WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex weighting functions

  1. Hash function construction using weighted complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    A novel scheme to construct a hash function based on a weighted complex dynamical network (WCDN) generated from an original message is proposed in this paper. First, the original message is divided into blocks. Then, each block is divided into components, and the nodes and weighted edges are well defined from these components and their relations. Namely, the WCDN closely related to the original message is established. Furthermore, the node dynamics of the WCDN are chosen as a chaotic map. After chaotic iterations, quantization and exclusive-or operations, the fixed-length hash value is obtained. This scheme has the property that any tiny change in message can be diffused rapidly through the WCDN, leading to very different hash values. Analysis and simulation show that the scheme possesses good statistical properties, excellent confusion and diffusion, strong collision resistance and high efficiency. (general)

  2. Prediction of heterodimeric protein complexes from weighted protein-protein interaction networks using novel features and kernel functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiying Ruan

    Full Text Available Since many proteins express their functional activity by interacting with other proteins and forming protein complexes, it is very useful to identify sets of proteins that form complexes. For that purpose, many prediction methods for protein complexes from protein-protein interactions have been developed such as MCL, MCODE, RNSC, PCP, RRW, and NWE. These methods have dealt with only complexes with size of more than three because the methods often are based on some density of subgraphs. However, heterodimeric protein complexes that consist of two distinct proteins occupy a large part according to several comprehensive databases of known complexes. In this paper, we propose several feature space mappings from protein-protein interaction data, in which each interaction is weighted based on reliability. Furthermore, we make use of prior knowledge on protein domains to develop feature space mappings, domain composition kernel and its combination kernel with our proposed features. We perform ten-fold cross-validation computational experiments. These results suggest that our proposed kernel considerably outperforms the naive Bayes-based method, which is the best existing method for predicting heterodimeric protein complexes.

  3. Stabilizing weighted complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Linying; Chen Zengqiang; Liu Zhongxin; Chen Fei; Yuan Zhuzhi

    2007-01-01

    Real networks often consist of local units which interact with each other via asymmetric and heterogeneous connections. In this paper, the V-stability problem is investigated for a class of asymmetric weighted coupled networks with nonidentical node dynamics, which includes the unweighted network as a special case. Pinning control is suggested to stabilize such a coupled network. The complicated stabilization problem is reduced to measuring the semi-negative property of the characteristic matrix which embodies not only the network topology, but also the node self-dynamics and the control gains. It is found that network stabilizability depends critically on the second largest eigenvalue of the characteristic matrix. The smaller the second largest eigenvalue is, the more the network is pinning controllable. Numerical simulations of two representative networks composed of non-chaotic systems and chaotic systems, respectively, are shown for illustration and verification

  4. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  5. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  6. Physics of flow in weighted complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua

    This thesis uses concepts from statistical physics to understand the physics of flow in weighted complex networks. The traditional model for random networks is the Erdoḧs-Renyi (ER.) network, where a network of N nodes is created by connecting each of the N(N - 1)/2 pairs of nodes with a probability p. The degree distribution, which is the probability distribution of the number of links per node, is a Poisson distribution. Recent studies of the topology in many networks such as the Internet and the world-wide airport network (WAN) reveal a power law degree distribution, known as a scale-free (SF) distribution. To yield a better description of network dynamics, we study weighted networks, where each link or node is given a number. One asks how the weights affect the static and the dynamic properties of the network. In this thesis, two important dynamic problems are studied: the current flow problem, described by Kirchhoff's laws, and the maximum flow problem, which maximizes the flow between two nodes. Percolation theory is applied to these studies of the dynamics in complex networks. We find that the current flow in disordered media belongs to the same universality class as the optimal path. In a randomly weighted network, we identify the infinite incipient percolation cluster as the "superhighway", which contains most of the traffic in a network. We propose an efficient strategy to improve significantly the global transport by improving the superhighways, which comprise a small fraction of the network. We also propose a network model with correlated weights to describe weighted networks such as the WAN. Our model agrees with WAN data, and provides insight into the advantages of correlated weights in networks. Lastly, the upper critical dimension is evaluated using two different numerical methods, and the result is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  7. Eigenvector Weighting Function in Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Ying Han

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Graph-based subspace learning is a class of dimensionality reduction technique in face recognition. The technique reveals the local manifold structure of face data that hidden in the image space via a linear projection. However, the real world face data may be too complex to measure due to both external imaging noises and the intra-class variations of the face images. Hence, features which are extracted by the graph-based technique could be noisy. An appropriate weight should be imposed to the data features for better data discrimination. In this paper, a piecewise weighting function, known as Eigenvector Weighting Function (EWF, is proposed and implemented in two graph based subspace learning techniques, namely Locality Preserving Projection and Neighbourhood Preserving Embedding. Specifically, the computed projection subspace of the learning approach is decomposed into three partitions: a subspace due to intra-class variations, an intrinsic face subspace, and a subspace which is attributed to imaging noises. Projected data features are weighted differently in these subspaces to emphasize the intrinsic face subspace while penalizing the other two subspaces. Experiments on FERET and FRGC databases are conducted to show the promising performance of the proposed technique.

  8. Psychophysics of the probability weighting function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2011-03-01

    A probability weighting function w(p) for an objective probability p in decision under risk plays a pivotal role in Kahneman-Tversky prospect theory. Although recent studies in econophysics and neuroeconomics widely utilized probability weighting functions, psychophysical foundations of the probability weighting functions have been unknown. Notably, a behavioral economist Prelec (1998) [4] axiomatically derived the probability weighting function w(p)=exp(-() (01e)=1e,w(1)=1), which has extensively been studied in behavioral neuroeconomics. The present study utilizes psychophysical theory to derive Prelec's probability weighting function from psychophysical laws of perceived waiting time in probabilistic choices. Also, the relations between the parameters in the probability weighting function and the probability discounting function in behavioral psychology are derived. Future directions in the application of the psychophysical theory of the probability weighting function in econophysics and neuroeconomics are discussed.

  9. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Pakistan Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Tariq Mohmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of public transportation networks have great implications in urban planning, public policies, and infectious disease control. This study contributes a weighted complex network analysis of travel routes on the national highway network of Pakistan. The network is responsible for handling 75 percent of the road traffic yet is largely inadequate, poor, and unreliable. The highway network displays small world properties and is assortative in nature. Based on the betweenness centrality of the nodes, the most important cities are identified as this could help in identifying the potential congestion points in the network. Keeping in view the strategic location of Pakistan, such a study is of practical importance and could provide opportunities for policy makers to improve the performance of the highway network.

  10. Computation of the Complex Probability Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainer, Amelia Jo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ledwith, Patrick John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-22

    The complex probability function is important in many areas of physics and many techniques have been developed in an attempt to compute it for some z quickly and e ciently. Most prominent are the methods that use Gauss-Hermite quadrature, which uses the roots of the nth degree Hermite polynomial and corresponding weights to approximate the complex probability function. This document serves as an overview and discussion of the use, shortcomings, and potential improvements on the Gauss-Hermite quadrature for the complex probability function.

  11. Weighted semiconvex spaces of measurable functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaleru, J.O.

    2001-12-01

    Semiconvex spaces are intermediates between locally convex spaces and the non locally convex topological vector spaces. They include all locally convex spaces; hence it is a generalization of locally convex spaces. In this article, we make a study of weighted semiconvex spaces parallel to weighted locally convex spaces where continuous functions are replaced with measurable functions and N p family replaces Nachbin family on a locally compact space X. Among others, we examine the Hausdorffness, completeness, inductive limits, barrelledness and countably barrelledness of weighted semiconvex spaces. New results are obtained while we have a more elegant proofs of old results. Furthermore, we get extensions of some of the old results. It is observed that the technique of proving theorems in weighted locally convex spaces can be adapted to that of weighted semicovex spaces of measurable functions in most cases. (author)

  12. Epidemic spreading on weighted complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ye; Liu, Chuang; Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the emergence of online services provides various multi-relation information to support the comprehensive understanding of the epidemic spreading process. In this Letter, we consider the edge weights to represent such multi-role relations. In addition, we perform detailed analysis of two representative metrics, outbreak threshold and epidemic prevalence, on SIS and SIR models. Both theoretical and simulation results find good agreements with each other. Furthermore, experiments show that, on fully mixed networks, the weight distribution on edges would not affect the epidemic results once the average weight of whole network is fixed. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of epidemic spreading on multi-relation and weighted networks.

  13. Epidemic spreading on weighted complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ye [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Liu, Chuang, E-mail: liuchuang@hznu.edu.cn [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Zhang, Chu-Xu [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Zhang, Zi-Ke, E-mail: zhangzike@gmail.com [Institute of Information Economy, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Alibaba Research Center of Complexity Science, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China)

    2014-01-31

    Nowadays, the emergence of online services provides various multi-relation information to support the comprehensive understanding of the epidemic spreading process. In this Letter, we consider the edge weights to represent such multi-role relations. In addition, we perform detailed analysis of two representative metrics, outbreak threshold and epidemic prevalence, on SIS and SIR models. Both theoretical and simulation results find good agreements with each other. Furthermore, experiments show that, on fully mixed networks, the weight distribution on edges would not affect the epidemic results once the average weight of whole network is fixed. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of epidemic spreading on multi-relation and weighted networks.

  14. Multi-function nuclear weight scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingquan; Sun Jinhua; Jia Changchun; Wang Mingqian; Tang Ke

    1998-01-01

    The author introduces the methods to contrive the hardware and software of a Multi-function Nuclear Weight Scale System based on the communication contract in compliance with RS485 between a master (industrial control computer 386) and a slave (single chip 8098) and its main functions

  15. When weight management lasts. Lower perceived rule complexity increases adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Todd, Peter M; Lippke, Sonia

    2010-02-01

    Maintaining behavior change is one of the major challenges in weight management and long-term weight loss. We investigated the impact of the cognitive complexity of eating rules on adherence to weight management programs. We studied whether popular weight management programs can fail if participants find the rules too complicated from a cognitive perspective, meaning that individuals are not able to recall or process all required information for deciding what to eat. The impact on program adherence of participants' perceptions of eating rule complexity and other behavioral factors known to influence adherence (including previous weight management, self-efficacy, and planning) was assessed via a longitudinal online questionnaire given to 390 participants on two different popular weight management regimens. As we show, the regimens, Weight Watchers and a popular German recipe diet (Brigitte), strongly differ in objective rule complexity and thus their cognitive demands on the dieter. Perceived rule complexity was the strongest factor associated with increased risk of quitting the cognitively demanding weight management program (Weight Watchers); it was not related to adherence length for the low cognitive demand program (Brigitte). Higher self-efficacy generally helped in maintaining a program. The results emphasize the importance of considering rule complexity to promote long-term weight management. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Artificial neural networks using complex numbers and phase encoded weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Howard E; Awwal, Abdul Ahad S

    2010-04-01

    The model of a simple perceptron using phase-encoded inputs and complex-valued weights is proposed. The aggregation function, activation function, and learning rule for the proposed neuron are derived and applied to Boolean logic functions and simple computer vision tasks. The complex-valued neuron (CVN) is shown to be superior to traditional perceptrons. An improvement of 135% over the theoretical maximum of 104 linearly separable problems (of three variables) solvable by conventional perceptrons is achieved without additional logic, neuron stages, or higher order terms such as those required in polynomial logic gates. The application of CVN in distortion invariant character recognition and image segmentation is demonstrated. Implementation details are discussed, and the CVN is shown to be very attractive for optical implementation since optical computations are naturally complex. The cost of the CVN is less in all cases than the traditional neuron when implemented optically. Therefore, all the benefits of the CVN can be obtained without additional cost. However, on those implementations dependent on standard serial computers, CVN will be more cost effective only in those applications where its increased power can offset the requirement for additional neurons.

  17. Making the Tent Function Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprows, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This note can be used to illustrate to the student such concepts as periodicity in the complex plane. The basic construction makes use of the Tent function which requires only that the student have some working knowledge of binary arithmetic.

  18. Weighted -Integral Representations of -Functions in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman H. Karapetyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For 1-functions , given in the complex space , integral representations of the form =(−( are obtained. Here, is the orthogonal projector of the space 2{;−||||(} onto its subspace of entire functions and the integral operator appears by means of explicitly constructed kernel Φ which is investigated in detail.

  19. Evolution of weighted complex bus transit networks with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ailing; Xiong, Jie; Shen, Jinsheng; Guan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Study on the intrinsic properties and evolutional mechanism of urban public transit networks (PTNs) has great significance for transit planning and control, particularly considering passengers’ dynamic behaviors. This paper presents an empirical analysis for exploring the complex properties of Beijing’s weighted bus transit network (BTN) based on passenger flow in L-space, and proposes a bi-level evolution model to simulate the development of transit routes from the view of complex network. The model is an iterative process that is driven by passengers’ travel demands and dual-controlled interest mechanism, which is composed of passengers’ spatio-temporal requirements and cost constraint of transit agencies. Also, the flow’s dynamic behaviors, including the evolutions of travel demand, sectional flow attracted by a new link and flow perturbation triggered in nearby routes, are taken into consideration in the evolutional process. We present the numerical experiment to validate the model, where the main parameters are estimated by using distribution functions that are deduced from real-world data. The results obtained have proven that our model can generate a BTN with complex properties, such as the scale-free behavior or small-world phenomenon, which shows an agreement with our empirical results. Our study’s results can be exploited to optimize the real BTN’s structure and improve the network’s robustness.

  20. Computational complexity of Boolean functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, Aleksei D [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-28

    Boolean functions are among the fundamental objects of discrete mathematics, especially in those of its subdisciplines which fall under mathematical logic and mathematical cybernetics. The language of Boolean functions is convenient for describing the operation of many discrete systems such as contact networks, Boolean circuits, branching programs, and some others. An important parameter of discrete systems of this kind is their complexity. This characteristic has been actively investigated starting from Shannon's works. There is a large body of scientific literature presenting many fundamental results. The purpose of this survey is to give an account of the main results over the last sixty years related to the complexity of computation (realization) of Boolean functions by contact networks, Boolean circuits, and Boolean circuits without branching. Bibliography: 165 titles.

  1. COMPLEX FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE HIP JOINT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S. Krastanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In relation to the study reporting the effects of applying phased complex rehabilitation in patients with total hip arthroplasty, it has been concluded that the everyday clinical practice in Bulgaria does not apply complex examination, giving an objective picture about the extent of functional status of patients with trauma and diseases of the hip. Aim: The main goal of this report is to present a test which incorporates all known and routine research and in which the total number of points determines the functional status of patients with trauma and diseases of the hip. Material and Methods: Based on the Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, the Harris Hip Score modified test, scale D’Aubigne and Postel and Iowa’s test for complex functional evaluation of the hip joint, we have developed a test including information about the degree of pain; goniometry and manual muscle testing of the hip; locomotor test – type of gait and adjuvants; test for Daily Activities of Life. The test has been developed on the basis of expert assessment by doctors and physiotherapists of the proposed indicators for evaluation and determination of the weighting factors’ contribution to the general condition of the patient. Conclusion: The developed and tested method of complex functional assessment of the hip joint enables our colleagues, dealing with trauma and diseases of the hip, to use it in various research and scientific projects, as well as in general medical practice.

  2. Mining Important Nodes in Directed Weighted Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In complex networks, mining important nodes has been a matter of concern by scholars. In recent years, scholars have focused on mining important nodes in undirected unweighted complex networks. But most of the methods are not applicable to directed weighted complex networks. Therefore, this paper proposes a Two-Way-PageRank method based on PageRank for further discussion of mining important nodes in directed weighted complex networks. We have mainly considered the frequency of contact between nodes and the length of time of contact between nodes. We have considered the source of the nodes (in-degree and the whereabouts of the nodes (out-degree simultaneously. We have given node important performance indicators. Through numerical examples, we analyze the impact of variation of some parameters on node important performance indicators. Finally, the paper has verified the accuracy and validity of the method through empirical network data.

  3. Perceptual Weights for Loudness Judgments of 6-Tone Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesteadt, Walt; Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    In a series of studies, 6 subjects with normal hearing (NH) and 3 with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) judged the overall loudness of 6-tone complexes comprised of octave frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. In two tasks, tones were equated in level in dB SPL or in sensation level (SL) and a range....... In the “loudness” task there was no difference in mean level across the two intervals. In the “sample discrimination” task, the two complexes differed by an average of 5 dB. For both tasks, perceptual weights were derived by correlating the differences in level between matched-frequency tones in the complexes...... and the loudness decision on each trial. Weights derived from the loudness task (no mean level difference) were highly correlated with weights derived from the sample discrimination task (5-dB difference). For SPL conditions, both NH and SNHL subjects placed less weight on the lowest frequency and greater weight...

  4. Supervised maximum-likelihood weighting of composite protein networks for complex prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chern Han

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein complexes participate in many important cellular functions, so finding the set of existent complexes is essential for understanding the organization and regulation of processes in the cell. With the availability of large amounts of high-throughput protein-protein interaction (PPI data, many algorithms have been proposed to discover protein complexes from PPI networks. However, such approaches are hindered by the high rate of noise in high-throughput PPI data, including spurious and missing interactions. Furthermore, many transient interactions are detected between proteins that are not from the same complex, while not all proteins from the same complex may actually interact. As a result, predicted complexes often do not match true complexes well, and many true complexes go undetected. Results We address these challenges by integrating PPI data with other heterogeneous data sources to construct a composite protein network, and using a supervised maximum-likelihood approach to weight each edge based on its posterior probability of belonging to a complex. We then use six different clustering algorithms, and an aggregative clustering strategy, to discover complexes in the weighted network. We test our method on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens, and show that complex discovery is improved: compared to previously proposed supervised and unsupervised weighting approaches, our method recalls more known complexes, achieves higher precision at all recall levels, and generates novel complexes of greater functional similarity. Furthermore, our maximum-likelihood approach allows learned parameters to be used to visualize and evaluate the evidence of novel predictions, aiding human judgment of their credibility. Conclusions Our approach integrates multiple data sources with supervised learning to create a weighted composite protein network, and uses six clustering algorithms with an aggregative clustering strategy to

  5. Efficient weighting strategy for enhancing synchronizability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youquan; Yu, Feng; Huang, Shucheng; Tu, Juanjuan; Chen, Yan

    2018-04-01

    Networks with high propensity to synchronization are desired in many applications ranging from biology to engineering. In general, there are two ways to enhance the synchronizability of a network: link rewiring and/or link weighting. In this paper, we propose a new link weighting strategy based on the concept of the neighborhood subgroup. The neighborhood subgroup of a node i through node j in a network, i.e. Gi→j, means that node u belongs to Gi→j if node u belongs to the first-order neighbors of j (not include i). Our proposed weighting schema used the local and global structural properties of the networks such as the node degree, betweenness centrality and closeness centrality measures. We applied the method on scale-free and Watts-Strogatz networks of different structural properties and show the good performance of the proposed weighting scheme. Furthermore, as model networks cannot capture all essential features of real-world complex networks, we considered a number of undirected and unweighted real-world networks. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed weighting strategy outperformed the previously published weighting methods by enhancing the synchronizability of these real-world networks.

  6. Moments of the weighted sum-of-digits function | Larcher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weighted sum-of-digits function is a slight generalization of the well known sum-of-digits function with the difference that here the digits are weighted by some weights. So for example in this concept also the alternated sum-of-digits function is included. In this paper we compute the first and the second moment of the ...

  7. English and Chinese languages as weighted complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Long; Li, Chunguang

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze statistical properties of English and Chinese written human language within the framework of weighted complex networks. The two language networks are based on an English novel and a Chinese biography, respectively, and both of the networks are constructed in the same way. By comparing the intensity and density of connections between the two networks, we find that high weight connections in Chinese language networks prevail more than those in English language networks. Furthermore, some of the topological and weighted quantities are compared. The results display some differences in the structural organizations between the two language networks. These observations indicate that the two languages may have different linguistic mechanisms and different combinatorial natures.

  8. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Shanghai Rail Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing passenger flows and construction scale, Shanghai rail transit system (RTS has entered a new era of networking operation. In addition, the structure and properties of the RTS network have great implications for urban traffic planning, design, and management. Thus, it is necessary to acquire their network properties and impacts. In this paper, the Shanghai RTS, as well as passenger flows, will be investigated by using complex network theory. Both the topological and dynamic properties of the RTS network are analyzed and the largest connected cluster is introduced to assess the reliability and robustness of the RTS network. Simulation results show that the distribution of nodes strength exhibits a power-law behavior and Shanghai RTS network shows a strong weighted rich-club effect. This study also indicates that the intentional attacks are more detrimental to the RTS network than to the random weighted network, but the random attacks can cause slightly more damage to the random weighted network than to the RTS network. Our results provide a richer view of complex weighted networks in real world and possibilities of risk analysis and policy decisions for the RTS operation department.

  9. Complex Functions with GeoGebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Ana Maria D'azevedo; Dos Santos, José Manuel Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Complex functions, generally feature some interesting peculiarities, seen as extensions of real functions. The visualization of complex functions properties usually requires the simultaneous visualization of two-dimensional spaces. The multiple Windows of GeoGebra, combined with its ability of algebraic computation with complex numbers, allow the…

  10. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  11. The Relationships between Weight Functions, Geometric Functions,and Compliance Functions in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Rong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Linear elastic fracture mechanics is widely used in industry because it established simple and explicit relationships between the permissible loading conditions and the critical crack size that is allowed in a structure. Stress intensity factors are the above-mentioned functional expressions that relate load with crack size through geometric functions or weight functions. Compliance functions are to determine the crack/flaw size in a structure when optical inspection is inconvenient. As a result, geometric functions, weight functions and compliance functions have been intensively studied to determine the stress intensity factor expressions for different geometries. However, the relations between these functions have received less attention. This work is therefore to investigate the intrinsic relationships between these functions. Theoretical derivation was carried out and the results were verified on single-edge cracked plate under tension and bending. It is found out that the geometric function is essentially the non-dimensional weight function at the loading point. The compliance function is composed of two parts: a varying part due to crack extension and a constant part from the intact structure if no crack exists. The derivative of the compliance function at any location is the product of the geometric function and the weight function at the evaluation point. Inversely, the compliance function can be acquired by the integration of the product of the geometric function and the weight function with respect to the crack size. The integral constant is just the unchanging compliance from the intact structure. Consequently, a special application of the relations is to obtain the compliance functions along a crack once the geometric function and weight functions are known. Any of the three special functions can be derived once the other two functions are known. These relations may greatly simplify the numerical process in obtaining either geometric functions, weight

  12. Executive functions predict weight loss in a medically supervised weight loss programme

    OpenAIRE

    Galioto, R.; Bond, D.; Gunstad, J.; Pera, V.; Rathier, L.; Tremont, G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Methods Twenty?three adult patients (age 50.4???15.1, BMI 44.2???8.8, 68% female, 92% White)...

  13. Step Complexity Measure for Emergency Operating Procedures - Determining Weighting Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Kim, Jaewhan; Ha, Jaejoo

    2003-01-01

    In complex systems, such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) or airplane control systems, human error has been regarded as the primary cause of many events. Therefore, to ensure system safety, extensive effort has been made to identify the significant factors that can cause human error. According to related studies, written manuals or operating procedures are revealed as one of the important factors, and the understandability is pointed out as one of the major reasons for procedure-related human errors.Many qualitative checklists have been suggested to evaluate emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of NPPs so as to minimize procedure-related human errors. However, since qualitative evaluations using checklists have some drawbacks, a quantitative measure that can quantify the complexity of EOPs is indispensable.From this necessity, Park et al. suggested the step complexity (SC) measure to quantify the complexity of procedural steps included in EOPs. To verify the appropriateness of the SC measure, averaged step performance time data obtained from emergency training records of the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and the excess steam demand event were compared with estimated SC scores. However, although averaged step performance time data and estimated SC scores show meaningful correlation, some important issues such as determining proper weighting factors have to be clarified to ensure the appropriateness of the SC measure. These were not properly dealt with due to a lack of backup data.In this paper, to resolve one of the important issues, emergency training records are additionally collected and analyzed in order to determine proper weighting factors. The total number of collected records is 66, and the training scenarios cover five emergency conditions including the LOCA, the steam generator tube rupture, the loss of all feedwater, the loss of off-site power, and the station blackout. From these records, average step performance time data are retrieved, and new

  14. Identification of Protein Complexes Using Weighted PageRank-Nibble Algorithm and Core-Attachment Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Wang, Jianxin; Zhao, Bihai; Wang, Lusheng

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes play a significant role in understanding the underlying mechanism of most cellular functions. Recently, many researchers have explored computational methods to identify protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. One group of researchers focus on detecting local dense subgraphs which correspond to protein complexes by considering local neighbors. The drawback of this kind of approach is that the global information of the networks is ignored. Some methods such as Markov Clustering algorithm (MCL), PageRank-Nibble are proposed to find protein complexes based on random walk technique which can exploit the global structure of networks. However, these methods ignore the inherent core-attachment structure of protein complexes and treat adjacent node equally. In this paper, we design a weighted PageRank-Nibble algorithm which assigns each adjacent node with different probability, and propose a novel method named WPNCA to detect protein complex from PPI networks by using weighted PageRank-Nibble algorithm and core-attachment structure. Firstly, WPNCA partitions the PPI networks into multiple dense clusters by using weighted PageRank-Nibble algorithm. Then the cores of these clusters are detected and the rest of proteins in the clusters will be selected as attachments to form the final predicted protein complexes. The experiments on yeast data show that WPNCA outperforms the existing methods in terms of both accuracy and p-value. The software for WPNCA is available at "http://netlab.csu.edu.cn/bioinfomatics/weipeng/WPNCA/download.html".

  15. Information mining in weighted complex networks with nonlinear rating projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An; Zhou, Mingyang; Mao, Rui; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Weighted rating networks are commonly used by e-commerce providers nowadays. In order to generate an objective ranking of online items' quality according to users' ratings, many sophisticated algorithms have been proposed in the complex networks domain. In this paper, instead of proposing new algorithms we focus on a more fundamental problem: the nonlinear rating projection. The basic idea is that even though the rating values given by users are linearly separated, the real preference of users to items between the different given values is nonlinear. We thus design an approach to project the original ratings of users to more representative values. This approach can be regarded as a data pretreatment method. Simulation in both artificial and real networks shows that the performance of the ranking algorithms can be improved when the projected ratings are used.

  16. Two-dimensional analytic weighting functions for limb scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, D. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Through the inversion of limb scatter measurements it is possible to obtain vertical profiles of trace species in the atmosphere. Many of these inversion methods require what is often referred to as weighting functions, or derivatives of the radiance with respect to concentrations of trace species in the atmosphere. Several radiative transfer models have implemented analytic methods to calculate weighting functions, alleviating the computational burden of traditional numerical perturbation methods. Here we describe the implementation of analytic two-dimensional weighting functions, where derivatives are calculated relative to atmospheric constituents in a two-dimensional grid of altitude and angle along the line of sight direction, in the SASKTRAN-HR radiative transfer model. Two-dimensional weighting functions are required for two-dimensional inversions of limb scatter measurements. Examples are presented where the analytic two-dimensional weighting functions are calculated with an underlying one-dimensional atmosphere. It is shown that the analytic weighting functions are more accurate than ones calculated with a single scatter approximation, and are orders of magnitude faster than a typical perturbation method. Evidence is presented that weighting functions for stratospheric aerosols calculated under a single scatter approximation may not be suitable for use in retrieval algorithms under solar backscatter conditions.

  17. Detecting community structure using label propagation with consensus weight in complex network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Zong-Wen; Li Jian-Ping; Yang Fan; Petropulu Athina

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is a fundamental work to analyse the structural and functional properties of complex networks. The label propagation algorithm (LPA) is a near linear time algorithm to find a good community structure. Despite various subsequent advances, an important issue of this algorithm has not yet been properly addressed. Random update orders within the algorithm severely hamper the stability of the identified community structure. In this paper, we executed the basic label propagation algorithm on networks multiple times, to obtain a set of consensus partitions. Based on these consensus partitions, we created a consensus weighted graph. In this consensus weighted graph, the weight value of the edge was the proportion value that the number of node pairs allocated in the same cluster was divided by the total number of partitions. Then, we introduced consensus weight to indicate the direction of label propagation. In label update steps, by computing the mixing value of consensus weight and label frequency, a node adopted the label which has the maximum mixing value instead of the most frequent one. For extending to different networks, we introduced a proportion parameter to adjust the proportion of consensus weight and label frequency in computing mixing value. Finally, we proposed an approach named the label propagation algorithm with consensus weight (LPAcw), and the experimental results showed that the LPAcw could enhance considerably both the stability and the accuracy of community partitions. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Executive functions predict weight loss in a medically supervised weight loss programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, D.; Gunstad, J.; Pera, V.; Rathier, L.; Tremont, G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Methods Twenty‐three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8.8, 68% female, 92% White) enrolled in a medically supervised weight loss programme, involving prescription of a very low calorie diet and strategies to change eating and activity behaviours, underwent comprehensive computerized testing of executive functions at baseline. Weight was obtained at baseline and 8 weeks. Demographic and clinical information were obtained through medical chart review. Results Participants lost an average of 9.8 ± 3.4% of their initial body weight at 8 weeks. Fewer correct responses on a set‐shifting task and faster reaction time on a response inhibition task were associated with lower weight loss percentage at 8 weeks after adjusting for age, education and depressive symptoms. There were no associations between performance on tests of working memory or planning and weight loss. Conclusions This study shows that worse performance on a set‐shifting task (indicative of poorer cognitive flexibility) and faster reaction times on a response inhibition test (indicative of higher impulsivity) are associated with lower weight loss among participants in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Pre‐treatment assessment of executive functions may be useful in identifying individuals who may be at risk for suboptimal treatment outcomes. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in larger samples and identify underlying mechanisms. PMID:28090338

  19. Analyses of the response of a complex weighted network to nodes removal strategies considering links weight: The case of the Beijing urban road system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Lu, Zhe-Ming; Cassi, Davide; Scotognella, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of science ranging from physics, sociology, biology to ecology. Previous studies considered binary networks where the weight of the links is not accounted for. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world road traffic complex network of Beijing, the most prosperous city in China. We produced nodes removal attack simulations using classic binary node features and we introduced weighted ranks for node importance. We measured the network functioning during nodes removal with three different parameters: the size of the largest connected cluster (LCC), the binary network efficiency (Bin EFF) and the weighted network efficiency (Weg EFF). We find that removing nodes according to weighted rank, i.e. considering the weight of the links as a number of taxi flows along the roads, produced in general the highest damage in the system. Our results show that: (i) in order to model Beijing road complex networks response to nodes (intersections) failure, it is necessary to consider the weight of the links; (ii) to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to use nodes rank accounting links weight.

  20. Effect of partial weight bearing program on functional ability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lilian A. Zaky

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... essence of the importance of partial weight bearing program in rehabilitation of lower limb condi ... and long term physical and psychosocial impairments [11,12]. .... gram for their functional walking using the 6-min walking test,.

  1. [Weight loss in overweight or obese patients and family functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Sánchez, Rosalba; Espinosa-de Santillana, Irene; Espíndola-Jaramillo, Ilia Angélica

    2012-01-01

    to determine the association between weight loss and family functioning. a cohort of 168 persons with overweight or obesity from 20-49 years, either sex, with no comorbidity was studied at the nutrition department. A sociodemographic data was obtained and FACES III instrument to measure family functioning was applied. At the third month a new assessment of the body mass index was measured. Descriptive statistical analysis and relative risk were done. obesity presented in 50.6 %, 59.53 % of them did not lose weight. Family dysfunction was present in 56.6 % of which 50 % did not lose weight. From 43.4 % of functional families, 9.52 % did not lose weight (p = 0.001). The probability or risk of not losing weight was to belong to a dysfunctional family is 4.03 % (CI = 2.60-6.25). A significant association was found between the variables: weight loss and family functioning. Belonging to a dysfunctional family may be a risk factor for not losing weight.

  2. Preoperative thyroid function and weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, João Sérgio; Souteiro, Pedro; Oliveira, Sofia Castro; Pedro, Jorge; Magalhães, Daniela; Guerreiro, Vanessa; Costa, Maria Manuel; Bettencourt-Silva, Rita; Santos, Ana Cristina; Queirós, Joana; Varela, Ana; Freitas, Paula; Carvalho, Davide

    2018-05-16

    Thyroid function has an important role on body weight regulation. However, the impact of thyroid function on weight loss after bariatric surgery is still largely unknown. We evaluated the association between preoperative thyroid function and the excess weight loss 1 year after surgery, in 641 patients with morbid obesity who underwent bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of thyroid disease, treatment with thyroid hormone or antithyroid drugs and those with preoperative evaluation consistent with overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism were excluded. The preoperative levels of TSH and FT4 were not associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. The variation of FT3 within the reference range was also not associated with weight loss. In contrast, the subgroup with FT3 above the reference range (12.3% of patients) had a significantly higher excess weight loss than patients with normal FT3. This difference remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, type of surgery, TSH and FT4. In conclusion, we observed an association between high FT3 and a greater weight loss after bariatric surgery, highlighting a group of patients with an increased benefit from this intervention. Our results also suggest a novel hypothesis: the pharmacological modulation of thyroid function may be a potential therapeutic target in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

  3. Analytic functions of several complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Gunning, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    The theory of analytic functions of several complex variables enjoyed a period of remarkable development in the middle part of the twentieth century. After initial successes by Poincaré and others in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the theory encountered obstacles that prevented it from growing quickly into an analogue of the theory for functions of one complex variable. Beginning in the 1930s, initially through the work of Oka, then H. Cartan, and continuing with the work of Grauert, Remmert, and others, new tools were introduced into the theory of several complex variables that resol

  4. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed

  5. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed. (author)

  6. Plasma Dispersion Functions for Complex Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, S. S.; Castejon, F.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma dispersion functions for complex wave propagation frequency in the weak relativistic regime for arbitrary longitudinal refractive index are estimated and presented in this work. These functions, that are know as Shkarofsky functions in the case of real frequency, are estimated using a new method that avoids the singularities that appear in previous calculations shown in the preceding literature. These results can be used to obtain the properties of plasma instabilities in the weakly relativistic regime. (Author) 14 refs

  7. ON WEIGHTED GENERALIZED FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH QUADRATIC FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Shishkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider certain types of weighted generalized functions associated with nondegenerate quadratic forms. Such functions and their derivatives are used for constructing fundamental solutions of iterated ultra-hyperbolic equations with the Bessel operator and for constructing negative real powers of ultra-hyperbolic operators with the Bessel operator.

  8. Weight loss improves biomarkers endothelial function and systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although postmenopausal associated disorders are important public health problems worldwide, to date limited studies evaluated the endothelial function and systemic inflammation response to weight loss in obese postmenopausal women. Objective: This study was done to evaluate the endothelial function ...

  9. Models for predicting objective function weights in prostate cancer IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutilier, Justin J.; Lee, Taewoo; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.; Chan, Timothy C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate the clinical applicability of advanced machine learning models that simultaneously predict multiple optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method was applied retrospectively to determine optimal objective function weights for 315 treated patients. The authors used an overlap volume ratio (OV) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions and overlap volume histogram slopes (OVSR and OVSB for the rectum and bladder, respectively) as explanatory variables that quantify patient geometry. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, the authors trained and applied three prediction models: logistic regression (LR), multinomial logistic regression (MLR), and weighted K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The population average of the optimal objective function weights was also calculated. Results: The OV at 0.4 cm and OVSR at 0.1 cm features were found to be the most predictive of the weights. The authors observed comparable performance (i.e., no statistically significant difference) between LR, MLR, and KNN methodologies, with LR appearing to perform the best. All three machine learning models outperformed the population average by a statistically significant amount over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. When comparing the weights directly, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that had, on average, a 73% and 74% relative improvement over the population average weights, respectively. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights had, on average, a rectum V70Gy that was 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that was 29% closer, compared to the population average weights. Similar results were observed for all other clinical metrics. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the KNN and MLR

  10. Models for predicting objective function weights in prostate cancer IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutilier, Justin J., E-mail: j.boutilier@mail.utoronto.ca; Lee, Taewoo [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148 - 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148 - 150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate the clinical applicability of advanced machine learning models that simultaneously predict multiple optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulated radiation therapy of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method was applied retrospectively to determine optimal objective function weights for 315 treated patients. The authors used an overlap volume ratio (OV) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions and overlap volume histogram slopes (OVSR and OVSB for the rectum and bladder, respectively) as explanatory variables that quantify patient geometry. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, the authors trained and applied three prediction models: logistic regression (LR), multinomial logistic regression (MLR), and weighted K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The population average of the optimal objective function weights was also calculated. Results: The OV at 0.4 cm and OVSR at 0.1 cm features were found to be the most predictive of the weights. The authors observed comparable performance (i.e., no statistically significant difference) between LR, MLR, and KNN methodologies, with LR appearing to perform the best. All three machine learning models outperformed the population average by a statistically significant amount over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. When comparing the weights directly, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that had, on average, a 73% and 74% relative improvement over the population average weights, respectively. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights had, on average, a rectum V70Gy that was 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that was 29% closer, compared to the population average weights. Similar results were observed for all other clinical metrics. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the KNN and MLR

  11. Discriminating Among Probability Weighting Functions Using Adaptive Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Daniel R.; Pitt, Mark A.; Gonzalez, Richard; Myung, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Probability weighting functions relate objective probabilities and their subjective weights, and play a central role in modeling choices under risk within cumulative prospect theory. While several different parametric forms have been proposed, their qualitative similarities make it challenging to discriminate among them empirically. In this paper, we use both simulation and choice experiments to investigate the extent to which different parametric forms of the probability weighting function can be discriminated using adaptive design optimization, a computer-based methodology that identifies and exploits model differences for the purpose of model discrimination. The simulation experiments show that the correct (data-generating) form can be conclusively discriminated from its competitors. The results of an empirical experiment reveal heterogeneity between participants in terms of the functional form, with two models (Prelec-2, Linear in Log Odds) emerging as the most common best-fitting models. The findings shed light on assumptions underlying these models. PMID:24453406

  12. Weighted functional linear regression models for gene-based association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Svishcheva, Gulnara R; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Axenovich, Tatiana I

    2018-01-01

    Functional linear regression models are effectively used in gene-based association analysis of complex traits. These models combine information about individual genetic variants, taking into account their positions and reducing the influence of noise and/or observation errors. To increase the power of methods, where several differently informative components are combined, weights are introduced to give the advantage to more informative components. Allele-specific weights have been introduced to collapsing and kernel-based approaches to gene-based association analysis. Here we have for the first time introduced weights to functional linear regression models adapted for both independent and family samples. Using data simulated on the basis of GAW17 genotypes and weights defined by allele frequencies via the beta distribution, we demonstrated that type I errors correspond to declared values and that increasing the weights of causal variants allows the power of functional linear models to be increased. We applied the new method to real data on blood pressure from the ORCADES sample. Five of the six known genes with P models. Moreover, we found an association between diastolic blood pressure and the VMP1 gene (P = 8.18×10-6), when we used a weighted functional model. For this gene, the unweighted functional and weighted kernel-based models had P = 0.004 and 0.006, respectively. The new method has been implemented in the program package FREGAT, which is freely available at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/FREGAT/index.html.

  13. Unwinding the hairball graph: Pruning algorithms for weighted complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianati, Navid

    2016-01-01

    Empirical networks of weighted dyadic relations often contain "noisy" edges that alter the global characteristics of the network and obfuscate the most important structures therein. Graph pruning is the process of identifying the most significant edges according to a generative null model and extracting the subgraph consisting of those edges. Here, we focus on integer-weighted graphs commonly arising when weights count the occurrences of an "event" relating the nodes. We introduce a simple and intuitive null model related to the configuration model of network generation and derive two significance filters from it: the marginal likelihood filter (MLF) and the global likelihood filter (GLF). The former is a fast algorithm assigning a significance score to each edge based on the marginal distribution of edge weights, whereas the latter is an ensemble approach which takes into account the correlations among edges. We apply these filters to the network of air traffic volume between US airports and recover a geographically faithful representation of the graph. Furthermore, compared with thresholding based on edge weight, we show that our filters extract a larger and significantly sparser giant component.

  14. The SOS model partition function and the elliptic weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakuliak, S; Silantyev, A; Rubtsov, V

    2008-01-01

    We generalized a recent observation (Khoroshkin and Pakuliak 2005 Theor. Math. Phys. 145 1373) that the partition function of the six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions can be obtained from a calculation of projections of the product of total currents in the quantum affine algebra U q (sl 2 -hat) in its current realization. A generalization is done for the elliptic current algebra (Enriquez and Felder 1998 Commun. Math. Phys. 195 651, Enriquez and Rubtsov 1997 Ann. Sci. Ecole Norm. Sup. 30 821). The projections of the product of total currents in this case are calculated explicitly and are presented as integral transforms of a product of the total currents. It is proved that the integral kernel of this transform is proportional to the partition function of the SOS model with domain wall boundary conditions

  15. Presurgical Weight Is Associated with Pain, Functional Impairment, and Anxiety among Gastric Bypass Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene Wedin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain and obesity are significant public health concerns in the United States associated with significant levels of health-care expenses and lost productivity. Previous research suggests that obesity is a risk factor for chronic pain, mainly due to excessive weight placed on the joints. However, the obesity-pain relationship appears to be complex and reciprocal. Little work to date has focused on the relationship between weight and pain among patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery for weight loss. Patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss at a large southeastern academic medical center ( completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI, the Center for Epidemiological Studies 10-item Depression scale (CESD-10, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI. Higher presurgical weight was associated with higher pain-on-average ratings, higher functional impairment due to pain across the domains of physical activity, mood, walking ability, relationships, and enjoyment of life. Higher presurgical weight was associated with higher BAI scores, but weight was not related to depression. Findings suggest that bariatric surgery candidates report a moderate amount of pain prior to surgery and that presurgical weight is associated with higher pain, increased functional impairment due to pain, and increased anxiety. Anxiety was found to mediate the relationship between increased weight and pain.

  16. Computing complex Airy functions by numerical quadrature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIntegral representations are considered of solutions of the Airydifferential equation w''-z, w=0 for computing Airy functions for complex values of z.In a first method contour integral representations of the Airyfunctions are written as non-oscillating

  17. The Effects of Differential Goal Weights on the Performance of a Complex Financial Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmister, Robert O.; Locke, Edwin A.

    1987-01-01

    Determined whether people could obtain outcomes on a complex task that would be in line with differential goal weights corresponding to different aspects of the task. Bank lending officers were run through lender-simulation exercises. Five performance goals were weighted. Demonstrated effectiveness of goal setting with complex tasks, using group…

  18. Parametrization of the. delta. residue function. [Complex functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, S S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-19

    The complex residues at the ..delta..(1236) and ..delta..(1950) poles in the relevant partial-wave amplitudes provide information on the behaviour of the ..delta.. Regge residue function in the resonance region u>0. Attempts to incorporate this information in parametrizations of the residue by functions that are real on the real u-axis result in residues which have unsatisfactory behaviour in the region u<1GeV/sup 2/. The choice of complex functions for the trajectory and residue removes this undesirable feature and provides a better representation of the residue in the resonance region, suggesting that complex parametrizations would be better suited to Regge analyses of near-backward scattering.

  19. Function theory of several complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2001-01-01

    The theory of several complex variables can be studied from several different perspectives. In this book, Steven Krantz approaches the subject from the point of view of a classical analyst, emphasizing its function-theoretic aspects. He has taken particular care to write the book with the student in mind, with uniformly extensive and helpful explanations, numerous examples, and plentiful exercises of varying difficulty. In the spirit of a student-oriented text, Krantz begins with an introduction to the subject, including an insightful comparison of analysis of several complex variables with th

  20. A functional food product for the management of weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stacey J; Goodrick, G Ken

    2002-03-01

    More than half of Americans have a body mass index of 25 kg/m2 or more, which classifies them as overweight or obese. Overweight or obesity is strongly associated with comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease, gall bladder disease, and sleep apnea. Clearly, this is a national health concern, and although about 30 to 40% of the obese claim that they are trying to lose weight or maintain weight after weight loss, current therapies appear to have little effect. None of the current popular diets are working, and there is room for innovation. With the advancing science of nutrition, several nutrients - low-glycemic-index carbohydrates, 5-hydroxytryptophan, green tea extract, and chromium - have been identified that may promote weight loss. The first two nutrients decrease appetite, green tea increases the 24-h energy expenditure, and chromium promotes the composition of the weight lost to be fat rather than lean tissue. These have been assembled in efficacious doses into a new functional food product and described in this review. The product is undergoing clinical testing; each component has already been shown to promote weight loss in clinical trials.

  1. Decision making generalized by a cumulative probability weighting function

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Lindomar Soares; Destefano, Natália; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2018-01-01

    Typical examples of intertemporal decision making involve situations in which individuals must choose between a smaller reward, but more immediate, and a larger one, delivered later. Analogously, probabilistic decision making involves choices between options whose consequences differ in relation to their probability of receiving. In Economics, the expected utility theory (EUT) and the discounted utility theory (DUT) are traditionally accepted normative models for describing, respectively, probabilistic and intertemporal decision making. A large number of experiments confirmed that the linearity assumed by the EUT does not explain some observed behaviors, as nonlinear preference, risk-seeking and loss aversion. That observation led to the development of new theoretical models, called non-expected utility theories (NEUT), which include a nonlinear transformation of the probability scale. An essential feature of the so-called preference function of these theories is that the probabilities are transformed by decision weights by means of a (cumulative) probability weighting function, w(p) . We obtain in this article a generalized function for the probabilistic discount process. This function has as particular cases mathematical forms already consecrated in the literature, including discount models that consider effects of psychophysical perception. We also propose a new generalized function for the functional form of w. The limiting cases of this function encompass some parametric forms already proposed in the literature. Far beyond a mere generalization, our function allows the interpretation of probabilistic decision making theories based on the assumption that individuals behave similarly in the face of probabilities and delays and is supported by phenomenological models.

  2. The Brain Prize 2014: complex human functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigaityte, Kristina; Iacoboni, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Giacomo Rizzolatti, Stanislas Dehaene, and Trevor Robbins were recently awarded the 2014 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize for their 'pioneering research on higher brain mechanisms underpinning such complex human functions as literacy, numeracy, motivated behavior and social cognition, and for their effort to understand cognitive and behavioral disorders'. Why was their work highlighted? Is there anything that links together these seemingly disparate lines of research? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Log-supermodularity of weight functions and the loading monotonicity of weighted insurance premiums

    OpenAIRE

    Hristo S. Sendov; Ying Wang; Ricardas Zitikis

    2010-01-01

    The paper is motivated by a problem concerning the monotonicity of insurance premiums with respect to their loading parameter: the larger the parameter, the larger the insurance premium is expected to be. This property, usually called loading monotonicity, is satisfied by premiums that appear in the literature. The increased interest in constructing new insurance premiums has raised a question as to what weight functions would produce loading-monotonic premiums. In this paper we demonstrate a...

  4. High Molecular Weight Forms of Mammalian Respiratory Chain Complex II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Nikola; Mráček, Tomáš; Nůsková, Hana; Holzerová, Eliška; Vrbacký, Marek; Pecina, Petr; Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Klučková, Katarína; Rohlena, Jakub; Neužil, Jiří; Houštěk, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2013), e71869 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/10/P227; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : supercomplexes * high molecular weihgt forms of complex II * native electrophoretic systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  5. Combinatorics and complexity of partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinok, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Partition functions arise in combinatorics and related problems of statistical physics as they encode in a succinct way the combinatorial structure of complicated systems. The main focus of the book is on efficient ways to compute (approximate) various partition functions, such as permanents, hafnians and their higher-dimensional versions, graph and hypergraph matching polynomials, the independence polynomial of a graph and partition functions enumerating 0-1 and integer points in polyhedra, which allows one to make algorithmic advances in otherwise intractable problems. The book unifies various, often quite recent, results scattered in the literature, concentrating on the three main approaches: scaling, interpolation and correlation decay. The prerequisites include moderate amounts of real and complex analysis and linear algebra, making the book accessible to advanced math and physics undergraduates. .

  6. Synthesis, radiometric determination of functional groups, complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction behavior of humic acids with uranium(VI) and the influence of humic substances on the migration behavior of uranium was investigated. A main focus of this work was the synthesis of four different humic acid model substances and their characterization and comparison to the natural humic acid from Aldrich. A radiometric method for the determination of humic acid functional groups was applied in addition to conventional methods for the determination of the functionality of humic acids. The humic acid model substances show functional and structural properties comparable to natural humic acids. Modified humic acids with blocked phenolic OH were synthesized to determine the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids. A synthesis method for 14 C-labeled humic acids with high specific activity was developed. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural humic acids with uranium(VI) was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthetic model substances show an interaction behavior with uranium(VI) that is comparable to natural humic acids. This points to the fact that the synthetic humic acids simulate the functionality of their natural analogues very well. For the first time the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids was investigated by applying a modified humic acid with blocked phenolic OH groups. The formation of a uranyl hydroxy humate complex was identified by laserspectroscopic investigations of the complexation of Aldrich humic acid with uranium(VI) at pH 7. The migration behavior of uranium in a sandy aquifer system rich is humic substances was investigated in column experiments. A part of uranium migrates non-retarded through the sediment, bound to humic colloids. The uranium migration behavior is strongly influenced by the kinetically controlled interaction processes of uranium with the humic colloids

  7. Function and regulation of the Mediator complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Ronald C; Conaway, Joan Weliky

    2011-04-01

    Over the past few years, advances in biochemical and genetic studies of the structure and function of the Mediator complex have shed new light on its subunit architecture and its mechanism of action in transcription by RNA polymerase II (pol II). The development of improved methods for reconstitution of recombinant Mediator subassemblies is enabling more in-depth analyses of basic features of the mechanisms by which Mediator interacts with and controls the activity of pol II and the general initiation factors. The discovery and characterization of multiple, functionally distinct forms of Mediator characterized by the presence or absence of the Cdk8 kinase module have led to new insights into how Mediator functions in both Pol II transcription activation and repression. Finally, progress in studies of the mechanisms by which the transcriptional activation domains (ADs) of DNA binding transcription factors target Mediator have brought to light unexpected complexities in the way Mediator participates in signal transduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Complexity Analysis of Functional Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernest, Mircea-Dan; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    We give a quantitative analysis of G ̈odel’s functional interpretation and its monotone variant. The two have been used for the extraction of programs and numerical bounds as well as for conservation results. They apply both to (semi-)intuitionistic as well as (combined with negative translation...... of the verifying proof. In all cases terms of size linear in the size of the proof at input can be extracted and the corresponding extraction algorithms have cubic worst-time complexity. The verifying proofs have depth linear in the depth of the proof at input and the maximal size of a formula of this proof....

  9. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Charles

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Nural H, He P, Beach T, Sue L, Xia W, Shen Y. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009, 4:23.

  10. Dominance Weighted Social Choice Functions for Group Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ROSSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.

  11. Executive functioning in low birth weight children entering kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S E; DeBoer, M D; Scharf, R J

    2018-01-01

    Poor executive functioning is associated with life-long difficulty. Identification of children at risk for executive dysfunction is important for early intervention to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study is designed to examine relationships between birthweight and executive functioning in US children during kindergarten. Our hypothesis was that children with higher birthweights would have better executive function scores. We evaluated data from 17506 US children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten 2011 cohort. Birthweight and gestational age were obtained by parental survey. Executive functions were directly assessed using the number reverse test and card sort test to measure working memory and cognitive flexibility, respectively. Teacher evaluations were used for additional executive functions. Data were analyzed using SAS to run all linear and logistical regressions. For every kilogram of birthweight, scores of working memory increased by 1.47 (Pexecutive functioning. As birthweight increases executive function scores improve, even among infants born normal weight. Further evaluation of this population including interventions and progression through school is needed.

  12. Influence of Type of Frequency Weighting Function On VDV Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska-Koczwara, Alicja; Stypuła, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Transport vibrations are the subject of many research, mostly their influence on structural elements of the building is investigated. However, nowadays, especially in the centres of large cities were apartments, residential buildings are closer to the transport vibration sources, an increasing attention is given to providing vibrational comfort to humans in buildings. Currently, in most countries, two main methods of evaluation are used: root mean squared method (RMS) and vibration dose value (VDV). In this article, VDV method is presented and the analysis of the weighting functions selection on value of VDV is made. Measurements required for the analysis were made in Krakow, on masonry, residential, two storey building located in the city centre. The building is subjected into two transport vibration sources: tram passages and vehicle passages on very close located road. Measurement points were located on the basement wall at ground level to control the excitation and in the middle of the floor on the highest storey (in the place where people percept vibration). The room chosen for measurements is located closest to the transport excitation sources. During the measurements, 25 vibration events were recorded and analysed. VDV values were calculated for three different weighting functions according to standard: ISO 2631-1, ISO 2631-2 and BS-6841. Differences in VDV values are shown, but also influence of the weighting function selection on result of evaluation is also presented. VDV analysis was performed not only for the individual vibration event but also all day and night vibration exposure were calculated using formulas contained in the annex to the standard BS-6841. It is demonstrated that, although there are differences in the values of VDV, an influence on all day and night exposure is no longer so significant.

  13. Predicting protein complexes from weighted protein-protein interaction graphs with a novel unsupervised methodology: Evolutionary enhanced Markov clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Pavlopoulou, Niki; Papasavvas, Christoforos; Likothanassis, Spiros; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Georgopoulos, Efstratios; Moschopoulos, Charalampos; Mavroudi, Seferina

    2015-03-01

    Proteins are considered to be the most important individual components of biological systems and they combine to form physical protein complexes which are responsible for certain molecular functions. Despite the large availability of protein-protein interaction (PPI) information, not much information is available about protein complexes. Experimental methods are limited in terms of time, efficiency, cost and performance constraints. Existing computational methods have provided encouraging preliminary results, but they phase certain disadvantages as they require parameter tuning, some of them cannot handle weighted PPI data and others do not allow a protein to participate in more than one protein complex. In the present paper, we propose a new fully unsupervised methodology for predicting protein complexes from weighted PPI graphs. The proposed methodology is called evolutionary enhanced Markov clustering (EE-MC) and it is a hybrid combination of an adaptive evolutionary algorithm and a state-of-the-art clustering algorithm named enhanced Markov clustering. EE-MC was compared with state-of-the-art methodologies when applied to datasets from the human and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae organisms. Using public available datasets, EE-MC outperformed existing methodologies (in some datasets the separation metric was increased by 10-20%). Moreover, when applied to new human datasets its performance was encouraging in the prediction of protein complexes which consist of proteins with high functional similarity. In specific, 5737 protein complexes were predicted and 72.58% of them are enriched for at least one gene ontology (GO) function term. EE-MC is by design able to overcome intrinsic limitations of existing methodologies such as their inability to handle weighted PPI networks, their constraint to assign every protein in exactly one cluster and the difficulties they face concerning the parameter tuning. This fact was experimentally validated and moreover, new

  14. The role of weight teasing and weight bias internalization in psychological functioning: a prospective study among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba, Anna; Warschburger, Petra

    2017-10-01

    Weight-related teasing is a widespread phenomenon in childhood, and might foster the internalization of weight bias. The goal of this study was to examine the role of weight teasing and weight bias internalization as mediators between weight status and negative psychological sequelae, such as restrained eating and emotional and conduct problems in childhood. Participants included 546 female (52%) and 501 (48%) male children aged 7-11 and their parents, who completed surveys assessing weight teasing, weight bias internalization, restrained eating behaviors, and emotional and conduct problems at two points of measurement, approximately 2 years apart. To examine the hypothesized mediation, a prospective design using structural equation modeling was applied. As expected, the experience of weight teasing and the internalization of weight bias were mediators in the relationship between weight status and psychosocial problems. This pattern was observed independently of gender or weight status. Our findings suggest that the experience of weight teasing and internalization of weight bias is more important than weight status in explaining psychological functioning among children and indicate a need for appropriate prevention and intervention approaches.

  15. Analysis on Influential Functions in the Weighted Software Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying influential nodes is important for software in terms of understanding the design patterns and controlling the development and the maintenance process. However, there are no efficient methods to discover them so far. Based on the invoking dependency relationships between the nodes, this paper proposes a novel approach to define the node importance for mining the influential software nodes. First, according to the multiple execution information, we construct a weighted software network (WSN to denote the software execution dependency structure. Second, considering the invoking times and outdegree about software nodes, we improve the method PageRank and put forward the targeted algorithm FunctionRank to evaluate the node importance (NI in weighted software network. It has higher influence when the node has lager value of NI. Finally, comparing the NI of nodes, we can obtain the most influential nodes in the software network. In addition, the experimental results show that the proposed approach has good performance in identifying the influential nodes.

  16. Stress intensity factors and weight functions for cracks in front of notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, T.

    1993-12-01

    The knowledge of stress intensity factors for cracks at notch roots is important for the fracture mechanical treatment of real components. Stress intensity factor solutions are available only for special notches and externally applied loads. For the treatment of more complex loadings as thermal stresses near the notch root the weight function is needed in addition. In the first part of this report weight functions for cracks in front of internal notches are derived from stress intensity factor solutions under external loading available in the literature. The second part deals with cracks in front of edge notches. Limit cases of stress intensity factors are derived which allow to estimate stress intensity factors for cracks in front of internal elliptical notches with arbitrary aspect ratio of the ellipse and for external notches. (orig.) [de

  17. Determination of the complexity of distance weights in Mexican city systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lugo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tests distance weights based on the economic geography assumption of straight lines and the complex networks approach of empirical road segments in the Mexican system of cities to determine the best distance specification. We generated network graphs by using geospatial data and computed weights by measuring shortest paths, thereby characterizing their probability distributions and comparing them with spatial null models. Findings show that distributions are sufficiently different and are associated with asymmetrical beta distributions. Straight lines over- and underestimated distances compared to the empirical data, and they showed compatibility with random models. Therefore, accurate distance weights depend on the type of the network specification.

  18. Modeling Air Traffic Situation Complexity with a Dynamic Weighted Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the flight delays and risks associated with the forecasted increase in air traffic, there is a need to increase the capacity of air traffic management systems. This should be based on objective measurements of traffic situation complexity. In current air traffic complexity research, no simple means is available to integrate airspace and traffic flow characteristics. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the measurement of air traffic situation complexity. This approach considers the effects of both airspace and traffic flow and objectively quantifies air traffic situation complexity. Considering the aircraft, waypoints, and airways as nodes, and the complexity relationships among these nodes as edges, a dynamic weighted network is constructed. Air traffic situation complexity is defined as the sum of the weights of all edges in the network, and the relationships of complexity with some commonly used indices are statistically analyzed. The results indicate that the new complexity index is more accurate than traffic count and reflects the number of trajectory changes as well as the high-risk situations. Additionally, analysis of potential applications reveals that this new index contributes to achieving complexity-based management, which represents an efficient method for increasing airspace system capacity.

  19. The feature-weighted receptive field: an interpretable encoding model for complex feature spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Yves, Ghislain; Naselaris, Thomas

    2017-06-20

    We introduce the feature-weighted receptive field (fwRF), an encoding model designed to balance expressiveness, interpretability and scalability. The fwRF is organized around the notion of a feature map-a transformation of visual stimuli into visual features that preserves the topology of visual space (but not necessarily the native resolution of the stimulus). The key assumption of the fwRF model is that activity in each voxel encodes variation in a spatially localized region across multiple feature maps. This region is fixed for all feature maps; however, the contribution of each feature map to voxel activity is weighted. Thus, the model has two separable sets of parameters: "where" parameters that characterize the location and extent of pooling over visual features, and "what" parameters that characterize tuning to visual features. The "where" parameters are analogous to classical receptive fields, while "what" parameters are analogous to classical tuning functions. By treating these as separable parameters, the fwRF model complexity is independent of the resolution of the underlying feature maps. This makes it possible to estimate models with thousands of high-resolution feature maps from relatively small amounts of data. Once a fwRF model has been estimated from data, spatial pooling and feature tuning can be read-off directly with no (or very little) additional post-processing or in-silico experimentation. We describe an optimization algorithm for estimating fwRF models from data acquired during standard visual neuroimaging experiments. We then demonstrate the model's application to two distinct sets of features: Gabor wavelets and features supplied by a deep convolutional neural network. We show that when Gabor feature maps are used, the fwRF model recovers receptive fields and spatial frequency tuning functions consistent with known organizational principles of the visual cortex. We also show that a fwRF model can be used to regress entire deep

  20. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lahiri, Soumen N.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a

  1. Low Molecular Weight Chitosan–Insulin Polyelectrolyte Complex: Characterization and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh I. Al-Kurdi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work reported herein was to investigate the effect of various low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs on the stability of insulin using USP HPLC methods. Insulin was found to be stable in a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC consisting of insulin and LMWC in the presence of a Tris-buffer at pH 6.5. In the presence of LMWC, the stability of insulin increased with decreasing molecular weight of LMWC; 13 kDa LMWC was the most efficient molecular weight for enhancing the physical and chemical stability of insulin. Solubilization of insulin-LMWC polyelectrolyte complex (I-LMWC PEC in a reverse micelle (RM system, administered to diabetic rats, results in an oral delivery system for insulin with acceptable bioactivity.

  2. Interacting price model and fluctuation behavior analysis from Lempel–Ziv complexity and multi-scale weighted-permutation entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A financial price model is developed based on the voter interacting system in this work. The Lempel–Ziv complexity is introduced to analyze the complex behaviors of the stock market. Some stock market stylized facts including fat tails, absence of autocorrelation and volatility clustering are investigated for the proposed price model firstly. Then the complexity of fluctuation behaviors of the real stock markets and the proposed price model are mainly explored by Lempel–Ziv complexity (LZC) analysis and multi-scale weighted-permutation entropy (MWPE) analysis. A series of LZC analyses of the returns and the absolute returns of daily closing prices and moving average prices are performed. Moreover, the complexity of the returns, the absolute returns and their corresponding intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) derived from the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with MWPE is also investigated. The numerical empirical study shows similar statistical and complex behaviors between the proposed price model and the real stock markets, which exhibits that the proposed model is feasible to some extent. - Highlights: • A financial price dynamical model is developed based on the voter interacting system. • Lempel–Ziv complexity is the firstly applied to investigate the stock market dynamics system. • MWPE is employed to explore the complexity fluctuation behaviors of the stock market. • Empirical results show the feasibility of the proposed financial model.

  3. Interacting price model and fluctuation behavior analysis from Lempel–Ziv complexity and multi-scale weighted-permutation entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui, E-mail: lirui1401@bjtu.edu.cn; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-08

    A financial price model is developed based on the voter interacting system in this work. The Lempel–Ziv complexity is introduced to analyze the complex behaviors of the stock market. Some stock market stylized facts including fat tails, absence of autocorrelation and volatility clustering are investigated for the proposed price model firstly. Then the complexity of fluctuation behaviors of the real stock markets and the proposed price model are mainly explored by Lempel–Ziv complexity (LZC) analysis and multi-scale weighted-permutation entropy (MWPE) analysis. A series of LZC analyses of the returns and the absolute returns of daily closing prices and moving average prices are performed. Moreover, the complexity of the returns, the absolute returns and their corresponding intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) derived from the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with MWPE is also investigated. The numerical empirical study shows similar statistical and complex behaviors between the proposed price model and the real stock markets, which exhibits that the proposed model is feasible to some extent. - Highlights: • A financial price dynamical model is developed based on the voter interacting system. • Lempel–Ziv complexity is the firstly applied to investigate the stock market dynamics system. • MWPE is employed to explore the complexity fluctuation behaviors of the stock market. • Empirical results show the feasibility of the proposed financial model.

  4. Calculation of spatial weight functions for WWER-440 ex-core neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csom, Gy.; Czifrus, Sz.; Feher, S.; Berki, T.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the work presented in this paper was determination of a spatial weight function for WWER-440 ex-core detectors to be used for the interpretation of reload startup rod drop measurements. In view of the complexity of the geometry of the core as well as the detector, furthermore the presence of a cavity between the vessel and the concrete shield, Monte Carlo calculations were applied. In spite of the fact that in the corresponding literature the use of adjoint methods dominates, in the present case the forward method was chosen and implemented using MCNP4C (Authors)

  5. Complex analysis a modern first course in function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Muir, Jerry R

    2015-01-01

    A thorough introduction to the theory of complex functions emphasizing the beauty, power, and counterintuitive nature of the subject Written with a reader-friendly approach, Complex Analysis: A Modern First Course in Function Theory features a self-contained, concise development of the fundamental principles of complex analysis. After laying groundwork on complex numbers and the calculus and geometric mapping properties of functions of a complex variable, the author uses power series as a unifying theme to define and study the many rich and occasionally surprising properties of analytic fun

  6. On the Projective Description of Weighted (LF-Spaces of Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine V. Komarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve the problem of the topological or algebraic description of countable inductive limits of weighted Fréchet spaces of continuous functions on a cone. This problem is investigated for two families of weights defined by positively homogeneous functions. Weights of this form play the important role in Fourier analysis.

  7. Phycocyanin: One Complex, Two States, Two Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwizdala, Michal; Krüger, Tjaart P.J.; Wahadoszamen, Md; Gruber, J. Michael; Van Grondelle, Rienk

    2018-01-01

    Solar energy captured by pigments embedded in light-harvesting complexes can be transferred to neighboring pigments, dissipated, or emitted as fluorescence. Only when it reaches a reaction center is the excitation energy stabilized in the form of a charge separation and converted into chemical

  8. Abelian Complexity Function of the Tribonacci Word

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2015), 15.3.4 ISSN 1530-7638 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : 4-bonacci word * Abelian complexity * Finite automaton * Tribonacci word Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  9. Functional self-organization in complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Santa Fe Inst., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A novel approach to functional self-organization is presented. It consists of a universe generated by a formal language that defines objects (=programs), their meaning (=functions), and their interactions (=composition). Results obtained so far are briefly discussed. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Topology Detection for Output-Coupling Weighted Complex Dynamical Networks with Coupling and Transmission Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Topology detection for output-coupling weighted complex dynamical networks with two types of time delays is investigated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, coupling delay and transmission delay are simultaneously taken into account in the output-coupling network. Based on the idea of the state observer, we build the drive-response system and apply LaSalle’s invariance principle to the error dynamical system of the drive-response system. Several convergent criteria are deduced in the form of algebraic inequalities. Some numerical simulations for the complex dynamical network, with node dynamics being chaotic, are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  11. Contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle; Darai, Emile; Cuenod, Charles A.; Fournier, Laure; Toussaint, Irwin; Marsault, Claude; Bazot, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for characterizing complex adnexal masses. Seventy-seven women (22-87 years old) with complex adnexal masses (30 benign and 47 malignant) underwent MR imaging including DWI before surgery. Conventional morphological MR imaging criteria were recorded in addition to b 1,000 signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of cystic and solid components. Positive likelihood ratios (PLR) were calculated for predicting benignity and malignancy. The most significant criteria for predicting benignity were low b 1,000 signal intensity within the solid component (PLR = 10.9), low T2 signal intensity within the solid component (PLR = 5.7), absence of solid portion (PLR = 3.1), absence of ascites or peritoneal implants (PLR = 2.3) and absence of papillary projections (PLR = 2.3). ADC measurements did not contribute to differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. All masses that displayed simultaneously low signal intensity within the solid component on T2-weighted and on b 1,000 diffusion-weighted images were benign. Alternatively, the presence of a solid component with intermediate T2 signal and high b 1,000 signal intensity was associated with a PLR of 4.5 for a malignant adnexal tumour. DWI signal intensity is an accurate tool for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses. (orig.)

  12. Contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Pariss, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Rene Descartes, LRI-EA4062, Paris (France); Darai, Emile [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Pariss, Department of Gynecology-Obstetrics, Paris (France); Cuenod, Charles A.; Fournier, Laure [Universite Rene Descartes, LRI-EA4062, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Toussaint, Irwin; Marsault, Claude; Bazot, Marc [Hopital Tenon, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Pariss, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the contribution of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) for characterizing complex adnexal masses. Seventy-seven women (22-87 years old) with complex adnexal masses (30 benign and 47 malignant) underwent MR imaging including DWI before surgery. Conventional morphological MR imaging criteria were recorded in addition to b{sub 1,000} signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of cystic and solid components. Positive likelihood ratios (PLR) were calculated for predicting benignity and malignancy. The most significant criteria for predicting benignity were low b{sub 1,000} signal intensity within the solid component (PLR = 10.9), low T2 signal intensity within the solid component (PLR = 5.7), absence of solid portion (PLR = 3.1), absence of ascites or peritoneal implants (PLR = 2.3) and absence of papillary projections (PLR = 2.3). ADC measurements did not contribute to differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses. All masses that displayed simultaneously low signal intensity within the solid component on T2-weighted and on b{sub 1,000} diffusion-weighted images were benign. Alternatively, the presence of a solid component with intermediate T2 signal and high b{sub 1,000} signal intensity was associated with a PLR of 4.5 for a malignant adnexal tumour. DWI signal intensity is an accurate tool for predicting benignity of complex adnexal masses. (orig.)

  13. Impact on weight and physical function of intensive medical weight loss in older adults with stage II and III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Cook, Miranda; Rushing, Julia; Frain, Annette; Beavers, Kristen; Miller, Gary; Miller, Michael E; Nicklas, Barb

    2016-09-01

    A 6-month pilot trial compared two strategies for weight loss in older adults with body mass indexes (BMIs) ≥35 kg/m(2) to assess weight loss response, safety, and impact on physical function. Twenty-eight volunteers were randomized to a balanced deficit diet (BDD) (500 kcal/day below estimated energy needs) or an intensive, low-calorie, meal replacement diet (ILCD, 960 kcal/day). Behavioral interventions and physical activity prescriptions were similar for both groups. Primary outcomes were changes in body weight and adverse event frequency; secondary outcomes included measures of physical function and body composition. ILCD average weight change was -19.1 ± 2.2 kg or 15.9 ± 4.6% of initial body weight compared with -9.1 ± 2.7 kg or 7.2 ± 1.9% for BDD. ILCD lost more fat mass (-7.7 kg, 95% CI [-11.9 to -3.5]) but had similar loss of lean mass (-1.7 kg, 95% CI [-4.1 to 0.6]) compared with BDD. There were no significant differences in change in physical function or adverse event frequency. Compared with a traditional BDD intervention, older adults who have severe obesity treated with intensive medical weight loss had greater weight loss and decreases in fat mass without a higher frequency of adverse events. In the short term, however, this did not translate into greater improvements in physical function. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  14. Calculation of intensity factors using weight function theory for a transversely isotropic piezoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, In Ho; An, Deuk Man

    2012-01-01

    In fracture mechanics, the weight function can be used for calculating stress intensity factors. In this paper, a two dimensional electroelastic analysis is performed on a transversely isotropic piezoelectric material with an open crack. A plane strain formulation of the piezoelectric problem is solved within the Leknitskii formalism. Weight function theory is extended to piezoelectric materials. The stress intensity factors and electric displacement intensity factor are calculated by the weight function theory

  15. Geographically Weighted Regression Model with Kernel Bisquare and Tricube Weighted Function on Poverty Percentage Data in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, N. F. T. A.; Slamet, I.

    2018-05-01

    Poverty is a socio-economic condition of a person or group of people who can not fulfil their basic need to maintain and develop a dignified life. This problem still cannot be solved completely in Central Java Province. Currently, the percentage of poverty in Central Java is 13.32% which is higher than the national poverty rate which is 11.13%. In this research, data of percentage of poor people in Central Java Province has been analyzed through geographically weighted regression (GWR). The aim of this research is therefore to model poverty percentage data in Central Java Province using GWR with weighted function of kernel bisquare, and tricube. As the results, we obtained GWR model with bisquare and tricube kernel weighted function on poverty percentage data in Central Java province. From the GWR model, there are three categories of region which are influenced by different of significance factors.

  16. Weighting factor for instantaneous source functions of a permeable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiplicative weighting factor, E, is obtained which shows constant behaviour at late dimensionless flow times for a particular set of well and reservoir dimensionless parameters. Computation of dimensionless pressures using the factor shows conformity with expected behaviour for a layered reservoir with crossflow ...

  17. Weight change and physical function in older women: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, C L; Snowdon, D A

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the association between change in weight and decline in physical function in older women. Longitudinal study of a defined population of Catholic sisters (nuns) whose weight and function were assessed twice, an average of 584 days apart. Unique life communities (convents) located throughout the United States. 475 Catholic sisters who were 75 to 99 years of age (M = 82.1, SD = 4.8) and were independent in at least one Activity of Daily Living (ADL) at the first assessment of weight and function. None. At each assessment, weight, ADLs, and cognitive function were evaluated as part of the Nun Study--a longitudinal study of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Annual percent weight change was calculated using weights from the two assessments, as well as the number of days that elapsed between assessments. Mean weight at first assessment was 140 pounds (range 78 to 232, SD = 27). The mean annual percent weight change was 0.1% (range 22% loss to 16% gain, SD = 3.8). Age- and initial weight-adjusted findings indicated that those participants with an annual percent weight loss of 3% or greater had 2.7 to 3.9 times the risk of becoming dependent in each ADL, compared to the sisters with no weight change. The elevated risk persisted in those who were mentally intact or were independent in their eating habits. Monitoring of weight may be an easy and inexpensive method of identifying older individuals at increased risk of disability.

  18. Resolving anatomical and functional structure in human brain organization: identifying mesoscale organization in weighted network representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Christian; Bassett, Danielle S; Lim, Kelvin O; Carlson, Jean M

    2014-10-01

    Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease.

  19. A complexity analysis of functional interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernest, Mircea-Dan; Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Summary: We give a quantitative analysis of Gödel's functional     interpretation and its monotone variant. The two have been used     for the extraction of programs and numerical bounds as well as     for conservation results. They apply both to (semi-)intuitionistic     as well as (combined...... with negative translation) classical proofs.     The proofs may be formalized in systems ranging from weak base     systems to arithmetic and analysis (and numerous fragments of     these). We give upper bounds in basic proof data on the depth,     size, maximal type degree and maximal type arity...

  20. Functions of a complex variable and some of their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, B A; Sneddon, I N; Ulam, S

    1961-01-01

    Functions of a Complex Variable and Some of Their Applications, Volume 1, discusses the fundamental ideas of the theory of functions of a complex variable. The book is the result of a complete rewriting and revision of a translation of the second (1957) Russian edition. Numerous changes and additions have been made, both in the text and in the solutions of the Exercises. The book begins with a review of arithmetical operations with complex numbers. Separate chapters discuss the fundamentals of complex analysis; the concept of conformal transformations; the most important of the elementary fun

  1. Complex association between body weight and fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpalaris, V; Anagnostis, P; Goulis, D G; Iakovou, I

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease, characterized by low bone mass with micro-architectural disruption and skeletal fragility, resulting in an increased risk of fracture. A substantial number of studies has examined the possible relationship between body weight, bone mineral density and fracture risk in post-menopausal women, with the majority of them concluding that low body weight correlates with increased risk of fracture, especially hip fracture. Controversies about the potential protective effect of obesity on osteoporosis and consequent fracture risk still exist. Several recent studies question the concept that obesity exerts a protective effect against fractures, suggesting that it stands as a risk factor for fractures at specific skeletal sites, such as upper arm. The association between body weight and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites and body mass index, and is modified by the interaction between body weight and bone mineral density. Some potential explanations that link obesity with increased fracture risk may be the pattern of falls and impaired mobility in obese individuals, comorbidities, such as asthma, diabetes and early menopause, as well as, increased parathyroid hormone and reduced 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations. © 2015 World Obesity.

  2. Predicting objective function weights from patient anatomy in prostate IMRT treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taewoo; Hammad, Muhannad; Chan, Timothy C. Y.; Craig, Tim; Sharpe, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning typically combines multiple criteria into a single objective function by taking a weighted sum. The authors propose a statistical model that predicts objective function weights from patient anatomy for prostate IMRT treatment planning. This study provides a proof of concept for geometry-driven weight determination. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) was used to generate optimal objective function weights for 24 patients using their historical treatment plans (i.e., dose distributions). These IOM weights were around 1% for each of the femoral heads, while bladder and rectum weights varied greatly between patients. A regression model was developed to predict a patient's rectum weight using the ratio of the overlap volume of the rectum and bladder with the planning target volume at a 1 cm expansion as the independent variable. The femoral head weights were fixed to 1% each and the bladder weight was calculated as one minus the rectum and femoral head weights. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Objective values and dose distributions generated through inverse planning using the predicted weights were compared to those generated using the original IOM weights, as well as an average of the IOM weights across all patients. Results: The IOM weight vectors were on average six times closer to the predicted weight vectors than to the average weight vector, usingl 2 distance. Likewise, the bladder and rectum objective values achieved by the predicted weights were more similar to the objective values achieved by the IOM weights. The difference in objective value performance between the predicted and average weights was statistically significant according to a one-sided sign test. For all patients, the difference in rectum V54.3 Gy, rectum V70.0 Gy, bladder V54.3 Gy, and bladder V70.0 Gy values between the dose distributions generated by the

  3. Weighted Anisotropic Integral Representations of Holomorphic Functions in the Unit Ball of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Karapetyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain weighted integral representations for spaces of functions holomorphic in the unit ball and belonging to area-integrable weighted -classes with “anisotropic” weight function of the type ∏=1(1−|1|2−|2|2−⋯−||2, =(1,2,…,∈. The corresponding kernels of these representations are estimated, written in an integral form, and even written out in an explicit form (for =2.

  4. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Birk, Marlene S.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, K?r?ad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor pro...

  5. Impulsive generalized function synchronization of complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qunjiao; Chen, Juan; Wan, Li

    2013-01-01

    This Letter investigates generalized function synchronization of continuous and discrete complex networks by impulsive control. By constructing the reasonable corresponding impulsively controlled response networks, some criteria and corollaries are derived for the generalized function synchronization between the impulsively controlled complex networks, continuous and discrete networks are both included. Furthermore, the generalized linear synchronization and nonlinear synchronization are respectively illustrated by several examples. All the numerical simulations demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical results

  6. COULCC: A continued-fraction algorithm for Coulomb functions of complex order with complex arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, I.J.; Barnett, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The routine COULCC calculates both the oscillating and the exponentially varying Coulomb wave functions, and their radial derivations, for complex eta(Sommerfeld parameter), complex energies and complex angular momenta. The functions for uncharged scattering (spherical Bessels) and cylindrical Bessel functions are special cases which are more easily solved. Two linearly independent solutions are found, in general, to the differential equation f''(x)+g(x)f(x)=0, where g(x) has x 0 , x -1 and x -2 terms, with coefficients 1, -2eta and -lambda(lambda+1), respectively. (orig.)

  7. Effect of weight reductions on estimated kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Davies, Melanie J; Persson, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    creatinine. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of two 56-week, randomized, double-blind trials: SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes (n=3731, without type 2 diabetes [T2D], randomized [2:1] to liraglutide 3.0mg [n=2487] or placebo [n=1244]); SCALE Diabetes (n=846 with T2D, randomized [2:1:1] to liraglutide 3.0mg [n=423], 1.......8mg [n=211, excluded from this analysis] or placebo [n=212]). NCT01272219/NCT01272232. RESULTS: In SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes, mean (±SD) weight loss (baseline to week 56) with liraglutide was 8.0±6.7% (2.6±6.9% with placebo); baseline creatinine with liraglutide was 76±15μmol/L and 74±15μmol...

  8. Weight functions for the determination of stress intensity factor and T-stress for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Wang, X.; Tan, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the weight functions for the determination of the stress intensity factor and T-stress solutions for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends under complex stress distributions. First, a compliance analysis approach is used to calculate stress intensity factor and T-stress for edge cracks in finite width plates with built-in ends with uniform or linear stress distributions acting on the crack face. The results serve as the reference solutions for the next step in which the approaches of deriving weight functions from reference stress intensity factor and T-stress solutions developed for stress boundary conditions are extended to obtain the corresponding weight functions for edge-cracked plates with built-in ends. Finite element analysis is conducted to validate the derived solutions. The weight functions derived are suitable for obtaining stress intensity factors and T-stress solutions under any complex stress field

  9. Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Joong; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Nudelman, Ilona; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhu; Raveh, Barak; Herricks, Thurston; Slaughter, Brian D.; Hogan, Joanna A.; Upla, Paula; Chemmama, Ilan E.; Pellarin, Riccardo; Echeverria, Ignacia; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Chaudhury, Azraa S.; Wang, Junjie; Williams, Rosemary; Unruh, Jay R.; Greenberg, Charles H.; Jacobs, Erica Y.; Yu, Zhiheng; de La Cruz, M. Jason; Mironska, Roxana; Stokes, David L.; Aitchison, John D.; Jarrold, Martin F.; Gerton, Jennifer L.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Akey, Christopher W.; Chait, Brian T.; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P.

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility. These cables also tie together all other elements of the nuclear pore complex, including membrane-interacting regions, outer rings and RNA-processing platforms. Inwardly directed anchors create a high density of transport factor-docking Phe-Gly repeats in the central channel, organized into distinct functional units. This integrative structure enables us to rationalize the architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins of the nuclear pore complex.

  10. Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Joong; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Nudelman, Ilona; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhu; Raveh, Barak; Herricks, Thurston; Slaughter, Brian D; Hogan, Joanna A; Upla, Paula; Chemmama, Ilan E; Pellarin, Riccardo; Echeverria, Ignacia; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Chaudhury, Azraa S; Wang, Junjie; Williams, Rosemary; Unruh, Jay R; Greenberg, Charles H; Jacobs, Erica Y; Yu, Zhiheng; de la Cruz, M Jason; Mironska, Roxana; Stokes, David L; Aitchison, John D; Jarrold, Martin F; Gerton, Jennifer L; Ludtke, Steven J; Akey, Christopher W; Chait, Brian T; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P

    2018-03-22

    Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility. These cables also tie together all other elements of the nuclear pore complex, including membrane-interacting regions, outer rings and RNA-processing platforms. Inwardly directed anchors create a high density of transport factor-docking Phe-Gly repeats in the central channel, organized into distinct functional units. This integrative structure enables us to rationalize the architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins of the nuclear pore complex.

  11. Functional complexity and ecosystem stability: an experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Voris, P.; O' Neill, R.V.; Shugart, H.H.; Emanuel, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    The complexity-stability hypothesis was experimentally tested using intact terrestrial microcosms. Functional complexity was defined as the number and significance of component interactions (i.e., population interactions, physical-chemical reactions, biological turnover rates) influenced by nonlinearities, feedbacks, and time delays. It was postulated that functional complexity could be nondestructively measured through analysis of a signal generated from the system. Power spectral analysis of hourly CO/sub 2/ efflux, from eleven old-field microcosms, was analyzed for the number of low frequency peaks and used to rank the functional complexity of each system. Ranking of ecosystem stability was based on the capacity of the system to retain essential nutrients and was measured by net loss of Ca after the system was stressed. Rank correlation supported the hypothesis that increasing ecosystem functional complexity leads to increasing ecosystem stability. The results indicated that complex functional dynamics can serve to stabilize the system. The results also demonstrated that microcosms are useful tools for system-level investigations.

  12. Are Isolated and Complex Fiber Supplements Good Choices for Weight Management? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Nazli; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-11-01

    Previous trials have reported beneficial effects of isolated and complex fiber supplements in obesity treatment. However, recommending fiber supplements in obese subjects remains controversial. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic review has updated the data on the effects of fiber supplements on obesity since 2010 and the need exists for a systematic review on this topic. Accordingly, a systematic review was undertaken to summarize the efficacy of different types of fiber supplements as a complementary treatment for weight management. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar between January 2010 to August 2016 with no language restriction. Considering the inclusion/exclusion criteria and quality assessment score, finally 17 clinical trials met the eligibility criteria and were included. The present study indicated that the efficacy of various fiber supplements on losing weight is variable. Several mechanisms related to physicochemical properties of fibers such as solubility, fermentability and viscosity rates can be involved in their anti-obesity effects. Dextrin, Mannan (gum Arabic) and pectin-rich fiber (lupin kernel) with no dietary interventions indicated a reduction in body weight and energy intake, while from clinical point of view, their effects were not considerable. Overall, findings indicated that the efficacy of fiber supplements on obesity management is dependent on their contents and physicochemical properties. It seems that fiber supplements with no weight-loss interventions did not have considerable antiobesity effects. However, due to limited studies on each type of fiber, findings should be declared by caution. Additional research is needed on comparison of different fiber supplements in similar conditions to clarify the best type and dosage of fiber supplement as a complementary therapy in obesity management.

  13. Linking structural features of protein complexes and biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, Gopichandran; Breen, Edmond J; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2015-09-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) establishes the central basis for complex cellular networks in a biological cell. Association of proteins with other proteins occurs at varying affinities, yet with a high degree of specificity. PPIs lead to diverse functionality such as catalysis, regulation, signaling, immunity, and inhibition, playing a crucial role in functional genomics. The molecular principle of such interactions is often elusive in nature. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of known protein complexes from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) is essential for the characterization of structural interface features to determine structure-function relationship. Thus, we analyzed a nonredundant dataset of 278 heterodimer protein complexes, categorized into major functional classes, for distinguishing features. Interestingly, our analysis has identified five key features (interface area, interface polar residue abundance, hydrogen bonds, solvation free energy gain from interface formation, and binding energy) that are discriminatory among the functional classes using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Significant correlations between these PPI interface features amongst functional categories are also documented. Salt bridges correlate with interface area in regulator-inhibitors (r = 0.75). These representative features have implications for the prediction of potential function of novel protein complexes. The results provide molecular insights for better understanding of PPIs and their relation to biological functions. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  14. Evaluation of beta-decay III. The complex gamma function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1993-05-01

    Two real, analytical, approximations for the square of the modulus of the complex gamma function as it appears in F(Z, W), the Fermi function for beta-decay, are evaluated; an accuracy bettering 10 -4 % can easily be achieved for all electron energies throughout the periodic table. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  15. Path integral for stochastic inflation: Nonperturbative volume weighting, complex histories, initial conditions, and the end of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Steven

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we present a path integral formulation of stochastic inflation. Volume weighting can be naturally implemented from this new perspective in a very straightforward way when compared to conventional Langevin approaches. With an in-depth study of inflation in a quartic potential, we investigate how the inflaton evolves and how inflation typically ends both with and without volume weighting. The calculation can be carried to times beyond those accessible to conventional Fokker-Planck approaches. Perhaps unexpectedly, complex histories sometimes emerge with volume weighting. The reward for this excursion into the complex plane is an insight into how volume-weighted inflation both loses memory of initial conditions and ends via slow roll. The slow-roll end of inflation mitigates certain “Youngness Paradox”-type criticisms of the volume-weighted paradigm. Thus it is perhaps time to rehabilitate proper-time volume weighting as a viable measure for answering at least some interesting cosmological questions.

  16. Path integral for stochastic inflation: Nonperturbative volume weighting, complex histories, initial conditions, and the end of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, Steven

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a path integral formulation of stochastic inflation. Volume weighting can be naturally implemented from this new perspective in a very straightforward way when compared to conventional Langevin approaches. With an in-depth study of inflation in a quartic potential, we investigate how the inflaton evolves and how inflation typically ends both with and without volume weighting. The calculation can be carried to times beyond those accessible to conventional Fokker-Planck approaches. Perhaps unexpectedly, complex histories sometimes emerge with volume weighting. The reward for this excursion into the complex plane is an insight into how volume-weighted inflation both loses memory of initial conditions and ends via slow roll. The slow-roll end of inflation mitigates certain ''Youngness Paradox''-type criticisms of the volume-weighted paradigm. Thus it is perhaps time to rehabilitate proper-time volume weighting as a viable measure for answering at least some interesting cosmological questions.

  17. Cryptographic Properties of the Hidden Weighted Bit Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 23 DEC 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...K. Feng, An Infinite Class of Balanced Vectorial Boolean Functions with Optimum Algebraic Immunity and Good Nonlinearity, in: IWCC 2009, In: LNCS

  18. Managing Complexity in Evidence Analysis: A Worked Example in Pediatric Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, James Scott; Henry, Beverly; Thompson, Kyle L; Ziegler, Jane; Handu, Deepa

    2018-05-02

    Nutrition interventions are often complex and multicomponent. Typical approaches to meta-analyses that focus on individual causal relationships to provide guideline recommendations are not sufficient to capture this complexity. The objective of this study is to describe the method of meta-analysis used for the Pediatric Weight Management (PWM) Guidelines update and provide a worked example that can be applied in other areas of dietetics practice. The effects of PWM interventions were examined for body mass index (BMI), body mass index z-score (BMIZ), and waist circumference at four different time periods. For intervention-level effects, intervention types were identified empirically using multiple correspondence analysis paired with cluster analysis. Pooled effects of identified types were examined using random effects meta-analysis models. Differences in effects among types were examined using meta-regression. Context-level effects are examined using qualitative comparative analysis. Three distinct types (or families) of PWM interventions were identified: medical nutrition, behavioral, and missing components. Medical nutrition and behavioral types showed statistically significant improvements in BMIZ across all time points. Results were less consistent for BMI and waist circumference, although four distinct patterns of weight status change were identified. These varied by intervention type as well as outcome measure. Meta-regression indicated statistically significant differences between the medical nutrition and behavioral types vs the missing component type for both BMIZ and BMI, although the pattern varied by time period and intervention type. Qualitative comparative analysis identified distinct configurations of context characteristics at each time point that were consistent with positive outcomes among the intervention types. Although analysis of individual causal relationships is invaluable, this approach is inadequate to capture the complexity of dietetics

  19. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Ebrahim

    Full Text Available With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa, from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa, retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01 of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further.

  20. Modularized Functions of the Fanconi Anemia Core Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fanconi anemia (FA core complex provides the essential E3 ligase function for spatially defined FANCD2 ubiquitination and FA pathway activation. Of the seven FA gene products forming the core complex, FANCL possesses a RING domain with demonstrated E3 ligase activity. The other six components do not have clearly defined roles. Through epistasis analyses, we identify three functional modules in the FA core complex: a catalytic module consisting of FANCL, FANCB, and FAAP100 is absolutely required for the E3 ligase function, and the FANCA-FANCG-FAAP20 and the FANCC-FANCE-FANCF modules provide nonredundant and ancillary functions that help the catalytic module bind chromatin or sites of DNA damage. Disruption of the catalytic module causes complete loss of the core complex function, whereas loss of any ancillary module component does not. Our work reveals the roles of several FA gene products with previously undefined functions and a modularized assembly of the FA core complex.

  1. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lahiri, Soumen N; Carroll, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L 2 -norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.

  2. Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure

    KAUST Repository

    Staicu, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.

  3. Embeddings between weighted Copson and Cesaro function spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Mustafayev, R.Ch.; Ünver, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2017), s. 1005-1132 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cesaro and Copson function spaces * embedding * iterated Hardy inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.21136/CMJ.2017.0424-16

  4. Wearing weighted backpack dilates subjective visual duration: The role of functional linkage between weight experience and visual timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eJia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bodily state plays a critical role in our perception. In the present study, we asked the question whether and how bodily experience of weights influences time perception. Participants judged durations of a picture (a backpack or a trolley bag presented on the screen, while wearing different weight backpacks or without backpack. The results showed that the subjective dura-tion of the backpack picture was dilated when participants wore a medium weighted backpack relative to an empty backpack or without backpack, regardless of identity (e.g., color of the visual backpack. However, the duration dilation was not manifested for the picture of trolley bag. These findings suggest that weight experience modulates visual duration estimation through the linkage between the wore backpack and to-be-estimated visual target. The con-gruent action affordance between the wore backpack and visual inputs plays a critical role in the functional linkage between inner experience and time perception. We interpreted our findings within the framework of embodied time perception.

  5. Functional analysis for complex systems of nuclear fusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinna, Tonio; Dongiovanni, Danilo Nicola; Iannone, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional analysis for complex systems. • Functional Flow Block Diagrams (FFBD). • IDEFØ diagrams. • Petri Net algorithm - Abstract: In system engineering context, a functional analysis is the systematic process of identifying, describing and correlating the functions a system must perform in order to be successful at any foreseen life-cycle phase or operational state/mode. By focusing on what the system must do disregarding the implementation, the functional analysis supports an unbiased system requirement allocation analysis. The system function architecture is defined in terms of process, protection (interlock) or nuclear safety functions. Then, the system functions are analyzed from several points of view in order to highlight the various pieces of information defining the way the system is designed to accomplish its mission as defined in the system requirement documents. The process functional flow is identified and represented by Functional Flow Block Diagrams (FFBD) while the system function interfaces are identified and represented by IDEFØ diagrams. Function interfaces are defined as relationships across identified functions in terms of function input (from other functions or requirements), output (added value or outcome of the function), controls (from other functions or systems) and mechanisms necessary to fulfill the function. The function architecture is further detailed by considering for each function: a) the phase of application, b) the actions performed c) the controlled variable and control actions to be foreseen in the implementation of the functions, d) the system involved in the control action, e) the equipment involved in the function, f) the requirements allocated to the function. The methodology here presented are suggested for the designing of fusion facilities and reactors already from the first phases of the pre-conceptual design, as it is now for DEMO.

  6. Multi-functional fitness chair for light weight trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Rong; Wu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, physical inactivity has become a global problem. According to the research, about 5.3 million deaths all over the world in 2008 could be attributed to inactivity [1]. However, it is enough to do a little exercise every day to reduce the risk of premature deaths by as much as 30 percent. Due to the increasing working pressure, people do not have enough time to go to gym and do exercises, which means that the design of multi-functional fitness chair is necessary so that people can do ...

  7. Characterization of the best polynomial approximation with a sign-sensitive weight to a continuous function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramazanov, A.-R K

    2005-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for the best polynomial approximation with an arbitrary and, generally speaking, unbounded sign-sensitive weight to a continuous function are obtained; the components of the weight can also take infinite values, therefore the conditions obtained cover, in particular, approximation with interpolation at fixed points and one-sided approximation; in the case of the weight with components equal to 1 one arrives at Chebyshev's classical alternation theorem.

  8. Functional brain response to food images in successful adolescent weight losers compared with normal-weight and overweight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-03-01

    Research conducted with adults suggests that successful weight losers demonstrate greater activation in brain regions associated with executive control in response to viewing high-energy foods. No previous studies have examined these associations in adolescents. Functional neuroimaging was used to assess brain response to food images among groups of overweight (OW), normal-weight (NW), and successful weight-losing (SWL) adolescents. Eleven SWL, 12 NW, and 11 OW participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing images of high- and low-energy foods. When viewing high-energy food images, SWLs demonstrated greater activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared with OW and NW controls. Compared with NW and SWL groups, OW individuals demonstrated greater activation in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate in response to food images. Adolescent SWLs demonstrated greater neural activation in the DLPFC compared with OW/NW controls when viewing high-energy food stimuli, which may indicate enhanced executive control. OW individuals' brain responses to food stimuli may indicate greater reward incentive processes than either SWL or NW groups. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. Analysis of the airport network of India as a complex weighted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagler, Ganesh

    2008-05-01

    Transportation infrastructure of a country is one of the most important indicators of its economic growth. Here we study the Airport Network of India (ANI) which represents India’s domestic civil aviation infrastructure as a complex network. We find that ANI, a network of domestic airports connected by air links, is a small-world network characterized by a truncated power-law degree distribution and has a signature of hierarchy. We investigate ANI as a weighted network to explore its various properties and compare them with their topological counterparts. The traffic in ANI, as in the World-wide Airport Network (WAN), is found to be accumulated on interconnected groups of airports and is concentrated between large airports. In contrast to WAN, ANI is found to be having disassortative mixing which is offset by the traffic dynamics. The analysis indicates possible mechanism of formation of a national transportation network, which is different from that on a global scale.

  10. A deterministic algorithm for fitting a step function to a weighted point-set

    KAUST Repository

    Fournier, Hervé ; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2013-01-01

    Given a set of n points in the plane, each point having a positive weight, and an integer k>0, we present an optimal O(nlogn)-time deterministic algorithm to compute a step function with k steps that minimizes the maximum weighted vertical distance

  11. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  12. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  13. Plant Mediator complex and its critical functions in transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Ling; Qu, Li-Jia

    2016-02-01

    The Mediator complex is an important component of the eukaryotic transcriptional machinery. As an essential link between transcription factors and RNA polymerase II, the Mediator complex transduces diverse signals to genes involved in different pathways. The plant Mediator complex was recently purified and comprises conserved and specific subunits. It functions in concert with transcription factors to modulate various responses. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the plant Mediator complex and its diverse roles in plant growth, development, defense, non-coding RNA production, response to abiotic stresses, flowering, genomic stability and metabolic homeostasis. In addition, the transcription factors interacting with the Mediator complex are also highlighted. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsholz, Alexander K W; Birk, Marlene S; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis . We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics.

  15. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Birk, Marlene S.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics. PMID:28748186

  16. [Range of Hip Joint Motion and Weight of Lower Limb Function under 3D Dynamic Marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Q; Zhang, M; Gao, D; Xia, W T

    2017-12-01

    To explore the range of reasonable weight coefficient of hip joint in lower limb function. When the hip joints of healthy volunteers under normal conditions or fixed at three different positions including functional, flexed and extension positions, the movements of lower limbs were recorded by LUKOtronic motion capture and analysis system. The degree of lower limb function loss was calculated using Fugl-Meyer lower limb function assessment form when the hip joints were fixed at the aforementioned positions. One-way analysis of variance and Tamhane's T2 method were used to proceed statistics analysis and calculate the range of reasonable weight coefficient of hip joint. There were significant differences between the degree of lower limb function loss when the hip joints fixed at flexed and extension positions and at functional position. While the differences between the degree of lower limb function loss when the hip joints fixed at flexed position and extension position had no statistical significance. In 95% confidence interval, the reasonable weight coefficient of hip joint in lower limb function was between 61.05% and 73.34%. Expect confirming the reasonable weight coefficient, the effects of functional and non-functional positions on the degree of lower limb function loss should also be considered for the assessment of hip joint function loss. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  17. Wigner weight functions and Weyl symbols of non-negative definite linear operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present several necessary and, for radially symmetric functions, necessary and sufficient conditions for a function of two variables to be a Wigner weight function (Weyl symbol of a non-negative definite linear operator of L2(R)). These necessary conditions are in terms of spread

  18. On weighted hardy inequalities on semiaxis for functions vanishing at the endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanov Vladimir

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the weighted Hardy inequalities on the semiaxis of the form for functions vanishing at the endpoints together with derivatives up to the order . The case is completely characterized.

  19. Catalytic transformation of functionalized carboxylic acids using multifunctional rhenium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Masayuki; Agrawal, Santosh; Toda, Katsuaki; Saito, Susumu

    2017-06-13

    Carboxylic acids (CAs) are one of the most ubiquitous and important chemical feedstocks available from biorenewable resources, CO 2 , and the petrochemical industry. Unfortunately, chemoselective catalytic transformations of CH n CO 2 H (n = 1-3) groups into other functionalities remain a significant challenge. Herein, we report rhenium V complexes as extremely effective precatalysts for this purpose. Compared to previously reported heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts derived from high- or low-valent metals, the present method involves a α-C-H bond functionalization, a hydrogenation, and a hydrogenolysis, which affords functionalized alcohols with a wide substrate scope and high chemoselectivity under relatively mild reaction conditions. The results represent an important step toward a paradigm shift from 'low-valent' to 'high-valent' metal complexes by exploring a new portfolio of selective functional group transformations of highly oxygenated organic substrates, as well as toward the exploitation of CAs as a valuable biorenewable feedstock.

  20. Assessment of executive functioning in binge-eating disorder independent of weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneva, Kalina T; Arlt, Jean M; Yiu, Angelina; Murray, Susan M; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-08-01

    Executive functioning (EF) problems may serve as vulnerability or maintenance factors for Binge-Eating Disorder (BED). However, it is unclear if EF problems observed in BED are related to overweight status or BED status. The current study extends this literature by examining EF in overweight and normal-weight BED compared to weight-matched controls. Participants were normal-weight women with BED (n = 23), overweight BED (n = 32), overweight healthy controls (n = 48), and normal-weight healthy controls (n = 29). The EF battery utilized tests from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). After controlling for years of education and minority status, overweight individuals performed more poorly than normal-weight individuals on a task of cognitive flexibility requiring generativity (p < .01), and speed on psychomotor performance tasks (p = .01). Normal-weight and overweight BED performed worse on working memory tasks compared to controls (p = .04). Unexpectedly, normal-weight BED individuals out-performed all other groups on an inhibitory control task (p < .01). No significant differences were found between the four groups on tasks of planning. Regardless of weight status, BED is associated with working memory problems. Replication of the finding that normal-weight BED is associated with enhanced inhibitory control is needed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Real photon spectral weight functions, imaginary part of vacuum polarization and electromagnetic vertices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahine, C.; College de France, 75 - Paris. Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)

    1978-02-01

    The concept of a real photon spectral weight function for any cross-section involving charged particles is introduced as a simple approximation taking into account the soft part of photon emission to all orders in perturbation theory. The spectral weight function replaces the energy-momentum conservation delta function in the elastic cross-section. The spectral weight function is computed in closed form in space-time and in the peaking approximation in momentum space. The spectral weight function description is applied to the imaginary part of vacuum polarization ImPI and to electron-proton scattering. A spectral representation for ImPI is derived and its content compared with the known fourth order result, showing in particular the identity of the soft and peaking approximations in lowest order. The virtual photon radiative corrections are discussed in part, with emphasis on the threshold behavior of the vertex functions. A relativistic generalization of the electric non-relativistic vertex function is given, whose asymptotic behavior is approppriate to use in conjuction with the spectral weight function

  2. Cumulative complexity: a functional, patient-centered model of patient complexity can improve research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Nathan D; Shah, Nilay D; May, Carl R; Mair, Frances S; Montori, Victor M

    2012-10-01

    To design a functional, patient-centered model of patient complexity with practical applicability to analytic design and clinical practice. Existing literature on patient complexity has mainly identified its components descriptively and in isolation, lacking clarity as to their combined functions in disrupting care or to how complexity changes over time. The authors developed a cumulative complexity model, which integrates existing literature and emphasizes how clinical and social factors accumulate and interact to complicate patient care. A narrative literature review is used to explicate the model. The model emphasizes a core, patient-level mechanism whereby complicating factors impact care and outcomes: the balance between patient workload of demands and patient capacity to address demands. Workload encompasses the demands on the patient's time and energy, including demands of treatment, self-care, and life in general. Capacity concerns ability to handle work (e.g., functional morbidity, financial/social resources, literacy). Workload-capacity imbalances comprise the mechanism driving patient complexity. Treatment and illness burdens serve as feedback loops, linking negative outcomes to further imbalances, such that complexity may accumulate over time. With its components largely supported by existing literature, the model has implications for analytic design, clinical epidemiology, and clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-functionalized naphthalene complexes for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamse, Vijayanand; Wadnerkar, Nitin; Chaudhari, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    A density functional study of hydrogen uptake capacity of multi-functionalized naphthalene with Ti and Li metal atom has been carried out. It is observed that, the naphthalene functionalized with two Ti atoms can interact with total eight hydrogen molecules in which each Ti metal atom interacts with four hydrogen molecules. Naphthalene decorated with two Li atoms can interact with total three H 2 molecules only. First ( 19 Li) and second ( 20 Li) Li atom can interact with only one and two hydrogen molecule respectively. It is observed that, hydrogen molecules bind strongly to the C 10 H 8 Ti 2 complex than C 10 H 8 Li 2 complex. The gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Ti 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 2 complex is found to be 6.72 and 3.73 wt% respectively. Moreover, after functionalizing naphthalene with four Li atoms, the uptake capacity is increased to 7.20 wt %. However, the thermochemistry result favors to Ti functionalized naphthalene complex (C 10 H 8 Ti 2 ) for hydrogen storage over Li functionalized naphthalene (both C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 ) complexes. Atom-centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) molecular dynamics simulations have been performed which showed that C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 complex cannot bind single hydrogen molecule at room temperature whereas C 10 H 8 Ti 2 can bind five hydrogen molecules. -- Highlights: ► The gravimetric H 2 uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Ti 2 complex is 6.72 wt%. ► Uptake capacity of C 10 H 8 Li 2 and C 10 H 8 Li 4 complex is 3.73 and 7.20 wt% respectively. ► C 10 H 8 Ti is more promising material for hydrogen adsorption. ► C 10 H 8 Ti 2 can bind five hydrogen molecules as shown by ADMP-MD results.

  4. Integration of functional complex oxide nanomaterials on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel eVila-Fungueiriño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of standard wafer-scale semiconductor processing with the properties of functional oxides opens up to innovative and more efficient devices with high value applications that can be produced at large scale. This review uncovers the main strategies that are successfully used to monolithically integrate functional complex oxide thin films and nanostructures on silicon: the chemical solution deposition approach (CSD and the advanced physical vapor deposition techniques such as oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Special emphasis will be placed on complex oxide nanostructures epitaxially grown on silicon using the combination of CSD and MBE. Several examples will be exposed, with a particular stress on the control of interfaces and crystallization mechanisms on epitaxial perovskite oxide thin films, nanostructured quartz thin films, and octahedral molecular sieve nanowires. This review enlightens on the potential of complex oxide nanostructures and the combination of both chemical and physical elaboration techniques for novel oxide-based integrated devices.

  5. Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Background: The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, the correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and the properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or the nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. Purpose: To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Methods: To compute sum rules, we carry out contour integration of the response function in the complex-energy plane. We benchmark our results against the conventional matrix formulation of the QRPA theory, the Thouless theorem for the energy-weighted sum rule, and the dielectric theorem for the inverse-energy-weighted sum rule. Results: We derive the sum-rule expressions from the contour integration of the complex-energy FAM. We demonstrate that calculated sum-rule values agree with those obtained from the matrix formulation of the QRPA. We also discuss the applicability of both the Thouless theorem about the energy-weighted sum rule and the dielectric theorem for the inverse-energy-weighted sum rule to nuclear density functional theory in cases when the EDF is not based on a Hamiltonian. Conclusions: The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method

  6. Human RAD50 makes a functional DNA-binding complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Eri; van Rossum-Fikkert, Sari; Sanchez, Humberto; Kertokalio, Aryandi; Wyman, Claire

    2015-06-01

    The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex has several distinct functions in DNA repair including important roles in both non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). The biochemical activities of MR(N) have been well characterized implying specific functional roles for the components. The arrangement of proteins in the complex implies interdependence of their biochemical activities making it difficult to separate specific functions. We obtained purified human RAD50 and observed that it binds ATP, undergoes ATP-dependent conformational changes as well as having ATPase activity. Scanning force microscopy analysis clearly showed that RAD50 binds DNA although not as oligomers. RAD50 alone was not functional in tethering DNA molecules. ATP increased formation of RAD50 multimers which were however globular lacking extended coiled coils, in contrast to the MR complex where ATP induced oligomers have obvious coiled coils protruding from a central domain. These results suggest that MRE11 is important in maintaining the structural arrangement of RAD50 in the protein complex and perhaps has a role in reinforcing proper alignment of the coiled coils in the ATP-bound state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Finger functionality and joystick design for complex hand control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinten, M.P. van der; Krause, F.

    2006-01-01

    Joysticks and similar multi-directional controls are increasingly applied in machines, instruments and consumer goods. Operational complexity rises through miniaturization and additional control functions on the joystick. With this the effort for the finger, hand and arm, and for the perceptive and

  8. Text analysis of MEDLINE for discovering functional relationships among genes: evaluation of keyword extraction weighting schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Navathe, Shamkant B; Pivoshenko, Alex; Dasigi, Venu G; Dingledine, Ray; Ciliax, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the functional links among genes. However, the quality of the keyword lists significantly affects the clustering results. We compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalised z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). Two gene sets were tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clustering. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords outperformed those produced from normalised z-score weighted keywords. The optimised algorithms should be useful for partitioning genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters.

  9. A new class of weight and WA systems of the Kravchenko-Kaiser functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, V. F.; Pustovoit, V. I.; Churikov, D. V.

    2014-05-01

    A new class of weight and WA-systems of the Kravchenko-Kaiser functions which showed its efficiency in various physical applications is proposed and substantiated. This publication consists of three parts. In the first the Kravchenko-Kaiser weight functions are constructed on basis of the theory of atomic functions (AFs) and the Kaiser windows for the first time. In the second part new constructions of analytic WA-systems of the Kravchenko-Kaiser functions are costructed. In the third part their applications to problems of weight averaging of the difference frequency signals are considered. The numerical experiment and the physical analysis of the results for concrete physical models confirmed their efficiency. This class of functions can find wide physical applications in problems of digital signal processing, restoration of images, radar, radiometry, radio astronomy, remote sensing, etc.

  10. 3-D thermal weight function method and multiple virtual crack extension technique for thermal shock problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanlin; Zhou Xiao; Qu Jiadi; Dou Yikang; He Yinbiao

    2005-01-01

    An efficient scheme, 3-D thermal weight function (TWF) method, and a novel numerical technique, multiple virtual crack extension (MVCE) technique, were developed for determination of histories of transient stress intensity factor (SIF) distributions along 3-D crack fronts of a body subjected to thermal shock. The TWF is a universal function, which is dependent only on the crack configuration and body geometry. TWF is independent of time during thermal shock, so the whole history of transient SIF distributions along crack fronts can be directly calculated through integration of the products of TWF and transient temperatures and temperature gradients. The repeated determinations of the distributions of stresses (or displacements) fields for individual time instants are thus avoided in the TWF method. An expression of the basic equation for the 3-D universal weight function method for Mode I in an isotropic elastic body is derived. This equation can also be derived from Bueckner-Rice's 3-D WF formulations in the framework of transformation strain. It can be understood from this equation that the so-called thermal WF is in fact coincident with the mechanical WF except for some constants of elasticity. The details and formulations of the MVCE technique are given for elliptical cracks. The MVCE technique possesses several advantages. The specially selected linearly independent VCE modes can directly be used as shape functions for the interpolation of unknown SIFs. As a result, the coefficient matrix of the final system of equations in the MVCE method is a triple-diagonal matrix and the values of the coefficients on the main diagonal are large. The system of equations has good numerical properties. The number of linearly independent VCE modes that can be introduced in a problem is unlimited. Complex situations in which the SIFs vary dramatically along crack fronts can be numerically well simulated by the MVCE technique. An integrated system of programs for solving the

  11. Crystallization of bi-functional ligand protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Claudia; Vera, Laura; Devel, Laurent; Catalani, Maria Pia; Czarny, Bertrand; Cassar-Lajeunesse, Evelyn; Nuti, Elisa; Rossello, Armando; Dive, Vincent; Stura, Enrico Adriano

    2013-06-01

    Homodimerization is important in signal transduction and can play a crucial role in many other biological systems. To obtaining structural information for the design of molecules able to control the signalization pathways, the proteins involved will have to be crystallized in complex with ligands that induce dimerization. Bi-functional drugs have been generated by linking two ligands together chemically and the relative crystallizability of complexes with mono-functional and bi-functional ligands has been evaluated. There are problems associated with crystallization with such ligands, but overall, the advantages appear to be greater than the drawbacks. The study involves two matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-12 and MMP-9. Using flexible and rigid linkers we show that it is possible to control the crystal packing and that by changing the ligand-enzyme stoichiometric ratio, one can toggle between having one bi-functional ligand binding to two enzymes and having the same ligand bound to each enzyme. The nature of linker and its point of attachment on the ligand can be varied to aid crystallization, and such variations can also provide valuable structural information about the interactions made by the linker with the protein. We report here the crystallization and structure determination of seven ligand-dimerized complexes. These results suggest that the use of bi-functional drugs can be extended beyond the realm of protein dimerization to include all drug design projects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 3D printing of bacteria into functional complex materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Manuel; Rühs, Patrick A; Coulter, Fergal; Kilcher, Samuel; Studart, André R

    2017-12-01

    Despite recent advances to control the spatial composition and dynamic functionalities of bacteria embedded in materials, bacterial localization into complex three-dimensional (3D) geometries remains a major challenge. We demonstrate a 3D printing approach to create bacteria-derived functional materials by combining the natural diverse metabolism of bacteria with the shape design freedom of additive manufacturing. To achieve this, we embedded bacteria in a biocompatible and functionalized 3D printing ink and printed two types of "living materials" capable of degrading pollutants and of producing medically relevant bacterial cellulose. With this versatile bacteria-printing platform, complex materials displaying spatially specific compositions, geometry, and properties not accessed by standard technologies can be assembled from bottom up for new biotechnological and biomedical applications.

  13. Structural and functional networks in complex systems with delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguíluz, Víctor M; Pérez, Toni; Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Arenas, Alex

    2011-05-01

    Functional networks of complex systems are obtained from the analysis of the temporal activity of their components, and are often used to infer their unknown underlying connectivity. We obtain the equations relating topology and function in a system of diffusively delay-coupled elements in complex networks. We solve exactly the resulting equations in motifs (directed structures of three nodes) and in directed networks. The mean-field solution for directed uncorrelated networks shows that the clusterization of the activity is dominated by the in-degree of the nodes, and that the locking frequency decreases with increasing average degree. We find that the exponent of a power law degree distribution of the structural topology γ is related to the exponent of the associated functional network as α=(2-γ)(-1) for γ<2. © 2011 American Physical Society

  14. Postnatal weight gain modifies severity and functional outcome of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Andreas; Chen, Jing; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Seaward, Molly R; Krah, Nathan M; Dennison, Roberta J; Favazza, Tara; Bucher, Felicitas; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Ong, Huy; Hellström, Ann; Chemtob, Sylvain; Akula, James D; Smith, Lois E H

    2010-12-01

    In clinical studies, postnatal weight gain is strongly associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, animal studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of how postnatal weight gain affects the severity of ROP. In the present study, we identify nutritional supply as one potent parameter that affects the extent of retinopathy in mice with identical birth weights and the same genetic background. Wild-type pups with poor postnatal nutrition and poor weight gain (PWG) exhibit a remarkably prolonged phase of retinopathy compared to medium weight gain or extensive weight gain pups. A high (r(2) = 0.83) parabolic association between postnatal weight gain and oxygen-induced retinopathy severity is observed, as is a significantly prolonged phase of proliferative retinopathy in PWG pups (20 days) compared with extensive weight gain pups (6 days). The extended retinopathy is concomitant with prolonged overexpression of retinal vascular endothelial growth factor in PWG pups. Importantly, PWG pups show low serum levels of nonfasting glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 as well as high levels of ghrelin in the early postoxygen-induced retinopathy phase, a combination indicative of poor metabolic supply. These differences translate into visual deficits in adult PWG mice, as demonstrated by impaired bipolar and proximal neuronal function. Together, these results provide evidence for a pathophysiological correlation between poor postnatal nutritional supply, slow weight gain, prolonged retinal vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression, protracted retinopathy, and reduced final visual outcome.

  15. Dynamics of functional failures and recovery in complex road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xianyuan; Ukkusuri, Satish V.; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a new framework for modeling the evolution of functional failures and recoveries in complex networks, with traffic congestion on road networks as the case study. Differently from conventional approaches, we transform the evolution of functional states into an equivalent dynamic structural process: dual-vertex splitting and coalescing embedded within the original network structure. The proposed model successfully explains traffic congestion and recovery patterns at the city scale based on high-resolution data from two megacities. Numerical analysis shows that certain network structural attributes can amplify or suppress cascading functional failures. Our approach represents a new general framework to model functional failures and recoveries in flow-based networks and allows understanding of the interplay between structure and function for flow-induced failure propagation and recovery.

  16. Joint Inversion of Gravity and Gravity Tensor Data Using the Structural Index as Weighting Function Rate Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, S.; Cella, F.; Fedi, M.; Florio, G.

    2011-12-01

    Most geophysical inversion problems are characterized by a number of data considerably higher than the number of the unknown parameters. This corresponds to solve highly underdetermined systems. To get a unique solution, a priori information must be therefore introduced. We here analyze the inversion of the gravity gradient tensor (GGT). Previous approaches to invert jointly or independently more gradient components are by Li (2001) proposing an algorithm using a depth weighting function and Zhdanov et alii (2004), providing a well focused inversion of gradient data. Both the methods give a much-improved solution compared with the minimum length solution, which is invariably shallow and not representative of the true source distribution. For very undetermined problems, this feature is due to the role of the depth weighting matrices used by both the methods. Recently, Cella and Fedi (2011) showed however that for magnetic and gravity data the depth weighting function has to be defined carefully, under a preliminary application of Euler Deconvolution or Depth from Extreme Point methods, yielding the appropriate structural index and then using it as the rate decay of the weighting function. We therefore propose to extend this last approach to invert jointly or independently the GGT tensor using the structural index as weighting function rate decay. In case of a joint inversion, gravity data can be added as well. This multicomponent case is also relevant because the simultaneous use of several components and gravity increase the number of data and reduce the algebraic ambiguity compared to the inversion of a single component. The reduction of such ambiguity was shown in Fedi et al, (2005) decisive to get an improved depth resolution in inverse problems, independently from any form of depth weighting function. The method is demonstrated to synthetic cases and applied to real cases, such as the Vredefort impact area (South Africa), characterized by a complex density

  17. Disorder and strain-induced complexity in functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Avadh; Planes, Antoni; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together an emerging consensus on our understanding of the complex functional materials including ferroics, perovskites, multiferroics, CMR and high-temperature superconductors. The common theme is the existence of many competing ground states and frustration as a collusion of spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in the presence of disorder and (both dipolar and elastic) long-range forces. An important consequence of the complex unit cell and the competing interactions is that the emergent materials properties are very sensitive to external fields thus rendering these materials with highly desirable, technologically important applications enabled by cross-response.

  18. Few adults with functional limitations advised to exercise more or lose weight in NHANES 2011-14 seek health professional assistance: An opportunity for physical therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinslow, Brian; De Heer, Hendrik D; Warren, Meghan

    2018-03-02

    Functional limitations are associated with decreased physical activity and increased body mass index. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of functional limitations among adults who reported receiving health professional advice to exercise more or lose weight, and to assess involvement of health professionals, including physical therapists, in weight loss efforts with these individuals. A cross-sectional analysis of U.S. adults from the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5,480). Participant demographics, health history, and functional limitations were assessed via self-report and examination. Frequency distributions were calculated using SAS® analytical software, accounting for the complex survey design. Population estimates were calculated using the American Community Survey. 31.0% of individuals (n = 1,696), representing a population estimate of 35 million adults, advised to exercise more or lose weight by a health professional reported one or more functional limitation. Of the 31%, 57.6% attempted weight loss, and 40.1% used exercise for weight loss. Few sought health professional assistance. Physical therapists were not mentioned. Few individuals with functional limitations advised to lose weight or increase exercise seek health professional assistance for weight loss. Physical therapists have an opportunity to assist those with functional limitations with exercise prescription.

  19. Effects of Hofmeister Anions on the LCST of PNIPAM as a Function of Molecular Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Furyk, Steven; Sagle, Laura B.; Cho, Younhee; Bergbreiter, David E.; Cremer, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a series of sodium salts on the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), PNIPAM, was investigated as a function of molecular weight and polymer concentration with a temperature gradient microfluidic device under a dark-field microscope. In solutions containing sufficient concentrations of kosmotropic anions, the phase transition of PNIPAM was resolved into two separate steps for higher molecular weight samples. The first step of this two step transition was found to be sensitive to the polymer’s molecular weight and solution concentration, while the second step was not. Moreover, the binding of chaotropic anions to the polymer was also influenced by molecular weight. Both sets of results could be explained by the formation of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen-bonding between polymer chains. By contrast, the hydrophobic hydration of the isopropyl moieties and polymer backbone was found to be unaffected by either the polymer’s molecular weight or solution concentration. PMID:18820735

  20. A method for measuring quality of life through subjective weighting of functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stineman, Margaret G; Wechsler, Barbara; Ross, Richard; Maislin, Greg

    2003-04-01

    To apply a new tool to understand the quality of life (QOL) implications of patients' functional status. Results from the Features-Resource Trade-Off Game were used to form utility weights by ranking functional activities by the relative value of achieving independence in each activity compared with all other component activities. The utility weights were combined with patients' actual levels of performance across the same activities to produce QOL-weighted functional status scores and to form "value rulers" to order activities by perceived importance. Persons with severe disabilities living in the community and clinicians practicing in various rehabilitation disciplines. Two panels of 5 consumers with disabilities and 2 panels of 5 rehabilitation clinicians. The 4 panels played the Features Resource Trade-Off Game by using the FIMT(TM) instrument definitions. Utility weights for each of the 18 FIM items, QOL-weighted FIM scores, and value rulers. All 4 panels valued the achievement of independence in cognitive and communication activities more than independence in physical activities. Consequently, the unweighted FIM scores of patients who have severe physical disabilities but relatively intact cognitive skills will underestimate QOL, while inflating QOL in those with low levels of independence in cognition and communication but higher physical function. Independence in some activities is more valued than in others; thus, 2 people with the same numeric functional status score could experience very different QOL. QOL-weighted functional status scores translate objectively measured functional status into its subjective meaning. This new technology for measuring subjective function-related QOL has a variety of applications to clinical, educational, and research practices.

  1. Complex logic functions implemented with quantum dot bionanophotonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Jonathan C; Hildebrandt, Niko; Susumu, Kimihiro; Ancona, Mario G; Medintz, Igor L

    2014-03-26

    We combine quantum dots (QDs) with long-lifetime terbium complexes (Tb), a near-IR Alexa Fluor dye (A647), and self-assembling peptides to demonstrate combinatorial and sequential bionanophotonic logic devices that function by time-gated Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Upon excitation, the Tb-QD-A647 FRET-complex produces time-dependent photoluminescent signatures from multi-FRET pathways enabled by the capacitor-like behavior of the Tb. The unique photoluminescent signatures are manipulated by ratiometrically varying dye/Tb inputs and collection time. Fluorescent output is converted into Boolean logic states to create complex arithmetic circuits including the half-adder/half-subtractor, 2:1 multiplexer/1:2 demultiplexer, and a 3-digit, 16-combination keypad lock.

  2. A deterministic algorithm for fitting a step function to a weighted point-set

    KAUST Repository

    Fournier, Hervé

    2013-02-01

    Given a set of n points in the plane, each point having a positive weight, and an integer k>0, we present an optimal O(nlogn)-time deterministic algorithm to compute a step function with k steps that minimizes the maximum weighted vertical distance to the input points. It matches the expected time bound of the best known randomized algorithm for this problem. Our approach relies on Coles improved parametric searching technique. As a direct application, our result yields the first O(nlogn)-time algorithm for computing a k-center of a set of n weighted points on the real line. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Composition of S^p-weighted pseudo almost automorphic functions and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hua Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the background space of $S^p$-weighted pseudo almost automorphic functions (abbr. $S^p$-wpaa functions is endowed with a norm coming from $L^p$ norm, it is natural to consider the composition of $S^p$-wpaa functions under conditions of $L^p$ norm. However, the known resutls for composition of $S^p$-wpaa functions were always given under conditions of supremum norm. Motivated by this, we establish some new results for the composition of $S^p$-almost automorphic functions and $S^p$-wpaa functions under a ``uniform continuity condition'' with respect to $L^p$ norm. As an application, we prove the existence of mild weighted pseudo almost automorphic solutions for some semilinear differential equations with an $S^p$-wpaa force term. An example of the heat equation illustrates our results.

  4. Nitrogen reduction and functionalization by a multimetallic uranium nitride complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marta; Chatelain, Lucile; Scopelliti, Rosario; Živković, Ivica; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2017-07-01

    Molecular nitrogen (N2) is cheap and widely available, but its unreactive nature is a challenge when attempting to functionalize it under mild conditions with other widely available substrates (such as carbon monoxide, CO) to produce value-added compounds. Biological N2 fixation can do this, but the industrial Haber-Bosch process for ammonia production operates under harsh conditions (450 degrees Celsius and 300 bar), even though both processes are thought to involve multimetallic catalytic sites. And although molecular complexes capable of binding and even reducing N2 under mild conditions are known, with co-operativity between metal centres considered crucial for the N2 reduction step, the multimetallic species involved are usually not well defined, and further transformation of N2-binding complexes to achieve N-H or N-C bond formation is rare. Haber noted, before an iron-based catalyst was adopted for the industrial Haber-Bosch process, that uranium and uranium nitride materials are very effective heterogeneous catalysts for ammonia production from N2. However, few examples of uranium complexes binding N2 are known, and soluble uranium complexes capable of transforming N2 into ammonia or organonitrogen compounds have not yet been identified. Here we report the four-electron reduction of N2 under ambient conditions by a fully characterized complex with two UIII ions and three K+ centres held together by a nitride group and a flexible metalloligand framework. The addition of H2 and/or protons, or CO to the resulting complex results in the complete cleavage of N2 with concomitant N2 functionalization through N-H or N-C bond-forming reactions. These observations establish that a molecular uranium complex can promote the stoichiometric transformation of N2 into NH3 or cyanate, and that a flexible, electron-rich, multimetallic, nitride-bridged core unit is a promising starting point for the design of molecular complexes capable of cleaving and functionalizing N2 under

  5. Developments in 99Tcm complexes for functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.

    1998-01-01

    Technetium-99m coordination complexes constitute the backbone of diagnostic nuclear medicine. Early exciting advances in products for excretory organs / pathways were followed by arduous research efforts to design and optimise 99 Tc m compounds for imaging renal tubular function and mapping blood flow to myocardium and brain. A variety of neutral, cationic and anionic complexes of technetium, mostly in +5 or +3 oxidation states and usually involving N, S. P, O as coordinating atoms, have dominated the field. Blending the well-known versatile coordination chemistry of technetium with biochemical principles and pharmacology of some functional groups has helped achieve desirable properties in at least some of the resultant 99 Tc m complexes. Fascinating developments to tap the merits of 99 Tc m tracer for more sophisticated targeting approach involving biological substrates have yielded promising results. Use of appropriate ligands as bifunctional chelating agents (BCA) to form 99 Tc m labelled radiopharmaceuticals has also led to development of several new 99 Tc m complexes. Although 99 Tc m complexes for metabolism or receptor imaging may still be far from a clinical reality, many useful efficacious clinical applications have become feasible with the advent of some new 99 Tc m complexes, e.g. imaging infection / inflammation, certain tumours and even hypoxia. A strong synergism between academic universities and industries has evolved, amidst the rush for patenting all products and processes, despite low chances of success in developing a clinically useful product. The enormous research costs have made the new products very expensive and, in turn, driven many developing countries and large hospital radiopharmacies to seek alternate means of formulating equivalent products in-house or evolve modified protocols with commercial products for better economy. This review covers the major investigations of the last decade (but by no means exhaustive) after touching upon the

  6. Geometric theory of functions of a complex variable

    CERN Document Server

    Goluzin, G M

    1969-01-01

    This book is based on lectures on geometric function theory given by the author at Leningrad State University. It studies univalent conformal mapping of simply and multiply connected domains, conformal mapping of multiply connected domains onto a disk, applications of conformal mapping to the study of interior and boundary properties of analytic functions, and general questions of a geometric nature dealing with analytic functions. The second Russian edition upon which this English translation is based differs from the first mainly in the expansion of two chapters and in the addition of a long survey of more recent developments. The book is intended for readers who are already familiar with the basics of the theory of functions of one complex variable.

  7. Density functional study of uranyl (VI) amidoxime complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Fang-Ting; Xiong Jie; Hu Sheng; Xia Xiu-Long; Wang Xiao-Lin; Li Peng; Gao Tao

    2012-01-01

    Uranyl (VI) amidoxime complexes are investigated using relativistic density functional theory. The equilibrium structures, bond orders, and Mulliken populations of the complexes have been systematically investigated under a generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Comparison of (acet) uranyl amidoxime complexes ([UO 2 (AO) n ] 2−n , 1 ≤ n ≤ 4) with available experimental data shows an excellent agreement. In addition, the U−O(1), U−O(3), C(1)−N(2), and C(3)−N(4) bond lengths of [UO 2 (CH 3 AO) 4 ] 2− are longer than experimental data by about 0.088, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.056 Å. The angles of N(3)−O(3)−U, O(2)−N(1)−C(1), N(3)−C(3)−N(4), N(4)−C(3)−C(4), and C(4)−C(3)−N(3) are different from each other, which is due to existing interaction between oxygen in uranyl and hydrogen in amino group. This interaction is found to be intra-molecular hydrogen bond. Studies on the bond orders, Mulliken charges, and Mulliken populations demonstrate that uranyl oxo group functions as hydrogen-bond acceptors and H atoms in ligands act as hydrogen-bond donors forming hydrogen bonds within the complex

  8. Complexity of Gaussian-Radial-Basis Networks Approximating Smooth Functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kainen, P.C.; Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2009), s. 63-74 ISSN 0885-064X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/1744 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Gaussian-radial-basis-function networks * rates of approximation * model complexity * variation norms * Bessel and Sobolev norms * tractability of approximation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.227, year: 2009

  9. Relationship between the complex susceptibility and the plasma dispersion function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez D, H.; Cabral P, A

    1991-04-15

    It is shown that when magnetization processes in a spin system and resonant excitation of spin n states occur in the presence of internal and or external random line-broadening mechanisms, the complex magnetic susceptibility of the plasma dispersion function. letter could be useful spin in system is proportional to the relationship found in this spectroscopies such as EPR and NMR, for example, as its fitting to experimental absorption and dispersion profiles produces their Lorentzian and Gaussian contents. (Author)

  10. Relationship between the complex susceptibility and the plasma dispersion function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez D, H.; Cabral P, A.

    1991-04-01

    It is shown that when magnetization processes in a spin system and resonant excitation of spin n states occur in the presence of internal and or external random line-broadening mechanisms, the complex magnetic susceptibility of the plasma dispersion function. letter could be useful spin in system is proportional to the relationship found in this spectroscopies such as EPR and NMR, for example, as its fitting to experimental absorption and dispersion profiles produces their Lorentzian and Gaussian contents. (Author)

  11. Model Complexities of Shallow Networks Representing Highly Varying Functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 171, 1 January (2016), s. 598-604 ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13002 Grant - others:grant for Visiting Professors(IT) GNAMPA-INdAM Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : shallow networks * model complexity * highly varying functions * Chernoff bound * perceptrons * Gaussian kernel units Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 3.317, year: 2016

  12. Malaria Parasite CLAG3, a Protein Linked to Nutrient Channels, Participates in High Molecular Weight Membrane-Associated Complexes in the Infected Erythrocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayvan Zainabadi

    Full Text Available Malaria infected erythrocytes show increased permeability to a number of solutes important for parasite growth as mediated by the Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel (PSAC. The P. falciparum clag3 genes have recently been identified as key determinants of PSAC, though exactly how they contribute to channel function and whether additional host/parasite proteins are required remain unknown. To begin to answer these questions, I have taken a biochemical approach. Here I have used an epitope-tagged CLAG3 parasite to perform co-immunoprecipitation experiments using membrane fractions of infected erythrocytes. Native PAGE and mass spectrometry studies reveal that CLAG3 participate in at least three different high molecular weight complexes: a ~720kDa complex consisting of CLAG3, RHOPH2 and RHOPH3; a ~620kDa complex consisting of CLAG3 and RHOPH2; and a ~480kDa complex composed solely of CLAG3. Importantly, these complexes can be found throughout the parasite lifecycle but are absent in untransfected controls. Extracellular biotin labeling and protease susceptibility studies localize the 480kDa complex to the erythrocyte membrane. This complex, likely composed of a homo-oligomer of 160kDa CLAG3, may represent a functional subunit, possibly the pore, of PSAC.

  13. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  14. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime; Inagaki, Yuko.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T 2 -weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  15. Complex correction of erectile and copulative violations at patients with obesity and reproductive function violation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko K.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed the development and assessment of features of corrective action of a medical complex on a lipid imbalance at patients with obesity. Material and methods. For an assessment of features of corrective action of a medical complex on a lipid imbalance at patients with obesity in research I was 50 male patients with obesity and frustration of the reproductive sphere aged from 24 to 68 years are included, middle age was 38,5±6,1 years and 7 healthy persons, men of comparable age without any pathological states, results of which all researches were accepted to values of norm. To all patients included in research, except all-clinical inspection calculation of an index of body weight and the relation of a circle of a waist to a circle of hips, measurement of arterial pressure were applied questioning concerning food and food behavior, anthropometry (growth the body weight, a circle of a waist and hips. Besides all patients conducted laboratory methods the researches including definition of atherogenic fractions of lipids (the general cholesterol, triglycerides, LPNP and LPVP. Researches were conducted before treatment and after a course of treatment. Results. The effective complex program for restoration of reproductive function at patients with obesity is developed. Conclusion. Application of the developed complex program more than its separate components caused the expressed reduction of body weight, mainly due to reduction of fatty tissue and manifestations of visceral obesity in patients with obesity and violation of reproductive function, including due to elimination of a metabolic imbalance.

  16. CHIMERA: Top-down model for hierarchical, overlapping and directed cluster structures in directed and weighted complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, R.

    2016-11-01

    In many networks discovered in biology, medicine, neuroscience and other disciplines special properties like a certain degree distribution and hierarchical cluster structure (also called communities) can be observed as general organizing principles. Detecting the cluster structure of an unknown network promises to identify functional subdivisions, hierarchy and interactions on a mesoscale. It is not trivial choosing an appropriate detection algorithm because there are multiple network, cluster and algorithmic properties to be considered. Edges can be weighted and/or directed, clusters overlap or build a hierarchy in several ways. Algorithms differ not only in runtime, memory requirements but also in allowed network and cluster properties. They are based on a specific definition of what a cluster is, too. On the one hand, a comprehensive network creation model is needed to build a large variety of benchmark networks with different reasonable structures to compare algorithms. On the other hand, if a cluster structure is already known, it is desirable to separate effects of this structure from other network properties. This can be done with null model networks that mimic an observed cluster structure to improve statistics on other network features. A third important application is the general study of properties in networks with different cluster structures, possibly evolving over time. Currently there are good benchmark and creation models available. But what is left is a precise sandbox model to build hierarchical, overlapping and directed clusters for undirected or directed, binary or weighted complex random networks on basis of a sophisticated blueprint. This gap shall be closed by the model CHIMERA (Cluster Hierarchy Interconnection Model for Evaluation, Research and Analysis) which will be introduced and described here for the first time.

  17. Auricularia auricular polysaccharide-low molecular weight chitosan polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles (AAP/LCS NPs were prepared in this study and these were produced by mixing negatively charged auricularia auricular polysaccharide (AAP with positively charged low molecular weight chitosan (LCS in an aqueous medium. The AAP was extracted and purified from auricularia auricular, and then characterized by micrOTOF-Q mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, moisture analyzer and SEM. The yield, moisture, and total sugar content of the AAP were 4.5%, 6.2% and 90.12% (w/w, respectively. The AAP sample was water-soluble and exhibited white flocculence. The characteristics of AAP/LCS NPs, such as the particle size, zeta potential, morphology, FT-IR spectra, DSC were investigated. The results obtained revealed that the AAP/LCS NPs had a spherical shape with a diameter of 223 nm and a smooth surface, and the results of the FT-IR spectra and DSC investigations indicated that there was an electrostatic interaction between the two polyelectrolyte polymers. Bovine serum albumin (BSA, pI = 4.8 and bovine hemoglobin (BHb, pI = 6.8 were used as model drugs to investigate the loading and release features of the AAP/LCS NPs. The results obtained showed that the AAP/LCS NPs had a higher entrapment efficiency (92.6% for BHb than for BSA (81.5%. The cumulative release of BSA and BHb from AAP/LCS NPs after 24 h in vitro was 95.4% and 91.9%, respectively. The in vitro release demonstrated that AAP/LCS NPs provided a sustained release matrix suitable for the delivery of protein drugs. These studies demonstrate that AAP/LCS NPs have a very promising potential as a delivery system for protein drugs.

  18. Characterization and prediction of chemical functions and weight fractions in consumer products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Isaacs

    Full Text Available Assessing exposures from the thousands of chemicals in commerce requires quantitative information on the chemical constituents of consumer products. Unfortunately, gaps in available composition data prevent assessment of exposure to chemicals in many products. Here we propose filling these gaps via consideration of chemical functional role. We obtained function information for thousands of chemicals from public sources and used a clustering algorithm to assign chemicals into 35 harmonized function categories (e.g., plasticizers, antimicrobials, solvents. We combined these functions with weight fraction data for 4115 personal care products (PCPs to characterize the composition of 66 different product categories (e.g., shampoos. We analyzed the combined weight fraction/function dataset using machine learning techniques to develop quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR classifier models for 22 functions and for weight fraction, based on chemical-specific descriptors (including chemical properties. We applied these classifier models to a library of 10196 data-poor chemicals. Our predictions of chemical function and composition will inform exposure-based screening of chemicals in PCPs for combination with hazard data in risk-based evaluation frameworks. As new information becomes available, this approach can be applied to other classes of products and the chemicals they contain in order to provide essential consumer product data for use in exposure-based chemical prioritization. Keywords: Chemical function, Exposure modeling, Chemical prioritization, Consumer products, Cosmetics, ExpoCast

  19. Visualizing the complex functions and mechanisms of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Claudio; Zhang, Suyang

    2017-01-01

    The anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell cycle progression by mediating the degradation of important cell cycle regulators. During the two decades since its discovery, much has been learnt concerning its role in recognizing and ubiquitinating specific proteins in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, the mechanisms governing substrate specificity, the catalytic process of assembling polyubiquitin chains on its target proteins, and its regulation by phosphorylation and the spindle assembly checkpoint. The past few years have witnessed significant progress in understanding the quantitative mechanisms underlying these varied APC/C functions. This review integrates the overall functions and properties of the APC/C with mechanistic insights gained from recent cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies of reconstituted human APC/C complexes. PMID:29167309

  20. Independent functional connectivity networks underpin food and monetary reward sensitivity in excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Fornito, Alex; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Overvaluation of palatable food is a primary driver of obesity, and is associated with brain regions of the reward system. However, it remains unclear if this network is specialized in food reward, or generally involved in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize functional connectivity during processing of food and monetary rewards. Thirty-nine adults with excess weight and 37 adults with normal weight performed the Willingness to Pay for Food task and the Monetary Incentive Delay task in the fMRI scanner. A data-driven graph approach was applied to compare whole-brain, task-related functional connectivity between groups. Excess weight was associated with decreased functional connectivity during the processing of food rewards in a network involving primarily frontal and striatal areas, and increased functional connectivity during the processing of monetary rewards in a network involving principally frontal and parietal areas. These two networks were topologically and anatomically distinct, and were independently associated with BMI. The processing of food and monetary rewards involve segregated neural networks, and both are altered in individuals with excess weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of weight loss in obese dogs on indicators of renal function or disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, A; Ceron, J J; Holden, S L; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; German, A J

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a common medical disorder in dogs, and can predispose to a number of diseases. Human obesity is a risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. To investigate the possible association of weight loss on plasma and renal biomarkers of kidney health. Thirty-seven obese dogs that lost weight were included in the study. Prospective observational study. Three novel biomarkers of renal functional impairment, disease, or both (homocysteine, cystatin C, and clusterin), in addition to traditional markers of chronic renal failure (serum urea and creatinine, urine specific gravity [USG], urine protein-creatinine ratio [UPCR], and urine albumin corrected by creatinine [UAC]) before and after weight loss in dogs with naturally occurring obesity were investigated. Urea (P = .043) and USG (P = .012) were both greater after weight loss than before loss, whilst UPCR, UAC, and creatinine were less after weight loss (P = .032, P = .006, and P = .026, respectively). Homocysteine (P canine obesity, which improve with weight loss. Further work is required to determine the nature of these alterations and, most notably, the reason for the association between before loss plasma clusterin and subsequent lean tissue loss during weight management. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. The kinesin–tubulin complex: considerations in structural and functional complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmsted ZT

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zachary T Olmsted, Andrew G Colliver, Janet L Paluh State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, College of Nanoscale Science, Nanobioscience Constellation, Albany, NY, USA Abstract: The ability of cells to respond to external cues by appropriately manipulating their internal environment requires a dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton that is facilitated by associated kinesin motor interactions. The evolutionary adaptations of kinesins and tubulins when merged generate a highly adaptable communication and infrastructure cellular network that is important to understanding specialized cell functions, human disease, and disease therapies. Here, we review the state of the field in the complex relationship of kinesin–tubulin interactions. We propose 12 mechanistic specializations of kinesins. In one category, referred to as sortability, we describe how kinesin interactions with tubulin isoforms, isotypes, or posttranslationally modified tubulins contribute to diverse cellular roles. Fourteen kinesin families have previously been described. Here, we illustrate the great depth of functional complexity that is possible in members within a single kinesin family by mechanistic specialization through discussion of the well-studied Kinesin-14 family. This includes new roles of Kinesin-14 in regulating supramolecular structures such as the microtubule-organizing center γ-tubulin ring complex of centrosomes. We next explore the value of an improved mechanistic understanding of kinesin–tubulin interactions in regard to human development, disease mechanisms, and improving treatments that target kinesin–tubulin complexes. The ability to combine the current kinesin nomenclature along with a more precisely defined kinesin and tubulin molecular toolbox is needed to support more detailed exploration of kinesin–tubulin interaction mechanisms including functional uniqueness, redundancy, or adaptations to new

  3. Assembly and function of the botulinum neurotoxin progenitor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shenyan; Jin, Rongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most poisonous substances known to man, but paradoxically, BoNT-containing medicines and cosmetics have been used with great success in the clinic. Accidental BoNT poisoning mainly occurs through oral ingestion of food contaminated with Clostridium botulinum. BoNTs are naturally produced in the form of progenitor toxin complexes (PTCs), which are high molecular weight (up to ~900 kDa) multiprotein complexes composed of BoNT and several non-toxic neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs). NAPs protect the inherently fragile BoNTs against the hostile environment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and help BoNTs pass through the intestinal epithelial barrier before they are released into the general circulation. These events are essential for ingested BoNTs to gain access to motoneurons, where they inhibit neurotransmitter release and cause muscle paralysis. In this review, we discuss the structural basis for assembly of NAPs and BoNT into the PTC that protects BoNT and facilitate its delivery into the bloodstream.

  4. Isolation and structure–function characterization of a signaling-active rhodopsin–G protein complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Westfield, Gerwin; Erickson, Jon W.; Cerione, Richard A.; Skiniotis, Georgios; Ramachandran, Sekar

    2017-01-01

    The visual photo-transduction cascade is a prototypical G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling system, in which light-activated rhodopsin (Rho*) is the GPCR catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP on the heterotrimeric G protein transducin (GT). This results in the dissociation of GT into its component αT–GTP and β1γ1 subunit complex. Structural information for the Rho*–GT complex will be essential for understanding the molecular mechanism of visual photo-transduction. Moreover, it will shed light on how GPCRs selectively couple to and activate their G protein signaling partners. Here, we report on the preparation of a stable detergent-solubilized complex between Rho* and a heterotrimer (GT*) comprising a GαT/Gαi1 chimera (αT*) and β1γ1. The complex was formed on native rod outer segment membranes upon light activation, solubilized in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol, and purified with a combination of affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. We found that the complex is fully functional and that the stoichiometry of Rho* to GαT* is 1:1. The molecular weight of the complex was calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering data and was in good agreement with a model consisting of one Rho* and one GT*. The complex was visualized by negative-stain electron microscopy, which revealed an architecture similar to that of the β2-adrenergic receptor–GS complex, including a flexible αT* helical domain. The stability and high yield of the purified complex should allow for further efforts toward obtaining a high-resolution structure of this important signaling complex. PMID:28655769

  5. Isolation and structure-function characterization of a signaling-active rhodopsin-G protein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Westfield, Gerwin; Erickson, Jon W; Cerione, Richard A; Skiniotis, Georgios; Ramachandran, Sekar

    2017-08-25

    The visual photo-transduction cascade is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling system, in which light-activated rhodopsin (Rho*) is the GPCR catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP on the heterotrimeric G protein transducin (G T ). This results in the dissociation of G T into its component α T -GTP and β 1 γ 1 subunit complex. Structural information for the Rho*-G T complex will be essential for understanding the molecular mechanism of visual photo-transduction. Moreover, it will shed light on how GPCRs selectively couple to and activate their G protein signaling partners. Here, we report on the preparation of a stable detergent-solubilized complex between Rho* and a heterotrimer (G T *) comprising a Gα T /Gα i1 chimera (α T *) and β 1 γ 1 The complex was formed on native rod outer segment membranes upon light activation, solubilized in lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol, and purified with a combination of affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. We found that the complex is fully functional and that the stoichiometry of Rho* to Gα T * is 1:1. The molecular weight of the complex was calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering data and was in good agreement with a model consisting of one Rho* and one G T *. The complex was visualized by negative-stain electron microscopy, which revealed an architecture similar to that of the β 2 -adrenergic receptor-G S complex, including a flexible α T * helical domain. The stability and high yield of the purified complex should allow for further efforts toward obtaining a high-resolution structure of this important signaling complex. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Image features dependant correlation-weighting function for efficient PRNU based source camera identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Mayank; Gupta, Bhupendra

    2018-04-01

    For source camera identification (SCI), photo response non-uniformity (PRNU) has been widely used as the fingerprint of the camera. The PRNU is extracted from the image by applying a de-noising filter then taking the difference between the original image and the de-noised image. However, it is observed that intensity-based features and high-frequency details (edges and texture) of the image, effect quality of the extracted PRNU. This effects correlation calculation and creates problems in SCI. For solving this problem, we propose a weighting function based on image features. We have experimentally identified image features (intensity and high-frequency contents) effect on the estimated PRNU, and then develop a weighting function which gives higher weights to image regions which give reliable PRNU and at the same point it gives comparatively less weights to the image regions which do not give reliable PRNU. Experimental results show that the proposed weighting function is able to improve the accuracy of SCI up to a great extent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA complexes with Ni nanoparticles: structural and functional properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatarinova, Olga N.; Smirnov, Igor P. [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Safenkova, Irina V. [A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Varizhuk, Anna M.; Pozmogova, Galina E., E-mail: pozmge@gmail.com [Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    Supramolecular complexes of biopolymers based on magnetic nanoparticles play an important role in creation of biosensors, implementation of theragnostic and gene therapeutic methods and biosafety evaluation. We investigated the impact of DNA interactions with nanoparticles of nickel (nNi) on the integrity and functionality of DNA. Data obtained by mass spectrometry, electrophoresis, TEM and AFM microscopy techniques, bacterial transformation, and real-time PCR provide evidence that ssDNA and plasmid DNA (pDNA) efficiently form complexes with nNi. AFM data suggest that the complexes are necklace-type structures, in which nanoparticles are randomly distributed along the DNA chains, rather than highly entangled clot-type structures. After desorption, observed DNA characteristics in bioanalytical and biological systems remain unchanged. Only supercoiled pDNA was nicked, but remained, as well as a plasmid-nNi complex, active in expression vector assays. These results are very important for creation of new methods of DNA immobilization and controlled manipulation.

  8. DNA complexes with Ni nanoparticles: structural and functional properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatarinova, Olga N.; Smirnov, Igor P.; Safenkova, Irina V.; Varizhuk, Anna M.; Pozmogova, Galina E.

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular complexes of biopolymers based on magnetic nanoparticles play an important role in creation of biosensors, implementation of theragnostic and gene therapeutic methods and biosafety evaluation. We investigated the impact of DNA interactions with nanoparticles of nickel (nNi) on the integrity and functionality of DNA. Data obtained by mass spectrometry, electrophoresis, TEM and AFM microscopy techniques, bacterial transformation, and real-time PCR provide evidence that ssDNA and plasmid DNA (pDNA) efficiently form complexes with nNi. AFM data suggest that the complexes are necklace-type structures, in which nanoparticles are randomly distributed along the DNA chains, rather than highly entangled clot-type structures. After desorption, observed DNA characteristics in bioanalytical and biological systems remain unchanged. Only supercoiled pDNA was nicked, but remained, as well as a plasmid–nNi complex, active in expression vector assays. These results are very important for creation of new methods of DNA immobilization and controlled manipulation.

  9. Statistically generated weighted curve fit of residual functions for modal analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    A statistically generated weighting function for a second-order polynomial curve fit of residual functions has been developed. The residual flexibility test method, from which a residual function is generated, is a procedure for modal testing large structures in an external constraint-free environment to measure the effects of higher order modes and interface stiffness. This test method is applicable to structures with distinct degree-of-freedom interfaces to other system components. A theoretical residual function in the displacement/force domain has the characteristics of a relatively flat line in the lower frequencies and a slight upward curvature in the higher frequency range. In the test residual function, the above-mentioned characteristics can be seen in the data, but due to the present limitations in the modal parameter evaluation (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of test data, the residual function has regions of ragged data. A second order polynomial curve fit is required to obtain the residual flexibility term. A weighting function of the data is generated by examining the variances between neighboring data points. From a weighted second-order polynomial curve fit, an accurate residual flexibility value can be obtained. The residual flexibility value and free-free modes from testing are used to improve a mathematical model of the structure. The residual flexibility modal test method is applied to a straight beam with a trunnion appendage and a space shuttle payload pallet simulator.

  10. Functional foods for weight management: Dietary Fiber – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Boaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIt has been estimated that more than 1.5 billion adults are overweight or obese worldwide [1], rendering obesity a global epidemic [2]. Obesity is associated with significant morbidity, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis and some cancers [3]. Thus, obesity is clearly a medical issue, its costs impacting heavily on health care systems in both developed and developing nations [4]. The combined impact of transmissible and chronic disease in the third world is particularly devastating to the very health care systems with fewest resources [5].Because obesity has been identified as a major health issue, treating obesity is an important goal. However, weight loss management has proven notoriously difficult. It is well documented that reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure may reduce body weight in the short term, but obesity relapse is the long term is anticipated [6]. In a study of overweight or obese US adults who weighed ≥ 10% less than their maximum body weight the year prior to the survey (n=1310, 33.5% regained > 5% during that year [7].Despite its somewhat unimpressive success rate, "lifestyle" weight management remains the first line intervention for obesity treatment [8]. Lifestyle weight management can be defined as interventions based on energy restriction (weight loss diet; increased energy output (exercise; and/or behavioral change (cognitive or behavior therapy. Functional foods have been explored as a tool for enhancing lifestyle weight management.Functional foods evaluated for their efficacy as obesity interventions can be divided into two broad categories: 1 foods which suppress appetite and increase satiety; and 2 foods which enhance thermogenesis. The present review will focus on those foods thought to act by increasing satiety and suppressing appetite.Key words: Obesity, weight loss, systematic review, dietary fiber

  11. Commuting quantum circuits and complexity of Ising partition functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Instantaneous quantum polynomial-time (IQP) computation is a class of quantum computation consisting only of commuting two-qubit gates and is not universal. Nevertheless, it has been shown that if there is a classical algorithm that can simulate IQP efficiently, the polynomial hierarchy collapses to the third level, which is highly implausible. However, the origin of the classical intractability is still less understood. Here we establish a relationship between IQP and computational complexity of calculating the imaginary-valued partition functions of Ising models. We apply the established relationship in two opposite directions. One direction is to find subclasses of IQP that are classically efficiently simulatable by using exact solvability of certain types of Ising models. Another direction is applying quantum computational complexity of IQP to investigate (im)possibility of efficient classical approximations of Ising partition functions with imaginary coupling constants. Specifically, we show that a multiplicative approximation of Ising partition functions is #P-hard for almost all imaginary coupling constants even on planar lattices of a bounded degree. (paper)

  12. Effect of weight loss on menstrual function in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Rollyn M; Copperman, Nancy M; Jacobson, Marc S

    2011-06-01

    To compare the effects of a hypocaloric low-fat diet with those of a very low carbohydrate diet on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and menstrual function in overweight adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Randomized pilot trial of two diets in a prospective, 12-week study. A hospital-based, academic adolescent medicine division. 24 females, age 12-22 years (mean 15.8 ± 2.2), with PCOS and a BMI above the 85(th) percentile for age (mean 35.7 ± 6.0 kg/m(2)). Nutrition counseling was given biweekly, and dietary compliance, menstrual history, and weight were recorded. WC was measured at the beginning and end of the study. Changes in weight, BMI, WC, and improvement in menstrual function over the course of the study period. 16 participants completed the study. 12 completers menstruated during the study period, 8 with regularity. The number of periods over 3 months increased from 0.6 ± 0.6 pre-treatment to 1.6 ± 1.3 post-treatment (P = 0.003). Overall, weight loss averaged 6.5% (P weight were 3.4 times more likely to have improved menstrual function (P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Weight loss is feasible in adolescents with PCOS and results in significant improvements in BMI, WC, and menstrual function. Weight management may be preferable as first-line treatment in adolescents, because it targets both the menstrual dysfunction and risk factors for long-term morbidity associated with PCOS. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tailoring of the Nanotexture of Mesoporous Silica Films and their Functionalized Derivatives for Selectively Harvesting Low Molecular Weight Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Bouamrani, Ali; Tasciotti, Ennio; Li, Li; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We present a fast, efficient and reliable system based on mesoporous silica chips to specifically fractionate and enrich the low molecular weight proteome. Mesoporous silica thin films with tunable features at the nanoscale were fabricated using the triblock copolymer template pathway. Using different templates and concentrations in the precursor solution, various pore size distributions, pore structures and connectivity were obtained and applied for selective recovery of low mass proteins. In combination with mass spectrometry and statistic analysis, we demonstrated the correlation between the nanophase characteristics of the mesoporous silica thin films and the specificity and efficacy of low mass proteome harvesting. In addition, to overcome the limitations of the pre-functionalization method in polymer selection, plasma ashing was used for the first time for the treatment of the mesoporous silica surface prior to chemical modification. Surface charge modifications by different functional groups resulted in a selective capture of the low molecular weight proteins from serum sample. In conclusion our study demonstrates that the ability to tune the physico-chemical properties of mesoporous silica surfaces, for a selective enrichment of the low molecular weight proteome from complex biological fluids, has the potential to promote proteomic biomarker discovery. PMID:20014864

  14. Reduction theorems for weighted integral inequalities on the cone of monotone functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogatishvili, A; Stepanov, V D

    2013-01-01

    This paper surveys results related to the reduction of integral inequalities involving positive operators in weighted Lebesgue spaces on the real semi-axis and valid on the cone of monotone functions, to certain more easily manageable inequalities valid on the cone of non-negative functions. The case of monotone operators is new. As an application, a complete characterization for all possible integrability parameters is obtained for a number of Volterra operators. Bibliography: 118 titles

  15. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were trace...

  16. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S D; Starr, John M; Pattie, Alison; Rush, M A; Whalley, Lawrence J; Deary, Ian J

    2001-01-01

    AIMS---To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class. METHODS---Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932. Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449 of th...

  17. Organ doses as a function of body weight for environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.

    1991-01-01

    The organ doses for γ rays from typical environmental sources were determined with Monte Carlo calculations using anthropomorphic phantoms having different body sizes. It has been suggested that body weight is the predominant factor influencing organ doses for environmental γ rays, regardless of sex and age. A weight function expressing organ doses for environmental γ rays was introduced. This function fitted well with the organ doses calculated using the different phantoms. The function coefficients were determined mathematically with the least squares method. On the assumption that this function was applicable to organ doses for human bodies with diverse characteristics, the variances in organ doses due to race, sex, age and difference in body weight of adults were investigated. The variations of organ doses due to race and sex were not significant. Differences in body weight were found to alter organ doses by a maximum of 10% for γ rays over 100 keV, and 20% for low-energy γ rays. The doses for organs located deep inside a body, such as ovaries, differed between a newborn baby and an adult by a maximum factor of 2 to 3. For γ rays over 100 keV, the variation was within a factor of 2 for all organs. The organ doses for adolescents more than 12 years agreed within 15% with those of the average adult. (author)

  18. Weighting Function Integrated in Grid-interfacing Converters for Unbalanced Voltage Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Duarte, J.L.; Hendrix, M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a weighting function for voltage unbalance correction is proposed to be integrated into the control of distributed grid-interfacing systems. The correction action can help decrease the negative-sequence voltage at the point of connection with the grid. Based on the voltage unbalance

  19. Uncertainty plus Prior Equals Rational Bias: An Intuitive Bayesian Probability Weighting Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John; Baddeley, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that when making choices based on probabilistic options, people behave as if they overestimate small probabilities, underestimate large probabilities, and treat positive and negative outcomes differently. These distortions have been modeled using a nonlinear probability weighting function, which is found in several…

  20. Sea Surface Temperature Modeling using Radial Basis Function Networks With a Dynamically Weighted Particle Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Duchwan; Liang, Faming; Mallick, Bani K.

    2013-01-01

    be modeled by a dynamic system which changes with time and location. In this article, we propose a radial basis function network-based dynamic model which is able to catch the nonlinearity of the data and propose to use the dynamically weighted particle

  1. A functional approach to cerebral visual impairments in very preterm/very-low-birth-weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldof, C.J.A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.; Dik, M.; Kok, J.H.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a major cause of visual impairment, with very preterm birth/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) being a major risk factor. There is no generally accepted definition of CVI. This study aims to investigate the usefulness of an empirically-based functional

  2. A functional approach to cerebral visual impairments in very preterm/very-low-birth-weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldof, Christiaan J. A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; Dik, Marjolein; Kok, Joke H.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a major cause of visual impairment, with very preterm birth/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) being a major risk factor. There is no generally accepted definition of CVI. This study aims to investigate the usefulness of an empirically-based functional definition of

  3. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  4. Pancreatic cancerrelated cachexia: influence on metabolism and correlation to weight loss and pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Jeannine; Ketterer, Knut; Marsch, Christiane; Fechtner, Kerstin; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Büchler, Markus W; Friess, Helmut; Martignoni, Marc E

    2009-01-01

    Dramatic weight loss is an often underestimated symptom in pancreatic cancer patients. Cachexia- defined as an unintended loss of stable weight exceeding 10% – is present in up to 80% of patients with cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and has a significant influence on survival. The aim of the study was to show the multiple systemic effects of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients, in terms of resection rate, effects on pulmonary function, amount of fat and muscle tissue, as well as changes in laboratory parameters. In patients with pancreatic cancer, clinical appearance was documented, including the amount of weight loss. Laboratory parameters and lung-function tests were evaluated, and the thickness of muscle and fat tissue was measured with computed tomography scans. Statistical analysis, including multivariate analysis, was performed using SPSS software. Survival curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. To test for significant differences between the examined groups we used Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. Of 198 patients with a ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, 70% were suffering from weight loss when they presented for operation, and in 40% weight loss exceeded 10% of the stable weight. In patients with cachexia, metastases were diagnosed significantly more often (47% vs. 24%, P < 0.001), leading to a significantly reduced resection rate in these patients. Patients with cachexia had significantly reduced fat tissue amounts. Hence, dramatic weight loss in a patient with pancreatic cancer may be a hint of a more progressed or more aggressive tumour. Pancreatic cancer patients with cachexia had a higher rate of more progressed tumour stages and a worse nutritional status. Furthermore, patients with cachexia had an impaired lung function and a reduction in fat tissue. Patients with pancreatic cancer and cachexia had significantly reduced survival. If weight

  5. Pancreatic cancerrelated cachexia: influence on metabolism and correlation to weight loss and pulmonary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Jeannine; Ketterer, Knut [Department of Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Marsch, Christiane [Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Fechtner, Kerstin [Department of Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Krakowski-Roosen, Holger [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Büchler, Markus W [Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Friess, Helmut; Martignoni, Marc E [Department of Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany)

    2009-07-28

    Dramatic weight loss is an often underestimated symptom in pancreatic cancer patients. Cachexia- defined as an unintended loss of stable weight exceeding 10% – is present in up to 80% of patients with cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and has a significant influence on survival. The aim of the study was to show the multiple systemic effects of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients, in terms of resection rate, effects on pulmonary function, amount of fat and muscle tissue, as well as changes in laboratory parameters. In patients with pancreatic cancer, clinical appearance was documented, including the amount of weight loss. Laboratory parameters and lung-function tests were evaluated, and the thickness of muscle and fat tissue was measured with computed tomography scans. Statistical analysis, including multivariate analysis, was performed using SPSS software. Survival curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. To test for significant differences between the examined groups we used Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. Of 198 patients with a ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, 70% were suffering from weight loss when they presented for operation, and in 40% weight loss exceeded 10% of the stable weight. In patients with cachexia, metastases were diagnosed significantly more often (47% vs. 24%, P < 0.001), leading to a significantly reduced resection rate in these patients. Patients with cachexia had significantly reduced fat tissue amounts. Hence, dramatic weight loss in a patient with pancreatic cancer may be a hint of a more progressed or more aggressive tumour. Pancreatic cancer patients with cachexia had a higher rate of more progressed tumour stages and a worse nutritional status. Furthermore, patients with cachexia had an impaired lung function and a reduction in fat tissue. Patients with pancreatic cancer and cachexia had significantly reduced survival. If weight loss

  6. Covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes with tetramanganese complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Carola; Frielinghaus, Robert; Saelhoff, Anna-Katharina; Schneider, Claus M.; Besson, Claire; Floetotto, Henrik; Koegerler, Paul; Houben, Lothar

    2012-01-01

    We present first results on the covalent chemical functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with polynuclear {Mn 4 } coordination complexes. Raman spectra prove that the reaction can only be achieved for tubes which have been oxidized to create carboxylic groups. HRTEM is used to show that the reaction can be carried out directly on a substrate as well. Analysis of the D/G intensity ratio for different oxidation times shows that it is possible to reduce the amount of defects created. This is important for the future application of this material in transport devices. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The complexity of self-regulating food intake in weight loss maintenance. A qualitative study among short- and long-term weight loss maintainers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Sniethotta, Falko F.; Sainsbury, Kirby

    2018-01-01

    Rationale Whether self-regulation of food intake in weight loss maintenance (WLM) differs between being a short-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining less than 12 months) and a long-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining at least 12 months) is under-researched. Object......Rationale Whether self-regulation of food intake in weight loss maintenance (WLM) differs between being a short-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining less than 12 months) and a long-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining at least 12 months) is under......-researched. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the self-regulatory strategies and self-efficacy beliefs applied by short- and long-term maintainers to the complex set of behaviours comprising food intake in WLM, and to obtain a better understanding of their challenges in the various food-intake processes...... in WLM. Method Individual interviews (14 female/4 male) were conducted with nine Danish short- and nine long-term weight loss maintainers. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was applied post-hoc to organise data and support analyses, since the approach focuses on both the cognitions (e.g., self...

  8. Complex analysis fundamentals of the classical theory of functions

    CERN Document Server

    Stalker, John

    1998-01-01

    This clear, concise introduction to the classical theory of one complex variable is based on the premise that "anything worth doing is worth doing with interesting examples." The content is driven by techniques and examples rather than definitions and theorems. This self-contained monograph is an excellent resource for a self-study guide and should appeal to a broad audience. The only prerequisite is a standard calculus course. The first chapter deals with a beautiful presentation of special functions. . . . The third chapter covers elliptic and modular functions. . . in much more detail, and from a different point of view, than one can find in standard introductory books. . . . For [the] subjects that are omitted, the author has suggested some excellent references for the reader who wants to go through these topics. The book is read easily and with great interest. It can be recommended to both students as a textbook and to mathematicians and physicists as a useful reference. ---Mathematical Reviews Mainly or...

  9. Identification of Functional Information Subgraphs in Complex Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Luis M. A.; Gintautas, Vadas; Ham, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    We present a general information theoretic approach for identifying functional subgraphs in complex networks. We show that the uncertainty in a variable can be written as a sum of information quantities, where each term is generated by successively conditioning mutual informations on new measured variables in a way analogous to a discrete differential calculus. The analogy to a Taylor series suggests efficient optimization algorithms for determining the state of a target variable in terms of functional groups of other nodes. We apply this methodology to electrophysiological recordings of cortical neuronal networks grown in vitro. Each cell's firing is generally explained by the activity of a few neurons. We identify these neuronal subgraphs in terms of their redundant or synergetic character and reconstruct neuronal circuits that account for the state of target cells

  10. Trajectory modeling of gestational weight: A functional principal component analysis approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglu Che

    Full Text Available Suboptimal gestational weight gain (GWG, which is linked to increased risk of adverse outcomes for a pregnant woman and her infant, is prevalent. In the study of a large cohort of Canadian pregnant women, our goals are to estimate the individual weight growth trajectory using sparsely collected bodyweight data, and to identify the factors affecting the weight change during pregnancy, such as prepregnancy body mass index (BMI, dietary intakes and physical activity. The first goal was achieved through functional principal component analysis (FPCA by conditional expectation. For the second goal, we used linear regression with the total weight gain as the response variable. The trajectory modeling through FPCA had a significantly smaller root mean square error (RMSE and improved adaptability than the classic nonlinear mixed-effect models, demonstrating a novel tool that can be used to facilitate real time monitoring and interventions of GWG. Our regression analysis showed that prepregnancy BMI had a high predictive value for the weight changes during pregnancy, which agrees with the published weight gain guideline.

  11. Regularized Laplace-Fourier-Domain Full Waveform Inversion Using a Weighted l 2 Objective Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyunggu; Kwon, Jungmin; Shin, Changsoo; Zhou, Hongbo; Cogan, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) can be applied to obtain an accurate velocity model that contains important geophysical and geological information. FWI suffers from the local minimum problem when the starting model is not sufficiently close to the true model. Therefore, an accurate macroscale velocity model is essential for successful FWI, and Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is appropriate for obtaining such a velocity model. However, conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI remains an ill-posed and ill-conditioned problem, meaning that small errors in the data can result in large differences in the inverted model. This approach also suffers from certain limitations related to the logarithmic objective function. To overcome the limitations of conventional Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI, we introduce a weighted l 2 objective function, instead of the logarithmic objective function, as the data-domain objective function, and we also introduce two different model-domain regularizations: first-order Tikhonov regularization and prior model regularization. The weighting matrix for the data-domain objective function is constructed to suitably enhance the far-offset information. Tikhonov regularization smoothes the gradient, and prior model regularization allows reliable prior information to be taken into account. Two hyperparameters are obtained through trial and error and used to control the trade-off and achieve an appropriate balance between the data-domain and model-domain gradients. The application of the proposed regularizations facilitates finding a unique solution via FWI, and the weighted l 2 objective function ensures a more reasonable residual, thereby improving the stability of the gradient calculation. Numerical tests performed using the Marmousi synthetic dataset show that the use of the weighted l 2 objective function and the model-domain regularizations significantly improves the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI. Because the Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI is improved, the

  12. Analysis of Vertical Weighting Functions for Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 and O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, S.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Weaver, C. J.; Kawa, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Several NASA groups have developed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approaches to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations from space as a candidates for NASA's ASCENDS space mission. For example, the Goddard CO2 Sounder approach uses two pulsed lasers to simultaneously measure both CO2 and O2 absorption in the vertical path to the surface at a number of wavelengths across a CO2 line near 1572 nm and an O2 line doublet near 764 nm. The measurements of CO2 and O2 absorption allow computing their vertically weighted number densities and then their ratios for estimating CO2 concentration relative to dry air. Since both the CO2 and O2 densities and their absorption line-width decrease with altitude, the absorption response (or weighting function) varies with both altitude and absorption wavelength. We have used some standard atmospheres and HITRAN 2008 spectroscopy to calculate the vertical weighting functions for two CO2 lines near 1571 nm and the O2 lines near 764.7 and 1260 nm for candidate online wavelength selections for ASCENDS. For CO2, the primary candidate on-line wavelengths are 10-12 pm away from line center with the weighting function peaking in the atmospheric boundary layer to measure CO2 sources and sinks at the surface. Using another on-line wavelength 3-5 pm away from line center allows the weighting function to peak in the mid- to upper troposphere, which is sensitive to CO2 transport in the free atmosphere. The Goddard CO2 sounder team developed an airborne precursor version of a space instrument. During the summers of 2009, 2010 and 2011 it has participated in airborne measurement campaigns over a variety of different sites in the US, flying with other NASA ASCENDS lidar candidates along with accurate in-situ atmospheric sensors. All flights used altitude patterns with measurements at steps in altitudes between 3 and 13 km, along with spirals from 13 km altitude to near the surface. Measurements from in-situ sensors allowed an

  13. Relationship between different approaches to derive weighting functions related to atmospheric remote sensing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Rozanov, Alexei V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the relationship between different methods used to derive weighting functions required to solve numerous inverse problems related to the remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere by means of scattered solar light observations. The first method commonly referred to as the forward-adjoint approach is based on a joint solution of the forward and adjoint radiative transfer equations and the second one requires the linearized forward radiative transfer equation to be solved. In the framework of the forward-adjoint method we consider two approaches commonly used to derive the weighting functions. These approaches are referenced as the 'response function' and the 'formal solution' techniques, respectively. We demonstrate here that the weighting functions derived employing the formal solution technique can also be obtained substituting the analytical representations for the direct forward and direct adjoint intensities into corresponding expressions obtained in the framework of the response function technique. The advantages and disadvantages of different techniques are discussed

  14. The relation between geometry and function of the ankle joint complex: a biomechanical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleipool, Roeland P; Blankevoort, Leendert

    2010-05-01

    This review deals with the relation between the anatomy and function of the ankle joint complex. The questions addressed are how high do the forces in the ankle joint get, where can the joints go (range of motion) and where do they go during walking and running. Finally the role of the ligaments and the articular surfaces is discussed, i.e. how does it happen. The magnitude of the loads on the ankle joint complex are primarily determined by muscle activity and can be as high as four times the body weight during walking. For the maximal range of motion, plantar and dorsiflexion occurs in the talocrural joint and marginally at the subtalar joint. In-eversion takes place at both levels. The functional range of motion is well within the limits of the maximal range of motion. The ligaments do not contribute to the forces for the functional range of motion but determine the maximal range of motion together with the articular surfaces. The geometry of the articular surfaces primarily determines the kinematics. Clinical studies must include these anatomical aspects to better understand the mechanism of injury, recovery, and interventions. Models can elucidate the mechanism by which the anatomy relates to the function. The relation between the anatomy and mechanical properties of the joint structures and joint function should be considered for diagnosis and treatment of ankle joint pathology.

  15. Improved functional overview of protein complexes using inferred epistatic relationships

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Colm

    2011-05-23

    Abstract Background Epistatic Miniarray Profiling(E-MAP) quantifies the net effect on growth rate of disrupting pairs of genes, often producing phenotypes that may be more (negative epistasis) or less (positive epistasis) severe than the phenotype predicted based on single gene disruptions. Epistatic interactions are important for understanding cell biology because they define relationships between individual genes, and between sets of genes involved in biochemical pathways and protein complexes. Each E-MAP screen quantifies the interactions between a logically selected subset of genes (e.g. genes whose products share a common function). Interactions that occur between genes involved in different cellular processes are not as frequently measured, yet these interactions are important for providing an overview of cellular organization. Results We introduce a method for combining overlapping E-MAP screens and inferring new interactions between them. We use this method to infer with high confidence 2,240 new strongly epistatic interactions and 34,469 weakly epistatic or neutral interactions. We show that accuracy of the predicted interactions approaches that of replicate experiments and that, like measured interactions, they are enriched for features such as shared biochemical pathways and knockout phenotypes. We constructed an expanded epistasis map for yeast cell protein complexes and show that our new interactions increase the evidence for previously proposed inter-complex connections, and predict many new links. We validated a number of these in the laboratory, including new interactions linking the SWR-C chromatin modifying complex and the nuclear transport apparatus. Conclusion Overall, our data support a modular model of yeast cell protein network organization and show how prediction methods can considerably extend the information that can be extracted from overlapping E-MAP screens.

  16. Weight preoccupation as a function of observed physical attractiveness: ethnic differences among normal-weight adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabianchi, Natalie; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Borawski, Elaine A

    2006-09-01

    To examine the association between observer ratings of physical attractiveness and weight preoccupation for female adolescents, and to explore any ethnic differences between Caucasian, African-American, and Hispanic females. Normal-weight female adolescents who had participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in-home Wave II survey were included (n = 4,324). Physical attractiveness ratings were made in vivo by interviewers. Using logistic regression models stratified by ethnicity, the associations between observer-rated attractiveness and weight preoccupation were examined after controlling for demographics, measured body mass index (BMI) and psychosocial factors. Caucasian female adolescents perceived as being more attractive reported significantly greater weight preoccupation compared with those rated as being less attractive. Observed attractiveness did not relate to weight preoccupation among African-American or Hispanic youth when controlling for other factors. For Caucasian female adolescents, being perceived by others as more attractive may be a risk factor for disordered eating.

  17. Tests of potential functional barriers for laminated multilayer food packages. Part II: Medium molecular weight permeants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simal-Gándara, J; Sarria-Vidal, M; Rijk, R

    2000-09-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the kinetics of the permeation of different medium molecular weight model permeants: bisphenol A, warfarin and anthracene, from liquid paraffin, through a surrogate potential functional barrier (25 microns-thick orientated polypropylene--OPP) into the food simulants olive oil and 3% (w/v) acetic acid. The characterization of permeation kinetics generally observed the permeation models previously reported to explain the experimental permeation results obtained for a low molecular weight group of model permeants. In general, the model permeants exhibited behaviour consistent with their relative molecular weights with respect to (a) the time taken to attain steady-state permeation into the food simulant in which they were more soluble, (b) their subsequent steady-state permeation rates, and (c) their partition between liquid paraffin and the OPP membrane.

  18. Configuration space analysis of common cost functions in radiotherapy beam-weight optimization algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowbottom, Carl Graham [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Webb, Steve [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-07

    The successful implementation of downhill search engines in radiotherapy optimization algorithms depends on the absence of local minima in the search space. Such techniques are much faster than stochastic optimization methods but may become trapped in local minima if they exist. A technique known as 'configuration space analysis' was applied to examine the search space of cost functions used in radiotherapy beam-weight optimization algorithms. A downhill-simplex beam-weight optimization algorithm was run repeatedly to produce a frequency distribution of final cost values. By plotting the frequency distribution as a function of final cost, the existence of local minima can be determined. Common cost functions such as the quadratic deviation of dose to the planning target volume (PTV), integral dose to organs-at-risk (OARs), dose-threshold and dose-volume constraints for OARs were studied. Combinations of the cost functions were also considered. The simple cost function terms such as the quadratic PTV dose and integral dose to OAR cost function terms are not susceptible to local minima. In contrast, dose-threshold and dose-volume OAR constraint cost function terms are able to produce local minima in the example case studied. (author)

  19. The low molecular weight protein PsaI stabilizes the light-harvesting complex II docking site of photosystem I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plöchinger, Magdalena; Torabi, Salar; Rantala, Marjaana

    2016-01-01

    PsaI represents one of three low molecular weight peptides of PSI. Targeted inactivation of the plastid PsaI gene in Nicotiana tabacum has no measurable effect on photosynthetic electron transport around PSI or on accumulation of proteins involved in photosynthesis. Instead, the lack of Psa......I destabilizes the association of PsaL and PsaH to PSI, both forming the light-harvesting complex (LHC)II docking site of PSI. These alterations at the LHCII binding site surprisingly did not prevent state transition but led to an increased incidence of PSI-LHCII complexes, coinciding with an elevated...

  20. Functional complexity of the axonal growth cone: a proteomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Estrada-Bernal

    Full Text Available The growth cone, the tip of the emerging neurite, plays a crucial role in establishing the wiring of the developing nervous system. We performed an extensive proteomic analysis of axonal growth cones isolated from the brains of fetal Sprague-Dawley rats. Approximately 2000 proteins were identified at ≥ 99% confidence level. Using informatics, including functional annotation cluster and KEGG pathway analysis, we found great diversity of proteins involved in axonal pathfinding, cytoskeletal remodeling, vesicular traffic and carbohydrate metabolism, as expected. We also found a large and complex array of proteins involved in translation, protein folding, posttranslational processing, and proteasome/ubiquitination-dependent degradation. Immunofluorescence studies performed on hippocampal neurons in culture confirmed the presence in the axonal growth cone of proteins representative of these processes. These analyses also provide evidence for rough endoplasmic reticulum and reveal a reticular structure equipped with Golgi-like functions in the axonal growth cone. Furthermore, Western blot revealed the growth cone enrichment, relative to fetal brain homogenate, of some of the proteins involved in protein synthesis, folding and catabolism. Our study provides a resource for further research and amplifies the relatively recently developed concept that the axonal growth cone is equipped with proteins capable of performing a highly diverse range of functions.

  1. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Jonathan; Heitzig, Jobst; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics, or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence quantification analysis, recurrence networks, visibility graphs, and construction of surrogate time series. The range of possible applications of the library is outlined, drawing on several examples mainly from the field of climatology. pyunicorn is available online at https://github.com/pik-copan/pyunicorn. Reference: J.F. Donges, J. Heitzig, B. Beronov, M. Wiedermann, J. Runge, Q.-Y. Feng, L. Tupikina, V. Stolbova, R.V. Donner, N. Marwan, H.A. Dijkstra, and J. Kurths, Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package, Chaos 25, 113101 (2015), DOI: 10.1063/1.4934554, Preprint: arxiv.org:1507.01571 [physics.data-an].

  2. Directed weighted network structure analysis of complex impedance measurements for characterizing oil-in-water bubbly flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Dang, Wei-Dong; Xue, Le; Zhang, Shan-Shan

    2017-03-01

    Characterizing the flow structure underlying the evolution of oil-in-water bubbly flow remains a contemporary challenge of great interests and complexity. In particular, the oil droplets dispersing in a water continuum with diverse size make the study of oil-in-water bubbly flow really difficult. To study this issue, we first design a novel complex impedance sensor and systematically conduct vertical oil-water flow experiments. Based on the multivariate complex impedance measurements, we define modalities associated with the spatial transient flow structures and construct modality transition-based network for each flow condition to study the evolution of flow structures. In order to reveal the unique flow structures underlying the oil-in-water bubbly flow, we filter the inferred modality transition-based network by removing the edges with small weight and resulting isolated nodes. Then, the weighted clustering coefficient entropy and weighted average path length are employed for quantitatively assessing the original network and filtered network. The differences in network measures enable to efficiently characterize the evolution of the oil-in-water bubbly flow structures.

  3. Tracking the Reorganization of Module Structure in Time-Varying Weighted Brain Functional Connectivity Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christoph; Piper, Diana; Pester, Britta; Mierau, Andreas; Witte, Herbert

    2018-05-01

    Identification of module structure in brain functional networks is a promising way to obtain novel insights into neural information processing, as modules correspond to delineated brain regions in which interactions are strongly increased. Tracking of network modules in time-varying brain functional networks is not yet commonly considered in neuroscience despite its potential for gaining an understanding of the time evolution of functional interaction patterns and associated changing degrees of functional segregation and integration. We introduce a general computational framework for extracting consensus partitions from defined time windows in sequences of weighted directed edge-complete networks and show how the temporal reorganization of the module structure can be tracked and visualized. Part of the framework is a new approach for computing edge weight thresholds for individual networks based on multiobjective optimization of module structure quality criteria as well as an approach for matching modules across time steps. By testing our framework using synthetic network sequences and applying it to brain functional networks computed from electroencephalographic recordings of healthy subjects that were exposed to a major balance perturbation, we demonstrate the framework's potential for gaining meaningful insights into dynamic brain function in the form of evolving network modules. The precise chronology of the neural processing inferred with our framework and its interpretation helps to improve the currently incomplete understanding of the cortical contribution for the compensation of such balance perturbations.

  4. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, A-M N; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    . The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...... with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry...

  5. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  6. Delta-function potential with a complex coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2006-01-01

    We explore the Hamiltonian operator H = -d 2 /dx 2 + zδ(x), where x element of R, δ(x) is the Dirac delta function and z is an arbitrary complex coupling constant. For a purely imaginary z, H has a spectral singularity at E = -z 2 /4 element of R + . For Re(z) 2 /4. For the case that Re(z) > 0, H has a real, positive, continuous spectrum that is free from spectral singularities. For this latter case, we construct an associated biorthonormal system and use it to perform a perturbative calculation of a positive-definite inner product that renders H self-adjoint. This allows us to address the intriguing question of the nonlocal aspects of the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian for the system. In particular, we compute the energy expectation values for various Gaussian wave packets to show that the non-Hermiticity effect diminishes rapidly outside an effective interaction region

  7. Relationship of body weight with gastrointestinal motor and sensory function: studies in anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, Sena; Menne, Dieter; Milos, Gabriella; Goetze, Oliver; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark; Steingoetter, Andreas

    2017-01-05

    Whether gastrointestinal motor and sensory function is primary cause or secondary effect of abnormal body weight is uncertain. Moreover, studies relating continuous postprandial sensations of satiation to measurable pathology are scarce. This work assessed postprandial gastrointestinal function and concurrent sensations of satiation across a wide range of body weight and after weight change. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity (OB) were investigated in reference to normal weight controls (HC). AN were additionally investigated longitudinally. Gastric emptying, antral contractions and oro-cecal transit after ingestion of a solid meal were investigated by MRI and 13 C-lactose-ureide breath test. The dependency of self-reported sensations of satiation on the varying degree of stomach filling during gastric emptying was compared between groups. 24 AN (BMI 14.4 (11.9-16.0) kg/m 2 ), 16 OB (34.9 (29.6-41.5) kg/m 2 ) and 20 HC (21.9 (18.9-24.9) kg/m 2 ) were studied. Gastric half-emptying time (t 50 ) was slower in AN than HC (p = 0.016) and OB (p = 0.007), and a negative association between t 50 and BMI was observed between BMI 12 and 25 kg/m 2 (p = 0.007). Antral contractions and oro-cecal transit were not different. For any given gastric content volume, self-reported postprandial fullness was greater in AN than in HC or OB (p < 0.001). After weight rehabilitation, t 50 in AN tended to become shorter (p = 0.09) and postprandial fullness was less marked (p < 0.01). A relationship between body weight and gastric emptying as well as self-reported feelings of satiation is present. AN have slower gastric emptying and heightened visceral perception compared to HC and OB. Longitudinal follow-up after weight rehabilitation in AN suggests these abnormalities are not a primary feature, but secondary to other factors that determine abnormal body weight. Registered July 20, 2009 at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00946816 ).

  8. Reduction theorems for weighted integral inequalities on the cone of monotone functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Stepanov, V.D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 4 (2013), s. 597-664 ISSN 0036-0279 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383; GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : weighted Lebesgue space * cone of monotone functions * duality principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/0036-0279/68/4/597

  9. Uncertainty plus prior equals rational bias: an intuitive Bayesian probability weighting function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, John; Baddeley, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Empirical research has shown that when making choices based on probabilistic options, people behave as if they overestimate small probabilities, underestimate large probabilities, and treat positive and negative outcomes differently. These distortions have been modeled using a nonlinear probability weighting function, which is found in several nonexpected utility theories, including rank-dependent models and prospect theory; here, we propose a Bayesian approach to the probability weighting function and, with it, a psychological rationale. In the real world, uncertainty is ubiquitous and, accordingly, the optimal strategy is to combine probability statements with prior information using Bayes' rule. First, we show that any reasonable prior on probabilities leads to 2 of the observed effects; overweighting of low probabilities and underweighting of high probabilities. We then investigate 2 plausible kinds of priors: informative priors based on previous experience and uninformative priors of ignorance. Individually, these priors potentially lead to large problems of bias and inefficiency, respectively; however, when combined using Bayesian model comparison methods, both forms of prior can be applied adaptively, gaining the efficiency of empirical priors and the robustness of ignorance priors. We illustrate this for the simple case of generic good and bad options, using Internet blogs to estimate the relevant priors of inference. Given this combined ignorant/informative prior, the Bayesian probability weighting function is not only robust and efficient but also matches all of the major characteristics of the distortions found in empirical research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. 99m-Tc-aprotinin; a low molecular weight protein for the study of renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, C.; Donadio, C.; Tramonti, G.; Lorusso, P.; Bellitto, L.; Lunghi, F.

    1982-01-01

    Aprotinin (A), a low molecular weight polypeptide (6500 daltons), is a protease inhibitor which is electively accumulated in the kidney of animals. If labelled with Tcsup(99m), A is an excellent agent for renal imaging. Pharmacokinetics of A-Tcsup(99m) was studied in 53 renal patients with different degrees of renal impairment. In patients with normal or slightly impaired renal function the plasma cl of A-Tcsup(99m) was lower than the GFR (mean ratio plasma cl A-Tcsup(99m)/GFR = 0.68+-0.22 SD). In patients with renal failure, the plasma cl exceeded the GFR (mean ratio 3.35). The apparent distribution volume of A-Tcsup(99m) (percent of body weight) was 15.4+-2.5 SD. A-Tcsup(99m) was markedly and rapidly accumulated in the kidneys. In patients with unilateral kidney disease the accumulation curve of the affected kidney was flatter than that of the contralateral kidney. In 4 of these patients the functional difference between the two kidneys as given by renal accumulation of A-Tcsup(99m) (2 hrs after injection) was lower than that of GFR. Urinary excretion of radioactivity in the first 2 hrs after i.v. injection of A-Tcsup(99m) was negligible (2.4+-1.6 SD percent of the dose). Conclusions: Labelled aprotinin is promising for the study of renal handling of low molecular weight proteins and for the measurement of unilateral renal function. (Author)

  11. Inferring the physical connectivity of complex networks from their functional dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Liisa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological networks, such as protein-protein interactions, metabolic, signalling, transcription-regulatory networks and neural synapses, are representations of large-scale dynamic systems. The relationship between the network structure and functions remains one of the central problems in current multidisciplinary research. Significant progress has been made toward understanding the implication of topological features for the network dynamics and functions, especially in biological networks. Given observations of a network system's behaviours or measurements of its functional dynamics, what can we conclude of the details of physical connectivity of the underlying structure? Results We modelled the network system by employing a scale-free network of coupled phase oscillators. Pairwise phase coherence (PPC was calculated for all the pairs of oscillators to present functional dynamics induced by the system. At the regime of global incoherence, we observed a Significant pairwise synchronization only between two nodes that are physically connected. Right after the onset of global synchronization, disconnected nodes begin to oscillate in a correlated fashion and the PPC of two nodes, either connected or disconnected, depends on their degrees. Based on the observation of PPCs, we built a weighted network of synchronization (WNS, an all-to-all functionally connected network where each link is weighted by the PPC of two oscillators at the ends of the link. In the regime of strong coupling, we observed a Significant similarity in the organization of WNSs induced by systems sharing the same substrate network but different configurations of initial phases and intrinsic frequencies of oscillators. We reconstruct physical network from the WNS by choosing the links whose weights are higher than a given threshold. We observed an optimal reconstruction just before the onset of global synchronization. Finally, we correlated the topology of the

  12. Ontogenetic functional diversity: size structure of a keystone predator drives functioning of a complex ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Volker H W; Rasmussen, Nick L

    2013-05-01

    A central challenge in community ecology is to understand the connection between biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. While traditional approaches have largely focused on species-level diversity, increasing evidence indicates that there exists substantial ecological diversity among individuals within species. By far, the largest source of this intraspecific diversity stems from variation among individuals in ontogenetic stage and size. Although such ontogenetic shifts are ubiquitous in natural communities, whether and how they scale up to influence the structure and functioning of complex ecosystems is largely unknown. Here we take an experimental approach to examine the consequences of ontogenetic niche shifts for the structure of communities and ecosystem processes. In particular we experimentally manipulated the stage structure in a keystone predator, larvae of the dragonfly Anax junius, in complex experimental pond communities to test whether changes in the population stage or size structure of a keystone species scale up to alter community structure and ecosystem processes, and how functional differences scale with relative differences in size among stages. We found that the functional role of A. junius was stage-specific. Altering what stages were present in a pond led to concurrent changes in community structure, primary producer biomass (periphyton and phytoplankton), and ultimately altered ecosystem processes (respiration and net primary productivity), indicating a strong, but stage-specific, trophic cascade. Interestingly, the stage-specific effects did not simply scale with size or biomass of the predator, but instead indicated clear ontogenetic niche shifts in ecological interactions. Thus, functional differences among stages within a keystone species scaled up to alter the functioning of entire ecosystems. Therefore, our results indicate that the classical approach of assuming an average functional role of a species can be misleading because

  13. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from {beta}-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five {beta}-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P<0.001) in thalassaemia major patients than in control subjects. There was a significant correlation between ALT level and liver volume/kilogram body weight (r=0.55, P=0.001). Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher liver volume/kilogram body weight (mean 42.9{+-}12 cm{sup 3}/kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  14. Orofacial complex regional pain syndrome: pathophysiologic mechanisms and functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hyug-Gi; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Auh, Q-Schick; Hong, Jyung-Pyo; Chun, Yang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most challenging chronic pain conditions and is characterized by burning pain, allodynia, hyperalgesia, autonomic changes, trophic changes, edema, and functional loss involving mainly the extremities. Until recently, very few reports have been published concerning CRPS involving the orofacial area. We report on a 50-year-old female patient who presented with unbearable pain in all of her teeth and hypersensitivity of the facial skin. She also reported intractable pain in both extremities accompanied by temperature changes and orofacial pain that increased when the other pains were aggravated. In the case of CRPS with trigeminal neuropathic pain, protocols for proper diagnosis and prompt treatment have yet to be established in academia or in the clinical field. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging for a thorough analysis of the cortical representation of the affected orofacial area immediately before and immediately after isolated light stimulus of the affected hand and foot and concluded that CRPS can be correlated with trigeminal neuropathy in the orofacial area. Furthermore, the patient was treated with carbamazepine administration and stellate ganglion block, which can result in a rapid improvement of pain in the trigeminal region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Highest weight generating functions for hyperKähler T{sup ⋆}(G/H) spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ramgoolam, Sanjaye [Centre for Research in String Theory,School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-10-05

    We develop an efficient procedure for counting holomorphic functions on a hyperKahler cone that has a resolution as a cotangent bundle of a homogeneous space by providing a formula for computing the corresponding Highest Weight Generating function.

  16. Food-derived carbohydrates--structural complexity and functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2002-01-01

    Carbohydrates are biomolecules abundantly available in nature. They are found in bewildering types ranging from simple sugars through oligo- and polysaccharides to glycoconjugates and saccharide complexes, each exhibiting characteristic bio-physiological and/or nutritional functions both in in vivo and in vitro systems. For example, their presence or inclusion in food dictates the texture (body) and gives desirable customer appeal (satisfaction), or their inclusion in the diet offers beneficial effects of great therapeutic value. Thus, carbohydrates are integrally involved in a multitude of biological functions such as regulation of the immune system, cellular signaling (communication), cell malignancy, antiinfection responses, host-pathogen interactions, etc. If starch is considered the major energy storage carbohydrate, the gums/mucilages and other non-starch carbohydrates are of structural significance. The most investigated properties of starch are its gelatinization and melting behavior, especially during food processing. This has led to the development of the food polymer science approach, which has enabled a new interpretive and experimental frame work for the study of the plasticizing influence of simple molecules such as water, sugars, etc. on food systems that are kinetically constrained. Starch, although considered fully digestible, has been challenged, and starch is found to be partly indigestible in the GI tract of humans. This fraction of starch-resisting digestion in vivo is known as resistant starch (RS). The latter, due to its excellent fermentative capacity in the gut, especially yielding butyric acid is considered a new tool for the creation of fiber-rich foods, which are of nutraceutical importance. By a careful control of the processing conditions the content of RS, a man-made fiber, can be increased to as high as 30%. Arabinoxylans are the major endospermic cell wall polysaccharides of cereals. In wheat they are found complexed with ferulic

  17. A Type-2 fuzzy data fusion approach for building reliable weighted protein interaction networks with application in protein complex detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehranfar, Adele; Ghadiri, Nasser; Kouhsar, Morteza; Golshani, Ashkan

    2017-09-01

    Detecting the protein complexes is an important task in analyzing the protein interaction networks. Although many algorithms predict protein complexes in different ways, surveys on the interaction networks indicate that about 50% of detected interactions are false positives. Consequently, the accuracy of existing methods needs to be improved. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm to detect the protein complexes in 'noisy' protein interaction data. First, we integrate several biological data sources to determine the reliability of each interaction and determine more accurate weights for the interactions. A data fusion component is used for this step, based on the interval type-2 fuzzy voter that provides an efficient combination of the information sources. This fusion component detects the errors and diminishes their effect on the detection protein complexes. So in the first step, the reliability scores have been assigned for every interaction in the network. In the second step, we have proposed a general protein complex detection algorithm by exploiting and adopting the strong points of other algorithms and existing hypotheses regarding real complexes. Finally, the proposed method has been applied for the yeast interaction datasets for predicting the interactions. The results show that our framework has a better performance regarding precision and F-measure than the existing approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive function predicts 24-month weight loss success after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Alosco, Michael; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Clinically significant cognitive impairment, particularly in attention/executive and memory function, is found in many patients undergoing bariatric surgery. These difficulties have previously been linked to decreased weight loss 12 months after surgery, but more protracted examination of this relationship has not yet been conducted. The present study prospectively examined the independent contribution of cognitive function to weight loss 24 months after bariatric surgery. Given the rapid rate of cognitive improvement observed after surgery, postoperative cognitive function (i.e., cognition 12 weeks after surgery, controlling for baseline cognition) was expected to predict lower body mass index (BMI) and higher percent total weight loss (%WL) at 24-month follow-up. Data were collected by 3 sites of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) parent project. Fifty-seven individuals enrolled in the LABS project who were undergoing bariatric surgery completed cognitive evaluation at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 months. BMI and %WL were calculated for 24-month postoperative follow-up. Better cognitive function 12 weeks after surgery predicted higher %WL and lower BMI at 24 months, and specific domains of attention/executive and memory function were robustly related to decreased BMI and greater %WL at 24 months. Results show that cognitive performance shortly after bariatric surgery predicts greater long-term %WL and lower BMI 24 months after bariatric surgery. Further work is needed to clarify the degree to which this relationship is mediated by adherence to postoperative guidelines. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Memory function and hippocampal volumes in preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanes, Synne; Bjuland, Knut Jørgen; Skranes, Jon; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2015-01-15

    The hippocampi are regarded as core structures for learning and memory functions, which is important for daily functioning and educational achievements. Previous studies have linked reduction in hippocampal volume to working memory problems in very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤ 1500 g) children and reduced general cognitive ability in VLBW adolescents. However, the relationship between memory function and hippocampal volume has not been described in VLBW subjects reaching adulthood. The aim of the study was to investigate memory function and hippocampal volume in VLBW young adults, both in relation to perinatal risk factors and compared to term born controls, and to look for structure-function relationships. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-III and MRI, we included 42 non-disabled VLBW and 61 control individuals at age 19-20 years, and related our findings to perinatal risk factors in the VLBW-group. The VLBW young adults achieved lower scores on several subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, resulting in lower results in the immediate memory indices (visual and auditory), the working memory index, and in the visual delayed and general memory delayed indices, but not in the auditory delayed and auditory recognition delayed indices. The VLBW group had smaller absolute and relative hippocampal volumes than the controls. In the VLBW group inferior memory function, especially for the working memory index, was related to smaller hippocampal volume, and both correlated with lower birth weight and more days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Our results may indicate a structural-functional relationship in the VLBW group due to aberrant hippocampal development and functioning after preterm birth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surrogate-assisted identification of influences of network construction on evolving weighted functional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahn, Kirsten; Lehnertz, Klaus

    2017-12-01

    We aim at identifying factors that may affect the characteristics of evolving weighted networks derived from empirical observations. To this end, we employ various chains of analysis that are often used in field studies for a data-driven derivation and characterization of such networks. As an example, we consider fully connected, weighted functional brain networks before, during, and after epileptic seizures that we derive from multichannel electroencephalographic data recorded from epilepsy patients. For these evolving networks, we estimate clustering coefficient and average shortest path length in a time-resolved manner. Lastly, we make use of surrogate concepts that we apply at various levels of the chain of analysis to assess to what extent network characteristics are dominated by properties of the electroencephalographic recordings and/or the evolving weighted networks, which may be accessible more easily. We observe that characteristics are differently affected by the unavoidable referencing of the electroencephalographic recording, by the time-series-analysis technique used to derive the properties of network links, and whether or not networks were normalized. Importantly, for the majority of analysis settings, we observe temporal evolutions of network characteristics to merely reflect the temporal evolutions of mean interaction strengths. Such a property of the data may be accessible more easily, which would render the weighted network approach—as used here—as an overly complicated description of simple aspects of the data.

  1. Zinc surface complexes on birnessite: A density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kideok D.; Refson, Keith; Sposito, Garrison

    2009-01-05

    Biogeochemical cycling of zinc is strongly influenced by sorption on birnessite minerals (layer-type MnO2), which are found in diverse terrestrial and aquatic environments. Zinc has been observed to form both tetrahedral (Zn{sup IV}) and octahedral (Zn{sup VI}) triple-corner-sharing surface complexes (TCS) at Mn(IV) vacancy sites in hexagonal birnessite. The octahedral complex is expected to be similar to that of Zn in the Mn oxide mineral, chalcophanite (ZnMn{sub 3}O{sub 7} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O), but the reason for the occurrence of the four-coordinate Zn surface species remains unclear. We address this issue computationally using spin-polarized Density Functional Theory (DFT) to examine the Zn{sub IV}-TCS and Zn{sup VI}-TCS species. Structural parameters obtained by DFT geometry optimization were in excellent agreement with available experimental data on Zn-birnessites. Total energy, magnetic moments, and electron-overlap populations obtained by DFT for isolated Zn{sup IV}-TCS revealed that this species is stable in birnessite without a need for Mn(III) substitution in the octahedral sheet and that it is more effective in reducing undersaturation of surface O at a Mn vacancy than is Zn{sub VI}-TCS. Comparison between geometry-optimized ZnMn{sub 3}O{sub 7} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O (chalcophanite) and the hypothetical monohydrate mineral, ZnMn{sub 3}O{sub 7} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, which contains only tetrahedral Zn, showed that the hydration state of Zn significantly affects birnessite structural stability. Finally, our study also revealed that, relative to their positions in an ideal vacancy-free MnO{sub 2}, Mn nearest to Zn in a TCS surface complex move toward the vacancy by 0.08-0.11 {angstrom}, while surface O bordering the vacancy move away from it by 0.16-0.21 {angstrom}, in agreement with recent X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses.

  2. Magnetic resonance and fluorescence studies on pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes and their small molecular weight constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grande, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The articles presented in this thesis do not describe at first glance one well-defined subject. They are, however, in fact connected by one central theme: the study of large enzyme aggregates by molecular physical methods. Chosen was the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) because of its

  3. Functional imaging of submandibular glands: diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, C.; Cramer, M.C.; Weiss, F.; Kaul, M.G.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.R.; Graessner, J.; Petersen, K.; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DWI) echo-planar imaging (EPI) to depict the submandibular glands and to measure different functional conditions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were examined. Diffusion weighted sequence was performed prior to stimulation. Exactly 30 seconds after a commercially available lemon juice was given orally, the diffusion weighted sequence was repeated. All examinations were performed by using a 1.5-T superconducting system with a 30 mT/m maximum gradient capability and maximum slew rate of 125 mT/m/sec (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The lower part of the circularly polarized (CP) head coil and a standard two-element CP neck array coil were used. The flexibility of the neck array coil allowed positioning the N1 element (upper part of the coil) right next to the submandibular gland. The axial diffusion-weighted EPI (echo planar imaging) sequence was performed using a matrix of 119 x 128, a field of view of 250 x 250 mm (pixel size 2.1 x 1.95 mm), a section thickness of 5 mm with an interslice gap of 1 mm. The b factors used were 0 sec/mm 2 , 500 sec/mm 2 and 1000 sec/mm 2 . Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain). After detecting the submandibular glands a region of interest (ROI) was placed manually exactly within the boarder of both submandibular glands, excluding the external carotid artery on ADC maps. These procedures were performed on all ADC slices the submandibular glands could be differentiated in before and after oral stimulation. For statistical comparison of results, a student's t-test was performed with an overall two-tailed significance level of p=0.05. Results: The visualization of the submandibular glands using the diffusion-weighted EPI sequence was possible in all of the 27 volunteers. Prior to oral stimulation an ADC of 1.31 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec (95% CI, 1

  4. Weighted fit of parametric functions to distributions: The new interface of HOBOOK with MINUIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.S.

    1989-08-01

    The fitting routines of the HBOOK package allow weighted fit of parametric functions to the contents of a one, two or N-dimensional distribution, and analysis of the function in the neighborhood of its minimum, through an interface with the MINUIT package. These routines have been rewritten so as to interface the new version of MINUIT and to allow for smooth transitions to future versions of both packages. We discuss the interface and its capabilities: it is more stable than the previous version and presents a more accurate error analysis. The fitting algorithm is based on the Fletcher method, known for its reliability. Exponential, Gaussian and polynomial fitting are provided, as well as arbitrary user-defined fitting, to one, two and N-dimensional distributions. For the latter, the user is required to provide a smooth parametric function and is given the ability to guide the algorithm in finding the desired minimum. Examples are given. 6 refs., 1 fig

  5. Functionalized diamond nanopowder for phosphopeptides enrichment from complex biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Dilshad [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad, E-mail: najamulhaq@bzu.edu.pk [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jabeen, Fahmida; Ashiq, Muhammad N.; Athar, Muhammad [Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W.; Bonn, Guenther K. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-05-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Derivatization of diamond nanopowder as IMAC and RP. •Characterization with SEM, EDX and FT-IR. •Phosphopeptide enrichment from standard as well as real samples. •Desalting and human serum profiling with reproducible results. •MALDI-MS analysis with database identification. -- Abstract: Diamond is known for its high affinity and biocompatibility towards biomolecules and is used exclusively in separation sciences and life science research. In present study, diamond nanopowder is derivatized as Immobilized Metal Ion Affinity Chromatographic (IMAC) material for the phosphopeptides enrichment and as Reversed Phase (C-18) media for the desalting of complex mixtures and human serum profiling through MALDI-TOF-MS. Functionalized diamond nanopowder is characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Diamond-IMAC is applied to the standard protein (β-casein), spiked human serum, egg yolk and non-fat milk for the phosphopeptides enrichment. Results show the selectivity of synthesized IMAC-diamond immobilized with Fe{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} ions. To comprehend the elaborated use, diamond-IMAC is also applied to the serum samples from gall bladder carcinoma for the potential biomarkers. Database search is carried out by the Mascot program ( (www.matrixscience.com)) for the assignment of phosphorylation sites. Diamond nanopowder is thus a separation media with multifunctional use and can be applied to cancer protein profiling for the diagnosis and biomarker identification.

  6. The function of the Mediator complex in plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chuanfu; Mou, Zhonglin

    2013-03-01

    Upon pathogen infection, plants undergo dramatic transcriptome reprogramming to shift from normal growth and development to immune response. During this rapid process, the multiprotein Mediator complex has been recognized as an important player to fine-tune gene-specific and pathway-specific transcriptional reprogramming by acting as an adaptor/coregulator between sequence-specific transcription factor and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Here, we review current understanding of the role of five functionally characterized Mediator subunits (MED8, MED15, MED16, MED21 and MED25) in plant immunity. All these Mediator subunits positively regulate resistance against leaf-infecting biotrophic bacteria or necrotrophic fungi. While MED21 appears to regulate defense against fungal pathogens via relaying signals from upstream regulators and chromatin modification to RNAPII, the other four Mediator subunits locate at different positions of the defense network to convey phytohormone signal(s). Fully understanding the role of Mediator in plant immunity needs to characterize more Mediator subunits in both Arabidopsis and other plant species. Identification of interacting proteins of Mediator subunits will further help to reveal their specific regulatory mechanisms in plant immunity.

  7. Complex basis functions for molecular resonances: Methodology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Alec; McCurdy, C. William; Head-Gordon, Martin

    The computation of positions and widths of metastable electronic states is a challenge for molecular electronic structure theory because, in addition to the difficulty of the many-body problem, such states obey scattering boundary conditions. These resonances cannot be addressed with naïve application of traditional bound state electronic structure theory. Non-Hermitian electronic structure methods employing complex basis functions is one way that we may rigorously treat resonances within the framework of traditional electronic structure theory. In this talk, I will discuss our recent work in this area including the methodological extension from single determinant SCF-based approaches to highly correlated levels of wavefunction-based theory such as equation of motion coupled cluster and many-body perturbation theory. These approaches provide a hierarchy of theoretical methods for the computation of positions and widths of molecular resonances. Within this framework, we may also examine properties of resonances including the dependence of these parameters on molecular geometry. Some applications of these methods to temporary anions and dianions will also be discussed.

  8. Robustness of weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.

  9. Harvesting bioenergy with rationally designed complex functional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Liangju

    A key challenge in renewable energy is to capture, convert and store solar power with earth-abundant materials and environmentally benign technologies. The goal of this thesis is to develop rationally designed complex functional materials for bio-renewable energy applications. On one hand, photoconversion membrane proteins (MPs) are nature's nanoengineering feats for renewable energy management. Harnessing their functions in synthetic systems could help understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the nanoscale. This is particularly enticing in the post-genome era as recombinant or cell-free expression of many MPs with high yields becomes possible. However, the labile nature of lipid bilayers renders them unsuitable for use in a broad range of engineered systems. A knowledge gap exists about how to design robust synthetic nanomembranes as lipid-bilayer-mimics to support MP functions and how to direct hierarchical MP reconstitution into those membranes to form 2-D or 3-D ordered proteomembrane arrays. Our studies on proteorhodopsin (PR) and bacterial reaction center (BRC), the two light-harvesting MPs, reveal that a charge-interaction-directed reconstitution (CIDR) mechanism induces spontaneous reconstitution of detergent-solubilized MPs into various amphiphilic block copolymer membranes, many of which have far superior stability than lipid bilayers. Our preliminary data also suggest MPs are not enslaved by the biological membranes they derive from; rather, the chemically nonspecific material properties of MP-supporting membranes may act as allosteric regulators. Versatile chemical designs are possible to modulate the conformational energetics of MPs, hence their transport performance in synthetic systems. On the other hand, microalgae are widely regarded as a sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. Microalgae-derived biofuels have not been commercialized yet because current technologies for microalgae dewatering add a huge cost to the

  10. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    , and LMW). The HMW form was suggested to be closely associated with insulin sensitivity. This study investigated whether diet-induced changes in insulin sensitivity were associated with changes in adiponectin multimeric complexes. SUBJECTS: Twenty obese women with highest and twenty obese women with lowest...... diet induced changes in insulin sensitivity (responders and non-responders respectively), matched for weight loss (body mass index (BMI)=34.5 (s.d. 2.9) resp. 36.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.0) for responders and non-responders), were selected from 292 women who underwent a 10-week low-caloric diet (LCD; 600 kcal...

  11. Inverse optimization of objective function weights for treatment planning using clinical dose-volume histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babier, Aaron; Boutilier, Justin J.; Sharpe, Michael B.; McNiven, Andrea L.; Chan, Timothy C. Y.

    2018-05-01

    We developed and evaluated a novel inverse optimization (IO) model to estimate objective function weights from clinical dose-volume histograms (DVHs). These weights were used to solve a treatment planning problem to generate ‘inverse plans’ that had similar DVHs to the original clinical DVHs. Our methodology was applied to 217 clinical head and neck cancer treatment plans that were previously delivered at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Canada. Inverse plan DVHs were compared to the clinical DVHs using objective function values, dose-volume differences, and frequency of clinical planning criteria satisfaction. Median differences between the clinical and inverse DVHs were within 1.1 Gy. For most structures, the difference in clinical planning criteria satisfaction between the clinical and inverse plans was at most 1.4%. For structures where the two plans differed by more than 1.4% in planning criteria satisfaction, the difference in average criterion violation was less than 0.5 Gy. Overall, the inverse plans were very similar to the clinical plans. Compared with a previous inverse optimization method from the literature, our new inverse plans typically satisfied the same or more clinical criteria, and had consistently lower fluence heterogeneity. Overall, this paper demonstrates that DVHs, which are essentially summary statistics, provide sufficient information to estimate objective function weights that result in high quality treatment plans. However, as with any summary statistic that compresses three-dimensional dose information, care must be taken to avoid generating plans with undesirable features such as hotspots; our computational results suggest that such undesirable spatial features were uncommon. Our IO-based approach can be integrated into the current clinical planning paradigm to better initialize the planning process and improve planning efficiency. It could also be embedded in a knowledge-based planning or adaptive radiation therapy framework to

  12. Calibration of two complex ecosystem models with different likelihood functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, Dóra; Haszpra, László; Pintér, Krisztina; Nagy, Zoltán; Barcza, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    goodness metric on calibration. The different likelihoods are different functions of RMSE (root mean squared error) weighted by measurement uncertainty: exponential / linear / quadratic / linear normalized by correlation. As a first calibration step sensitivity analysis was performed in order to select the influential parameters which have strong effect on the output data. In the second calibration step only the sensitive parameters were calibrated (optimal values and confidence intervals were calculated). In case of PaSim more parameters were found responsible for the 95% of the output data variance than is case of BBGC MuSo. Analysis of the results of the optimized models revealed that the exponential likelihood estimation proved to be the most robust (best model simulation with optimized parameter, highest confidence interval increase). The cross-validation of the model simulations can help in constraining the highly uncertain greenhouse gas budget of grasslands.

  13. Dependence of transformer ratio on the shaper weighting function in transformer-coupled low noise preamplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripamonti, G.

    1987-10-01

    The optimum turn-ratio of transformers used for coupling large capacitance detectors to amplifiers is demonstrated to be dependent on the actual weighting function of the following shaper. As an example, the optimum finite cusp shaping with a flat top is considered. For this case, the optimum turn-ratio is found to be dependent on the flat top duration. As finite magnetizing inductance in real transformers produces diverging noise with unipolar shaping, flat-top tripolar zero-area shapers are also considered.

  14. On weighted hardy inequalities on semiaxis for functions vanishing at the endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanov

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the weighted Hardy inequalities on the semiaxis of the form ‖Fu‖2≤C‖F(kv‖2  (1 for functions vanishing at the endpoints together with derivatives up to the order k−1. The case k=2 is completely characterized.

  15. Calculation of ex-core detector weighting functions for a sodium-cooled tru burner mockup using MCNP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Nhu Viet Ha; Min Jae Lee; Sunghwan Yun; Sang Ji Kim

    2015-01-01

    Power regulation systems of fast reactors are based on the signals of excore detectors. The excore detector weighting functions, which establish correspondence between the core power distribution and detector signal, are very useful for detector response analyses, e.g., in rod drop experiments. This paper presents the calculation of the weighting functions for a TRU burner mockup of the Korean Prototype Generation-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (named BFS-76-1A) using the MCNP5 multi-group adjoint capability. For generation of the weighting functions, all fuel assemblies were considered and each of them was divided into ten horizontal layers. Then the weighting functions for individual fuel assembly horizontal layers, the assembly weighting functions, and the shape annealing functions at RCP (Reactor Critical Point) and at conditions under which a control rod group was fully inserted into the core while other control rods at RCP were determined and evaluated. The results indicate that the weighting functions can be considered relatively insensitive to the control rods position during the rod drop experiments and therefore those weighting values at RCP can be applied to the dynamic rod worth simulation for the BFS-76-1A. (author)

  16. Maternal Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Fetal Markers of Metabolic Function and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Fisher, Mandy; Morriset, Anne-Sophie; Monnier, Patricia; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Dallaire, Renee; Taback, Shayne; Fraser, William; Platt, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous, persistent chemicals that have been widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods for their nonflammable, lipophobic, and hydrophobic properties. Inverse associations between maternal or umbilical cord blood concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonate and birth weight have been identified. This literature has primarily examined each PFAS individually without consideration of the potential influence of correlated exposures. Further, the association between PFAS exposures and indicators of metabolic function (i.e., leptin and adiponectin) has received limited attention. We examined associations between first-trimester maternal plasma PFAS concentrations and birth weight and cord blood concentrations of leptin and adiponectin using data on 1,705 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada birth cohort study that recruited women between 2008 and 2011. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to quantify associations and calculate credible intervals. Maternal perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight z score, though the null value was included in all credible intervals (log10 β = −0.10, 95% credible interval: −0.34, 0.13). All associations between maternal PFAS concentrations and cord blood adipocytokine concentrations were of small magnitude and centered around the null value. Follow-up in a cohort of children is required to determine how the observed associations manifest in childhood. PMID:28172036

  17. Functional evaluation of the kidney by diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Taro; Hasegawa, Norio; Irie, Takeo; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffuse renal disease by diffusion-weighted echo planar magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (EPI). Ten volunteers, seven patients with chronic renal failure and eighteen recipients of renal transplants were examined with diffusion-weighted EPI. We compared renal function (serum creatinine level) with provided ADC value. The average ADC values were 2.63 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec for the whole kidney, 2.67 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec for the cortex and 2.61 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec for the medulla in normal kidneys. ADC values in the whole kidney, the cortex and the medulla in chronic renal failure were significantly lower than those for normal kidneys. In renal transplantation kidneys, the ADC values in the cortex were significantly lower than those for normal kidney. There was a linear correlation between ADC value and serum creatinine level. Our results show that diffusion-weighted MR imaging may be useful to identify renal dysfunction. (author)

  18. Functional MR imaging in the patients with complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Il; Chang, Kee Hyun; Song, In Chan; Goo, Jin Mo; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Sang Kun; Kim, Hong Dae; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Sam Soo

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of functional MR imaging (fMRI) for localization of the cerebral motor and sensory cortices and language center in patients with complex partial seizure. A total of 47 fMRIs were obtained in 14 patients (M:F = 9:5; age 15-50 years; 13 right handed and 1 ambidextrous) with complex partial seizure (6 temporal lobe epilepsy, 6 frontal lobe epilepsy, 1 occipitotemporal lobe epilepsy, 1 hemispheric epilepsy). Conventional MR imaging revealed no abnormality in four patients, localized cerebral atrophy in one, hippocampal sclerosis in four, and benign neoplasm in the remaining five. fMRI was performed on a 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon) using gradient-echo singleshot EPI. Nineteen fMRIs were obtained in eight patients who performed the language task, 16 fMRIs in ten who performed the motor task and 12 fMRIs in ten who performed the somatosensory task. The activation task consisted of three language tasks (silent picture naming , word generation from a character, categorical word generation), motor tasks (opposition of thumb and index finger for hand/dorsifexion or extension for foot), and sensory tasks (passive tactile stimulation of hand or foot using a toothbrush). The data were analyzed using z-score (p<0.05), clustering, and cross-correlation analysis based upon homemade software, IDL 5.1. The success rate for obtaining meaningful fMRI was evaluated and activated regions were assessed on the basis of each fMRI obtained during, language, motor, and somatosensory tasks. fMRI findings were compared with those of the Wada test (n = 7) for language lateralization and with invasive cortical mapping (n = 3) for the localization of eloquent cerebral cortex, especially around the central sulcus. The overall success rate of fMRI was 79 % (37/47); success rates of fMRI with language, sensory, and motor task were 89% (17/19), 83 % (10/12), and 63 % (10/16), respectively. Areas activated during language tasks (n=17) included the

  19. Understanding large multiprotein complexes: applying a multiple allosteric networks model to explain the function of the Mediator transcription complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brian A

    2010-01-15

    The regulation of transcription and of many other cellular processes involves large multi-subunit protein complexes. In the context of transcription, it is known that these complexes serve as regulatory platforms that connect activator DNA-binding proteins to a target promoter. However, there is still a lack of understanding regarding the function of these complexes. Why do multi-subunit complexes exist? What is the molecular basis of the function of their constituent subunits, and how are these subunits organized within a complex? What is the reason for physical connections between certain subunits and not others? In this article, I address these issues through a model of network allostery and its application to the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II Mediator transcription complex. The multiple allosteric networks model (MANM) suggests that protein complexes such as Mediator exist not only as physical but also as functional networks of interconnected proteins through which information is transferred from subunit to subunit by the propagation of an allosteric state known as conformational spread. Additionally, there are multiple distinct sub-networks within the Mediator complex that can be defined by their connections to different subunits; these sub-networks have discrete functions that are activated when specific subunits interact with other activator proteins.

  20. Intramolecular deactivation processes of electronically excited Lanthanide(III) complexes with organic acids of low molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Katja; Eidner, Sascha; Kuke, Stefanie; Kumke, Michael U.

    2018-02-01

    The luminescence of Lanthanide(III) complexes with different model ligands was studied under direct as well as sensitized excitation conditions. The research was performed in the context of studies dealing with deep-underground storages for high-level nuclear waste. Here, Lanthanide(III) ions served as natural analogues for Actinide(III) ions and the low-molecular weight organic ligands are present in clay minerals and furthermore, they were employed as proxies for building blocks of humic substances, which are important complexing molecules in the natural environment, e.g., in the far field of a repository site. Time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy was applied for a detailed characterization of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Dy(III) complexes in aqueous solutions. Based on the observed luminescence the ligands were tentatively divided into two groups (A, B). The luminescence of Lanthanide(III) complexes of group A was mainly influenced by an energy transfer to OH-vibrations. Lanthanide(III) complexes of group B showed ligand-related luminescence quenching, which was further investigated. To gain more information on the underlying quenching processes of group A and B ligands, measurements at different temperatures (77 K ≤ T ≤ 353 K) were performed and activation energies were determined based on an Arrhenius analysis. Moreover, the influence of the ionic strength between 0 M ≤ I ≤ 4 M on the Lanthanide(III) luminescence was monitored for different complexes, in order to evaluate the influence of specific conditions encountered in host rocks foreseen as potential repository sites.

  1. Weighted complex network analysis of the Beijing subway system: Train and passenger flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jia; Li, Xiamiao; Mao, Baohua; Xu, Qi; Bai, Yun

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, complex network theory has become an important approach to the study of the structure and dynamics of traffic networks. However, because traffic data is difficult to collect, previous studies have usually focused on the physical topology of subway systems, whereas few studies have considered the characteristics of traffic flows through the network. Therefore, in this paper, we present a multi-layer model to analyze traffic flow patterns in subway networks, based on trip data and an operation timetable obtained from the Beijing Subway System. We characterize the patterns in terms of the spatiotemporal flow size distributions of both the train flow network and the passenger flow network. In addition, we describe the essential interactions between these two networks based on statistical analyses. The results of this study suggest that layered models of transportation systems can elucidate fundamental differences between the coexisting traffic flows and can also clarify the mechanism that causes these differences.

  2. SU-F-BRD-01: A Logistic Regression Model to Predict Objective Function Weights in Prostate Cancer IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutilier, J; Chan, T; Lee, T; Craig, T; Sharpe, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a statistical model that predicts optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulation radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) is applied retrospectively to determine optimal weights for 51 treated patients. We use an overlap volume ratio (OVR) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions in order to quantify patient geometry in explanatory variables. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, we develop and train a logistic regression (LR) model to predict the rectum weight and thus the bladder weight. Post hoc, we fix the weights of the left femoral head, right femoral head, and an artificial structure that encourages conformity to the population average while normalizing the bladder and rectum weights accordingly. The population average of objective function weights is used for comparison. Results: The OVR at 0.7cm was found to be the most predictive of the rectum weights. The LR model performance is statistically significant when compared to the population average over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and mean voxel dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. On average, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that are both 63% closer to the optimal weights compared to the population average. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights have, on average, a rectum V70Gy that is 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that is 43% closer. Similar results are seen for bladder V54Gy and rectum V54Gy. Conclusion: Statistical modelling from patient anatomy can be used to determine objective function weights in IMRT for prostate cancer. Our method allows the treatment planners to begin the personalization process from an informed starting point, which may lead to more consistent clinical plans and reduce overall planning time

  3. SU-F-BRD-01: A Logistic Regression Model to Predict Objective Function Weights in Prostate Cancer IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutilier, J; Chan, T; Lee, T [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Craig, T; Sharpe, M [University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); The Princess Margaret Cancer Centre - UHN, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a statistical model that predicts optimization objective function weights from patient geometry for intensity-modulation radiotherapy (IMRT) of prostate cancer. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) is applied retrospectively to determine optimal weights for 51 treated patients. We use an overlap volume ratio (OVR) of bladder and rectum for different PTV expansions in order to quantify patient geometry in explanatory variables. Using the optimal weights as ground truth, we develop and train a logistic regression (LR) model to predict the rectum weight and thus the bladder weight. Post hoc, we fix the weights of the left femoral head, right femoral head, and an artificial structure that encourages conformity to the population average while normalizing the bladder and rectum weights accordingly. The population average of objective function weights is used for comparison. Results: The OVR at 0.7cm was found to be the most predictive of the rectum weights. The LR model performance is statistically significant when compared to the population average over a range of clinical metrics including bladder/rectum V53Gy, bladder/rectum V70Gy, and mean voxel dose to the bladder, rectum, CTV, and PTV. On average, the LR model predicted bladder and rectum weights that are both 63% closer to the optimal weights compared to the population average. The treatment plans resulting from the LR weights have, on average, a rectum V70Gy that is 35% closer to the clinical plan and a bladder V70Gy that is 43% closer. Similar results are seen for bladder V54Gy and rectum V54Gy. Conclusion: Statistical modelling from patient anatomy can be used to determine objective function weights in IMRT for prostate cancer. Our method allows the treatment planners to begin the personalization process from an informed starting point, which may lead to more consistent clinical plans and reduce overall planning time.

  4. A functional approach to cerebral visual impairments in very preterm/very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, Christiaan J A; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Dik, Marjolein; Kok, Joke H; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-08-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a major cause of visual impairment, with very preterm birth/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) being a major risk factor. There is no generally accepted definition of CVI. This study aims to investigate the usefulness of an empirically-based functional definition of CVI. One-hundred-five VP/VLBW children and 67 controls participated. CVI was defined after comprehensive oculomotor, visual sensory and perceptive assessment, and validated against vision problems in daily life and in terms of intellectual, behavioral, emotional and social functioning, as well as use of therapeutic services. Twenty-four per cent of the VP/VLBW children met criteria for CVI, compared to 7% of controls (P = 0.006, OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.40-10.70). VP/VLBW children with CVI had lower performance IQ, but not verbal IQ, than those without CVI. Visual problems in daily life were confirmed in VP/VLBW children classified with CVI. Additionally, difficulties in behavioral and social functioning were most prominent among VP/VLBW children with CVI. In VP/VLBW children, CVI defined in terms of visual function deficits is accompanied by intellectual, behavioral, and social impairments, validating our operational definition of CVI. CVI might act as a marker for developmental problems in VP/VLBW children.

  5. Analytic evaluation of the weighting functions for remote sensing of blackbody planetary atmospheres : the case of limb viewing geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent publication (Ustinov, 2002), we proposed an analytic approach to evaluation of radiative and geophysical weighting functions for remote sensing of a blackbody planetary atmosphere, based on general linearization approach applied to the case of nadir viewing geometry. In this presentation, the general linearization approach is applied to the limb viewing geometry. The expressions, similar to those obtained in (Ustinov, 2002), are obtained for weighting functions with respect to the distance along the line of sight. Further on, these expressions are converted to the expressions for weighting functions with respect to the vertical coordinate in the atmosphere. Finally, the numerical representation of weighting functions in the form of matrices of partial derivatives of grid limb radiances with respect to the grid values of atmospheric parameters is used for a convolution with the finite field of view of the instrument.

  6. High Molecular Weight Glucan of the Culinary Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus bisporus is an α-Glucan that Forms Complexes with Low Molecular Weight Galactan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J. Wichers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An a-glucan was isolated from the culinary medicinal mushroom A. bisporus by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The resulting material showed a single HMW peak excluded from a Sephadex G50 column that could completely be degraded by α-amylase treatment. After heating in 1% SDS a small additional peak of low MW eluted from the G50 column. The monosaccharide composition of the main peak was evaluated by HPLC, and was found to consist of a majority of glucose (97.6%, and a minor proportion of galactose (2.4%. Methylation analysis and degradation by a-amylase indicated the presence of an a-glucan with a main chain consisting of (1®4-linked units, substituted at O-6 by α-D-glucopyranose single-units in the relation 1:8. Mono- (13C-, 1H-NMR and bidimensional [1H (obs.,13C-HSQC] spectroscopy analysis confirmed the a-configuration of the Glcp residues by low frequency resonances of C-1 at d 100.6, 100.2, and 98.8 ppm and H-1 high field ones at d 5.06, 5.11, and 4.74 ppm. The DEPT-13C-NMR allowed assigning the non-substituted and O-substituted –CH2 signals at d 60.3/60.8 and 66.2 ppm, respectively. Other assignments were attributed to C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5 and C-6 of the non-reducing ends at d 71.8; 72.8; 70.0; 71.3 and 60.3/60.8 ppm, respectively. The minor proportion of galactose that was demonstrated was probably derived from a complex between the a-glucan and a low molecular weight galactan.

  7. A mathematical function to evaluate surgical complexity of cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Posadas, M R; Vega-Alvarado, L; Toni, B

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this work is to show the modeling of a similarity function adapted to the medical environment using the logical-combinatorial approach of pattern recognition theory, and its application comparing the condition of patients with congenital malformations in the lip and/or palate, which are called cleft-primary palate and/or cleft-secondary palate, respectively. The similarity function is defined by the comparison criteria determined for each variable, taking into account their type (qualitative or quantitative), their domain and their initial space representation. In all, we defined 18 variables, with their domains and six different comparison criteria (fuzzy and absolute difference type). The model includes, further, the importance of every variable as well as a weight which reflects the surgical complexity of the cleft. Likewise, the usefulness of this function is shown by calculating the similarity among three patients. This work was developed jointly with the Cleft Palate Team at the Reconstructive Surgery Service of the Pediatric Hospital of Tacubaya, which belongs to the Health Institute of the Federal District in Mexico City.

  8. Evolution of disorder in Mediator complex and its functional relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagulapalli, Malini; Maji, Sourobh; Dwivedi, Nidhi; Dahiya, Pradeep; Thakur, Jitendra K

    2016-02-29

    Mediator, an important component of eukaryotic transcriptional machinery, is a huge multisubunit complex. Though the complex is known to be conserved across all the eukaryotic kingdoms, the evolutionary topology of its subunits has never been studied. In this study, we profiled disorder in the Mediator subunits of 146 eukaryotes belonging to three kingdoms viz., metazoans, plants and fungi, and attempted to find correlation between the evolution of Mediator complex and its disorder. Our analysis suggests that disorder in Mediator complex have played a crucial role in the evolutionary diversification of complexity of eukaryotic organisms. Conserved intrinsic disordered regions (IDRs) were identified in only six subunits in the three kingdoms whereas unique patterns of IDRs were identified in other Mediator subunits. Acquisition of novel molecular recognition features (MoRFs) through evolution of new subunits or through elongation of the existing subunits was evident in metazoans and plants. A new concept of 'junction-MoRF' has been introduced. Evolutionary link between CBP and Med15 has been provided which explain the evolution of extended-IDR in CBP from Med15 KIX-IDR junction-MoRF suggesting role of junction-MoRF in evolution and modulation of protein-protein interaction repertoire. This study can be informative and helpful in understanding the conserved and flexible nature of Mediator complex across eukaryotic kingdoms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Frequency domain Monte Carlo simulation method for cross power spectral density driven by periodically pulsed spallation neutron source using complex-valued weight Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cross power spectral density in ADS has correlated and uncorrelated components. • A frequency domain Monte Carlo method to calculate the uncorrelated one is developed. • The method solves the Fourier transformed transport equation. • The method uses complex-valued weights to solve the equation. • The new method reproduces well the CPSDs calculated with time domain MC method. - Abstract: In an accelerator driven system (ADS), pulsed spallation neutrons are injected at a constant frequency. The cross power spectral density (CPSD), which can be used for monitoring the subcriticality of the ADS, is composed of the correlated and uncorrelated components. The uncorrelated component is described by a series of the Dirac delta functions that occur at the integer multiples of the pulse repetition frequency. In the present paper, a Monte Carlo method to solve the Fourier transformed neutron transport equation with a periodically pulsed neutron source term has been developed to obtain the CPSD in ADSs. Since the Fourier transformed flux is a complex-valued quantity, the Monte Carlo method introduces complex-valued weights to solve the Fourier transformed equation. The Monte Carlo algorithm used in this paper is similar to the one that was developed by the author of this paper to calculate the neutron noise caused by cross section perturbations. The newly-developed Monte Carlo algorithm is benchmarked to the conventional time domain Monte Carlo simulation technique. The CPSDs are obtained both with the newly-developed frequency domain Monte Carlo method and the conventional time domain Monte Carlo method for a one-dimensional infinite slab. The CPSDs obtained with the frequency domain Monte Carlo method agree well with those with the time domain method. The higher order mode effects on the CPSD in an ADS with a periodically pulsed neutron source are discussed

  10. Orientation-weighted local Minkowski functionals in 3D for quantitative assessment of trabecular bone structure in the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, H. F.; Bitterling, H.; Weber, C.; Kuhn, V.; Eckstein, F.; Reiser, M.

    2007-03-01

    Fragility fractures or pathologic fractures of the hip, i.e. fractures with no apparent trauma, represent the worst complication in osteoporosis with a mortality close to 25% during the first post-traumatic year. Over 90% of hip fractures result from falls from standing height. A substantial number of femoral fractures are initiated in the femoral neck or the trochanteric regions which contain an internal architecture of trabeculae that are functionally highly specialized to withstand the complex pattern of external and internal forces associated with human gait. Prediction of the mechanical strength of bone tissue can be achieved by dedicated texture analysis of data obtained by high resolution imaging modalities, e.g. computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance tomography (MRI). Since in the case of the proximal femur, the connectivity, regional distribution and - most of all - the preferred orientation of individual trabeculae change considerably within narrow spatial limits, it seems most reasonable to evaluate the femoral bone structure on an orientation-weighted, local scale. In past studies, we could demonstrate the advantages of topological analysis of bone structure using the Minkowski Functionals in 3D on a global and on a local scale. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the prediction of the mechanical competence of the proximal femur by a new algorithm considering orientational changes of topological properties in the trabecular architecture is feasible and better suited than conventional methods based on the measurement of the mineral density of bone tissue (BMD).

  11. Calculation of spatial weighting functions for ex-core detectors of VVER-440 reactors by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berki, T.

    2003-01-01

    The signal of ex-core detectors depends not only on the total power of a reactor but also on the power distribution. The spatial weighting function establishes correspondence between the power distribution and the detector signal. The weighting function is independent of the power distribution. The weighting function is used for detector-response analyses, for example in the case of rod-drop experiments. (1) The paper describes the calculation and analysis of the weighting function of a VVER-440. The three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP is used for the evaluation. Results from forward and adjoint calculations are compared. The effect of the change in the concentration of boric acid is also investigated. The evaluation of the spatial weighting function is a fixed-source neutron transport problem, which can be solved much faster by adjoint calculation, however forward calculations provide more detailed results. It is showed that the effect of boric acid upon the weighting function is negligible. (author)

  12. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Sh Vagapova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different body weight indexes. So, the results of investigation can help to come to the conclusion about the absence of true correlation between body weight and functional thyroid state in female adolescents with irregular menses.

  13. The Impact of Acute Loss of Weight on Eustachian Tube Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascoto, Gabriela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The eustachian tube is one of the key structures responsible for the functional balance of the middle ear. Some clinical conditions associated with tubal malfunction can cause extremely unpleasant symptoms. These symptoms could be triggered by acute loss of weight, for example, after bariatric surgery. Objective To evaluate the frequency and intensity of auditory tube dysfunction symptoms in obese patients after bariatric surgery. Methods Nineteen patients with accepted formal indications for bariatric surgery underwent a hearing evaluation (otoscopy, tonal and vocal audiometry, and impedanceometry and a hearing questionnaire before, at the time of, 3 months after surgery (first postoperative evaluation, and 6 months (second postoperative evaluation after surgery. Patients with a history of ear disease or ear surgery were excluded. Results None of the patients reported tubal dysfunction symptoms before surgery. Postsurgical results showed that 5 (26.3% patients presented symptoms related to dysfunction of the eustachian tube at the first postoperative evaluation. After the 6-month follow-up, 9 (47.3% patients reported symptoms of tubal dysfunction. Conclusion This study suggests that bariatric surgery can cause symptoms of eustachian tube dysfunction, probably due to rapid weight loss and the consequent loss of peritubal fat.

  14. Evaluation of renal function with dynamic MRI-T2-weighted gradient echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuya

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic MRI of kidneys in healthy volunteers and patients with different 24-hour creatinine clearance (Ccr) levels, a dynamic study that employed the T2 weighted gradient echo technique (FLASH: TR/TE=34/25 msec, flip angle= 20 degrees) with single images during breathhold was performed on 10 healthy volunteers and 35 patients, all examined for the Ccr and suspected of having renal parenchymal disease after a phantom study. T1-weighted and dynamic MR imagings were obtained with a 1.5T imager. I analyzed the time-intensity curve of renal cortex and medulla, and defined a cortex decreased ratio (CDR) and medulla decreased ratio (MDR) in comparison with the Ccr. The cortico-medullary difference ratio (CMDR) of T1WI was also compared with the Ccr. The parameters of the T2 dynamic MRI study (CDR, MDR) better correlated with the Ccr than CMDR. Renal function can be quantitatively evaluated with the T2 dynamic MRI and there is a possibility that we can qualitatively evaluate the renal dysfunction and estimate its cause. (author)

  15. Modeling production functions and economic weights in intensive meat production of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Mariam; Cruz, Danny Julio; Blasco, Agustín

    2017-10-01

    A profit function for a typical commercial farm of intensive guinea pig production was designed. The simulated farm contained 86 cages with a ratio of 7:1 females/males, with continuous mating. Kits were weaned at 15 days of age and slaughtered for meat production at 90 days of age. The absolute (EW) and relative economic weights of the main traits were calculated. The highest EW were kits produced per kindling (US$25), kits weaned per kindling (US$22), kits born alive per kindling (US$20), and the number of kindlings per female and year (US$12). Profit, returns, and costs per female and year were US$15, 68, and 53, respectively. Returns came from the production of young guinea pigs and discarded reproductive adults for meat production, 90 and 10% of the total returns. The highest costs were feeding and labor, 44 and 23% of the total cost. The EW and profit did not substantially change when simulating variations of ±20% in the prices of kilograms of fattening feed and kilograms of live weight of guinea pig, showing their robustness to future variations in market prices or to variations in prices between countries. The results obtained highlight the importance of the feeding costs in the guinea pig meat production.

  16. Chronic kidney disease: Pathological and functional evaluation with intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Zhou, Jianjun; Zeng, Mengsu; Ding, Yuqin; Qu, Lijie; Chen, Caizhong; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Yaqiong; Fu, Caixia

    2018-05-01

    Because chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide problem, accurate pathological and functional evaluation is required for planning treatment and follow-up. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) can assess both capillary perfusion and tissue diffusion and may be helpful in evaluating renal function and pathology. To evaluate functional and pathological alterations in CKD by applying IVIM-DWI. Prospective study. In all, 72 CKD patients who required renal biopsy and 20 healthy volunteers. 1.5T. All subjects underwent IVIM-DWI of the kidneys, and image analysis was performed by two radiologists. The mean values of true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) were acquired from renal parenchyma. Correlation between IVIM-DWI parameters and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as well as pathological damage, were assessed. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), paired sample t-test and Spearman correlation analysis. The paired sample t-test revealed that IVIM-DWI parameters were significantly lower in medulla than cortex for both patients and controls (P Imaging 2018;47:1251-1259. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Surface functionalization of solid state ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene through chemical grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Rehman, Tayyiba; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Shaikh, Ahson Jabbar; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Raza, Rizwan; Waseem, Amir

    2015-12-01

    The surface of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder was functionalized with styrene using chemical grafting technique. The grafting process was initiated through radical generation on base polymer matrix in the solid state by sodium thiosulfate, while peroxides formed at radical sites during this process were dissociated by ceric ammonium nitrate. Various factors were optimized and reasonably high level of monomer grafting was achieved, i.e., 15.6%. The effect of different acids as additive and divinyl benzene (DVB) as a cross-linking agent was also studied. Post-grafting sulfonation was conducted to introduce the ionic moieties to the grafted polymer. Ion-exchange capacity (IEC) was measured experimentally and is found to be 1.04 meq g-1, which is in close agreement with the theoretical IEC values. The chemical structure of grafted and functionalized polymer was characterized by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal properties were investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermal analysis depicts that the presence of radicals on the polymer chain accelerates the thermal decomposition process. The results signify that the chemical grafting is an effective tool for substantial surface modification and subsequent functionalization of polyethylene.

  18. Tests of potential functional barriers for laminated multilayer food packages. Part I: Low molecular weight permeants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simal-Gándara, J; Sarria-Vidal, M; Koorevaar, A; Rijk, R

    2000-08-01

    The advent of the functional barrier concept in food packaging has brought with it a requirement for fast tests of permeation through potential barrier materials. In such tests it would be convenient for both foodstuffs and materials below the functional barrier (sub-barrier materials) to be represented by standard simulants. By means of inverse gas chromatography, liquid paraffin spiked with appropriate permeants was considered as a potential simulant of sub-barrier materials based on polypropylene (PP) or similar polyolefins. Experiments were performed to characterize the kinetics of the permeation of low molecular weight model permeants (octene, toluene and isopropanol) from liquid paraffin, through a surrogate potential functional barrier (25 microns-thick oriented PP) into the food stimulants olive oil and 3% (w/v) acetic acid. These permeation results were interpreted in terms of three permeation kinetic models regarding the solubility of a particular model permeant in the post-barrier medium (i.e. the food simulant). The results obtained justify the development and evaluation of liquid sub-barrier simulants that would allow flexible yet rigorous testing of new laminated multilayer packaging materials.

  19. On the growth estimates of entire functions of double complex variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Datta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently Datta et al. (2016 introduced the idea of relative type and relative weak type of entire functions of two complex variables with respect to another entire function of two complex variables and prove some related growth properties of it. In this paper, further we study some growth properties of entire functions of two complex variables on the basis of their relative types and relative weak types as introduced by Datta et al (2016.

  20. Weighted-density functional approach for the solid-liquid interfaces in electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepanova, T.A.; Stekolnikov, A.V.

    1991-09-01

    A weighted-density functional method is proposed to describe the atomic structure of the crystal-melt interface in electrolytes based on a charged-hard-sphere model of salt. The contribution of long-range Coulomb interaction is taken into account in the field formulation: the electrostatic field potential is determined from the Poisson equation. The ion density profiles and crystalline order parameter at the crystal-melt interface in the 1:1 symmetric electrolytes are calculated. The structurization of liquid near the solid surface is described. The results are compared to those for the neutral hard sphere system. The impurity distributions of extremely small concentrations are calculated both for the neutral and charged hard sphere systems. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  1. Forecasting business cycle with chaotic time series based on neural network with weighted fuzzy membership functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Soo H.; Lim, Joon S.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a forecasting model of cyclical fluctuations of the economy based on the time delay coordinate embedding method. The model uses a neuro-fuzzy network called neural network with weighted fuzzy membership functions (NEWFM). The preprocessed time series of the leading composite index using the time delay coordinate embedding method are used as input data to the NEWFM to forecast the business cycle. A comparative study is conducted using other methods based on wavelet transform and Principal Component Analysis for the performance comparison. The forecasting results are tested using a linear regression analysis to compare the approximation of the input data against the target class, gross domestic product (GDP). The chaos based model captures nonlinear dynamics and interactions within the system, which other two models ignore. The test results demonstrated that chaos based method significantly improved the prediction capability, thereby demonstrating superior performance to the other methods.

  2. A pair of biorthogonal polynomials for the Szegö-Hermite weight function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Thakare

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A pair of polynomial sequences {Snμ(x;k} and {Tmμ(x;k} where Snμ(x;k is of degree n in xk and Tmμ(x;k is of degree m in x, is constructed. It is shown that this pair is biorthogonal with respect to the Szegö-Hermite weight function |x|2μexp(−x2, (μ>−1/2 over the interval (−∞,∞ in the sense that∫−∞∞|x|2μexp(−x2Snμ(x;kTmμ(x;kdx=0,   ifm≠n                    ≠0,   ifm=nwhere m,n=0,1,2,… and k is an odd positive integer.

  3. Sea Surface Temperature Modeling using Radial Basis Function Networks With a Dynamically Weighted Particle Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Duchwan

    2013-03-01

    The sea surface temperature (SST) is an important factor of the earth climate system. A deep understanding of SST is essential for climate monitoring and prediction. In general, SST follows a nonlinear pattern in both time and location and can be modeled by a dynamic system which changes with time and location. In this article, we propose a radial basis function network-based dynamic model which is able to catch the nonlinearity of the data and propose to use the dynamically weighted particle filter to estimate the parameters of the dynamic model. We analyze the SST observed in the Caribbean Islands area after a hurricane using the proposed dynamic model. Comparing to the traditional grid-based approach that requires a supercomputer due to its high computational demand, our approach requires much less CPU time and makes real-time forecasting of SST doable on a personal computer. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  4. Reference levels in PTCA as a function of procedure complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterzol, A.; Quai, E.; Padovani, R.; Bernardi, G.; Kotre, C. J.; Dowling, A.

    2005-01-01

    The multicentre assessment of a procedure complexity index (CI) for the introduction of reference levels (RLs) in percutaneous transluminal coronary angio-plasties (PTCA) is presented here. PTCAs were investigated based on methodology proposed by Bernardi et al. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, including clinical, anatomical and technical factors, was performed to obtain fluoroscopy time predictors. Based on these regression coefficients, a scoring system was defined and CI obtained. CI was used to classify dose values into three groups: low, medium and high complexity procedures, since there was good correlation (r = 0.41; P 2 , and 12, 20 and 27 min for fluoroscopy time, for the three CI groups. (authors)

  5. Functional imaging of parotid glands: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, C.R.; Cramer, M.C.; Gossrau, P.; Adam, G. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Graessner, J. [Siemens AG, Hamburg (Germany). Medical Solutions; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Oto-, Rhino-, Laryngology; Fiehler, J. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Neuroradiology; Schoder, V. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) for measuring different functional conditions of the parotid gland and to compare different measurement approaches. Materials and Methods: Parotid glands of 27 healthy volunteers were examined with a DW EPI sequence (TR 1,500 msec, TE 77 msec, field-of-view 250 x 250 mm, pixel size 2.10 x 1.95 mm, section thickness 5 mm) before and after oral stimulation with commercially available lemon juice. The b factors used were 0, 500, and 1,000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain) and evaluated with a manually placed circular region of interest (ROI) containing 100-200 pixel. Additional ROIs including the entire parotid gland were placed on either side. The results of both measurements were compared, using the Student's t test based on the median ADC values for each person. A two-tailed p-value of less than.05 was determined to indicate statistical significance. To compare both measurement approaches, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was calculated. Results: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging successfully visualized the parotid gland of all volunteers. In a first step, the median ADC value per person was computed. Using ROIs of 100-200 pixels, the mean was calculated to be 1.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands prior to simulation. After stimulation, the mean ADC was measured at 1.15 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands. Evaluating the entire parotid gland, the ADC was 1.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec prior to simulation, whereas the ADC increased to 1.18 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec after simulation with lemon juice. For both types of measurements, the increase in ADC after

  6. Polystyrene with pendant mixed functional ruthenium(II)-terpyridine complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, M.; Schubert, U.S.

    2002-01-01

    A vinyl substituted 2,2:6,2-terpyridine and a mixed, bifunctional ruthenium(II)-terpyridine complex bearing a vinyl and a hydroxymethyl group are utilized as comonomers for radical copolymerization with styrene. The resulting polymers are characterized by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and gel

  7. Structure and function of the spermathecal complex in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sandfly are compared with those of other insect species. ... Psychodidae): I. Ultrastructure and histology; J. Biosci. ... of P. papatasi, which was maintained at 26°C and 75% .... bular, 1 µm wide structure runs in a zig-zag course from ... Figure 3. (A) SEM of the isolated spermathecal complex. The spermathecae (SP) are.

  8. Application of functional derivatives to analysis of complex systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Zdeněk; Čelikovský, Sergej

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 350, č. 10 (2013), s. 2982-2993 ISSN 0016-0032 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20433S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : complex systems * linear equation * modeling Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.260, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/TR/beran-0398123.pdf

  9. Spin Propensities of Octahedral Complexes From Density Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Sara R.; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2015-01-01

    assessment of spin state propensities versus ligand and metal type and reveal, e.g., that CN- is consistently weaker than CO for M(II) but stronger than CO for M(III) and SCN- and NCS- change order in M(II) versus M(III) complexes. Contrary to expectation based on the spectrochemical series, Cl- and Br...

  10. Effective control of complex turbulent dynamical systems through statistical functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Andrew J; Qi, Di

    2017-05-30

    Turbulent dynamical systems characterized by both a high-dimensional phase space and a large number of instabilities are ubiquitous among complex systems in science and engineering, including climate, material, and neural science. Control of these complex systems is a grand challenge, for example, in mitigating the effects of climate change or safe design of technology with fully developed shear turbulence. Control of flows in the transition to turbulence, where there is a small dimension of instabilities about a basic mean state, is an important and successful discipline. In complex turbulent dynamical systems, it is impossible to track and control the large dimension of instabilities, which strongly interact and exchange energy, and new control strategies are needed. The goal of this paper is to propose an effective statistical control strategy for complex turbulent dynamical systems based on a recent statistical energy principle and statistical linear response theory. We illustrate the potential practical efficiency and verify this effective statistical control strategy on the 40D Lorenz 1996 model in forcing regimes with various types of fully turbulent dynamics with nearly one-half of the phase space unstable.

  11. Functional weight-bearing mobilization after Achilles tendon rupture enhances early healing response: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkering, Kars P; Aufwerber, Susanna; Ranuccio, Francesco; Lunini, Enricomaria; Edman, Gunnar; Ackermann, Paul W

    2017-06-01

    Functional weight-bearing mobilization may improve repair of Achilles tendon rupture (ATR), but the underlying mechanisms and outcome were unknown. We hypothesized that functional weight-bearing mobilization by means of increased metabolism could improve both early and long-term healing. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, patients with acute ATR were randomized to either direct post-operative functional weight-bearing mobilization (n = 27) in an orthosis or to non-weight-bearing (n = 29) plaster cast immobilization. During the first two post-operative weeks, 15°-30° of plantar flexion was allowed and encouraged in the functional weight-bearing mobilization group. At 2 weeks, patients in the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group received a stiff orthosis, while the functional weight-bearing mobilization group continued with increased range of motion. At 6 weeks, all patients discontinued immobilization. At 2 weeks, healing metabolites and markers of procollagen type I (PINP) and III (PIIINP) were examined using microdialysis. At 6 and 12 months, functional outcome using heel-rise test was assessed. Healing tendons of both groups exhibited increased levels of metabolites glutamate, lactate, pyruvate, and of PIIINP (all p bearing mobilization group demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of glutamate compared to the non-weight-bearing cast immobilization group (p = 0.045).The upregulated glutamate levels were significantly correlated with the concentrations of PINP (r = 0.5, p = 0.002) as well as with improved functional outcome at 6 months (r = 0.4; p = 0.014). Heel-rise tests at 6 and 12 months did not display any differences between the two groups. Functional weight-bearing mobilization enhanced the early healing response of ATR. In addition, early ankle range of motion was improved without the risk of Achilles tendon elongation and without altering long-term functional outcome. The relationship between

  12. Reduced body weight or increased muscle quality: Which is more important for improving physical function following exercise and weight loss in overweight and obese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Berg, Alison C; Reed, Rachelle A; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M

    2018-04-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d). Body composition was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle quality (N-m/kg) was defined as maximal concentric isokinetic knee torque divided by upper-leg lean mass. The standardized scores of four objective measures of physical function were summed to yield a composite LEPF Z-score. At 6 months, there were significant reductions in body weight (-9.6 ± 3.5%, p quality (+1.6 ± 1.8 N-m/kg, p quality was the strongest independent predictor of an improvement in LEPF Z-score (standardized β = 0.64, p quality. In conclusion, muscle quality can be increased in the presence of clinically meaningful weight loss, and is the primary determinant of improved physical function in overweight/obese older women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerobic mitochondria of parasitic protists: Diverse genomes and complex functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zíková, Alena; Hampl, Vladimír; Paris, Zdeněk; Týč, Jiří; Lukeš, Julius

    In this review the main features of the mitochondria of aerobic parasitic protists are discussed. While the best characterized organelles are by far those of kinetoplastid flagellates and Plasmodium, we also consider amoebae Naegleria and Acanthamoeba, a ciliate Ichthyophthirius and related lineages. The simplistic view of the mitochondrion as just a power house of the cell has already been abandoned in multicellular organisms and available data indicate that this also does not apply for protists. We discuss in more details the following mitochondrial features: genomes, post-transcriptional processing, translation, biogenesis of iron-sulfur complexes, heme metabolism and the electron transport chain. Substantial differences in all these core mitochondrial features between lineages are compatible with the view that aerobic protists harbor organelles that are more complex and flexible than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of molecular weight and degree of conjugation on the thermodynamics of DNA complexation and stability of polyethylenimine-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan J; Beck, Rachel W; Prevette, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is often conjugated to polyethylenimine (PEI) to provide colloidal stability to PEI-DNA polyplexes and shield charge leading to toxicity. Here, a library of nine cationic copolymers was synthesized by grafting three molecular weights (750, 2000, 5000Da) of PEG to linear PEI at three conjugation ratios. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we have quantified the thermodynamics of the associations between the copolymers and DNA and determined the extent to which binding is hindered as a function of PEG molecular weight and conjugation ratio. Low conjugation ratios of 750Da PEG to PEI resulted in little decrease in DNA affinity, but a significant decrease-up to two orders of magnitude-was found for the other copolymers. We identified limitations in determination of affinity using indirect assays (electrophoretic mobility shift and ethidium bromide exclusion) commonly used in the field. Dynamic light scattering of the DNA complexes at physiological ionic strength showed that PEI modifications that did not reduce DNA affinity also did not confer significant colloidal stability, a finding that was supported by calorimetric data on the aggregation process. These results quantify the DNA interaction thermodynamics of PEGylated polycations for the first time and indicate that there is an optimum PEG chain length and degree of substitution in the design of agents that have desirable properties for effective in vivo gene delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. wACSF—Weighted atom-centered symmetry functions as descriptors in machine learning potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastegger, M.; Schwiedrzik, L.; Bittermann, M.; Berzsenyi, F.; Marquetand, P.

    2018-06-01

    We introduce weighted atom-centered symmetry functions (wACSFs) as descriptors of a chemical system's geometry for use in the prediction of chemical properties such as enthalpies or potential energies via machine learning. The wACSFs are based on conventional atom-centered symmetry functions (ACSFs) but overcome the undesirable scaling of the latter with an increasing number of different elements in a chemical system. The performance of these two descriptors is compared using them as inputs in high-dimensional neural network potentials (HDNNPs), employing the molecular structures and associated enthalpies of the 133 855 molecules containing up to five different elements reported in the QM9 database as reference data. A substantially smaller number of wACSFs than ACSFs is needed to obtain a comparable spatial resolution of the molecular structures. At the same time, this smaller set of wACSFs leads to a significantly better generalization performance in the machine learning potential than the large set of conventional ACSFs. Furthermore, we show that the intrinsic parameters of the descriptors can in principle be optimized with a genetic algorithm in a highly automated manner. For the wACSFs employed here, we find however that using a simple empirical parametrization scheme is sufficient in order to obtain HDNNPs with high accuracy.

  16. Endothelial dysfunction and functional status of intestinal mucosal barrier in asphyxiated low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseynova S.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The main prpose of present study was to determine the effect of endothelial dysfunction to the levels of markers of functional state of digestive system in infants with perinatal hypoxia. Materials and methods. The neuronal dysfunction was detected basing on the levels of NSE and NR2 antibodies. The functional state of gastrointestinal tract was estimated by IFABP, sLFABP, MUC-2, ITF, LBP. As the markers of endothelial dysfunction it was detected endotelin-1 and NO. The concentrations of markers were determined in peripheral blood of 66 preterm newborns exposure intrauterine hypoxia with 32–36 weeks of gestational age, which were classified as asphyxiated (1st group, n=30, non asphyxiated (2nd group, n=36 infants. Control group consisted of 22 healthy preterm babies. Results. It was not detected significant difference of NSE and NR2 antibodies levels between 1st and 2nd groups. The endothelin-1 concentrations significantly decreased in asphyxiated group in the background of high NO levels. The elevated level of IFABP in asphyxiated infants associated with compensative increasing of ITF and low anti endotoxine immunity. Conclusion. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the main factor resulting in hypoxic-ischemic injury of gastrointestinal tract in asphyxiated low birth weight infants.

  17. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported an association between low birth weight and low adult lung function, but findings have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether birth weight is associated with both the level and the decline in adult lung function in general...... population. METHODS: The Danish Inter99 study is a population-based intervention study in adults aged 30-60 years, providing information on birth weight and lung function on 4428 participants. Of these, 2931 participants performed spirometry at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression...... models were used to examine the association between birth weight and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and age-related decline in these variables. Analyses were conducted stepwise including sex, age, adult height, abdominal circumference, birth height, mother...

  18. Functional SNP associated with birth weight in independent populations identified with a permutation step added to GBLUP-GWAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted as an initial assessment of a newly available genotyping assay containing about 34,000 common SNP included on previous SNP chips, and 199,000 sequence variants predicted to affect gene function. Objectives were to identify functional variants associated with birth weight in...

  19. Generation of new solutions of the stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations by a double complex function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Z.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to the solution of certain differential equations, the double complex function method, is developed, combining ordinary complex numbers and hyperbolic complex numbers. This method is applied to the theory of stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations in general relativity. A family of exact double solutions, double transformation groups, and n-soliton double solutions are obtained

  20. Use of the complex error function in the EPR and NMR spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez D, H.; Cabral P, A.

    1991-08-01

    In this work it is demonstrated that the complex magnetic susceptibility of a spin system, it can be written in terms of the complex error function. It is also made notice that this function with α = 0 it satisfies the Kramers-Kronig relationships. (Author)

  1. Functional Complexity and Web Site Design : Evaluating the Online Presence of UNESCO World Heritage Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Menno D.T.; Wu, Yuguang

    2018-01-01

    Functional complexity is a widespread and underresearched phenomenon in Web sites. This article explores a specific case of functional complexity by analyzing the content of UNESCO World Heritage Web sites, which have to meet demands from both World Heritage and tourism perspectives. Based on a

  2. Post-weaning and whole-of-life performance of pigs is determined by live weight at weaning and the complexity of the diet fed after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie L. Collins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production performance and financial outcomes associated with weaner diet complexity for pigs of different weight classes at weaning were examined in this experiment. A total of 720 weaner pigs (360 entire males and 360 females were selected at weaning (27 ± 3 d and allocated to pens of 10 based on individual weaning weight (light weaning weight: pigs below 6.5 kg; medium weaning weight: 6.5 to 8 kg; heavy weaning weight: above 8.5 kg. Pens were then allocated in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the respective factors being weaning weight (heavy, medium and light; H, M and L, respectively, weaner diet complexity (high complexity/cost, HC; low complexity/cost, LC, and gender (male and female. Common diets were fed to both treatment groups during the final 4 weeks of the weaner period (a period of 39 days. In the first 6 d after weaning, pigs offered the HC diets gained weight faster and used feed more efficiently than those offered the LC diets (P = 0.031. Pigs fed a HC diet after weaning tended to be heavier at the sale live weight of 123 d of age compared with pigs fed the LC diet (P = 0.056. There were no other main effects of the feeding program on growth performance through to slaughter. Weaning weight had a profound influence on lifetime growth performance and weight at 123 d of age, with H pigs at weaning increasing their weight advantage over the M and L pigs (101.3, 97.1, 89.6 kg respectively, P < 0.001. Cost-benefit analyses suggested there was a minimal benefit in terms of cost per unit live weight gain over lifetime when pigs were offered a HC feeding program to L, with a lower feed cost/kg gain. The results from this investigation confirm the impact of weaning weight on lifetime growth performance, and suggest that a HC feeding program should be focused on L weaner pigs (i.e., weaning weight less than 6.5 kg at 27 d of age in order to maximise financial returns.

  3. A methodology for evaluating weighting functions using MCNP and its application to PWR ex-core analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchia, Marco; Vasiliev, Alexander; Ferroukhi, Hakim; Pautz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluation of neutron source importance for a given tally. • Assessment of ex-core detector response plus its uncertainty. • Direct use of neutron track evaluated by a Monte Carlo neutron transport code. - Abstract: The ex-core neutron detectors are commonly used to control reactor power in light water reactors. Therefore, it is relevant to understand the importance of a neutron source to the ex-core detectors response. In mathematical terms, this information is conveniently represented by the so called weighting functions. A new methodology based on the MCNP code for evaluating the weighting functions starting from the neutron history database is presented in this work. A simultaneous evaluation of the weighting functions in a user-given Cartesian coverage mesh is the main advantage of the method. The capability to generate weighting functions simultaneously in both spatial and energy ranges is the innovative part of this work. Then, an interpolation tool complements the methodology, allowing the generation of weighting functions up to the pin-by-pin fuel segment, where a direct evaluation is not possible due to low statistical precision. A comparison to reference results provides a verification of the methodology. Finally, an application to investigate the role of ex-core detectors spatial location and core burnup for a Swiss nuclear power plant is provided.

  4. Functional polymeric materials : Complexing amphiphiles as structure-inducing elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, G.; Ikkala, O.

    2003-01-01

    Self-assembly of polymeric comb-shaped supramolecules is a powerful tool to prepare functional materials. Enhanced conductivity due to hexagonal self-organization of conducting polyaniline and polarized photoluminance in solid-state films of rodlike poly(2,5-pyridinediyl) obtained by removing

  5. STABILITY OF A FUNCTIONAL EQUATION IN COMPLEX BANACH SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRATAP MONDAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using fixed point technique, in the present paper , we wish to examine gen- eralization of the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability theorem for the functional equations f ( 2 x + i y + f ( x + 2 i y = 4 f ( x + i y + f ( x + f ( y (0.1 and f ( 2 x + i y .

  6. The CORVET complex: compositions, function, and impact on cellular behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, CTH

    2016-01-01

    The endolysosomal system is positioned on the crossroad of the intracellular and extracellular environment and is therefore crucial to regulate many cellular processes. Proper function of the endolysosomal system greatly depends on the concept of membrane identity; the controlled protein and lipid

  7. Cobalt dinitrosoalkane complexes in the C-H functionalization of olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Jennifer M; Boyd, W Christopher; Stewart, Ian C; Toste, F Dean; Bergman, Robert G

    2008-03-26

    The use of cobalt dinitrosoalkane complexes in the C-H functionalization of alkenes has been demonstrated. Reaction of a series of alkenes with Me4CpCo(CO)2 in the presence of NO generates intermediate cobalt dinitrosoalkane complexes that can be deprotonated alpha to the nitrosyl group and added to various Michael acceptors. The resultant products can then undergo retrocycloaddition reactions in the presence of the original alkene to regenerate the starting cobalt dinitrosoalkane complex and release the functionalized alkene.

  8. Family functioning and quality of parent-adolescent relationship: cross-sectional associations with adolescent weight-related behaviors and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horton, Nicholas J; Kleinman, Ken; Bauer, Katherine W; Davison, Kirsten K; Walton, Kathryn; Austin, S Bryn; Field, Alison E; Gillman, Matthew W

    2016-06-14

    Little is known about how factors within the general family environment are associated with weight and related behaviors among adolescents/young adults. We studied 3768 females and 2614 males, 14-24 years old in 2011, participating in the Growing Up Today Study 2. We used generalized mixed models to examine cross-sectional associations of family functioning and quality of mother- and father-adolescent relationship with adolescent/young adult weight status, disordered eating, intake of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages, screen time, physical activity, and sleep duration. In all models, we included participant's age and family structure. Eighty percent of participants reported high family functioning and 60% and 50% of participants reported high-quality mother and father relationship, respectively. Among both males and females, high family functioning was associated with lower odds of disordered eating (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] females = 0.53; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.45-0.63; AOR males = 0.48; CI = 0.39-0.60), insufficient physical activity, i.e., less than 1 h/day, (AOR females = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89; AOR males = 0.73; CI = 0.58-0.92), and insufficient sleep, i.e., less than 7 h/day, (AOR females = 0.56; CI = 0.45-0.68; AOR males = 0.65; CI 0.5-0.85). High family functioning was also associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese (AOR = 0.73; CI = 0.60-0.88) and eating fast food one or more times/week (AOR = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89) among females only. Among females, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese and disordered eating, eating fast food, and insufficient sleep and the magnitude of associations were similar for mother and father relationship quality (AOR range 0.61-0.84). Among males, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of disordered eating, insufficient physical activity

  9. Thyroid function and body weight in girls with irregular menstrual cycle living in mild iodine deficiency region

    OpenAIRE

    L Sh Vagapova; O D Konstantinova; Ya I Koz; L M Shukshina; E O Skrynnik

    2011-01-01

    To establish the relation of body weight indexes and functional state of thyroid in female adolescents with menstrual cycle disorder, living in the iodine-deficiency region, the investigation was conducted in 130 female adolescents with irregular menses. Obesity incidence and overweight in them was 18.5%, body weight deficiency was 43.8%.37.7% of the girls had normal body weight. Statistically significant differences were not defined according to TSH, fT4 and fT3 in patients with different bo...

  10. Relations of thyroid function to body weight: cross-sectional and longitudinal observations in a community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline S; Pencina, Michael J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Murabito, Joanne M; Seely, Ellen W; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2008-03-24

    Overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism may be associated with weight gain and loss. We assessed whether variations in thyroid function within the reference (physiologic) range are associated with body weight. Framingham Offspring Study participants (n=2407) who attended 2 consecutive routine examinations, were not receiving thyroid hormone therapy, and had baseline serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations of 0.5 to 5.0 mIU/L and follow-up concentrations of 0.5 to 10.0 mIU/L were included in this study. Baseline TSH concentrations were related to body weight and body weight change during 3.5 years of follow-up. At baseline, adjusted mean weight increased progressively from 64.5 to 70.2 kg in the lowest to highest TSH concentration quartiles in women (Pweight increased by 1.5 (5.6) kg in women and 1.0 (5.0) kg in men. Baseline TSH concentrations were not associated with weight change during follow-up. However, an increase in TSH concentration at follow-up was positively associated with weight gain in women (0.5-2.3 kg across increasing quartiles of TSH concentration change; Pweight in both sexes. Our findings raise the possibility that modest increases in serum TSH concentrations within the reference range may be associated with weight gain.

  11. The Complex Function of Hsp70 in Metastatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhasz, Kata; Lipp, Anna-Maria; Nimmervoll, Benedikt; Sonnleitner, Alois; Hesse, Jan; Haselgruebler, Thomas; Balogi, Zsolt, E-mail: zsolt.balogi@cbl.at [Center for Advanced Bioanalysis GmbH, Gruberstr. 40-42, A-4020 Linz (Austria)

    2013-12-20

    Elevated expression of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is known to correlate with poor prognosis in many cancers. Hsp70 confers survival advantage as well as resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, and promotes tumor cell invasion. At the same time, tumor-derived extracellular Hsp70 has been recognized as a “chaperokine”, activating antitumor immunity. In this review we discuss localization dependent functions of Hsp70 in the context of invasive cancer. Understanding the molecular principles of metastasis formation steps, as well as interactions of the tumor cells with the microenvironment and the immune system is essential for fighting metastatic cancer. Although Hsp70 has been implicated in different steps of the metastatic process, the exact mechanisms of its action remain to be explored. Known and potential functions of Hsp70 in controlling or modulating of invasion and metastasis are discussed.

  12. Boolean Functions with a Simple Certificate for CNF Complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepek, O.; Kučera, P.; Savický, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 160, 4-5 (2012), s. 365-382 ISSN 0166-218X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP201/07/P168; GA ČR(CZ) GAP202/10/1188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean functions * CNF representations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2012

  13. The Complex Functioning of the Human Brain: The Two Hemispheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Cristina Timofti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals just a glimpse of the possible functions and reactions that the human brain can have. I considered as good examples different situations characteristic both of a normal person and a split-brain one. These situations prove that the brain, although divided in two, works as a unit, as an amazing computer that has data processing as a main goal.

  14. The correlation of metrics in complex networks with applications in functional brain networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C; Wang, H; Van Mieghem, P; De Haan, W; Stam, C J

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of network metrics have been applied in network analysis. If metric relations were known better, we could more effectively characterize networks by a small set of metrics to discover the association between network properties/metrics and network functioning. In this paper, we investigate the linear correlation coefficients between widely studied network metrics in three network models (Bárabasi–Albert graphs, Erdös–Rényi random graphs and Watts–Strogatz small-world graphs) as well as in functional brain networks of healthy subjects. The metric correlations, which we have observed and theoretically explained, motivate us to propose a small representative set of metrics by including only one metric from each subset of mutually strongly dependent metrics. The following contributions are considered important. (a) A network with a given degree distribution can indeed be characterized by a small representative set of metrics. (b) Unweighted networks, which are obtained from weighted functional brain networks with a fixed threshold, and Erdös–Rényi random graphs follow a similar degree distribution. Moreover, their metric correlations and the resultant representative metrics are similar as well. This verifies the influence of degree distribution on metric correlations. (c) Most metric correlations can be explained analytically. (d) Interestingly, the most studied metrics so far, the average shortest path length and the clustering coefficient, are strongly correlated and, thus, redundant. Whereas spectral metrics, though only studied recently in the context of complex networks, seem to be essential in network characterizations. This representative set of metrics tends to both sufficiently and effectively characterize networks with a given degree distribution. In the study of a specific network, however, we have to at least consider the representative set so that important network properties will not be neglected

  15. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Improves Endothelial Function in Pregnant Women at High Risk of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kelsey; Baczyk, Dora; Potts, Audrey; Hladunewich, Michelle; Parker, John D; Kingdom, John C P

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been investigated for the prevention of severe preeclampsia, although the mechanisms of action are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of LMWH in pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia. Pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia (n=25) and low-risk pregnant controls (n=20) at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation underwent baseline cardiovascular assessments. High-risk women were then randomized to LMWH or saline placebo (30 mg IV bolus and 1 mg/kg subcutaneous dose). Cardiovascular function was assessed 1 and 3 hours post randomization. The in vitro endothelial effects of patient serum and exogenous LMWH on human umbilical venous endothelial cells were determined. High-risk women demonstrated a reduced cardiac output, high resistance hemodynamic profile with impaired radial artery flow-mediated dilation compared with controls. LMWH increased flow-mediated dilation in high-risk women 3 hours after randomization compared with baseline and increased plasma levels of placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and myeloperoxidase. Serum from high-risk women impaired endothelial cell angiogenesis and increased PlGF-1 and PlGF-2 transcription compared with serum from low-risk controls. Coexposure of high-risk serum with LMWH improved the in vitro angiogenic response such that it was equivalent to that of low-risk serum and promoted placental growth factor secretion. LMWH improves maternal endothelial function in pregnant women at high risk of developing preeclampsia, possibly mediated through increased placental growth factor bioavailability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. The weighted function method: A handy tool for flood frequency analysis or just a curiosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Ewa; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Strupczewski, Witold G.

    2018-04-01

    The idea of the Weighted Function (WF) method for estimation of Pearson type 3 (Pe3) distribution introduced by Ma in 1984 has been revised and successfully applied for shifted inverse Gaussian (IGa3) distribution. Also the conditions of WF applicability to a shifted distribution have been formulated. The accuracy of WF flood quantiles for both Pe3 and IGa3 distributions was assessed by Monte Caro simulations under the true and false distribution assumption versus the maximum likelihood (MLM), moment (MOM) and L-moments (LMM) methods. Three datasets of annual peak flows of Polish catchments serve the case studies to compare the results of the WF, MOM, MLM and LMM performance for the real flood data. For the hundred-year flood the WF method revealed the explicit superiority only over the MLM surpassing the MOM and especially LMM both for the true and false distributional assumption with respect to relative bias and relative mean root square error values. Generally, the WF method performs well and for hydrological sample size and constitutes good alternative for the estimation of the flood upper quantiles.

  17. Evaluation of renal allograft function early after transplantation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberger, Ute; Frey, Felix J.; Thoeny, Harriet C.; Binser, Tobias; Boesch, Chris; Gugger, Mathias; Vermathen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To determine the inter-patient variability of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and concurrent micro-circulation contributions from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) in renal allografts early after transplantation, and to obtain initial information on whether these measures are altered in histologically proven acute allograft rejection (AR). DW-MRI was performed in 15 renal allograft recipients 5-19 days after transplantation. Four patients presented with AR and one with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Total ADC (ADC T ) was determined, which includes diffusion and micro-circulation contributions. Furthermore, diffusion and micro-circulation contributions were separated, yielding the ''perfusion fraction'' (F P ), and ''perfusion-free'' diffusion (ADC D ). Diffusion parameters in the ten allografts with stable function early after transplantation demonstrated low variabilities. Values for ADC T and ADC D were (x 10 -5 mm 2 /s) 228 ± 14 and 203 ± 9, respectively, in cortex and 226 ± 16 and 199 ± 9, respectively, in medulla. F P values were 18 ± 5% in cortex and 19 ± 5% in medulla. F P values were strongly reduced to less than 12% in cortex and medulla of renal transplants with AR and ATN. F P values correlated with creatinine clearance. DW-MRI allows reliable determination of diffusion and micro-circulation contributions in renal allografts shortly after transplantation; deviations in AR indicate potential clinical utility of this method to non-invasively monitor derangements in renal allografts. (orig.)

  18. Functional MRI procedures in the diagnosis of brain tumors. Perfusion- and diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M.; Heiland, S.; Sartor, K.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the increased diagnostic accuracy of contrast material enhanced MR imaging, specification and grading of brain tumors are still only approximate at best: neither morphology, nor relaxation times or contrast material enhancement reliably predict tumor histology or tumor grade. As histology and tumor grade strongly influence which therapy concept is chosen, a more precise diagnosis is mandatory. With diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI, PWI) it is now possible to obtain important information regarding the cellular matrix and the relative regional cerebral blood volume (rrCBV) of brain tumors, which cannot be obtained with standard MR techniques. These dynamic-functional imaging techniques are very useful in the preoperative diagnosis of gliomas, lymphomas, and metastases, as well as in the differentiation of these neoplastic lesions from abscesses, atypical ischemic infarctions, and tumor-like manifestations of demyelinating disease. Additionally, they appear suitable for determining glioma grade and regions of active tumor growth which should be the target of stereotactic biopsy and therapy. After therapy these techniques are helpful to better assess the tumor response to therapy, possible therapy failure and therapy complications such as radiation necrosis. (orig.) [de

  19. Complexity Quantification for Overhead Transmission Line Emergency Repair Scheme via a Graph Entropy Method Improved with Petri Net and AHP Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of emergency repair in overhead transmission line accidents, a complexity quantification method for emergency repair scheme is proposed based on the entropy method in software engineering, which is improved by using group AHP (analytical hierarchical process method and Petri net. Firstly, information structure chart model and process control flowchart model could be built by Petri net. Then impact factors on complexity of emergency repair scheme could be quantified into corresponding entropy values, respectively. Finally, by using group AHP method, weight coefficient of each entropy value would be given before calculating the overall entropy value for the whole emergency repair scheme. By comparing group AHP weighting method with average weighting method, experiment results for the former showed a stronger correlation between quantified entropy values of complexity and the actual consumed time in repair, which indicates that this new method is more valid.

  20. Functionalization of sol-gel zirconia composites with europium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchova, Nina; Gutzov, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Different sol-gel strategies based on functionalization of ZrO 2 :Eu microparticles with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and incorporation of colloidal Eu(phen) 2 (NO 3 ) 3 into zirconia have been used to obtain hybrid sol-gel composites with controlled optical properties. The process leads to materials with quantum yields of about 48 % monitoring the 615 nm emission line at 350 nm excitation. Excitation/luminescence spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been used to characterize the hybrid zirconia composites. (orig.)

  1. Maternal thyroid function, prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain-The Generation R Study: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collares, Fernanda M; Korevaar, Tim I M; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Peeters, Robin P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-12-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are associated with pregnancy complications. Thyroid function is related to differences in body mass index (BMI) in adult populations. We examined the associations of maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy with maternal BMI and weight gain during pregnancy. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 5726 mothers, we measured maternal TSH and FT4 levels at 13.5 weeks of gestation (95% range: 9.7-17.6 weeks). Maternal weight was assessed before pregnancy and in each trimester. Higher maternal TSH levels were associated with higher prepregnancy BMI (difference: 0.18 kg/m 2 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.36] per SD increase in maternal TSH level) and higher total gestational weight gain (difference: 0.02 kg/wk [95% CI: 0.01, 0.03] per SD increase in maternal TSH level). Higher maternal FT4 levels were associated with lower prepregnancy BMI (difference: -0.44 kg/m 2 [95% CI: -0.63, -0.26] per SD increase in maternal FT4 level) and lower total gestational weight gain (difference: -0.01 kg/wk [95% CI: -0.02, -0.01] per SD increase in maternal FT4 level). The associations of maternal thyroid function with weight gain in early pregnancy were stronger than those with weight gain in mid and late-pregnancy. Maternal hypothyroidism was associated with higher prepregnancy BMI and early pregnancy weight gain, whereas opposite effects were observed for maternal hyperthyroidism (Pgain. Further studies are needed to explore maternal and foetal consequences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Hybrid Complexes of High and Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronans Highly Enhance HASCs Differentiation: Implication for Facial Bioremodelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Stellavato

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs are used in Regenerative Medicine, including fat grafting, recovery from local tissue ischemia and scar remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate hyaluronan based gel effects on ASCs differentiation and proliferation. Methods: Comparative analyses using high (H and low (L molecular weight hyaluronans (HA, hyaluronan hybrid cooperative complexes (HCCs, and high and medium cross-linked hyaluronan based dermal fillers were performed. Human ASCs were characterized by flow cytometry using CD90, CD34, CD105, CD29, CD31, CD45 and CD14 markers. Then, cells were treated for 7, 14 and 21 days with hyaluronans. Adipogenic differentiation was evaluated using Oil red-O staining and expression of leptin, PPAR-γ, LPL and adiponectin using qRT-PCR. Adiponectin was analyzed by immunofluorescence, PPAR-γ and adiponectin were analyzed using western blotting. ELISA assays for adiponectin and leptin were performed. Results: HCCs highly affected ASCs differentiation by up-regulating adipogenic genes and related proteins, that were also secreted in the culture medium. H-HA and L-HA induced a lower level of ASCs differentiation. Conclusion: HCCs-based formulations clearly enhance adipogenic differentiation and proliferation, when compared with linear HA and cross-linked hyaluronans. Injection of HCCs in subdermal fat compartment may recruit and differentiate stem cells in adipocytes, and considerably improving fat tissue renewal.

  3. Computational complexity of time-dependent density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, J D; Yung, M-H; Tempel, D G; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Boixo, S

    2014-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is rapidly emerging as a premier method for solving dynamical many-body problems in physics and chemistry. The mathematical foundations of TDDFT are established through the formal existence of a fictitious non-interacting system (known as the Kohn–Sham system), which can reproduce the one-electron reduced probability density of the actual system. We build upon these works and show that on the interior of the domain of existence, the Kohn–Sham system can be efficiently obtained given the time-dependent density. We introduce a V-representability parameter which diverges at the boundary of the existence domain and serves to quantify the numerical difficulty of constructing the Kohn-Sham potential. For bounded values of V-representability, we present a polynomial time quantum algorithm to generate the time-dependent Kohn–Sham potential with controllable error bounds. (paper)

  4. Long-range weight functions in fundamental measure theory of the non-uniform hard-sphere fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen-Goos, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We introduce long-range weight functions to the framework of fundamental measure theory (FMT) of the non-uniform, single-component hard-sphere fluid. While the range of the usual weight functions is equal to the hard-sphere radius R , the modified weight functions have range 3 R . Based on the augmented FMT, we calculate the radial distribution function g (r) up to second order in the density within Percus’ test particle theory. Consistency of the compressibility and virial routes on this level allows us to determine the free parameter γ of the theory. As a side result, we obtain a value for the fourth virial coefficient B 4 which deviates by only 0.01% from the exact result. The augmented FMT is tested for the dense fluid by comparing results for g (r) calculated via the test particle route to existing results from molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement at large distances (r   >  6 R) is significantly improved when the FMT with long-range weight functions is used. In order to improve agreement close to contact (r   =  2 R) we construct a free energy which is based on the accurate Carnahan–Starling equation of state, rather than the Percus–Yevick compressibility equation underlying standard FMT. (paper)

  5. Improved Function With Enhanced Protein Intake per Meal: A Pilot Study of Weight Reduction in Frail, Obese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Pieper, Carl F; Orenduff, Melissa C; McDonald, Shelley R; McClure, Luisa B; Zhou, Run; Payne, Martha E; Bales, Connie W

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction. In this 6-month randomized controlled trial, 67 obese (body mass index ≥30kg/m(2)) older (≥60 years) adults with a Short Physical Performance Battery score of 4-10 were randomly assigned to a traditional (Control) weight loss regimen or one with higher protein intake (>30g) at each meal (Protein). All participants were prescribed a hypo-caloric diet, and weighed and provided dietary guidance weekly. Physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) and lean mass (BOD POD), along with secondary measures, were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. At the 6-month endpoint, there was significant (p < .001) weight loss in both the Control (-7.5±6.2kg) and Protein (-8.7±7.4kg) groups. Both groups also improved function but the increase in the Protein (+2.4±1.7 units; p < .001) was greater than in the Control (+0.9±1.7 units; p < .01) group (p = .02). Obese, functionally limited older adults undergoing a 6-month weight loss intervention with a meal-based enhancement of protein quantity and quality lost similar amounts of weight but had greater functional improvements relative to the Control group. If confirmed, this dietary approach could have important implications for improving the functional status of this vulnerable population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01715753). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  6. Experimentation on accuracy of non functional requirement prioritization approaches for different complexity projects

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Kumar Chopra; Varun Gupta; Durg Singh Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Non functional requirements must be selected for implementation together with functional requirements to enhance the success of software projects. Three approaches exist for performing the prioritization of non functional requirements using the suitable prioritization technique. This paper performs experimentation on three different complexity versions of the industrial software project using cost-value prioritization technique employing three approaches. Experimentation is conducted to analy...

  7. Microscopic universality of complex matrix model correlation functions at weak non-Hermiticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, G.

    2002-01-01

    The microscopic correlation functions of non-chiral random matrix models with complex eigenvalues are analyzed for a wide class of non-Gaussian measures. In the large-N limit of weak non-Hermiticity, where N is the size of the complex matrices, we can prove that all k-point correlation functions including an arbitrary number of Dirac mass terms are universal close to the origin. To this aim we establish the universality of the asymptotics of orthogonal polynomials in the complex plane. The universality of the correlation functions then follows from that of the kernel of orthogonal polynomials and a mapping of massive to massless correlators

  8. Typological diversity of tall buildings and complexes in relation to their functional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalov, Viktor P.; Generalova, Elena M.; Kalinkina, Nadezhda A.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper focuses on peculiarities of tall buildings and complexes, their typology and its formation in relation to their functional structure. The research is based on the analysis of tall buildings and complexes and identifies the following main functional elements of their formation: residential, administrative (office), hotel elements. The paper also considers the following services as «disseminated» in the space-planning structure: shops, medicine, entertainment, kids and sports facilities, etc., their location in the structure of the total bulk of the building and their impact on typological diversity. Research results include suggestions to add such concepts as «single-function tall buildings» and «mixed-use tall buildings and complexes» into the classification of tall buildings. In addition, if a single-function building or complex performs serving functions, it is proposed to add such concepts as «a residential tall building (complex) with provision of services», «an administrative (public) tall building (complex) with provision of services» into the classification of tall buildings. For mixed-use buildings and complexes the following terms are suggested: «a mixed-use tall building with provision of services», «a mixed-use tall complex with provision of services».

  9. Evaluation of renal allograft function early after transplantation with diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberger, Ute; Frey, Felix J. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Bern (Switzerland); Thoeny, Harriet C. [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Binser, Tobias; Boesch, Chris [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Gugger, Mathias [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Pathology, Bern (Switzerland); Vermathen, Peter [University Hospital of Bern, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Department of Clinical Research/AMSM, Pavillon 52, Inselspital, P.O. Box 35, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    To determine the inter-patient variability of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and concurrent micro-circulation contributions from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) in renal allografts early after transplantation, and to obtain initial information on whether these measures are altered in histologically proven acute allograft rejection (AR). DW-MRI was performed in 15 renal allograft recipients 5-19 days after transplantation. Four patients presented with AR and one with acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Total ADC (ADC{sub T}) was determined, which includes diffusion and micro-circulation contributions. Furthermore, diffusion and micro-circulation contributions were separated, yielding the ''perfusion fraction'' (F{sub P}), and ''perfusion-free'' diffusion (ADC{sub D}). Diffusion parameters in the ten allografts with stable function early after transplantation demonstrated low variabilities. Values for ADC{sub T} and ADC{sub D} were (x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s) 228 {+-} 14 and 203 {+-} 9, respectively, in cortex and 226 {+-} 16 and 199 {+-} 9, respectively, in medulla. F{sub P} values were 18 {+-} 5% in cortex and 19 {+-} 5% in medulla. F{sub P} values were strongly reduced to less than 12% in cortex and medulla of renal transplants with AR and ATN. F{sub P} values correlated with creatinine clearance. DW-MRI allows reliable determination of diffusion and micro-circulation contributions in renal allografts shortly after transplantation; deviations in AR indicate potential clinical utility of this method to non-invasively monitor derangements in renal allografts. (orig.)

  10. Discovering functional interdependence relationship in PPI networks for protein complex identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Winnie W M; Chan, Keith C C

    2012-04-01

    Protein molecules interact with each other in protein complexes to perform many vital functions, and different computational techniques have been developed to identify protein complexes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. These techniques are developed to search for subgraphs of high connectivity in PPI networks under the assumption that the proteins in a protein complex are highly interconnected. While these techniques have been shown to be quite effective, it is also possible that the matching rate between the protein complexes they discover and those that are previously determined experimentally be relatively low and the "false-alarm" rate can be relatively high. This is especially the case when the assumption of proteins in protein complexes being more highly interconnected be relatively invalid. To increase the matching rate and reduce the false-alarm rate, we have developed a technique that can work effectively without having to make this assumption. The name of the technique called protein complex identification by discovering functional interdependence (PCIFI) searches for protein complexes in PPI networks by taking into consideration both the functional interdependence relationship between protein molecules and the network topology of the network. The PCIFI works in several steps. The first step is to construct a multiple-function protein network graph by labeling each vertex with one or more of the molecular functions it performs. The second step is to filter out protein interactions between protein pairs that are not functionally interdependent of each other in the statistical sense. The third step is to make use of an information-theoretic measure to determine the strength of the functional interdependence between all remaining interacting protein pairs. Finally, the last step is to try to form protein complexes based on the measure of the strength of functional interdependence and the connectivity between proteins. For performance evaluation

  11. A global weighted mean temperature model based on empirical orthogonal function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinzheng; Chen, Peng; Sun, Langlang; Ma, Xiaping

    2018-03-01

    A global empirical orthogonal function (EOF) model of the tropospheric weighted mean temperature called GEOFM_Tm was developed using high-precision Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) Atmosphere Tm data during the years 2008-2014. Due to the quick convergence of EOF decomposition, it is possible to use the first four EOF series, which consists base functions Uk and associated coefficients Pk, to represent 99.99% of the overall variance of the original data sets and its spatial-temporal variations. Results show that U1 displays a prominent latitude distribution profile with positive peaks located at low latitude region. U2 manifests an asymmetric pattern that positive values occurred over 30° in the Northern Hemisphere, and negative values were observed at other regions. U3 and U4 displayed significant anomalies in Tibet and North America, respectively. Annual variation is the major component of the first and second associated coefficients P1 and P2, whereas P3 and P4 mainly reflects both annual and semi-annual variation components. Furthermore, the performance of constructed GEOFM_Tm was validated by comparison with GTm_III and GTm_N with different kinds of data including GGOS Atmosphere Tm data in 2015 and radiosonde data from Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) in 2014. Generally speaking, GEOFM_Tm can achieve the same accuracy and reliability as GTm_III and GTm_N models in a global scale, even has improved in the Antarctic and Greenland regions. The MAE and RMS of GEOFM_Tm tend to be 2.49 K and 3.14 K with respect to GGOS Tm data, respectively; and 3.38 K and 4.23 K with respect to IGRA sounding data, respectively. In addition, those three models have higher precision at low latitude than middle and high latitude regions. The magnitude of Tm remains at the range of 220-300 K, presented a high correlation with geographic latitude. In the Northern Hemisphere, there was a significant enhancement at high latitude region reaching 270 K during summer

  12. Effect of 48 h Fasting on Autonomic Function, Brain Activity, Cognition, and Mood in Amateur Weight Lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The acute fasting-induced cardiovascular autonomic response and its effect on cognition and mood remain debatable. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of a 48 h, zero-calorie diet on autonomic function, brain activity, cognition, and mood in amateur weight lifters. Methods. Nine participants completed a 48 h, zero-calorie diet program. Cardiovascular autonomic function, resting frontal brain activity, cognitive performance, and mood were evaluated before and after fasting. Results. Fasting decreased (p Fasting decreased (p Fasting also increased (p fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and decreased resting frontal brain activity, increased anger, and improved prefrontal-cortex-related cognitive functions, such as mental flexibility and set shifting, in amateur weight lifters. In contrast, hippocampus-related cognitive functions were not affected by it. PMID:28025637

  13. Neural responses to visual food cues according to weight status: a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursey, Kirrilly M; Stanwell, Peter; Callister, Robert J; Brain, Katherine; Collins, Clare E; Burrows, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence from recent neuroimaging studies suggests that specific food-related behaviors contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of this review was to report the neural responses to visual food cues, as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in humans of differing weight status. Published studies to 2014 were retrieved and included if they used visual food cues, studied humans >18 years old, reported weight status, and included fMRI outcomes. Sixty studies were identified that investigated the neural responses of healthy weight participants (n = 26), healthy weight compared to obese participants (n = 17), and weight-loss interventions (n = 12). High-calorie food images were used in the majority of studies (n = 36), however, image selection justification was only provided in 19 studies. Obese individuals had increased activation of reward-related brain areas including the insula and orbitofrontal cortex in response to visual food cues compared to healthy weight individuals, and this was particularly evident in response to energy dense cues. Additionally, obese individuals were more responsive to food images when satiated. Meta-analysis of changes in neural activation post-weight loss revealed small areas of convergence across studies in brain areas related to emotion, memory, and learning, including the cingulate gyrus, lentiform nucleus, and precuneus. Differential activation patterns to visual food cues were observed between obese, healthy weight, and weight-loss populations. Future studies require standardization of nutrition variables and fMRI outcomes to enable more direct comparisons between studies.

  14. Improved Function With Enhanced Protein Intake per Meal: A Pilot Study of Weight Reduction in Frail, Obese Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Pieper, Carl F.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; McDonald, Shelley R.; McClure, Luisa B.; Zhou, Run; Payne, Martha E.; Bales, Connie W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction. Methods: In this 6-month randomized controlled trial, 67 obese (body mass index ?30kg/m2) older (?60 years) adults with a Short Physical Performa...

  15. Calculation of the weighting function and determination of the depth of correlation in micro-PIV from experimental particle images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, M; Seemann, R; Wieneke, B

    2014-01-01

    Micro-particle image velocimetry (µPIV) uses volume-illumination and imaging of particles through a single microscope objective. Displacement fields are obtained by image correlation and depend on all imaged particles, including defocused particles. The measured in-plane displacement is a weighted spatial average of the true displacement, with a weighting function W(z) that depends on the optical system and flow-gradients. The characteristic width of the weighting function W(z) is also referred to as depth of correlation (DOC) and is a measure up to which distance from the focal plane particles influence the measurement, which is crucial for the interpretation of measured flow fields. We present procedures to determine the W(z) from which the DOC can be derived and to directly determine the DOC from PIV double images, generated from experimentally recorded particle images. Both procedures provide comparable DOC results. Our approach allows determination of the DOC and W(z)as a function of out of plane gradients, optical setup parameters and PIV-analysis parameters. Experimental results for different objectives and particle sizes are discussed, revealing substantial deviations from theoretical predictions for high NA air-objectives. Moreover, using the determined weighting function W(z), the correction of measured flow profiles for errors introduced by the spatial averaging is demonstrated. (paper)

  16. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  17. Evaluation of an effect on nuclear characteristics by correcting the weighting function in JFS-3-J3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Gou

    2001-12-01

    The fast reactor group constant set JFS-3-J3.2 based on the newest evaluated nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 has been widely used in the fast reactor analysis. However, it was recently found that there was a serious error in the process of applying the weighting function, a collision density spectrum in the inner core of ''MONJU'' as a representative of fast reactor spectrum. In this report, an effect of the error on nuclear characteristics was evaluated by a comparison with a new reactor group constant set which was produced by a standard reactor group constant set producing system of JNC with a correction of the weighting function. This report shows that the error of weighting function induces incorrect evaluation of neutron energy spectrum due to underestimation of scattering removal cross sections, and hence nuclear characteristics, such as criticality, sample Doppler reactivity, sodium void reactivity and reaction rate in a blanket region, are significantly affected. In addition, this report provides detailed information evaluated by separating ''an effect of new generation reactor group constant'' into more specific effects (i.e. an effect of correcting weighting function, an effect of differences in used cell codes and an effect of ultra fine group constant), which would be useful to investigate further on ''an effect of new generation reactor group constant''. (author)

  18. Good Functional Recovery of Complex Elbow Dislocations Treated With Hinged External Fixation: A Multicenter Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordens, Gijs I. T.; den Hartog, Dennis; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.; de Haan, Jeroen; Patka, Peter; Verhofstad, Michael H. J.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Bronkhorst, M. W. G. A.; de Vries, M. R.; Goslings, J. C.; Rhemrev, S. J.; Roukema, G. R.; van der Meulen, H. G. W. M.; Verleisdonk, E. J. M. M.; Vroemen, J. P. A. M.; Wittich, Ph

    2015-01-01

    After a complex dislocation, some elbows remain unstable after closed reduction or fracture treatment. Function after treatment with a hinged external fixator theoretically allows collateral ligaments to heal without surgical reconstruction. However, there is a lack of prospective studies that

  19. Good Functional Recovery of Complex Elbow Dislocations Treated With Hinged External Fixation: A Multicenter Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.T. Iordens (Gijs); D. den Hartog (Dennis); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); J. de Haan (Jeroen); P. Patka (Peter); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); N.W.L. Schep (Niels)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: After a complex dislocation, some elbows remain unstable after closed reduction or fracture treatment. Function after treatment with a hinged external fixator theoretically allows collateral ligaments to heal without surgical reconstruction. However, there is a lack of

  20. Compact composition operators on real Banach spaces of complex-valued bounded Lipschitz functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Alimohammadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We characterize compact composition operators on real Banachspaces of complex-valued bounded Lipschitz functions on metricspaces, not necessarily compact, with Lipschitz involutions anddetermine their spectra.

  1. Exchange coupling interactions in a Fe6 complex: A theoretical study using density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauchy, Thomas; Ruiz, Eliseo; Alvarez, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical methods based on density functional theory have been employed to analyze the exchange interactions in an Fe 6 complex. The calculated exchange coupling constants are consistent with an S=5 ground state and agree well with those reported previously for other Fe III polynuclear complexes. Ferromagnetic interactions may appear through exchange pathways formed by two bridging hydroxo or oxo ligands

  2. Implication of Ccr4-Not complex function in mRNA quality control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assenholt, Jannie; Mouaikel, John; Saguez, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    RNPs are exported to the cytoplasm. The Ccr4-Not complex, which constitutes the major S. cerevisiae cytoplasmic deadenylase, has recently been implied in nuclear exosome–related processes. Consistent with a possible nuclear function of the complex, the deletion or mutation of Ccr4-Not factors also elicits...

  3. The Bessel functions J0 and J1 of complex argument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardill, R.W.B.; Moriarty, K.J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The Bessel function appears in a wide range of physical applications. The package Bessel contains complex function routines to calculate J 0 (z) and J 1 (z) for complex z. Bessel functions of higher order n 0 (z) and J 1 (z) for all values of mod(z) up to machine overflow. For mod(z) 10, the results diverge quite rapidly from their actual values. The accuracy for mod(z)<=10 is sufficient for most physical applications, and the polynomial approximations provide a quicker calculation of Bessel functions than the use of the ascending series formula used previously, particularly for values of mod(z) near 10. (Auth.)

  4. Improved design architecture to minimize functional complexity of plant protection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, JaeCheon

    2016-01-01

    An improved design architecture method to minimize the functional complexity of PPS (Plant Protection System) is proposed in this work. Firstly, the design concerns are identified with both AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis. AHP is able to identify the source of design concerns using pairwise comparison. AHP result shows CCF is the primary concern and the complexity is the secondly. Even though complexity is the second largest concern to the effectiveness of digital I&C system, but it has not been highlighted as CCF. This is the reason why this work focuses on the sources of complexity to maximize the effectiveness of digital system in the viewpoint of design architecture. The proposed methods are, separating non-safety functions from bistable logics and simplifying communication links and network. In order to verify the new concept, EFFBD (Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram) models are developed for two bistable logics of PPS and the complexities are measured using Halstead’s program maintainability measures. This measure specifies what provokes functional complexity. Periodic testing and operating bypass function are the source of complexity in this analysis.

  5. Improved design architecture to minimize functional complexity of plant protection system for nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, JaeCheon, E-mail: jcjung@kings.ac.kr

    2016-12-01

    An improved design architecture method to minimize the functional complexity of PPS (Plant Protection System) is proposed in this work. Firstly, the design concerns are identified with both AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis. AHP is able to identify the source of design concerns using pairwise comparison. AHP result shows CCF is the primary concern and the complexity is the secondly. Even though complexity is the second largest concern to the effectiveness of digital I&C system, but it has not been highlighted as CCF. This is the reason why this work focuses on the sources of complexity to maximize the effectiveness of digital system in the viewpoint of design architecture. The proposed methods are, separating non-safety functions from bistable logics and simplifying communication links and network. In order to verify the new concept, EFFBD (Enhanced Functional Flow Block Diagram) models are developed for two bistable logics of PPS and the complexities are measured using Halstead’s program maintainability measures. This measure specifies what provokes functional complexity. Periodic testing and operating bypass function are the source of complexity in this analysis.

  6. Research of the complex of functional and technological properties of animal protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Борисівна Дроменко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of analytical and practical research of the complex of functional and technological properties of animal protein Gelexcel A-95 as the basis for creation of complex functional additives is shown. The regularities of their changes are determined depending on technological factors. Rational parameters of animal protein rehydration, gelation conditions, emulsification for further use in the process of production of meat products are identified

  7. Representations of complex functions, means on the regular n-gon and applications to gravitational potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, D; Elmabsout, B

    2003-01-01

    We present a method to analytically compute means of functions on regular n-gons and to study cyclic quantities of the complex variable. To achieve this, we construct representations of complex functions and compact expressions of their mean based on the use of a scalar product. Applied in the field of celestial mechanics, this method leads to results concerning gravitational potential and relative equilibrium composed by nested polygons

  8. Bacterial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations are modified by environmental complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheder, Silke; Bulling, Mark T; Solan, Martin; Prosser, James I

    2010-05-26

    With the recognition that environmental change resulting from anthropogenic activities is causing a global decline in biodiversity, much attention has been devoted to understanding how changes in biodiversity may alter levels of ecosystem functioning. Although environmental complexity has long been recognised as a major driving force in evolutionary processes, it has only recently been incorporated into biodiversity-ecosystem functioning investigations. Environmental complexity is expected to strengthen the positive effect of species richness on ecosystem functioning, mainly because it leads to stronger complementarity effects, such as resource partitioning and facilitative interactions among species when the number of available resource increases. Here we implemented an experiment to test the combined effect of species richness and environmental complexity, more specifically, resource richness on ecosystem functioning over time. We show, using all possible combinations of species within a bacterial community consisting of six species, and all possible combinations of three substrates, that diversity-functioning (metabolic activity) relationships change over time from linear to saturated. This was probably caused by a combination of limited complementarity effects and negative interactions among competing species as the experiment progressed. Even though species richness and resource richness both enhanced ecosystem functioning, they did so independently from each other. Instead there were complex interactions between particular species and substrate combinations. Our study shows clearly that both species richness and environmental complexity increase ecosystem functioning. The finding that there was no direct interaction between these two factors, but that instead rather complex interactions between combinations of certain species and resources underlie positive biodiversity ecosystem functioning relationships, suggests that detailed knowledge of how individual

  9. Bacterial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations are modified by environmental complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Langenheder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the recognition that environmental change resulting from anthropogenic activities is causing a global decline in biodiversity, much attention has been devoted to understanding how changes in biodiversity may alter levels of ecosystem functioning. Although environmental complexity has long been recognised as a major driving force in evolutionary processes, it has only recently been incorporated into biodiversity-ecosystem functioning investigations. Environmental complexity is expected to strengthen the positive effect of species richness on ecosystem functioning, mainly because it leads to stronger complementarity effects, such as resource partitioning and facilitative interactions among species when the number of available resource increases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we implemented an experiment to test the combined effect of species richness and environmental complexity, more specifically, resource richness on ecosystem functioning over time. We show, using all possible combinations of species within a bacterial community consisting of six species, and all possible combinations of three substrates, that diversity-functioning (metabolic activity relationships change over time from linear to saturated. This was probably caused by a combination of limited complementarity effects and negative interactions among competing species as the experiment progressed. Even though species richness and resource richness both enhanced ecosystem functioning, they did so independently from each other. Instead there were complex interactions between particular species and substrate combinations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows clearly that both species richness and environmental complexity increase ecosystem functioning. The finding that there was no direct interaction between these two factors, but that instead rather complex interactions between combinations of certain species and resources underlie positive biodiversity

  10. Experimentation on accuracy of non functional requirement prioritization approaches for different complexity projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Chopra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non functional requirements must be selected for implementation together with functional requirements to enhance the success of software projects. Three approaches exist for performing the prioritization of non functional requirements using the suitable prioritization technique. This paper performs experimentation on three different complexity versions of the industrial software project using cost-value prioritization technique employing three approaches. Experimentation is conducted to analyze the accuracy of individual approaches and the variation of accuracy with the complexity of the software project. The results indicate that selecting non functional requirements separately, but in accordance with functionality has higher accuracy amongst the other two approaches. Further, likewise other approaches, it witnesses the decrease in accuracy with increase in software complexity but the decrease is minimal.

  11. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Feasibility of Using an Arm Weight-Supported Training System to Improve Hand Function Skills in Children With Hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Swetha; Coletti, Daniel J; Berlin, Hilary; Friel, Kathleen

    This investigation was a pilot feasibility trial evaluating the use of an arm-weight-supported training device to improve upper-extremity function in children with hemiplegia. A single-group within-subject design was used. Participants were 6 children ages 7-17 yr with upper-extremity weakness secondary to hemiplegia. The intervention consisted of 15-18 treatment sessions using an arm-weight-supported training device with the affected upper extremity. Fine motor function was assessed using the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, the Box and Block Test, and the Assisting Hand Assessment. We examined participants' interactions with the device and assessment scores pre- and postintervention. Five of the 6 children exhibited some changes after the therapy. The system required significant modifications to ensure appropriate positioning. The arm-weight-supported system may be viable for therapeutic use. Future studies should use randomized controlled designs and compare effectiveness of weight-supported training with that of other rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  13. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paula Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical. Results. Twenty participants (10 men completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1 there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2 the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P=0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.

  14. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Milsom, Vanessa A; Dubyak, Pamela; Cesari, Matteo; Cheng, Jing; Daniels, Michael J; Marsiske, Michael; Pahor, Marco; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Perri, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women. Participants (N = 34) were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55-79 years) with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i) weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5]) or (ii) educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]). In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i) body weight, (ii) walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test), (iii) the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and (iv) knee extension isokinetic strength. Participants randomized to the WL+E group lost significantly more weight than participants in the educational control group (5.95 [0.992] vs 0.23 [0.99] kg; P meter walk test = 44 seconds; P < 0.05). Scores on the SPPB improved in both the intervention and educational control groups from pre- to post-test (P < 0.05), with significant differences between groups (P = 0.02). Knee extension strength was maintained in both groups. Our findings suggest that a lifestyle-based weight loss program consisting of moderate caloric restriction plus moderate exercise can produce significant weight loss and improve physical function while maintaining muscle

  15. The complexity of self-regulating food intake in weight loss maintenance. A qualitative exploration among short- and long-term weight loss maintainers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Sniethotta, Falko; Sainsbury, Kirby

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand whether self-regulation of food intake in WLM differs in the challenging transition from being a short-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining less than 12 months) to a long-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining....../storing, preparing/cooking, eating, and general barriers and resources in WLM. Post-hoc coding was applied based on self-regulation strategies and self-efficacy beliefs, and thematic analysis was also applied to identify additional themes. A content analysis approach using NVivo 11 highlighted the differences...... describe and understand the self-regulatory strategies related to food intake in WLM. Methods: Individual interviews (14 female/5 male) were conducted with 9 Danish short- and 10 long-term weight loss maintainers. Initial codes were based on five themes related to food intake: planning, shopping...

  16. Dimensional feature weighting utilizing multiple kernel learning for single-channel talker location discrimination using the acoustic transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Ryoichi; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Ariki, Yasuo

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a method for discriminating the location of the sound source (talker) using only a single microphone. In a previous work, the single-channel approach for discriminating the location of the sound source was discussed, where the acoustic transfer function from a user's position is estimated by using a hidden Markov model of clean speech in the cepstral domain. In this paper, each cepstral dimension of the acoustic transfer function is newly weighted, in order to obtain the cepstral dimensions having information that is useful for classifying the user's position. Then, this paper proposes a feature-weighting method for the cepstral parameter using multiple kernel learning, defining the base kernels for each cepstral dimension of the acoustic transfer function. The user's position is trained and classified by support vector machine. The effectiveness of this method has been confirmed by sound source (talker) localization experiments performed in different room environments.

  17. A randomised trial comparing the effect of exercise training and weight loss on microvascular function in coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Jürs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular function is associated with outcome and is reduced in coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity. We compared the effect of aerobic interval training (AIT) and weight loss on coronary flow reserve (CFR) and peripheral vascular function in revascularised obese CAD...... patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy non-diabetic patients (BMI 28-40 kg × m(-2), age 45-75 years) were randomised to 12 weeks' AIT (three weekly sessions lasting 38 min with ≈ 16 min at 85-90% of VO2peak) or low energy diet (LED, 800-1000 kcal/day). Per protocol adherence was defined by training......-attendance ≥ 60% and weight loss ≥ 5%, respectively. CFR was assessed by Doppler echocardiography of the LAD. Peripheral vascular function was assessed by arterial tonometry as reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) and augmentation index. Most participants had impaired CFR with a mean CFR of 2.38 (SD 0.59). Twenty...

  18. Thyroid Function and Body Weight: A Community-Based Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergved, Lena; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans

    2014-01-01

    . Weight increased by 0.3 kg (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1, 0.4, P = 0.005) in women and 0.8 kg (95% CI 0.1, 1.4, P = 0.02) in men for every one unit TSH (mU/L) increase. Conclusions: TSH levels were not a determinant of future weight changes, and BMI was not a determinant for TSH changes......,102 individuals who participated at 11-year follow-up, without current or former treatment for thyroid disease and with measurements of TSH and weight at both examinations. Multiple linear regression models were used, stratified by sex and adjusted for age, smoking status, and leisure time physical activity....... Results: Baseline TSH concentration was not associated with change in weight (women, P = 0.17; men, P = 0.72), and baseline body mass index (BMI) was not associated with change in TSH (women, P = 0.21; men, P = 0.85). Change in serum TSH and change in weight were significantly associated in both sexes...

  19. Studies on combined model based on functional objectives of large scale complex engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuting, Wang; Jingchun, Feng; Jiabao, Sun

    2018-03-01

    As various functions were included in large scale complex engineering, and each function would be conducted with completion of one or more projects, combined projects affecting their functions should be located. Based on the types of project portfolio, the relationship of projects and their functional objectives were analyzed. On that premise, portfolio projects-technics based on their functional objectives were introduced, then we studied and raised the principles of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects. In addition, The processes of combined projects were also constructed. With the help of portfolio projects-technics based on the functional objectives of projects, our research findings laid a good foundation for management of large scale complex engineering portfolio management.

  20. Evaluation of exchange-correlation functionals for time-dependent density functional theory calculations on metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jason P; Green, Jennifer C

    2010-04-15

    The electronic absorption spectra of a range of copper and zinc complexes have been simulated by using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations implemented in Gaussian03. In total, 41 exchange-correlation (XC) functionals including first-, second-, and third-generation (meta-generalized gradient approximation) DFT methods were compared in their ability to predict the experimental electronic absorption spectra. Both pure and hybrid DFT methods were tested and differences between restricted and unrestricted calculations were also investigated by comparison of analogous neutral zinc(II) and copper(II) complexes. TD-DFT calculated spectra were optimized with respect to the experimental electronic absorption spectra by use of a Matlab script. Direct comparison of the performance of each XC functional was achieved both qualitatively and quantitatively by comparison of optimized half-band widths, root-mean-squared errors (RMSE), energy scaling factors (epsilon(SF)), and overall quality-of-fit (Q(F)) parameters. Hybrid DFT methods were found to outperform all pure DFT functionals with B1LYP, B97-2, B97-1, X3LYP, and B98 functionals providing the highest quantitative and qualitative accuracy in both restricted and unrestricted systems. Of the functionals tested, B1LYP gave the most accurate results with both average RMSE and overall Q(F) 0.990) for the copper complexes. The XC functional performance in spin-restricted TD-DFT calculations on the zinc complexes was found to be slightly worse. PBE1PBE, mPW1PW91 and B1LYP gave the most accurate results with typical RMSE and Q(F) values between 5.3 and 7.3%, and epsilon(SF) around 0.930. These studies illustrate the power of modern TD-DFT calculations for exploring excited state transitions of metal complexes. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Structure and stability of complexes of agmatine with some functional receptor residues of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remko, Milan; Broer, Ria; Remková, Anna; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.

    2017-04-01

    The paper reports the results of a theoretical study of the conformational behavior and basicity of biogenic amine agmatine. The complexes modelling of agmatine - protein interaction are also under scrutiny of our investigation using the Becke3LYP and B97D levels of the density functional theory. The relative stabilities (Gibbs energies) of individual complexes are by both DFT methods described equally. Hydration has a dramatic effect on the hydrogen bonded complexes studied. The pairing acidic carboxylate group with different agmatine species resulted in charged hydrogen bond complexes containing negatively charged acetate species acting as proton acceptors.

  2. A spatial compression technique for head-related transfer function interpolation and complexity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarchi, Sayedali; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Hallam, John

    2015-01-01

    A head-related transfer function (HRTF) model employing Legendre polynomials (LPs) is evaluated as an HRTF spatial complexity indicator and interpolation technique in the azimuth plane. LPs are a set of orthogonal functions derived on the sphere which can be used to compress an HRTF dataset...

  3. A View of Man's Role and Function in a Complex System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Francis H.

    In this paper the roles and functions of man in the evolution and development of two complex specific systems within the Army operational environment are discussed. It is pointed out that throughout the course of historical development, the basic system functions and objectives have remained unchanged even though the system equipments have varied.…

  4. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF HIP ARTHROSCOPY IN AN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY POPULATION UTILIZING A CRITERION-BASED EARLY WEIGHT BEARING PROGRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, K Aaron; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Evanson, J Richard; Pniewski, Josh; Dickston, Michelle L; Mueller, Terry; Bojescul, John A

    2017-10-01

    Hip arthroscopy allows surgeons to address intra-articular pathology of the hip while avoiding more invasive open surgical dislocation. However the post-operative rehabilitation protocols have varied greatly in the literature, with many having prolonged periods of limited motion and weight bearing. The purpose of this study was to describe a criterion-based early weight bearing protocol following hip arthroscopy and investigate functional outcomes in the subjects who were active duty military. Active duty personnel undergoing hip arthroscopy for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement were prospectively assessed in a controlled environment for the ability to incorporate early postoperative weight-bearing with the following criteria: no increased pain complaint with weight bearing and normalized gait pattern. Modified Harris Hip (HHS) and Hip Outcome score (HOS) were performed preoperatively and at six months post-op. Participants were progressed with a standard hip arthroscopy protocol. Hip flexion was limited to not exceed 90 degrees for the first three weeks post-op, with progression back to running beginning at three months. Final discharge was dependent upon the ability to run two miles at military specified pace and do a single leg broad jump within six inches of the contralateral leg without an increase in pain. Eleven participants met inclusion criteria over the study period. Crutch use was discontinued at an average of five days following surgery based on established weight bearing criteria. Only one participant required continued crutch use at 15 days. Participants' functional outcome was improved postoperatively, as demonstrated by significant increases in HOS and HHS. At the six month follow up, eight of 11 participants were able to take and complete a full Army Physical Fitness Test. Following completion of the early weight bearing rehabilitation protocol, 81% of participants were able to progress to full weight bearing by four days post

  5. Do Knee Bracing and Delayed Weight Bearing Affect Mid-Term Functional Outcome after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Miceli, Riccardo; Marambio, Carlotta Bustos; Zati, Alessandro; Monesi, Roberta; Benedetti, Maria Grazia

    2017-12-01

    Purpose  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of knee bracing and timing of full weight bearing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) on functional outcomes at mid-term follow-up. Methods  We performed a retrospective study on 41 patients with ACLR. Patients were divided in two groups: ACLR group, who received isolated ACL reconstruction and ACLR-OI group who received ACL reconstruction and adjunctive surgery. Information about age at surgery, bracing, full or progressive weight bearing permission after surgery were collected for the two groups. Subjective IKDC score was obtained at follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the two groups for IKDC score. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess the effect of postoperative regimen (knee bracing and weight bearing) on functional outcomes. Results  The mean age of patients was 30.8 ± 10.6 years. Mean IKDC score was 87.4 ± 13.9. The mean follow-up was 3.5 ± 1.8 years. Twenty-two (53.7%) patients underwent ACLR only, while 19 (46.3%) also received other interventions, such as meniscal repair and/or collateral ligament suture. Analysis of overall data showed no differences between the groups for IKDC score. Patients in the ACLR group exhibited a significantly better IKDC score when no brace and full weight bearing after 4 weeks from surgery was prescribed in comparison with patients who worn a brace and had delayed full weight bearing. No differences were found with respect to the use of brace and postoperative weight bearing regimen in the ACLR-OI group. Conclusion  Brace and delayed weight bearing after ACLR have a negative influence on long-term functional outcomes. Further research is required to explore possible differences in the patients operated on ACLR and other intervention with respect to the use of a brace and the timing of full weight bearing to identify optimal recovery strategies. Level of Evidence  Level III, retrospective observational

  6. Rheological properties of poly(vinylpiyrrolidone) as a function of molecular weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Different grades of poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) were studied as dispersant for gadolinium doped cerium oxide (CGO) in ethanol-based colloidal dispersions. The average molecular weights Mw, Mn, and Mz were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and then used in a numerical method...

  7. Standing-up exerciser based on functional electrical stimulation and body weight relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarin, M; Pavan, E E; Spadone, R; Cardini, R; Frigo, C

    2002-05-01

    The goal of the present work was to develop and test an innovative system for the training of paraplegic patients when they are standing up. The system consisted of a computer-controlled stimulator, surface electrodes for quadricep muscle stimulation, two knee angle sensors, a digital proportional-integrative-derivative (PID) controller and a mechanical device to support, partially, the body weight (weight reliever (WR)). A biomechanical model of the combined WR and patient was developed to find an optimum reference trajectory for the PID controller. The system was tested on three paraplegic patients and was shown to be reliable and safe. One patient completed a 30-session training period. Initially he was able to stand up only with 62% body weight relief, whereas, after the training period, he performed a series of 30 standing-up/sitting-down cycles with 45% body weight relief. The closed-loop controller was able to keep the patient standing upright with minimum stimulation current, to compensate automatically for muscle fatigue and to smooth the sitting-down movement. The limitations of the controller in connection with a highly non-linear system are considered.

  8. Quantitative structure-property relationships for chemical functional use and weight fractions in consumer articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical functional use -- the functional role a chemical plays in processes or products -- may be a useful heuristic for predicting human exposure potential in that it comprises information about the compound's likely physical properties and the product formulations or articles ...

  9. Perceived Child Weight Status, Family Structure and Functioning, and Support for Health Behaviors in a Sample of Bariatric Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Ferriby, Megan; Noria, Sabrena; Skelton, Joseph; Taylor, Christopher; Needleman, Bradley

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this study is to describe the associations between bariatric surgery patients' perspectives of their child's weight status, family support for eating and exercise behavior change, and family structure and functioning. A cross-sectional descriptive design with pre- and postsurgery (N = 224) patients was used. Demographics, perceptions of child weight status, family support for eating habits and exercise, and family functioning were assessed from patients at a University Bariatric Clinic. Patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese reported more impaired family functioning, less family exercise participation, and more discouragement for eating habit change in the family compared to patients who did not perceive their child to be overweight/obese. Single parents more often perceived their children to be overweight/obese, and had more impaired family functioning, and less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Patients with impaired family functioning reported less support for changing eating habits and family exercise participation. Bariatric patients who perceived their child to be overweight/obese and identified as single parents reported more impaired family functioning and less support for eating habits and family participation in exercise. Assessing pre- and postsurgery measures from parents and children will allow the further identification of relationship variables that can be targeted to promote positive family changes that benefit parents and children long-term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Lee weight enumerators of self-dual codes and theta functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asch, van A.G.; Martens, F.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of modular forms, in particular theta functions, and coding theory are in a remarkable way connected. The connection is established by defining a suitable lattice corresponding to the given code, and considering its theta function. First we define some special theta functions, and

  11. Functional evaluation of hydronephrosis by diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient and split glomerular filtration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoshima, S.; Noguchi, K.; Seto, H.; Shimizu, M.; Watanabe, N.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the relationship between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values measured by diffusion-weighted MR imaging and split renal function determined by renal scintigraphy in patients with hydronephrosis. Material and Methods: Diffusion-weighted imaging on a 1.5 T MR unit and renal scintigraphy were performed in 36 patients with hydronephrosis (45 hydronephrotic kidneys, 21 non-hydronephrotic kidneys). ADC values of the individual kidneys were measured by diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Split renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) was determined by renal scintigraphy using 99m Tc-DTPA. The relationship between ADC values and split GFR was examined in 66 kidneys. The hydronephrotic kidneys were further classified into three groups (severe renal dysfunction, GFR 25 ml/min, n=28), and mean values for ADCs were calculated. Results: In hydronephrotic kidneys, there was a moderate positive correlation between ADC values and split GFR (R2=0.56). On the other hand, in non-hydronephrotic kidneys, poor correlation between ADC values and split GFR was observed (R2=0.08). The mean values for ADCs of the dysfunctioning hydronephrotic kidneys (severe renal dysfunction, 1.32x10 -3 ±0.18x10 -3 mm 2 /s; moderate renal dysfunction, 1.38x10 -3 ±0.10x10 -3 mm2/s) were significantly lower than that of the normal functioning hydronephrotic kidneys (1.63x10 -3 ±0.12±10 -3 mm 2 /s). Conclusion: These results indicated that measurement of ADC values by diffusion-weighted MR imaging has a potential value in the evaluation of the functional status of hydronephrotic kidneys

  12. Dynamic Establishment of Weight of Enterprise’s Internal Function Based on AHP and QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern enterprise management strives to become effective and pragmatic, usually, KPI is the most essential key indicator for the enterprise examination department. However, because the supporting and bearing roles of KPI for different departments are different, no a rather scientific quantification for the weight between them is available, unbalanced examination weights between indicators and departments usually exists. Here, it is with balanced score card to breakdown enterprise’s key tasks, card the performance indicators supporting enterprise’s key tasks, and utilize AHP and QFD method to dynamically establish a standard for measuring each department’s indicators so as to provide a basis for enterprise’s scientific examination.

  13. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... is associated with more proteinuria in the long run. Uterine artery ligation in the pregnant rat is a suitable model to study the effects of IUGR on the kidney....

  14. The Possibility Using the Power Production Function of Complex Variable for Economic Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gennadyevich Svetunkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of dynamic analysis and forecasting production results using the power production functions of complex variables with real coefficients is considered. This model expands the arsenal of instrumental methods and allows multivariate production forecasts which are unattainable by other methods of real variables as the functions of complex variables simulate the production differently in comparison with the models of real variables. The values of coefficients of the power production functions of complex variables can be calculated for each statistical observation. This allows to consider the change of the coefficients over time, to analyze this trend and predict the values of the coefficients for a given term, thereby to predict the form of the production function, which forecasts the operating results. Thus, the model of the production function with variable coefficients is introduced into the scientific circulation. With this model, the inverse problem of forecasting might be solved, such as the determination of the necessary quantities of labor and capital to achieve the desired operational results. The study is based on the principles of the modern methodology of complex-valued economy, one of its sections is the complex-valued patterns of production functions. In the article, the possibility of economic forecasting is tested on the example of the UK economy. The results of this prediction are compared with the forecasts obtained by other methods, which have led to the conclusion about the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the method of forecasting at the macro levels of production systems. A complex-valued power model of the production function is recommended for the multivariate prediction of sustainable production systems — the global economy, the economies of individual countries, major industries and regions.

  15. Different Mi-2 complexes for various developmental functions in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Passannante

    Full Text Available Biochemical purifications from mammalian cells and Xenopus oocytes revealed that vertebrate Mi-2 proteins reside in multisubunit NuRD (Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase complexes. Since all NuRD subunits are highly conserved in the genomes of C. elegans and Drosophila, it was suggested that NuRD complexes also exist in invertebrates. Recently, a novel dMec complex, composed of dMi-2 and dMEP-1 was identified in Drosophila. The genome of C. elegans encodes two highly homologous Mi-2 orthologues, LET-418 and CHD-3. Here we demonstrate that these proteins define at least three different protein complexes, two distinct NuRD complexes and one MEC complex. The two canonical NuRD complexes share the same core subunits HDA-1/HDAC, LIN-53/RbAp and LIN-40/MTA, but differ in their Mi-2 orthologues LET-418 or CHD-3. LET-418 but not CHD-3, interacts with the Krüppel-like protein MEP-1 in a distinct complex, the MEC complex. Based on microarrays analyses, we propose that MEC constitutes an important LET-418 containing regulatory complex during C. elegans embryonic and early larval development. It is required for the repression of germline potential in somatic cells and acts when blastomeres are still dividing and differentiating. The two NuRD complexes may not be important for the early development, but may act later during postembryonic development. Altogether, our data suggest a considerable complexity in the composition, the developmental function and the tissue-specificity of the different C. elegans Mi-2 complexes.

  16. Association Between Gross-Motor and Executive Function Depends on Age and Motor Task Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedden, Meaghan E; Malling, Anne Sofie B; Andersen, Ken K

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to examine associations between motor and executive function across the adult lifespan and to investigate the role of motor complexity in these associations. Young, middle-aged and older adults (n = 82; 19-83y) performed two gross-motor tasks with different levels of complexity...... and a Stroop-like computer task. Performance was decreased in older adults. The association between motor and cognitive performance was significant for older adults in the complex motor task (p = 0.03, rs = -0.41), whereas no significant associations were found for young or middle-aged groups, suggesting...... that the link between gross-motor and executive function emerges with age and depends on motor complexity....

  17. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton SD

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen D Anton1,2, Todd M Manini1, Vanessa A Milsom2, Pamela Dubyak2, Matteo Cesari3, Jing Cheng4, Michael J Daniels5, Michael Marsiske2, Marco Pahor1, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh1, Michael G Perri21Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Area di Geriatria, Università Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy; 4Division of Oral Epidemiology and Dental Public Health, San Francisco, CA, USA; 5Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women.Methods: Participants (n = 34 were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55–79 years with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5] or (ii educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]. In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i body weight, (ii walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test, (iii the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, and (iv knee extension isokinetic strength.Results: Participants randomized

  18. Influence of Vegetations' Metabolites on the Composition and Functioning of Soil Microbial Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Microbiota is one of the major factors of soils fertility. It transforms organic substances in soil and, therefore, serves as the main component in the cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Microbial communities (MC) are characterized as highly diverse and extremely complex structures. This allows them to adapt to any affection and provide all the necessary biospheric functions. Hence, the study of their functional diversity and adaptivity of microbiota provides the key to the understanding of the ecosystems' functioning and their adaptivity to the human impact. The formation of MC at the initial stage is regulated by the fluxes of substrates and biologically active substances (BAS), which vary greatly in soils under different vegetations. These fluxes are presented by: low molecular weights organic substances (LMWOS), which can be directly included in metabolism of microbes; polymers, that can be decomposed to LMWOS by exoenzymes; and more complex compounds, having different "drug effects" (e.g. different types of phenolic acids) and regulating growth and enzymatic properties of microbiota. Therefore, the main hypothesis of the research was formulated as follows: penetration of different types of substrates and BAS into soil leads to the emergence of MC varying in enzymatic properties and structure. As a soil matrix we used the soil from the untreated variant of the lysimeter model experiment taking place in the faculty of Soil Science of the MSU for over the last 40 years. It was sieved with a 2mm sieves, humidified and incubated at 25C during one week. Subsequently, the samples were air-dried with occasional stirring for one more week. Thereafter, aliquots of the prepared soil were taken for the different experimental variants. The samples were rewetted with solutions of various substrates (glucose, cellulose, starch, etc.) and thoroughly mixed. The control variant was established with addition of deionised water. The samples were incubated at the 25C. During the

  19. Density Functional Studies on the Complexation and Spectroscopy of Uranyl Ligated with Acetonitrile and Acetone Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoendorff, George E.; Windus, Theresa L.; De Jong, Wibe A.

    2009-01-01

    The coordination of nitrile (acetonitrile, propionitrile, and benzonitrile) and carbonyl (formaldehyde, ethanal, and acetone) ligands to the uranyl dication (UO22+) has been examined using density functional theory (DFT) utilizing relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs). Complexes containing up to six ligands have been modeled for all ligands except formaldehyde, for which no minimum could be found. A comparison of relative binding energies indicates that five coordinate complexes are predominant while a six coordinate complex involving propionitrile ligands might be possible. Additionally, the relative binding energy and the weakening of the uranyl bond is related to the size of the ligand and, in general, nitriles bind more strongly to uranyl than carbonyls.

  20. Application of Multi-Valued Weighting Logical Functions in the Analysis of a Degree of Importance of Construction Parameters on the Example of Hydraulic Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptuła, A.

    2014-08-01

    In the optimization process, changes in the construction parameters value influence the behaviour of functions depending on time. Weighting logical coefficients for the stabilisation time are taken into consideration here, i.e., a shorter (better) stabilisation time has a more important (bigger) value of the weighting coefficient. An example of applying weighting logical functions in the analysis of a degree of importance of construction parameters of a hydraulic valve is presented in the paper

  1. The CCR4-NOT complex physically and functionally interacts with TRAMP and the nuclear exosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowel Azzouz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ccr4-Not is a highly conserved multi-protein complex consisting in yeast of 9 subunits, including Not5 and the major yeast deadenylase Ccr4. It has been connected functionally in the nucleus to transcription by RNA polymerase II and in the cytoplasm to mRNA degradation. However, there has been no evidence so far that this complex is important for RNA degradation in the nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we point to a new role for the Ccr4-Not complex in nuclear RNA metabolism. We determine the importance of the Ccr4-Not complex for the levels of non-coding nuclear RNAs, such as mis-processed and polyadenylated snoRNAs, whose turnover depends upon the nuclear exosome and TRAMP. Consistently, mutation of both the Ccr4-Not complex and the nuclear exosome results in synthetic slow growth phenotypes. We demonstrate physical interactions between the Ccr4-Not complex and the exosome. First, Not5 co-purifies with the exosome. Second, several exosome subunits co-purify with the Ccr4-Not complex. Third, the Ccr4-Not complex is important for the integrity of large exosome-containing complexes. Finally, we reveal a connection between the Ccr4-Not complex and TRAMP through the association of the Mtr4 helicase with the Ccr4-Not complex and the importance of specific subunits of Ccr4-Not for the association of Mtr4 with the nuclear exosome subunit Rrp6. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose a model in which the Ccr4-Not complex may provide a platform contributing to dynamic interactions between the nuclear exosome and its co-factor TRAMP. Our findings connect for the first time the different players involved in nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA degradation.

  2. Structure-function relationship in complex brain networks expressed by hierarchical synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changsong; Zemanova, Lucia; Zamora-Lopez, Gorka; Hilgetag, Claus C; Kurths, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    The brain is one of the most complex systems in nature, with a structured complex connectivity. Recently, large-scale corticocortical connectivities, both structural and functional, have received a great deal of research attention, especially using the approach of complex network analysis. Understanding the relationship between structural and functional connectivity is of crucial importance in neuroscience. Here we try to illuminate this relationship by studying synchronization dynamics in a realistic anatomical network of cat cortical connectivity. We model the nodes (cortical areas) by a neural mass model (population model) or by a subnetwork of interacting excitable neurons (multilevel model). We show that if the dynamics is characterized by well-defined oscillations (neural mass model and subnetworks with strong couplings), the synchronization patterns are mainly determined by the node intensity (total input strengths of a node) and the detailed network topology is rather irrelevant. On the other hand, the multilevel model with weak couplings displays more irregular, biologically plausible dynamics, and the synchronization patterns reveal a hierarchical cluster organization in the network structure. The relationship between structural and functional connectivity at different levels of synchronization is explored. Thus, the study of synchronization in a multilevel complex network model of cortex can provide insights into the relationship between network topology and functional organization of complex brain networks

  3. Structure-function relationship in complex brain networks expressed by hierarchical synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Changsong [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, PF 601553, 14415 Potsdam (Germany); Zemanova, Lucia [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, PF 601553, 14415 Potsdam (Germany); Zamora-Lopez, Gorka [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, PF 601553, 14415 Potsdam (Germany); Hilgetag, Claus C [Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 6, Rm 116, D-28759 Bremen (Germany); Kurths, Juergen [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, PF 601553, 14415 Potsdam (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    The brain is one of the most complex systems in nature, with a structured complex connectivity. Recently, large-scale corticocortical connectivities, both structural and functional, have received a great deal of research attention, especially using the approach of complex network analysis. Understanding the relationship between structural and functional connectivity is of crucial importance in neuroscience. Here we try to illuminate this relationship by studying synchronization dynamics in a realistic anatomical network of cat cortical connectivity. We model the nodes (cortical areas) by a neural mass model (population model) or by a subnetwork of interacting excitable neurons (multilevel model). We show that if the dynamics is characterized by well-defined oscillations (neural mass model and subnetworks with strong couplings), the synchronization patterns are mainly determined by the node intensity (total input strengths of a node) and the detailed network topology is rather irrelevant. On the other hand, the multilevel model with weak couplings displays more irregular, biologically plausible dynamics, and the synchronization patterns reveal a hierarchical cluster organization in the network structure. The relationship between structural and functional connectivity at different levels of synchronization is explored. Thus, the study of synchronization in a multilevel complex network model of cortex can provide insights into the relationship between network topology and functional organization of complex brain networks.

  4. Poly-functional description of metal complexation by natural organic matter: theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffle, J.; Filella, M.; Altmann, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Differential Equilibrium Function (DEF) approach to metal complexation interpretation and prediction is compared to other models or approaches. The basic features of DEF are summarized, both from the experimental and theoretical points of view. The relation of DEF with key environmental concepts or parameters, in particular minor vs major complexing sites, the buffering intensity of natural organic matter (NOM), and their poly functional vs polyelectrolyte properties, is discussed. The relation between DEF and Freundlich isotherm is described quantitatively. The practical applications of DEF are discussed for (i) interpretation of metal complexation by NOM, and (ii) prediction of metal complexation by NOM. It is shown that DEF (i.e. sound extrapolation is possible with care). DEF cans be readily incorporated in metal species distribution codes (e.g. MINEQL). DEF is not equivalent to a molecular complexation model which describes complexation at each individual site; DEF gives a rigorous representation of complexation by NOM as a whole chemical system. (authors). 23 refs., 6 figs

  5. Hsp40 function in yeast prion propagation: Amyloid diversity necessitates chaperone functional complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporn, Zachary A; Hines, Justin K

    2015-01-01

    Yeast prions are heritable protein-based elements, most of which are formed of amyloid aggregates that rely on the action of molecular chaperones for transmission to progeny. Prions can form distinct amyloid structures, known as 'strains' in mammalian systems, that dictate both pathological progression and cross-species infection barriers. In yeast these same amyloid structural polymorphisms, called 'variants', dictate the intensity of prion-associated phenotypes and stability in mitosis. We recently reported that [PSI(+)] prion variants differ in the fundamental domain requirements for one chaperone, the Hsp40/J-protein Sis1, which are mutually exclusive between 2 different yeast prions, demonstrating a functional plurality for Sis1. Here we extend that analysis to incorporate additional data that collectively support the hypothesis that Sis1 has multiple functional roles that can be accomplished by distinct sets of domains. These functions are differentially required by distinct prions and prion variants. We also present new data regarding Hsp104-mediated prion elimination and show that some Sis1 functions, but not all, are conserved in the human homolog Hdj1/DNAJB1. Importantly, of the 10 amyloid-based prions indentified to date in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the chaperone requirements of only 4 are known, leaving a great diversity of amyloid structures, and likely modes of amyloid-chaperone interaction, largely unexplored.

  6. Identification of impeding factors for dry weight achievement in end-stage renal disease after appropriate kidney graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-González, Sonia Catalina; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; Madero, Magdalena; Mora-Bravo, Franklin; Saavedra, Nadia; López-Rodriguez, Javier; Lerma, Claudia

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors that prevent dry weight achievement in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in renal replacement therapy through the change in their body weight after kidney transplant (KT) compared with 1 week before KT. The study included 188 ESRD patients of diverse etiology who received living kidney transplantation with normal immediate graft function, 62.2% were male, age 29 ± 11 years old. All patients were on renal replacement therapy for at least 1 month before KT with either hemodiafiltration (N = 106), hemodialysis (N = 25), or peritoneal dialysis (N = 57). Based on body weight difference (after transplant-before transplant), patients with body weight difference ≤2 kg were considered as being close to their dry weight (Group 1, N = 112), whereas patients with body weight difference >2 kg were considered as being overhydrated (Group 2, N = 76). Clinical and biochemical characteristics were obtained from the medical records at three periods of time: time of ESRD initiation (baseline), 1 week before undergoing KT, and 1 week after KT. The mean time (± standard deviation) from renal replacement therapy initiation to the week before KT was 9.2 ± 5 months. Group 2 had a higher proportion of men, antihypertensive use, peritoneal dialysis, and higher urine output during all periods. Before KT, Group 2 had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than Group 1. After KT, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased in Group 2, whereas no change occurred in Group 1. Before KT, Group 2 had higher levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphorous compared with Group 1. Compared with baseline, Group 1 had more optimal blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid parameters before KT than Group 2. After KT, all parameters improved with respect to baseline in both groups. Hemoglobin, albumin, and sodium were similar between groups, except for higher

  7. One Step Closer: Understanding the Complex Relationship between Weight and Self-Esteem in Ethnically Diverse Preadolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Hahn-Smith, Anne; Smith, Jane Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Empirical support for the association between childhood overweight and low self-esteem is equivocal. The present study investigated how weight, ethnicity, body esteem, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating attitudes/behaviors contribute to global and dimensional self-esteem in a non-clinical sample of Hispanic- and Anglo-American grade 3-6…

  8. [Assessment of external breathing parameters and cardiovascular function in patients with constitutive exogenous obesity and reduced body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikina, N L; Romantsova, T I; Roik, O V; Lobanova, N A; Drapkina, O M; Ivashkin, V T

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate external respiratory function (ERF) and cardiovascular function based on AP measurements, results of 24 hour AP monitoring, treadmill test, and ECG during weight loss therapy in patients with excess body mass. A total of 93 patients with grade 2-3 obesity were examined including 41 (39.8%) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Group 1 consisted of patients with constitutive exogenous obesity, group 2 of patients with constitutive exogenous obesity and DM, group 3 was used as control. Follow-up studies were conducted after 6 and 12 months. Patients of groups 1 and 2 showed positive dynamics of hemodynamic characteristics related to the loss of weight including significant reduction of heart rate, systolic and diastolic indices of hypertonic loading, specific peripheral vascular resistance, and left ventricular mass. Simultaneously, cardiac index and ERF increased while vital lung capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced respiratory volume in the first second returned to normal values. It is concluded that reduction of body weight has positive effect on ERF dynamics and hemodynamic characteristics in patients with constitutive exogenous obesity.

  9. A versatile test for equality of two survival functions based on weighted differences of Kaplan-Meier curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hajime; Tian, Lu; Claggett, Brian; Wei, L J

    2015-12-10

    With censored event time observations, the logrank test is the most popular tool for testing the equality of two underlying survival distributions. Although this test is asymptotically distribution free, it may not be powerful when the proportional hazards assumption is violated. Various other novel testing procedures have been proposed, which generally are derived by assuming a class of specific alternative hypotheses with respect to the hazard functions. The test considered by Pepe and Fleming (1989) is based on a linear combination of weighted differences of the two Kaplan-Meier curves over time and is a natural tool to assess the difference of two survival functions directly. In this article, we take a similar approach but choose weights that are proportional to the observed standardized difference of the estimated survival curves at each time point. The new proposal automatically makes weighting adjustments empirically. The new test statistic is aimed at a one-sided general alternative hypothesis and is distributed with a short right tail under the null hypothesis but with a heavy tail under the alternative. The results from extensive numerical studies demonstrate that the new procedure performs well under various general alternatives with a caution of a minor inflation of the type I error rate when the sample size is small or the number of observed events is small. The survival data from a recent cancer comparative study are utilized for illustrating the implementation of the process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Hydrogen Exchange Differences between Chemoreceptor Signaling Complexes Localize to Functionally Important Subdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The goal of understanding mechanisms of transmembrane signaling, one of many key life processes mediated by membrane proteins, has motivated numerous studies of bacterial chemotaxis receptors. Ligand binding to the receptor causes a piston motion of an α helix in the periplasmic and transmembrane domains, but it is unclear how the signal is then propagated through the cytoplasmic domain to control the activity of the associated kinase CheA. Recent proposals suggest that signaling in the cytoplasmic domain involves opposing changes in dynamics in different subdomains. However, it has been difficult to measure dynamics within the functional system, consisting of extended arrays of receptor complexes with two other proteins, CheA and CheW. We have combined hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry with vesicle template assembly of functional complexes of the receptor cytoplasmic domain to reveal that there are significant signaling-associated changes in exchange, and these changes localize to key regions of the receptor involved in the excitation and adaptation responses. The methylation subdomain exhibits complex changes that include slower hydrogen exchange in complexes in a kinase-activating state, which may be partially consistent with proposals that this subdomain is stabilized in this state. The signaling subdomain exhibits significant protection from hydrogen exchange in complexes in a kinase-activating state, suggesting a tighter and/or larger interaction interface with CheA and CheW in this state. These first measurements of the stability of protein subdomains within functional signaling complexes demonstrate the promise of this approach for measuring functionally important protein dynamics within the various physiologically relevant states of multiprotein complexes. PMID:25420045

  11. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Functional Membrane-bound Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Seena S.; Eyles, Stephen J.; Weis, Robert M.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane signaling mechanism of bacterial chemotaxis receptors is thought to involve changes in receptor conformation and dynamics. The receptors function in ternary complexes with two other proteins, CheA and CheW, that form extended membrane-bound arrays. Previous studies have shown that attractant binding induces a small (~2 Å) piston displacement of one helix of the periplasmic and transmembrane domains towards the cytoplasm, but it is not clear how this signal propagates through the cytoplasmic domain to control the kinase activity of the CheA bound at the membrane-distal tip, nearly 200 Å away. The cytoplasmic domain has been shown to be highly dynamic, which raises the question of how a small piston motion could propagate through a dynamic domain to control CheA kinase activity. To address this, we have developed a method for measuring dynamics of the receptor cytoplasmic fragment (CF) in functional complexes with CheA and CheW. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) measurements of global exchange of CF demonstrate that CF exhibits significantly slower exchange in functional complexes than in solution. Since the exchange rates in functional complexes are comparable to that of other proteins of similar structure, the CF appears to be a well-structured protein within these complexes, which is compatible with its role in propagating a signal that appears to be a tiny conformational change in the periplasmic and transmembrane domains of the receptor. We also demonstrate the feasibility of this protocol for local exchange measurements, by incorporating a pepsin digest step to produce peptides with 87% sequence coverage and only 20% back exchange. This method extends HDX-MS to membrane-bound functional complexes without detergents that may perturb the stability or structure of the system. PMID:24274333

  12. INVESTIGATION OF INFLUENCE OF ENCODING FUNCTION COMPLEXITY ON DISTRIBUTION OF ERROR MASKING PROBABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Levina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Error detection codes are mechanisms that enable robust delivery of data in unreliable communication channels and devices. Unreliable channels and devices are error-prone objects. Respectively, error detection codes allow detecting such errors. There are two classes of error detecting codes - classical codes and security-oriented codes. The classical codes have high percentage of detected errors; however, they have a high probability to miss an error in algebraic manipulation. In order, security-oriented codes are codes with a small Hamming distance and high protection to algebraic manipulation. The probability of error masking is a fundamental parameter of security-oriented codes. A detailed study of this parameter allows analyzing the behavior of the error-correcting code in the case of error injection in the encoding device. In order, the complexity of the encoding function plays an important role in the security-oriented codes. Encoding functions with less computational complexity and a low probability of masking are the best protection of encoding device against malicious acts. This paper investigates the influence of encoding function complexity on the error masking probability distribution. It will be shownthat the more complex encoding function reduces the maximum of error masking probability. It is also shown in the paper that increasing of the function complexity changes the error masking probability distribution. In particular, increasing of computational complexity decreases the difference between the maximum and average value of the error masking probability. Our resultshave shown that functions with greater complexity have smoothed maximums of error masking probability, which significantly complicates the analysis of error-correcting code by attacker. As a result, in case of complex encoding function the probability of the algebraic manipulation is reduced. The paper discusses an approach how to measure the error masking

  13. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fractional Complex Transform and exp-Function Methods for Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bekir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exp-function method is presented for finding the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional equations. New solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. We apply the exp-function method to both the nonlinear time and space fractional differential equations. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.

  15. Fanconi Anemia Proteins FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG/XRCC9 Interact in a Functional Nuclear Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Higuera, Irene; Kuang, Yanan; Näf, Dieter; Wasik, Jennifer; D’Andrea, Alan D.

    1999-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive cancer susceptibility syndrome with at least eight complementation groups (A to H). Three FA genes, corresponding to complementation groups A, C, and G, have been cloned, but their cellular function remains unknown. We have previously demonstrated that the FANCA and FANCC proteins interact and form a nuclear complex in normal cells, suggesting that the proteins cooperate in a nuclear function. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently clone...

  16. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF SELENIUM IN DIET ON LIVER FUNCTION AND BODY WEIGHT OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Stanko Kanački

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main biological role of selenium is performed via enzyme glutathione peroxidase, and includes the participation in the defense mechanism of the cell membrane from the peroxide damage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of added selenium in foods in varying amounts and from various sources (organic and inorganic selenium. The experiment was conducted on the broilers, and the following parameters were monitored: body weight, total serum protein and the activity of the liver enzymes AST and ALT. The study demonstrated that organically-bound selenium had the most pronounced protective property, while both forms of selenium did not significantly affect the growth and concentration of the total serum protein. Therefore, this research suggests economic benefits of organic selenium in the diet of broiler chickens. Key words: selenium, body weight, liver function, broiler chickens

  17. Optimized implementations of rational approximations for the Voigt and complex error function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreier, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Rational functions are frequently used as efficient yet accurate numerical approximations for real and complex valued functions. For the complex error function w(x+iy), whose real part is the Voigt function K(x,y), code optimizations of rational approximations are investigated. An assessment of requirements for atmospheric radiative transfer modeling indicates a y range over many orders of magnitude and accuracy better than 10 -4 . Following a brief survey of complex error function algorithms in general and rational function approximations in particular the problems associated with subdivisions of the x, y plane (i.e., conditional branches in the code) are discussed and practical aspects of Fortran and Python implementations are considered. Benchmark tests of a variety of algorithms demonstrate that programming language, compiler choice, and implementation details influence computational speed and there is no unique ranking of algorithms. A new implementation, based on subdivision of the upper half-plane in only two regions, combining Weideman's rational approximation for small |x|+y<15 and Humlicek's rational approximation otherwise is shown to be efficient and accurate for all x, y.

  18. Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: Wave function and density functional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shehryar, E-mail: sherkhan@fysik.su.se; Odelius, Michael, E-mail: odelius@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kruk, Danuta [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Sloneczna 54, Olsztyn PL-10710 (Poland); Kowalewski, Jozef [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-01-21

    The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H{sub 2}O){sup −}, Gd(III)DTPA(H{sub 2}O){sup 2−}, and Gd(III)(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}{sup 3+} in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.

  19. Strong correlation effects on the d-wave superconductor- spectral weight analysis by variational wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C-P; Lee, T K; Ho, C-M

    2009-01-01

    We examine the strong correlation effects of the d-wave superconducting state by including the Gutzwiller projection for no electron double occupancy at each lattice site. The spectral weights (SW's) for adding and removing an electron on the projected superconducting state, the ground state of the 2-dimensional t-t'-t - J model with moderate doped holes describing the high T c cuprates, are studied numerically on finite lattices and compared with the observation made by low-temperature tunneling (particle asymmetry of tunneling conductance) and angle-resolved photoemission (SW transfer from the projected Fermi liquid state) spectroscopies. The contrast with the d-wave case without projection is alo presented.

  20. A relativistic density functional study of uranyl hydrolysis and complexation by carboxylic acids in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Rupashree Shyama

    2009-02-10

    In this work, the complexation of uranium in its most stable oxidation state VI in aqueous solution was studied computationally, within the framework of density functional (DF) theory. The thesis is divided into the following parts: Chapter 2 briefly summarizes the relevant general aspects of actinide chemistry and then focuses on actinide environmental chemistry. Experimental results on hydrolysis, actinide complexation by carboxylic acids, and humic substances are presented to establish a background for the subsequent discussion. Chapter 3 describes the computational method used in this work and the relevant features of the parallel quantum chemistry code PARAGAUSS employed. First, the most relevant basics of the applied density functional approach are presented focusing on relativistic effects. Then, the treatment of solvent effects, essential for an adequate modeling of actinide species in aqueous solution, will be introduced. At the end of this chapter, computational parameters and procedures will be summarized. Chapter 4 presents the computational results including a comparison to available experimental data. In the beginning, the mononuclear hydrolysis product of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, [UO{sub 2}OH]{sup +}, will be discussed. The second part deals with actinide complexation by carboxylate ligands. First of all the coordination number for uranylacetate will be discussed with respect to implications for the complexation of actinides by humic substances followed by the uranyl complexation of aromatic carboxylic acids in comparison to earlier results for aliphatic ones. In the end, the ternary uranyl-hydroxo-acetate are discussed, as models of uranyl humate complexation at ambient condition.

  1. Plastic influence functions for calculating J-integral of complex-cracks in pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae-Uk; Choi, Jae-Boong; Kim, Moon-Ki; Huh, Nam-Su; Kim, Yun-Jae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the plastic influence functions, h_1, for estimates of J-integral of a pipe with a complex crack were newly proposed based on the systematic 3-dimensional (3-D) elastic-plastic finite element (FE) analyses by using Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) relation, in which global bending moment, axial tension and internal pressure were considered as loading conditions. Based on the present plastic influence functions, the GE/EPRI-type J-estimation scheme for complex-cracked pipes was suggested, and the results from the proposed J-estimation were compared with the FE results using both R-O fit parameters and actual tensile data of SA376 TP304 stainless steel. The comparison results demonstrate that although the proposed scheme provided sensitive J estimations according to fitting ranges of R-O parameters, it showed overall good agreements with the FE results using R-O relation. Thus, the proposed engineering J prediction method can be utilized to assess instability of a complex crack in pipes for R-O material. - Highlights: • New h_1values of GE/EPRI method for complex-cracked pipes are proposed. • The plastic limit loads of complex-cracked pipes using Mises yield criterion are provided. • The new J estimates of complex-cracked pipes are proposed based on GE/EPRI concept. • The proposed estimates for J are validated against 3-D finite element results.

  2. A relativistic density functional study of uranyl hydrolysis and complexation by carboxylic acids in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Rupashree Shyama

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the complexation of uranium in its most stable oxidation state VI in aqueous solution was studied computationally, within the framework of density functional (DF) theory. The thesis is divided into the following parts: Chapter 2 briefly summarizes the relevant general aspects of actinide chemistry and then focuses on actinide environmental chemistry. Experimental results on hydrolysis, actinide complexation by carboxylic acids, and humic substances are presented to establish a background for the subsequent discussion. Chapter 3 describes the computational method used in this work and the relevant features of the parallel quantum chemistry code PARAGAUSS employed. First, the most relevant basics of the applied density functional approach are presented focusing on relativistic effects. Then, the treatment of solvent effects, essential for an adequate modeling of actinide species in aqueous solution, will be introduced. At the end of this chapter, computational parameters and procedures will be summarized. Chapter 4 presents the computational results including a comparison to available experimental data. In the beginning, the mononuclear hydrolysis product of UO_2"2"+, [UO_2OH]"+, will be discussed. The second part deals with actinide complexation by carboxylate ligands. First of all the coordination number for uranylacetate will be discussed with respect to implications for the complexation of actinides by humic substances followed by the uranyl complexation of aromatic carboxylic acids in comparison to earlier results for aliphatic ones. In the end, the ternary uranyl-hydroxo-acetate are discussed, as models of uranyl humate complexation at ambient condition.

  3. Evidence for functional pre-coupled complexes of receptor heteromers and adenylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Cordomí, Arnau; Casadó-Anguera, Verónica; Moreno, Estefanía; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Cortés, Antoni; Canela, Enric I; Dessauer, Carmen W; Casadó, Vicent; Pardo, Leonardo; Lluís, Carme; Ferré, Sergi

    2018-03-28

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), G proteins and adenylyl cyclase (AC) comprise one of the most studied transmembrane cell signaling pathways. However, it is unknown whether the ligand-dependent interactions between these signaling molecules are based on random collisions or the rearrangement of pre-coupled elements in a macromolecular complex. Furthermore, it remains controversial whether a GPCR homodimer coupled to a single heterotrimeric G protein constitutes a common functional unit. Using a peptide-based approach, we here report evidence for the existence of functional pre-coupled complexes of heteromers of adenosine A 2A receptor and dopamine D 2 receptor homodimers coupled to their cognate Gs and Gi proteins and to subtype 5 AC. We also demonstrate that this macromolecular complex provides the necessary frame for the canonical Gs-Gi interactions at the AC level, sustaining the ability of a Gi-coupled GPCR to counteract AC activation mediated by a Gs-coupled GPCR.

  4. Syntactic Complexity Metrics and the Readability of Programs in a Functional Computer Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Engel, F.L.; Bouwhuis, D.G.; Bosser, T.; d'Ydewalle, G.

    This article reports on the defintion and the measutement of the software complexity metrics of Halstead and McCabe for programs written in the functional programming language Miranda. An automated measurement of these metrics is described. In a case study, the correlation is established between the

  5. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, S.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to

  6. Functional analytic methods in complex analysis and applications to partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mshimba, A.S.A.; Tutschke, W.

    1990-01-01

    The volume contains 24 lectures given at the Workshop on Functional Analytic Methods in Complex Analysis and Applications to Partial Differential Equations held in Trieste, Italy, between 8-19 February 1988, at the ICTP. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these lectures. Refs and figs

  7. Muscle Hyperalgesia Correlates With Motor Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Diana E.; Marinus, Johan; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Noldus, Lucas P.J.J.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    At present it is unclear if disturbed sensory processing plays a role in the development of the commonly observed motor impairments in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). This study aims to investigate the relation between sensory and motor functioning in CRPS patients with and

  8. Functionality, Complexity, and Approaches to Assessment of Resilience Under Constrained Energy and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2. Behavioral complexity of car given particular scenarios...available with certain state values. For example, an aircraft is unable to rise vertically unless state variables such as speed, aerodynamic surface positions...greater than zero. For a car travelling along a road, a functional interaction occurs when the car stops, starts again, or turns. One additional

  9. Impairment of complex upper limb motor function in de novo parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.M.; Daffertshofer, A.; Wolters, E.C.M.J.; Beek, P.J.; Berendse, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate complex upper limb motor function in newly diagnosed, untreated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Four different unimanual upper limb motor tasks were applied to 13 newly diagnosed, untreated PD patients and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. In a

  10. Pigment binding sites occupancy and functional architecture of the Photosystem II antenna complex Lhcb5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballottari, M.; Mozzo, M.; Croce, R.; Morosinotto, T.; Bassi, R.

    2009-01-01

    Lhcb5 is an antenna protein that is highly conserved in plants and green algae. It is part of the inner layer of photosystem II antenna system retained in high light acclimated plants. To study the structure-function relation and the role of individual pigments in this complex, we (i) "knocked out"

  11. Absence of correlation between hepatic function and characteristics of migrating motor complexes in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Mortensen, P

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclic changes in gallbladder filling and emptying during the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle have been demonstrated by scintigraphy. However, a possible cyclic change in the hepatic function and handling of the pharmacologic agents used for scintigraphy during the MMC cycle could...

  12. Energy Gap in the Aetiology of Body Weight Gain and Obesity: A Challenging Concept with a Complex Evaluation and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of energy gap(s is useful for understanding the consequence of a small daily, weekly, or monthly positive energy balance and the inconspicuous shift in weight gain ultimately leading to overweight and obesity. Energy gap is a dynamic concept: an initial positive energy gap incurred via an increase in energy intake (or a decrease in physical activity is not constant, may fade out with time if the initial conditions are maintained, and depends on the ‘efficiency' with which the readjustment of the energy imbalance gap occurs with time. The metabolic response to an energy imbalance gap and the magnitude of the energy gap(s can be estimated by at least two methods, i.e. i assessment by longitudinal overfeeding studies, imposing (by design an initial positive energy imbalance gap; ii retrospective assessment based on epidemiological surveys, whereby the accumulated endogenous energy storage per unit of time is calculated from the change in body weight and body composition. In order to illustrate the difficulty of accurately assessing an energy gap we have used, as an illustrative example, a recent epidemiological study which tracked changes in total energy intake (estimated by gross food availability and body weight over 3 decades in the US, combined with total energy expenditure prediction from body weight using doubly labelled water data. At the population level, the study attempted to assess the cause of the energy gap purported to be entirely due to increased food intake. Based on an estimate of change in energy intake judged to be more reliable (i.e. in the same study population and together with calculations of simple energetic indices, our analysis suggests that conclusions about the fundamental causes of obesity development in a population (excess intake vs. low physical activity or both is clouded by a high level of uncertainty.

  13. Density functional study of isoguanine tetrad and pentad sandwich complexes with alkali metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael; Steinke, Thomas; Sühnel, Jürgen

    2007-02-01

    Isoguanine tetraplexes and pentaplexes contain two or more stacked polyads with intercalating metal ions. We report here the results of a density functional study of sandwiched isoguanine tetrad and pentad complexes consisting of two polyads with Na(+), K(+) and Rb(+) ions at the B3LYP level. In comparison to single polyad metal ion complexes, there is a trend towards increased non-planarity of the polyads in the sandwich complexes. In general, the pentad sandwiches have relatively planar polyad structures, whereas the tetrad complexes contain highly non-planar polyad building blocks. As in other sandwich complexes and in metal ion complexes with single polyads, the metal ion-base interaction energy plays an essential role. In iG sandwich structures, this interaction energy is slightly larger than in the corresponding guanine sandwich complexes. Because the base-base interaction energy is even more increased in passing from guanine to isoguanine, the isoguanine sandwiches are thus far the only examples where the base-base interaction energy is larger than the base-metal ion interaction energy. Stacking interactions have been studied in smaller models consisting of two bases, retaining the geometry from the complete complex structures. From the data obtained at the B3LYP and BH&H levels and with Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, one can conclude that the B3LYP method overestimates the repulsion in stacked base dimers. For the complexes studied in this work, this is only of minor importance because the direct inter-tetrad or inter-pentad interaction is supplemented by a strong metal ion-base interaction. Using a microsolvation model, the metal ion preference K(+) approximately Rb(+) > Na(+) is found for tetrad complexes. On the other hand, for pentads the ordering is Rb(+) > K(+) > Na(+). In the latter case experimental data are available that agree with this prediction.

  14. Infrared spectroscopy and density functional calculations on titanium-dinitrogen complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hae-Wook; Choi, Changhyeok; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Jung, Yousung; Choi, Myong Yong

    2018-04-01

    Titanium-nitrogen complexes were generated by laser ablated titanium (Ti) atoms and N2 gas molecules in this study. These complexes were isolated on the pre-deposited solid Ar matrix on the pre-cooled KBr window (T ∼ 5.4 K), allowing infrared spectra to be measured. Laser ablation experiments with 15N2 isotope provided distinct isotopic shifts in the infrared spectra that strongly implicated the formation of titanium-nitrogen complexes, Ti(NN)x. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the molecular structures, electronic ground state, relative energies, and IR frequencies of the anticipated Ti(NN)x complexes. Based on laser ablation experiments and DFT calculations, we were able to assign multiple Ti(NN)x (x = 1-6) species. Particularly, Ti(NN)5 and Ti(NN)6, which have high nitrogen content, may serve as good precursors in preparing polynitrogens.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of functional copolymer/organo-silicate nanoarchitectures through interlamellar complex-radical (coterpolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional copolymers, having a combination of rigid/flexible linkages and an ability of complex-formation with interlayered surface of organo-silicate, and their nanocomposites have been synthesized by interlamellar complex-radical (coterpolymerization of intercalated monomer complexes of maleic anhydride (MA and itaconic acid (IA with dimethyl dodecylamine surface modified montmorillonite (organo-MMT (MA…DMDA-MMT and IA…DMDA-MMT n-butyl methacrylate (BMA and/or BMA/styrene monomer mixtures. The results of nanocomposite structure–composition– property relationship studies indicate that interlamellar complex-formation between anhydride/acid units and surface alkyl amine and rigid/flexible linkage balance in polymer chains are important factors providing the effective intercalation/ exfoliation of the polymer chains into the silicate galleries, the formation of nanostructural hybrids with higher thermal stability, dynamic mechanical behaviour and well dispersed morphology.

  16. Generating functional analysis of complex formation and dissociation in large protein interaction networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, A C C; Rabello, S

    2009-01-01

    We analyze large systems of interacting proteins, using techniques from the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of disordered many-particle systems. Apart from protein production and removal, the most relevant microscopic processes in the proteome are complex formation and dissociation, and the microscopic degrees of freedom are the evolving concentrations of unbound proteins (in multiple post-translational states) and of protein complexes. Here we only include dimer-complexes, for mathematical simplicity, and we draw the network that describes which proteins are reaction partners from an ensemble of random graphs with an arbitrary degree distribution. We show how generating functional analysis methods can be used successfully to derive closed equations for dynamical order parameters, representing an exact macroscopic description of the complex formation and dissociation dynamics in the infinite system limit. We end this paper with a discussion of the possible routes towards solving the nontrivial order parameter equations, either exactly (in specific limits) or approximately.

  17. Defining ATM-Independent Functions of the Mre11 Complex with a Novel Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Alessia; Nicolas, Laura; Yang-Lott, Katherine; Guryanova, Olga A; Levine, Ross L; Bassing, Craig H; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Petrini, John H J

    2016-02-01

    The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) occupies a central node of the DNA damage response (DDR) network and is required for ATM activation in response to DNA damage. Hypomorphic alleles of MRE11 and NBS1 confer embryonic lethality in ATM-deficient mice, indicating that the complex exerts ATM-independent functions that are essential when ATM is absent. To delineate those functions, a conditional ATM allele (ATM(flox)) was crossed to hypomorphic NBS1 mutants (Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) mice). Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) hematopoietic cells derived by crossing to vav(cre) were viable in vivo. Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) (VAV) mice exhibited a pronounced defect in double-strand break repair and completely penetrant early onset lymphomagenesis. In addition to repair defects observed, fragile site instability was noted, indicating that the Mre11 complex promotes genome stability upon replication stress in vivo. The data suggest combined influences of the Mre11 complex on DNA repair, as well as the responses to DNA damage and DNA replication stress. A novel mouse model was developed, by combining a vav(cre)-inducible ATM knockout mouse with an NBS1 hypomorphic mutation, to analyze ATM-independent functions of the Mre11 complex in vivo. These data show that the DNA repair, rather than DDR signaling functions of the complex, is acutely required in the context of ATM deficiency to suppress genome instability and lymphomagenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Functional cooperation between FACT and MCM is coordinated with cell cycle and differential complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chih-Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional cooperation between FACT and the MCM helicase complex constitutes an integral step during DNA replication initiation. However, mode of regulation that underlies the proper functional interaction of FACT and MCM is poorly understood. Methods & Results Here we present evidence indicating that such interaction is coordinated with cell cycle progression and differential complex formation. We first demonstrate the existence of two distinct FACT-MCM subassemblies, FACT-MCM2/4/6/7 and FACT-MCM2/3/4/5. Both complexes possess DNA unwinding activity and are subject to cell cycle-dependent enzymatic regulation. Interestingly, analysis of functional attributes further suggests that they act at distinct, and possibly sequential, steps during origin establishment and replication initiation. Moreover, we show that the phosphorylation profile of the FACT-associated MCM4 undergoes a cell cycle-dependent change, which is directly correlated with the catalytic activity of the FACT-MCM helicase complexes. Finally, at the quaternary structure level, physical interaction between FACT and MCM complexes is generally dependent on persistent cell cycle and further stabilized upon S phase entry. Cessation of mitotic cycle destabilizes the complex formation and likely leads to compromised coordination and activities. Conclusions Together, our results correlate FACT-MCM functionally and temporally with S phase and DNA replication. They further demonstrate that enzymatic activities intrinsically important for DNA replication are tightly controlled at various levels, thereby ensuring proper progression of, as well as exit from, the cell cycle and ultimately euploid gene balance.

  19. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Ana, M.G.; Moraes, R.; Bernardi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TNα and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure

  20. The Cytochrome b 6 f Complex: Biophysical Aspects of Its Functioning in Chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2018-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of structural properties of the cytochrome (Cyt) b 6 f complex and its functioning in chloroplasts. The Cyt b 6 f complex stands at the crossroad of photosynthetic electron transport pathways, providing connectivity between Photosystem (PSI) and Photosysten II (PSII) and pumping protons across the membrane into the thylakoid lumen. After a brief review of the chloroplast electron transport chain, the consideration is focused on the structural organization of the Cyt b 6 f complex and its interaction with plastoquinol (PQH 2 , reduced form of plastoquinone), a mediator of electron transfer from PSII to the Cyt b 6 f complex. The processes of PQH 2 oxidation by the Cyt b 6 f complex have been considered within the framework of the Mitchell's Q-cycle. The overall rate of the intersystem electron transport is determined by PQH 2 turnover at the quinone-binding site Q o of the Cyt b 6 f complex. The rate of PQH 2 oxidation is controlled by the intrathylakoid pH in , which value determines the protonation/deprotonation events in the Q o -center. Two other regulatory mechanisms associated with the Cyt b 6 f complex are briefly overviewed: (i) redistribution of electron fluxes between alternative (linear and cyclic) pathways, and (ii) "state transitions" related to redistribution of solar energy between PSI and PSII.

  1. Perinatal brain injury, visual motor function and poor school outcome of regional low birth weight survivors at age nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Mahoney, Ashley Darcy; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2013-08-01

    To explore the relationship between perinatal brain injury, visual motor function (VMF) and poor school outcome. Little is known about the status and underlying mechanism of poor school outcome as experienced by low birth weight survivors. This is a secondary data analysis. The parental study recruited 1104 low birth weight (LBW) infants weighing ≤ 2000 g from three medical centres of Central New Jersey between 1984 and 1987. Seven hundred and seventy-seven infants survived the neonatal period, and their developmental outcomes had been following up regularly until now. The development data of the survivors were used to achieve the research aims. Initial school outcome assessment was carried out in 9-year-old, using the Woodcock-Johnson Academic Achievement Scale. The severity and range of perinatal brain injury was determined by repeated neonatal cranial ultrasound results obtained at 4 hours, 24 hours and 7 days of life. Seventeen and a half per cent of the sample experienced poor school performance at age 9 as defined by lower than one standard deviation (SD) of average performance score. Children with the most severe injury, PL/VE, had the lowest mathematics (F = 14·54, p = 0·000) and reading (anova results: F = 11·56, p = 0·000) performances. Visual motor function had a significant effect on children's overall school performance (Hotelling's trace value was 0·028, F = 3·414, p = 0·018), as well as subtest scores for reading (p = 0·006) and mathematics (p = 0·036). However, visual motor function was not a mediator in the association of perinatal brain injury and school outcome. Perinatal brain injury had a significant long-term effect on school outcome. Low birth weight infants with history of perinatal brain injury need be closely monitored to substantially reduce the rates of poor school outcome and other neurodevelopmental disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. On the Communication Complexity of Secure Function Evaluation with Long Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel; Wichs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We study the communication complexity of secure function evaluation (SFE). Consider a setting where Alice has a short input χA, Bob has an input χB and we want Bob to learn some function y = f(χA, χB) with large output size. For example, Alice has a small secret decryption key, Bob has a large...... value. Moreover, we show that even in an offline/online protocol, the communication of the online phase must have output-size dependence. This negative result uses an incompressibility argument and it generalizes several recent lower bounds for functional encryption and (reusable) garbled circuits...

  3. Fast Back-Propagation Learning Using Steep Activation Functions and Automatic Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai-Hoon Cho; Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, several back-propagation (BP) learning speed-up algorithms that employ the ãgainä parameter, i.e., steepness of the activation function, are examined. Simulations will show that increasing the gain seemingly increases the speed of convergence and that these algorithms can converge faster than the standard BP learning algorithm on some problems. However,...

  4. Studies on electronic spectrum and electron spin resonance of vanadium (IV) complexes with organophosphorus compounds and high molecular weight amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Taichi; Nakamura, Takato

    1981-01-01

    In the extraction of vanadium (IV) from aqueous solutions containing hydrochloric acid and/or a mixture of hydrochloric acid and lithium chloride by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogenphosphate (DEHPA; HX), trioctylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat-336), trioctylamine (TOA), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and tributyl phosphate (TBP), the complexes formed in the organic phases have been examined by spectrophotometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. It is found that in the extraction by DEHPA, the vanadium in the organic phase exists as the monomeric species, VO(X 2 H) 2 , or the polymeric one, (VOX 2 )sub(n), and that in the extractions by Aliquat-336, TOA, TOPO, and TBP, tetravalent vanadium complexes are stable in the organic phases extracted from a mixed solution of hydrochloric acid and lithium chloride, while complexes containing pentavalent vanadium and VOV 4+ ions are formed in the organic phases extracted from hydrochloric acid solutions. (author)

  5. Sex steroids do not affect muscle weight, oxidative metabolism or cytosolic androgen reception binding of functionally overloaded rat Plantaris muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, S. R.; Rance, N.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of sex steroids on muscle weight and oxidative capacity of rat planaris muscles subjected to functional overload by removal of synergistic muscles were investigated. Ten weeks after bilateral synergist removal, plantaris muscles were significantly hypertrophic compared with unoperated controls. After this period, the ability of the muscles to oxide three substrates of oxidative metabolism was assessed. Experimental procedures are discussed and results are presented herein. Results suggest a lack of beneficial effect of sex hormone status on the process of hypertrophy and on biochemical changes in overloaded muscle. Such findings are not consistent with the idea of synergistic effects of sex steroids and muscle usage.

  6. Decay of Complex-Time Determinantal and Pfaffian Correlation Functionals in Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza, N. J. B.; Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.

    2018-06-01

    We supplement the determinantal and Pfaffian bounds of Sims and Warzel (Commun Math Phys 347:903-931, 2016) for many-body localization of quasi-free fermions, by considering the high dimensional case and complex-time correlations. Our proof uses the analyticity of correlation functions via the Hadamard three-line theorem. We show that the dynamical localization for the one-particle system yields the dynamical localization for the many-point fermionic correlation functions, with respect to the Hausdorff distance in the determinantal case. In Sims and Warzel (2016), a stronger notion of decay for many-particle configurations was used but only at dimension one and for real times. Considering determinantal and Pfaffian correlation functionals for complex times is important in the study of weakly interacting fermions.

  7. Decay of Complex-Time Determinantal and Pfaffian Correlation Functionals in Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza, N. J. B.; Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.

    2018-04-01

    We supplement the determinantal and Pfaffian bounds of Sims and Warzel (Commun Math Phys 347:903-931, 2016) for many-body localization of quasi-free fermions, by considering the high dimensional case and complex-time correlations. Our proof uses the analyticity of correlation functions via the Hadamard three-line theorem. We show that the dynamical localization for the one-particle system yields the dynamical localization for the many-point fermionic correlation functions, with respect to the Hausdorff distance in the determinantal case. In Sims and Warzel (2016), a stronger notion of decay for many-particle configurations was used but only at dimension one and for real times. Considering determinantal and Pfaffian correlation functionals for complex times is important in the study of weakly interacting fermions.

  8. Structure and function of the latent F0-F1-ATPase complex of Micrococcus lysodeikticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.S.

    1988-01-01

    The latent F 0 F 1 -ATPase from Micrococcus luteus (lysodeikticus) has been purified to homogeneity, and nine distinct subunit bands were observed on SDS-PAGE. Five of nine bands corresponded to the F 1 subunits and the other four bands are likely to be subunits a, a', b, and c of the F 0 segment of the complex. The subunit designated as a' probably arises from proteolytic cleavage of the 25,5000 Mr subunit a. The F 0 F 1 -ATPase complex has a molecular weight of approximately 1,060,000, as determined by Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC). It is assumed that the F 0 F 1 -ATPase peak obtained by FPLC was a dimer and that molecular weight of the F 0 F 1 -ATPase monomer was accordingly 530,000. The stoichiometry of the subunits was determined with 14 C-labeled F 0 F 1 -ATPase prepared from cells grown on medium containing 14 C-amino acids. Antibodies to the native and SDS-denatured F 1 and F 0 F 1 -ATPase as well as to individual SDS-dissociated subunits have been generated for immunochemical analysis. The arrangement of the subunits in F 1 and F 0 F 1 -ATPase have been investigated using bifunctional chemical cross-linking agents

  9. Nutrition management methods effective in increasing weight, survival time and functional status in ALS patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Jaylin; Bottman, Lindsey; Arra, Erin J; Selkirk, Stephen M; Kozlowski, Frances

    2018-02-01

    Poor prognosis and decreased survival time correlate with the nutritional status of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Various studies were reviewed which assessed weight, body mass index (BMI), survival time and ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R) in order to determine the best nutrition management methods for this patient population. A systematic review was conducted using CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed, and various search terms in order to determine the most recent clinical trials and observational studies that have been conducted concerning nutrition and ALS. Four articles met criteria to be included in the review. Data were extracted from these articles and were inputted into the Data Extraction Tool (DET) provided by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Results showed that nutrition supplementation does promote weight stabilisation or weight gain in individuals with ALS. Given the low risk and low cost associated with intervention, early and aggressive nutrition intervention is recommended. This systematic review shows that there is a lack of high quality evidence regarding the efficacy of any dietary interventions for promoting survival in ALS or slowing disease progression; therefore more research is necessary related to effects of nutrition interventions.

  10. MCUR1 Is a Scaffold Factor for the MCU Complex Function and Promotes Mitochondrial Bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanendra Tomar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter (MCU-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is the primary mechanism for increasing matrix Ca2+ in most cell types. However, a limited understanding of the MCU complex assembly impedes the comprehension of the precise mechanisms underlying MCU activity. Here, we report that mouse cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells lacking MCU regulator 1 (MCUR1 have severely impaired [Ca2+]m uptake and IMCU current. MCUR1 binds to MCU and EMRE and function as a scaffold factor. Our protein binding analyses identified the minimal, highly conserved regions of coiled-coil domain of both MCU and MCUR1 that are necessary for heterooligomeric complex formation. Loss of MCUR1 perturbed MCU heterooligomeric complex and functions as a scaffold factor for the assembly of MCU complex. Vascular endothelial deletion of MCU and MCUR1 impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and migration but elicited autophagy. These studies establish the existence of a MCU complex that assembles at the mitochondrial integral membrane and regulates Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial metabolism.

  11. Formation of stable and functional HIV-1 nucleoprotein complexes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanchou, V; Gabus, C; Rogemond, V; Darlix, J L

    1995-10-06

    HIV genomic RNA resides within the nucleocapsid, in the interior of the virus, which serves to protect the RNA against nuclease degradation and to promote its reverse transcription. To investigate the role of nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) in the stability and replication of genomic RNA within the nucleocapsid, we used NCp7, reverse transcriptase (RT) and RNAs representing the 5' and 3' regions of the genome to reconstitute functional HIV-1 nucleocapsids. The nucleoprotein complexes generated in vitro were found to be stable, which, according to biochemical and genetic data, probably results from the tight binding of NCp7 molecules to the RNA and strong NCp7/NCp7 interactions. The nucleoprotein complexes efficiently protected viral RNA against RNase degradation and, at the same time, promoted viral DNA synthesis by RT. DNA strand transfer from the 5' to the 3' RNA template was very efficient in nucleoprotein complexes formed in the presence of both RNAs, but not when the RNAs were in separate complexes. These results indicate that the in vitro reconstituted HIV-1 nucleoprotein complexes function like virion nucleocapsids and thus provide a way to study at the molecular level this viral substructure and the synthesis of proviral DNA, and to search for new anti-HIV agents.

  12. Biopolymer molecular weight control by radiation treatment for functional property improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Nguyen Duy; Diep, Tran Bang; Quynh, Tran Minh; Hung, Nguyen Manh [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Institute for Nuclear Science and Techniques, Caugiay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Solid-state radiation treatment of chitosan an dose range of 30-100 kGy and of gelatin at dose range of 30-40 kGy significantly improved the water-stability of shrimp feed. In these dose ranges, the viscosity-average molecular weight (Mv) of bioadhesive was reduced from 552,000 to 250,000-130,000 and from 57,000 to 38,000-32,000 for chitosan and gelatin, respectively. Gelatin, which has been irradiated in liquid state, could not be used as bioadhesive due to the forming of higher macromolecules based on chaincrosslinks. Liquid-state radiation treatment, in comparison with solid-state irradiation at 100 kGy, required only dose of 4-6 kGy for similar MW and for the same optimal improvement of adhesive property. Radiation treatment with 60-100 kGy maximally enhanced the anti-microbial activity of chitosan. In addition, the optimal dose required for activity is depended on chitosan origin. Chitosan with initial MW of 830,000 required dose of 100 kGy to reduce to 120,000, while other kind of chitosan with initial MW of 550,000 required dose of 60-75 kGy to reduce to 170,000-150,000 for optimal enhancement. The antimicrobial activity is regulated by not only MW but also by its distribution. Irradiated chitosan that has largest width of MW distribution (Mw/Mn) may possesses highest antimicrobial activity. Result from fractionation by using centrifugal filter devices showed that fraction of 3-5 x 10{sup 4} has mainly contributed to the suppression of microbial growth. (author)

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging with conventional MR imaging for differentiating complex solid and cystic ovarian tumors at 1.5T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preoperative characterization of complex solid and cystic adnexal masses is crucial for informing patients about possible surgical strategies. Our study aims to determine the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC for characterizing complex solid and cystic adnexal masses. Methods One-hundred and 91 patients underwent diffusion-weighted (DW magnetic resonance (MR imaging of 202 ovarian masses. The mean ADC value of the solid components was measured and assessed for each ovarian mass. Differences in ADC between ovarian masses were tested using the Student’s t-test. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC was used to assess the ability of ADC to differentiate between benign and malignant complex adnexal masses. Results Eighty-five patients were premenopausal, and 106 were postmenopausal. Seventy-four of the 202 ovarian masses were benign and 128 were malignant. There was a significant difference between the mean ADC values of benign and malignant ovarian masses (p -3 mm2/s may be the optimal one for differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. Conclusions A high signal intensity within the solid component on T2WI was less frequently in benign than in malignant adnexal masses. The combination of DW imaging with ADC value measurements and T2-weighted signal characteristics of solid components is useful for differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian masses.

  14. Effects of Environmental Air Pollution on Pulmonary Function Level of Residents in Korean Industrial Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunju; Lee, Seokwon; Kim, Geun-Bae; Kim, Tae-Jong; Kim, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Kyoungho; Son, Bu-Soon

    2018-04-24

    This study aims to identify environmental air pollution adversely affecting pulmonary function among a community-based general population living in Korean industrial complexes. A total of 1963 residents participated in a pulmonary function test (PFT). The sample population consisted of an exposed group ( n = 1487) living within a radius of 5 km of industrial complexes and a control group ( n = 476) living over a radius of 10 km from the industrial complexes in Gwangyang and Yeosu cities. PFT results were calculated for each resident of the study population. On-site questionnaire surveys with face-to-face interviews were also conducted to collect more detailed information on personal lifestyles, medical history, exposure to air pollution, and respiratory disease and related symptoms. A total of 486 measured samples were collected by eight automated air-monitoring stations installed in four counties of Gwangyang and four counties of Yeosu in South Korea from January 2006 to February 2007. Mean levels of SO₂ (0.012 ppm), CO (0.648 ppm), NO₂ (0.02 ppm), O₃ (0.034 ppm), and PM 10 (43.07 μg/m³), collected within a radius of 5 km, were significantly higher than those collected over a radius of 10 km from Gwangyang and Yeosu industrial complexes. Prevalence odds ratio (OR) of abnormal pulmonary function in the exposed group of residents ( 0.05). In multiple linear regression analysis, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁) and forced vital capacity (FVC) levels significantly declined as SO₂, CO, and O₃ levels increased when adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), alcohol, smoking, secondhand smoke, and respiratory disease and related symptoms ( n = 1963) ( p < 0.05). These results suggest that exposure to air pollution affects pulmonary function levels of residents living in Korean industrial complexes.

  15. The composition and function of the striatin-interacting phosphatases and kinases (STRIPAK) complex in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kück, Ulrich; Beier, Anna M; Teichert, Ines

    2016-05-01

    The striatin-interacting phosphatases and kinases (STRIPAK) complex is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein complex that was recently described for diverse animal and fungal species. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about the composition and function of the STRIPAK complex from the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which we discovered by investigating sexually sterile mutants (pro), having a defect in fruiting body development. Mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid analysis defined core subunits of the STRIPAK complex, which have structural homologs in animal and other fungal organisms. These subunits (and their mammalian homologs) are PRO11 (striatin), PRO22 (STRIP1/2), SmMOB3 (Mob3), PRO45 (SLMAP), and PP2AA, the structural, and PP2Ac, the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Beside fruiting body formation, the STRIPAK complex controls vegetative growth and hyphal fusion in S. macrospora. Although the contribution of single subunits to diverse cellular and developmental processes is not yet fully understood, functional analysis has already shown that mammalian homologs are able to substitute the function of distinct fungal STRIPAK subunits. This underscores the view that fungal model organisms serve as useful tools to get a molecular insight into cellular and developmental processes of eukaryotes in general. Future work will unravel the precise localization of single subunits within the cell and decipher their STRIPAK-related and STRIPAK-independent functions. Finally, evidence is accumulating that there is a crosstalk between STRIPAK and various signaling pathways, suggesting that eukaryotic development is dependent on STRIPAK signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Uranyl(VI) and lanthanum(III) complexes with functionalized macrocyclic and macroacyclic Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiari, A.; Brianese, N.; Tamburini, S.; Vigato, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Acyclic Schiff bases have been prepared by [2 + 1] condensation of 2,6-diformyl-4-chlorophenol and H 2 NCH 2 [CH 2 XCH 2 ] n CH 2 NH 2 (n =3D 0 H 2 -I; X =3D NH, S, O n =3D 1 H 2 -II...H 2 -IV; X =3D 0 n =3D 2 H 2 -V; X =3D 0 n =3D 3 H 2 -VI). The related uranlyl(VI) and lanthanum (III) complexes have bee synthesized by reaction by reaction of the preformed ligands with the appropriate salt or by the template procedure, in the presence of base. No base was employed in the preparation of lanthanum (III) complexes, La(H 2 -II)(NO 3 ) 3 , La(H 2 -IV)(NO 3 ) 3 where the Schiff bases coordinate as neutral chelate ligands. These acyclic complexes have been used for further condensation, and symmetric and asymmetric cyclic complexes have been obtained by their reaction with the polyamines H 2 NCH 2 [CH 2 XCH 2 ]nCH 2 NH 2 or with 4,4'-diaminodibenzo -18-crown-6. By reaction with 4-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 or 2-amino-methyl-15-crown-5, the same acyclic complexes give rise to functionalized complexes bearing crown-ether moieties. Analogously, the acyclic ligand H 3 -IXX, prepared by condensation of 2,6 diformyl-4-chlorophenol and tris(aminoethyl)amine, forms mono and homodinuclear lanthanum (III) complexes, which may undergo further condensation when reacted with primary functionalized amines. (authors). 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 schemes, 1 tab

  17. Human Diseases Associated with Form and Function of the Golgi Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C. Simpson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Golgi complex lies at the heart of the secretory pathway and is responsible for modifying proteins and lipids, as well as sorting newly synthesized molecules to their correct destination. As a consequence of these important roles, any changes in its proteome can negatively affect its function and in turn lead to disease. Recently, a number of proteins have been identified, which when either depleted or mutated, result in diseases that affect various organ systems. Here we describe how these proteins have been linked to the Golgi complex, and specifically how they affect either the morphology, membrane traffic or glycosylation ability of this organelle.

  18. Functions of chalcogenide electrodes in solutions of complexing reagents and interfering ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanskij, V.V.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility to modify chalcogenide electrodes and their behaviour in solutions of complexing reagents for the development of new methods of potentiometric titration has been studied. It is shown that complexing reagents (EDTA, cupferron, 8-hydroxyquinoline, sodium dithiocarbaminate) and Cu(2), Hg(2) produce a strong effect on the functions of Ag, Cu, Cd, Pb - selective electrodes, which is used for titration of potential-determining and non-potential-determining ions ions (Sr 2+ , La 3+ etc.) and also for modification of sulfide-selecting electrode. A method of potentiometric titration of sulfates and chlorides with modified Cd- and Ag-selective electrodes is suggested

  19. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  20. Functionalized granular activated carbon and surface complexation with chromates and bi-chromates in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Somdutta; Sarkar, Ujjaini; Luharuka, Pallavi

    2013-01-01

    Cr(VI) is present in the aqueous medium as chromate (CrO 4 2− ) and bi-chromate (HCrO 4 − ). Functionalized granular activated carbons (FACs) are used as adsorbents in the treatment of wastewaters containing hexavalent chromium. The FACs are prepared by chemical modifications of granular activated carbons (GACs) using functionalizing agents like HNO 3 , HCl and HF. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface areas of FAC-HCl (693.5 m 2 /g), FAC-HNO 3 (648.8 m 2 /g) and FAC-HF (726.2 m 2 /g) are comparable to the GAC (777.7 m 2 /g). But, the adsorption capacity of each of the FAC-HNO 3 , FAC-HCl and FAC-HF is found to be higher than the GAC. The functional groups play an important role in the adsorption process and pH has practically no role in this specific case. The FACs have hydrophilic protonated external surfaces in particular, along with the functional surface sites capable to make complexes with the CrO 4 2− and HCrO 4 − present. Surface complex formation is maximized in the order FAC-HNO 3 > FAC-HF > FAC-HCl, in proportion to the total surface acidity. This is also confirmed by the well-known pseudo second-order kinetic model. Physi-sorption equilibrium isotherms are parameterized by using standard Freundlich and Langmuir models. Langmuir fits better. The formation of surface complexes with the functional groups and hexavalent chromium is also revealed in the images of field emission scanning electron micrograph; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis after adsorption. The intra-particle diffusion is not the only rate-controlling factor. The Boyd's film diffusion model fits very well with R 2 as high as 98.1% for FAC-HNO 3 . This result demonstrates that the functionalization of the GAC by acid treatments would increase the diffusion rate, predominantly with a boundary layer diffusion effect. - Highlights: ► Physico-chemical adsorption using functionalized activated carbon (FACs) is applied. ► FACs

  1. The effect of body weight on distal airway function and airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kant, Kim D G; Paredi, Paolo; Meah, Sally; Kalsi, Harpal S; Barnes, Peter J; Usmani, Omar S

    Obesity is a global health problem that adversely influences the respiratory system. We assessed the effects of body mass index (BMI) on distal airway function and airway inflammation. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) as a measure of distal airway function, together with spirometry, were assessed in adults with a range of different BMIs. Airway inflammation was assessed with the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and participants exhaled at various exhalation flows to determine alveolar and bronchial NO. In total 34 subjects were enrolled in the study; 19 subjects had a normal BMI (18.50-24.99), whilst 15 subjects were overweight (BMI 25.00-29.99), or obese (BMI ≥30). All subjects had normal spirometry. However, IOS measures of airway resistance (R) at 5Hz, 20Hz and frequency dependence (R 5-20 ) were elevated in overweight/obese individuals, compared to subjects with a normal BMI (median (interquartile range)); 5Hz: 0.41 (0.37, 0.45) vs. 0.32 (0.30, 0.37)kPa/l/s; 20Hz: 0.34 (0.30, 0.37) vs. 0.30 (0.26, 0.33)kPa/l/s; R 5-20 : 0.06 (0.04, 0.11) vs. 0.03 (0.01, 0.05)kPa/l/s; plimitation) and FeNO inflammatory measures, did not differ between groups (p>0.05). Being overweight has significant effects on distal and central airway function as determined by IOS, which is not detected by spirometry. Obesity does not influence airway inflammation as measured by FeNO. IOS is a reliable technique to identify airway abnormalities in the presence of normal spirometry in overweight people. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction complexes of Pu(IV) with carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide ligands. A relativistic density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Feng, Yi-Xiao; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun; Wei, Yue-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The extraction complexes of Pu(IV) with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-methylcarbamoyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) and diphenyl-N,N-diisobutyl carbamoyl phosphine oxide (Ph 2 CMPO) have been studied by using density functional theory (DFT) combined with relativistic small-core pseudopotentials. For most complexes, the CMPO and Ph 2 CMPO molecules are coordinated as bidentate chelating ligands through the carbonyl oxygen and phosphoric oxygen atoms. The metal-ligand bonding is mainly ionic for all of these complexes. The neutral PuL(NO 3 ) 4 and PuL 2 (NO 3 ) 4 complexes are predicted to be the most thermodynamically stable molecules according to the metal-ligand complexation reactions. In addition, hydration energies may also play a significant role in the extractability of CMPO and Ph 2 CMPO for the plutonium cations. In most cases, the complexes with CMPO possess qualitatively similar geometries and electron structures to those with Ph 2 CMPO, and they also have comparable metal-ligand binding energies. Thus, replacement of alkyl groups by phenyl groups at the phosphorus atom of CMPO seems to have no obvious influence on the extraction of Pu(IV). (orig.)

  3. Effect of large weight reductions on measured and estimated kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Persson, Frederik; Svane, Maria S

    2017-01-01

    GFR (creatinine-based equations), whereas measured GFR (mGFR) and cystatin C-based eGFR would be unaffected if adjusted for body surface area. METHODS: Prospective, intervention study including 19 patients. All attended a baseline visit before gastric bypass surgery followed by a visit six months post-surgery. m...... for body surface area was unchanged. Estimates of GFR based on creatinine overestimate renal function likely due to changes in muscle mass, whereas cystatin C based estimates are unaffected. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02138565 . Date of registration: March 24, 2014....

  4. Methods for the analysis of complex fluorescence decays: sum of Becquerel functions versus sum of exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Filipe; Fedorov, Alexander; Baleizão, Carlos; Berberan-Santos, Mário N; Valeur, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Ensemble fluorescence decays are usually analyzed with a sum of exponentials. However, broad continuous distributions of lifetimes, either unimodal or multimodal, occur in many situations. A simple and flexible fitting function for these cases that encompasses the exponential is the Becquerel function. In this work, the applicability of the Becquerel function for the analysis of complex decays of several kinds is tested. For this purpose, decays of mixtures of four different fluorescence standards (binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures) are measured and analyzed. For binary and ternary mixtures, the expected sum of narrow distributions is well recovered from the Becquerel functions analysis, if the correct number of components is used. For ternary mixtures, however, satisfactory fits are also obtained with a number of Becquerel functions smaller than the true number of fluorophores in the mixture, at the expense of broadening the lifetime distributions of the fictitious components. The quaternary mixture studied is well fitted with both a sum of three exponentials and a sum of two Becquerel functions, showing the inevitable loss of information when the number of components is large. Decays of a fluorophore in a heterogeneous environment, known to be represented by unimodal and broad continuous distributions (as previously obtained by the maximum entropy method), are also measured and analyzed. It is concluded that these distributions can be recovered by the Becquerel function method with an accuracy similar to that of the much more complex maximum entropy method. It is also shown that the polar (or phasor) plot is not always helpful for ascertaining the degree (and kind) of complexity of a fluorescence decay. (paper)

  5. Intrasurgical mapping of complex motor function in the superior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, J; Gabarrós, A; Deus, J; Juncadella, M; Acebes, J J; Torres, A; Pujol, J

    2011-04-14

    A lesion to the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) has been associated with long-lasting deficits in complex motor functions. The aim of this study was to analyze the functional role of the SFG by means of electrical cortical stimulation. Direct intraoperative electrical stimulation was used in a group of 21 subjects with lesions within or close to the SFG while they performed three motor tasks that require high skills or bimanual synergy. The results were compared to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ninety-four of the 98 (94.9%) labels identified were located on the convexity surface of the SFG and only four (4.1%) labels were located on the middle surface of the SFG. Areas of blockage of the three tasks were identified in six of the 12 (50%) hemispheres with lesions that had infiltrated the SFG, compared to all 10 of the 10 hemispheres (100%) with lesions that spared the SFG. The difference between these two proportions was statistically significant (P=0.015). fMRI activation was mainly located on the medial aspect of the SFG. We show that the convexity surface of the SFG has an important role in bilateral control of complex movements and in bimanual coordination. The infiltration of the posterior part of the SFG by a lesion disturbs some of the complex hand motor functions, which may be assumed by the contralesional homologous area. Finally, the current study emphasizes the discrepancies between fMRI and intraoperative electrical stimulation maps in complex hand motor function. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Jason; Christian, Mathew; Cooper, Juliette; Leiter, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week lower body positive pressure (LBPP)-supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee joint pain, function, and thigh muscle strength in overweight patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community-based, multidisciplinary sports medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients aged between 55 and 75 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m and mild-to-moderate knee OA. Twelve-week LBPP-supported low-load treadmill walking regimen. Acute knee joint pain (visual analog scale) during full weight bearing treadmill walking, chronic knee pain, and joint function [Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire] during normal activities of daily living, and thigh muscle strength (isokinetic testing). Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used to compare data from baseline and follow-up evaluation. Participants reported significant improvements in knee joint pain and function and demonstrated significant increases in thigh muscle strength about the degenerative knee. Participants also experienced significant reductions in acute knee pain during full weight bearing treadmill walking and required dramatically less LBPP support to walk pain free on the treadmill. Data suggest that an LBPP-supported low-load exercise regimen can be used to significantly diminish knee pain, enhance joint function, and increase thigh muscle strength, while safely promoting pain-free walking exercise in overweight patients with knee OA. These findings have important implications for the development of nonoperative treatment strategies that can be used in the management of joint symptoms associated with progressive knee OA in at-risk patient populations. This research suggests that LBPP-supported low-load walking is a safe user-friendly mode of exercise that can be successfully used in the management of day-to-day joint symptoms associated with knee OA, helping to improve the

  7. "Best Practices in Using Large, Complex Samples: The Importance of Using Appropriate Weights and Design Effect Compensation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Osborne

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Large surveys often use probability sampling in order to obtain representative samples, and these data sets are valuable tools for researchers in all areas of science. Yet many researchers are not formally prepared to appropriately utilize these resources. Indeed, users of one popular dataset were generally found not to have modeled the analyses to take account of the complex sample (Johnson & Elliott, 1998 even when publishing in highly-regarded journals. It is well known that failure to appropriately model the complex sample can substantially bias the results of the analysis. Examples presented in this paper highlight the risk of error of inference and mis-estimation of parameters from failure to analyze these data sets appropriately.

  8. The Complex Relationship between Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain and Therapeutic Benefits: A Systematic Review and Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex T. Raben

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG and other adverse metabolic effects represent serious side effects faced by many patients with psychosis that can lead to numerous comorbidities and which reduce the lifespan. While the pathophysiology of AIWG remains poorly understood, numerous studies have reported a positive association between AIWG and the therapeutic benefit of antipsychotic medications.Objectives: To review the literature to (1 determine if AIWG is consistently associated with therapeutic benefit and (2 investigate which variables may mediate such an association.Data Sources: MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles containing all the following exploded MESH terms: schizophrenia [AND] antipsychotic agents/neuroleptics [AND] (weight gain [OR] lipids [OR] insulin [OR] leptin [AND] treatment outcome. Results were limited to full-text, English journal articles.Results: Our literature search uncovered 31 independent studies which investigated an AIWG-therapeutic benefit association with a total of 6063 enrolled individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or another serious mental illness receiving antipsychotic medications. Twenty-two studies found a positive association while, 10 studies found no association and one study reported a negative association. Study variables including medication compliance, sex, ethnicity, or prior antipsychotic exposure did not appear to consistently affect the AIWG-therapeutic benefit relationship. In contrast, there was some evidence that controlling for baseline BMI/psychopathology, duration of treatment and specific agent studied [i.e., olanzapine (OLZ or clozapine (CLZ] strengthened the relationship between AIWG and therapeutic benefit.Limitations: There were limitations of the reviewed studies in that many had small sample sizes, and/or were retrospective. The heterogeneity of the studies also made comparisons difficult and publication bias

  9. In vitro reconstitution and characterization of the yeast mitochondrial degradosome complex unravels tight functional interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Michal; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Stepien, Piotr P; Golik, Pawel

    2007-09-07

    The mitochondrial degradosome (mtEXO), the main RNA-degrading complex of yeast mitochondria, is composed of two subunits: an exoribonuclease encoded by the DSS1 gene and an RNA helicase encoded by the SUV3 gene. We expressed both subunits of the yeast mitochondrial degradosome in Escherichia coli, reconstituted the complex in vitro and analyzed the RNase, ATPase and helicase activities of the two subunits separately and in complex. The results reveal a very strong functional interdependence. For every enzymatic activity, we observed significant changes when the relevant protein was present in the complex, compared to the activity measured for the protein alone. The ATPase activity of Suv3p is stimulated by RNA and its background activity in the absence of RNA is reduced greatly when the protein is in the complex with Dss1p. The Suv3 protein alone does not display RNA-unwinding activity and the 3' to 5' directional helicase activity requiring a free 3' single-stranded substrate becomes apparent only when Suv3p is in complex with Dss1p. The Dss1 protein alone does have some basal exoribonuclease activity, which is not ATP-dependent, but in the presence of Suv3p the activity of the entire complex is enhanced greatly and is entirely ATP-dependent, with no residual activity observed in the absence of ATP. Such absolute ATP-dependence is unique among known exoribonuclease complexes. On the basis of these results, we propose a model in which the Suv3p RNA helicase acts as a molecular motor feeding the substrate to the catalytic centre of the RNase subunit.

  10. A Highly Expressed High-Molecular-Weight S-Layer Complex of Pelosinus sp. Strain UFO1 Binds Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorgersen, Michael P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Lancaster, W. Andrew [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Rajeev, Lara [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Ge, Xiaoxuan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Vaccaro, Brian J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Poole, Farris L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Arkin, Adam P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Adams, Michael W. W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2016-12-02

    Cell suspensions of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 were previously shown, using spectroscopic analysis, to sequester uranium as U(IV) complexed with carboxyl and phosphoryl group ligands on proteins. The goal of our present study was to characterize the proteins involved in uranium binding. Virtually all of the uranium in UFO1 cells was associated with a heterodimeric protein, which was termed the uranium-binding complex (UBC). The UBC was composed of two S-layer domain proteins encoded by UFO1_4202 and UFO1_4203. Samples of UBC purified from the membrane fraction contained 3.3 U atoms/heterodimer, but significant amounts of phosphate were not detected. The UBC had an estimated molecular mass by gel filtration chromatography of 15 MDa, and it was proposed to contain 150 heterodimers (UFO1_4203 and UFO1_4202) and about 500 uranium atoms. The UBC was also the dominant extracellular protein, but when purified from the growth medium, it contained only 0.3 U atoms/heterodimer. The two genes encoding the UBC were among the most highly expressed genes within the UFO1 genome, and their expressions were unchanged by the presence or absence of uranium. Therefore, the UBC appears to be constitutively expressed and is the first line of defense against uranium, including by secretion into the extracellular medium. Although S-layer proteins were previously shown to bind U(VI), here we showed that U(IV) binds to S-layer proteins, we identified the proteins involved, and we quantitated the amount of uranium bound. Widespread uranium contamination from industrial sources poses hazards to human health and to the environment. Here in this paper, we identified a highly abundant uranium-binding complex (UBC) from Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1. The complex makes up the primary protein component of the S-layer of strain UFO1 and binds 3.3 atoms of U(IV) per heterodimer. Finally, while other bacteria have been shown to bind U(VI) on their S-layer, we demonstrate here an example of U(IV) bound by

  11. Health literacy in a complex digital media landscape: Pediatric obesity patients' experiences with online weight, food, and health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christopher; Berg, Christina; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Lissner, Lauren; Chaplin, John Eric

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to explore experiences with online information regarding food, weight management, and health in a group of adolescents in treatment for obesity. Individual semi-structured interviews with 20 adolescents were conducted. Participants used a screen-recorded laptop to demonstrate their search procedures and online information sources. The transcribed interviews were categorized using qualitative content analysis. The adolescents described both encouraging and discouraging experiences. On one hand, they said that online forums could provide nutritious meal ideas and inspiration as well as social support for behavior change. On the other hand, they mentioned that there was a confusing amount of misleading commercial content online and also experiences of peer-facilitated food marketing in online networks. An overarching theme was generated: social media might be a resource for health inspiration, health information, and social support, but requires awareness and competencies. Implications for clinical practice are discussed in light of these findings.

  12. Executive function training with game elements for obese children: A novel treatment to enhance self-regulatory abilities for weight-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeken, S.; Braet, C.; Goossens, L.; van der Oord, S.

    2013-01-01

    For obese children behavioral treatment results in only small changes in relative weight and frequent relapse. The current study investigated the effects of an Executive Functioning (EF) training with game-elements on weight loss maintenance in obese children, over and above the care as usual in an

  13. Aberrant resting-state corticostriatal functional connectivity in cirrhotic patients with hyperintense globus pallidus on T1-weighted MR imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Qi Zhu

    Full Text Available Neurobiological and neuroimaging studies have emphasized the structural and functional alterations in the striatum of cirrhotic patients, but alterations in the functional connections between the striatum and other brain regions have not yet been explored. Of note, manganese accumulation in the nervous system, frequently reflected by hyperintensity at the bilateral globus pallidus (GP on T1-weighted imaging, has been considered a factor affecting the striatal and cortical functions in hepatic decompensation. We employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to analyze the temporal correlation between the striatum and the remaining brain regions using seed-based correlation analyses. The two-sample t-test was conducted to detect the differences in corticostriatal connectivity between 44 cirrhotic patients with hyperintensity at the bilateral GP and 20 healthy controls. Decreased connectivity of the caudate was detected in the anterior/middle cingulate gyrus, and increased connectivity of the caudate was found in the left motor cortex. A reduction in functional connectivity was found between the putamen and several regions, including the anterior cingulate gyrus, right insular lobe, inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and anterior lobe of the right cerebellum; increased connectivity was detected between the putamen and right middle temporal gyrus. There were significant correlations between the corticostriatal connectivity and neuropsychological performances in the patient group, but not between the striatal connectivity and GP signal intensity. These alterations in the corticostriatal functional connectivity suggested the abnormalities in the intrinsic brain functional organiztion among the cirrhotic patients with manganese deposition, and may be associated with development of metabolic encephalopathy. The manganese deposition in nervous system, however, can not be an independent factor predicting the resting

  14. Functional Assembly of Soluble and Membrane Recombinant Proteins of Mammalian NADPH Oxidase Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souabni, Hajer; Ezzine, Aymen; Bizouarn, Tania; Baciou, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Activation of phagocyte cells from an innate immune system is associated with a massive consumption of molecular oxygen to generate highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) as microbial weapons. This is achieved by a multiprotein complex, the so-called NADPH oxidase. The activity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase relies on an assembly of more than five proteins, among them the membrane heterodimer named flavocytochrome b 558 (Cytb 558 ), constituted by the tight association of the gp91 phox (also named Nox2) and p22 phox proteins. The Cytb 558 is the membrane catalytic core of the NADPH oxidase complex, through which the reducing equivalent provided by NADPH is transferred via the associated prosthetic groups (one flavin and two hemes) to reduce dioxygen into superoxide anion. The other major proteins (p47 phox , p67 phox , p40 phox , Rac) requisite for the complex activity are cytosolic proteins. Thus, the NADPH oxidase functioning relies on a synergic multi-partner assembly that in vivo can be hardly studied at the molecular level due to the cell complexity. Thus, a cell-free assay method has been developed to study the NADPH oxidase activity that allows measuring and eventually quantifying the ROS generation based on optical techniques following reduction of cytochrome c. This setup is a valuable tool for the identification of protein interactions, of crucial components and additives for a functional enzyme. Recently, this method was improved by the engineering and the production of a complete recombinant NADPH oxidase complex using the combination of purified proteins expressed in bacterial and yeast host cells. The reconstitution into artificial membrane leads to a fully controllable system that permits fine functional studies.

  15. Executive Functioning and School Performance Among Pediatric Survivors of Complex Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Melissa; Beebe, Dean W.; Drotar, Dennis; Cassedy, Amy; Marino, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the presence and severity of real-world impairments in executive functioning– responsible for children’s regulatory skills (metacognition, behavioral regulation) – and its potential impact on school performance among pediatric survivors of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Study design Survivors of complex CHD aged 8–16 years (n=143)and their parents/guardians from a regional CHD survivor registry participated (81% participation rate). Parents completed proxy measures of executive functioning, school competency, and school-related quality of life (QOL). Patients also completed a measure of school QOL and underwent IQ testing. Patients were categorized into two groups based on heart lesion complexity: two-ventricle or single-ventricle. Results Survivors of complex CHD performed significantly worse than norms for executive functioning, IQ, school competency, and school QOL. Metacognition was more severely affected than behavioral regulation, and metacognitive deficits were more often present in older children. Even after taking into account demographic factors, disease severity, and IQ, metacognition uniquely and strongly predicted poorer school performance. In exploratory analyses, patients with single-ventricle lesions were rated as having lower school competency and school QOL, and patients with two-ventricle lesions were rated as having poorer behavioral regulation. Conclusions Survivors of complex CHD experience greater executive functioning difficulties than healthy peers, with metacognition particularly impacted and particularly relevant for day-to-day school performance. Especially in older children, clinicians should watch for metacognitive deficits, such as problems with organization, planning, self-monitoring, and follow-through on tasks. PMID:26875011

  16. Metabolic imaging for breast cancer detection and treatment: a role for mitochondrial Complex I function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2018-02-01

    Cancer cells are known to display a variety of metabolic reprogramming strategies to fulfill their own growth and proliferative agenda. With the advent of high resolution imaging strategies, metabolomics techniques etc., there is an increasing appreciation of critical role that tumor cell metabolism plays in the overall breast cancer (BC) growth. A recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that the development of invasive cancers could be causally connected to deficits in mitochondrial function. Using this study as a rationale, we hypothesize that the widely accepted multistep tumor growth model might have a strong metabolic component as well. In this study, we explore the possibility of targeting mitochondrial Complex I enzyme system for not only metabolic detection of cancer-associated redox changes but also for modulating breast cancer cell growth characteristics. As a proof-of-principle, we demonstrate two approaches (pharmacological and genetic) for modulating mitochondrial Complex I function so as to achieve breast cancer control.

  17. Functional interplay between Mediator and TFIIB in preinitiation complex assembly in relation to promoter architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychenne, Thomas; Novikova, Elizaveta; Barrault, Marie-Bénédicte; Alibert, Olivier; Boschiero, Claire; Peixeiro, Nuno; Cornu, David; Redeker, Virginie; Kuras, Laurent; Nicolas, Pierre; Werner, Michel; Soutourina, Julie

    2016-09-15

    Mediator is a large coregulator complex conserved from yeast to humans and involved in many human diseases, including cancers. Together with general transcription factors, it stimulates preinitiation complex (PIC) formation and activates RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription. In this study, we analyzed how Mediator acts in PIC assembly using in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches. We revealed an essential function of the Mediator middle module exerted through its Med10 subunit, implicating a key interaction between Mediator and TFIIB. We showed that this Mediator-TFIIB link has a global role on PIC assembly genome-wide. Moreover, the amplitude of Mediator's effect on PIC formation is gene-dependent and is related to the promoter architecture in terms of TATA elements, nucleosome occupancy, and dynamics. This study thus provides mechanistic insights into the coordinated function of Mediator and TFIIB in PIC assembly in different chromatin contexts. © 2016 Eychenne et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. High-Frequency Promoter Firing Links THO Complex Function to Heavy Chromatin Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouaikel, John; Causse, Sébastien Z; Rougemaille, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The THO complex is involved in transcription, genome stability, and messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) formation, but its precise molecular function remains enigmatic. Under heat shock conditions, THO mutants accumulate large protein-DNA complexes that alter the chromatin density of target genes...... (heavy chromatin), defining a specific biochemical facet of THO function and a powerful tool of analysis. Here, we show that heavy chromatin distribution is dictated by gene boundaries and that the gene promoter is necessary and sufficient to convey THO sensitivity in these conditions. Single......-molecule fluorescence insitu hybridization measurements show that heavy chromatin formation correlates with an unusually high firing pace of the promoter with more than 20 transcription events per minute. Heavy chromatin formation closely follows the modulation of promoter firing and strongly correlates with polymerase...

  19. The accuracy of geometries for iron porphyrin complexes from density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik Åke Anders; Olsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    functionals is evaluated with regard to how they reproduce experimental structures. Seven different functionals (BP86, PBE, PBE0, TPSS, TPSSH, B3LYP, and B97-D) are used to study eight different iron porphyrin complexes. The results show that the TPSSH, PBE0, and TPSS functionals give the best results...... (absolute bond distance deviations of 0.015-0.016 A), but the geometries are well-reproduced by all functionals except B3LYP. We also test four different basis sets of double-zeta quality, and we find that a combination of double-zeta basis set of Schafer et al. on the iron atom and the 6-31G* basis set...

  20. Functional modelling for integration of human-software-hardware in complex physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, M.

    1996-01-01

    A framework describing the properties of complex physical systems composed of human-software-hardware interactions in terms of their functions is described. It is argued that such a framework is domain-general, so that functional primitives present a language that is more general than most other modeling methods such as mathematical simulation. The characteristics and types of functional models are described. Examples of uses of the framework in modeling physical systems composed of human-software-hardware (hereby we refer to them as only physical systems) are presented. It is concluded that a function-centered model of a physical system provides a capability for generating a high-level simulation of the system for intelligent diagnostic, control or other similar applications

  1. Radionuclide diagnosis of hepatobiliary system functional state at complex treatment of uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vusik, Yi.M.; Slabodchikov, M.Je.; Nesterov, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    The study involved 68 patients with uterine cancer (stage II-III) who underwent complex treatment and 16 healthy women aged 27-69. The patients were performed hepatography (44 of them - dynamic liver scintigraphy with Tc 99m - mezida) before the treatment, immediately after and 1-1.5 and 2-3 years after the course of radiotherapy. Latent disturbance of hepatobiliary system function which can be revealed with radionuclide study is shown to be observed in the patients with uterine cancer before the treatment. The level of hepatocytes functioning after the treatment depends largely on their initial functional state. Computer assisted multichannel radiography with evaluation of effective blood flow in the liver and effective fraction of minute volume of the blood flow is the most reasonable for monitoring hepatocytes function during treatment in the patients with uterine cancer

  2. A functional TOC complex contributes to gravity signal transduction in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Allison K; Barrett-Wilt, Greg A; Masson, Patrick H

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid sedimentation has long been recognized as important for a plant's perception of gravity, it was recently shown that plastids play an additional function in gravitropism. The Translocon at the Outer envelope membrane of Chloroplasts (TOC) complex transports nuclear-encoded proteins into plastids, and a receptor of this complex, Toc132, was previously hypothesized to contribute to gravitropism either by directly functioning as a gravity signal transducer or by indirectly mediating the plastid localization of a gravity signal transducer. Here we show that mutations in multiple genes encoding TOC complex components affect gravitropism in a genetically sensitized background and that the cytoplasmic acidic domain of Toc132 is not required for its involvement in this process. Furthermore, mutations in TOC132 enhance the gravitropic defect of a mutant whose amyloplasts lack starch. Finally, we show that the levels of several nuclear-encoded root proteins are altered in toc132 mutants. These data suggest that the TOC complex indirectly mediates gravity signal transduction in Arabidopsis and support the idea that plastids are involved in gravitropism not only through their ability to sediment but also as part of the signal transduction mechanism.

  3. Study of chemical bonding in the interhalogen complexes based on density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poleshchuk, O. Kh., E-mail: poleshch@tspu.edu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Fateev, A. V.; Yarkova, A. G. [Tomsk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Ermakhanov, M. N.; Saidakhmetov, P. A. [M. Auezov South Kazakhstan State University (Kazakhstan)

    2016-12-15

    The density functional theory analysis was used for a number XYL complexes (XY is a dihalogen molecule and L is a Lewis base), formed between molecules I{sub 2}, ICl, IBr and pyridine. The calculated geometrical parameters, IR spectra and nuclear quadrupole interaction constants of iodine are consistent with the data of microwave spectroscopy and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The good correlation between the experimental and calculated binding energies of the inner electrons of iodine, chlorine and nitrogen atoms were found with the calculation using both Gaussian and Slater functions. The comparison of experimental and calculated changes in the electron density on the atoms upon complex formation suggested the choice of scheme for calculating the effective charge on the atoms, which allow us to interpret the experimental spectra. It is shown that the use of both calculated schemes allows us to predict the enthalpy of complex formation in close agreement with the experimental values. The energy analysis shows that in the complexes the electrostatic binding energy dominates that of covalent binding.

  4. Defects in the COG complex and COG-related trafficking regulators affect neuronal Golgi function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie K Climer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG complex is an evolutionarily conserved hetero-octameric protein complex that has been proposed to organize vesicle tethering at the Golgi apparatus. Defects in seven of the eight COG subunits are linked to Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG-type II, a family of rare diseases involving misregulation of protein glycosylation, alterations in Golgi structure, variations in retrograde trafficking through the Golgi and system-wide clinical pathologies. A troublesome aspect of these diseases are the neurological pathologies such as low IQ, microcephaly and cerebellar atrophy. The essential function of the COG complex is dependent upon interactions with other components of trafficking machinery, such as Rab-GTPases and SNAREs. COG-interacting Rabs and SNAREs have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Defects in Golgi maintenance disrupts trafficking and processing of essential proteins, frequently associated with and contributing to compromised neuron function and human disease. Despite the recent advances in molecular neuroscience, the subcellular bases for most neurodegenerative diseases are poorly understood. This article gives an overview of the potential contributions of the COG complex and its Rab and SNARE partners in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. Recent developments in the nanostructured materials functionalized with ruthenium complexes for targeted drug delivery to tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavel P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prakash Thangavel,1 Buddolla Viswanath,1 Sanghyo Kim1,2 1Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 2Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Republic of Korea Abstract: In recent years, the field of metal-based drugs has been dominated by other existing precious metal drugs, and many researchers have focused their attention on the synthesis of various ruthenium (Ru complexes due to their potential medical and pharmaceutical applications. The beneficial properties of Ru, which make it a highly promising therapeutic agent, include its variable oxidation states, low toxicity, high selectivity for diseased cells, ligand exchange properties, and the ability to mimic iron binding to biomolecules. In addition, Ru complexes have favorable adsorption properties, along with excellent photochemical and photophysical properties, which make them promising tools for photodynamic therapy. At present, nanostructured materials functionalized with Ru complexes have become an efficient way to administer Ru-based anticancer drugs for cancer treatment. In this review, the recent developments in the nanostructured materials functionalized with Ru complexes for targeted drug delivery to tumors are discussed. In addition, information on “traditional” (ie, non-nanostructured Ru-based cancer therapies is included in a precise manner. Keywords: metallodrugs, nanotechnology, cancer treatment, cell apoptosis, DNA damage, toxicity

  6. Screening of a Novel Fragment Library with Functional Complexity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Federica; Zuccotto, Fabio; Fletcher, Daniel; Convery, Maire A; Fernandez-Menendez, Raquel; Bates, Robert; Encinas, Lourdes; Zeng, Jingkun; Chung, Chun-Wa; De Dios Anton, Paco; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Mackenzie, Claire; Green, Simon R; Huggett, Margaret; Barros, David; Wyatt, Paul G; Ray, Peter C

    2018-04-06

    Our findings reported herein provide support for the benefits of including functional group complexity (FGC) within fragments when screening against protein targets such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA. We show that InhA fragment actives with FGC maintained their binding pose during elaboration. Furthermore, weak fragment hits with functional group handles also allowed for facile fragment elaboration to afford novel and potent InhA inhibitors with good ligand efficiency metrics for optimization. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Biogenetic mechanisms predisposing to complex phenotypes in parents may function differently in their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    rule. Our findings suggest that biogenetic mechanisms underlying relationships among different phenotypes, even if they are causally related, can function differently in successive generations or in different age groups of biologically related individuals. The results suggest that the role of aging-related......This study focuses on the participants of the Long Life Family Study to elucidate whether biogenetic mechanisms underlying relationships among heritable complex phenotypes in parents function in the same way for the same phenotypes in their children. Our results reveal 3 characteristic groups...

  8. Impaired insula functional connectivity associated with persistent pain perception in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Joon Hwan; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Won Joon; Moon, Jee Youn; Kim, Yong Chul

    2017-01-01

    Given that the insula plays a contributory role in the perception of chronic pain, we examined the resting-state functional connectivity between the insular cortex and other brain regions to investigate neural underpinnings of persisting perception of background pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). A total of 25 patients with CRPS and 25 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. With the anterior and posterior insular cortices as seed regions, we compared the strength of the resting-state functional connectivity between the two groups. Functional connectivity between the anterior and posterior insular cortices and the postcentral and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate cortices was reduced in patients with CRPS compared with controls. Additionally, greater reductions in functional connectivity between the anterior insula and right postcentral gyrus were associated with more severe sensory pain in patients with CRPS (short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire sensory subscores, r = -.517, P = .023). The present results imply a possible role of the insula in aberrant processing of pain information in patients with CRPS. The findings suggest that a functional derangement of the connection between one of the somatosensory cortical functions of perception and one of the insular functions of awareness can play a significant role in the persistent experience of regional pain that is not confined to a specific nerve territory. PMID:28692702

  9. Robust Template Decomposition without Weight Restriction for Cellular Neural Networks Implementing Arbitrary Boolean Functions Using Support Vector Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Lon Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available If the given Boolean function is linearly separable, a robust uncoupled cellular neural network can be designed as a maximal margin classifier. On the other hand, if the given Boolean function is linearly separable but has a small geometric margin or it is not linearly separable, a popular approach is to find a sequence of robust uncoupled cellular neural networks implementing the given Boolean function. In the past research works using this approach, the control template parameters and thresholds are restricted to assume only a given finite set of integers, and this is certainly unnecessary for the template design. In this study, we try to remove this restriction. Minterm- and maxterm-based decomposition algorithms utilizing the soft margin and maximal margin support vector classifiers are proposed to design a sequence of robust templates implementing an arbitrary Boolean function. Several illustrative examples are simulated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method by comparing our results with those produced by other decomposition methods with restricted weights.

  10. Effects of the addition of functional electrical stimulation to ground level gait training with body weight support after chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Medeiros, Christiane L; Sousa, Catarina O; Souza, Andréa S; Soares, Márcio R; Barela, Ana M F; Salvini, Tania F

    2011-01-01

    The addition of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to treadmill gait training with partial body weight support (BWS) has been proposed as a strategy to facilitate gait training in people with hemiparesis. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of FES addition on ground level gait training with BWS, which is the most common locomotion surface. To investigate the additional effects of commum peroneal nerve FES combined with gait training and BWS on ground level, on spatial-temporal gait parameters, segmental angles, and motor function. Twelve people with chronic hemiparesis participated in the study. An A1-B-A2 design was applied. A1 and A2 corresponded to ground level gait training using BWS, and B corresponded to the same training with the addition of FES. The assessments were performed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA), and filming. The kinematics analyzed variables were mean walking speed of locomotion; step length; stride length, speed and duration; initial and final double support duration; single-limb support duration; swing period; range of motion (ROM), maximum and minimum angles of foot, leg, thigh, and trunk segments. There were not changes between phases for the functional assessment of RMA, for the spatial-temporal gait variables and segmental angles, no changes were observed after the addition of FES. The use of FES on ground level gait training with BWS did not provide additional benefits for all assessed parameters.

  11. Regular Functions with Values in Ternary Number System on the Complex Clifford Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We define a new modified basis i^ which is an association of two bases, e1 and e2. We give an expression of the form z=x0+ i ^z0-, where x0 is a real number and z0- is a complex number on three-dimensional real skew field. And we research the properties of regular functions with values in ternary field and reduced quaternions by Clifford analysis.

  12. Performance and complexity of tunable sparse network coding with gradual growing tuning functions over wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Ortiz, Pablo; Sørensen, Chres W.; Lucani Roetter, Daniel Enrique; Agüero Calvo, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) has been shown to be a technique with several benefits, in particular when applied over wireless mesh networks, since it provides robustness against packet losses. On the other hand, Tunable Sparse Network Coding (TSNC) is a promising concept, which leverages a trade-off between computational complexity and goodput. An optimal density tuning function has not been found yet, due to the lack of a closed-form expression that links density, performance and comp...

  13. Argot2: a large scale function prediction tool relying on semantic similarity of weighted Gene Ontology terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falda, Marco; Toppo, Stefano; Pescarolo, Alessandro; Lavezzo, Enrico; Di Camillo, Barbara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Cilia, Elisa; Velasco, Riccardo; Fontana, Paolo

    2012-03-28

    Predicting protein function has become increasingly demanding in the era of next generation sequencing technology. The task to assign a curator-reviewed function to every single sequence is impracticable. Bioinformatics tools, easy to use and able to provide automatic and reliable annotations at a genomic scale, are necessary and urgent. In this scenario, the Gene Ontology has provided the means to standardize the annotation classification with a structured vocabulary which can be easily exploited by computational methods. Argot2 is a web-based function prediction tool able to annotate nucleic or protein sequences from small datasets up to entire genomes. It accepts as input a list of sequences in FASTA format, which are processed using BLAST and HMMER searches vs UniProKB and Pfam databases respectively; these sequences are then annotated with GO terms retrieved from the UniProtKB-GOA database and the terms are weighted using the e-values from BLAST and HMMER. The weighted GO terms are processed according to both their semantic similarity relations described by the Gene Ontology and their associated score. The algorithm is based on the original idea developed in a previous tool called Argot. The entire engine has been completely rewritten to improve both accuracy and computational efficiency, thus allowing for the annotation of complete genomes. The revised algorithm has been already employed and successfully tested during in-house genome projects of grape and apple, and has proven to have a high precision and recall in all our benchmark conditions. It has also been successfully compared with Blast2GO, one of the methods most commonly employed for sequence annotation. The server is freely accessible at http://www.medcomp.medicina.unipd.it/Argot2.

  14. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark); Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 06530 (Turkey)], E-mail: tamer@inano.dk, E-mail: tamer@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2009-03-25

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: {alpha}-CD, {beta}-CD, and {gamma}-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order {alpha}-CD<{beta}-CD<{gamma}-CD, the thermal evolution of menthol shifted to higher temperatures, suggesting that the strength of interaction between menthol and the CD cavity is in the order {gamma}-CD>{beta}-CD>{alpha}-CD.

  15. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming; Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order α-CD β-CD>α-CD.

  16. Functionalized cyclopentadienyl rhodium(III) bipyridine complexes: synthesis, characterization, and catalytic application in hydrogenation of ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Hui; Suna, Yuki; Himeda, Yuichiro; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko

    2013-07-14

    A series of highly functionalized cyclopentadienyl rhodium(III) complexes, [Cp'Rh(bpy)Br](ClO4) (Cp' = substituted cyclopentadienyl), was synthesized from various multi-substituted cyclopentadienes (Cp'H). [Rh(cod)Cl]2 and Cp'H were firstly converted to [Cp'Rh(cod)] complexes, which were then treated with Br2 to give the rhodium(III) dibromides [Cp'RhBr2]2. The novel complexes [Cp'Rh(bpy)Br](ClO4) were obtained readily by the reaction of 2,2'-bipyridine with [Cp'RhBr2]2. These rhodium complexes [Cp'Rh(bpy)Br](ClO4) were fully characterized and utilized in the hydrogenation of cyclohexanone and acetophenone with generally high yields, but they did not exhibit the same reactivity trends for the two substrate ketones. The different activity of these complexes for the different substrates may be due to the influence of the substituents on the Cp' rings.

  17. Time-dependent density functional theory study of the luminescence properties of gold phosphine thiolate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidez, Emilie B; Aikens, Christine M

    2015-04-09

    The origin of the emission of the gold phosphine thiolate complex (TPA)AuSCH(CH3)2 (TPA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantanetriylphosphine) is investigated using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). This system absorbs light at 3.6 eV, which corresponds mostly to a ligand-to-metal transition with some interligand character. The P-Au-S angle decreases upon relaxation in the S1 and T1 states. Our calculations show that these two states are strongly spin-orbit coupled at the ground state geometry. Ligand effects on the optical properties of this complex are also discussed by looking at the simple AuP(CH3)3SCH3 complex. The excitation energies differ by several tenths of an electronvolt. Excited state optimizations show that the excited singlet and triplet of the (TPA)AuSCH(CH3)2 complex are bent. On the other hand, the Au-S bond breaks in the excited state for the simple complex, and TDDFT is no longer an adequate method. The excited state energy landscape of gold phosphine thiolate systems is very complex, with several state crossings. This study also shows that the formation of the [(TPA)AuSCH(CH3)2]2 dimer is favorable in the ground state. The inclusion of dispersion interactions in the calculations affects the optimized geometries of both ground and excited states. Upon excitation, the formation of a Au-Au bond occurs, which results in an increase in energy of the low energy excited states in comparison to the monomer. The experimentally observed emission of the (TPA)AuSCH(CH3)2 complex at 1.86 eV cannot be unambiguously assigned and may originate from several excited states.

  18. Morning and Evening Blue-Enriched Light Exposure Alters Metabolic Function in Normal Weight Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy N Cheung

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence points to associations between light-dark exposure patterns, feeding behavior, and metabolism. This study aimed to determine the acute effects of 3 hours of morning versus evening blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light on hunger, metabolic function, and physiological arousal. Nineteen healthy adults completed this 4-day inpatient protocol under dim light conditions (<20lux. Participants were randomized to 3 hours of blue-enriched light exposure on Day 3 starting either 0.5 hours after wake (n = 9; morning group or 10.5 hours after wake (n = 10; evening group. All participants remained in dim light on Day 2 to serve as their baseline. Subjective hunger and sleepiness scales were collected hourly. Blood was sampled at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours in association with the light exposure period for glucose, insulin, cortisol, leptin, and ghrelin. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and area under the curve (AUC for insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR and cortisol were calculated. Comparisons relative to baseline were done using t-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs. In both the morning and evening groups, insulin total area, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-IR AUC were increased and subjective sleepiness was reduced with blue-enriched light compared to dim light. The evening group, but not the morning group, had significantly higher glucose peak value during blue-enriched light exposure compared to dim light. There were no other significant differences between the morning or the evening groups in response to blue-enriched light exposure. Blue-enriched light exposure acutely alters glucose metabolism and sleepiness, however the mechanisms behind this relationship and its impacts on hunger and appetite regulation remain unclear. These results provide further support for a role of environmental light exposure in the regulation of metabolism.

  19. Minor long-term changes in weight have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Rasmussen, M H

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function.......To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function....

  20. Synthesis of backbone P-functionalized imidazol-2-ylidene complexes: en route to novel functional ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Paresh Kumar; Sauerbrey, Susanne; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Arduengo, Anthony J; Streubel, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    1-Alkyl-3-methyl-4-diphenylphosphoryl-imidazolium hydrogensulfate (4a,b) (a: R(1) = R(2) = Me; b: R(1) = (i)Pr, R(2) = Me) and 1-alkyl-3-methyl-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)imidazolium hydrogensulfate (6a,c) (c: R(1) = (n)Bu, R(2) = Me) were obtained selectively and in good yields by oxidative desulfurization of 1-alkyl-3-methyl-4-diphenylphosphino-imidazole-2-thiones (2a,b) and 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)imidazole-2-thione (3c) or 1,3-dimethyl-4-diphenylthiophosphoryl-5-diphenylphosphino-imidazole-2-thione (5a), respectively, with hydrogen peroxide. Synthesis of phosphoryl functionalized imidazol-2-ylidene complexes of group VI metal pentacarbonyls (7a-9a) and (10b-12b) and bis(phosphoryl) functionalized imidazol-2-ylidene complexes of group VI metal pentacarbonyls (13c-15c) and (16a) with low steric demand (methyl, isopropyl, n-butyl) at both N-centers was achieved through deprotonation of imidazolium salts (4a,b) and (6a,c), respectively,-having HSO(4)(-) as a counterion-with potassium tert-butoxide followed by rapid addition of metal pentacarbonyl acetonitrile complexes [M(CO)(5)(CH(3)CN)] (M = Cr, Mo, W). The products were unambiguously characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic and spectrometric methods, and in addition, by single-crystal X-ray structure studies in the cases of 4b, 8a, 15c, and 16a; the latter two reveal imidazole ring bond distance alternation in contrast to 8a.

  1. An atlas of the thioredoxin fold class reveals the complexity of function-enabling adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Holly J; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2009-10-01

    The group of proteins that contain a thioredoxin (Trx) fold is huge and diverse. Assessment of the variation in catalytic machinery of Trx fold proteins is essential in providing a foundation for understanding their functional diversity and predicting the function of the many uncharacterized members of the class. The proteins of the Trx fold class retain common features-including variations on a dithiol CxxC active site motif-that lead to delivery of function. We use protein similarity networks to guide an analysis of how structural and sequence motifs track with catalytic function and taxonomic categories for 4,082 representative sequences spanning the known superfamilies of the Trx fold. Domain structure in the fold class is varied and modular, with 2.8% of sequences containing more than one Trx fold domain. Most member proteins are bacterial. The fold class exhibits many modifications to the CxxC active site motif-only 56.8% of proteins have both cysteines, and no functional groupings have absolute conservation of the expected catalytic motif. Only a small fraction of Trx fold sequences have been functionally characterized. This work provides a global view of the complex distribution of domains and catalytic machinery throughout the fold class, showing that each superfamily contains remnants of the CxxC active site. The unifying context provided by this work can guide the comparison of members of different Trx fold superfamilies to gain insight about their structure-function relationships, illustrated here with the thioredoxins and peroxiredoxins.

  2. Chest circumference and birth weight are good predictors of lung function in preschool children from an e-waste recycling area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between birth weight, chest circumference, and lung function in preschool children from e-waste exposure area. A total of 206 preschool children from Guiyu (an e-waste recycling area) and Haojiang and Xiashan (the reference areas) in China were recruited and required to undergo physical examination, blood tests, and lung function tests during the study period. Birth outcome such as birth weight and birth height were obtained by questionnaire. Children living in the e-waste-exposed area have a lower birth weight, chest circumference, height, and lung function when compare to their peers from the reference areas (all p value <0.05). Both Spearman and partial correlation analyses showed that birth weight and chest circumference were positively correlated with lung function levels including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ). After adjustment for the potential confounders in further linear regression analyses, birth weight, and chest circumference were positively associated with lung function levels, respectively. Taken together, birth weight and chest circumference may be good predictors for lung function levels in preschool children.

  3. Hardware-Software Complex for Functional and Parametric Tests of ARM Microcontrollers STM32F1XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorov Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the hardware-software complex for functional and parametric tests of ARM microcontrollers STM32F1XX. The complex is based on PXI devices by National Instruments and LabVIEW software environment. Data exchange procedure between a microcontroller under test and the complex hardware is describes. Some test results are also presented.

  4. Structural investigation of the complexation of uranyl and lanthanide ions by CMPO-functionalized calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherfa, S.

    1998-12-01

    A way to reduce the volume of nuclear wastes is to make a simultaneous extraction of actinides and lanthanides for their ulterior separation. Historically, the two first series of extractants used for the reprocessing of these wastes are the phosphine oxides and the CMPO (carbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide). In order to better know the type of complexes formed during the extraction, have been carried out structural studies concerning these two series (uranyl complexes and lanthanide nitrates). These studies have been carried out by X-ray diffraction on monocrystals. More recently, a new series of extracting molecules of lanthanides (III) and actinides (III) have been developed. It has been shown that in functionalizing an organic macrocycle of calixarene type (cyclic oligomer resulting of the poly-condensation of phenolic units) by a ligand of CMPO type, the extracting power of these molecules in terms of yield and selectivity towards the lighter lanthanides was superior to those of the CMPO alone. This study, carried out by X-ray diffraction on monocrystals of complexes formed between these ligands calix[4]arenes-CMPO (with 4 phenolic units) with uranyl and lanthanides nitrates, has allowed to define the type of the formed complexes, that is to say to establish the stoichiometry and the coordination mode (monodentate or bidentate) of the CMPO functions. These different steps of characterization have allowed too to determine the correlations existing between the complexes structures in the one hand and the selectivity and the exacerbation of the extracting power measured in liquid phase on the other hand. (O.M.)

  5. Interactions between default mode and control networks as a function of increasing cognitive reasoning complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Luke; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Successful performance of challenging cognitive tasks depends on a consistent functional segregation of activity within the default-mode network, on the one hand, and control networks encompassing frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular areas on the other. Recent work, however, has suggested that in some cognitive control contexts nodes within the default-mode and control networks may actually cooperate to achieve optimal task performance. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ability to relate variables while solving a cognitive reasoning problem involves transient increases in connectivity between default-mode and control regions. Participants performed a modified version of the classic Wason selection task, in which the number of variables to be related is systematically varied across trials. As expected, areas within the default-mode network showed a parametric deactivation with increases in relational complexity, compared with neural activity in null trials. Critically, some of these areas also showed enhanced connectivity with task-positive control regions. Specifically, task-based connectivity between the striatum and the angular gyri, and between the thalamus and right temporal pole, increased as a function of relational complexity. These findings challenge the notion that functional segregation between regions within default-mode and control networks invariably support cognitive task performance, and reveal previously unknown roles for the striatum and thalamus in managing network dynamics during cognitive reasoning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Responsive Amygdala: Treatment-induced Alterations in Functional Connectivity in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, LE; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A; Serrano, P; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-gender matched controls before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced functional connectivity from the amygdala to multiple cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in patients compared to controls, with differences predominantly in the left amygdala in the pre-treated condition (disease state); (2) dampened hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate cortex after intensive pain rehabilitation treatment within patients with nominal differences observed among healthy controls from Time 1 to Time 2 (treatment effects); (3) functional connectivity to several regions key to fear circuitry (prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobe, bilateral cingulate, hippocampus) correlated with higher pain-related fear scores and (4) decreases in pain-related fear associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the motor and somatosensory cortex, cingulate, and frontal areas. Our data suggest that there are rapid changes in amygdala connectivity following an aggressive treatment program in children with chronic pain and intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity activity serving as a potential indicator of treatment response. PMID:24861582

  7. SSFSE sequence functional MRI of the human cervical spinal cord with complex finger tapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chuhai; Kong Kangmei; Guan Jitian; Chen Yexi; He Jiankang; Qi Weili; Wang Xinjia; Shen Zhiwei; Wu Renhua

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Functional MR imaging of the human cervical spinal cord was carried out on volunteers during alternated rest and a complex finger tapping task, in order to detect image intensity changes arising from neuronal activity. Methods: Functional MR imaging data using single-shot fast spin-echo sequence (SSFSE) with echo time 42.4 ms on a 1.5 T GE Clinical System were acquired in eight subjects performing a complex finger tapping task. Cervical spinal cord activation was measured both in the sagittal and transverse imaging planes. Postprocessing was performed by AFNI (Analysis of Functional Neuroimages) software system. Results: Intensity changes (5.5-7.6%) were correlated with the time course of stimulation and were consistently detected in both sagittal and transverse imaging planes of the cervical spinal cord. The activated regions localized to the ipsilateral side of the spinal cord in agreement with the neural anatomy. Conclusion: Functional MR imaging signals can be reliably detected with finger tapping activity in the human cervical spinal cord using a SSFSE sequence with 42.4 ms echo time. The anatomic location of neural activity correlates with the muscles used in the finger tapping task.

  8. Diverse Supramolecular Nanofiber Networks Assembled by Functional Low-Complexity Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bolin; Wang, Xinyu; Cui, Mengkui; Gui, Xinrui; Mao, Xiuhai; Liu, Yan; Li, Ke; Chu, Cenfeng; Pu, Jiahua; Ren, Susu; Wang, Yanyi; Zhong, Guisheng; Lu, Timothy K; Liu, Cong; Zhong, Chao

    2017-07-25

    Self-assembling supramolecular nanofibers, common in the natural world, are of fundamental interest and technical importance to both nanotechnology and materials science. Despite important advances, synthetic nanofibers still lack the structural and functional diversity of biological molecules, and the controlled assembly of one type of molecule into a variety of fibrous structures with wide-ranging functional attributes remains challenging. Here, we harness the low-complexity (LC) sequence domain of fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein, an essential cellular nuclear protein with slow kinetics of amyloid fiber assembly, to construct random copolymer-like, multiblock, and self-sorted supramolecular fibrous networks with distinct structural features and fluorescent functionalities. We demonstrate the utilities of these networks in the templated, spatially controlled assembly of ligand-decorated gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods, DNA origami, and hybrid structures. Owing to the distinguishable nanoarchitectures of these nanofibers, this assembly is structure-dependent. By coupling a modular genetic strategy with kinetically controlled complex supramolecular self-assembly, we demonstrate that a single type of protein molecule can be used to engineer diverse one-dimensional supramolecular nanostructures with distinct functionalities.

  9. Cuckoo search with Lévy flights for weighted Bayesian energy functional optimization in global-support curve data fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Akemi; Iglesias, Andrés; Cabellos, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The problem of data fitting is very important in many theoretical and applied fields. In this paper, we consider the problem of optimizing a weighted Bayesian energy functional for data fitting by using global-support approximating curves. By global-support curves we mean curves expressed as a linear combination of basis functions whose support is the whole domain of the problem, as opposed to other common approaches in CAD/CAM and computer graphics driven by piecewise functions (such as B-splines and NURBS) that provide local control of the shape of the curve. Our method applies a powerful nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithm called cuckoo search, introduced recently to solve optimization problems. A major advantage of this method is its simplicity: cuckoo search requires only two parameters, many fewer than other metaheuristic approaches, so the parameter tuning becomes a very simple task. The paper shows that this new approach can be successfully used to solve our optimization problem. To check the performance of our approach, it has been applied to five illustrative examples of different types, including open and closed 2D and 3D curves that exhibit challenging features, such as cusps and self-intersections. Our results show that the method performs pretty well, being able to solve our minimization problem in an astonishingly straightforward way.

  10. Grey-Markov prediction model based on background value optimization and central-point triangular whitenization weight function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Dang, Yaoguo; Li, Bingjun

    2018-01-01

    Grey-Markov forecasting model is a combination of grey prediction model and Markov chain which show obvious optimization effects for data sequences with characteristics of non-stationary and volatility. However, the state division process in traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model is mostly based on subjective real numbers that immediately affects the accuracy of forecasting values. To seek the solution, this paper introduces the central-point triangular whitenization weight function in state division to calculate possibilities of research values in each state which reflect preference degrees in different states in an objective way. On the other hand, background value optimization is applied in the traditional grey model to generate better fitting data. By this means, the improved Grey-Markov forecasting model is built. Finally, taking the grain production in Henan Province as an example, it verifies this model's validity by comparing with GM(1,1) based on background value optimization and the traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model.

  11. Complex curve of the two-matrix model and its tau-function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, Vladimir A; Marshakov, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    We study the Hermitian and normal two-matrix models in planar approximation for an arbitrary number of eigenvalue supports. Its planar graph interpretation is given. The study reveals a general structure of the underlying analytic complex curve, different from the hyperelliptic curve of the one-matrix model. The matrix model quantities are expressed through the periods of meromorphic generating differential on this curve and the partition function of the multiple support solution, as a function of filling numbers and coefficients of the matrix potential, is shown to be a quasiclassical tau-function. The relation to N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories is discussed. A general class of solvable multi-matrix models with tree-like interactions is considered

  12. A density functional study of EPR hyperfine coupling of vanadocene(IV) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honzicek, Jan; Vinklarek, Jaromir; Nachtigall, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Suitability of various exchange-correlation functionals for calculations of HFC tensors was investigated. It was found that A iso calculated with B3PW91 functional correlates fairly well with experimental A iso for broad range of vanadocene compounds. Simple scaling of calculated A iso was proposed. A good correspondence between experimental HFC tensors and those calculated at DFT optimised geometries was found. It is shown that structure of vanadocene complex can be assigned based on the comparison of experimental and theoretical HFC tensors and several examples are presented. The exchange functionals with large mixing of exact exchange (BHPB86) give A iso with an error that depends on the extent of spin-contamination of the wavefunction

  13. Weight status, diet quality, perceived stress, and functional health of caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyin Sara; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Thompson, Aleda; Chittams, Jesse; Kral, Tanja V E

    2018-01-01

    Caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be highly demanding and can put significant strain on caregivers. To date, little is known about the extent to which caregivers of children with ASD experience increased levels of stress which may adversely affect health outcomes. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to compare caregivers of children with ASD and caregivers of typically developing children (TDC) in weight status, diet quality, perceived stress related to the parenting role, and functional health and well-being. Caregivers of 25 children with ASD and 30 TDC completed the 2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire, the 36-item Short Form of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI/SF), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and had their heights and weights measured during an onsite visit. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 and its dietary components and conformance to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. ASD caregivers did not differ significantly from TDC caregivers in body mass index or overweight/obesity prevalence (p ≥ .28), even when controlling for covariates. In univariate analyses, ASD caregivers consumed significantly fewer empty calories from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars than TDC caregivers (p = .03), but they did not differ significantly in any other dietary outcomes including nutrient adequacy (p ≥ .10) and mean total HEI scores (p = .20). ASD caregivers, when compared to TDC caregivers, reported significantly greater parenting stress for the subscales difficult child and parent-child dysfunctional interaction as well as total stress (p stress (p health domains related to functional health and well-being (p ≥ .10). Despite higher reported levels of stress, ASD caregivers did not differ significantly from TDC caregivers in diet- and health-related outcomes. Nurses and other health professionals should use comprehensive screening tools to assess overall caregiver stress and

  14. Functional dissection of the proton pumping modules of mitochondrial complex I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dröse

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial complex I, the largest and most complicated proton pump of the respiratory chain, links the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone to the pumping of four protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space. In humans, defects in complex I are involved in a wide range of degenerative disorders. Recent progress in the X-ray structural analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic complex I confirmed that the redox reactions are confined entirely to the hydrophilic peripheral arm of the L-shaped molecule and take place at a remarkable distance from the membrane domain. While this clearly implies that the proton pumping within the membrane arm of complex I is driven indirectly via long-range conformational coupling, the molecular mechanism and the number, identity, and localization of the pump-sites remains unclear. Here, we report that upon deletion of the gene for a small accessory subunit of the Yarrowia complex I, a stable subcomplex (nb8mΔ is formed that lacks the distal part of the membrane domain as revealed by single particle analysis. The analysis of the subunit composition of holo and subcomplex by three complementary proteomic approaches revealed that two (ND4 and ND5 of the three subunits with homology to bacterial Mrp-type Na(+/H(+ antiporters that have been discussed as prime candidates for harbouring the proton pumps were missing in nb8mΔ. Nevertheless, nb8mΔ still pumps protons at half the stoichiometry of the complete enzyme. Our results provide evidence that the membrane arm of complex I harbours two functionally distinct pump modules that are connected in series by the long helical transmission element recently identified by X-ray structural analysis.

  15. [The impact of weight management and related diuretic medication intervention based on body weight changes on cardiac function and re-hospitalization rate in patients with chronic congestive heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F W; Shi, J; Shi, J; Yang, J W; Wang, Z H; Ye, J H; Ye, Y; Zheng, H Q; Huang, J

    2017-10-24

    Objective: To explore the impact of weight management and related medication intervention based on body weight changes on cardiac function among patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: Using prospective, randomized, controlled study methods, consecutive CHF patients, who hospitalized in our department from June 2014 to June 2016 ( n =350), were randomly divided into intervention group ( n =175) and control group ( n =175). Patients in the intervention group received weight management guidance and the post discharge diuretic drugs regimen was adjusted based on body weight changes. The control group received routine medical care post discharge. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), B type natriuretic peptide precursor (NT-proBNP), 6 minutes walk distance and NYHA classification at one day before discharge and after 6 months were compared between the two groups respectively. Results: Follow-up visit data were not available from 6 patients in the control and intervention group respectively. NYHA classification, LVEF, NT-proBNP and 6 minutes walk distance were similar between the two groups at one day before discharge (all P >0.05). After 6 months, the LVEF and 6 minutes walk distance were significantly higher while NT-proBNP level was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group (all P weight remained unchanged in the intervention group, while body weight tended to be higher in the control group compared to one day before discharge. Conclusion: The weight management and diuretic drug regimen adjudgment intervention based on body weight changes can improve cardiac function and reduced re-hospitalization rate in CHF patients.

  16. Effects of Environmental Air Pollution on Pulmonary Function Level of Residents in Korean Industrial Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Hong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify environmental air pollution adversely affecting pulmonary function among a community-based general population living in Korean industrial complexes. A total of 1963 residents participated in a pulmonary function test (PFT. The sample population consisted of an exposed group (n = 1487 living within a radius of 5 km of industrial complexes and a control group (n = 476 living over a radius of 10 km from the industrial complexes in Gwangyang and Yeosu cities. PFT results were calculated for each resident of the study population. On-site questionnaire surveys with face-to-face interviews were also conducted to collect more detailed information on personal lifestyles, medical history, exposure to air pollution, and respiratory disease and related symptoms. A total of 486 measured samples were collected by eight automated air-monitoring stations installed in four counties of Gwangyang and four counties of Yeosu in South Korea from January 2006 to February 2007. Mean levels of SO2 (0.012 ppm, CO (0.648 ppm, NO2 (0.02 ppm, O3 (0.034 ppm, and PM10 (43.07 μg/m3, collected within a radius of 5 km, were significantly higher than those collected over a radius of 10 km from Gwangyang and Yeosu industrial complexes. Prevalence odds ratio (OR of abnormal pulmonary function in the exposed group of residents (<5 km was elevated at 1.24 (95% CI 0.71–1.96, but not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In multiple linear regression analysis, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC levels significantly declined as SO2, CO, and O3 levels increased when adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, alcohol, smoking, secondhand smoke, and respiratory disease and related symptoms (n = 1963 (p < 0.05. These results suggest that exposure to air pollution affects pulmonary function levels of residents living in Korean industrial complexes.

  17. Technetium-Iron Complex. Radiopharmaceutical for Renal Scanning and Function Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, J. A.; Cunningham, R. M. [Victoria General Hospital and Dalhousie Medical School, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1969-05-15

    A preliminary report on the use of a technetium-iron complex as a radiopharmaceutical in the evaluation of kidney function as well as renal scanning is presented. The first part considers the {sup 99m}Tc iron complex as an agent to determine the kidney function. This is correlated with the conventional {sup 131}I Hippuran renogram as well as the mercury accumulative test. The second part describes the use of the {sup 99m}Tc iron complex as a renal scanning agent; again it is compared with {sup 197}Hg Neohydrin. The availability of the Anger gamma camera, along with {sup 99m}Tc and its favourable characteristics have encouraged further search for better preparations. Among these is the {sup 99m}Tc iron complex. The authors' technique of preparation is described. Although the pertechnetate ion is not very active chemically in combining with other compounds, it is readily reduced to more reactive lower valence states. Such alterations of chemical form produce changes in biologic localization of {sup 99m}Tc. After the intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc as pertechnetate, it is rapidly localized in the stomach, urinary bladder, thyroid, and salivary glands. Excretion during the first 24 h occurs largely through the urine. Harper et al. have shown that the {sup 99m}Tc iron complex is rapidly excreted through the urine. The initial disappearance from the plasma is so very rapid that 50% or more has usually left the blood in 3-5 min. Part of the 5'irnTc is fixed in the kidney which constitutes half of what is retained in the body. Our technique consists of obtaining the conventional {sup 131}I Hippuran renogram. This is followed by the injection of {sup 99m}Tc iron complex. The two renograms obtained, using the two agents, are correlated along with other diagnostic tests. Since the {sup 99m}Tc iron complex used for doing the renogram can be used in scanning the kidney, both kidneys are scanned using the Anger gamma camera. Comparative scans are done with the use of {sup

  18. Functional Requirements for Fab-7 Boundary Activity in the Bithorax Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolle, Daniel; Cleard, Fabienne; Aoki, Tsutomu; Deshpande, Girish; Karch, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin boundaries are architectural elements that determine the three-dimensional folding of the chromatin fiber and organize the chromosome into independent units of genetic activity. The Fab-7 boundary from the Drosophila bithorax complex (BX-C) is required for the parasegment-specific expression of the Abd-B gene. We have used a replacement strategy to identify sequences that are necessary and sufficient for Fab-7 boundary function in the BX-C. Fab-7 boundary activity is known to depend on factors that are stage specific, and we describe a novel ∼700-kDa complex, the late boundary complex (LBC), that binds to Fab-7 sequences that have insulator functions in late embryos and adults. We show that the LBC is enriched in nuclear extracts from late, but not early, embryos and that it contains three insulator proteins, GAF, Mod(mdg4), and E(y)2. Its DNA binding properties are unusual in that it requires a minimal sequence of >65 bp; however, other than a GAGA motif, the three Fab-7 LBC recognition elements display few sequence similarities. Finally, we show that mutations which abrogate LBC binding in vitro inactivate the Fab-7 boundary in the BX-C. PMID:26303531

  19. [Functional connectivity and complex networks in focal epilepsy. Pathophysiology and therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Jesús; Sola, Rafael G; Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Garnes, Óscar; Ortega, Guillermo J

    2014-05-01

    The traditional surgical approach to treat drug-resistant focal epileptic patients is in the resection or disconnection of the epileptic focus. However, a significant minority of patients continue to experience seizures after surgery, which shows the incomplete level of knowledge that currently we have of this pathology. This paper introduces some concepts of functional connectivity and complex networks methodology with its application to the study of neurophysiological recordings from patients suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy. In order to fully understand the new developments in the area of complex networks and its applications to the study of epilepsy, we will here review fundamental concepts in complex networks methodology, synchronization and functional connectivity. Some of the most recent published works dealing with focal epilepsy viewed under this new perspective will be revised and commented. We think that a wider perspective in the study of epilepsy, such as the one reviewed in this work, will allow epileptologists to consider surgical alternatives in the usual treatment of