time and not facies. The Siberian sections illustrate the potential of integrated biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data in the intra- and interbasinal correlation of Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic rocks.

  8. Il limite e l’altrove: il mito di Jean-Paul Belmondo nella Siberia di Andreï Makine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Abignente

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The narrative work of Andreï Makine (1957, a French writer of Siberian origin, is situated on the border between two geographical and cultural spaces: on the one hand the wide, wild and snowy Siberia of his childhood; on the other hand France, a mythic place which the main characters, often teenagers, of his novels look at as a model. The contrast between these two worlds is described in a particularly forceful way in one of his early novels, Au temps du fleuve Amour (1994, in which the author tells the overwhelming effect of the screening of a popular French comedy with Jean-Paul Belmondo (Le Magnifique, 1973 in a small Siberian village. Looking closely at the entire sequence which is devoted to the film in the novel, the paper aims to reconstruct the process of mythicizing the Belmondo character by the three young protagonists and to investigate the functions that the episode covers in the novel. Focusing on the different narrative levels that characterize the film plot, we show how the “phenomenon Belmondo” embodies in the novel the idea of a triple border: a geographic one (Europe/Asia, an expressive one (writing/imagine and, above all, an imaginary one (reality/fiction. We also show how this phenomenon refers, in the novel, to one of the central themes of Makine’s work: literary vocation.

  9. GRACE Results and Their Impact: Climate Change in Siberia and Northern Canada and the Freshening of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, J. O.; Marcus, S. L.; Seitz, F.

    2006-12-01

    Discharges from the land masses surrounding the Arctic Ocean form a key component of its freshwater budget, which in turn plays a critical role in regulating its internal dynamics. Especially during summer, runoff from the Yenisey, Lena and Kolyma basins in Siberia, and the Mackenzie basin in Canada, leads to the formation of a cold Arctic halocline near the surface which strongly impacts the processes of vertical mixing and sea ice formation. To understand the impacts of global change on these processes, therefore, it is critical to gain an accurate assessment of freshwater inputs to the Artic Ocean and their changes as the climate warms. Due to its high orbital inclination and low altitude, the GRACE constellation provides comprehensive geographical coverage, on length scales sufficiently small to resolve the individual catchment basins that provide a major source of freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. Here we explore the impact of GRACE data on tracking changes in Arctic freshwater runoff and its sources, using comparisons with estimated river discharge and net precipitation to form water mass budgets for the individual basins listed above. Changes on both seasonal and interannual timescales will be investigated.

  10. The effect of impurities on the surface melt of a glacier in the Suntar Khayata Mountain Range, Russian Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomu eTakeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated characteristics of impurities and their impact on the ablation of Glacier No.31 in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in Russian Siberia during summer 2014. Positive degree-day factors (PDDFs obtained from 20 stake measurements distributed across the glacier’s ablation area varied from 3.00 to 8.55 mm w.e. K-1 day-1. The surface reflectivity measured with a spectrometer as a proxy for albedo, ranged from 0.09 to 0.62, and was negatively correlated with the PDDF, suggesting that glacier ablation is controlled by surface albedo on the studied glacier. Mass of total insoluble impurities on the ice surface varied from 0.1 to 45.2 g m-2 and was not correlated with surface reflectivity, suggesting that albedo is not directly conditioned by the mass of the impurities. Microscopy of impurities revealed that they comprised mineral particles, cryoconite granules, and ice algal cells filled with dark-reddish pigments (Ancylonema nordenskioldii. There was a significant negative correlation between surface reflectivity and algal biomass or organic matter, suggesting that the ice algae and their products are the most effective constituents in defining glacier surface albedo. Our results suggest that the melting of ice surface was enhanced by the growth of ice algae, which increased the melting rate 1.6 - 2.6 times greater than that of the impurity free bare-ice.

  11. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  12. Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanyan, Sergey L.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Karhu, Juha A.; Possnert, Göran; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.

    2008-07-01

    We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period of mammoth isolation on Wrangel Island and their ultimate extinction, which we attribute to natural causes. The absence of dates between 9-12 ka probably indicates a period when mammoths were absent from Wrangel Island. Long bone dimensions of Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island indicate that these animals were comparable in size to those on the mainland; although they were not large animals, neither can they be classified as dwarfs. Occurrence of mammoth Holocene refugia on the mainland is suggested. Based on other species of the Mammoth fauna that have also been radiocarbon on Wrangel Island, including horse, bison, musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, it appears that the mammoth was the only species of that fauna that inhabited Wrangel Island in the mid-Holocene.

  13. A 9,000 Year History of Seal Hunting on Lake Baikal, Siberia: The Zooarchaeology of Sagan-Zaba II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Nomokonova

    Full Text Available Sagan-Zaba II, a habitation site on the shore of Siberia's Lake Baikal, contains a record of seal hunting that spans much of the Holocene, making it one of the longest histories of seal use in North Asia. Zooarchaeological analyses of the 16,000 Baikal seal remains from this well-dated site clearly show that sealing began here at least 9000 calendar years ago. The use of these animals at Sagan-Zaba appears to have peaked in the Middle Holocene, when foragers used the site as a spring hunting and processing location for yearling and juvenile seals taken on the lake ice. After 4800 years ago, seal use declined at the site, while the relative importance of ungulate hunting and fishing increased. Pastoralists began occupying Sagan-Zaba at some point during the Late Holocene, and these groups too utilized the lake's seals. Domesticated animals are increasingly common after about 2000 years ago, a pattern seen elsewhere in the region, but spring and some summer hunting of seals was still occurring. This use of seals by prehistoric herders mirrors patterns of seal use among the region's historic and modern groups. Overall, the data presented in the paper demonstrate that Lake Baikal witnessed thousands of years of human use of aquatic resources.

  14. Geochemistry of metavolcanics and granitic intrusive from western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The western margin of northern Afar Depression constitutes various rock units of Neoproterozoic basement complex. Major oxide data of metavolcanic and granitoid rock samples from basement complex indicate significant variation in the concentration of major oxides (e.g. Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MgO). Metavolcanic rocks of ...

  15. Geomorphological and ecological features of blowouts in a western Mediterranean coastal dune complex: a case study of the Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Gual, Miquel; Pons, Guillem X.; Martín-Prieto, José Ángel; Roig-Munar, Francesc X.; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Many of the coastal dune systems along western Mediterranean shores are in an advanced state of fragmentation and show distinct signs of erosion, largely because of blowout development along the dune front. The Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca (Spain) is a good example of this. In order to better understand and quantify the current situation, 58 blowouts along a ca. 1.5-km-long dune front were investigated. In each case, a number of morphometric and ecological variables were analyzed as a basis for comparison and classification, in particular blowout dimensions and orientation, inner morphometry and topography, morphological types, the role of vegetation in defining the state of the foremost dune line, and the link between vegetation and blowout typology. In comparison with a recent preliminary investigation, the results of the present study provide a more comprehensive picture of the advanced state of fragmentation along the dune front. The blowouts are not evenly distributed, highest densities occurring along the southernmost part of the beach, lowest densities along the northern part. The blowouts were subdivided into two categories on the basis of their shape and general structure, trough blowouts being the most prevalent, followed by mixed trough-saucer shapes. Distinctly saucer-shaped blowouts could not be distinguished. In addition, the blowouts were subdivided into two morphological categories, i.e. simple and branched. It was also possible to link the morphological state of the dune front to certain ecological parameters, in particular vegetation which, in the present case, comprised herbaceous and woody plants. Cluster analyses of species associations (Bray-Curtis similarity indices) were carried out on the basis of the presence/absence of each species. It is shown that, on account of presence counts and the degree of similarity of species associations, some species play a more important role in stabilizing the mobile dune

  16. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    that industrial Western military culture negatively influenced the ability to wage .... revolution occurred when Western troops started to pay attention to local support for ... The fourth principle is the priority of the fight against the insurgents'.

  17. Gujarat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

  18. Activation of old carbon by erosion of coastal and subsea permafrost in Arctic Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, J E; Sánchez-García, L; van Dongen, B E; Alling, V; Kosmach, D; Charkin, A; Semiletov, I P; Dudarev, O V; Shakhova, N; Roos, P; Eglinton, T I; Andersson, A; Gustafsson, O

    2012-09-06

    The future trajectory of greenhouse gas concentrations depends on interactions between climate and the biogeosphere. Thawing of Arctic permafrost could release significant amounts of carbon into the atmosphere in this century. Ancient Ice Complex deposits outcropping along the ~7,000-kilometre-long coastline of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), and associated shallow subsea permafrost, are two large pools of permafrost carbon, yet their vulnerabilities towards thawing and decomposition are largely unknown. Recent Arctic warming is stronger than has been predicted by several degrees, and is particularly pronounced over the coastal ESAS region. There is thus a pressing need to improve our understanding of the links between permafrost carbon and climate in this relatively inaccessible region. Here we show that extensive release of carbon from these Ice Complex deposits dominates (57 ± 2 per cent) the sedimentary carbon budget of the ESAS, the world’s largest continental shelf, overwhelming the marine and topsoil terrestrial components. Inverse modelling of the dual-carbon isotope composition of organic carbon accumulating in ESAS surface sediments, using Monte Carlo simulations to account for uncertainties, suggests that 44 ± 10 teragrams of old carbon is activated annually from Ice Complex permafrost, an order of magnitude more than has been suggested by previous studies. We estimate that about two-thirds (66 ± 16 per cent) of this old carbon escapes to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, with the remainder being re-buried in shelf sediments. Thermal collapse and erosion of these carbon-rich Pleistocene coastline and seafloor deposits may accelerate with Arctic amplification of climate warming.

  19. Perception of Western Musical Modes: A Chinese Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Fang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The major mode conveys positive emotion, whereas the minor mode conveys negative emotion. However, previous studies have primarily focused on the emotions induced by Western music in Western participants. The influence of the musical mode (major or minor on Chinese individuals’ perception of Western music is unclear. In the present experiments, we investigated the effects of musical mode and harmonic complexity on psychological perception among Chinese participants. In Experiment 1, the participants (N = 30 evaluated 24 musical excerpts in five dimensions (pleasure, arousal, dominance, emotional tension, and liking. In Experiment 2, the participants (N = 40 evaluated 48 musical excerpts. Perceptions of the musical excerpts differed significantly according to mode, even if the stimuli were Western musical excerpts. The major-mode music induced greater pleasure and arousal and produced higher liking ratings than the minor-mode music, whereas the minor-mode music induced greater tension than the major-mode music. Mode did not influence the dominance rating. Perception of Western music was not influenced by harmonic complexity. Moreover, preference for musical mode was influenced by previous exposure to Western music. These results confirm the cross-cultural emotion induction effects of musical modes in Western music.

  20. Perception of Western Musical Modes: A Chinese Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lele; Shang, Junchen; Chen, Nan

    2017-01-01

    The major mode conveys positive emotion, whereas the minor mode conveys negative emotion. However, previous studies have primarily focused on the emotions induced by Western music in Western participants. The influence of the musical mode (major or minor) on Chinese individuals' perception of Western music is unclear. In the present experiments, we investigated the effects of musical mode and harmonic complexity on psychological perception among Chinese participants. In Experiment 1, the participants (N = 30) evaluated 24 musical excerpts in five dimensions (pleasure, arousal, dominance, emotional tension, and liking). In Experiment 2, the participants (N = 40) evaluated 48 musical excerpts. Perceptions of the musical excerpts differed significantly according to mode, even if the stimuli were Western musical excerpts. The major-mode music induced greater pleasure and arousal and produced higher liking ratings than the minor-mode music, whereas the minor-mode music induced greater tension than the major-mode music. Mode did not influence the dominance rating. Perception of Western music was not influenced by harmonic complexity. Moreover, preference for musical mode was influenced by previous exposure to Western music. These results confirm the cross-cultural emotion induction effects of musical modes in Western music.

  1. Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives. The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000–2011, and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods . This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000–2011. Results . Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion . Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000–2011 are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance

  2. Constraining CO2 emissions from open biomass burning by satellite observations of co-emitted species: a method and its application to wildfires in Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Konovalov

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI carbon monoxide (CO retrievals and MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements combined with outputs from the CHIMERE mesoscale chemistry-transport model. The constrained CO emissions are validated through comparison of the respective simulations with independent data of ground-based CO measurements at the ZOTTO site. Using our optimal regional-scale estimates of the conversion factors (which are found to be in agreement with earlier published estimates obtained from local measurements of experimental fires, the total CO2 emissions from wildfires in Siberia in 2012 are estimated to be in the range from 280 to 550 Tg C, with the optimal (maximum likelihood value of 392 Tg C. Sensitivity test cases featuring different assumptions regarding the injection height and diurnal variations of emissions indicate that the derived estimates of the total CO2 emissions in Siberia are robust with respect to the modeling options (the different estimates vary within less than 15% of their magnitude. The CO2 emission estimates obtained for several years are compared with independent estimates provided by the GFED3.1 and GFASv1.0 global emission inventories. It is found that our "top-down" estimates for the total annual biomass burning CO2 emissions in the period from 2007 to 2011 in Siberia are by factors of 2.5 and 1.8 larger than the respective bottom-up estimates; these discrepancies cannot be fully explained by uncertainties in our estimates. There are also considerable differences in the spatial distribution of the different emission estimates; some of those differences have a systematic character and require further analysis.

  3. The diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnatinov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Liapunov, Alexander Valeryevich; Manzarova, Ellina Lopsonovna; Kulakova, Nina Viktorovna; Petrova, Irina Viktorovna; Danchinova, Galina Anatolyevna

    2016-02-01

    Hard ticks are the vectors of many pathogens including tick-borne encephalitis virus and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Eastern Siberia, Ixodes persulcatus, Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and Haemaphysalis concinna are regarded as aggressive to humans. Recently, significant changes in world tick fauna have been reported and this affects the spread of tick-borne pathogens. We studied the current species diversity, population structure and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) that attacked humans in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk region, Russia). In total, 31,892 individual ticks were identified and analysed during the years 2007-2014. The majority (85.4%) of victims was bitten by I. persulcatus, 14.55% of attacks on humans were caused by D. nuttalli and D. silvarum, whereas H. concinna was documented only in 15 cases (0.05%). The seasonal activity and the age/gender structure of the tick population were studied as well. Among all the studied ticks, three unconventional species, i.e. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Amblyomma americanum, were identified. Analysis of tick bite histories indicates at least three events of invasion of non-endemic ticks into the ecosystems of northern Eurasia with harsh continental climates. Invading ticks are able to reach the adult life stage and are aggressive to the local human population. Phylogenetic analysis of mt 16S rRNA gene fragments suggests multiple independent routes of tick migration to Eastern Siberia. Possible implications to human health and epidemiology of tick-borne infections are discussed.

  4. Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Alloyarov, Pavel R; Chupakhin, Valery S; Dushkina, Eugenia V; Sladkova, Yuliya N; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A; Fridman, Kirill B; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000-2011. Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23-43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative

  5. Going with the flow: Hydrologic response of middle Lena River (Siberia) to the climate variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Emmanuèle; Dépret, Thomas; Costard, François; Virmoux, Clément; Fedorov, Alexander; Grancher, Delphine; Konstantinov, Pavel; Brunstein, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Recent observations indicate that over the last decades, climate change has increasingly influenced the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme climatic and hydrologic events. The main aim of this study is to determine the hydrologic response, especially the flood evolution, of the Lena River in Eastern Siberia to ongoing climate change. Draining the coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere, the Lena River is impacted by global warming, which is particularly pronounced in periglacial areas characterized by deep and continuous permafrost. We document the hydrologic variability of the Middle Lena River, first by characterizing trend and stationarity of monthly discharges. Second, we analyze on the basis of the peak over threshold method (POT) the temporal evolution of intensity and duration of three discharge classes: bar-full discharge, bank-full discharge and large floods. Finally, we also determined the dates of the flood beginning and of the flood peak. Data on mean monthly discharge and flood peaks are available since 1936 and daily discharges since 1954. Our results provide evidence for a net hydrologic change with an increase in the intensity and duration of floods in the two decades ending in 2012. The frequency of high floods is unprecedented, and small floods no longer occur. The tail of the temporal distribution of the flood peak is also changing. More frequent early floods are occurring in spring with secondary flood peaks in summer, the latest probably represents the most striking change. Furthermore, the changes have been accelerating since 2004. Finally, two islands were instrumented (2008-2012) in order to study the flooding dynamics with a better precision.

  6. Greening of the Arctic: Partitioning Warming Versus Reindeer Herbivory for Willow Populations on Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic warming has been linked to observed increases in tundra shrub cover and growth in recent decades on the basis of significant relationships between deciduous shrub growth/biomass and temperature. These vegetation trends have been linked to Arctic sea-ice decline and thus to the sea-ice/albedo feedback known as Arctic amplification. However, the interactions between climate, sea ice, tundra vegetation and herbivores remain poorly understood. Recently we revealed a 50-year growth response over a >100,000 km2 area to a rise in summer temperature for willow (Salix lanata), one the most abundant shrub genera at and north of the continental treeline and an important source of reindeer forage in spring, summer and autumn. We demonstrated that whereas plant productivity is related to sea ice in late spring, the growing season peak responds to persistent synoptic-scale air masses over West Siberia associated with Fennoscandian weather systems through the Rossby wave train. Substrate was important for biomass accumulation, yet a strong correlation between growth and temperature encompasses all observed soil types. Vegetation was especially responsive to temperature in early summer. However, the role of herbivory was not addressed. The present data set explores the relationship between long-term herbivory and growth trends of shrubs experiencing warming in recent decades. Semi-domestic reindeer managed by indigenous Nenets nomads occur at high densities in summer on exposed ridge tops and graze heavily on prostrate and low erect willows. A few meters away in moderately sloped landslides tall willows remain virtually ungrazed as their canopies have grown above the browse line of ca. 180 cm. Here we detail the responses of neighboring shrub populations with and without intensive herbivory yet subject to the same decadal warming trend.

  7. Frequency of EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer patients: screening data from West Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervas, Polina; Ivanova, Anna; Vasiliev, Nikolay; Ananina, Olga; Zharkova, Olga; Rogovieva, Olga; Verzhbitskaya, Natalia; Didichuk, Ivan; Cheremisina, Olga; Popova, Natalia; Goldberg, Victor; Cherdyntsev, Evgeny; Choynzonov, Evgeny; Cherdyntseva, Nadezda

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of molecular analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene into routine clinical practice has shown great promise to provide personalized therapy of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the developed world. However, the genetic testing of EGFR mutations has not yet become routine clinical practice in territories remote from the central regions of Russia. Therefore, we aimed to study the frequency of major types of activating mutations of the EGFR gene in NSCLC patients residing in West Siberia. We examined EGFR mutations in exons 19 and 21 in 147 NSCLC patients (excluding squamous cell lung carcinomas) by real time polymerase chain reaction. EGFR mutations were detected in 28 of the 147 (19%) patients. There were 19 (13%) cases with mutations in exon 19 and 9 cases (6%) in exon 21. Mutations were more frequently observed in women (42%, p=0.000) than in men (1%). A significantly higher incidence of EGFR mutations was observed in bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (28%, p=0.019) and in adenocarcinomas (21%, p=0.024) than in large cell carcinomas, mixed adenocarcinomas, and NOS (4%). The EGFR mutation rate was much higher in never-smokers than in smokers: 38% vs. 3% (p=0.000). The frequency of EGFR mutations in the Kemerovo and Tomsk regions was 19%. The incorporation of molecular analysis of the EGFR gene into routine clinical practice will allow clinicians to provide personalised therapy, resulting in a significant increase in survival rates and improvement in life quality of advanced NSCLC patients.

  8. Radiocarbon ages of insects and plants frozen in the No. 31 Glacier, Suntar-Khayata Range, eastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, F., E-mail: nakazawa@nipr.ac.jp [National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Transdisciplinary Research Integration Center, Hulic Kamiyacho Bldg. 2F, 4-3-13 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Uchida, M.; Kondo, M. [Center for Environmental Measurement and Analysis, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0053 (Japan); Kadota, T. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan); Shirakawa, T. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Enomoto, H. [National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Department of Polar Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518 (Japan); Fedorov, A.N. [Melnikov Permafrost Institute, SB RAN, Yakutsk 6770110 (Russian Federation); North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk 677010 (Russian Federation); Fujisawa, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Konstantinov, P.Y. [Melnikov Permafrost Institute, SB RAN, Yakutsk 6770110 (Russian Federation); Kusaka, R. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan); Miyairi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Ohata, T.; Yabuki, H. [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka 237-0061 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the age of glacier ice in the No. 31 Glacier in the Suntar-Khayata Range of eastern Siberia by performing dating of insects thought to be long-legged fly species (Dolichopodidae) as well as plants (species unknown) fragments preserved in the ice. Ice samples containing organisms were collected at depths of 0.4–1.1 m at five points from the middle to lowest parts of the glacier in 2013. The age of an insect collected at the lowest point on the glacier was estimated as 2038 ± 32 yr B.P. Insects collected at higher points had a modern or near-modern radiocarbon age. The age of plant fragments collected at the uppermost and middle points was 1531 ± 44 and 1288 ± 26 yr B.P., respectively, and that of a mixture of plant and insect fragments collected at the lowest point was 9772 ± 42 yr B.P. When comparing specimens collected at the same point, the plant fragments were found to be older than the insects. In 2012–2014 observations, some living insects were found on the glacier, and thus the age of the insects appears to correspond to the age of the ice. On the other hand, the plant fragments might have already aged since detachment from the source plants. This study found an approximately 2000-year gap in the age of the ice between the lowest and higher points. Annual mass balance observations from 2012 to 2014 showed that in recent years, the glacier sometimes had no accumulation area. Therefore, the wide gap in the age of ice may be due to a difference in past melting processes between the lowest and higher points on the glacier.

  9. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P., and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica. Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.

  10. Burying dogs in ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: temporal trends and relationships with human diet and subsistence practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, Robert J; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A; Katzenberg, M Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V; Goriunova, Olga I; Berdnikova, Natalia E; Savel'ev, Nikolai A

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region's dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7-8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region's human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia.

  11. Biological diversity and population history of Middle Holocene hunter-gatherers from the Cis-Baikal region of Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsesian, Alla A; Bakholdina, Varvara Yu; Pezhemsky, Denis V

    2014-12-01

    In the past decades, prehistoric hunter-gatherers of the Cis-Baikal region has been a subject of multidisciplinary research. In this study, we used nonmetric cranial traits to assess the genetic relationships between various spatial and temporal groups of Cis-Baikal Middle Holocene hunter-gatherers and to reveal genetic continuity between the Cis-Baikal Neolithic-Bronze Age population and modern native Siberians. Cranial series belonging to the bearers of the Early Neolithic Kitoi (n = 72), Late Neolithic Serovo (n = 54), and Early Bronze Glazkovo (n = 98) cultures were examined. Phenotypic differentiation was analyzed by the mean measure of divergence and Nei's genetic distances. Our results revealed several patterns of spatiotemporal biodiversity among the Cis-Baikal Middle Holocene populations, including biological similarity between the Early and Late Neolithic-Bronze Age groups, which suggests that the temporal hiatus between the Early and Late Neolithic does not necessarily imply genetic discontinuity in the region. The following possible scenarios of population history in the Cis-Baikal region are proposed: 1) continuous occupation with outside invasion of new migrant groups in the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age and 2) migration of the Early Neolithic groups to the nearby regions and subsequent return of their descendants to the ancestral territory. A comparison of Cis-Baikal Neolithic populations with modern Siberian natives suggests that the Сis-Baikal region could have been a source area for population expansions into different parts of Siberia in the Neolithic and Bronze Age times. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Analysis of cancer incidence and mortality in the industrial region of South-East Siberia from 1991 through 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutikhin, Anton G; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Brailovskiy, Valeriy V; Zhivotovskiy, Alexey S; Magarill, Yuri A; Brusina, Elena B

    2012-01-01

    genders. We suggest that these data can be used for development of modern programs of cancer prevention and early diagnostics in industrial regions of Siberia.

  13. Lymphocytes with multiple chromosomal damages in a large cohort of West Siberia residents: Results of long-term monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhinin, Vladimir [Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «The Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences», Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Bakanova, Maria [Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «The Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences», Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Fucic, Aleksandra, E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Golovina, Tatiana [Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Savchenko, Yana [Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «The Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences», Kemerovo (Russian Federation); Sinitsky, Maxim; Volobaev, Valentin [Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Study reports RC frequency in lymphocytes in the group of 3242 subjects. • The highest RC frequency was present in children environmentally exposed to radon. • In 85% of RCs double minutes were observed. • Results suggests that radon may be the leading factors causing RC. • RC may be a candidate biomarker for exposure to α-emitters. - Abstract: Cells with specific multiple chromosome aberrations, defined as rogue cells (RC) have been described in different populations, predominantly those exposed to radiation. The frequency, etiology and related health risks have still not been elucidated due to their low frequency of occurrences and rarely performed studies. This study reports RC frequency using chromosome aberration (CA) assay in peripheral lymphocytes in the group of 3242 subjects, during a 30-year long follow-up study in a general rural and urban population, children environmentally exposed to radon, occupationally exposed population and lung cancer patients from the Kemerovo region (Siberia, Russian Federation). Results show that the highest RC frequency was present in children environmentally exposed to radon and the lowest in the general urban population. Total frequency of CA did not correlate with frequency of RC. Genotoxic analysis of air and water samples excluded anthropogenic pollution as a possible cause of genome damage and RC frequency. In 85% of RCs, double minutes, observed in a large number of human tumors, were present. Results of CA analysis suggested that radon and its decay products (alpha-emitters) were the leading factors causing RC in subjects exposed to high LET radiation. Thus, RC may be a candidate biomarker for exposure to this type of radiation.

  14. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  15. Preface to the Special Issue on "Geophysical and Climate Change Studies in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Siberia (TibXS from Satellite Geodesy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue publishes papers on recent results in geophysical and climate change studies over Tibet, Xinjiang and Siberia (TibXS based upon some of the key sensors used in satellite geodesy, including satellite gravimetric sensors (GRACE and GOCE, satellite altimeters (TOPEX, Jason-1 and -2, and ENVISAT, and Global Positioning System satellites. Results from ground- and airborne-based geodetic observations, notably those based on airborne gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter (SG and seismometers are also included in the special issue. In all, 22 papers were submitted for this special issue; 17 papers were accepted.

  16. Mesozoic-Cenozoic course of temperatures on the earth's surface and geothermal regime of the Jurassic oil source deposits (southern paleoclimatic zone of West Siberia)

    OpenAIRE

    Isaev, V.I.; Iskorkina, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In a review the state of studies of the influence of the secular course of temperatures on the earth's surface on the thermal history of deep oil source deposits is characterized as a state of scientific research. The aim of research is generalization of the known data about Mesozoic-Cenozoic climate of southeastern part of West Siberia and the assessment of impact of the secular course of temperature of the earth's surface on the geothermal regime, the degree of realization of generation pot...

  17. Review of the millipede genus Sibiriulus Gulička, 1972, with descriptions of three new species from Altai, Siberia, Russia (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaljova, Elena V; Nefediev, Pavel S; Nefedieva, Julia S; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B; Dyachkov, Yuri V

    2014-09-22

    The genus Sibiriulus Gulička, 1963, which has hitherto been known to comprise only four species, is rediagnosed and shown to include seven species from Siberia, Russia. Three species are described here as new to science: S. latisupremus sp. nov., S. baigazanensis sp. nov., S. aktashensis sp. nov. The species Sibiriulus profugus (Stuxberg, 1876) is recorded in the fauna of the Altai Province and the Republic of Altai for the first time. All currently known species of Sibiriulus are keyed and mapped, including the new species.

  18. An evaluation of health and environment in the mining community of Krasnokamensk, East Siberia, Russia; En bedoemning av haelso- och miljoesituationen i gruvsamhaellet Krasnokamensk, oestra Sibirien, Ryssland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehdwall, H.; Rising, A.; Hjalmar, A.; Lindholm, I.; Persson, Bertil; Wingren, H.

    1995-10-01

    A Swedish delegation has visited a uranium mining area, Krasnokamensk, in east Siberia to find facts concerning health and environment in the area. The impression of the delegation is that the Uranium activities as such has not had any significant impact on the health and environmental situation in the area. However, there is a small village within the mining area, Octyabrskij, where indoor Radon levels are increased. As the Russian authorities are aware of this matter, dwellings having radon levels above the limit will be evacuated and later demolished. 19 figs, 20 tabs.

  19. Effects of point-source atmospheric pollution on boreal-forest vegetation of northwestern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, T.M.; Kovalev, B.I.; Filipchuk, A.N.

    1992-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution from the Noril'sk Mining-Metallurgical Complex, in the form of heavy metals and sulfur components, has resulted in damage to plant communities in the area. Vegetation on over 550,000 ha has been detrimentally affected by the pollution fallout, primarily sulfur dioxide. Forests (mainly Larix sibirica) and most lichens have been killed within a 300,000-ha zone around Noril'sk and extending about 50 km to the south and southeast. Less severe damage to lichens and vascular plants extends 170 km to the south and 80 km to the east of the pollution source consistent with prevailing winds during the period of plant growth. Terricolous lichens are particularly vulnerable to the pollution products and among vascular plants Larix gmelinii, Picea obovata, Ledum palustre, Calamagrostis sp., and Salix lanata show least resistance.

  20. DEPLETED SSZ TYPE MANTLE PERIDOTITES IN PROTEROZOIC EASTERN SAYAN OPHIOLITES IN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Lung Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available N.L. Dobretsov et al. [1985] first described the rock complexes in Eastern Sayan as ophiolites. Ophiolites formed in Dunzhugur island arc and were obducted onto Gargan block, a Neoarchean crystalline basement of the Tuva-Mongolian Massif (TMM, as a single nappe [Khain et al., 2002; Kuzmichev, 2004]. Zircons from plagiogranite were dated at 1021±5 Ma by multigrain TIMS and 1020±1 Ma by Pb-Pb single-grains evaporation method [Khain et al., 2002]. Later [Kuzmichev, Larionov, 2013] analysed 12 grains of detrital zircons from gravelstone of the Dunzhugur formation and obtained 206Pb/238U ages from 844±8 to 1048±12 Ma. Careful examination of these data shows that 206Pb/238U ages for concordant zircons only vary from 962±11 to 1048±12 Ma.

  1. [The Hydrachnidae water mites of southwestern Siberia in relation to their participation in arbovirus circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimenko, V V; Tuzovskiĭ, P V; Kalmin, O B; Bogdanov, I I; Drokin, D A; Tagil'tsev, A A

    1997-01-01

    The phenomenon of Hydrachnidae association with the tick-borne encephalitic viruses complex has been found out during the study of the role of the Hydrachnidae in the arboviruses circulation. We investigated the fauna, studied the quantity variation and trophic relations of these arthropods and blood-sucking Diptera. It was revealed no trophic relations between blood-sucking Diptera and mite species, where TBE strains were isolated from. On the basis of faunistic and virological study we suppose, that Hydroacarinae got an infection with the virus in the nymphal and imago stages, as well as larvae of mosquitos. Authors also note, that trophic relations between blood-sucking Diptera and chiggers (Trombidiidae) may be important in the arboviruses ecology.

  2. Characterization of particulate organic matter in the Lena River Delta and adjacent nearshore zone, NE Siberia - Part 1: Lignin-derived phenol compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goñi, M. A.; Just, J.; Hefter, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2014-10-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial organic matter (OM) from its vast catchment area to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea and the Arctic Ocean. The permafrost soils of its far south stretching catchment, which store huge amounts of OM, will most likely respond differently to climate warming and remobilize previously frozen OM with distinct properties specific for the source vegetation and soil. To characterize the material discharged by the Lena River, we analyzed the lignin phenol composition in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface water collected in spring and summer, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex), and plant samples. Our results show that lignin-derived cinnamyl:vanillyl (C/V) and syringyl:vanillyl (S/V) ratios are >0.14 and 0.25, respectively, in TSM and surface sediments, whereas in delta soils they are >0.16 and >0.51, respectively. These lignin compositions are consistent with significant inputs of organic matter from non-woody angiosperm sources mixed with organic matter derived from woody gymnosperm sources. We applied a simple linear mixing model based on the C/V and S/V ratios and the results indicate the organic matter in delta TSM samples and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments contain comparable contributions from gymnosperm material, which is primarily derived from the taiga forests south of the delta, and angiosperm material typical for tundra vegetation. Considering the small catchment area covered by tundra (∼12%), the input is substantial and tundra-derived OM input is likely to increase in a warming Arctic. The similar and high acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl (Ad/AlV, S) in Lena Delta summer TSM (>0.7 and >0.5, respectively) and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments (>1.0 and >0.9, respectively) suggest that the OM is highly degraded and Lena River summer TSM could

  3. Characterization of particulate organic matter in the Lena River delta and adjacent nearshore zone, NE Siberia - Part 2: Lignin-derived phenol compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterfeld, M.; Goñi, M. A.; Just, J.; Hefter, J.; Mollenhauer, G.

    2015-04-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial organic matter (OM) from its vast catchment area to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea and the Arctic Ocean. The permafrost soils of its far south-stretching catchment, which store huge amounts of OM, will most likely respond differently to climate warming and remobilize previously frozen OM with distinct properties specific for the source vegetation and soil. To characterize the material discharged by the Lena River, we analyzed the lignin phenol composition in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface water collected in spring and summer, surface sediments from Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex), and plant samples. Our results show that lignin-derived cinnamyl : vanillyl (C / V) and syringyl : vanillyl (S / V) ratios are > 0.14 and 0.25, respectively, in TSM and surface sediments, whereas in delta soils they are > 0.16 and > 0.51, respectively. These lignin compositions are consistent with significant inputs of organic matter from non-woody angiosperm sources mixed with organic matter derived from woody gymnosperm sources. We applied a simple linear mixing model based on the C / V and S / V ratios, and the results indicate the organic matter in delta TSM samples and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments contain comparable contributions from gymnosperm material, which is primarily derived from the taiga forests south of the delta, and angiosperm material typical for tundra vegetation. Considering the small catchment area covered by tundra (~ 12%), the input is substantial and tundra-derived OM input is likely to increase in a warming Arctic. The similar and high acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl (Ad / AlV, S) in Lena Delta summer TSM (> 0.7 and > 0.5, respectively) and Buor Khaya Bay surface sediments (> 1.0 and > 0.9, respectively) suggest that the OM is highly degraded and Lena River

  4. Quaternary sedimentation and subsidence history of Lake Baikal, Siberia, based on seismic stratigraphy and coring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Karabanov, E.B.; Nelson, C. H.

    2003-01-01

    The long, continuous, high-latitude, stratigraphic record of Lake Baikal was deposited in three broad sedimentary environments, defined by high-resolution seismic-reflection and coring methods: (1) turbidite depositional systems, by far the most widespread, characterizing most of the margins and floors of the main basins of the lake, (2) large deltas of major drainages, and (3) tectonically or topographically isolated ridges and banks. Holocene sedimentation rates based on radiocarbon ages vary by more than an order of magnitude among these environments, from less than about 0.03 mm/yr on ridges and banks to more than about 0.3 mm/yr on basin floors. Extrapolating these rates, with a correction for compaction, yields tentative estimates of about 25 and 11 Ma for the inception of rifting in the Central and North basins, respectively, and less than 6 Ma for the 200-m sediment depth on Academician Ridge. The Selenga Delta has the distinctive form of a classic prograding Gilbert-type delta, but its history appears to represent a complex combination of tectonism and sedimentation. The central part of the delta is underlain by prograding, shallow-water sequences, now several hundred meters below the lake surface. These deposits and much of the delta slope are mantled by fine-grained, deep-water, hemipelagic deposits whose base is estimated to be about 650,000 years old. Modern coarse-grained sediment bypasses the delta slope through fault-controlled canyons that feed large, subaqueous fans at the ends of the South and Central basins. These relations, along with abundant other evidence of recent faulting and the great depths of the Central and South basins, suggest that these two rift basins have experienced a period of unusually rapid subsidence over the last 650,000 years, during at least part of which sedimentation has failed to keep pace.

  5. THE ROLE OF WILD BIRDS IN PRESERVATION AND PREVALENCE OF AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS SEROTYPE 1 (NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES IN SIBERIA AND THE FAR EAST, RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Glushchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to evaluate ecological diversity of wild birds in Siberia and the Russian Far East, which are carriers of Newcastle disease virus that belongs to potentially dangerous pathogen for poultry.Methods. Biological materials (cloacal swabs and intestinal fragments of wild migratory birds were collected in 2008-2014. The viral isolates were propagated in the allantoic cavity of developing chicken embryos. The presence of virus was determined in hemagglutination tests and primary identification of Newcastle disease virus was confirmed by RT-PCR. Pathogenicity of the obtained isolates was determined in tests ICPI and MDT.Results. 4443 samples were obtained from wild migratory birds of 11 avian orders and were investigated. Newcastle disease virus was detected in 40 birds from 4 orders. The Duck family (Anatidae of the Waterfowl order (Anseriformes plays the leading role in the circulation of Newcastle disease virus in Siberia and the Far East.The main species among them - a teal (Anas crecca, a garganey (Anas querquedula, a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos and a shoveler (Anas clypeata. All studied isolatesof Newcastle disease virus are apatogenic except for two deponated strains.Main conclusions. Wild migratory birds from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are capable of carrying Newcastle diseasevirus and could transfer pathogenic variants of this virus to the Russian territory.

  6. Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvi