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Sample records for complex thoracic aortic

  1. Debranching Solutions in Endografting for Complex Thoracic Aortic Dissections

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    Goksel, Onur Selcuk, E-mail: onurgokseljet@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey); Guven, Koray [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Karatepe, Celalettin [Mustafa Kemal Medical Faculty, Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey); Gok, Emre [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey); Acunas, Bulent [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Cinar, Bayer [Medical Park Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Alpagut, Ufuk [Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Cardiovascular Surgery, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-08-15

    Conventional surgical repair of thoracic aortic dissections is a challenge due to mortality and morbidity risks. We analyzed our experience in hybrid aortic arch repair for complex dissections of the aortic arch. Between 2009 and 2013, 18 patients (the mean age of 67 ± 8 years-old) underwent hybrid aortic arch repair. The procedural strategy was determined on the individual patient. Thirteen patients had type I repair using trifurcation and another patient with bifurcation graft. Two patients had type II repair with replacement of the ascending aorta. Two patients received extra-anatomic bypass grafting to left carotid artery allowing covering of zone 1. Stent graft deployment rate was 100%. No patients experienced stroke. One patient with total debranching of the aortic arch following an acute dissection of the proximal arch expired 3 months after TEVAR due to heart failure. There were no early to midterm endoleaks. The median follow-up was 20 ± 8 months with patency rate of 100%. Various debranching solutions for different complex scenarios of the aortic arch serve as less invasive procedures than conventional open surgery enabling safe and effective treatment of this highly selected subgroup of patients with complex aortic pathologies.

  2. [Change of paradigms in the surgical treatment of complex thoracic aortic disease].

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    Herold, Ulf; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Kamler, Markus; Massoudy, Parwis; Assenmacher, Eva; Eggebrecht, Holger; Buck, Thomas; Jakob, Heinz

    2006-08-01

    One of the main issues in complex thoracic aortic disease, requiring the replacement of the ascending aorta, the entire aortic arch and the descending aorta, is the vast amount of surgery necessary to cure the patient. Though one-stage repair is feasible by a clamshell thoracotomy, the associated surgical trauma and perioperative morbidity limit this approach to younger patients only. Classic surgical repair consist of a two-stage strategy, whereby, in the first step, the ascending aorta and the aortic arch are replaced via a midline sternotomy. In the second step, via a lateral thoracotomy, the descending aorta is replaced. The two stages may sum up to a mortality of 20%; furthermore, the waiting period between the stages is associated with a mortality rate of 10% of its own. Additionally, the two-stage strategy has an inherent limitation, due to the comorbidity and advanced age of the majority of patients. Therefore, the second stage cannot be offered to up to 30% of patients. New developments and improvements in aortic surgery were introduced to overcome these shortcomings and to simplify the surgical repair. The "elephant trunk" principle, introduced by Borst et al. in 1983, was an important step to facilitate surgical repair, but still required the second step. With the introduction of endovascular repair of thoracic aortic disease with stent grafts implanted retrograde via the femoral artery, new therapeutic concepts emerged. In the late 1990s, two Japanese groups reported first trials to stabilize the free-floating "elephant trunk" prosthesis by implantation of nitinol stent grafts into the vascular graft. The applied devices were purely custom-made and nonstandardized. The availability of industrially made and CE-marked stent-graft devices raised the possibility to apply them in open aortic arch surgery. The experience with stent-graft devices implanted antegrade into the descending aorta (Medtronic Talent) was reported first by the Essen and the Vienna

  3. Chylothorax complicating thoracic aortic surgery.

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    Kanakis, Meletios A; Misthos, Panagiotis; Kokotsakis, John N; Lioulias, Achilleas G

    2011-07-01

    Chylothorax is a very rare complication of patients undergoing thoracic aortic aneurysm repair. Possible mechanisms of this condition during thoracic aorta operations and current therapeutic strategies are analyzed according to our experience and thorough search of the English literature. Current experience with chylothorax occurring during thoracic aortic surgery is analyzed in this review by collecting data retrieved from English literature research. Significant risk factors for postoperative chylothorax development after thoracic aorta surgical procedures are thoracic aortic reoperations and descending thoracic repairs. Various treatment modalities from conservative to operative intervention have been proposed. Currently, the morbidity and mortality have improved due to prompt management. Surgical intervention is needed when response to conservative treatment has failed.  © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Thoracic aortic catastrophes : towards the endovascular solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Descending thoracic aortic catastrophes include a variety of acute pathologies of the descending thoracic aorta, which are all associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, requiring immediate intervention. For this thesis, we explored the management and outcomes of several thoracic aortic

  5. A History of Thoracic Aortic Surgery.

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    McFadden, Paul Michael; Wiggins, Luke M; Boys, Joshua A

    2017-08-01

    Ancient historical texts describe the presence of aortic pathology conditions, although the surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease remained insurmountable until the 19th century. Surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease then progressed along with advances in surgical technique, conduit production, cardiopulmonary bypass, and endovascular technology. Despite radical advances in aortic surgery, principles established by surgical pioneers of the 19th century hold firm to this day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adult thoracic and abdominal aortic

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    Randa O. Kaddah

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Aortic COA could be found in any segment of the aorta. Proper identification of the anatomical details and pressure gradient studies are important factors affecting the plan of management.

  7. Blunt thoracic aortic injuries: an autopsy study.

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    Teixeira, Pedro G R; Inaba, Kenji; Barmparas, Galinos; Georgiou, Chrysanthos; Toms, Carla; Noguchi, Thomas T; Rogers, Christopher; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the incidence and patterns of thoracic aortic injuries in a series of blunt traumatic deaths and describe their associated injuries. All autopsies performed by the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner for blunt traumatic deaths in 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had a traumatic thoracic aortic (TTA) injury were compared with the victims who did not have this injury for differences in baseline characteristics and patterns of associated injuries. During the study period, 304 (35%) of 881 fatal victims of blunt trauma received by the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner underwent a full autopsy and were included in the analysis. The patients were on average aged 43 years±21 years, 71% were men, and 39% had a positive blood alcohol screen. Motor vehicle collision was the most common mechanism of injury (50%), followed by pedestrian struck by auto (37%). A TTA injury was identified in 102 (34%) of the victims. The most common site of TTA injury was the isthmus and descending thoracic aorta, occurring in 67 fatalities (66% of the patients with TTA injuries). Patients with TTA injuries were significantly more likely to have other associated injuries: cardiac injury (44% vs. 25%, p=0.001), hemothorax (86% vs. 56%, pinjury (74% vs. 49%, pinjury. Patients with a TTA injury were significantly more likely to die at the scene (80% vs. 63%, p=0.002). Thoracic aortic injuries occurred in fully one third of blunt traumatic fatalities, with the majority of deaths occurring at the scene. The risk for associated thoracic and intra-abdominal injuries is significantly increased in patients with thoracic aortic injuries.

  8. Impact of operative indication and surgical complexity on outcomes after thoracic endovascular aortic repair at National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Centers.

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    Ehlert, Bryan A; Durham, Christopher A; Parker, Frank M; Bogey, William M; Powell, Charles S; Stoner, Michael C

    2011-12-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) devices are increasingly being utilized to treat aortic pathologies outside of the original Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approval for nonruptured descending thoracic aorta aneurysms (DTAs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing TEVAR, elucidating the role of surgical and pathologic variables on morbidity and mortality. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data were reviewed for all patients undergoing endovascular thoracic aorta repair from 2005 to 2007. The patients' operative indication and surgical complexity were used to divide them into study and control populations. Comorbid profiles were assessed utilizing a modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Thirty-day occurrences of mortality and serious adverse events (SAEs) were used as study endpoints. Univariate and multivariate models were created using demographic and clinical variables to assess for significant differences in endpoints (P ≤ .05). A total of 440 patients undergoing TEVAR were identified. When evaluating patients based on operative indication, the ruptured population had increased mortality and SAE rates compared to the nonruptured DTA population (22.6% vs 6.2%;P < .01 and 35.5% vs 9.1%;P < .01, respectively). Further analysis by surgical complexity revealed increased mortality and SAE rates when comparing the brachiocephalic aortic debranching population to the noncovered left subclavian artery population (23.1% vs 6.5%; P = .02 and 30.8% vs 9.1%; P < .01, respectively). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that operative indication was not a correlate of mortality or SAEs (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; P = .92 and OR, 1.42; P = .39, respectively); however, brachiocephalic aortic debranching exhibited a deleterious effect on mortality (OR, 8.75; P < .01) and SAE rate (OR, 6.67; P = .01). The operative indication for a TEVAR procedure was not found to be a predictor of poor patient outcome

  9. Telomere Biology and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

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    Thomas Aschacher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascending aortic aneurysms are mostly asymptomatic and present a great risk of aortic dissection or perforation. Consequently, ascending aortic aneurysms are a source of lethality with increased age. Biological aging results in progressive attrition of telomeres, which are the repetitive DNA sequences at the end of chromosomes. These telomeres play an important role in protection of genomic DNA from end-to-end fusions. Telomere maintenance and telomere attrition-associated senescence of endothelial and smooth muscle cells have been indicated to be part of the pathogenesis of degenerative vascular diseases. This systematic review provides an overview of telomeres, telomere-associated proteins and telomerase to the formation and progression of aneurysms of the thoracic ascending aorta. A better understanding of telomere regulation in the vascular pathology might provide new therapeutic approaches. Measurements of telomere length and telomerase activity could be potential prognostic biomarkers for increased risk of death in elderly patients suffering from an aortic aneurysm.

  10. Geometric Deformations of the Thoracic Aorta and Supra-Aortic Arch Branch Vessels Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair.

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    Ullery, Brant W; Suh, Ga-Young; Hirotsu, Kelsey; Zhu, David; Lee, Jason T; Dake, Michael D; Fleischmann, Dominik; Cheng, Christopher P

    2018-04-01

    To utilize 3-D modeling techniques to better characterize geometric deformations of the supra-aortic arch branch vessels and descending thoracic aorta after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Eighteen patients underwent endovascular repair of either type B aortic dissection (n = 10) or thoracic aortic aneurysm (n = 8). Computed tomography angiography was obtained pre- and postprocedure, and 3-D geometric models of the aorta and supra-aortic branch vessels were constructed. Branch angle of the supra-aortic branch vessels and curvature metrics of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and stented thoracic aortic lumen were calculated both at pre- and postintervention. The left common carotid artery branch angle was lower than the left subclavian artery angles preintervention ( P Supra-aortic branch vessel angulation remains relatively static when proximal landing zones are distal to the left common carotid artery.

  11. [Thoracic aortic dissection revealed by systemic cholesterol embolism].

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    Braem, L; Paule, P; Héno, P; Morand, J J; Mafart, B; La Folie, T; Varlet, P; Mioulet, D; Fourcade, L

    2006-10-01

    Systemic cholesterol embolism is a rare complication of atherosclerosis, and has various presentations. Arterial catheterisms are a common cause. However, the association with an aortic dissection has been exceptionally reported. We report the observation of a 70 year-old man, with coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Six months before hospitalization, a coronary angioplasty was performed due to recurrent angina. The association of purpuric lesions on the feet, with acute renal failure confirmed cholesterol embolism syndrome. Transoesophageal echocardiography showed a dissection of the descending thoracic aorta associated with complex atheroma. The evolution was marked by the pulpar necrosis of a toe and by a worsening of the renal failure, requiring definitive hemodialysis. Further echographic control highlighted the rupture of the intimal veil of the dissection. Cholesterol embolism syndrome may reveal an aortic dissection in patients without thoracic symptoms. In such cases, transoesophageal echocardiography is a useful and non-invasive examination.

  12. MDCT angiography after open thoracic aortic surgery: pearls and pitfalls.

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    Hoang, Jenny K; Martinez, Santiago; Hurwitz, Lynne M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review open thoracic aortic surgical techniques and to describe the range of postoperative findings on CT angiography (CTA). An understanding of surgical thoracic aortic procedures will allow appropriate differentiation of normal from abnormal CTA findings on postoperative imaging.

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Aortic Thrombus Formation Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair.

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    Nauta, Foeke J H; Lau, Kevin D; Arthurs, Christopher J; Eagle, Kim A; Williams, David M; Trimarchi, Santi; Patel, Himanshu J; Figueroa, Carlos A

    2017-06-01

    We present the possible utility of computational fluid dynamics in the assessment of thrombus formation and virtual surgical planning illustrated in a patient with aortic thrombus in a kinked ascending aortic graft following thoracic endovascular aortic repair. A patient-specific three-dimensional model was built from computed tomography. Additionally, we modeled 3 virtual aortic interventions to assess their effect on thrombosis potential: (1) open surgical repair, (2) conformable endografting, and (3) single-branched endografting. Flow waveforms were extracted from echocardiography and used for the simulations. We used the computational index termed platelet activation potential (PLAP) representing accumulated shear rates of fluid particles within a fluid domain to assess thrombosis potential. The baseline model revealed high PLAP in the entire arch (119.8 ± 42.5), with significantly larger PLAP at the thrombus location (125.4 ± 41.2, p fluid dynamics may assist in the prediction of aortic thrombus formation in hemodynamically complex cases and help guide repair strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anatomic severity grading score for primary descending thoracic aneurysms predicts procedural difficulty and aortic-related reinterventions after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

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    Ammar, Chad P; Larion, Sebastian; Ahanchi, Sadaf S; Lavingia, Kedar S; Dexter, David J; Panneton, Jean M

    2016-10-01

    An anatomic severity grading (ASG) score for primary descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAs) was developed. The objective of this study was to determine if an ASG score cutoff value for DTAs is predictive of procedural complexity, aortic-related reinterventions, and mortality in patients who undergo thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). A retrospective review from 2008 to 2013 of patient records was conducted of all consecutive patients who underwent TEVAR for a primary DTA. A comprehensive scoring system of preoperative DTA morphology on the basis of computed tomography angiography images was established to identify and classify anatomic features that might influence outcome after TEVAR. ASG score calculations were achieved using preoperative computed tomography angiography images. Primary outcomes included primary technical success, aortic-related reinterventions, aneurysm-related mortality, and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included procedural complexity (unplanned adjunctive procedures, number of endografts implanted, contrast volume, and procedure time), endoleak formation, endoleak requiring reintervention, stroke and paraplegia, and conversion to open repair. Of 469 patients with a diagnosis of a thoracic aortic aneurysm, 62 patients (13%) underwent TEVAR and had adequate preoperative imaging (mean age, 71 years). Applying the ASG score, we identified 39 patients (63%) with a score ≥24 (high-score group) and 23 patients (37%) with a score DTAs predicted procedure complexity and aortic-related reinterventions after TEVAR. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergency endovascular stent grafting for thoracic aortic pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Wendy T. G. J.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G.; Zeebregts, Clark J. A. M.; Tielliu, Ignace F. J.; Prins, Ted R.; Oranen, Bjorn L.; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to report single-center results of emergency endovascular treatment for thoracic aortic disease. From March 1998 to January 2006, 30 acute thoracic EVAR procedures were carried out in 29 patients. One patient received two procedures in different settings. Four patients died before

  16. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

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    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  17. The thoracic aortography by Gd-DTPA enhanced ultrafast cine MR imaging. Assessment of thoracic aortic dilatation in aging and in patients with hypertension and aortic valve disease

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    Matsumura, Kentaro; Nakase, Emiko; Kawai, Ichiyoshi; Saito, Takayuki; Kikkawa, Nobutada; Haiyama, Toru

    1995-01-01

    To assess the morphology of thoracic aorta, we had a trial of Gd-DTPA enhanced ultrafast cine MR imaging on the thoracic aorta. This method was provided with high quality thoracic aortogram during 15-20 seconds. In patients without hypertension and aortic valve disease, dimensions of ascending aorta and aortic arch were significantly correlated with aging. In patients with hypertension, dimensions of ascending aorta and aortic arch were significantly dilated. In patients with aortic valve disease, thoracic aorta was diffusely enlarged, especially in ascending aorta. Gd-DTPA enhanced ultrafact cine MR imaging was useful to assess the thoracic aortic anatomy and diseases. (author)

  18. Hybrid thoracic endovascular aortic repair: pushing the envelope.

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    Younes, Houssam K; Davies, Mark G; Bismuth, Jean; Naoum, Joseph J; Peden, Eric K; Reardon, Michael J; Lumsden, Alan B

    2010-01-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) can be limited by inadequate proximal and distal landing zones. Debranching or hybrid TEVAR has emerged as an important modality to expand landing zones and facilitate TEVAR. We report a single-center experience with hybrid TEVAR. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with thoracic aortic disease who received a TEVAR between February 2005 and October 2008. Forty-two patients underwent a hybrid procedure (mean age 68 +/- 13 years; 55% men). All patients were denied open surgery due to preoperative comorbidities or low physiologic reserve; 62% had a history of coronary artery disease, 67% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 61% had undergone prior aortic surgery, and 90% had an American Society of Anesthesiology score of 4 and above. The average Society for Vascular Surgery comorbidity score was 12 +/- 2 with a range of 9 to 14. Fifty-five percent of cases were symptomatic on presentation and 83% were done emergently. Seventy-six percent underwent debranching of the aortic arch, 17% of the visceral vessels, and 7% required both. Primary technical success was achieved in all cases and of these, 43% were staged. The 30-day mortality was 5%. Myocardial infarction developed in 5%, respiratory failure in 31%, cerebrovascular accident (stroke or transient ischemic attack) in 19%, and spinal cord ischemia with ensuant paraplegia occurred in 5% of patients. Fifty-eight percent of patients were discharged home, 11% required rehabilitation, and 29% were transferred to a skilled nursing facility. There was a significant association between visceral vessel debranching and both spinal cord ischemia (P = .004) and gastrointestinal complications (P = .005). On the other hand, there was no difference between staged and non-staged hybrid procedures. Hybrid procedures can successfully extend the range of patients suitable for a subsequent TEVAR. These procedures are associated with higher complication rates than isolated infrarenal

  19. Results of a multicenter, prospective trial of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for blunt thoracic aortic injury (RESCUE trial).

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    Khoynezhad, Ali; Azizzadeh, Ali; Donayre, Carlos E; Matsumoto, Alan; Velazquez, Omaida; White, Rodney

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the early outcomes of patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair for blunt thoracic aortic injuries. A prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter trial using the Medtronic Valiant Captivia stent graft was conducted at 20 sites in North America. Fifty patients with blunt thoracic aortic injuries were enrolled between April 2010 and January 2012 and will be followed for 5 years. The injuries were classified into categories (grades I-IV) based on severity: intimal tear, intramural hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, or rupture. The primary end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. Secondary end points were adverse events occurring within 30 days that were related to the procedure, device or aorta, and aortic-related mortality. Technical success was measured as successful device delivery and deployment. Seventy-six percent (38/50) of patients were male with mean age of 41 ± 17 years. Fifty-one Medtronic Valiant Captivia thoracic stent grafts and a single Talent thoracic stent graft were implanted within a median of 1.0 days following injury (mean, 1.8 ± 4.0 days). Seventy percent (35/50) of aortic injuries were grade III or higher, including one patient with free rupture. Mean injury severity score was 38 ± 14. Fifty-four percent of stent grafts were ≤26 mm (28/52). The left subclavian artery was completely covered in 40% of patients (20/50) and partially covered in 18% of patients (9/50). Four patients underwent subclavian artery revascularization: one at the time of the endograft procedure and three others after developing arm ischemia after the initial endograft procedure. Cerebral spinal fluid was drained in two patients. The median procedure time was 91 minutes, and median hospital stay was 12 days. There was 100% successful device delivery and deployment. Four (8%) patients died within 30 days. Nonfatal adverse events within 30 days that were related to the procedure, device, or aorta were experienced by 12% (6/50) of patients. No nonfatal

  20. Total arch and descending thoracic aortic replacement by left thoracotomy.

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    Corvera, Joel S; Fehrenbacher, John W

    2012-05-01

    The hybrid treatment of transverse aortic arch pathologies with supraaortic debranching and endovascular repair is associated with significant morbidity and death and lacks long-term follow-up. The traditional two-stage open surgical approach to extensive arch and descending thoracic aneurysms carries a significant interval mortality rate. We report the results of a single-stage technique of total arch and descending thoracic aortic replacement by a left thoracotomy. From January 1995 to February 2011, 426 patients underwent thoracic or thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair, of which a highly selected group of 27 patients underwent total arch replacement with descending thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic replacement. All procedures were performed with hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion. Two patients required transverse division of the sternum. Two patients had emergency or urgent operations. Five patients had concomitant coronary artery bypass, and 1 had concomitant mitral valve replacement. There were no hospital deaths, no cerebrovascular accidents, and one instance of transient spinal cord ischemia. Three patients had acute renal failure not requiring hemodialysis. Intubation in 5 patients exceeded 48 hours, and 1 patient needed tracheostomy. Two patients required reexploration for postoperative bleeding. Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 95%, 78%, and 73%, respectively. Replacement of the total arch and descending thoracic aorta by a left thoracotomy provides excellent short-term and long-term results for the treatment of extensive arch and thoracic aortic pathology, without the need for a second-stage operation. Other cardiac pathologies, such as left-sided coronary disease and mitral valve disease, can be addressed concurrently. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: Three Patient Populations, Two Disease Phenotypes, and One Shared Genotype

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    Robert B. Hinton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV and thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA are two discrete cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by latent progressive disease states. There is a clear association between BAV and TAA; however the nature and extent of this relationship is unclear. There are both distinct and overlapping developmental pathways that have been established to contribute to the formation of the aortic valve and the aortic root, and the mature anatomy of these different tissue types is intimately intertwined. Likewise, human genetics studies have established apparently separate and common contributions to these clinical phenotypes, suggesting complex inheritance and a shared genetic basis and translating 3 patient populations, namely, BAV, TAA, or both, into a common but diverse etiology. A better understanding of the BAV-TAA association will provide an opportunity to leverage molecular information to modify clinical care through more sophisticated diagnostic testing, improved counseling, and ultimately new pharmacologic therapies.

  2. Characteristics and Outcomes of Ascending Versus Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms.

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    Vapnik, Joshua S; Kim, Joon Bum; Isselbacher, Eric M; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Cheng, Yisha; Sundt, Thoralf M; MacGillivray, Thomas E; Cambria, Richard P; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-05-15

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAs) occur in reproducible patterns, but etiologic factors determining the anatomic distribution of these aneurysms are not well understood. This study sought to gain insight into etiologic differences and clinical outcomes associated with repetitive anatomic distributions of TAs. From 3,247 patients registered in an institutional Thoracic Aortic Center database from July 1992 to August 2013, we identified 844 patients with full aortic dimensional imaging by computerized axial tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan (mean age 62.8 ± 14 years, 37% women, median follow-up 40 months) with TA diameter >4.0 cm and without evidence of previous aortic dissection. Patient demographic and imaging data were analyzed in 3 groups: isolated ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (AAs; n = 628), isolated descending TAs (DTAs; n = 130), and combined AA and DTA (mixed thoracic aortic aneurysm, MTA; n = 86). Patients with DTA had more hypertension (82% vs 59%, p <0.001) and a higher burden of atherosclerosis (88% vs 9%, p <0.001) than AA. Conversely, patients with isolated AA were younger (59.5 ± 13.5 vs 71.0 ± 11.8 years, p <0.001) and contained almost every case of overt, genetically triggered TA. Patients with isolated DTA were demographically indistinguishable from patients with MTA. In follow-up, patients with DTA/MTA experienced more aortic events (aortic dissection/rupture) and had higher mortality than patients with isolated AA. In multivariate analysis, aneurysm size (odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.16, p <0.001) and the presence of atherosclerosis (odds ratio 5.7, 95% CI 2.02 to 16.15, p <0.001) independently predicted adverse aortic events. We find that DTA with or without associated AA appears to be a disease more highly associated with atherosclerosis, hypertension, and advanced age. In contrast, isolated AA appears to be a clinically distinct entity with a greater burden of genetically triggered disease. Copyright © 2016

  3. Aneurysm growth after late conversion of thoracic endovascular aortic repair

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    Hirofumi Kasahara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 69-year-old man underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair of a descending aortic aneurysm. Three years later, he developed impending rupture due to aneurysmal expansion that included the proximal landing zone. Urgent open surgery was performed via lateral thoracotomy, and a Dacron graft was sewn to the previous stent graft distally with Teflon felt reinforcement. Postoperatively, four sequential computed tomography scans demonstrated that the aneurysm was additionally increasing in size probably due to continuous hematoma production, suggesting a possibility of endoleaks. This case demonstrates the importance of careful radiologic surveillance after endovascular repair, and also after partial open conversion.

  4. Core curriculum case illustration: blunt traumatic thoracic aortic pseudo aneurysm.

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    Ramzan, Muhammad Mubashir; Fadl, Shaimaa Abdelhassib; Robinson, Jeffrey D

    2017-06-19

    Core Curriculum Illustration: [blunt thoracic aortic pseudo aneurysm]. This is the [40th] installment of a series that will highlight one case per publication issue from the bank of cases available online as part of the American Society of Emergency Radiology (ASER) educational resources. Our goal is to generate more interest in and use of our online materials. To view more cases online, please visit the ASER Core Curriculum and Recommendations for Study online at: http://www.aseronline.org/curriculum/toc.html.

  5. Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair in a Patient with Mobile Aortic Thrombosis

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    Graham M. Lohrmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old female presented with acute arterial insufficiency to her left leg. Following cardiovascular evaluation using multimodality imaging, it was discovered that she had mobile thoracic thrombi overlying a normal descending thoracic aorta which had also caused a splenic infarction. This patient was treated with unfractionated heparin for three days and underwent subsequent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR uneventfully with no subsequent complications at one-year followup. This case highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in treating patients with this uncommon challenging clinical scenario.

  6. [Endovascular stent-grafting for mycotic thoracic aortic aneurysm].

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    Okada, S; Kaneko, T; Ezure, M; Satoh, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Koike, N; Okonogi, S; Takihara, H

    2009-02-01

    We report 3 cases of endovascular stent-grafting (ESG) for mycotic thoracic aortic aneurysm. The case 1 was a rupture of pseudoaneurysm of the descending aorta caused by mediastinitis due to perforation of esophageal ulcer. The patient underwent emergent ESG for temporary control of the rupture. He underwent esophagus reconstruction 5 month after ESG. The case 2 was admitted due to inflammatory reaction. She was diagnosed with mycotic descending aortic aneurysm and underwent elective ESG because of her old age. Her postoperative course was uneventful and no infection recurred. The case 3 underwent ESG for a ruptured mycotic descending aortic aneurysm. But 113 days after ESG, he underwent ESG again for a ruptured endoleak of the stentgraft. His blood culture demonstrated methillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). He died of rupture to bronchus and esophagus at 18th day after ESG. We believe that ESG is useful in high risk patients for temporary management of the rupture.

  7. 14-3-3 in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Gupta, Karishma; Swain, Mamuni; Willard, Belinda; Scholtz, Jaclyn; Svensson, Lars G.; Roselli, Eric E.; Pettersson, Gosta; Johnston, Douglas R.; Soltesz, Edward G.; Yamashita, Michifumi; Stuehr, Dennis; Daly, Thomas M.; Hoffman, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Large vessel vasculitides (LVV) are a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by injury to and anatomic modifications of large vessels, including the aorta and its branch vessels. Disease etiology is unknown. This study was undertaken to identify antigen targets within affected vessel walls in aortic root, ascending aorta, and aortic arch surgical specimens from patients with LVV, including giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis, and isolated focal aortitis. Methods Thoracic aortic aneurysm specimens and autologous blood were acquired from consenting patients who underwent aorta reconstruction procedures. Aorta proteins were extracted from both patients with LVV and age-, race-, and sex-matched disease controls with noninflammatory aneurysms. A total of 108 serum samples from patients with LVV, matched controls, and controls with antinuclear antibodies, different forms of vasculitis, or sepsis were tested. Results Evaluation of 108 serum samples and 22 aortic tissue specimens showed that 78% of patients with LVV produced antibodies to 14-3-3 proteins in the aortic wall (93.7% specificity), whereas controls were less likely to do so (6.7% produced antibodies). LVV patient sera contained autoantibody sufficient to immunoprecipitate 14-3-3 protein(s) from aortic lysates. Three of 7 isoforms of 14-3-3 were found to be up-regulated in aorta specimens from patients with LVV, and 2 isoforms (ε and ζ) were found to be antigenic in LVV. Conclusion This is the first study to use sterile, snap-frozen thoracic aorta biopsy specimens to identify autoantigens in LVV. Our findings indicate that 78% of patients with LVV have antibody reactivity to 14-3-3 protein(s). The precise role of these antibodies and 14-3-3 proteins in LVV pathogenesis deserves further study. PMID:25917817

  8. Factors Affecting Optimal Aortic Remodeling After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair of Type B (IIIb) Aortic Dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine (China); Chen, Po-Lin; Huang, Chun-Yang [National Yang Ming University, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine (China); Weng, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Yuan; Shih, Chun-Che, E-mail: ccshih@vghtpe.gov.tw [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine (China)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with entire aortic remodeling after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with type B dissection.Materials and MethodsThe patients with type B (IIIb) dissections who underwent TEVAR from 2006 to 2013 with minimum of 2 years of follow-up computed tomography data were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the status of false lumen remodeling of entire aorta, patients were divided into three groups: complete regression, total thrombosis, and inadequate regression with patent abdominal false lumen.ResultsA total of 90 patients (72 males, 18 females; mean age 56.6 ± 16.4 years) were included and divided into the complete regression (n = 22), total thrombosis (n = 18), and inadequate regression (n = 50) groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that dissection extension to iliac arteries, increased preoperative number of dissection tear over abdominal aorta, and decreased preoperative abdominal aorta bifurcation true lumen ratio, as compared between the inadequate and complete regression groups, were associated with a persistent false lumen (odds ratio = 33.33, 2.304, and 0.021; all, p ≤ 0.012). Comparison of 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative data revealed no significant differences at any level, suggesting that the true lumen area ratio might not change after 6 months postoperatively.ConclusionsIncreased preoperative numbers of dissection tear around the abdominal visceral branches, dissection extension to the iliac arteries, and decreased preoperative true lumen area ratio of abdominal aorta are predictive of entire aortic remodeling after TEVAR in patients with type B dissection.Level of EvidenceIII.

  9. Extra-Thoracic Supra-aortic Bypass Surgery Is Safe in Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair and Arterial Occlusive Disease Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Alexander; van Issum, Lea; Barbati, Mohammad E; Grommes, Jochen; Keszei, Andras; Kotelis, Drosos; Jalaie, Houman; Greiner, Andreas; Jacobs, Michael J; Kalder, Johannes

    2018-04-20

    The safety and feasibility of supra-aortic debranching as part of endovascular aortic surgery or as a treatment option for arterial occlusive disease (AOD) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of this surgery. This single centre, retrospective study included 107 patients (mean age 69.2 years, 38.4% women) who underwent supra-aortic bypass surgery (carotid-subclavian bypass, carotid-carotid bypass, and carotid-carotid-subclavian bypass) because of thoracic or thoraco-abdominal endovascular aortic repair (57%; 61/107) or as AOD treatment (42.9%; 46/107) between January 2006 and January 2015. Mortality, morbidity with a focus on neurological complications, and patency rate were assessed. Twenty-six of 107 (14.2%) of the debranching patients were treated under emergency conditions because of acute type B dissection or symptomatic aneurysm. Follow up, conducted by imaging interpretation and telephone interviews, continued till March 2017 (mean 42.1, 0-125, months). The in hospital mortality rate was 10.2% (11/107), all of these cases from the debranching group and related to emergency procedures (p supra-aortic bypass surgery involves low complication rates and high mid-term bypass patency rates. It is a safe and feasible treatment option in the form of debranching in combination with endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and in AOD. Copyright © 2018 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurological Complications Following Endoluminal Repair of Thoracic Aortic Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J. P.; Taylor, P. R.; Bell, R. E.; Chan, Y. C.; Sabharwal, T.; Carrell, T. W. G.; Reidy, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Open surgery for thoracic aortic disease is associated with significant morbidity and the reported rates for paraplegia and stroke are 3%-19% and 6%-11%, respectively. Spinal cord ischemia and stroke have also been reported following endoluminal repair. This study reviews the incidence of paraplegia and stroke in a series of 186 patients treated with thoracic stent grafts. From July 1997 to September 2006, 186 patients (125 men) underwent endoluminal repair of thoracic aortic pathology. Mean age was 71 years (range, 17-90 years). One hundred twenty-eight patients were treated electively and 58 patients had urgent procedures. Anesthesia was epidural in 131, general in 50, and local in 5 patients. Seven patients developed paraplegia (3.8%; two urgent and five elective). All occurred in-hospital apart from one associated with severe hypotension after a myocardial infarction at 3 weeks. Four of these recovered with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. One patient with paraplegia died and two had permanent neurological deficit. The rate of permanent paraplegia and death was 1.6%. There were seven strokes (3.8%; four urgent and three elective). Three patients made a complete recovery, one had permanent expressive dysphasia, and three died. The rate of permanent stroke and death was 2.1%. Endoluminal treatment of thoracic aortic disease is an attractive alternative to open surgery; however, there is still a risk of paraplegia and stroke. Permanent neurological deficits and death occurred in 3.7% of the patients in this series. We conclude that prompt recognition of paraplegia and immediate insertion of a CSF drain can be an effective way of recovering spinal cord function and improving the prognosis

  11. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair migration and aortic elongation differentiated using dual reference point analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Takayama, Toshio; Panthofer, Annalise; Cambria, Richard P; Farber, Mark A; Jordan, William D; Matsumura, Jon S

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated images of patients undergoing a thoracic endovascular aortic repair procedure using two reference points as a means for differentiating stent graft migration from aortic elongation. Conventional standards define migration of a stent graft as an absolute change in the distance from the distal graft ring to a distal landmark ≥10 mm compared with a baseline measurement. Aortic elongation occurs over time in both healthy individuals and patients with aortic disease. Aortic elongation in patients with stent grafts may result in increased distal thoracic aortic lengths over time. False-positive stent graft migration would be defined when these patients meet the standard definition for migration, even if the stent has not moved in relation to the elongating aorta. This retrospective study evaluated the aortic length of 23 patients treated with the conformable GORE TAG thoracic endoprosthesis (W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz) in three clinical trials (dissection, traumatic injury, and aneurysm). Patients who met the standard definition for migration were selected. A standardized protocol was used to measure aortic centerline lengths, including the innominate artery (IA) to the most distal device ring, the IA to the celiac artery (CA), and the distal ring to the CA. Baseline lengths obtained from the first postoperative image were compared with length measurements obtained from the first interval at which they met the standard definition for migration. The conventional standards for migration using a single reference point were compared with the use of dual reference points. Of the 23 patients with endograft changes, 20 were deemed to have aortic elongation rather than true migration. The remaining three patients were deemed to have migration on the basis of the IA to distal ring position compared with the IA to CA length change. The IA to CA interval length change was markedly greater in those with elongation compared with migration (23.8 ± 8.4

  12. Blunt Cardiac Injury in Trauma Patients with Thoracic Aortic Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kaewlai, Rathachai; de Moya, Marc A.; Santos, Antonio; Asrani, Ashwin V.; Avery, Laura L.; Novelline, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma patients with thoracic aortic injury (TAI) suffer blunt cardiac injury (BCI) at variable frequencies. This investigation aimed to determine the frequency of BCI in trauma patients with TAI and compare with those without TAI. All trauma patients with TAI who had admission electrocardiography (ECG) and serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) from January 1999 to May 2009 were included as a study group at a level I trauma center. BCI was diagnosed if there was a positive ECG with either an eleva...

  13. Overexpression of interleukin-1β and interferon-γ in type I thoracic aortic dissections and ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms: possible correlation with matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and apoptosis of aortic media cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liao, Ming-fang; Tian, Lei; Zou, Si-li; Lu, Qing-sheng; Bao, Jun-min; Pei, Yi-fei; Jing, Zai-ping

    2011-07-01

    To examine the expression of interleukin-1β and interferon-γ and their possible roles in aortic dissections and aneurysms. Aortic specimens were obtained from patients with type I thoracic aortic dissection, ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms, and control organ donors. The expression of interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and signal transduction factors phospho-p38 and phosphorylated c-jun N-terminal kinase (phospho-JNK) were detected by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed to detect apoptosis of media cells. The correlation of these factors and apoptosis was also studied. Apoptosis in the media of thoracic aortic dissection and in ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms was dramatically higher than in the control group. The expression of interleukin-1β gradually increased from the control group, thoracic aortic dissection to ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (p matrix metalloproteinase-9 was significantly increased in the media of thoracic aortic dissection and ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms compared with the control group (p correlations between interleukin-1β versus matrix metalloproteinase-9, interleukin-1β versus phospho-p38 in thoracic aortic dissection (p matrix metalloproteinase-9, interferon-γ versus phospho-JNK, interferon-γ versus apoptosis, and interleukin-1β versus apoptosis in ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (p = 0.02, 0.02, p matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the apoptosis of media cells in humans. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thoracic aortic aneurysm in a child due to cystic medial necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, Sachio; Watabe, Tsuneya; Ohtaki, Makoto; Matsuyama, Shoya; Ogawa, Junichi

    1983-01-01

    The valuable role of computed tomography (CT) was stressed in the diagnosis of thoracic aortic aneurysm in an asymptomatic 12-year-old child. She initially presented mediastinal mass on plain chest film. A saccular thoracic aortic aneurysm was highly suspected from the CT findings, and it was confirmed on angiography. Pathological examination of the aneurysmal wall revealed cystic medial necrosis. (author)

  15. Influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenmou; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Jichun; Ma, Yukui; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Tiehao

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the clinical influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). From August 2009 to December 2014, the clinical outcomes of 130 patients who underwent TEVAR for ATBAD were retrospectively analyzed. According to whether distal entry tears existed after TEVAR, patients were divided into group A (n = 25, absence of distal entry tears) and group B (n = 105, presence of distal entry tears). We evaluated clinical outcomes, including mortality and morbidity in early and late follow-up, as well as aortic remolding. Late aortic events were defined as aortic dissection-related events occurring >30 days from the initial TEVAR procedures, which consisted of endoleak, retrograde type A aortic dissection, aortic enlargement, late rupture, repeat dissection, and stent-induced new entry tear. The study comprised 130 patients (114 men [87.7%] and 16 women [12.3%)] with a mean age of 53.71 years. The 30-day mortality was 3.1%, and early morbidity included type I endoleak, 3.1%, organ failure, 3.8%; stroke, 3.1%; spinal cord ischemia, 0%; and early rupture 1.5%. The overall survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis at 1, 3, and 5 years was 93.8%, 89.5%, and 79.2%, respectively. There were no significant differences in early morbidity and 30-day mortality and late survival between group A and group B. However, group A had a significantly lower rate of late aortic events than group B (P = .028 by log-rank test). Meanwhile, group A had better aortic remolding than group B in complete thrombosis of the thoracic aorta at 12 months postoperatively (100% vs 83.5%; P = .029). This study demonstrated that TEVAR for ATBAD had low perioperative morbidity and mortality and satisfactory midterm outcome. Distal entry tears increase the occurrence of late aortic events and inhibit aortic remolding but do not have a significantly negative effect on late survival. Repairing all entry tears to restore

  16. Retrograde ascending aortic dissection during or after thoracic aortic stent graft placement: insight from the European registry on endovascular aortic repair complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggebrecht, Holger; Thompson, Matt; Rousseau, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-center reports have identified retrograde ascending aortic dissection (rAAD) as a potentially lethal complication of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2008, 28 centers participating in the European Registry on Endovascular Aortic...

  17. Thoracic aortic aneurysm in a buck associated with caseous lymphadenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Pinheiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the clinical, bacteriological and pathological findings of a thoracic aortic aneurysm in a four-year-old Anglo-Nubian goat buck, related to a framework of visceral caseous lymphadenitis. General clinical examination showed heart rate of 75 beats per minute, respiratory rate of 20 movements per minute and ruminal movements of four movements per minute. Superficial lymph nodes were normal upon palpation. Rectal temperature was slightly high (40.5°C. Blood test showed an intense leukocytosis (54,000/µL, characterized by strong neutrophil shift to the left. At necropsy, a large blood clot was detected in the thoracic cavity. The thickening of the myocardium and dilatation of the aorta in the thoracic portion, presenting a saculiform format was also observed. A large number of abscesses were disseminated in the media and intima layers of aorta. The aorta lumen obstruction by arterial plaques consisting of inflammatory infiltrate, predominantly neutrophilic was also detected. Abscesses were found spread in turbinate, rumen, reticulum, kidneys, liver, spleen, testicles and aorta wall. The microbiological exam of exudate confirmed Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis as the causal agent.

  18. Long-term results after proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Czerny

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate early and mid-term results in patients undergoing proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery. METHODS: We analyzed 60 patients (median age 60 years, median logistic EuroSCORE 40 who underwent proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery between January 2005 and April 2012. Outcome and risk factors were analyzed. RESULTS: In hospital mortality was 13%, perioperative neurologic injury was 7%. Fifty percent of patients underwent redo surgery in an urgent or emergency setting. In 65%, partial or total arch replacement with or without conventional or frozen elephant trunk extension was performed. The preoperative logistic EuroSCORE I confirmed to be a reliable predictor of adverse outcome- (ROC 0.786, 95%CI 0.64-0.93 as did the new EuroSCORE II model: ROC 0.882 95%CI 0.78-0.98. Extensive individual logistic EuroSCORE I levels more than 67 showed an OR of 7.01, 95%CI 1.43-34.27. A EuroSCORE II larger than 28 showed an OR of 4.44 (95%CI 1.4-14.06. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a critical preoperative state (OR 7.96, 95%CI 1.51-38.79 but not advanced age (OR 2.46, 95%CI 0.48-12.66 as the strongest independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Median follow-up was 23 months (1-52 months. One year and five year actuarial survival rates were 83% and 69% respectively. Freedom from reoperation during follow-up was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a substantial early attrition rate in patients presenting with a critical preoperative state, proximal thoracic aortic redo surgery provides excellent early and mid-term results. Higher EuroSCORE I and II levels and a critical preoperative state but not advanced age are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. As a consequence, age alone should no longer be regarded as a contraindication for surgical treatment in this particular group of patients.

  19. Morphological risk factors of stroke during thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelis, Drosos; Bischoff, Moritz S; Jobst, Bertram; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Hinz, Ulf; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Böckler, Dittmar

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to identify independent factors correlating to an increased risk of perioperative stroke during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). A prospective maintained TEVAR database, medical records, and imaging studies of 300 patients (205 men; median age of all, 66 years, range 21-89), who underwent TEVAR between March 1997 and February 2011, were reviewed. Preoperative CT data sets were reviewed by two experienced radiologists with focus on the atheroma burden in the aortic arch (grade I, normal, to grade V, ulcerated or pedunculated atheroma). Aortic arch geometry (arch types I-III) was documented. Further parameters included in the univariate analysis were age, gender, urgency of repair, duration of procedure, adenosine-induced cardiac arrest or rapid pacing, proximal landing zone, left subclavian artery (LSA) coverage, and number of stent grafts. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent correlations of potential risk factors. Atherosclerotic aneurysm was the most common pathology (44%). One hundred and fifty-four of our patients (51%) were treated under urgent or emergent conditions. Seventeen percent of all patients had significant arch atheroma (grade IV or V), and 43% had a steep type III aortic arch. The perioperative stroke was 4% (12 patients; median age, 73 years, range 31-78). Two strokes were lethal (0.7%). All strokes were classified as embolic based on imaging characteristics. In eight patients, strokes were located in the left cerebral hemisphere (seven of them in the anterior and one in the posterior circulation). Four stroke patients (one in the left posterior circulation) underwent LSA coverage without revascularization. Three stroke patients had severe arch atheroma grade V. Five patients suffering stroke were recognized to have a type III aortic arch. Strokes were equally distributed between zones 0-2 vs. 3-4 (n = 6 each, 5 vs. 3.3%). The highest incidence was found in zone 1 (11

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Late Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms after Surgical Repair of Congenital Aortic Coarctation in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszkat, Robert; Perek, Bartlomiej; Zabicki, Bartosz; Trojnarska, Olga; Jemielity, Marek; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Smoczyk, Wiesław; Pukacki, Fryderyk

    2013-01-01

    Background In some patients, local surgery-related complications are diagnosed many years after surgery for aortic coarctation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to systematically evaluate asymptomatic adults after Dacron patch repair in childhood, (2) to estimate the formation rate of secondary thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and (3) to assess outcomes after intravascular treatment for TAAs. Methods This study involved 37 asymptomatic patients (26 female and 11 male) who underwent surgical repair of aortic coarctation in the childhood. After they had reached adolescence, patients with secondary TAAs were referred to endovascular repair. Results Follow-up studies revealed TAA in seven cases (19%) (including six with the gothic type of the aortic arch) and mild recoarctation in other six (16%). Six of the TAA patients were treated with stentgrafts, but one refused to undergo an endovascular procedure. In three cases, stengrafts covered the left subclavian artery (LSA), in another the graft was implanted distally to the LSA. In two individuals, elective hybrid procedures were performed with surgical bypass to the supraaortic arteries followed by stengraft implantation. All subjects survived the secondary procedures. One patient developed type Ia endoleak after stentgraft implantation that was eventually treated with a debranching procedure. Conclusions The long-term course of clinically asymptomatic patients after coarctation patch repair is not uncommonly complicated by formation of TAAs (particularly in individuals with the gothic pattern of the aortic arch) that can be treated effectively with stentgrafts. However, in some patients hybrid procedures may be necessary. PMID:24386233

  1. Endovascular treatment of late thoracic aortic aneurysms after surgical repair of congenital aortic coarctation in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Juszkat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In some patients, local surgery-related complications are diagnosed many years after surgery for aortic coarctation. The purposes of this study were: (1 to systematically evaluate asymptomatic adults after Dacron patch repair in childhood, (2 to estimate the formation rate of secondary thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs and (3 to assess outcomes after intravascular treatment for TAAs. METHODS: This study involved 37 asymptomatic patients (26 female and 11 male who underwent surgical repair of aortic coarctation in the childhood. After they had reached adolescence, patients with secondary TAAs were referred to endovascular repair. RESULTS: Follow-up studies revealed TAA in seven cases (19% (including six with the gothic type of the aortic arch and mild recoarctation in other six (16%. Six of the TAA patients were treated with stentgrafts, but one refused to undergo an endovascular procedure. In three cases, stengrafts covered the left subclavian artery (LSA, in another the graft was implanted distally to the LSA. In two individuals, elective hybrid procedures were performed with surgical bypass to the supraaortic arteries followed by stengraft implantation. All subjects survived the secondary procedures. One patient developed type Ia endoleak after stentgraft implantation that was eventually treated with a debranching procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term course of clinically asymptomatic patients after coarctation patch repair is not uncommonly complicated by formation of TAAs (particularly in individuals with the gothic pattern of the aortic arch that can be treated effectively with stentgrafts. However, in some patients hybrid procedures may be necessary.

  2. The current status of endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TEVAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Hosam; Ramlawi, Basel

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been one of the most important advances in the management of thoracic aortic disease in the past two decades. The procedure was originally developed by Dake and colleagues in 1994 for the treatment of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (DTAA), using the same principles as EVAR for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The first device approved for this indication was the TAG device (W.L. Gore & Associated, Inc., Flagstaff, AZ) in 2005. Since then there has been a plethora of changes and new developments related to thoracic endovascular aortic repair. This article will summarize the major updates related to TEVAR, focusing on three main aspects: what is new in device technology and future prospects; the expanding indications of TEVAR for the treatment of other pathologies and the newly developed techniques involved; and a glimpse at the expected future direction in the field.

  3. Thoracic Stent Graft Implantation for Aortic Coarctation with Patent Ductus Arteriosus via Retroperitoneal Iliac Approach in the Presence of Small Sized Femoral Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ozge; Beton, Osman; Goksel, Sabahattin; Kaya, Hakkı; Berkan, Ocal

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular stent graft implantation is a favorable method for complex aortic coarctation accompanied by patent ductus arteriosus. Herein, an 18-year-old woman with complex aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus was successfully treated by endovascular thoracic stent graft via retroperitoneal approach. The reason for retroperitoneal iliac approach was small sized common femoral arteries which were not suitable for stent graft passage. This case is the first aortic coarctation plus patent ductus arteriosus case described in the literature which is treated by endovascular thoracic stent graft via retroperitoneal approach. PMID:27242935

  4. Thoracic aortic aneurysm: A rare cause of elevated hemidiaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Arshad Ejazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phrenic nerve palsy causing hemidiaphragm paralysis is a very uncommon feature of thoracic aortic aneurysm. In one case, a 30 year male complained of chronic dull aching chest pain, and hoarseness of voice; posteroanterior view chest radiograph revealed large spherical radiopacity on the left upper lung zone with smooth lobulated margin with elevated left hemidiaphragm. On Colour Doppler sonography, lesion was anechoic on gray scale sonography but on Doppler analysis revealed intense internal vascularity within it with characteristic "Ying Yang" sign. The finding favor the vascular origin of the lesion and a diagnosis of an arterial aneurysm was made Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT of the thorax revealed a large well defined spherical lesion of 8 × 10 cm size with smooth well defined margin arising from the aortic arch and attenuation of impending rupture or dissection were lesion on immediate post contrast and delayed scan was similar to that of aorta. Left hemidiaphragm elevation was explained by the gross mass effect of the aneurysm causing right phrenic nerve palsy.

  5. Clinical and genetic aspects of Marfan syndrome and familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    This thesis concerns the clinical and genetic aspects of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections, in particular in Marfan syndrome. It includes the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for diagnosis and management of Marfan syndrome. These guidelines contain practical directions for

  6. Wall Stress and Geometry of the Thoracic Aorta in Patients With Aortic Valve Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barry J; Norman, Paul E; Hoskins, Peter R; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2018-04-01

    Aortic valve disease increases velocity and changes the way blood enters the aorta. Over time, the biomechanical environment can cause aortic remodelling. We hypothesized that aortic geometry and wall stress would be different in patients with aortic valve disease compared with controls. We examined 40 patients with aortic sclerosis (n = 10) or mild (n = 10), moderate (n = 10), and severe (n = 10) aortic stenosis, and also 10 control individuals. The thoracic aorta of each individual was reconstructed into a three-dimensional model from computed tomography. We measured geometric variables and used finite element analysis to compute aortic wall stress. Statistical analyses were performed to test our hypothesis. Aortic wall stress was significantly associated with tortuosity of the descending aorta (r = 0.35, p = 0.01), arch radius (r = 0.49, p < 0.01), ascending aortic diameter (r = 0.59, p < 0.01), and aortic centerline length (r = 0.39, p < 0.01). Wall stress was highest in patients with severe stenosis (p = 0.02), although elevations in wall stress were also noted in those with mild stenosis (p = 0.02), and aortic sclerosis (p = 0.02) compared with controls. Similar trends were observed when we corrected for difference in blood pressure. Total centerline tortuosity was higher in patients with severe aortic stenosis than in controls (p = 0.04), as was descending aorta tortuosity (p = 0.04). Aortic geometry is associated with aortic wall stress. Patients with aortic valve disease have higher aortic wall stress than controls, and those with severe aortic stenosis have more tortuous aortas. However, increases in geometric measures and wall stress are not stepwise with increasing disease severity. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair into the False Lumen in Chronic Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamman, Arnoud V; Williams, David M; Patel, Himanshu J

    2017-07-01

    Deployment of a stent graft for the treatment of aortic dissections is normally performed in the true lumen. However, in some rare occasions landing in the false lumen may be appropriate. We present 2 different cases of chronic aortic dissection, where we opted to land the stent graft into the false lumen to treat the associated aneurysm. For the first case, the goal of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) was to exclude the aneurysm from within the false lumen because of a slit-like true lumen. In the second case, the visceral arteries came off the false lumen, with the renal vessels from the true lumen. False lumen TEVAR was performed, and the infrarenal aorta fenestrated, as to ensure adequate perfusion. These different clinical scenarios show how false lumen TEVAR for chronic dissections with associated aneurysms can be an alternative treatment approach and highlight the importance of assessing the origin of branch vessels and the possible necessity of reperfusion of these, before TEVAR is performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Blunt Cardiac Injury in Trauma Patients with Thoracic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathachai Kaewlai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma patients with thoracic aortic injury (TAI suffer blunt cardiac injury (BCI at variable frequencies. This investigation aimed to determine the frequency of BCI in trauma patients with TAI and compare with those without TAI. All trauma patients with TAI who had admission electrocardiography (ECG and serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB from January 1999 to May 2009 were included as a study group at a level I trauma center. BCI was diagnosed if there was a positive ECG with either an elevated CK-MB or abnormal echocardiography. There were 26 patients (19 men, mean age 45.1 years, mean ISS 34.4 in the study group; 20 had evidence of BCI. Of 52 patients in the control group (38 men, mean age 46.9 years, mean ISS 38.7, eighteen had evidence of BCI. There was a significantly higher rate of BCI in trauma patients with TAI versus those without TAI (77% versus 35%, P<0.001.

  9. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm due to brucellosis: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qi; Liu, Han; Sun, Siqiao; Sun, Xiwei; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Zhongying; Cheng, Zhihua

    2017-06-02

    Arterial damage is a known complication of brucellosis, but the occurrence of a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to brucellosis has not been previously reported. A 65-year-old Chinese man presented with a pseudoaneurysm in the descending segment of the thoracic aorta that caused symptoms of chest pain and intermittent fever. He was diagnosed with a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm secondary to brucellosis based on a positive brucella serology test (standard-tube agglutination test) and imaging examination (computed tomography angiography). Anti-brucellosis treatment and covered stent graft implantation were attempted to eliminate the brucellosis and pseudoaneurysm, respectively, and were ultimately successful, with no symptoms after 6 months of follow-up. Endovascular repair may be effective and safe for treating a thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm resulting from brucellosis.

  10. Dynamic aortic changes in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms evaluated with electrocardiography-triggered computed tomographic angiography before and after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair: preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prehn, J. van; Bartels, L.W.; Mestres, G.; Vincken, K.L.; Prokop, M.; Verhagen, H.J.; Moll, F.L.; Herwaarden, J.A. van

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize dynamic computed tomographic angiography (CTA) on pre- and postoperative thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) patients to characterize cardiac pulsatility-induced aortic motion on essential TEVAR proximal sealing zones and to study the influence of

  11. A Rare Entity: Traumatic Thoracic Aortic Injury in a Patient with Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiten Mohanbhai; Banerjee, Shubhabrata; Bulsara, Shahzad; Sahu, Tapish; Sheorain, Virender K; Grover, Tarun; Parakh, Rajiv

    2017-05-01

    Aberrant right subclavian artery is an uncommon entity incidence ranging from 0.5 to 2.5%. Management of thoracic aortic injury in the presence of such anomalies can be a challenge. We present here a case of traumatic aortic injury, which was incidentally found to have an asymptomatic aberrant right subclavian artery. The patient was managed by an endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury with an endograft and a right carotid to subclavian artery bypass as a hybrid procedure. A 40-year male patient was brought to the emergency in shock with an alleged history of road traffic accident an hour back. After initial resuscitation as per advance trauma life support protocol, imaging revealed thoracic aortic injury with aberrant right subclavian artery with multiple rib and bilateral humerus fracture. After primary stabilization of arm fractures, the patient was shifted to a hybrid operation room. As the aortic injury was within 10 mm of the origin of both subclavian arteries, it was decided to cover the origin of both subclavian arteries and land the endograft distal to the left carotid artery origin. Since there was a right dominant vertebral artery on imaging, right carotid to right subclavian artery bypass was done with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft to prevent posterior circulatory stroke along with thoracic endovascular aortic repair to seal the thoracic aortic injury. After endovascular repair of thoracic aortic injury, left subclavian artery perfusion was maintained through left vertebral artery; and hence, revascularization of left subclavian artery was deferred. After management of all fractures, the patient was discharged 3 weeks after the date of admission without any complications. At 6 months follow-up, patient was stable and images showed patent bypass graft and sealed aortic injury. In a trauma setting with multiple injuries, hybrid procedure with a thoracic endograft is associated with low mortality and morbidity; hence, it is the treatment

  12. JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, Carmelo; Ceccherini, Claudio; Leonini, Sara; Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco; Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

  13. Local repair of distal thoracal aortic dissections (Locus minoris resistencia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Iu V; Komarov, R N; Stepanenko, A B; Gens, A P; Charchian, E R

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents the method of local repair of distal aortic dissections. Local aortic grafting for surgical correction of type B dissecting aortic aneurysms helped to decrease hospital mortality up to 15.4%, the rate of paraparesis and multiorgan failure - up to 11.5%.

  14. Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections due to blunt force trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bjurlin, Marc A

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections is an encouraging minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. Between 2006 and 2008, 16 patients with acute thoracic aortic transections underwent evaluation at our institution. Seven patients who were treated with an endovascular stent graft were reviewed. The mean Glasgow Coma Score was 13.0, probability of survival was .89, and median injury severity score was 32. The mean number of intensive care unit days was 7.7, mean number of ventilator support days was 5.4, and hospital length of stay was 10 days. Mean blood loss was 285 mL, and operative time was 143 minutes. Overall mortality was 14%. Procedure complications were a bleeding arteriotomy site and an endoleak. Endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic transections appears to demonstrate superior results with respect to mortality, blood loss, operative time, paraplegia, and procedure-related complications when compared with open surgical repair literature.

  15. Commentary on “Inhibition of interleukin-1beta decreases aneurysm formation and progression in a novel model of thoracic aortic aneurysms”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Bi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aortic aneurysm is a silent but life-threatening disease, whose pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Aneurysm models have been induced in small animals to study its pathogenesis, Johnston WF et al. successfully induced a novel model of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA by periadventitial application of elastase in mice. We comment on this model according to our experiment. We hypothesize that endogenous MMPs, especially MMP2, play a vital role in complex repair process of aneurysmal wall, which should be a key target in the investigation and treatment of aortic aneurysms.

  16. Performant Mutation Identification Using Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing of 14 Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, D.; Vandeweyer, G.; Meester, J.A.; Salemink, S.; Kempers, M.; Ingram, C.; Peeters, N.; Saenen, J.; Vrints, C.; Lacro, R.V.; Roden, D.; Wuyts, W.; Dietz, H.C.; Mortier, G.; Loeys, B.L.; Laer, L. Van

    2015-01-01

    At least 14 causative genes have been identified for both syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection (TAA), an important cause of death in the industrialized world. Molecular confirmation of the diagnosis is increasingly important for gene-tailored patient management but

  17. Polyamine concentration is increased in thoracic ascending aorta of patients with bicuspid aortic valve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forte, A.; Grossi, Mario; Bancone, C.; Cipollaro, M.; De Feo, M.; Hellstrand, P.; Persson, L.; Nilsson, B.O.; Della Corte, A.

    Roč. 33, č. 3 ( 2017 ), s. 327-339 ISSN 0910-8327 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Aneurysm * Aortopathy * Bicuspid aortic valve * Ornithine decarboxylase * Polyamines * Thoracic ascending aorta Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.434, year: 2016

  18. Moderately Elevated Homocysteine Does Not Contribute to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Jasmin; Kang, Benjamin; Bernard, David; Bedja, Djahida; Dietz, Harry C; Brody, Lawrence C

    2017-07-01

    Background: Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is an attractive target for intervention because it is present in 5-7% of the population and can be reversed by diet. This approach presupposes that hyperhomocysteinemia is directly involved in the disease process. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that moderately elevated homocysteine may contribute to thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) dilatation and dissection in humans. In vitro, elevated homocysteine disrupts the structure and function of extracellular matrix components, suggesting that moderate hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to the development and/or progression of TAA. Objective: We investigated moderately elevated homocysteine in the development and progression of TAA in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome (MFS) and in isogenic wild-type mice. The MFS mouse is a well-described model of a systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by thoracic aortic dilatation, dissection, and rupture. We used this model as a sensitized indicator system to examine the impact of homocysteine on the progression of TAA. Methods: Murine fibrillin 1 gene ( Fbn1 ) C1039G/+ MFS and C57BL/6J wild-type mice were fed a cobalamin-restricted diet to induce moderate hyperhomocysteinemia from weaning until the age of 32 wk. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid were measured and aortic root diameter assessed with the use of echocardiography in mice aged 3, 7, 15, and 32 wk. Results: Cobalamin-restricted mice exhibited significantly higher homocysteine ( P < 0.0001) and methylmalonic acid ( P < 0.0001) in the blood. For both strains, no significant difference in thoracic aortic diameter was observed in mice on the cobalamin-restricted diet compared with those on the control diet. Conclusions: Fbn1 C1039G/+ mice are a well-characterized model of progressive aortic root dilation. Hyperhomocysteinemia in the physiologic range did not induce abnormal aortic growth in wild-type mice and did not accelerate or otherwise influence aortic root growth

  19. Cardiovascular Disease in Ageing: An Overview on Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm as an Emerging Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogera Pisano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medial degeneration associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection was originally described by Erdheim as a noninflammatory lesion related to the loss of smooth muscle cells and elastic fibre fragmentation in the media. Recent evidences propose the strong role of a chronic immune/inflammatory process in aneurysm evocation and progression. The coexistence of inflammatory cells with markers of apoptotic vascular cell death in the media of ascending aorta with aneurysms and type A dissections raises the possibility that activated T cells and macrophages may contribute to the elimination of smooth muscle cells and degradation of the matrix. On the other hand, several inflammatory pathways (including TGF-β, TLR-4 interferon-γ, chemokines, and interferon-γ seem to be involved in the medial degeneration related to aged and dilated aorta. This is an overview on thoracic aortic aneurysm as an emerging inflammatory disease.

  20. Preoperative Evaluation and Endovascular Procedure of Intraoperative Aneurysm Rupture During Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Bin-Shan, E-mail: binszha2013@163.com; Zhu, Hua-Gang, E-mail: huagzhu@yeah.net; Ye, Yu-Sheng, E-mail: yeyusheng@aliyun.com; Li, Yong-Sheng, E-mail: 872868848@qq.com; Zhang, Zhi-Gong, E-mail: zzgedward@sina.com; Xie, Wen-Tao, E-mail: 345344347@qq.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery (China)

    2017-03-15

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms are now routinely repaired with endovascular repair if anatomically feasible because of advantages in safety and recovery. However, intraoperative aneurysm rupture is a severe complication which may have an adverse effect on the outcome of treatment. Comprehensive preoperative assessment and considerate treatment are keys to success of endovascular aneurysm repair, especially during unexpected circumstances. Few cases have reported on intraoperative aortic rupture, which were successfully managed by endovascular treatment. Here, we present a rare case of an intraoperative aneurysm rupture during endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm with narrow neck and angulated aorta arch (coarctation-associated aneurysm), which was successfully treated using double access route approach and iliac limbs of infrarenal devices.Level of EvidenceLevel 5.

  1. Endovascular stent grafting of thoracic aortic aneurysms: technological advancements provide an alternative to traditional surgical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren E Beste

    2005-01-01

    The use of endovascular stent grafts is a leading technological advancement in the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms, and is being trialed in the United States as an alternative to medical management and traditional surgical repair. Aortic stent grafts, initially used only for abdominal aortic aneurysms, have been used for over 10 years in Europe and are currently under United States Food and Drug Administration investigation for the treatment of chronic and acute aortic aneurysms. Diseases of the thoracic aorta are often present in high-risk individuals, and, as a result, there is a high morbidity and mortality rate associated with both medical and surgical management of these patients. The development and refinement of endovascular approaches have the potential to decrease the need for traditional surgical repair, especially in high-risk populations such as the elderly and those with multiple comorbidities. Endovascular technology for thoracic repair has only been used in Europe for the last 10 years, with no long-term outcomes available; however, preliminary research demonstrates favorable early and midterm outcomes showing that endovascular stent graft placement to exclude the dilated, dissected, or ruptured aorta is both technically feasible and safe for patients. The article highlights the historical perspective of endovascular stent grafting as well as a description of patient selection, the operative procedure, benefits, risks, and unresolved issues pertaining to the procedure. A brief review of aneurysm and dissection pathophysiology and management is provided, as well as postoperative management for acute care nurses and recommendations for clinical practice.

  2. Biomechanical and biochemical properties of the thoracic aorta in warmblood horses, Friesian horses, and Friesians with aortic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, Veronique; Famaey, Nele; Smoljkic, Marija; Claeys, Erik; van Loon, Gunther; Ducatelle, Richard; Ploeg, Margreet; Delesalle, Catherine; Gröne, Andrea; Duchateau, Luc; Chiers, Koen

    2015-11-18

    Thoracic aortic rupture and aortopulmonary fistulation are rare conditions in horses. It mainly affects Friesian horses. Intrinsic differences in biomechanical properties of the aortic wall might predispose this breed. The biomechanical and biochemical properties of the thoracic aorta were characterized in warmblood horses, unaffected Friesian horses and Friesians with aortic rupture in an attempt to unravel the underlying pathogenesis of aortic rupture in Friesian horses. Samples of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum (LA), mid thoracic aorta (T1) and distal thoracic aorta (T2) were obtained from Friesian horses with aortic rupture (A), nonaffected Friesian (NA) and warmblood horses (WB). The biomechanical properties of these samples were determined using uniaxial tensile and rupture assays. The percentages of collagen and elastin (mg/mg dry weight) were quantified. Data revealed no significant biomechanical nor biochemical differences among the different groups of horses. The distal thoracic aorta displayed an increased stiffness associated with a higher collagen percentage in this area and a higher load-bearing capacity compared to the more proximal segments. Our findings match reported findings in other animal species. Study results did not provide evidence that the predisposition of the Friesian horse breed for aortic rupture can be attributed to altered biomechanical properties of the aortic wall.

  3. Endovascular treatment of type II endoleak following thoracic endovascular aortic repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm: Case report of squeeze technique to reach the aneurysmal sac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Jung; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Tae Hong; Song, Seung Hwan; Lee, Chung Won; Chung, Sung Woon [Pusan National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Type II endoleaks are common after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Various strategies are introduced to manage type II endoleaks, such as the use of coils, plugs, or liquid embolic agents (histoacryl, thrombin, onyx, etc.) through a transarterial approach or a direct puncture of the aneurysmal sac. We herein report a case of a type II endoleak caused by reverse blood flow through intercostal artery after TEVAR which was successfully treated with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (histoacryl)-lipiodol mixture by a squeeze technique to reach the aneurismal sac using a microcatheter.

  4. Quantification of progression and regression of descending thoracic aortic wall thickness by enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenichi; Takasu, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Rie; Taguchi, Rie; Itani, Yasutaka; Ito, Yuichi; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify the usefulness of the quantification of aortic wall involvement by enhanced computed tomography (CT). One-hundred thirteen Japanese patients underwent two enhanced CT of the descending thoracic aorta at intervals. We sliced the descending thoracic aorta continuously from the level of the tracheal bifurcation with 1 cm intervals, and we defined aortic wall volume (AWV) (cm 3 ) as the sum of a 7-slice area of aortic wall involving calcification. The average of AWV increased from 7.95±2.92 cm 3 to 8.70±2.98 cm 3 . The developmental rate of AWV (ΔAWV) was 0.270±0.281 cm 3 /year. ΔAWV did not have a significant correlation with any risk factor at the baseline. ΔAWV had significant correlation with total cholesterol, (LDL-C) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and LDL-C/(HDL-C) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio at the follow-up, and by multivariate analysis with only the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. ΔAWV was not correlated with the intake status of hypoglycemic, antihypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs. The cut-off level of total cholesterol with the most significant odds ratio for progression of aortic wall was 190 mg/dl, and that of LDL-C was 130 mg/dl. This method proved to be useful for the non-invasive assessment of aortic wall thickness. (author)

  5. An unique case of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) graft infection with Streptococcus viridans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Azim, M I M; Osama, M H; Harunarashid, H; Das, S

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of infection following TEVAR is low. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of post thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with Streptococcus viridans graft infection. A 54-year-old male underwent TEVAR for dissecting thoracic aneurysm with spinal ischaemia. He had an eventful recovery with prolonged period of stay in intensive care unit. Three months later, he presented with persistent chest discomfort and fever. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax revealed evidence of graft infection and the blood culture grew Streptococcus viridans. The rarity of TEVAR graft infection due to Streptococcus viridans and its management are being discussed.

  6. Successful Endobronchial stenting for bronchial compression from a massive thoracic aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Comer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of bronchial occlusion caused by a thoracic aortic aneurysm and the relief of this obstruction by the implantation of expandable metallic stents is described. Stent deployment provided an immediate improvement in lung ventilation and chest radiograph appearances. Stent insertion was uncomplicated, but weaning from mechanical ventilation was unsuccessful and the patient died from a ventilator-associated pneumonia, unrelated to the procedure. Endobronchial stenting should be considered as a non-invasive therapy for the treatment of bronchial obstruction, with respiratory compromise, caused by a thoracic aortic aneurysm when vascular surgery is not an option. The medium to long term survival of this patient group is poor. This can be attributed to complications related to the stent and also to the poor performance status of these patients.

  7. Emergency endovascular management of acute thoracic aortic pathology A safe and feasible option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Z; McHugh, S M; Elmallah, A; Colgan, M P; O'Callaghan, A; O'Neill, S M; Madhavan, P; Martin, Z

    2017-12-01

    Endovascular repair has revolutionised the emergency treatment of thoracic aortic disease. We report our 10 year experience using this treatment in emergency cases. A prospectively maintained vascular database was analysed. Patients' medical records and CT images stored on the hospital PACS system were also reviewed. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS V21. There were a total of 59 thoracic aortic stenting procedures of which 33 (60% males with a mean age of 58 yrs) were performed for emergency thoracic pathologies: traumatic transection (n = 10), ruptured aneurysm (n = 6), non-traumatic dissection (n = 8) and penetrating aortic ulcer (n = 9). All patients had self-expanding endografts implanted. Two patients required debranching procedures before the endovascular treatment. Thirty-day mortality was 12.1% (4/33). 70% of patients received a single device. There were 7 procedure related complications, 6 requiring re-intervention: thoracotomy and drainage in 2 patients, proximal graft extension in 2, open drainage of groin haematoma in 1 and open repair of a common femoral artery pseudo-aneurysm in one patient. In total 23 patients were transferred from 11 centres nationwide. There were no mortalities or other complications related to patient transfer from peripheral centres. Although acute thoracic aortic pathology is life threatening, appropriate blood pressure management and treatment of associated injuries can result in favourable outcomes. Endovascular repair is a safe and effective treatment option which enables patients to be treated with reduced morbidity and mortality. Transfer of patients with acute pathology to a tertiary centre can safely be performed. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Endovascular versus open repair for blunt thoracic aortic injury: short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotsakis, John; Kaskarelis, Ioannis; Misthos, Panagiotis; Athanasiou, Thanos; Kanakakis, Konstantinos; Athanasiou, Chariklia; Romana, Constantina; Skouteli, Elian; Lioulias, Achilles

    2007-12-01

    Endovascular stent grafting has been increasingly used as an alternative treatment modality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate and short-term results of endovascular stent grafting repair after blunt thoracic aortic injury due to trauma. A review of a tertiary trauma center registry identified all patients who suffered blunt thoracic aortic injury from 2002 to 2006. All patients underwent either open repair with synthetic graft interposition or endovascular stent grafting (EVS) of the descending thoracic aorta. Type and severity of injury, concomitant injuries, clinical factors, and outcome were compared between groups. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. Endovascular stent grafting was performed in 22 patients, and 10 patients underwent open surgical repair. In the open group, the 30-day mortality rate was 10%, the paraplegia rate was 10%, and incidence of major complications was 30%, which were comparable with the incidences observed in the EVS group of 4.5%, 4.5%, and 13.6%, respectively. No statistically significant differences were demonstrated. Multivariate regression analysis identified associated thoracic injury as the main independent predictor of hospital length of stay (p = 0.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.53 to 18.85). In the EVS group, 1 patient died in the short-term follow-up period and 2 cases of endovascular leak required additional treatment. Although postoperative mortality and morbidity between open and endovascular repair were comparable, EVS can be considered a safe alternative treatment modality in the therapeutic algorithm of blunt thoracic aortic injury particularly for the higher risk multitrauma patients.

  9. Recurrent Rare Genomic Copy Number Variants and Bicuspid Aortic Valve Are Enriched in Early Onset Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Prakash

    Full Text Available Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections (TAAD are a major cause of death in the United States. The spectrum of TAAD ranges from genetic disorders, such as Marfan syndrome, to sporadic isolated disease of unknown cause. We hypothesized that genomic copy number variants (CNVs contribute causally to early onset TAAD (ETAAD. We conducted a genome-wide SNP array analysis of ETAAD patients of European descent who were enrolled in the National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC. Genotyping was performed on the Illumina Omni-Express platform, using PennCNV, Nexus and CNVPartition for CNV detection. ETAAD patients (n = 108, 100% European American, 28% female, average age 20 years, 55% with bicuspid aortic valves were compared to 7013 dbGAP controls without a history of vascular disease using downsampled Omni 2.5 data. For comparison, 805 sporadic TAAD patients with late onset aortic disease (STAAD cohort and 192 affected probands from families with at least two affected relatives (FTAAD cohort from our institution were screened for additional CNVs at these loci with SNP arrays. We identified 47 recurrent CNV regions in the ETAAD, FTAAD and STAAD groups that were absent or extremely rare in controls. Nine rare CNVs that were either very large (>1 Mb or shared by ETAAD and STAAD or FTAAD patients were also identified. Four rare CNVs involved genes that cause arterial aneurysms when mutated. The largest and most prevalent of the recurrent CNVs were at Xq28 (two duplications and two deletions and 17q25.1 (three duplications. The percentage of individuals harboring rare CNVs was significantly greater in the ETAAD cohort (32% than in the FTAAD (23% or STAAD (17% cohorts. We identified multiple loci affected by rare CNVs in one-third of ETAAD patients, confirming the genetic heterogeneity of TAAD. Alterations of candidate genes at these loci may contribute to the pathogenesis of TAAD.

  10. [Severe hemodynamic deterioration during epidural anesthesia for endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, M; Herrera, P; Moreno, I; Matoses, S; Ortí, I; López, A; Alepuz, R

    2005-10-01

    A 72-year-old woman diagnosed with critical descending aortic stenosis was scheduled for endovascular treatment by angioplasty and implantation of an aortic stent. Her medical history included arterial hypertension, lipid metabolic disorder, obesity, Takayasu disease, dermatopolymyositis, and alleged allergy to iodine contrast and local anesthetics. After the allergies were ruled out, it was decided to use a regional anesthetic technique to avoid the postoperative complications of general anesthesia and achieve better hemodynamic control during surgery. Surgery was carried out under epidural anesthesia and intravenous sedation. After angioplasty and during self-expansion of the stent, the patient's hemodynamics deteriorated rapidly; she lost consciousness and required orotracheal intubation and immediate resuscitation measures. The literature describes in detail the management of patients with thoracic aortic lesions, including the most appropriate way to provide anesthesia. General anesthesia seems to be preferred, although care is taken to individualize the decision. We analyze this case of a patient with severe thoracic aortic stenosis undergoing endovascular treatment under epidural anesthesia.

  11. The hybrid stent-graft technique: a solution to complex aortic problems and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotsakis, John; Misthos, Panagiotis; Athanasiou, Thanos; Sakellaridis, Timotheos; Neofotistos, Kostas; Skouteli, Elian; Lioulias, Achilleas

    2008-01-01

    The frozen elephant trunk technique has been recently presented in the literature and has been considered as a novel surgical option for single-stage repair of complex aortic pathology such as combined arch and descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. The first patient, a 74-year-old male, was admitted severely symptomatic (interscapular pain), with aortic distal arch and proximal descending thoracic aortic aneurysm with a diameter of 6 cm. The second patient, a 72-year-old male, underwent descending aortic aneurysm stent grafting one year ago and was admitted gravely symptomatic (interscapular pain), with aortic arch aneurysm (diameter of 5.7 cm) and type I endoleak at the proximal end of the stent. The first patient developed paraplegia after the operation and died three months after the operation due to pneumonia while he was on a rehabilitation program. The second patient's recovery was uneventful and was discharged on postoperative day nine. This report summarizes our preliminary experience with this technique emphasizing two points: first, it offers the opportunity to manage efficiently complex aortic problems, and second, there is a potential risk of serious complications related to the limited stent sizes available of the device to match the patient's anatomical characteristics and pathology.

  12. Metabolomic profiling of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections - Implications for pathophysiology and biomarker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Doppler

    Full Text Available Our basic understanding of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA pathogenesis is still very limited, hampering early diagnosis, risk prediction, and development of treatment options. "Omics"-technologies, ideal to reveal tissue alterations from the normal physiological state due to disease have hardly been applied in the field. Using a metabolomic approach, with this study the authors seek to define tissue differences between controls and various forms of ATAAs.Using a targeted FIA-MS/MS metabolomics approach, we analysed and compared the metabolic profiles of ascending thoracic aortic wall tissue of age-matched controls (n = 8, bicuspid aortic valve-associated aneurysms (BAV-A; n = 9, tricuspid aortic valve-associated aneurysms (TAV-A; n = 14, and tricuspid aortic valve-associated aortic dissections (TAV-Diss; n = 6.With sphingomyelin (SM (OH C22:2, SM C18:1, SM C22:1, and SM C24:1 only 4 out of 92 detectable metabolites differed significantly between controls and BAV-A samples. Between controls and TAV-Diss samples only phosphatidylcholine (PC ae C32:1 differed. Importantly, our analyses revealed a general increase in the amount of total sphingomyelin levels in BAV-A and TAV-Diss samples compared to controls.Significantly increased levels of sphingomyelins in BAV-A and TAV-Diss samples compared to controls may argue for a repression of sphingomyelinase activity and the sphingomyelinase-ceramide pathway, which may result in an inhibition of tissue regeneration; a potential basis for disease initiation and progression.

  13. Injury grade is a predictor of aortic-related death among patients with blunt thoracic aortic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Gerald R; Perlick, Alexa; DuBose, Joseph J; Leake, Samuel S; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Miller, Charles C; Estrera, Anthony L; Azizzadeh, Ali

    2016-05-01

    The current Society for Vascular Surgery Clinical Practice Guidelines suggest urgent (grade (G) II to G IV blunt thoracic aortic injuries (BTAIs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether some patients may require more emergency treatment. We reviewed imaging variables of prospectively collected BTAI patients between 1999 and 2014. We used computed tomographic angiography to classify BTAIs into four categories: G I, intimal tear; G II, intramural hematoma; G III, aortic pseudoaneurysm; and G IV, free rupture. Specific examination of G III injuries was undertaken in an effort to predict aortic-related mortality (ARM) before repair. For this subset, we examined pseudoaneurysm size, lesion/normal aortic diameter ratio, and mediastinal hematoma location and size. Among 331 patients with BTAIs, 86 died before imaging. Admission computed tomographic angiography was available for 205 patients (71.2% male; mean age, 39.3 years) with BTAIs (24 G I, 49 G II, 124 G III, 8 G IV). The mean Injury Severity Score was 35.6, and 22.4% had hypotension (grade is a predictor of ARM among patients with BTAIs. Aggressive use of the current Society for Vascular Surgery Clinical Practice Guidelines at a busy level I trauma center resulted in low rates of ARM. In this setting, identification of additional physiologic and radiographic criteria indicating the need for emergency (vs urgent) repair of aortic pseudoaneurysms remains elusive. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blunt thoracic aortic injury with small pseudoaneurysm may be managed by nonoperative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke; Maeda, Shigenobu; Matano, Hideyuki; Sera, Makoto; Nagai, Hideya; Nakanishi, Taizo; Ishida, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of nonoperative management of blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) was evaluated in patients with pseudoaneurysm. A retrospective review was done for patients with BTAI at Fukui Prefectural Hospital during a 9-year period. Charts were reviewed for age, gender, Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale for each body area, initial type of aortic injury, site of aortic injury, type of definitive management, complications, and outcomes. Eighteen patients with BTAI were treated at Fukui Prefectural Hospital. Of 18 patients with pseudoaneurysm, seven patients were hemodynamically unstable and four patients died because of associated injuries; there were no aortic-related deaths. All 14 surviving patients were followed up for an average of 40.9 months. Only two patients with pseudoaneurysm required operative management because of the progression of the pseudoaneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm/normal aortic diameter ratio of those with any intervention was higher than that of those with nonoperative management. BTAI with pseudoaneurysm can be managed nonoperatively, with about 10% risk of progression to require surgical repair. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Medical image of the week: atherosclerotic aneurysm of aortic arch and descecnding thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasram M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 94-year-old Spanish-speaking woman presented to the hospital with intermittent episodes of dyspnea and abdominal pain for one week. Her past medical history was notable for 30 pack-year smoking history and hypertension, which was reportedly controlled with medical therapy. Physical exam showed trace peripheral edema bilaterally, intact peripheral pulses, and a mild abdominal bruit. Work up at the emergency department revealed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction with troponin T of 0.34 ng/mL but no ST-wave abnormality on electrocardiography. Chest x-ray displayed an incidental thoracic aneurysm (Figure 1. Chest computed tomography with contrast demonstrated a continuous aneurysm of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta with diameters measuring 6.8 cm and 6 cm, respectively (Figure 2A and 2B. Eccentric thrombi are noted in the aortic arch and the descending aorta. Interestingly, the distal descending thoracic aorta curves as it transitions to the abdominal aorta, which is evidence of a tortuous descending ...

  16. Combined surgical and catheter-based treatment of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic valve stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Lönn, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    valve stenosis (AS) who are considered at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. In this report, we describe the combined surgical and catheter-based treatment of an extensive TAA and AS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hybrid TAA repair combined with TAVR....

  17. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms: results of the phase II multicenter trial of the GORE TAG thoracic endoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroun, Michel S; Dillavou, Ellen D; Kee, Stephen T; Sicard, Gregorio; Chaikof, Elliot; Bavaria, Joseph; Williams, David; Cambria, Richard P; Mitchell, R Scott

    2005-01-01

    A decade after the first report of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (DTA) repair with endografts, a commercial device is yet to be approved in the United States. The GORE TAG endoprosthesis, an investigational nitinol-supported expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tube graft with diameters of 26 to 40 mm, is the first DTA device to enter phase II trials in the United States and has been used worldwide for a host of thoracic pathologies. A multicenter prospective nonrandomized phase II study of the GORE TAG endoprosthesis was conducted at 17 sites. Enrollment was from September 1999 to May 2001. Preoperative workup included arteriography and spiral computed tomography scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Follow-up radiographs and computed tomography scans were obtained at 1, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. A total of 139 (98%) of 142 patients had a successful implantation of the device. Inadequate arterial access was responsible for the 3 failures. The mean DTA size was 64.1 +/- 15.4 mm. Men slightly outnumbered women (57.7%), with an average age of 71 years, and 88% of the patients were white. Ninety percent were American Society of Anesthesiologists category III or IV. One device was used in 44% of patients, and 56% required two or more devices to bridge the thoracic aorta. The left subclavian artery was covered in 28 patients, with planned carotid-subclavian transposition. The procedure time averaged 150 minutes, estimated blood loss averaged 506 mL, intensive care unit stay averaged 2.6 days, and hospital stay averaged 7.6 days. Within 30 days, 45 (32%) patients had at least 1 major adverse event: 5 (4%) experienced a stroke, 4 (3%) demonstrated temporary or permanent paraplegia, 20 (14%) experienced vascular trauma or thrombosis, and 2 (1.5%) died. Mean follow-up was 24.0 months. Four patients had aneurysm-related deaths. Three patients underwent endovascular revisions for endoleak. No ruptures have been reported. Twenty wire fractures have been

  18. Influence of virtual intervention and blood rheology on mass transfer through thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Chen, Ming; Xiong, Guanglei; Chen, Jie

    2015-09-18

    Computational fluid dynamics tools have been used to investigate blood flow through the human thoracic aortic models with aneurysm before and after virtual stent graft operation. The impact of blood rheology and aortic geometry on the wall shear stress (WSS), luminal surface low-density lipoproteins (LDL) concentration, and oxygen flux along the arterial wall is investigated. The stent graft at the aneurysm has significant effects on WSS and mass transport in blood flow. Due to the low flow rate, Newtonian blood assumption generally under-estimates the WSS. The non-Newtonian blood rheology play an important role in the LDL transport as well as oxygen transport. It is found that WSS alone is insufficient to correctly predict the location with high risk of atherogenesis. The results suggest that WSS, luminal surface LDL concentration, and the oxygen flux on the wall have to be considered together to evaluate the performance of virtual operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic and therapy of acute thoracic aortic diseases; Diagnostik und Therapie akuter Erkrankungen der thorakalen Aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schotten, Sebastian; Pitton, Michael B. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2017-09-15

    Acute diseases of the thoracic aorta represent a relatively rare but life threatening spectrum of pathologies. The non-traumatic diseases are usually summarized by the term ''acute aortic syndrome''. A timely diagnosis and initiation of therapy are cornerstones for the patient outcome. CT has become the standard imaging procedure due do its widespread availability and excellent sensitivity. Furthermore, CT is able to discriminate the variants of acute aortic diseases and to detect the wide spectrum of complications. The volumetric CT dataset is also the basis for planning of interventional procedures. Open surgical repair still represents the standard of care for acute pathologies of the ascending aorta while endovascular therapy, due to minimally invasive character and good outcome, has replaced open surgery in most cases of complicated lesions of the descending aorta.

  20. Relation of murine thoracic aortic structural and cellular changes with aging to passive and active mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jason B; Mukherjee, Rupak; Stroud, Robert E; Jones, Jeffrey A; Ikonomidis, John S

    2015-02-25

    Maintenance of the structure and mechanical properties of the thoracic aorta contributes to aortic function and is dependent on the composition of the extracellular matrix and the cellular content within the aortic wall. Age-related alterations in the aorta include changes in cellular content and composition of the extracellular matrix; however, the precise roles of these age-related changes in altering aortic mechanical function are not well understood. Thoracic aortic rings from the descending segment were harvested from C57BL/6 mice aged 6 and 21 months. Thoracic aortic diameter and wall thickness were higher in the old mice. Cellular density was reduced in the medial layer of aortas from the old mice; concomitantly, collagen content was higher in old mice, but elastin content was similar between young and old mice. Stress relaxation, an index of compliance, was reduced in aortas from old mice and correlated with collagen fraction. Contractility of the aortic rings following potassium stimulation was reduced in old versus young mice. Furthermore, collagen gel contraction by aortic smooth muscle cells was reduced with age. These results demonstrate that numerous age-related structural changes occurred in the thoracic aorta and were related to alterations in mechanical properties. Aortic contractility decreased with age, likely because of a reduction in medial cell number in addition to a smooth muscle contractile deficit. Together, these unique findings provide evidence that the age-related changes in structure and mechanical function coalesce to provide an aortic substrate that may be predisposed to aortopathies. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Endovascular stent graft repair for thoracic aortic aneurysms: the history and the present in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Hideyuki; Yoshitake, Akihiro; Shimazaki, Taro; Iwahashi, Toru; Ogino, Hitoshi; Ishimaru, Shin; Shigematsu, Hiroshi; Yozu, Ryohei

    2013-01-01

    Stent-grafts for endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms have been commercially available for more than ten years in the West, whereas, in Japan, a manufactured stent-graft was not approved for the use until March 2008. Nevertheless, endovascular thoracic intervention began to be performed in Japan in the early 1990s, with homemade devices used in most cases. Many researchers have continued to develop their homemade devices. We have participated in joint design and assessment efforts with a stent-graft manufacturer, focusing primarily on fenestrated stent-grafts used in repairs at the distal arch, a site especially prone to aneurysm. In March 2008, TAG (W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., Flagstaff, Arizona, USA) was approved as a stent graft for the thoracic area first in Japan, which was major turning point in treatment for thoracic aortic aneurysms. Subsequently, TALENT (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA) was approved in May 2009, and TX2 (COOK MEDICAL Inc., Bloomington, Indiana, USA) in March 2011. Valiant as an improved version of TALENT was approved in November 2011, and TX2 Proform as an improved version of TX2 began to be supplied in October 2012. These stent grafts are excellent devices that showed good results in Western countries, and marked effectiveness can be expected by making the most of the characteristics of each device. A clinical trial in Japan on Najuta (tentative name) (Kawasumi Labo., Inc., Tokyo, Japan) as a line-up of fenestrated stent grafts that can be applied to distal arch aneurysms showing a high incidence, and allow maintenance of blood flow to the arch vessel was initiated. This trial was completed, and Najuta has just been approved in January of 2013 in Japan, and further development is expected. In the U.S., great efforts have recently been made to develop and manufacture excellent stent grafts for thoracic aneurysms, and rapid progress has been achieved. In particular, in the area of the aortic arch, in which we

  2. Risk factors and early outcomes of acute renal injury after thoracic aortic endograft repair for type B aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Songyuan Luo,* Huanyu Ding,* Jianfang Luo, Wei Li, Bing Ning, Yuan Liu, Wenhui Huang, Ling Xue, Ruixin Fan, Jiyan Chen Cardiology Department, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR has become an emerging treatment modality for acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD patients in recent years. The risk factors and impacts of acute kidney injury (AKI after percutaneous TEVAR, however, have not been widely established.Methods: We retrospectively studied the clinical records of 305 consecutive patients who admitted to our institution and had TEVAR for TBAD between December 2009 and June 2013. The patients were routinely monitored for their renal functions preoperatively until 7 days after TEVAR. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Guidelines (KDIGO criteria were used for AKI.Results: Of the total 305 consecutive patients, 84 (27.5% developed AKI after TEVAR, comprising 66 (21.6% patients in KDIGO stage 1, 6 (2.0% patients in stage 2 and 12 (3.9% patients in stage 3. From the logistic regression analysis, systolic blood pressure (SBP on admission >140 mmHg (odds ratio [OR], 2.288; 95% CI, 1.319–3.969 and supra-aortic branches graft bypass hybrid surgery (OR, 3.228; 95% CI, 1.526–6.831 were independent risk factors for AKI after TEVAR. Local anesthesia tended to be a protective factor (OR, 0.563; 95% CI, 0.316–1.001. The preoperative renal function, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or statin administration, volume of contrast agent, range of TBAD and false lumen involving renal artery were not associated with post-operation AKI. The in-hospital mortality and major adverse events were markedly increased with the occurrence of AKI (7.1% vs 0.9%, P=0

  3. Procyanidin C1 Causes Vasorelaxation Through Activation of the Endothelial NO/cGMP Pathway in Thoracic Aortic Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Byun, Eui-Baek; Sung, Nak-Yun; Yang, Mi-So; Song, Du-Sup; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Park, Jong-Heum; Song, Beom-Seok; Lee, Ju-Woon; Park, Sang-Hyun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the efficacy of procyanidin C1 (Pro C1) for modulating vascular tone. Pro C1 induced a potent vasorelaxant effect on phenylephrine-constricted endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings, but had no effect on denuded thoracic aortic rings. Moreover, Pro C1 caused a significant increase in nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells. Pro C1-induced vasorelaxation and Pro C1-induced NO production were significantly decreased in the presence of a nonspecif...

  4. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting after renal transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanase, Yohsuke; Muraki, Satoshi; Koyanagi, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Noriyasu; Kurimoto, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Twelve years after receiving a renal transplant, a 50-year-old woman developed asthmatic symptoms. Chest CT revealed a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. She had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention to treat the left anterior descending artery 10 years earlier. Coronary artery angiography revealed restenosis of the left anterior descending artery (99%, #6 in-stent). Because cardiopulmonary bypass may cause problems for transplanted kidney, we performed off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (left internal thoracic artery to left anterior descending artery) and thoracic endovascular graft placement to treat the aortic aneurysm. Considering that the artery of the transplanted kidney was attached to the right iliac artery, and then the left common femoral artery was selected as the access root for GORE TAG(®) endografts (34 × 200 and 34 × 150 mm) (stentgrafts were deployed for the descending aortic artery). Postoperative angiography showed a patent bypass graft. Postoperative CT confirmed the absence of endoleaks. The postoperative course was uneventful, and she was discharged without complications. Ischemic heart disease and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in recipients of kidney transplants can be treated using off-pump coronary bypass grafting and thoracic endovascular graft placement. The transplanted kidney was protected without using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

  5. Morphometric Properties of the Thoracic Aorta of Warmblood and Friesian Horses with and without Aortic Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, V; Ploeg, M; Delesalle, C; van Loon, G; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; Duchateau, L; Chiers, K

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the aorta is much more common in Friesians compared with other breeds of horse. Rupture always occurs adjacent to the scar of the ligamentum arteriosum. Previous histological examination of ruptured aortic walls suggested the presence of an underlying connective tissue disorder. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the structural characteristics of the tunica media of the mid-thoracic aorta, distant to the lesion, in warmblood and Friesian horses with and without thoracic aortic rupture. In unaffected Friesian horses, the thickness of the tunica media, as well as the percentage area comprised of collagen type I, were significantly higher compared with the warmblood horses, supporting the hypothesis of a primary collagen disorder in the Friesian horse breed. However, in the tunica media of the affected Friesian horses there was no significant wall thickening. Moreover, the percentage area comprised of elastin was significantly lower, while the percentage area comprised of smooth muscle was higher, compared with unaffected Friesian and warmblood horses. These lesions are suggestive of an additional mild elastin deficiency with compensatory smooth muscle cell hypertrophy in affected Friesians. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Smooth Muscle Cells Maintains Genome Integrity, Resists Aortic Medial Degeneration, and Is Suppressed in Human Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alanna; Nong, Zengxuan; Yin, Hao; O'Neil, Caroline; Fox, Stephanie; Balint, Brittany; Guo, Linrui; Leo, Oberdan; Chu, Michael W A; Gros, Robert; Pickering, J Geoffrey

    2017-06-09

    The thoracic aortic wall can degenerate over time with catastrophic consequences. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can resist and repair artery damage, but their capacities decline with age and stress. Recently, cellular production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) via nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) has emerged as a mediator of cell vitality. However, a role for Nampt in aortic SMCs in vivo is unknown. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system exists within the aortic media and is required for aortic health. Ascending aortas from patients with dilated aortopathy were immunostained for NAMPT, revealing an inverse relationship between SMC NAMPT content and aortic diameter. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system in SMCs impacts aortic integrity, mice with Nampt -deficient SMCs were generated. SMC- Nampt knockout mice were viable but with mildly dilated aortas that had a 43% reduction in NAD + in the media. Infusion of angiotensin II led to aortic medial hemorrhage and dissection. SMCs were not apoptotic but displayed senescence associated-ß-galactosidase activity and upregulated p16, indicating premature senescence. Furthermore, there was evidence for oxidized DNA lesions, double-strand DNA strand breaks, and pronounced susceptibility to single-strand breakage. This was linked to suppressed poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity and was reversible on resupplying NAD + with nicotinamide riboside. Remarkably, we discovered unrepaired DNA strand breaks in SMCs within the human ascending aorta, which were specifically enriched in SMCs with low NAMPT. NAMPT promoter analysis revealed CpG hypermethylation within the dilated human thoracic aorta and in SMCs cultured from these tissues, which inversely correlated with NAMPT expression. The aortic media depends on an intrinsic NAD + fueling system to protect against DNA damage and premature SMC senescence, with relevance to human thoracic aortopathy. © 2017 American Heart

  7. Improvement of thoracic aortic vasoreactivity by continuous and intermittent exercise in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Jian; Luo, Yan; Zhu, Lingqin; Yang, Huifang; Li, Guanghua

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise on the thoracic aortic vasoreactivity and free radical metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet (HD). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8, each group): Conventional diet (CD), HD, HD with continuous exercise (HCE) and HD with intermittent exercise (HIE). HCE rats swam once/day for 90 min; HIE rats performed swimming exercises 3 times/day, 30 min each time with an interval of 4 h. In these two groups, the exercise was conducted 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Rats in the CD and HD groups were fed without swimming training. At the end of the exercise, all the rats were sacrificed and the blood, thoracic aorta and myocardium were collected immediately. The thoracic aortic vasoreactivity, the plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene expression were measured. Compared to the control group, in the HD group the enhanced contractile response of the thoracic aortic rings to noradrenaline (NA) was observed (Pimprove the activity of the thoracic aorta in obese rats, which may be associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and reduced free radical generating. Additionally, intermittent exercise is better than the continuous exercise in improving the thoracic aorta vasoreactivity.

  8. Electromagnetic Navigation for Thoracic Aortic Stent Graft Deployment: A Pilot Study in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Glossop, Neil; Dake, Michael; Pritchard, William F.; Chiesa, Alberto; Dreher, Matthew R.; Tang, Thomas; Karanian, John W.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of electromagnetic tracking as a method to augment conventional imaging guidance for the safe delivery, precise positioning, and accurate deployment of thoracic aortic endografts. Materials & Methods Custom guidewires were fabricated and the delivery catheters for thoracic aortic endoprostheses (Gore TAG endoprostheses, W.L. Gore & Assoc. Inc., Flagstaff AZ) were retrofitted with integrated electromagnetic coil sensors enabling realtime endovascular tracking. Pre-procedure thoracic CTA were obtained after placement of fiducial skin patches on the chest wall of three anesthetized swine, enabling automatic registration. The stent graft deployment location target near the subclavian artery was selected on the pre-procedure CTA. Two steps were analyzed: advancing a tracked glidewire to the aortic arch, and positioning the tracked stent graft assembly using electromagnetic guidance alone. Multiple CT scans were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the electromagnetic tracking system by measuring the target registration error which compared the actual position of the tracked devices to the displayed “virtual” electromagnetic-tracked position. Post-deployment CTA and necropsy confirmed stent graft position and subclavian artery patency. Results A stent graft was successfully delivered and deployed in each of the three animals using real-time electromagnetic tracking alone. The mean of the fiducial registration error of the auto-registration was 1.5 mm. Sixteen comparative scans were obtained to determine the target registration error, which was 4.3mm ± 0.97 mm (Range: 3.0 to 6.0mm) for the glidewire sensor coil. The target registration error for the stent graft delivery catheter sensor coil was 2.6 mm ± 0.7 mm (Range: 1.9 to 3.8 mm). The deployment error for the stent graft defined as deployment deviation from target was 2.6mm ± 3.0 mm. Conclusion Delivery and deployment of customized thoracic stent

  9. Hybrid repair of a very late, post-aortic coarctation surgery thoracic aneurysm: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilea Ioan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Local aneurysms after surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta occur mainly in patients surgically treated by Dacron patch plasty during adulthood. The management of these patients is always problematic, with frequent complications and increased mortality rates. Percutaneous stent-graft implantation avoids the need for surgical reintervention. Case presentation We report a case involving the hybrid treatment by stent-graft implantation and transposition of the left subclavian artery to the left common carotid artery of an aneurysmal dilatation of the thoracic aorta that occurred in a 64-year-old Caucasian man, operated on almost 40 years earlier with a Dacron patch plasty for aortic coarctation. Our patient presented to our facility for evaluation with back pain and shortness of breath after minimal physical effort. A physical examination revealed stony dullness to percussion of the left posterior thorax, with no other abnormalities. The results of chest radiography, followed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and aortography, led to a diagnosis of giant aortic thoracic aneurysm. Successful treatment of the aneurysm was achieved by percutaneous stent-graft implantation combined with transposition of the left subclavian artery to the left common carotid artery. His post-procedural recovery was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, computed tomography showed complete thrombosis of the excluded aneurysm, without any clinical signs of left lower limb ischemia or new onset neurological abnormalities. Conclusions Our patient’s case illustrates the clinical outcomes of surgical interventions for aortic coarctation. However, the very late appearance of a local aneurysm is rather unusual. Management of such cases is always difficult. The decision-making should be multidisciplinary. A hybrid approach was considered the best solution for our patient.

  10. Lung injury following thoracic aortic occlusion: comparison of sevoflurane and propofol anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annecke, T; Kubitz, J C; Langer, K; Hilberath, J M; Kahr, S; Krombach, F; Bittmann, I; Rehm, M; Kemming, G I; Conzen, P F

    2008-08-01

    Halogenated anaesthetics have been shown to reduce ischaemia-reperfusion injuries in various organs due to pre- and post-conditioning mechanisms. We compared volatile and total intravenous anaesthesia with regard to their effect on remote pulmonary injury after thoracic aortic occlusion and reperfusion. Eighteen pigs were randomized after sternotomy and laparotomy (fentanyl-midazolam anaesthesia) to receive either sevoflurane or propofol in an investigator-blinded fashion. Ninety minutes of thoracic aortic occlusion was induced by a balloon catheter. During reperfusion, a goal-directed resuscitation protocol was performed. After 120 min of reperfusion, the anaesthetic regimen was changed to fentanyl-midazolam again for another 180 min. The oxygenation index and intra-pulmonary shunt fractions were calculated. After 5 h of reperfusion, a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed. The total protein content and lactate dehydrogenase activity were measured in epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Alveolar macrophage oxidative burst was analysed. The wet to dry ratio was calculated and tissue injury was graded using a semi-quantitative score. Ten animals (n=5 for each anaesthetic) without aortic occlusion served as time controls. The oxygenation index decreased and the intra-pulmonary shunt fraction increased significantly in both occlusion groups. There were no significant differences between sevoflurane and propofol with respect to the oxygenation index, ELF composition, morphologic lung damage, wet to dry ratio and alveolar macrophage burst activity. Differences were, however, seen in terms of systemic haemodynamic stability, where catecholamine requirements were less pronounced with sevoflurane. We conclude that the severity of remote lung injury was not different between sevoflurane and propofol anaesthesia in this porcine model of severe lower-body ischaemia and reperfusion injury.

  11. Endovascular repair for blunt thoracic aortic injury: 11-year outcomes and postoperative surveillance experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliotopoulos, Konstantinos; Kokotsakis, John; Argiriou, Michalis; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Farsaris, Dimosthenis; Diamantis, Theodore; Charitos, Christos

    2014-12-01

    Surveillance for patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) varies. Annual chest computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is often recommended but concerns about the risks and costs have emerged. The aim of this study was to examine the optimal follow-up frequency based on 11-year outcomes and surveillance experience. Seventy-six patients with BTAI received TEVAR from May 2002 to July 2013. Demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, Injury Severity Score (ISS), types, sizes, timing, and outcomes of stent grafts were collected retrospectively. Mean age was 39.7 years (range, 17-85 years); 8 (11%) were women. Mean ISS was 46.2 ± 18.5 (deceased, 61.0 ± 19.2; surviving, 44.2 ± 17.6; P = .023). Technical success was achieved in 71 patients (93.4%). All-cause mortality was 7 (9.2%), 1 (1.3%) of which was related to the procedure. Six were lost to follow-up (8%). To examine the effect of surveillance frequency on outcomes, after excluding the 2 most recent (6 months after scheduled annual visit). No significant differences were found for survival, graft-related complications, need for reintervention, except for postoperative hypertension, which was higher in the first group. All surviving patients had excellent outcomes, with no cerebrovascular accidents, paraplegia, or paraparesis; the median follow-up for both groups was 3 years (interquartile range 2.0-3.5, 1.5-5.4 years). Midterm outcomes of TEVAR for patients with stable repair after BTAI are excellent, both with timely (1.0-1.5 years) and delayed (>1.5 years) follow-up intervals after a median surveillance period of 3 years. A larger prospective randomized study could lead to a more relaxed, but equally safe surveillance schedule for these patients, lowering risks and costs. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thoracic Endovascular Repair of Complicated Penetrating Aortic Ulcer: An 11-Year Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jánosi, Rolf Alexander; Gorla, Riccardo; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Kahlert, Philipp; Horacek, Michael; Bruckschen, Florian; Dohle, Daniel-Sebastian; Jakob, Heinz; Schlosser, Thomas; Eggebrecht, Holger; Bossone, Eduardo; Erbel, Raimund

    2016-02-01

    To analyze an 11-year single-center experience of treating complicated penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU) using thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). This study included 63 consecutive patients (mean age 69.1±11.5 years; 40 men) with complicated PAU (42 symptomatic, 22 with rupture) who underwent TEVAR between 2002 and 2013. The PAUs were located in the aortic arch (n=11), the descending thoracic aorta (n=43), and the thoracoabdominal aorta (n=9). TEVAR was performed within 14 days of diagnosis in 33 (52.3%) cases (19 ruptures treated immediately); the other 30 (47.6%) patients had an average interval between diagnosis and intervention of 40±39 days. Technical success was 98.4% (62/63). One patient had a type I endoleak after stent-graft repair of a PAU in the aortic arch without great vessel transposition; another procedure was required for carotid-subclavian bypass and proximal stent-graft extension. No patient experienced spinal cord ischemia after TEVAR. Five (7.9%) patients died in-hospital; 3 had severe cardiac complications, 1 died from complications of aortic rupture, and the other succumbed to septic shock. Mean follow-up was 45.6±47.2 months, during which 12 (19.0%) patients needed a secondary intervention because of late endoleaks (n=4, 6.3%) or new complications due to disease progression. Multivariate analysis indicated that a PAU depth >15 mm was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 6.92, p=0.03). In the biomarker analysis, symptomatic patients had significantly higher D-dimer and troponin levels compared to asymptomatic patients [559.5±460.7 vs 283.2±85.2 µg/L (p=0.016) and 0.22±0.61 vs 0.02±0.03 ng/mL (p=0.04), respectively]. Patients with PAU suffer from underlying severe atherosclerotic disease and have a significant number of cardiovascular comorbidities that lead to relevant mortality and morbidity after TEVAR. As a PAU diameter >15 mm represented high risk for disease progression, these patients may be candidates for

  13. Assessment of thoracic aortic elasticity: a preliminary study using electrocardiographically gated dual-source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ning; Guo, Lijun; Sun, Haitao; Gao, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Beck, Thomas; Chen, Jiuhong; Biermann, Christina

    2011-01-01

    To gain a new insight into the elastic properties of the thoracic aorta in patients without aortic diseases using electrocardiographically (ECG)-gated dual-source (DS) CT. 56 subjects with no cardiovascular disease, selected from 2,700 people undergoing ECG-gated DSCT examination, were divided into three groups according to their age. CT data were reconstructed in 5% step throughout the RR interval. Diameter and area were measured at the curve of the ascending aorta (AA) and at the same level of the descending aorta (DA). The pulsation and elasticity of the aorta were evaluated. Aortic diameter changes were noted throughout the cardiac cycle. The maximum average diameter was seen at an RR interval of 24.02 ± 4.99% for the AA and 25.63 ± 4.77% for the DA. The minimum was at 93.5 ± 4.04% for the AA and 96.6 ± 4.58% for the DA. There was an age-dependent decrease in elasticity, while different correlation coefficients were found between various age groups and different elastic parameters. The properties of aortic pulsation and wall elasticity could be well shown by ECG-gated DSCT. The new findings regarding segment difference and age relevance were significant and should be taken into account in clinical trials and treatments for the elasticity related cardiovascular diseases. (orig.)

  14. Robot-assisted thoracic surgery for complex procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shuenn-Wen; Huang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Mong-Wei; Chen, Ke-Cheng; Lee, Jang-Ming

    2017-09-01

    As an option for minimally invasive thoracic surgery, robot-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) has shown comparable perioperative outcomes to those achieved by traditional video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). It is unknown whether RATS might have any potential benefits in more complex thoracic surgical procedures, which usually require open surgery instead of VATS. The current study presents a preliminary result regarding the use of RATS in complex thoracic operations in an attempt to address this unresolved question. Data from a prospectively collected and maintained surgical database were collected on patients who underwent RATS between February 2012 and August 2014. We defined complex RATS as those operations involving difficult dissections, complex sutures or excision of very large tumors (>8 cm) which would have required open surgery in our hospital before the introduction of RATS. The characteristics and peri-operative outcomes of patients receiving complex RATS were reviewed. Of the 120 patients undergoing RATS, 30 of them were classified as having undergone complex RATS, 21 to remove lung tumors and 9 to remove mediastinal tumors. The indications for complex RATS included 21 difficult dissections, 10 complex sutures, and 7 very large tumors (8 patients had two indications). There are three conversions to thoracotomy for pulmonary arterial bleeding. There was one mortality resulted from post-pneumonectomy pulmonary hypertension and sepsis. Patients with difficult dissection had longer operative time and hospital stay, and more bleeding and postoperative morbidity. RATS for complex thoracic procedures is feasible, especially for complex suturing and excision of very large mediastinal tumors, but more attention is needed for patients needing difficult dissections. Advanced preparation for conversion is necessary during this difficult operation.

  15. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement in patients with Marfan syndrome enrolled in the National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Howard K; Preiss, Liliana R; Maslen, Cheryl L; Kroner, Barbara; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Holmes, Kathryn W; Tolunay, H Eser; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Asch, Federico M; Milewski, Rita K; Bavaria, Joseph; LeMaire, Scott A

    2014-05-01

    The long-term outcomes of aortic valve-sparing (AVS) root replacement in Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients remain uncertain. The study aim was to determine the utilization and outcomes of AVS root replacement in MFS patients enrolled in the Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC). At the time of this analysis, 788 patients with MFS were enrolled in the GenTAC Registry, of whom 288 had undergone aortic root replacement. Patients who had undergone AVS procedures were compared to those who had undergone aortic valve replacement (AVR). AVS root replacement was performed in 43.5% of MFS patients, and the frequency of AVS was increased over the past five years. AVS patients were younger at the time of surgery (31.0 versus 36.3 years, p = 0.006) and more likely to have had elective rather than emergency surgery compared to AVR patients, in whom aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dissection was the more likely primary indication for surgery. After a mean follow up of 6.2 +/- 3.6 years, none of the 87 AVS patients had required reoperation; in contrast, after a mean follow up of 10.5 +/- 7.6 years, 11.5% of AVR patients required aortic root reoperation. Aortic valve function has been durable, with 95.8% of AVS patients having aortic insufficiency that was graded as mild or less. AVS root replacement is performed commonly among the MFS population, and the durability of the aortic repair and aortic valve function have been excellent to date. These results justify a continued use of the procedure in an elective setting. The GenTAC Registry will be a useful resource to assess the long-term durability of AVS root replacement in the future.

  16. Valve Sparing Aortic Root Replacement in Patients with Marfan Syndrome Enrolled in the National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Howard K.; Preiss, Liliana R.; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Kroner, Barbara; Devereux, Richard B.; Roman, Mary J.; Holmes, Kathryn W.; Tolunay, H. Eser; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Asch, Federico M.; Milewski, Rita K.; Bavaria, Joseph; LeMaire, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The long-term outcomes of aortic valve sparing (AVS) root replacement in Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients remain uncertain. We sought to determine the utilization and outcomes of AVS root replacement in MFS patients enrolled in the Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC). Methods At the time of this analysis, 788 patients with MFS were enrolled in the GenTAC Registry, of whom 288 have undergone aortic root replacement. Patients who have undergone AVS procedures were compared to those who have undergone aortic valve replacing (AVR) procedures. Results AVS root replacement was performed in 43.5% of MFS patients and the frequency of AVS increased over the past 5 years. AVS patients were younger at the time of surgery (31.0 vs. 36.3 years, p=0.006) and more likely to have had elective rather than emergency surgery compared to AVR patients. AVR patients were more likely to have had aortic valve dysfunction and aortic dissection as a primary indication for surgery. After mean follow-up of 6.2 (SD=3.6) years, none of the 87 AVS patients have required reoperation; in contrast, after mean follow up of 10.5 (SD=7.6) years, 11.5% of AVR patients have required aortic root reoperation. Aortic valve function has been durable with 95.8% of AVS patients with aortic insufficiency graded as mild or less. Conclusions AVS root replacement is performed commonly in the MFS population. The durability of the aortic repair and aortic valve function have been excellent to date. These results justify the continued use of the procedure in the elective setting. The GenTAC Registry will be a useful resource to assess the long-term durability of AVS root replacement in the future. PMID:25296451

  17. [Hybrid treatment of patients with aneurysms and dissections of the aortic arch and descending portion of the thoracic aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomin, V V; Gordeev, M L; Zverev, D A; Shloĭdo, E A; Uspenskiĭ, V E; Zvereva, E D; Bondarenko, P B; Puzdriak, P D

    The authors share herein their experience with hybrid surgical treatment of 21 patients presenting with lesions of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta. Aortic pathology included dissection of the thoracoabdominal aorta (n=15), a sacciform aneurysm of the aortic arch (n=5), and a spindle-shaped aneurysm of the distal portions of the aortic arch (n=1). The first stage consisted of the following operations: transposition of the left subclavian artery into the left common carotid artery (n=9; 42.8%), partial debranching (n=11; 52.5%), and total debranching (n=1; 4.7%). The second stage consisted in implantation of a stent graft: to the thoracic aorta in 18 (85.8%) cases, and to the thoracic and abdominal portions of the aorta in 3 (14.2%) cases. The most significant complications of the immediate postoperative period included acute cerebral circulation impairment (n=1) and local dissection of the ascending aorta (n=1). Type I endoleaks were observed in 4 (19%) patients, type II endoleaks in 1 (4.7%), and type III endoleaks in 1 (4.7%). The mean duration of the follow up after discharge from hospital amounted to 11.6±7.9 months. In 4 patients after 6 months the findings of the control MSCT angiography showed no significant changes of the endoleaks. 1-year patency of the shunted branches of the aortic arch amounted to 95.2%. The cumulative survival rate amounted to 95.2%.

  18. Innovative postmarket device evaluation using a quality registry to monitor thoracic endovascular aortic repair in the treatment of aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Adam W; Lombardi, Joseph V; Abel, Dorothy B; Morales, J Pablo; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Wang, Grace; Azizzadeh, Ali; Kern, John; Fillinger, Mark; White, Rodney; Cronenwett, Jack L; Cambria, Richard P

    2017-05-01

    United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-mandated postapproval studies have long been a mainstay of the continued evaluation of high-risk medical devices after initial marketing approval; however, these studies often present challenges related to patient/physician recruitment and retention. Retrospective single-center studies also do not fully represent the spectrum of real-world performance nor are they likely to have a sufficiently large enough sample size to detect important signals. In recent years, The FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health has been promoting the development and use of patient registries to advance infrastructure and methodologies for medical device investigation. The FDA 2012 document, "Strengthening the National System for Medical Device Post-market Surveillance," highlighted registries as a core foundational infrastructure when linked to other complementary data sources, including embedded unique device identification. The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) thoracic endovascular aortic repair for type B aortic dissection project is an innovative method of using quality improvement registries to meet the needs of device evaluation after market approval. Here we report the organization and background of this project and highlight the innovation facilitated by collaboration of physicians, the FDA, and device manufacturers. This effort used an existing national network of VQI participants to capture patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair for acute type B aortic dissection within a registry that aligns with standard practice and existing quality efforts. The VQI captures detailed patient, device, and procedural data for consecutive eligible cases under the auspices of a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). Patients were divided into a 5-year follow-up group (200 acute; 200 chronic dissections) and a 1-year follow-up group (100 acute; 100 chronic). The 5-year cohort required additional imaging details, and the 1-year

  19. Use of Suture-Mediated Closure Device in Percutaneous Direct Carotid Puncture During Chimney-Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Gabriel, E-mail: dr.changabriel@gmail.com; Quek, Lawrence Hwee Han, E-mail: lawrence-quek@ttsh.com.sg [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Tan, Glenn Leong Wei, E-mail: glenn-tan@ttsh.com.sg [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of General Surgery (Singapore); Pua, Uei, E-mail: druei@yahoo.com [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2016-07-15

    BackgroundInsertion of a carotid chimney graft during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (Ch-TEVAR) is a recognized technique to extend the proximal landing zone into the aortic arch in the treatment of thoracic aortic disease. Conventional technique requires surgical exposure of the carotid artery for insertion of the carotid chimney graft.MethodologyWe describe our experience in the use of a suture-mediated closure device in percutaneous Ch-TEVAR in four patients.ResultsSuccessful hemostasis was achieved in all four patients. No complications related to the carotid puncture were recorded.ConclusionWe conclude that using suture-mediated closure device for carotid closure appears feasible and deserves further studies as a potential alternative to conventional surgical approach.

  20. Frozen elephant trunk repair for descending thoracic aortic dissection in a man with a hostile left pleural cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, William D T; Manjunath, Adarsh; Malaisrie, S Chris

    2014-06-01

    The frozen elephant trunk procedure is a hybrid, single-staged alternative to conventional surgery for repairing diffuse pathologic conditions of the thoracic aorta. This approach is particularly advantageous in patients who have pathologic conditions of the left side of the chest, because the descending thoracic aorta can be repaired without entering a hostile pleural cavity. We present the case of a 67-year-old man who had undergone repair of acute type A aortic dissection. He presented with aneurysmal dilation of the descending thoracic aorta secondary to chronic dissection, a large acute dissection of the proximal ascending aorta, and a large paraesophageal hernia that made him a poor candidate for conventional, 2-staged open aortic repair. We describe the hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique that we used to repair the aorta, and its broader advantages.

  1. Outcome of endovascular repair for intact and ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Tina; Wanhainen, Anders; Steuer, Johnny; Mani, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term outcome after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). All patients who underwent TEVAR for TAA at Uppsala University Hospital from December 1999 to December 2014 were included. Characteristics of the patients and outcome data were collected from medical records, national population registry, and cause of death registry. Perioperative survival was analyzed with the χ 2 test, and 5-year survival was estimated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Predictors of long-term survival were assessed with Cox regression. There were 77 patients included in the study, 49 with intact TAAs (iTAAs) and 28 with ruptured TAAs (rTAAs). Mean follow-up was 83.7 months for iTAA patients and 82.0 months for rTAA patients (P = .853). Mean age was 71.5 years for iTAA patients and 74.8 years for rTAA patients (P = .04). Survival after iTAA repair was 95.9% at 30 days, 91.8% at 90 days, and 62.5% at 5 years. After rTAA repair, survival was 71.4% at 30 days and decreased to 57.1% at 90 days (P < .01), with most deaths after 30 days being related to the aortic event. The 3-year survival rate after rTAA repair was 27.8%, and only one rTAA patient with 5 years of follow-up remained alive. Six aorta-related deaths occurred after 90 days (three iTAA patients, three rTAA patients); five were due to rupture of nontreated aortic segments. The 5-year reintervention rate was 13.2% for iTAA patients and 17.9% for rTAA patients (P = .682). All reinterventions occurred within 14 months of TEVAR. The age-adjusted hazard ratio for long-term mortality was 4.4 after rTAA repair compared with iTAA repair. TEVAR for iTAA was associated with low perioperative mortality and acceptable 5-year survival at 62.5%. Results were more pessimistic after rTAA repair, however, for which two-thirds of the patients were deceased at 3-year follow-up. Improved selection of patients is necessary to identify patients who are

  2. Management of aorto-esophageal fistula secondary after thoracic endovascular aortic repair: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Kaname; Koike, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Seiichi; Komazawa, Daisuke; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2017-10-01

    Aorto-esophageal fistula (AEF) is a rare and lethal entity, and the difficulty of making diagnosis of AEF is well-known. As promising results in the short-term effectiveness of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) promote its usage, the occurrence of AEF after TEVAR (post-TEVAR AEF) increases as one of the major complications. Therefore, we provide a review concerning the management strategy of post-TEVAR AEF. Although its representative symptom was reported as the triad of mid-thoracic pain and sentinel hematemesis followed by massive hematemesis, the symptom-free interval between sentinel hemorrhage and massive exsanguination is unpredictable. However, the physiological condition represents a surgical contraindication. Accordingly, early diagnosis is important, but either CT or esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy rarely depicts a typical image. The formation of post-TEVAR AEF might be associated with the infection of micro-organisms, which is uncontrollable with anti-biotic administration. The current first-line strategy is combination therapy as follows, (1) to control bleeding by TEVAR in the urgent phase, and (2) radical debridement and aortic/esophageal re-construction in the semi-urgent phase. In view of the high mortality and morbidity rate, it is proposed that the choice in treatment strategies might be affected by patient`s condition, size of the wall defects and the etiology of AEF. Practically, we should keep in mind the importance of making an early diagnosis and, once a suspicious symptom has occurred in a patient with a history of TEVAR, the existence of post-TEVAR AEF should be suspected. A prospective registry together with more developed technologies will be needed to establish a future strategy.

  3. Celiac Trunk Embolization, as a Means of Elongating Short Distal Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Necks, Prior to Endovascular Aortic Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belenky, Alexander; Haddad, Menashe; Idov, Igor; Knizhnik, Michael; Litvin, Sergey; Bachar, Gil N.; Atar, Eli

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in elongating short distal necks of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAAs) by coil embolization of the celiac trunk prior to endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). During 6 years seven patients (five men and two women; mean age, 74) who had DTAAs with short distal necks unsuitable for conventional EVAR, and well patent superior and inferior mesenteric arteries based on CT, were treated in one session with EVAR after the celiac trunk was coil embolized to elongate the neck. All patients were followed by CT every 3 months in the first year and every 6 months thereafter. Technical success was achieved in all patients, and no early or late ischemic complications were noted. No procedural complications occurred and good aneurysm sealing was obtained in all patients. Three endoleaks were identified after 3 months (one patient) and 6 months (two patients); all were treated successfully with insertion of an additional stent-graft. In patients with DTAAs who are candidates for EVAR but have short aneurysm distal necks, celiac trunk embolization-only if the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries are patent-is a good and safe way to elongate the neck and enable EVAR.

  4. Endovascular Treatment of Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms with the EndoFit Stent-Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saratzis, N.; Saratzis, Athanasios; Melas, N.; Ginis, G.; Lioupis, A.; Lykopoulos, D.; Lazaridis, J.; Kiskinis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the mid-term feasibility, efficacy, and durability of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (DTAA) exclusion using the EndoFit device (LeMaitre Vascular). Methods. Twenty-three (23) men (mean age 66 years) with a DTAA were admitted to our department for endovascular repair (21 were ASA III+ and 2 refused open repair) from January 2003 to July 2005. Results. Complete aneurysm exclusion was feasible in all subjects (100% technical success). The median follow-up was 18 months (range 8-40 months). A single stent-graft was used in 6 cases. The deployment of a second stent-graft was required in the remaining 17 patients. All endografts were attached proximally, beyond the left subclavian artery, leaving the aortic arch branches intact. No procedure-related deaths have occurred. A distal type I endoleak was detected in 2 cases on the 1 month follow-up CT scan, and was repaired with reintervention and deployment of an extension graft. A nonfatal acute myocardial infarction occurred in 1 patient in the sixth postoperative month. Graft migration, graft infection, paraplegia, cerebral or distal embolization, renal impairment or any other major complications were not observed. Conclusion. The treatment of DTAAs using the EndoFit stent-graft is technically feasible. Mid-term results in this series are promising

  5. Mid-term results of zone 0 thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair after ascending aorta wrapping and supra-aortic debranching in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Felice; Lachat, Mario; Hofmann, Michael; Cayne, Neal S; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Rancic, Zoran; Puippe, Gilbert; Pfammatter, Thomas; Mangialardi, Nicola; Veith, Frank J; Bettex, Dominique; Maisano, Francesco; Neff, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Surgical repair of aneurysmal disease involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and eventually the descending aorta is generally associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A less invasive approach with the ascending wrapping technique (WT), supra-aortic vessel debranching (SADB) and thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) in zone 0 was developed to reduce the associated risk in these patients. During a 10-year period, consecutive patients treated by the ascending WT, SADB and TEVAR in zone 0 were included. All patients were considered at high risk for conventional surgery. Measured outcomes included perioperative deaths and morbidity, maximal aortic transverse diameter (TD) and its postoperative evolution, endoleak, survival, freedom from cardiovascular reinterventions, SADB freedom from occlusion and aortic valve function during follow-up. Median follow-up was 37.4 [mean = 34; range, 0-65; standard deviation (SD) = 20] months. Twenty-six cases were included with a mean age of 71.88 ( r  = 56-87; SD = 8) years. A mean of 2.9 supra-aortic vessels (75) per patient was debranched from the ascending aorta. The mean time interval from WT/SADB and TEVAR was 29 ( r  = 0-204; SD = 48) days. TEVAR was associated with chimney and/or periscope grafts in 6 (23%) patients, and extra-anatomical supra-aortic bypasses were performed in 6 (23%) patients. Perioperative mortality was 7.7% (2/26). Neurological events were registered in 3 (11.5%) cases, and a reintervention was required in 3 (11.5%) cases. After the WT, the ascending diameter remained stable during the follow-up period in all cases. At mean follow-up, significant shrinkage of the arch/descending aorta diameter was observed. A type I/III endoleak occurred in 3 cases. At 5 years, the rates of survival, freedom from cardiovascular reinterventions and SADB freedom from occlusion were 71.7, 82.3 and 96%, respectively. The use of the ascending WT, SADB and TEVAR in selected patients

  6. Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm with Dissection Presenting as Flash Pulmonary Edema in a 26-Year-Old Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Omar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection in a 26-year-old man with no significant past medical history and a family history of dissecting aortic aneurysm in his mother at the age of 40. The patient presented with cough, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. CT scan of the chest showed a dissection of the ascending aorta. The patient underwent aortic dissection repair and three months later he returned to our hospital with new complaints of back pain. CT angiography showed a new aortic dissection extending from the left carotid artery through the bifurcation and into the iliac arteries. The patient underwent replacement of the aortic root, ascending aorta, total aortic arch, and aortic valve. The patient recovered well postoperatively. Genetic studies of the patient and his children revealed no mutations in ACTA2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2, MYH11, MYLK, SMAD3, or FBN1. This case report focuses on a patient with familial TAAD and discusses the associated genetic loci and available screening methods. It is important to recognize potential cases of familial TAAD and understand the available screening methods since early diagnosis allows appropriate management of risk factors and treatment when necessary.

  7. Outcomes of thoracic endovascular repair for type B aortic dissection with multichanneled morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baolei; Hou, Kai; Guo, Daqiao; Xu, Xin; Shi, Zhenyu; Shan, Yan; Lv, Peng; Fu, Weiguo

    2017-10-01

    Clinical outcomes after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for patients with multichanneled aortic dissection (MCAD) are poorly understood but seem substantially different from those for patients with double-channeled aortic dissection (AD). This study compared the anatomic and clinical factors for patients with MCAD who underwent TEVAR with or without full true lumen (TL) collapse. From January 2012 to March 2016, 54 of 644 consecutive type B AD patients (8.4%) who presented with MCAD were reviewed. Patients were classified as MCAD with full TL collapse and without full TL collapse according to computed tomography angiography findings. We analyzed potential variables including clinical characteristics, anatomic morphologic features, and procedural details. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of AD-related deaths. A total of four patients (7.4%) died preoperatively of aortic rupture, all of whom experienced full TL collapse. MCAD patients with full TL collapse showed significantly higher 30-day major adverse events than those without full TL collapse (36.8% vs 9.7%; P = .030). The mean follow-up duration was 25.6 ± 13.2 months (range, 3-53 months). The overall mortality for all MCAD patients was 16.7%, whereas the follow-up major adverse events rate was 40.0% after TEVAR. Significant differences were present between patients with full TL collapse and patients without full TL collapse in survival at 3 years (55.4% vs 94.7%; P = .002). Maximum diameter of affected aorta (hazard ratio, 1.176; 95% confidence interval, 1.015-1.362; P = .031) was identified as the only predictor of AD-related deaths. MCAD was identified in a small but not insignificant number of our patients presenting with type B AD. Urgent or elective TEVAR was indicated in all our patients with MCAD. In patients with MCAD, full TL collapse was associated with worse outcomes, and this finding may indicate the need for more urgent or emergent repair

  8. Pathogenetic Basis of Aortopathy and Aortic Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-19

    Aortopathies; Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm; Aortic Valve Disease; Thoracic Aortic Disease; Thoracic Aortic Dissection; Thoracic Aortic Rupture; Ascending Aortic Disease; Descending Aortic Disease; Ascending Aortic Aneurysm; Descending Aortic Aneurysm; Marfan Syndrome; Loeys-Dietz Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome; Turner Syndrome; PHACE Syndrome; Autosomal Recessive Cutis Laxa; Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly; Arterial Tortuosity Syndrome

  9. Aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made in the chest or abdomen. Endovascular aortic repair. This surgery is done without any major surgical ... needed. If the heart arteries are involved, a coronary bypass is also performed. Outlook ... aneurysm - dissecting; Chest pain - aortic dissection; Thoracic aortic aneurysm - ...

  10. Problems and prospects of managing thoracic aortic aneurysm at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianakwana, Gabriel U; Odike, Maxy A C; Nwofor, Alexander M E

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this report is to highlight the problems encountered in managing thoracic aortic aneurysm in a third-generation teaching hospital serving a purely rural community in the heartland of Anambra State, in the southeastern part of Nigeria. This report also proffers solutions aimed at assisting in providing better care for patients afflicted with this condition. From time to time, patients present with vascular diseases, including aneurysm, but the condition is only occasionally suspected and sparingly investigated. This is a report of two cases within the setting of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi Nigeria. After the death of these two patients, one of whom was a member of the staff of the hospital, post mortem examinations revealed that they had died of ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm. Their medical records were retrieved from the Medical Records Department and reviewed with the aim of analyzing their clinical features and management in the light of the unexpected post-mortem examination results. The survey of the patient records revealed that the diagnosis of thoracic aortic aneurysm was not suspected in either patient even though both had symptoms pointing to this condition. The staff member was a 55-year old man and the other patient was a 31-year old woman in her 30th week of pregnancy. We conclude by drawing the attention of medical practitioners in our community to the fact that thoracic aortic aneurysms are probably more common than we thought. Only a high index of suspicion will lead to clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Computational predictions of damage propagation preceding dissection of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S Jamaleddin; Farzaneh, Solmaz; Avril, Stéphane

    2018-04-01

    Dissections of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. They occur when a tear in the intima-media of the aorta permits the penetration of the blood and the subsequent delamination and separation of the wall in 2 layers, forming a false channel. To predict computationally the risk of tear formation, stress analyses should be performed layer-specifically and they should consider internal or residual stresses that exist in the tissue. In the present paper, we propose a novel layer-specific damage model based on the constrained mixture theory, which intrinsically takes into account these internal stresses and can predict appropriately the tear formation. The model is implemented in finite-element commercial software Abaqus coupled with user material subroutine. Its capability is tested by applying it to the simulation of different exemplary situations, going from in vitro bulge inflation experiments on aortic samples to in vivo overpressurizing of patient-specific ATAAs. The simulations reveal that damage correctly starts from the intimal layer (luminal side) and propagates across the media as a tear but never hits the adventitia. This scenario is typically the first stage of development of an acute dissection, which is predicted for pressures of about 2.5 times the diastolic pressure by the model after calibrating the parameters against experimental data performed on collected ATAA samples. Further validations on a larger cohort of patients should hopefully confirm the potential of the model in predicting patient-specific damage evolution and possible risk of dissection during aneurysm growth for clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B: Quantification by dynamic CTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Tim F. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: tim.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Ganten, Maria-Katharina [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.ganten@dkfz.de; Boeckler, Dittmar [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: dittmar.boeckler@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Geisbuesch, Philipp [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: philipp.geisbuesch@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: h.vontengg@dkfz.de

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the heartbeat-related displacement of the thoracic aorta in patients with chronic aortic dissection type B (CADB). Materials and methods: Electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography was performed during inspiratory breath-hold in 11 patients with CADB: Collimation 16 mm x 1 mm, pitch 0.2, slice thickness 1 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm. Multiplanar reformations were taken for 20 equidistant time instances through both ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (true lumen, DAoT; false lumen, DAoF) and the vertex of the aortic arch (VA). In-plane vessel displacement was determined by region of interest analysis. Results: Mean displacement was 5.2 {+-} 1.7 mm (AAo), 1.6 {+-} 1.0 mm (VA), 0.9 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoT), and 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm (DAoF). This indicated a significant reduction of displacement from AAo to VA and DAoT (p < 0.05). The direction of displacement was anterior for AAo and cranial for VA. Conclusion: In CADB, the thoracic aorta undergoes a heartbeat-related displacement that exhibits an unbalanced distribution of magnitude and direction along the thoracic vessel course. Since consecutive traction forces on the aortic wall have to be assumed, these observations may have implications on pathogenesis of and treatment strategies for CADB.

  13. The effects of aprotinin on blood product transfusion associated with thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seigne, P W

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of aprotinin on blood product use and postoperative complications in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen patients who underwent elective or urgent thoracic aortic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The total number of units of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets was significantly less in the group that received aprotinin (p = 0.01, 0.04, and 0.01). The intraoperative transfusion of packed red blood cells and platelets, collection and retransfusion of cell saver, and postoperative transfusion of fresh frozen plasma were also significantly less in the aprotinin group (p = 0.01, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.05). No patient in either group sustained renal dysfunction or a myocardial infarction. Two patients who had not received aprotinin suffered from chronic postoperative seizures, and one patient who had received aprotinin sustained a perioperative stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose aprotinin administration significantly decreases blood product transfusion requirements in the setting of thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, and it does not appear to be associated with renal or myocardial dysfunction.

  14. Time-resolved three-dimensional magnetic resonance velocity mapping of chronic thoracic aortic dissection. A preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Sekine, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Keiji; Takagi, Ryo; Kumita, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Yuriko

    2011-01-01

    The blood flow patterns of chronic thoracic aortic dissection are complicated, and their clinical significance remains unknown. We evaluated the technical and clinical potentials of time-resolved 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping for assessing these patterns. We used data collected from time-resolved 3D phase-contrast MR imaging of 16 patients with chronic thoracic aortic dissection to generate time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping that included 3D streamline and path line. We investigated blood flow patterns of this disease in the mapping and compared them with the morphological changes of the patent false lumen. Time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping visualized rapid flow at the entry and in the true lumen immediately distal to the entry. We observed slower helical or laminar flow in the patent false lumen. In patients with disease progression, slower helical flow following rapid entry jet collided with the outer wall of the false lumen and was also observed in a growing ulcer-like projection. We showed the potential of time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping for visualizing pathologic flow patterns related to chronic thoracic aortic dissection. (author)

  15. Volumetric analysis demonstrates that true and false lumen remodeling persists for 12 months after thoracic endovascular aortic repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Young Suh, PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old man underwent an elephant trunk procedure followed by thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR. Computed tomography angiography-based models were built to quantify volume of the whole aorta and true and false lumens preoperatively, before TEVAR, after TEVAR, and at follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. With TEVAR, descending aortic true lumen volume increased by 54%, then increased additionally by 60% during 12 months. The descending aortic false lumen volume regressed continuously for 12 months following TEVAR, with the most rapid rate from 6 to 12 months at 16 cm3/month. TEVAR immediately increased true lumen volume and continued to remodel the true and false lumens throughout the following 12 months.

  16. Thoracic endograft positioning and carotid-subclavian bypass grafting in a patient with a saccular aneurysm at the aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Nicolas; Bucci, Federico; Redler, Adriano; Salvati, Bruno; Ferdani, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A 75-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of sudden thoracic pain. A saccular aneurysm of the aortic arch extending on the anterior surface of the aortic arch was found on computed tomographic arteriography. The patient was hemodynamically stable and he was programmed for a staged surgical and endovascular approach (hybrid approach). As a first stage and in order to prevent major cardiac complications due to the overstenting of the left subclavian artery (LSA) with the occlusion of the aortocoronary bypass, the patient underwent a polytetrafluoroethylene bypass graft (GORE-TEX, W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) between the LSA and the left carotid artery. Intraoperative arteriography revealed a good patency of the left carotid-subclavian bypass and of the left internal mammary bypass on the left anterior descending artery. As a second stage the endovascular procedure was accomplished 5 days later in the operating room. A Gore TAG stent graft (W.L. Gore & Associates) was deployed in the aortic arch 20 mm proximally to the aneurysmatic segment covering the ostium of the LSA. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day in good general conditions. Hybrid procedures for treatment of aneurysms of the aortic arch or of the descending thoracic aorta are a promising alternative to open surgery especially in high-risk patients, with lower early morbidity and mortality rates. Long-term effectiveness remains to be fully elucidated.

  17. Two stage hybrid approach for complex aortic coarctation repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crockett James

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of an adult patient with aortic coarctation and an associated cardiac pathology poses a great surgical challenge since there are no standard guidelines for the therapy of such complex pathology. Debate exists not only on which lesion should be corrected first, but also upon the type and timing of the procedure. Surgery can be one- or two-staged. Both of these strategies are accomplice with elevate morbidity and mortality. Case report In the face of such an extended surgical approach, balloon dilatation seems preferable for treatment of severe aortic coarctation. We present an adult male patient with aortic coarctation combined with ascending aorta aneurysm and concomitant aortic valve regurgitation. The aortic coarctation was corrected first, using percutaneous balloon dilatation; and in a second stage the aortic regurgitation and ascending aorta aneurysm was treated by Bentall procedure. The patients' postoperative period was uneventful. Three years after the operation he continues to do well.

  18. Two stage hybrid approach for complex aortic coarctation repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsis, Efstratios; Ekonomidis, Stella; Panagopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsaousis, George; Crockett, James; Panagiotou, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Background Management of an adult patient with aortic coarctation and an associated cardiac pathology poses a great surgical challenge since there are no standard guidelines for the therapy of such complex pathology. Debate exists not only on which lesion should be corrected first, but also upon the type and timing of the procedure. Surgery can be one- or two-staged. Both of these strategies are accomplice with elevate morbidity and mortality. Case report In the face of such an extended surgical approach, balloon dilatation seems preferable for treatment of severe aortic coarctation. We present an adult male patient with aortic coarctation combined with ascending aorta aneurysm and concomitant aortic valve regurgitation. The aortic coarctation was corrected first, using percutaneous balloon dilatation; and in a second stage the aortic regurgitation and ascending aorta aneurysm was treated by Bentall procedure. The patients' postoperative period was uneventful. Three years after the operation he continues to do well. PMID:19239693

  19. Treatment of blunt thoracic aortic injury in Germany-Assessment of the TraumaRegister DGU®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Alexander; Barbati, Mohammad E; Storck, Martin; Kotelis, Drosos; Keschenau, Paula; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Andruszkow, Hagen; Lefering, Rolf; Hildebrand, Frank; Greiner, Andreas; Jacobs, Michael J; Grommes, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Using the data delivered by the German Trauma Register DGU® from 2002 till 2013, the value of different therapies of blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) in Germany was analyzed. Prospectively collected data of patients suffering from BTAI were retrospectively analyzed with focus on the different treatment modalities for grade I-IV injuries. 821 patients suffering from BTAI were identified: 51.6% (424) grade I injury, 35.4% (291) grade II or III injury and 12.9% (106) grade IV injury (77.5% men [44.94 ± 20.6 years]). The main patterns of injury were high- speed accidents and falls (78.0% [n = 640], 21.8% [n = 171] respectively). Significant differences between grade I and grade II/III as well as IV injuries could be assessed for the incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, a Glasgow Coma Scale score below 8 and a systolic blood pressure below 90 mmHg (p-value: injuries and cardiac arrest. Endovascular therapy became the treatment of choice for BTAI in Germany. Patients who have been treated by surgical means showed the highest survival rate, especially endovascular therapy showed a favorable low mortality rate.

  20. Spinal ischaemia after thoracic endovascular aortic repair with left subclavian artery sacrifice: is there a critical stent graft length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fabian A; Saravi, Babak; Krause, Sonja; Puttfarcken, Luisa; Wittmann, Karin; Förster, Katharina; Rylski, Bartosz; Maier, Sven; Göbel, Ulrich; Siepe, Matthias; Czerny, Martin; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2017-08-24

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is used for treatment of thoracic aortic pathologies, but the covered stent graft can induce spinal ischaemia depending on the length used. The left subclavian artery contributes to spinal cord collateralization and is frequently occluded by the stent graft. Our objective was to investigate the impact of covered stent graft length on the risk of spinal ischaemia in the setting of left subclavian artery sacrifice. Twenty-six pigs (German country race, mean body weight 36 ± 4 kg) underwent simulated descending aortic TEVAR via left lateral thoracotomy, with left subclavian artery and thoracic segmental artery occlusion in normothermia. Animals were assigned to treatment groups according to simulated stent graft length: TEVAR to T8 ( n  = 4), TEVAR to T9 ( n  = 4), TEVAR to T10 ( n  = 4), TEVAR to T11 ( n  = 7) and TEVAR to T12 ( n  = 1) and a sham group ( n  = 6). End points included spinal cord perfusion pressure, cerebrospinal fluid pressure and spinal cord blood flow using fluorescent microspheres. There were no group differences in spinal cord perfusion pressure drop or in spinal cord perfusion pressure regeneration potential at 3 h after the procedure: from a baseline average of 75 mmHg (95% confidence interval 71-83 mmHg) to 73 mmHg (67-75 mmHg) at 3 h in Group T10 versus from a baseline average of 67 mmHg (95% CI 50-81 mmHg) to 65 mmHg (95% confidence interval 48-81 mmHg) in Group T8. There were no differences in the spinal cord blood flow courses over time in the different groups nor was there any difference in cerebrospinal fluid pressure levels and cerebrospinal fluid pressure dynamics between groups. However, we did observe local blood flow distribution to the spinal cord that was inhomogeneous depending on the distance between the simulated stent graft end and the first thoracic anterior radiculomedullary artery. The risk of spinal ischaemia after serial

  1. Percutaneous implantation of thoracic and abdominal aortic prostheses in patients at high surgical risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Ortiz

    2013-02-01

    intraluminal stent implantation is an alternative. Objective: to analyze the impact of percutaneous implantation of aortic stents in high-risk surgical patients with a minimum of one y ear follow-up. Method: Descriptive study conducted from December 2005 to March 2010 which included 125 patients with thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysm, meeting surgical criteria by its diameter and that were rejected from surgery due to their high risk. The outcomes were intraoperative death from any cause and aneurysm-related at one, six and twelve months. Complications were defined as vascular occurred during the first thirty days. Results: Abdominal aneurysm was more frequent (70.4%. The overall mortality at 25.7 months follow-up was 14.8%. Of this percentage, 5.2% died from causes related to the aneurysm. One patient died during surgery. 4.3% were reoperated for leaks. There was higher aneurysm-related mortality in the thoracic (14.7 vs. 1.2% p = 0.003 and a trend in those of larger diameter (6.9 vs. 5.7 cm p = 0.210. There was no association between mortality and diabetes mellitus, smoking, heart disease, hypertension or dyslipidemia. Conclusions: aneurysm-related mortality in patients undergoing aortic stent graft is low. Mortality was associated with thoracic aneurysm and to its greater diameter. Complications did not imply an increase in mortality. In conclusion, in patients with aortic aneurysm and high surgical risk rejected for open surgery, percutaneous approach is a safe and effective treatment in a medium-term follow-up.

  2. Multidetector-row computed tomography of thoracic aortic anomalies in dogs and cats: patent ductus arteriosus and vascular rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjes, Christiane R; Nolte, Ingo; Wefstaedt, Patrick

    2011-09-23

    Diagnosis of extracardiac intrathoracic vascular anomalies is of clinical importance, but remains challenging. Traditional imaging modalities, such as radiography, echocardiography, and angiography, are inherently limited by the difficulties of a 2-dimensional approach to a 3-dimensional object. We postulated that accurate characterization of malformations of the aorta would benefit from 3-dimensional assessment. Therefore, multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) was chosen as a 3-dimensional, new, and noninvasive imaging technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with 2 common diseases of the intrathoracic aorta, either patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly, by contrast-enhanced 64-row computed tomography. Electrocardiography (ECG)-gated and thoracic nongated MDCT images were reviewed in identified cases of either a patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly. Ductal size and morphology were determined in 6 dogs that underwent ECG-gated MDCT. Vascular ring anomalies were characterized in 7 dogs and 3 cats by ECG-gated MDCT or by a nongated thoracic standard protocol. Cardiac ECG-gated MDCT clearly displayed the morphology, length, and caliber of the patent ductus arteriosus in 6 affected dogs. Persistent right aortic arch was identified in 10 animals, 8 of which showed a coexisting aberrant left subclavian artery. A mild dilation of the proximal portion of the aberrant subclavian artery near its origin of the aorta was present in 4 dogs, and a diverticulum analogous to the human Kommerell's diverticulum was present in 2 cats. Contrast-enhanced MDCT imaging of thoracic anomalies gives valuable information about the exact aortic arch configuration. Furthermore, MDCT was able to characterize the vascular branching patterns in dogs and cats with a persistent right aortic arch and the morphology and size of the patent ductus arteriosus in affected dogs. This additional information can be of help with regard to improved

  3. Multidetector-row computed tomography of thoracic aortic anomalies in dogs and cats: Patent ductus arteriosus and vascular rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolte Ingo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of extracardiac intrathoracic vascular anomalies is of clinical importance, but remains challenging. Traditional imaging modalities, such as radiography, echocardiography, and angiography, are inherently limited by the difficulties of a 2-dimensional approach to a 3-dimensional object. We postulated that accurate characterization of malformations of the aorta would benefit from 3-dimensional assessment. Therefore, multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT was chosen as a 3-dimensional, new, and noninvasive imaging technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with 2 common diseases of the intrathoracic aorta, either patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly, by contrast-enhanced 64-row computed tomography. Results Electrocardiography (ECG-gated and thoracic nongated MDCT images were reviewed in identified cases of either a patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly. Ductal size and morphology were determined in 6 dogs that underwent ECG-gated MDCT. Vascular ring anomalies were characterized in 7 dogs and 3 cats by ECG-gated MDCT or by a nongated thoracic standard protocol. Cardiac ECG-gated MDCT clearly displayed the morphology, length, and caliber of the patent ductus arteriosus in 6 affected dogs. Persistent right aortic arch was identified in 10 animals, 8 of which showed a coexisting aberrant left subclavian artery. A mild dilation of the proximal portion of the aberrant subclavian artery near its origin of the aorta was present in 4 dogs, and a diverticulum analogous to the human Kommerell's diverticulum was present in 2 cats. Conclusions Contrast-enhanced MDCT imaging of thoracic anomalies gives valuable information about the exact aortic arch configuration. Furthermore, MDCT was able to characterize the vascular branching patterns in dogs and cats with a persistent right aortic arch and the morphology and size of the patent ductus arteriosus in affected dogs. This additional

  4. Diagnosing Sarcopenia on Thoracic Computed Tomography: Quantitative Assessment of Skeletal Muscle Mass in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Ursula; Heidinger, Benedikt; Sokas, Claire; Chu, Louis; Eisenberg, Ronald L

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess the use of skeletal muscle mass measurements at two thoracic levels to diagnose sarcopenia on computed tomography (CT) chest examinations and to analyze the impact of these measurements on clinical outcome parameters following transcatheter aortic valve replacement. This study retrospectively included 157 patients who underwent preoperative CT examinations. The total muscle area was measured on transverse CT images at the 3rd lumbar and 7th and 12th thoracic levels with skeletal muscle indices (SMIs) calculated at each level. SMIs were then compared to clinical outcome parameters, and thoracic cutoff values for sarcopenia at the 7th and 12th thoracic levels were calculated. Correlation between SMIs at the third lumbar vertebra (L3) and the 12th thoracic vertebra (T12) was stronger (r = 0.724, P sarcopenia and could be used to correlate sarcopenia with outcome parameters in patients undergoing CT limited to the chest. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A correlative study of aortic valve rotation angle and thoracic aortic sizes using ECG gated CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saremi, Farhood, E-mail: fsaremi@usc.edu; Cen, Steven; Tayari, Nazila; Alizadeh, Houman; Emami, Amir; Lin, Leah; Fleischman, Fernando

    2017-04-15

    Objective: Various degrees of aortic valve rotation may be seen in individuals with no history of congenital cardiovascular malformations, but its association with aortic sizes has not been studied. Methods: Gated computed tomographic (CT angiograms in 217 patients were studied (66.7 ± 15; 22–97 years old)). Aortic diameters were determined at 5 anatomic locations. The length of the aorta from sinus to left subclavian artery was measured. The angle of valve rotation was recorded by measuring the angle between a line connecting the midpoint of the non-coronary sinus to the anterior commissure and another line along the interatrial septum. Rotation angles were correlated with aortic measurements. Patients were separated into two groups based on aortic sizes and into three groups based on age. The threshold for aortic dilatation was set at maximum ascending aorta diameter ≥40 mm (≥21 mm body surface area [BSA] indexed). Results: No significant difference in rotation angles was seen between the three age groups or between genders. Rotation angles were significantly correlated with maximal, average, and BSA adjustment of the aortic root and ascending aortic measurements. The aortic root angles were significantly different between the dilated versus nondilated aortas. There was no significant association between the rotation angles and age, length of ascending aorta, or diameters of descending aorta. Multivariate adaptive regression splines showed 25° of aortic root rotation as the diagnostic cut off for ascending aorta dilation. Above the 25° rotation, every 10° of increasing rotation was associated with a 3.78 ± 0.87 mm increase in aortic diameter (p < 0.01) and a 1.73 ± 0.25 times increased risk for having a dilated aorta (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Rotation angles of the aortic valve may be an independent non-invasive imaging marker for dilatation of the ascending aorta. Patients with increased rotation angle of the aortic valve may have higher risk for

  6. The repair of a type Ia endoleak following thoracic endovascular aortic repair using a stented elephant trunk procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Rui-Dong; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Liu, Yong-Min; Chen, Lei; Li, Cheng-Nan; Xing, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Type Ia endoleaks are not uncommon complications that occur after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Because aortic arch vessels prevent extension of the landing zone, it is very difficult to manipulate a type Ia endoleak using an extension cuff or stent-graft, especially when the aortic arch is involved. Here, we retrospectively review our experience of surgical treatment of type Ia endoleak after TEVAR using a stented elephant trunk procedure. From July 2010 to August 2016, we treated 17 patients diagnosed with a type Ia endoleak following TEVAR using stented elephant trunk procedure. The mean age of our patients was 52 ± 8 years. The mean interval between TEVAR and the open surgical repair was 38 ± 43 months. All cases of type Ia endoleak (100%) were repaired successfully. There were no in-hospital deaths. One case required reintubation and continuous renal replacement therapy due to renal failure; this patient recovered smoothly before discharge. One other patient suffered a stroke and renal failure and did not fully recover following discharge, or follow-up. During follow-up, there were 3 deaths. Acceptable results were obtained using a stented elephant trunk procedure in patients with a type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. This technique allowed us to repair the proximal aortic arch lesions, surgically correct the type Ia endoleak, and promote false lumen thrombosis in the distal aorta. Implantation of a stented elephant trunk, with or without a concomitant aortic arch procedure, is an alternative approach for this type of lesion. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contemporary economic and clinical evaluations of endovascular repair for intact descending thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silingardi, Roberto; Gennai, Stefano; Coppi, Giovanni; Chester, Johanna; Marcheselli, Luigi; Brunetti, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess clinical and contemporary costs associated with elective endovascular repair of intact descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (DTAA) into the mid-term follow-up. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained clinical database including 29 consecutive patients from July 2005 to December 2009 treated with elective endovascular repair (TEVAR) or TEVAR and surgical infrarenal repair (hybrid) of intact DTAA was performed. Mean age was 74.5 years old (±7.1). Primary clinical endpoints include mortality and major morbidity. Additionally a comprehensive economic appraisal of individual in-hospital and follow-up costs was executed. Economic endpoints include in-hospital and follow-up costs and patient discharge status. Elective endovascular and open repairs' clinical and economical outcomes in contemporary literature were assessed for comparison according to PRISMA standards. Immediate mortality was 6.9% (1/24 TEVAR and 1/5 hybrid). Three respiratory complications were recorded (11%; 2 TEVAR, 1 hybrid). Renal and cardiac complication rates were 7.4% (1 TEVAR, 1 hybrid) and 3.7% (1 TEVAR) respectively. Routine discharge home was achieved for 85% of patients (95.7% TEVAR, 25% hybrid). Three endoleaks were treated throughout the follow-up (2 TEVAR, 1 hybrid; mean 30.4 mo, ±19.9) rendering an 11% (3/27) reintervention rate. Average immediate cost was €21,976.87 for elective endovascular repair and €33,783.21 for elective endovascular hybrid repair. Additional reintervention and routine follow-up costs augmented immediate costs by 12.4%. This study supports satisfying immediate clinical outcomes for TEVAR and TEVAR+surgical infrarenal procedures. Although limited by a small population size and difficulties in economic comparisons, this study presents the real world social and economic cost scenario for both elective TEVAR and TEVAR hybrid treatment of DTAA of both the in-hospital and at mid term follow-up periods.

  8. Thoracic Aortic Rupture and Aortopulmonary Fistulation in the Friesian Horse : Histomorphologic Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M; Saey, V; Delesalle, C; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; de Bruijn, M; Back, W; van Weeren, P R; van Loon, G; Chiers, K

    Aortic rupture in horses is a rare condition. Although it is relatively common in the Friesian breed, only limited histopathologic information is available. Twenty Friesian horses (1-10 years old) were diagnosed with aortic rupture by postmortem examination. Ruptured aortic walls were analyzed with

  9. The non-syndromic familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections maps to 15q21 locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandok Gurangad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD is a critical condition that often goes undiagnosed with fatal consequences. While majority of the cases are sporadic, more than 20% are inherited as a single gene disorder. The most common familial TAA is Marfan syndrome (MFS, which is primarily caused by mutations in fibrillin-1 (FBN1 gene. Patients with FBN1 mutations are at higher risk for dissection compared to other patients with similar size aneurysms. Methods Fifteen family members were genotyped using Affymetrix-10K genechips. A genome-wide association study was carried out using an autosomal dominant model of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Mutation screening of all exons and exon-intron boundaries of FBN1 gene which reside near the peak Lod score was carried out by direct sequencing. Results The index case presented with agonizing substernal pain and was found to have TAAD by transthoracic echocardiogram. The family history was significant for 3 first degree relatives with TAA. Nine additional family members were diagnosed with TAA by echocardiography examinations. The affected individuals had no syndromic features. A genome-wide analysis of linkage mapped the disease gene to a single locus on chromosome 15q21 with a peak Lod score of 3.6 at fibrillin-1 (FBN1 gene locus (odds ratio > 4000:1 in favour of linkage, strongly suggesting that FBN1 is the causative gene. No mutation was identified within the exons and exon-intron boundaries of FBN1 gene that segregated with the disease. Haplotype analysis identified additional mutation carriers who had previously unknown status due to borderline dilation of the ascending aorta. Conclusions A familial non-syndromic TAAD is strongly associated with the FBN1 gene locus and has a malignant disease course often seen in MFS patients. This finding indicates the importance of obtaining detailed family history and echocardiographic screening of extended relatives of patients

  10. True four-dimensional analysis of thoracic aortic displacement and distension using model-based segmentation of computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tim F; Müller, Tobias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Wörz, Stefan; Rengier, Fabian; Heye, Tobias; Holland-Letz, Tim; Rohr, Karl; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Previous analyses of aortic displacement and distension using computed tomography angiography (CTA) were performed on double-oblique multi-planar reformations and did not consider through-plane motion. The aim of this study was to overcome this limitation by using a novel computational approach for the assessment of thoracic aortic displacement and distension in their true four-dimensional extent. Vessel segmentation with landmark tracking was executed on CTA of 24 patients without evidence of aortic disease. Distension magnitudes and maximum displacement vectors (MDV) including their direction were analyzed at 5 aortic locations: left coronary artery (COR), mid-ascending aorta (ASC), brachiocephalic trunk (BCT), left subclavian artery (LSA), descending aorta (DES). Distension was highest for COR (2.3 ± 1.2 mm) and BCT (1.7 ± 1.1 mm) compared with ASC, LSA, and DES (p < 0.005). MDV decreased from COR to LSA (p < 0.005) and was highest for COR (6.2 ± 2.0 mm) and ASC (3.8 ± 1.9 mm). Displacement was directed towards left and anterior at COR and ASC. Craniocaudal displacement at COR and ASC was 1.3 ± 0.8 and 0.3 ± 0.3 mm. At BCT, LSA, and DES no predominant displacement direction was observable. Vessel displacement and wall distension are highest in the ascending aorta, and ascending aortic displacement is primarily directed towards left and anterior. Craniocaudal displacement remains low even close to the left cardiac ventricle.

  11. Surgical treatment and thoracic endovascular aortic repair in type A aortic dissection in a pregnant patient with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Doerthe; Probst, Chris; Mellert, Friedrich; Schiller, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    We report an acute aortic dissection type Stanford A extending down to both iliac arteries affecting a 32-year-old woman suspected to have Marfan syndrome during week 37 of pregnancy. In a multidisciplinary approach, and emergency Cesarean section was performed followed by an abdominal hysterectomy and a valve-sparing aortic root replacement using a reimplantation technique. The aorta was replaced up to the hemi arch. Because of the high suspicion of visceral ischemia as confirmed ex juvantibus, an endovascular stent graft was implanted. Molecular testing revealed a frameshift mutation and confirmed the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. Both the patient and her healthy child underwent an uneventful recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters in a general population: MRI-based reference values and association with age and cardiovascular risk factors

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    Mensel, Birger; Hesselbarth, Lydia; Wenzel, Michael; Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Hegenscheid, Katrin [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Doerr, Marcus [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Internal Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Voelzke, Henry [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Lieb, Wolfgang [Christian Albrechts University, Institute of Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Lorbeer, Roberto [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    To generate reference values for thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyse their association with cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. Data from participants (n = 1759) of the Study of Health in Pomerania were used for analysis in this study. MRI measurement of thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters was performed. Parameters for calculation of reference values according to age and sex analysis were provided. Multivariable linear regression models were used for determination of aortic diameter-related risk factors, including smoking, blood pressure (BP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). For the ascending aorta (β = -0.049, p < 0.001), the aortic arch (β = -0.061, p < 0.001) and the subphrenic aorta (β = -0.018, p = 0.004), the body surface area (BSA)-adjusted diameters were lower in men. Multivariable-adjusted models revealed significant increases in BSA-adjusted diameters with age for all six aortic segments (p < 0.001). Consistent results for all segments were observed for the positive associations of diastolic BP (β = 0.001; 0.004) and HDL (β = 0.035; 0.087) with BSA-adjusted aortic diameters and for an inverse association of systolic BP (β = -0.001). Some BSA-adjusted median aortic diameters are smaller in men than in women. All diameters increase with age, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C and decrease as systolic BP increases. (orig.)

  13. Thoracic aortic rupture and aortopulmonary fistulation in the Friesian horse: histomorphologic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Saey, V; Delesalle, C; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; de Bruijn, M; Back, W; van Weeren, P R; van Loon, G; Chiers, K

    2015-01-01

    Aortic rupture in horses is a rare condition. Although it is relatively common in the Friesian breed, only limited histopathologic information is available. Twenty Friesian horses (1-10 years old) were diagnosed with aortic rupture by postmortem examination. Ruptured aortic walls were analyzed with histology and immunohistochemistry. Based on the histologic and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were divided into 3 groups: acute (n = 4, 20%), subacute (n = 8, 40%), and chronic (n = 8, 40%). Features common to samples from horses in all groups included accumulation of mucoid material; disorganization and fragmentation of the elastic laminae; aortic medial smooth muscle hypertrophy; and medial necrosis of varying degrees, ranging from mild and patchy in the acute cases to severe midzonal necrosis in the chronic cases. Inflammation, most likely secondary to medial necrosis, varied from predominantly neutrophilic infiltrates in the media and periadventitial tissue in the acute group to the presence of mainly hemosiderophages in the periadventitial tissue in the chronic group. Medial fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology was seen in the subacute group and, more commonly, in the chronic group. Only minimal changes were seen in the aortic vasa vasorum. Smooth muscle hypertrophy and accumulation of mucoid material were not related to the age of the lesions. The findings of this study suggest that a connective tissue disorder affecting elastin or collagen in the aortic media is potentially the underlying cause of aortic rupture in Friesian horses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Candidate Gene Resequencing in a Large Bicuspid Aortic Valve-Associated Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Cohort: SMAD6 as an Important Contributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Elisabeth; Kumar, Ajay A; Luyckx, Ilse; Preuss, Christoph; Cannaerts, Elyssa; van de Beek, Gerarda; Wieschendorf, Björn; Alaerts, Maaike; Bolar, Nikhita; Vandeweyer, Geert; Meester, Josephina; Wünnemann, Florian; Gould, Russell A; Zhurayev, Rustam; Zerbino, Dmytro; Mohamed, Salah A; Mital, Seema; Mertens, Luc; Björck, Hanna M; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; McCallion, Andrew S; Van Laer, Lut; Verhagen, Judith M A; van de Laar, Ingrid M B H; Wessels, Marja W; Messas, Emmanuel; Goudot, Guillaume; Nemcikova, Michaela; Krebsova, Alice; Kempers, Marlies; Salemink, Simone; Duijnhouwer, Toon; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Albuisson, Juliette; Eriksson, Per; Andelfinger, Gregor; Dietz, Harry C; Verstraeten, Aline; Loeys, Bart L

    2017-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart defect. Although many BAV patients remain asymptomatic, at least 20% develop thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Historically, BAV-related TAA was considered as a hemodynamic consequence of the valve defect. Multiple lines of evidence currently suggest that genetic determinants contribute to the pathogenesis of both BAV and TAA in affected individuals. Despite high heritability, only very few genes have been linked to BAV or BAV/TAA, such as NOTCH1, SMAD6 , and MAT2A . Moreover, they only explain a minority of patients. Other candidate genes have been suggested based on the presence of BAV in knockout mouse models (e.g., GATA5, NOS3 ) or in syndromic (e.g., TGFBR1/2, TGFB2/3 ) or non-syndromic (e.g., ACTA2 ) TAA forms. We hypothesized that rare genetic variants in these genes may be enriched in patients presenting with both BAV and TAA. We performed targeted resequencing of 22 candidate genes using Haloplex target enrichment in a strictly defined BAV/TAA cohort ( n = 441; BAV in addition to an aortic root or ascendens diameter ≥ 4.0 cm in adults, or a Z-score ≥ 3 in children) and in a collection of healthy controls with normal echocardiographic evaluation ( n = 183). After additional burden analysis against the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, the strongest candidate susceptibility gene was SMAD6 ( p = 0.002), with 2.5% ( n = 11) of BAV/TAA patients harboring causal variants, including two nonsense, one in-frame deletion and two frameshift mutations. All six missense mutations were located in the functionally important MH1 and MH2 domains. In conclusion, we report a significant contribution of SMAD6 mutations to the etiology of the BAV/TAA phenotype.

  15. Four-Dimensional Visualization of Thoracic Blood Flow by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Patient Following Correction of Transposition of the Great Arteries (d-TGA) and Uncorrected Aortic Coarctation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, J.; Rengier, F.; Tengg-Kobligk, H. von (German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)); Ley, S.; Unterhinninghofen, R. (Univ. of Karlsruhe, Inst. of Computer Science and Engineering, Karlsruhe (Germany)); Markl, M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Physics, Univ. Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)); Eichhorn, J. (Univ. Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology, Heidelberg (Germany))

    2009-10-15

    Recent advances in flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and data analysis allow for comprehensive noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) visualization of complex blood flow. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated three-directional (3dir) flow measurements were employed to assess and visualize time-resolved 3D blood flow in the pulmonary arteries (PA) and thoracic aorta. We present findings in a juvenile patient with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) and aortic coarctation. For the first time, the complex flow patterns in the PA following d-TGA were visualized. Morphologically, a slight asymmetry of the PA was found, with considerable impact on vascular hemodynamics, resulting in diastolic retrograde flow in the larger vessel and diastolic filling of the smaller PA. Additionally, increased flow to the supraaortic vessels was found due to aortic coarctation.

  16. The Value and Limitations of Guidelines, Expert Consensus, and Registries on the Management of Patients with Thoracic Aortic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pacini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Doctors are often faced with difficult decisions and uncertainty when patients need a certain treatment. They routinely rely on the scientific literature, in addition to their knowledge, experience, and patient preferences. Clinical practice guidelines are created with the intention of facilitating decision-making. They may offer concise instructions for the diagnosis, management (medical or surgical treatments, and prevention of specific diseases o r conditions. All information included in t he f inal v ersion a re the r esult of a s ystematic rev iew of scientific articles and an assessment of the benefits and costs of alternative care options. The final document attempts to meet the needs of most patients in most circumstances and clinicians, aware of these recommendations, should always make individualized treatment decisions. In this review, we attempted to define the intent and applicability of clinical practice guidelines, expert consensus documents, and registry studies, focusing on the management of patients with thoracic aortic disease.

  17. Retracted: Reversal of Spinal Cord Ischemia Following Endovascular Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Hyperbaric Oxygen and Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Jye Poi, Mun; Varon, Joseph; Lin, Peter H

    2015-12-14

    This article has been officially retracted. The senior author, Emmanuel Urquieta, of the article entitled, "Reversal of Spinal Cord Ischemia Following Endovascular Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair with Hyperbaric Oxygen and Therapeutic Hypothermia," has requesed that the article, published online ahead of print (DOI: 10.1089/ther.2015.0025), be retracted because he discovered one of his coauthors mistakenly submitted the same article to the Journal of Vascular Surgery due to a miscommunication between them. The editorial leadership of Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management agree that the article must be retracted as a matter of proper scientific publishing protocol whereby an article may not be simultaneously submitted to two journals. The Editors commend Dr. Urquieta for willingly bringing this situation to their attention. Dr. Urquieta and his coauthors sincerely apologize to the Editors and the readership of Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management.

  18. Mean blood velocities and flow impedance in the fetal descending thoracic aortic and common carotid artery in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardo, C M; Campbell, S; Nicolaides, K H

    1988-12-01

    A linear array pulsed Doppler duplex scanner was used to establish reference ranges for mean blood velocities and flow impedance (Pulsatility Index = PI) in the descending thoracic aorta and in the common carotid artery from 70 fetuses in normal pregnancies at 17-42 weeks' gestation. The aortic velocity increased with gestation up to 32 weeks, then remained constant until term, when it decreased. In contrast, the velocity in the common carotid artery increased throughout pregnancy. The PI in the aorta remained constant throughout pregnancy, while in the common carotid artery it fell steeply after 32 weeks. These results suggest that with advancing gestation there is a redistribution of the fetal circulation with decreased impedance to flow to the fetal brain, presumably to compensate for the progressive decrease in fetal blood PO2.

  19. Preoperative evaluation of the artery of adamkiewicz by MR angiography and CT angiography in patients with a thoracic aortic aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Ohira, Atsushi; Makita, Shinji; Moriai, Yoshiteru; Hiramori, Katsuhiko; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Nakajima, Takayuki; Kawazoe, Kohei

    2002-01-01

    Paraplegia is known as an extremely serious and important complication of surgical repair in patients with a thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm. It is important to evaluate the artery of Adamkiewicz (AdA) before surgical repair to prevent paraplegia. But the AdA is difficult to visualize by the invasive and hazardous, conventional selective angiography. The aim of this study was to visualize AdA by MR angiography (MRA) and CT angiography (CTA). Twenty-one consecutive patients with a thoracic aortic aneurysm underwent both gadolinium-enhanced, three-dimensional MRA and CTA using multislice helical CT. The AdA was successfully visualized in 15 of the 21 patients (71.4%) by MRA, and in 17 of those 21 patients (80.9%) by CTA. Its continuity was depicted in 12 of 15 patients (80%) by MRA, and in 9 of 17 patients (47%) by CTA. AdA was visualized at 85.7% by MRA or CTA, respectively. This study shows that CTA is a much more sensitive method to detect AdA than MRA. On the other hand, MRA is better to evaluate the continuity of AdA from the descending aorta to the anterior spinal artery, than CTA. Therefore, MRA and CTA are both useful for a preoperative evaluation of AdA and its detailed vascular anatomy from the aorta to the anterior spinal artery. (author)

  20. Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement combined with left subclavian artery 'chimney operation': therapeutic analysis of 15 cases with insufficient proximal anchor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiayi; Huang Lianjun; Fan Zhanming; Zhang Zhaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the strategies for the management of insufficient proximal anchoring area during the performance of transluminal stent-graft placement (TSGP), and to evaluate the feasibility of intentional coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSA) together with left subclavian artery stent-graft placement by using 'chimney operation' technique. Methods: A total of 15 patients with thoracic aortic diseases complicated by insufficient proximal anchoring area, who were encountered in authors' hospital during the period from Dec. 2009 to April 2011, were enrolled in this study. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The thoracic aortic diseases included aortic dissection (n=6), aortic pseudoaneurysm (n=1), aortic aneurysm (n=4) and penetrating ulcer (n=4). Of the 15 patients, the distance between the lesion and LSA anchoring site 15 mm in 2. TSGP was carried out. The ostium of LSA was intentionally and completely covered by thoracic aortic stent-graft and left subclavian artery stent-graft placement was subsequently performed. The patients were kept under observation for symptoms of cerebral and upper limb ischemia. The postoperative complications such as endoleak and the patency of LSA were assessed with angiography. Results: Thoracic aortic stent-graft placement was successfully carried out in all 15 patients. In addition, one 'chimney' stent was properly implanted in LSA in each patient. After the procedure, no complications of nervous system or severe ischemia of upper extremity occurred. Follow-up examinations performed between 5 days to 3 months after the treatment revealed that the aortic stent-graft remained in stable condition and no type Ⅰ endoleak occurred, meanwhile the blood flow in 'chimney' stent was unobstructed. Conclusion: Intentional LSA coverage with 'chimney operation' can expand the applicability of TSGP with high tolerability. It is especially useful for patients with left vertebral artery blood supply dominance or with

  1. Aortic root repair for thoracic aorta false aneurysm following Bentall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jones, Steve; Sivananthan, U M; McGoldrick, J P

    2008-08-01

    The Bentall procedure for aortic root replacement in Marfan's syndrome is safe and durable. We describe successful repair of periprosthetic valvular leak, 12 years following Bentall repair with composite graft. The aim of this report is to analyse and evaluate technical factors leading to this unusual occurrence.

  2. Morphometric Properties of the Thoracic Aorta of Warmblood and Friesian Horses with and without Aortic Rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saey, V; Ploeg, M; Delesalle, C; van Loon, G; Gröne, A; Ducatelle, R; Duchateau, L; Chiers, K

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the aorta is much more common in Friesians compared with other breeds of horse. Rupture always occurs adjacent to the scar of the ligamentum arteriosum. Previous histological examination of ruptured aortic walls suggested the presence of an underlying connective tissue disorder.

  3. Type 1a endoleak following Zone 1 and Zone 2 thoracic endovascular aortic repair: effect of bird-beak configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Tomoaki; Kuratani, Toru; Shimamura, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Tomohiko; Kin, Keiwa; Masada, Kenta; Shijo, Takayuki; Torikai, Kei; Maeda, Koichi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2017-10-01

    Type 1a endoleak is one of the most severe complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), because it carries the risk of aortic rupture. The association between bird-beak configuration and Type 1a endoleak remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyse the predictors of Type 1a endoleak following Zone 1 and Zone 2 TEVAR, with a particular focus on the effect of bird-beak configuration. From April 2008 to July 2015, 105 patients (mean age 68.6 years) who underwent Zone 1 and 2 landing TEVAR were enrolled, with a mean follow-up period of 4.3 years. The patients were categorized into 2 groups, according to the presence (Group B, n = 32) or the absence (Group N, n = 73) of bird-beak configuration on the first postoperative multidetector computed tomography. The Kaplan-Meier event-free rate curve showed that Type 1a endoleak and bird-beak progression occurred less frequently in Group N than in Group B. Five-year freedom from Type 1a endoleak rates were 79.7% and 100% for Groups B and N, respectively (P = 0.007). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that dissecting aortic aneurysm (odds ratio 3.72, 95% confidence interval 1.30-11.0; P = 0.014) and shorter radius of inner curvature (odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.85-0.99; P = 0.025) were significant risk factors for bird-beak configuration. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression showed that Z-type stent graft (hazard ratio 2.69, 95% confidence interval 1.11-6.51; P = 0.030) was a significant risk factor for bird-beak progression. Appropriate stent grafts need to be chosen carefully to prevent Type 1a endoleak and bird-beak configuration after landing Zone 1 and 2 TEVAR. Patients with bird-beak configuration on early postoperative multidetector computed tomography require closer follow-up to screen for Type 1a endoleak. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic

  4. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic pathology: Feasibility and mid-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, B.; de Jonge, I. C. D. Y. M.; Reekers, J. A.; de Mol, B. A. J. M.; Balm, R.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to report our experience with 21 consecutive patients treated with a thoracic stent-graft. Design: retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: Between October 1998 and February 2002, 21 patients (12 male), mean age 55.6 years (range 19-86 years), were treated for aorticortic pathology

  5. Hybrid treatment of a huge complex aortic pseudo-aneurysm subsequent to a coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Antonio; Barletta, Valentina; Palmieri, Cataldo; Berti, Sergio

    2017-07-01

    Endovascular treatment of pseudo-aneurysms subsequent to a pre-existing aortic coarctation is becoming a well-accepted technical solution especially in patients presenting anatomical challenges involving the aortic arch. We report the case of a 65-year-old woman with a huge pseudo-aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. Diagnostic imaging assessment documented also the presence of an aneurysmatic aberrant right subclavian artery. Due to patient's anatomical arterial condition, we decided to treat the aneurysm applying a hybrid approach. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  6. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua; Pfister, Roman; Deppe, Antje-Christin; Matoussevitch, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  7. Two stage hybrid approach for complex aortic coarctation repair

    OpenAIRE

    Koletsis, Efstratios; Ekonomidis, Stella; Panagopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsaousis, George; Crockett, James; Panagiotou, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Management of an adult patient with aortic coarctation and an associated cardiac pathology poses a great surgical challenge since there are no standard guidelines for the therapy of such complex pathology. Debate exists not only on which lesion should be corrected first, but also upon the type and timing of the procedure. Surgery can be one- or two-staged. Both of these strategies are accomplice with elevate morbidity and mortality. Case report In the face of such an exten...

  8. SPATIO-TEMPORAL COMPLEXITY OF THE AORTIC SINUS VORTEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brandon; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2014-06-01

    The aortic sinus vortex is a classical flow structure of significant importance to aortic valve dynamics and the initiation and progression of calific aortic valve disease. We characterize the spatio-temporal characteristics of aortic sinus voxtex dynamics in relation to the viscosity of blood analog solution as well as heart rate. High resolution time-resolved (2KHz) particle image velocimetry was conducted to capture 2D particle streak videos and 2D instantaneous velocity and streamlines along the sinus midplane using a physiological but rigid aorta model fitted with a porcine bioprosthetic heart valve. Blood analog fluids used include a water-glycerin mixture and saline to elucidate the sensitivity of vortex dynamics to viscosity. Experiments were conducted to record 10 heart beats for each combination of blood analog and heart rate condition. Results show that the topological characteristics of the velocity field vary in time-scales as revealed using time bin averaged vectors and corresponding instantaneous streamlines. There exist small time-scale vortices and a large time-scale main vortex. A key flow structure observed is the counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus adjacent to the base (lower half) of the leaflet. The spatio-temporal complexity of vortex dynamics is shown to be profoundly influenced by strong leaflet flutter during systole with a peak frequency of 200Hz and peak amplitude of 4 mm observed in the saline case. While fluid viscosity influences the length and time-scales as well as the introduction of leaflet flutter, heart rate influences the formation of counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus. Higher heart rates are shown to reduce the strength of the counter vortex that can greatly influence the directionality and strength of shear stresses along the base of the leaflet. This study demonstrates the impact of heart rate and blood analog viscosity on aortic sinus hemodynamics.

  9. Retrograde type A dissection: a serious complication due to thoracic aortic endovascular stent-graft repair for Stanford type B aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guoquan; Zhai Shuiting; Li Tianxiao; Shi Shuaitao; Zhang Kewei; Li Kun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: to discuss the possible causes and prevention of retrograde type A dissection occurred after thoracic aortic endovascular stent-graft repair (TEVAR) for symptomatic type B dissection. Methods: During the period from January 2005 to January 2011, TEVAR was carried out in 189 patients (157 males and 32 females) with symptomatic type B dissection. The average age of the patients was (51.2±13.5) years, ranged from 26 to 78 years. A follow-up lasting for 3-63 months (mean 32 months) was conducted in 135 patients (71.43%). Fifty-four patients lost in touch with the authors (28.57%). The occurrence of retrograde type A dissection after TEVAR was calculated and the possible causes were analyzed. Results: After TEVAR retrograde type A dissection occurred in two patients (1.48%), and both were males. One patient developed retrograde type A dissection in perioperative period, and the patient refused to have surgery. Conservative treatment was employed for over three years and be was still alive so far. The other patient developed retrograde type A dissection one month after TEVAR, and emergency surgery was performed. The patient was followed up for three months and he was still alive. Conclusion: The retrograde type A dissection occurred after TEVAR may be closely related to the stent-graft device, to the interventional manipulations and to the vascular disorders. Close attention should be paid to the direct damage produced by the stent-graft device to the vascular wall. (authors)

  10. Association of left subclavian artery coverage without revascularization and spinal cord ischemia in patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair: A Vascular Quality Initiative® analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro Gr; Woo, Karen; Beck, Adam W; Scali, Salvatore T; Weaver, Fred A

    2017-12-01

    Objectives Investigate the impact of left subclavian artery coverage without revascularization on spinal cord ischemia development in patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Methods The Vascular Quality Initiative thoracic endovascular aortic repair module (April 2011-July 2014) was analyzed. Patients undergoing left subclavian artery coverage were divided into two groups according to revascularization status. The association between left subclavian artery revascularization with the primary outcome of spinal cord ischemia and the secondary outcome of stroke was assessed with multivariable analysis adjusting for between-group baseline differences. Results The left subclavian artery was covered in 508 (24.6%) of the 2063 thoracic endovascular aortic repairs performed. Among patients with left subclavian artery coverage, 58.9% underwent revascularization. Spinal cord ischemia incidence was 12.1% in the group without revascularization compared to 8.5% in the group undergoing left subclavian artery revascularization (odds ratio (95%CI): 1.48(0.82-2.68), P = 0.189). Multivariable analysis adjustment identified an independent association between left subclavian artery coverage without revascularization and the incidence of spinal cord ischemia (adjusted odds ratio (95%CI): 2.29(1.03-5.14), P = 0.043). Although the incidence of stroke was also higher for the group with a covered and nonrevascularized left subclavian artery (12.1% versus 8.5%), this difference was not statistically significant after multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio (95%CI): 1.55(0.74-3.26), P = 0.244). Conclusion For patients undergoing left subclavian artery coverage during thoracic endovascular aortic repair, the addition of a revascularization procedure was associated with a significantly lower incidence of spinal cord ischemia.

  11. Patient-specific analysis of post-operative aortic hemodynamics: a focus on thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auricchio, F.; Conti, M.; Lefieux, A.; Morganti, S.; Reali, A.; Sardanelli, F.; Secchi, F.; Trimarchi, S.; Veneziani, A.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the impact of endovascular repair on aortic hemodynamics. The study addresses the assessment of post-operative hemodynamic conditions of a real clinical case through patient-specific analysis, combining accurate medical image analysis and advanced computational fluid-dynamics (CFD). Although the main clinical concern was firstly directed to the endoluminal protrusion of the prosthesis, the CFD simulations have demonstrated that there are two other important areas where the local hemodynamics is impaired and a disturbed blood flow is present: the first one is the ostium of the subclavian artery, which is partially closed by the graft; the second one is the stenosis of the distal thoracic aorta. Besides the clinical relevance of these specific findings, this study highlights how CFD analyses allow to observe important flow effects resulting from the specific features of patient vessel geometries. Consequently, our results demonstrate the potential impact of computational biomechanics not only on the basic knowledge of physiopathology, but also on the clinical practice, thanks to a quantitative extraction of knowledge made possible by merging medical data and mathematical models.

  12. Abnormal secretion or extracellular matrix incorporation of fibrillin by dermal fibroblasts from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewicz, D.; Cao, S.; Cosselli, J. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Abnormal synthesis, secretion, and extracellular matrix incorporation of fibrillin is observed in the majority of fibroblast cell strains obtained from individuals with the Marfan syndrome (>85%). These fibrillin protein abnormalities are due to mutations in the FBN1 gene. We have screened fibroblast cell strains from patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) without skeletal or ocular features of the Marfan syndrome for defects in fibrillin synthesis or processing. Dermal fibroblasts obtained from biopsies were pulse labeled with [{sup 35}S]cysteine for 30 minutes and then chased for 0, 4, and 20 hours. The media, cell lysate and extracellular matrix were harvested separately, then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. We selected fibroblasts from 17 TAA patients to study based on the development of a TAA at a young age or a family history of TAAs. Cells from 3 patients synthesized and secreted fibrillin normally, but did not incorporate the fibrillin in the extracellular matrix. None of the cell strains were found to have diminished synthesis of fibrillin when compared with control cells. We were unable to detect abnormalities in the synthesis, secretion, or matrix incorporation of fibrillin by cells from 9 of the 17 patients. These results indicate that fibrillin protein defects are found in a significant number of patients with TAAs who are young or have a family history of TAAs. Analysis of the FBN1 gene for mutations in these patients with fibrillin protein defects will determine if the observed protein abnormalities are the result of FBN1 gene mutations.

  13. Thoracic aortic cannulation with antegrade perfusion for the procurement of abdominal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rodríguez, Francisco Javier; Fernández Pérez, Aquilino; Conde Freire, Rogelio; Martínez, Jorge; Pérez, Evaristo Varo; Bustamante Montalvo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The definitive acceptance of an organ as valid for transplant depends on the surgical team performing the multiorgan recovery; and unexpected difficulties can occur. The demographic characteristics of donors has changed, and some accepted donors can present difficulties in surgical technique and risky decisions on the validity of the retrieved organ or organs. An alternative method to the cannulation of the abdominal aorta is proposed when there is evidence of disease in the infrarenal aorta during the multiorgan procurement. The retrocardiac descending thoracic aorta is cannulated using an antegrade perfusion; this technique allows an increase in organ recovery. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Variability of 4D flow parameters when subjected to changes in MRI acquisition parameters using a realistic thoracic aortic phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalba, Cristian; Urbina, Jesus; Sotelo, Julio; Andia, Marcelo E; Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Hurtado, Daniel E; Valverde, Israel; Uribe, Sergio

    2018-04-01

    To assess the variability of peak flow, mean velocity, stroke volume, and wall shear stress measurements derived from 3D cine phase contrast (4D flow) sequences under different conditions of spatial and temporal resolutions. We performed controlled experiments using a thoracic aortic phantom. The phantom was connected to a pulsatile flow pump, which simulated nine physiological conditions. For each condition, 4D flow data were acquired with different spatial and temporal resolutions. The 2D cine phase contrast and 4D flow data with the highest available spatio-temporal resolution were considered as a reference for comparison purposes. When comparing 4D flow acquisitions (spatial and temporal resolution of 2.0 × 2.0 × 2.0 mm 3 and 40 ms, respectively) with 2D phase-contrast flow acquisitions, the underestimation of peak flow, mean velocity, and stroke volume were 10.5, 10 and 5%, respectively. However, the calculated wall shear stress showed an underestimation larger than 70% for the former acquisition, with respect to 4D flow, with spatial and temporal resolution of 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.0 mm 3 and 20 ms, respectively. Peak flow, mean velocity, and stroke volume from 4D flow data are more sensitive to changes of temporal than spatial resolution, as opposed to wall shear stress, which is more sensitive to changes in spatial resolution. Magn Reson Med 79:1882-1892, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Risk model of thoracic aortic surgery in 4707 cases from a nationwide single-race population through a web-based data entry system: the first report of 30-day and 30-day operative outcome risk models for thoracic aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Noboru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Tsukihara, Hiroyuki; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this study was to collect integrated data from nationwide hospitals using a web-based national database system to build up our own risk model for the outcome from thoracic aortic surgery. The Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database was used; this involved approximately 180 hospitals throughout Japan through a web-based data entry system. Variables and definitions are almost identical to the STS National Database. After data cleanup, 4707 records were analyzed from 97 hospitals (between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005). Mean age was 66.5 years. Preoperatively, the incidence of chronic lung disease was 11%, renal failure was 9%, and rupture or malperfusion was 10%. The incidence of the location along the aorta requiring replacement surgery (including overlapping areas) was: aortic root, 10%; ascending aorta, 47%; aortic arch, 44%; distal arch, 21%; descending aorta, 27%; and thoracoabdominal aorta, 8%. Raw 30-day and 30-day operative mortality rates were 6.7% and 8.6%, respectively. Postoperative incidence of permanent stroke was 6.1%, and renal failure requiring dialysis was 6.7%. OR for 30-day operative mortality was as follows: emergency or salvage, 3.7; creatinine >3.0 mg/dL, 3.0; and unexpected coronary artery bypass graft, 2.6. As a performance metric of the risk model, C-index of 30-day and 30-day operative mortality was 0.79 and 0.78, respectively. This is the first report of risk stratification on thoracic aortic surgery using a nationwide surgical database. Although condition of these patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery was much more serious than other procedures, the result of this series was excellent.

  16. Endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies - State of the art. Part 2 - Pathologies of thoracic aorta and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, Carlos E; Calderon, Luis L; Gomez, German S; Castro, Pablo; Hurtado, Edgar F; Estrada, Gilberto

    2007-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of aortic pathologies is actually an alternative to open surgery. It has proven to be safe, showing similar or better results to those achieved by surgery. In this article, treatment of aortic pathologies by means of endoprosthesis is presented, as well as its indications, contraindications and future treatment with this kind of devices

  17. [Complex treatment of pulmonary abscesses and pleural empyema in patients with severe thoracic trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, V V; Ivanova, Iu V; Lykhman, V N; Zamiatin, P N

    2011-03-01

    The results of complex treatment of 40 injured persons with severe thoracic trauma, in whom pulmonary abscesses and pleural empyema had occurred postoperatively, were analyzed. Complex treatment of pulmonary abscesses and pleural empyema, using the methods of a local superhighfrequency irradiation of purulent foci have promoted their accelerated regression occurrence and reduction of a systemic inflammatory reactions severity, as well as prophylaxis of secondary purulent-septic complications, permitting to achieve lethality lowering and to escape practically reoperations performance.

  18. Measurements After Image Post-processing Are More Precise in the Morphometric Assessment of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms: An Intermodal and Intra-observer Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutersberg, B; Haller, B; Mariss, J; Eckstein, H-H; Ockert, S

    2016-10-01

    Precise pre-procedural anatomical analysis of aneurysmal anatomy is essential for successful thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Since surgeons and radiologists have to perform multiple measurements in the same patient, high intra-observer reliability of any imaging method is mandatory. Commercially available three dimensional (3D) post-processing techniques are expected to be superior to conventional two dimensional multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) derived from computed tomography angiograms (CTAs). However, few data exist to support this view. This study aims to evaluate the intermodal and intra-observer differences using 3D software (3surgery) in descending thoracic aortic aneurysms (dTAAs). Pre-operative CTAs (performed between 2004 and 2010) of 30 dTAAs (mean maximum diameter 61.4 ± 13 mm) were assessed by three independent investigators with different experience in the measurement of aortic pathologies. Intra-observer reliability and intermodal differences (3D vs. 2D) were investigated using pre-specified measurement points (distances of total length, maximum diameter, proximal and distal landing zones). Statistical analyses were performed using the Bland-Altman method and a mixed regression model. Intermodal comparison showed that 2D measurements significantly underestimate the measured distances (maximum diameter 3.7 mm [95% CI -5.3 to -2.1] and landing zone maximum 1.4 mm [95% CI -2.0 to -0.2] shorter with 2D, p post-processing software therefore leads to more precise device selection for TEVAR in TAA. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thoracic Malignancies and Pulmonary Nodules in Patients under Evaluation for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI: Incidence, Follow Up and Possible Impact on Treatment Decision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Henning Schmidt

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI has become the treatment of choice in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis who are not eligible for operative replacement and an alternative for those with high surgical risk. Due to high age and smoking history in a high proportion of TAVI patients, suspicious findings are frequently observed in pre-procedural chest computer tomography (CCT.CCT scans of 484 consecutive patients undergoing TAVI were evaluated for incidentally discovered solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN.In the entire study population, SPN ≥ 5 mm were found in 87 patients (18%. These patients were compared to 150 patients who were incidentally collected from the 397 patients without SPN or with SPN 8 mm (p = 0.328 were significant predictors of overall survival.Despite the high prevalence of SPNs in this single center TAVI cohort lung cancer incidence at midterm follow-up seems to be low. Thus, aggressive diagnostic approaches for incidentally discovered SPN during TAVI evaluation should not delay the treatment of aortic stenosis. Unless advanced thoracic malignancy is obvious, the well documented reduction of morbidity and mortality by TAVI outweighs potentially harmful delays regarding further diagnostics. Standard guideline-approved procedure for SPN can be safely performed after TAVI.

  20. Thoracic aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the aorta Injury from falls or motor vehicle accidents Syphilis Symptoms Aneurysms develop slowly over many ... rupture) if you do not have surgery to repair it. The treatment depends on the location of ...

  1. Aortic dissection. Basic aspects and endovascular management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo, Nicolas I; Alviar, Carlos I

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of thoracic aortic pathology is complicated by the morbidity associated to the surgical procedure and to the frailty of an elderly and difficult population. Surgical operation in this kind of population frequently bears a significant incidence of death and long-term disability. In an effort to reduce the incidence of negative outcomes, minimally invasive techniques in the form of endovascular stenting have been introduced during the past decade. The technology, originally described by Parodi, and initially designed for its use in abdominal aortic aneurysms, has been adapted for the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Furthermore, an improved understanding of the pathophysiology and the natural history of thoracic aortic disease as well as the analysis of the outcomes have facilitated our treatment decisions in terms of the timing for an appropriate intervention. Treatment of thoracic aortic dissection using endovascular Stent is one of the more recent advances in this condition and is receiving increasing attention, as it is a less invasive alternative to an open surgical repair. Although this technology is still innovative, significant improvements have been made lately in the design and deployment of the endovascular Stent-grafts. These prostheses have been increasingly used to treat aneurysms, dissections and traumatic ruptures, as well as giant penetrating ulcers and intramural hematomas of the descending thoracic aorta with good early and mid-term outcomes. The rareness, complexity and severity of the pathology and the theoretically high risk of complications should render the surgeon extremely cautious especially with young patients. Conceptually, the endo luminal treatment in the acute phase seems to be the solution and will probably become a preferred therapy while technical refinement is under way. Worldwide experience is growing and with this a better understanding of the indications and limitations of this innovative therapy will be

  2. Continuous Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglion Block in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients with Spinal Cord Stimulation Implantation

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    EungDon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic block is widely used for treating neuropathic pain such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. However, single sympathetic block often provides only short-term effect. Moreover, frequent procedures for sympathetic block may increase the risk of complications. The use of epidural route may be limited by concern of infection in case of previous implantation of the spinal cord stimulation (SCS. In contrast, a continuous sympathetic block can be administered without such concerns. The continuous thoracic sympathetic block (TSGB has been used to treat the ischemic disease and other neuropathic conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia. We administered continuous thoracic sympathetic block using catheter in CRPS patients who underwent SCS implantations and achieved desirable outcomes. We believe a continuous sympathetic block is a considerable option before performing neurolysis or radiofrequency rhizotomy and even after SCS implantation.

  3. Ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm in patient with systemic lupus erythematosus Aneurisma roto da aorta descendente em paciente com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico

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    Daniel Oliveira De Conti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is reported a ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in a 25-year-old systemic lupus erythematosus woman who underwent 19 years steroid therapy. She was treated with 2 endovascular stent-grafts, discharged from hospital 13 days after the procedure in good health. Three months later she returned with hemorrhagic shock due to high digestive hemorrhage secondary to an aortic-esophageal fistula. She underwent to an open emergency surgery, and died during the post-operative period.Paciente de 25 anos, do sexo feminino, portadora de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, fazendo uso de corticoesteroide havia 19 anos, deu entrada em unidade de emergência com aneurisma roto de aorta torácica descendente. Foi submetida a tratamento endovascular com 2 stents, recebeu alta hospitalar no 13º dia de pós-operatório, em boas condições de saúde. Três meses depois, retornou em choque hemorrágico secundário a hemorragia digestiva alta. Feito o diagnóstico de fístula aorto-esofágica, foi submetida à cirurgia aberta de emergência, indo a óbito durante o período pós-operatório.

  4. What is the optimal myocardial preservation strategy at re-operation for aortic valve replacement in the presence of a patent internal thoracic artery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan B; Suri, Rakesh M; Burkhart, Harold M; Greason, Kevin L; Dearani, Joseph A; Schaff, Hartzell V; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2011-06-01

    The optimal myocardial preservation strategy at re-operation for aortic valve replacement (AVR) after prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the presence of a patent internal thoracic artery (ITA) remains undefined. Patients undergoing AVR after prior CABG at our institution between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2007 were identified; operative notes and outcomes were reviewed. Of 628 patients with prior CABG undergoing AVR with or without concomitant procedures, 427 patients had a patent ITA. In 390, management of the ITA was detailed in the operative note, including 251 in whom it was clamped and 139 in whom it was left uncontrolled. Groups were demographically similar, although re-operative CABG was more frequent in the clamped group (42% vs 23%, poptimal perfusion temperature when the ITA was left uncontrolled. Efforts to control the patent ITA at re-operation for AVR after prior CABG increase risk of injury and may actually increase operative mortality rate compared with leaving this critical graft open and perfusing the heart. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Outcomes of fenestrated and branched endovascular repair of complex abdominal and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzer, Andres; Simons, Jessica P; Flahive, Julie; Durgin, Jonathan; Aiello, Francesco A; Doucet, Danielle; Steppacher, Robert; Messina, Louis M

    2017-09-01

    More than 80% of infrarenal aortic aneurysms are treated by endovascular repair. However, adoption of fenestrated and branched endovascular repair for complex aortic aneurysms has been limited, despite high morbidity and mortality associated with open repair. There are few published reports of consecutive outcomes, inclusive of all fenestrated and branched endovascular repairs, starting from the inception of a complex aortic aneurysm program. Therefore, we examined a single center's consecutive experience of fenestrated and branched endovascular repair of complex aortic aneurysms. This is a single-center, prospective, observational cohort study evaluating 30-day and 1-year outcomes in all consecutive patients who underwent fenestrated and branched endovascular repair of complex aortic aneurysms (definition: requiring one or more fenestrations or branches). Data were collected prospectively through an Institutional Review Board-approved registry and a physician-sponsored investigational device exemption clinical trial (G130210). We performed 100 consecutive complex endovascular aortic aneurysm repairs (November 2010 to March 2016) using 58 (58%) commercially manufactured custom-made devices and 42 (42%) physician-modified devices to treat 4 (4%) common iliac, 42 (42%) juxtarenal, 18 (18%) pararenal, and 36 (36%) thoracoabdominal aneurysms (type I, n = 1; type II, n = 4; type III, n = 12; type IV, n = 18; arch, n = 1). The repairs included 309 fenestrations, branches, and scallops (average of 3.1 branch arteries/case). All patients had 30-day follow-up for 30-day event rates: three (3%) deaths; six (6%) target artery occlusions; five (5%) progressions to dialysis; eight (8%) access complications; one (1%) paraparesis; one (1%) bowel ischemia; and no instances of myocardial infarction, paralysis, or stroke. Of 10 type I or type III endoleaks, 8 resolved (7 with secondary intervention, 1 without intervention). Mean follow-up time was 563 days (interquartile range

  6. Acute aortic syndromes: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Carole A; Litmanovich, Diana E

    2015-05-01

    The term acute aortic syndrome comprises aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. The most recent developments in acute aortic syndromes include (1) a change in the mindset that each entity is pathologically distinct, with a shift toward considering the acute aortic syndromes as points along a spectrum of aortic disease, (2) the optimization of aortic imaging quality and radiation dose, and (3) surgical or endovascular management. This review article focuses on how these developments pertain to thoracic radiologists.

  7. Myocardial ischemia due to compression of an unruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm in a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Hiroya; Asada, Tatsuro; Gan, Kunio; Abe, Koichiro; Izumi, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    We report a 33-year-old woman who had a 60-mm thoracic aneurysm of the ascending aorta with Marfan syndrome and effort angina due to compression of the right coronary artery (RCA) by the aneurysm. Surgery was performed using the Bentall procedure and a coronary artery bypass graft to the RCA. Postoperatively, coronary angiography showed that the coronary flow of the RCA was restored by removing the aneurysmal compression. The patient was discharged without angina on postoperative day 21.

  8. Sodium bicarbonate use and the risk of hypernatremia in thoracic aortic surgical patients with metabolic acidosis following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

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    Kamrouz Ghadimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Metabolic acidosis after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA for thoracic aortic operations is commonly managed with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 . The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between total NaHCO 3 dose and the severity of metabolic acidosis, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of vasoactive infusions, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU or hospital length of stay (LOS. Methods: In a single center, retrospective study, 87 consecutive elective thoracic aortic operations utilizing DHCA, were studied. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the relationships between the total NaHCO 3 dose administered through postoperative day 2, clinical variables, arterial blood gas values, and short-term clinical outcomes. Results: Seventy-five patients (86% received NaHCO 3 . Total NaHCO 3 dose averaged 136 ± 112 mEq (range: 0.0-535 mEq per patient. Total NaHCO 3 dose correlated with minimum pH (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001, minimum serum bicarbonate (r = −0.40, P < 0.001, maximum serum lactate (r = 0.46, P = 0.007, duration of metabolic acidosis (r = 0.33, P = 0.002, and maximum serum sodium concentrations (r = 0.29, P = 0.007. Postoperative hypernatremia was present in 67% of patients and peaked at 12 h following DHCA. Eight percent of patients had a serum sodium ≥ 150 mEq/L. Total NaHCO 3 dose did not correlate with anion gap, serum chloride, not the duration of mechanical ventilator support, vasoactive infusions, ICU or hospital LOS. Conclusion: Routine administration of NaHCO 3 was common for the management of metabolic acidosis after DHCA. Total dose of NaHCO 3 was a function of the severity and duration of metabolic acidosis. NaHCO 3 administration contributed to postoperative hypernatremia that was often severe. The total NaHCO 3 dose administered was unrelated to short-term clinical outcomes.

  9. CT of suspected thoracic acute aortic injury in the emergency department: is routine abdominopelvic imaging worth the additional collective radiation dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Momenian, Shawn; Rischall, Jonathan; Okey, Neil; Taffel, Myles; Khati, Nadia; Zeman, Robert

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of non-traumatic acute aortic injury (AAI) extending from the chest into the abdomen or pelvis in emergency department (ED) patients with acute aortic syndrome (AAS), to estimate the effective dose of the abdominopelvic portion of these CT exams, and to compare the number needed to screen (NNS) with the collective population radiation dose of imaging those stations. All patients (n = 238) presenting to the ED with AAS between March 2014 and June 2015 who were imaged per CT AAI protocol (noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT angiography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis) were retrospectively identified in this IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant study. The Stanford classification for positive cases of AAI was further subclassified based on chest, abdominal, or pelvic involvement. The dose length product (DLP) of each exam was used to estimate the dose of the abdominal and pelvic stations and the collective effective dose for the population. There were five cases of aortic dissection (AD) and two of intramural hematoma (IMH), with an AAI incidence of 2.9/100. Three cases of AAI were confined to the chest. Two cases of AAI were confined to the chest and abdomen, and two cases involved the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. There was only one case of AAI involving the ascending aorta that extended into the abdomen or pelvis. The number needed to screen to identify (a) AAI extending from the chest into the abdomen or pelvis was 59.5 and (b) Stanford A AAI extending into the abdomen or pelvis was 238. The estimated mean effective dose for the abdominopelvic stations were unenhanced abdomen 2.3 mSv, unenhanced pelvis 3.3 mSv, abdominal CTA 2.5 mSv, and pelvic CTA 3.6 mSv. The collective effective doses to the abdomen and pelvis with unenhanced CT and CTA in 59.5 patients and 238 patients were 761.6 and 3046.4 mSv, respectively. While the estimated mean effective dose for imaging of the abdominopelvic stations are low, the collective

  10. MFAP5 loss-of-function mutations underscore the involvement of matrix alteration in the pathogenesis of familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Mathieu; Gross, Marie-Sylvie; Aubart, Mélodie; Hanna, Nadine; Kessler, Ketty; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Tosolini, Laurent; Ho-Tin-Noe, Benoit; Regalado, Ellen; Varret, Mathilde; Abifadel, Marianne; Milleron, Olivier; Odent, Sylvie; Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Faivre, Laurence; Edouard, Thomas; Dulac, Yves; Busa, Tiffany; Gouya, Laurent; Milewicz, Dianna M; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine

    2014-12-04

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is an autosomal-dominant disorder with major life-threatening complications. The disease displays great genetic heterogeneity with some forms allelic to Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and an important number of cases still remain unexplained at the molecular level. Through whole-exome sequencing of affected members in a large TAAD-affected family, we identified the c.472C>T (p.Arg158(∗)) nonsense mutation in MFAP5 encoding the extracellular matrix component MAGP-2. This protein interacts with elastin fibers and the microfibrillar network. Mutation screening of 403 additional probands identified an additional missense mutation of MFAP5 (c.62G>T [p.Trp21Leu]) segregating with the disease in a second family. Functional analyses performed on both affected individual's cells and in vitro models showed that these two mutations caused pure or partial haploinsufficiency. Thus, alteration of MAGP-2, a component of microfibrils and elastic fibers, appears as an initiating mechanism of inherited TAAD. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion in complex congenital aortic arch pathology: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rita, Fabrizio; Lucchese, Gianluca; Barozzi, Luca; Menon, Tiziano; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Luciani, Giovanni Battista

    2011-11-01

    Simultaneous cerebro-myocardial perfusion has been described in neonatal and infant arch surgery, suggesting a reduction in cardiac morbidity. Here reported is a novel technique for selective cerebral perfusion combined with controlled and independent myocardial perfusion during surgery for complex or recurrent aortic arch lesions. From April 2008 to April 2011, 10 patients with arch pathology underwent surgery (two hypoplastic left heart syndrome [HLHS], four recurrent arch obstruction, two aortic arch hypoplasia + ventricular septal defect [VSD], one single ventricle + transposition of the great arteries + arch hypoplasia, one interrupted aortic arch type B + VSD). Median age was 63 days (6 days-36 years) and median weight 4.0 kg (1.6-52). Via midline sternotomy, an arterial cannula (6 or 8 Fr for infants) was directly inserted into the innominate artery or through a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft (for neonates cerebro-myocardial perfusion was 39 ± 18 min (17-69). Weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was achieved without inotropic support in three and with low dose in seven patients. One patient required veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Four patients, body weight cerebro-myocardial perfusion is feasible in patients with complex or recurrent aortic arch disease, starting from premature newborn less than 2.0 kg of body weight to adults. The technique is as safe as previously reported methods of cerebro-myocardial perfusion and possibly more versatile. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Aortic Aneurysm Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with inherited connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, get thoracic aortic aneurysms. ... Smoking . Some inherited connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can also increase your ...

  13. Pericardial and thoracic peri-aortic adipose tissues contribute to systemic inflammation and calcified coronary atherosclerosis independent of body fat composition, anthropometric measures and traditional cardiovascular risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Chun-Ho; Lin, Tin-Yu; Wu, Yih-Jer; Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Yeh, Hung-I.; Yang, Fei-Shih; Chen, Su-Chiu; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Cury, Ricardo C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary atherosclerosis has traditionally been proposed to be associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and anthropometric measures. However, clinical data regarding the independent value of visceral adipose tissue in addition to such traditional predictors remains obscure. Materials and methods: We subsequently studied 719 subjects (age: 48.1 ± 8.3 years, 25% females) who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for coronary calcium score (CCS) quantification. Baseline demographic data and anthropometric measures were taken with simultaneous body fat composition estimated. Visceral adipose tissue of pericardial and thoracic peri-aortic fat was quantified by MDCT using TeraRecon Aquarius workstation (San Mateo, CA). Traditional cardiovascular risk stratification was calculated by metabolic (NCEP ATP III) and Framingham (FRS) scores and high-sensitivity CRP (Hs-CRP) was taken to represent systemic inflammation. The independent value of visceral adipose tissue to systemic inflammation and CCS was assessed by utilizing multivariable regression analysis. Results: Of all subjects enrolled in this study, the mean values for pericardial and peri-aortic adipose tissue were 74.23 ± 27.51 and 7.23 ± 3.69 ml, respectively. Higher visceral fat quartile groups were associated with graded increase of risks for cardiovascular diseases. Both adipose burdens strongly correlated with anthropometric measures including waist circumference, body weight and body mass index (all p < 0.001). In addition, both visceral amount correlates well with ATP and FRS scores, all lipid profiles and systemic inflammation marker in terms of Hs-CRP (all p < 0.001). After adjustment for baseline variables, both visceral fat were independently related to Hs-CRP levels (all p < 0.05), but only pericardial fat exerted independent role in coronary calcium deposit. Conclusion: Both visceral adipose tissues strongly correlated with systemic inflammation beyond traditional

  14. Significance and function of different spinal collateral compartments following thoracic aortic surgery: immediate versus long-term flow compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Philipp; Bischoff, Moritz S; Brenner, Robert; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-05-01

    Iatrogenic paraplegia has been accompanying cardiovascular surgery since its beginning. As a result, surgeons have been developing many theories about the exact mechanisms of this devastating complication. Thus, the impact of single arteries that contribute to the spinal perfusion is one of the most discussed subjects in modern surgery. The subsequent decision of reattachment or the permanent disconnection of these intercostal arteries divides the surgical community. On the one hand, the anatomical or vascular approach pleads for the immediate reimplantation to reconstruct the anatomical situation. On the other hand, the decision of the permanent disconnection aims at avoiding stealing phenomenon away from the spinal vascular network. This spinal collateral network can be described as consisting of three components-the intraspinal and two paraspinal compartments-that feed the nutrient arteries of the spinal cord. The exact functional impact of the different compartments of the collateral network remains poorly understood. In this review, the function of the intraspinal compartment in the context of collateral network principle as an immediate emergency backup system is described. The exact structure and architectural principles of the intraspinal compartment are described. The critical parameters with regard to the risk of postoperative spinal cord ischaemia are the number of anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) and the distance between them in relation to the longitudinal extent of aortic disease. The paraspinal network as a sleeping reserve is proposed as the long-term backup system. This sleeping reserve has to be activated by arteriogenic stimuli. These are presented briefly, and prior findings regarding arteriogenesis are discussed in the light of the collateral network concept. Finally, the role of preoperative visualization of the ARMAs in order to evaluate the risk of postoperative paraplegia is emphasized.

  15. Ruthenium Complex Improves the Endothelial Function in Aortic Rings From Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanabe, Izabela Pereira; Rodrigues, Carla Nascimento dos Santos; Buzinari, Tereza Cristina; de Moraes, Thiago Francisco; da Silva, Roberto Santana; Rodrigues, Gerson Jhonatan

    2017-01-01

    Background The endothelium is a monolayer of cells that extends on the vascular inner surface, responsible for the modulation of vascular tone. By means of the release of nitric oxide (NO), the endothelium has an important protective function against cardiovascular diseases. Objective Verify if cis- [Ru(bpy)2(NO2)(NO)](PF6)2 (BPY) improves endothelial function and the sensibility of conductance (aorta) and resistance (coronary) to vascular relaxation induced by BPY. Methods Normotensive (2K) and hypertensive (2K-1C) Wistar rats were used. For vascular reactivity study, thoracic aortas were isolated, rings with intact endothelium were incubated with: BPY(0.01 to10 µM) and concentration effect curves to acetylcholine were performed. In addition, cumulative concentration curves were performed to BPY (1.0 nM to 0.1 µM) in aortic and coronary rings, with intact and denuded endothelium. Results In aorta from 2K-1C animals, the treatment with BPY 0.1µM increased the potency of acetylcholine-induced relaxation and it was able to revert the endothelial dysfunction. The presence of the endothelium did not modify the effect of BPY in inducing the relaxation in aortas from 2K and 2K-1C rats. In coronary, the endothelium potentiated the vasodilator effect of BPY in vessels from 2K and 2K-1C rats. Conclusion Our results suggest that 0.1 µM of BPY is able to normalize the relaxation endothelium dependent in hypertensive rats, and the compound BPY induces relaxation in aortic from normotensive and hypertensive rats with the same potency. The endothelium potentiate the relaxation effect induced by BPY in coronary from normotensive and hypertensive rats, with lower effect on coronary from hypertensive rats. PMID:28678930

  16. Selective Cerebro-Myocardial Perfusion in Complex Neonatal Aortic Arch Pathology: Midterm Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Stiljan; Abbasciano, Riccardo Giuseppe; Sandrini, Camilla; Rossetti, Lucia; Menon, Tiziano; Barozzi, Luca; Linardi, Daniele; Rungatscher, Alessio; Faggian, Giuseppe; Luciani, Giovanni Battista

    2018-03-06

    Aortic arch repair in newborns and infants has traditionally been accomplished using a period of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. To reduce neurologic and cardiac dysfunction related to circulatory arrest and myocardial ischemia during complex aortic arch surgery, an alternative and novel strategy for cerebro-myocardial protection was recently developed, where regional low-flow perfusion is combined with controlled and independent coronary perfusion. The aim of the present retrospective study was to assess short-term and mid-term results of selective and independent cerebro-myocardial perfusion in neonatal aortic arch surgery. From April 2008 to August 2015, 28 consecutive neonates underwent aortic arch surgery under cerebro-myocardial perfusion. There were 17 male and 11 female, with median age of 15 days (3-30 days) and median body weight of 3 kg (1.6-4.2 kg), 9 (32%) of whom with low body weight (cerebro-myocardial perfusion was 30 ± 11 min (15-69 min). Renal dysfunction, requiring a period of peritoneal dialysis was observed in 10 (36%) patients, while liver dysfunction was noted only in 3 (11%). There were three (11%) early and two late deaths during a median follow-up of 2.9 years (range 6 months-7.7 years), with an actuarial survival of 82% at 7 years. At latest follow-up, no patient showed signs of cardiac or neurologic dysfunction. The present experience shows that a strategy of selective and independent cerebro-myocardial perfusion is safe, versatile, and feasible in high-risk neonates with complex congenital arch pathology. Encouraging outcomes were noted in terms of cardiac and neurological function, with limited end-organ morbidity. © 2018 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Selective coverage of the left subclavian artery without revascularization in patients with bilateral patent vertebrobasilar junctions during thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minwook; Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Man-Deuk; Won, Jong Yun; Yune, Young-Nam; Lee, Taek Yeon; Choi, Donghoon; Ko, Young-Guk

    2013-05-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of selective coverage of the left subclavian artery (LSCA) without revascularization during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with bilateral patent vertebrobasilar junctions. The secondary purpose was to assess morphologic change of the vertebral artery (VA) after the procedure. Among 126 patients who underwent TEVAR between 2006 and 2011, 29 patients requiring LSCA coverage without preemptive revascularization were retrospectively analyzed in this study. The patients were a mean age of 63.1 years (range, 45-84 years). The mean follow-up period was 19.9 months (range, 1-63 months). Bilateral patent vertebrobasilar junctions were evaluated by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), time-of flight magnetic resonance angiography, or conventional angiography. Neurologic complications, such as spinal cord ischemia (SCI) or cerebrovascular accidents, were analyzed. Preprocedural and postprocedural changes in VAs were evaluated on follow-up contrast-enhanced CT. The overall 30-day mortality was 6.9% (2 of 29). None of the patients had SCI or a stroke of posterior circulation alone. Cerebrovascular accidents from embolic infarctions occurred in two patients (7.4%). Transient left arm ischemic symptoms were present in five patients (18.5%), but none required secondary interventions. Delayed development of type I endoleak occurred due to stent deformity in one patient, who underwent surgery. One patient required reintervention after the 10-month follow-up contrast-enhanced CT showed a pseudoaneurysm had developed at the distal margin of the previously placed stent graft. Hypertrophy of the right VA after TEVAR was seen in seven of 27 patients (25.9%); two patients showed bilateral hypertrophy of VAs. LSCA coverage without revascularization can be safely performed during TEVAR in patients with bilateral patent vertebrobasilar junctions. Hypertrophy of the right VA

  18. Transcarotid Artery Endovascular Reconstruction of the Aortic Arch by Modified Bifurcated Stent Graft for Stanford Type A Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old man with Stanford type B dissection underwent his first endovascular repair (EVAR in April 2004 by Talent thoracic stent graft. He had an uncomplicated recovery and maintained good blood pressure control. However, a new retrograde dissection appeared in September 2004. The new dissection involved his aortic arch and ascending thoracic aorta to the opening of the coronary arteries. To reconstruct the aortic arch, bypasses between the right common carotid artery (RCCA, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery were performed before endovascular repair. A modified bifurcated Talent stent graft was deployed from the RCCA to the ascending thoracic aorta with a long limb in the innominate artery and a short limb in the aortic arch. A further two pieces of graft were deployed via the common femoral artery. The ascending thoracic aorta and aortic arch were reconstructed completely by the bifurcated stent graft. The final angiography confirmed that there was good stent graft configuration, normal blood flow, and stable haemodynamics. No endoleak or other major complications were encountered. This result indicated that it is possible to reconstruct the aortic arch with a bifurcated stent graft and could be a new endovascular repair model for complex thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection.

  19. Qureshi-5 Catheter for Complex Supra- and Abdominal-Aortic Catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Xiao, WeiGang; Liu, HongLiang

    2015-10-01

    The use of previously described catheter technique was expanded to complex supra- and abdominal- aortic catheterizations. A new (Qureshi 5) catheter with curved shape at the distal end that has two lumens was used. One of lumens can accommodate a 0.035-inch guide wire and the second lumen can accommodate a 0.018-inch guide wire and terminates at the beginning of the distal curve of the first lumen. The manipulation and engagement of the curved distal end catheter was facilitated by rotation and movement of the J-shaped 0.018-inch guide wire extended coaxial and beyond the distal end of catheter. Subsequently, either contrast was injected or a 0.035-inch guide wire advanced into the target artery. The catheters were used in one patient to perform diagnostic cerebral and abdominal angiography through a 6F introducer sheath placed in the right common femoral artery. The catheterization was complex because of severe tortuosity of arch and descending aorta secondary to kyphosis. The left and right internal carotid arteries and left and right vertebral arteries, left renal artery, and superior mesenteric artery were catheterized in patient (fluoroscopy time 19:46 min). No complications were observed in the patient. The Qureshi-5 catheter was successful in complex supra- and abdominal-aortic catheterizations.

  20. The anatomy of the thoracic duct at the level of the diaphragm: A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defize, Ingmar L; Schurink, Bernadette; Weijs, Teus J; Roeling, Tom A P; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Bleys, Ronald L A W

    2018-03-03

    Injury and subsequent leakage of unrecognized thoracic duct tributaries during transthoracic esophagectomy may lead to chylothorax. Therefore, we hypothesized that thoracic duct anatomy at the diaphragm is more complex than currently recognized and aimed to provide a detailed description of the anatomy of the thoracic duct at the diaphragm. The thoracic duct and its tributaries were dissected in 7 (2 male and 5 female) embalmed human cadavers. The level of origin of the thoracic duct and the points where tributaries entered the thoracic duct were measured using landmarks easily identified during surgery: the aortic and esophageal hiatus and the arch of the azygos vein. The thoracic duct was formed in the thoracic cavity by the union of multiple abdominal tributaries in 6 cadavers. In 3 cadavers partially duplicated systems were present that communicated with interductal branches. The thoracic duct was formed by a median of 3 (IQR: 3-5) abdominal tributaries merging 8.3cm (IQR: 7.3-9.3cm) above the aortic hiatus, 1.8cm (IQR: -0.4 to 2.4cm) above the esophageal hiatus, and 12.3cm (IQR: 14.0 to -11.0cm) below the arch of the azygos vein. This study challenges the paradigm that abdominal lymphatics join in the abdomen to pass the diaphragm as a single thoracic duct. In this study, this occurred in 1/7 cadavers. Although small, the results of this series suggest that the formation of the thoracic duct above the diaphragm is more common than previously thought. This knowledge may be vital to prevent and treat post-operative chyle leakage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. New paradigms in the management of acute type B aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Rosario; Secco, Gioel Gabrio; Fattori, Rossella

    2015-11-01

    Type B aortic dissection is a relatively uncommon and multifaceted disease, whose management is ongoing debated. Its wide range of clinical presentations and anatomical features hamper the early identification and medical management. In the past few years, the introduction of endovascular techniques opened new paradigms in comprehension and management of aortic diseases. Aim of this review is to discuss contemporary therapeutic approaches of acute type B aortic dissections highlighting the growing role of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in focusing its complex physiopathology. Prompt medical therapy followed by endovascular repair should be considered as the gold standard in complicated acute type B aortic dissection. Moreover, recent findings also suggest a potential benefit in case of uncomplicated cases. Management of acute type B aortic dissection is progressively shifting into endovascular approach. However, further studies are warranted to define the optimal treatment strategy in each subset of patients and anatomical features.

  2. Parallel Grafts Used in Combination with Physician-Modified Fenestrated Stent Grafts for Complex Aortic Aneurysms in High-risk Patients with Hostile Anatomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, Joseph; Verscheure, Dorian; Majewski, Marek; Desgranges, Pascal; Cochennec, Frederic

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and early outcomes of complex aortic aneurysm repair in high-risk patients with hostile anatomies using both parallel stents and physician-modified stent graft (PMSG) techniques to address the renovisceral arteries. Consecutive patients with complex suprarenal (SRA) and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs) undergoing endovascular repair using combined parallel stents technique and PMSG between September 2013 and November 2015 were evaluated. All patients required prompt aneurysm treatment. Fenestrations to preserve branch vessels were created in thoracic stent grafts. Depending on the anatomy, chimney or snorkel stents were deployed in renal or visceral arteries as complementary technique to overcome severe angulations or preexisting suprarenal stent. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were recorded by means of a prospectively maintained database. Six high-risk patients with TAAA (type I: n = 2, type III: n = 1) and SRA (n = 3) underwent endovascular repair using both parallel stents technique and PMSG. Indications were painful aneurysms (n = 1) and >70-mm rapidly enlarging aneurysms (n = 5). Ten thoracic components were used, of which 6 were modified intraoperatively. Twenty-one renovisceral arteries were revascularized, using dedicated fenestrations (n = 10, 47.7%), chimney (n = 7, 33.3%), and snorkel stents (n = 4, 19%). The mean operative time was 326 ± 82 min including the device modification time. The mean time for graft modification was 90 ± 15 min. In 1 patient, a rescue chimney stent intended to the superior mesenteric artery was deployed because of failed cannulation through the dedicated fenestration. Technical success rate was 83.3%. One patient died during the early postoperative course from severe stroke. Among surviving patients, 3 required early reinterventions for iliac occluder-related type II endoleak (n = 1), type Ia endoleak (n = 1), and

  3. Minimally Invasive Thoracic Corpectomy: Surgical Strategies for Malignancy, Trauma, and Complex Spinal Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan R. Lall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of minimally invasive techniques for corpectomy in the thoracic spine provides promise to redefine treatment options in this region. Techniques have evolved permitting anterior, lateral, posterolateral, and midline posterior corpectomy in a minimally invasive fashion. We review the numerous techniques that have been described, including thoracoscopy, tubular retraction, and various instrumentation techniques. Minimally invasive techniques are compared to their open predecessors from a technical and complication standpoint. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches are also considered, with an emphasis on surgical strategies and nuance.

  4. Sequential Hybrid Repair of Aorta and Bilateral Common Iliac Arteries Secondary to Chronic Aortic Dissection with Extensive Aneurysmal Degeneration in a Marfan Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Carlos A; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Laparra-Escareno, Hugo; Lizola, Rene; Torres-Machorro, Adriana

    2017-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a connective tissue disorder associated with aortic dissection, aneurysmal degeneration and rupture. These cardiovascular complications represent the main cause of mortality, therefore repair is indicated. We present a 35-year-old woman who experienced acute onset of chest pain. Her imaging revealed a chronic DeBakey type I dissection with aortic root dilation and descending thoracic aneurysmal degeneration. She underwent a Bentall procedure and endovascular exclusion of the descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. She was closely followed and 2 years later a computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the aneurysmal degeneration of the thoracoabominal aorta and bilateral iliac arteries. The patient underwent a composite reconstruction using multi-visceral branched and bifurcated Dacron grafts. At 5 years from her last surgery, a CTA revealed no new dissection or further aneurysmal degenerations. Aortic disease in Marfan patients is a complex clinical problem that may lead to secondary or tertiary aortic reconstructions; close follow-up is mandatory.

  5. [Traumatic aortic valve insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, J; Lemos, C; Marques, A M; Antunes, M J; Gonsalves, A

    1996-02-01

    The traumatic aortic valvular insufficiency (TAVI), through less frequent after a non-penetrating thoracic traumatism, is a serious entity with a very reserved prognosis. So it must be suspected in every patients with signs or symptoms of de novo heart failure post-traumatism. The transthoracic echocardiography and eventually transesophageal echocardiography have a fundamental role in the confirmation of the diagnosis. The clinical picture of traumatic aortic regurgitation is quickly evolutionary and the non efficacy of medical therapy has placed the valvular substitution surgery as the best succeeded treatment. With the advent of the aortic valve repairing surgery some TAVI cases has been submitted to this procedure. Nevertheless, the development of residual aortic regurgitation in these situations, usually requiring later valvular replacement surgery, make the aortic valvuloplasty a controversial surgical technique. The AA describe a recent clinical case of aortic regurgitation after a non-penetrant thoracic traumatism, discussing the aspects connected with physiopathology, diagnosis and therapy. The singularity of this case was based on the fact that the initial clinical diagnosis had been prejudiced by the context of a polytraumatism and there had been a time free of symptoms between the traumatism and the beginning of the symptomatology of left ventricular failure. Even though the identification of the problem allowed an intensive treatment of this serious situation that ended with the replacement of the aortic valve by mechanical aortic prosthesis, with the patient's total recovery.

  6. Thoracic CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through a vein (IV) in your hand or forearm. It may be given through the rectum using ... CT scan Vertebra, thoracic (mid back) Normal lung anatomy Thoracic organs References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden ...

  7. Unoperated aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Nørgaard, M; Herzog, T M

    1995-01-01

    From 1984 to 1993, 1,053 patients were admitted with aortic aneurysm (AA) and 170 (15%) were not operated on. The most frequent reason for nonoperative management was presumed technical inoperability. Survivals for patients with thoracic, thoracoabdominal, and abdominal AA were comparable. No sig...

  8. RELEVANCIA DEL DIAGNÓSTICO DIFERENCIAL ENTRE EL SÍNDROME AÓRTICO AGUDO Y EL SÍNDROME CORONARIO AGUDO EN PACIENTES CON DOLOR TORÁCICO Y CRISIS HIPERTENSIVA: REVISIÓN A PROPÓSITO DE 2 CASOS / Relevance of the differential diagnosis between acute aortic syndrome and acute coronary syndrome in patients with thoracic pain and hypertensive crisis: review on 2 case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Simó Sánchez; Maria Pilar Portero Pérez; Jose Ramón Ruiz Arroyo; Jose Antonio Linares Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is a pathological process with low incidence compared with acute coronary syndrome, although with a worse prognosis in the short term, which is why its early diagnosis and urgent treatment are essential to the favorable evolution of thepatient. Electrocardiographic changes suggestive of myocardial ischemia, with acute evolution, are rare in acute aortic syndrome. Even in the presence of a suggestive thoracic pain and high levels of blood pressure, an adequate differentia...

  9. A schematic diagram showing the various components of the embryonic aortic arch complex in the retroesophageal right subclavian artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Katsushi; Honma, Satoru; Kumagai, Yoshihiro; Koba, Yoshikazu; Koizumi, Masahiro

    2011-09-01

    A retroesophageal right subclavian artery, arising from the arch of the aorta as the terminal branch and passing dorsal to the esophagus, was found in five (1.2%) of 428 bodies donated for student dissection at Kumamoto University between 1993 and 2008. The presence of a retroesophageal right subclavian artery has been generally explained to be caused by the persistence of the normally eliminated part of the right dorsal aorta caudal to the seventh intersegmental artery and the disappearance of the normally patent right fourth aortic arch and the part of the right dorsal aorta cranial to the seventh intersegmental artery during the developmental process. However, the parts which remain or disappear are different in each case. With the aim of determining the portions eliminated or persisting and thereby gaining an understanding of the developmental process of the retroesophageal right subclavian artery in each instance, we made schematic diagrams showing the various components of the embryonic aortic arch complex as the prototype just before the anomaly occurred. Based on these diagrams, we conclude that immediately preceding the disappearance of the distal part of the right dorsal aorta and the dorsal part of the right sixth aortic arch, the third intersegmental artery was situated opposite to the fourth aortic arch and the seventh intersegmental artery was situated cranial to the point of junction of the right and left dorsal aortae.

  10. Modelling of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection through 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Daniel; Squelch, Andrew; Sun, Zhonghua

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if the complex anatomy of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection can be accurately reproduced from a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan into a three-dimensional (3D) printed model. Contrast-enhanced cardiac CT scans from two patients were post-processed and produced as 3D printed thoracic aorta models of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. The transverse diameter was measured at five anatomical landmarks for both models, compared across three stages: the original contrast-enhanced CT images, the stereolithography (STL) format computerised model prepared for 3D printing and the contrast-enhanced CT of the 3D printed model. For the model with aortic dissection, measurements of the true and false lumen were taken and compared at two points on the descending aorta. Three-dimensional printed models were generated with strong and flexible plastic material with successful replication of anatomical details of aortic structures and pathologies. The mean difference in transverse vessel diameter between the contrast-enhanced CT images before and after 3D printing was 1.0 and 1.2 mm, for the first and second models respectively (standard deviation: 1.0 mm and 0.9 mm). Additionally, for the second model, the mean luminal diameter difference between the 3D printed model and CT images was 0.5 mm. Encouraging results were achieved with regards to reproducing 3D models depicting aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. Variances in vessel diameter measurement outside a standard deviation of 1 mm tolerance indicate further work is required into the assessment and accuracy of 3D model reproduction. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  11. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  12. Ruthenium Complex Improves the Endothelial Function in Aortic Rings From Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanabe, Izabela Pereira; Rodrigues, Carla Nascimento Dos Santos; Buzinari, Tereza Cristina; Moraes, Thiago Francisco de; Silva, Roberto Santana da; Rodrigues, Gerson Jhonatan

    2017-06-29

    The endothelium is a monolayer of cells that extends on the vascular inner surface, responsible for the modulation of vascular tone. By means of the release of nitric oxide (NO), the endothelium has an important protective function against cardiovascular diseases. Verify if cis- [Ru(bpy)2(NO2)(NO)](PF6)2 (BPY) improves endothelial function and the sensibility of conductance (aorta) and resistance (coronary) to vascular relaxation induced by BPY. Normotensive (2K) and hypertensive (2K-1C) Wistar rats were used. For vascular reactivity study, thoracic aortas were isolated, rings with intact endothelium were incubated with: BPY(0.01 to10 µM) and concentration effect curves to acetylcholine were performed. In addition, cumulative concentration curves were performed to BPY (1.0 nM to 0.1 µM) in aortic and coronary rings, with intact and denuded endothelium. In aorta from 2K-1C animals, the treatment with BPY 0.1µM increased the potency of acetylcholine-induced relaxation and it was able to revert the endothelial dysfunction. The presence of the endothelium did not modify the effect of BPY in inducing the relaxation in aortas from 2K and 2K-1C rats. In coronary, the endothelium potentiated the vasodilator effect of BPY in vessels from 2K and 2K-1C rats. Our results suggest that 0.1 µM of BPY is able to normalize the relaxation endothelium dependent in hypertensive rats, and the compound BPY induces relaxation in aortic from normotensive and hypertensive rats with the same potency. The endothelium potentiate the relaxation effect induced by BPY in coronary from normotensive and hypertensive rats, with lower effect on coronary from hypertensive rats. O endotélio é uma monocamada de células que se estende sobre a superfície interna vascular, responsável pela modulação do tônus vascular. Por meio da liberação de óxido nítrico (NO), o endotélio tem uma função protetora importante contra doenças cardiovasculares. Verificar se o cis- [Ru (BPY)2 (NO2) (NO

  13. Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the

  14. Early Results of Endovascular Treatment of the Thoracic Aorta Using the Valiant Endograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Matt; Ivaz, Stella; Cheshire, Nicholas; Fattori, Rosella; Rousseau, Herve; Heijmen, Robin; Beregi, Jean-Paul; Thony, Frederic; Horne, Gillian; Morgan, Robert; Loftus, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta has been adopted as the first-line therapy for much pathology. Initial results from the early-generation endografts have highlighted the potential of this technique. Newer-generation endografts have now been introduced into clinical practice and careful assessment of their performance should be mandatory. This study describes the initial experience with the Valiant endograft and makes comparisons with similar series documenting previous-generation endografts. Data were retrospectively collected on 180 patients treated with the Valiant endograft at seven European centers between March 2005 and October 2006. The patient cohort consisted of 66 patients with thoracic aneurysms, 22 with thoracoabdominal aneurysms, 19 with an acute aortic syndrome, 52 with aneurysmal degeneration of a chronic dissection, and 21 patients with traumatic aortic transection. The overall 30-day mortality for the series was 7.2%, with a stroke rate of 3.8% and a paraplegia rate of 3.3%. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that mortality differed significantly between different indications; thoracic aneurysms (6.1%), thoracoabdominal aneurysms (27.3%), acute aortic syndrome (10.5%), chronic dissections (1.9%), and acute transections (0%). Adjunctive surgical procedures were required in 63 patients, and 51% of patients had grafts deployed proximal to the left subclavian artery. Comparison with a series of earlier-generation grafts demonstrated a significant increase in complexity of procedure as assessed by graft implantation site, number of grafts and patient comorbidity. The data demonstrate acceptable results for a new-generation endograft in series of patients with diverse thoracic aortic pathology. Comparison of clinical outcomes between different endografts poses considerable challenges due to differing case complexity

  15. Acute Aortic Arch Perforation During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Bicuspid Aortic Stenosis and a Gothic Aortic Arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Iturbe, Oscar; Sawaya, Fadi J; Bieliauskas, Gintautas; Chow, Danny H F; De Backer, Ole; Søndergaard, Lars

    2017-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has evolved from a novel technology to an established therapy for high/intermediate-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Although TAVR is used to treat bicuspid severe AS, the large randomized trials typically excluded bicuspid AS because of its unique anatomic features. This case report describes an acute aortic perforation during delivery of a transcatheter heart valve to treat a severe bicuspid AS with a "gothic aortic arch"; more careful evaluation of the preprocedural multislice computed tomographic scan would have unveiled a sharply angulated aortic arch. This life-threatening complication was successfully treated by thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endovascular Retrieval of Entrapped Elephant Trunk Graft During Complex Hybrid Aortic Arch Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodharan, Karthikeyan, E-mail: drdkarthik@hotmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Chao, Victor T. T., E-mail: victor.chao.t.t@singhealth.com.sg [National Heart Centre, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@singhealth.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2016-12-15

    Entrapment of the elephant trunk graft within the false lumen is a rare complication of surgical repair of an aortic dissection. This is normally retrieved by emergent open surgery. We describe a technique of endovascular retrieval of the dislodged graft, during hybrid aortic arch repair. The elephant trunk was cannulated through and through from a femoral access and the free end of the wire was snared and retrieved from a brachial access. The wire was externalised from both accesses and was used to reposition the graft into the true lumen using a body flossing technique.

  17. Endovascular Stent Grafting for Aortic Arch Aneurysm in Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease following Aortic Arch Debranching and Aortobifemoral Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Melis Oztas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms constitutes high mortality and morbidity rates despite improvements in surgery, anesthesia, and technology. Endovascular stent grafting may be an alternative therapy with lower risks when compared with conventional techniques. However, sometimes the branches of the aortic arch may require transport to the proximal segments prior to successful thoracic aortic endovascular stent grafting. Atherosclerosis is accounted among the etiology of both aneurysms and occlusive diseases that can coexist in the same patient. In these situations stent grafting may even be more complicated. In this report, we present the treatment of a 92-year-old patient with aortic arch aneurysm and proximal descending aortic aneurysm. For successful thoracic endovascular stent grafting, the patient needed an alternative route other than the native femoral and iliac arteries for the deployment of the stent graft. In addition, debranching of left carotid and subclavian arteries from the aortic arch was also required for successful exclusion of the thoracic aneurysm.

  18. Impact of Aortic Insufficiency on Ascending Aortic Dilatation and Adverse Aortic Events After Isolated Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With a Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongshi; Wu, Boting; Li, Jun; Dong, Lili; Wang, Chunsheng; Shu, Xianhong

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant flow pattern and congenital fragility bestows bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) with a propensity toward ascending aorta dilatation, aneurysm, and dissection. Whether isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR) can prevent further dilatation in BAV ascending aorta and what indicates concurrent aortic intervention in the case of valve operation remain controversial. From June 2006 to January 2009, patients with a BAV who underwent isolated AVR were consecutively included and categorized into aortic insufficiency (BAV-AI, n = 84) and aortic stenosis (n = 112) groups, and another population of patients with a tricuspid aortic valve with aortic insufficiency (n = 149) was also recruited during the same period for comparison of annual aortic dilatation rate and adverse aortic events after isolated AVR. With a median follow-up period of 72 months (interquartile range, 66 to 78 months), ascending aorta dilatation rates were faster in the BAV-AI group than the BAV plus aortic stenosis and tricuspid aortic valve with aortic insufficiency groups (both p regression analysis identified aortic insufficiency (hazard ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 11.1; p = 0.019) as an independent risk factor for adverse aortic events among patients with BAV in general, whereas preoperative ascending aortic diameter larger than 45 mm (hazard ratio, 13.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.0 to 63.3; p = 0.001) served as a prognostic indicator in the BAV-AI group. An aggressive policy of preventive aortic interventions seemed appropriate in patients with BAV-AI during AVR, and BAV phenotype presenting as either insufficiency or stenosis should be taken into consideration when contemplating optimal surgical strategies for BAV aortopathy. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contemporary Management Strategies for Chronic Type B Aortic Dissections: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamman, Arnoud V.; de Beaufort, Hector W. L.; van Bogerijen, Guido H W; Nauta, FJH; Heijmen, Robin H.; Moll, Frans L.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Trimarchi, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Background Currently, the optimal management strategy for chronic type B aortic dissections (CBAD) is unknown. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to compare results of open surgical repair (OSR), standard thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) or branched and fenestrated TEVAR

  20. Shared genetic risk factors of intracranial, abdominal, and thoracic aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hof, Femke N G; Ruigrok, Ynte M; Lee, Cue Hyunkyu; Ripke, Stephan; Anderson, Graig; de Andrade, Mariza; Baas, Annette F; Blankensteijn, Jan D; Böttinger, Erwin P; Bown, Matthew J; Broderick, Joseph; Bijlenga, Philippe; Carrell, David S; Crawford, Dana C; Crosslin, David R; Ebeling, Christian; Eriksson, Johan G; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana; von Und Zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Friedrich, Christoph M; Gaál, Emília I; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Harrison, Seamus C; Hernesniemi, Juha; Hofman, Albert; Inoue, Ituro; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Jones, Gregory T; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kivisaari, Riku; Ko, Nerissa; Koskinen, Seppo; Kubo, Michiaki; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kurki, Mitja I; Laakso, Aki; Lai, Dongbing; Leal, Suzanne M; Lehto, Hanna; LeMaire, Scott A; Low, Siew-Kee; Malinowski, Jennifer; McCarty, Catherine A; Milewicz, Dianna M; Mosley, Thomas H; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Niemelä, Mika; Pacheco, Jennifer; Peissig, Peggy L; Pera, Joanna; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rij, Andre M; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Saratzis, Athanasios; Slowik, Agnieszka; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tromp, Gerard; Uitterlinden, André G; Verma, Shefali S; Vermeulen, Sita H; Wang, Gao T; Han, Buhm; Rinkel, Gabriël J E; de Bakker, Paul I W

    2016-01-01

    Background--Intracranial aneurysms (IAs), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) all have a familial predisposition. Given that aneurysm types are known to co-occur, we hypothesized that there may be shared genetic risk factors for IAs, AAAs, and TAAs. Methods and

  1. Shared Genetic Risk Factors of Intracranial, Abdominal, and Thoracic Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hof, Femke N G; Ruigrok, Ynte M; Lee, Cue Hyunkyu; Ripke, Stephan; Anderson, Graig; de Andrade, Mariza; Baas, Annette F; Blankensteijn, Jan D; Böttinger, Erwin P; Bown, Matthew J; Broderick, Joseph; Bijlenga, Philippe; Carrell, David S; Crawford, Dana C; Crosslin, David R; Ebeling, Christian; Eriksson, Johan G; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana; von Und Zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Friedrich, Christoph M; Gaál, Emília I; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Harrison, Seamus C; Hernesniemi, Juha; Hofman, Albert; Inoue, Ituro; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Jones, Gregory T; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kivisaari, Riku; Ko, Nerissa; Koskinen, Seppo; Kubo, Michiaki; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kurki, Mitja I; Laakso, Aki; Lai, Dongbing; Leal, Suzanne M; Lehto, Hanna; LeMaire, Scott A; Low, Siew-Kee; Malinowski, Jennifer; McCarty, Catherine A; Milewicz, Dianna M; Mosley, Thomas H; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Niemelä, Mika; Pacheco, Jennifer; Peissig, Peggy L; Pera, Joanna; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rij, Andre M; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Saratzis, Athanasios; Slowik, Agnieszka; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tromp, Gerard; Uitterlinden, André G; Verma, Shefali S; Vermeulen, Sita H; Wang, Gao T; Han, Buhm; Rinkel, Gabriël J E; de Bakker, Paul I W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) all have a familial predisposition. Given that aneurysm types are known to co-occur, we hypothesized that there may be shared genetic risk factors for IAs, AAAs, and TAAs. METHODS AND

  2. Circumferential ascending aortic strain and aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Rogério; Moreira, Nádia; Baptista, Rui; Barbosa, António; Martins, Rui; Castro, Graça; Providência, Luís

    2013-07-01

    Two-dimensional speckle tracking (2D-ST) echocardiography for the measurement of circumferential ascending thoracic aortic strain (CAAS) in the context of aortic stenosis (AS) is not elucidated. Purpose This study assesses the thoracic ascending aortic deformation using 2D-ST echocardiography in AS patients. Population and methods Forty-five consecutive patients with an aortic valvular area (AVA) ≤0.85 cm(2)/m(2) were included. Regarding aortic deformation, the global peak CAAS was the parameter used, and an average of six segments of arterial wall deformation was calculated. The corrected CAAS was calculated as the global CAAS/pulse pressure (PP). Aortic stiffness (β2) index was assessed according to ln(Ps/Pd)/CAAS. The sample was stratified according to the stroke volume index (SVI) as: Group A (low flow, SVI ≤35 mL/m(2); n = 19) and Group B (normal flow, SVI >35 mL/m(2); n = 26). The mean age was 76.8 ± 10.3 years, 53.3% were male, the mean indexed AVA was 0.43 ± 0.15 cm(2)/m(2), and the mean CAAS was 6.3 ± 3.0%. The CAAS was predicted by SVI (β = 0.31, P < 0.01) and by valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva). The corrected CAAS was correlated with the M-mode guided aortic stiffness index (β1) (r = -0.39, P < 0.01), and was predicted by SVI, Zva, and systemic arterial compliance (β = 0.15, P < 0.01). The β2 index was significantly higher for the low-flow patients (16.1 ± 4.8 vs. 9.8 ± 5.3, P < 0.01), and was predicted by SVI (β -0.58, P < 0.01) and PP (β = 0.17, P < 0.01). Global CAAS was more accurate to predict low flow than Zva, systolic function and systemic vascular resistance. In patients with moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis, SVI and LV afterload-related variables were the most important determinants of 2S-ST global CAAS.

  3. Hybrid procedures for complex thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: early results and secondary interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehling, Bernd M; Bischoff, G; Schelzig, H; Sunder-Plassmann, L; Orend, K H

    2010-02-01

    Hybrid procedures for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) have been previously described as an attractive alternative to open reconstruction. Between 1999 and 2009, 16 patients with a median age of 67years underwent hybrid repair of a TAAA (Crawford type I: 3, type II: 3, type III: 1, and type IV: 9). In 94%, 3 and more severe comorbidities were present, with previous aortic surgery in 56% of the patients; elective/urgent repair was done in 10 and emergent surgery in 6 patients. Primary technical success was 100%, with 31 vessels grafted. Elective/urgent mortality was 20% (2 of 10) and emergent mortality 50% (3 of 6). During follow-up time (median: 12 months) 2 patients died and 2 patients had to undergo secondary interventions. In high-risk patients especially after prior aortic surgery hybrid repair of TAAA is feasible. However, due to high mortality rates especially in the emergent situation this procedure should be reserved only for decidedly selected patients.

  4. Reoperative aortic root replacement: Outcome in a contemporary series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Jiro; Leshnower, Bradley G; Binongo, Jose N; Lasanajak, Yi; McPherson, LaRonica; Thourani, Vinod H; Chen, Edward P

    2017-09-01

    Reoperative aortic root replacement is a challenging procedure associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes of reoperative aortic root replacement when performed in a number of complex clinical settings and to identify risk factors for operative mortality and long-term survival. From 2006 to 2015, 280 consecutive patients at an academic center underwent reoperative aortic root replacement after a variety of previous aortic or cardiac operations. Logistic regression and extended Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to determine risk factors for operative mortality and long-term survival, respectively. The mean age of patients was 52.5 ± 14.1 years. Prior operations included proximal aortic replacement in 113 patients, valve surgery in 162 patients, and coronary artery bypass grafting in 46 patients. Concomitant procedures included arch replacement in 135 patients, coronary artery bypass grafting in 68 patients, and mitral valve repair/replacement in 18 patients. Operative mortality was 14.3%. Five-year survival was 74.0%. Univariable analysis did not find previous root replacement, prior proximal aortic surgery, and concomitant arch replacement to be risk factors for operative mortality. In the multivariable analysis, chronic lung disease, prior myocardial infarction, and concomitant mitral valve surgery were risk factors for operative mortality. Age, peripheral artery disease, emergency, and concomitant mitral valve surgery were risk factors for mortality in the late phase. Reoperative aortic root replacement represents complex procedures carrying significant morbidity and mortality. Chronic lung disease, prior myocardial infarction, and concomitant mitral valve surgery were risk factors for operative mortality. Age, peripheral artery disease, emergency, and concomitant mitral valve surgery were risk factors for long-term mortality. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for

  5. Tratamento endovascular de pseudoaneurisma de aorta torácica com fístula aorto-brônquica em pós-operatório tardio de cirurgia de correção de coarctação de aorta Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm with aortobronchial fistula in the late postoperative period of surgical correction of the aortic coarctation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusta Gayoso Neves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fístula aorto-brônquica é uma conexão entre a aorta e o brônquio, e mesmo quando imediatamente reconhecida e tratada possui alto risco de letalidade. Pode se desenvolver após cirurgias de aorta, e é geralmente uma consequência de pseudoaneurisma. A hemoptise, massiva ou intermitente, é o principal sintoma apresentado. O tratamento convencional da fístula aorto-brônquica é a cirurgia aberta de aorta torácica, com reconstrução traqueobrônquica. Recentemente, o reparo endovascular tem sido proposto como uma alternativa. Os autores apresentam um relato de tratamento endovascular, realizado com êxito, de pseudoaneurisma de aorta torácica com fístula aorto-brônquica 22 anos após cirurgia para correção de coarctação aórtica.Aortobronchial fistula is an abnormal passage between the aorta and the bronchus, and even when recognized and treated promptly, it carries a high risk of fatality. It can develop after aortic operations, and it is usually the result of a pseudoaneurysm. Massive or intermittent hemoptysis is the main symptom. Conventional treatment of aortobronchial fistula is open surgery of the thoracic aorta with tracheobronchial reconstruction. Recently, endovascular repair has been proposed as an alternative. The authors report a case of successful endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm with aortobronchial fistula, 22 years after surgical correction of the aortic coarctation.

  6. Plasma levels of plasmin-antiplasmin-complexes are predictive for small abdominal aortic aneurysms expanding to operation-recommendable sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Jørgensen, B; Fasting, H

    2001-01-01

    Three proteolytic systems seem involved in the aneurysmal degradation of the aortic wall. Plasmin is a common activator of the systems and could thus be predictive for the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs).......Three proteolytic systems seem involved in the aneurysmal degradation of the aortic wall. Plasmin is a common activator of the systems and could thus be predictive for the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs)....

  7. Thoracic CT findings at hypovolemic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotondo, A.; Angelelli, G.; Catalano, O.; Grassi, R.; Scialpi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and discuss the thoracic CT features of hypovolemic shock. Material and Methods: From a group of 18 patients with signs of hypovolemia on contrast-enhanced abdominal CT, 11 were selected for our study as having also undergone a complete chest examination. Pulse rate, blood pressure, trauma score value, Glasgow coma scale value, surgical result, and final outcome were retrospectively evaluated. The CT features analyzed were: decreased cardiac volume, reduced caliber of the thoracic aorta, aortic branches and caval venous system, increased enhancement of the aorta, and increased enhancement of the pulmonary collapses/contusions. Results: All 11 subjects presented severe injuries and hemodynamic instability; 7 were stable enough to undergo surgery; only 1 of the 11 survived. Two patients showed none of the features of thoracic hypovolemia. All the other patients presented at least two signs: reduced caliber of the thoracic aorta in 7 cases; decreased volume of the cardiac chambers and increased aortic enhancement in 6; decreased caliber of the aortic vessels in 4; decreased caliber of the caval veins in 3; and increased enhancement of the pulmonary collapses/contusions in 3. Conclusions: In patients with hypovolemia, CT may show several thoracic findings in addition to abdominal ones. Knowledge of these features is important for distinguishing them from traumatic injuries. (orig.)

  8. Laser Fenestration for Treatment of a Complicated Chronic Type B Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaie, Tara; Werter, Christopher; Drucker, Charles; Aicher, Brittany O; Crawford, Robert; Toursavadkohi, Shahab

    2018-04-01

    We report a case of a complex chronic type B aortic dissection treated by thoracic endovascular aortic repair and laser fenestration of the false septum to preserve flow to branch vessels originating from both the true and false lumen. Dissections complicated by thoracoabdominal aneurysmal degeneration with critical organs being perfused by branches arising from both true and false lumens are rare and leave limited options for repair. Despite advancements in endovascular techniques, fenestration remains one of the only means of preserving flow to both the true and false lumens and thus was necessary in the management of our patient. This novel procedure allows complex aortic dissections to be addressed endovascularly, which increases the flexibility and management of this challenging problem that previously required an open repair with significant morbidity.

  9. Online network of subspecialty aortic disease experts: Impact of "cloud" technology on management of acute aortic emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhagen, Paul; Roselli, Eric E; Harris, C Martin; Eagleton, Matthew; Menon, Venu

    2016-07-01

    For the management of acute aortic syndromes, regional treatment networks have been established to coordinate diagnosis and treatment between local emergency rooms and central specialized centers. Triage of acute aortic syndromes requires definitive imaging, resulting in complex data files. Modern information technology network structures, specifically "cloud" technology, coupled with mobile communication, increasingly support sharing of these data in a network of experts using mobile, online access and communication. Although this network is technically complex, the potential benefit of online sharing of data files between professionals at multiple locations within a treatment network appear obvious; however, clinical experience is limited, and further evaluation is needed. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical repair of distal arch psendoaneurysm from ruptured penetrating aortic ulcer with the frozen elephant trunk technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotsakis, John; Tassopoulos, Dimitrios; Ttofi, Jacob; Harling, Leanne; Ashrafian, Hutan; Velissarios, Konstantinos; Kratimenos, Theodore; Anagnostou, Stratos; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2014-04-05

    Ruptured Penetrating Ulcer and aortic arch pseudo-aneurysm is a rare condition but one which carries a high risk of rupture. We report the case of a 74-year-old man with aortic arch pseudo-aneurysm, in which a Frozen Elephant Trunk procedure was successfully performed. There were no postoperative complications at 6 months follow-up. The Computed Tomography Angiogram demonstrated thrombus formation in the pseudo-aneurysm lumen, with no endoleak on the stented part of the descending thoracic aorta and complete patency of all branches of aortic arch. This case demonstrates that the Frozen Elephant Trunk technique may be the treatment of choice when treating such complex aortic arch lesions provided there is no absolute contraindication to radical surgical intervention. However, long-term clinical efficacy and safety have yet to be confirmed.

  11. Type A aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome: extent of initial surgery determines long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylski, Bartosz; Bavaria, Joseph E; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Branchetti, Emanuela; Desai, Nimesh D; Milewski, Rita K; Szeto, Wilson Y; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth; Siepe, Matthias; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-04-01

    Data on outcomes after Stanford type A aortic dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome are limited. We investigated the primary surgery and long-term results in patients with Marfan syndrome who suffered aortic dissection. Among 1324 consecutive patients with aortic dissection type A, 74 with Marfan syndrome (58% men; median age, 37 years [first and third quartiles, 29 and 48 years]) underwent surgical repair (85% acute dissections; 68% DeBakey I; 55% composite valved graft, 30% supracoronary ascending replacement, 15% valve-sparing aortic root replacement; 12% total arch replacement; 3% in-hospital mortality) at 2 tertiary centers in the United States and Europe over the past 25 years. The rate of aortic reintervention with resternotomy was 24% (18 of 74) and of descending aorta (thoracic+abdominal) intervention was 30% (22 of 74) at a median follow-up of 8.4 years (first and third quartiles, 2.2 and 12.7 years). Freedom from need for aortic root reoperation in patients who underwent primarily a composite valved graft or valve-sparing aortic root replacement procedure was 95±3%, 88±5%, and 79±5% and in patients who underwent supracoronary ascending replacement was 83±9%, 60±13%, 20±16% at 5, 10, and 20 years. Secondary aortic arch surgery was necessary only in patients with initial hemi-arch replacement. Emergency surgery for type A dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome is associated with low in-hospital mortality. Failure to extend the primary surgery to aortic root or arch repair leads to a highly complex clinical course. Aortic root replacement or repair is highly recommended because supracoronary ascending replacement is associated with a high need (>40%) for root reintervention.

  12. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: a complex case demonstrating the potential for misdiagnosis as asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keogh Steven J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differential diagnosis of a neonate or fetus presenting with a bell-shaped or long narrow thorax includes a wide range of bony dysplasia syndromes. Where this is accompanied by respiratory distress, asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD, Jeune syndrome is an important potential diagnosis. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS is widely recognised as a cause of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, short stature and bone marrow failure. It is not so well appreciated that rib and/or thoracic cage abnormalities occur in 30–50% of patients and that, in severe cases, these abnormalities may lead to thoracic dystrophy and respiratory failure in the newborn. There are, however, at least three previous case reports of children who were initially diagnosed with ATD who were subsequently shown to have SDS. Case presentation This report details the case history of a patient misdiagnosed as having ATD as a neonate following the neonatal asphyxial death of her brother. She subsequently developed progressive pancytopenia but was only diagnosed with SDS at 11 years of age after referral for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for bone marrow failure accompanied by trilineage dysplasia and clonal cytogenetic abnormalities on bone marrow examination. Subsequent testing revealed the presence of fat globules in stools, reduced faecal chymotrypsin, fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, metaphyseal dysplasia on skeletal survey and heterozygous mutations of the SBDS gene. Conclusion This report highlights the potential for diagnostic confusion between ATD and SDS. It is important to include SDS in the differential diagnosis of newborns with thoracic dystrophy and to seek expert clinical and radiological assessment of such children.

  13. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/EACTS/HVS/SCA/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR/STS 2017 Appropriate Use Criteria for the Treatment of Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Heart Valve Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Robert O; Brown, Alan S; Gillam, Linda D; Kapadia, Samir R; Kavinsky, Clifford J; Lindman, Brian R; Mack, Michael J; Thourani, Vinod H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Bonow, Robert O; Lindman, Brian R; Beaver, Thomas M; Bradley, Steven M; Carabello, Blase A; Desai, Milind Y; George, Isaac; Green, Philip; Holmes, David R; Johnston, Douglas; Leipsic, Jonathon; Mick, Stephanie L; Passeri, Jonathan J; Piana, Robert N; Reichek, Nathaniel; Ruiz, Carlos E; Taub, Cynthia C; Thomas, James D; Turi, Zoltan G; Doherty, John U; Dehmer, Gregory J; Bailey, Steven R; Bhave, Nicole M; Brown, Alan S; Daugherty, Stacie L; Dean, Larry S; Desai, Milind Y; Duvernoy, Claire S; Gillam, Linda D; Hendel, Robert C; Kramer, Christopher M; Lindsay, Bruce D; Manning, Warren J; Mehrotra, Praveen; Patel, Manesh R; Sachdeva, Ritu; Wann, L Samuel; Winchester, David E; Allen, Joseph M

    2018-02-01

    The American College of Cardiology collaborated with the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Heart Valve Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons to develop and evaluate Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). This is the first AUC to address the topic of AS and its treatment options, including surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). A number of common patient scenarios experienced in daily practice were developed along with assumptions and definitions for those scenarios, which were all created using guidelines, clinical trial data, and expert opinion in the field of AS. The 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines(1) and its 2017 focused update paper (2) were used as the primary guiding references in developing these indications. The writing group identified 95 clinical scenarios based on patient symptoms and clinical presentation, and up to 6 potential treatment options for those patients. A separate, independent rating panel was asked to score each indication from 1 to 9, with 1-3 categorized as "Rarely Appropriate," 4-6 as "May Be Appropriate," and 7-9 as "Appropriate." After considering factors such as symptom status, left ventricular (LV) function, surgical risk, and the presence of concomitant coronary or other valve disease, the rating panel determined that either SAVR or TAVR is Appropriate in most patients with symptomatic AS at intermediate or high surgical risk; however, situations

  14. 4-D MRI flow analysis in the course of interrupted aortic arch reveals complex morphology and quantifies amount of collateral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirtler, Daniel [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease, Freiburg (Germany); Geiger, Julia; Jung, Bernd [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Arnold, Raoul [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Disease, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    We present findings in a 17-year-old with interrupted aortic arch, in whom standard imaging techniques missed functional and morphological problems. Flow-sensitive four-dimensional magnetic resonance (4-D MR) enabled assessment of the complex anatomy and blood-flow characteristics in the entire aorta and direct quantification of blood flow in collateral vessels. Our findings highlight the entire morphological and functional problem of interrupted aortic arch and illustrate the potential of flow-sensitive 4-D MR for surgical planning in congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  15. Retrograde type A dissection following hybrid supra-aortic endovascular surgery in high-risk patients unfit for conventional open repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Hon C; Chan, Yiu C; Qing, Kai X; Cheng, Stephen W

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid procedures with combined open extra-anatomical supra-aortic bypasses and endovascular surgery are less invasive for patients with complex aortic arch pathology. The aim of this paper is to report patients who developed retrograde type A aortic dissection following initially successful hybrid endovascular treatment. Retrospective review of prospectively collected computerized departmental database. All patients with supra-aortic hybrid endovascular surgery and post-procedure retrograde type A dissection were identified. Patient demographics, comorbid conditions, perioperative parameters, procedural details and post-operative complications were collected. From May 2005 to July 2014, 163 patients underwent thoracic aortic endovascular procedures at our institution. From the 46 patients who had supra-aortic hybrid endovascular repair, six patients (6/46, 13% of all supra-aortic hybrid cases, 3 males) developed retrograde type A aortic dissection. All were elective cases, with 3 chronic dissecting aneurysms and 3 atherosclerotic aneurysms. All had one-stage hybrid procedures: 2 patients had carotid-carotid bypass grafts, one had carotid-carotid-left subclavian bypass graft, and 3 had bypass grafts from ascending aorta to innominate artery and left carotid artery. Five patients had Cook Zenith thoracic stent-grafts (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN, USA), and one had Medtronic Valiant stent-grafts (Medtronic Vascular Inc, Santa Rosa, CA, USA). The retrograde type A dissection occurred with sudden symptoms at day 5, 6, 10, 20, 105 and 128, respectively. There were 3 immediate fatalities and 2 patients treated conservatively deemed unfit for reintervention (one died of pneumonia at 9 months, and one remained alive at 7 months post-complication). One patient underwent successful emergency open surgery and survived. Supra-aortic hybrid procedures in treating aortic arch pathology may be at risk of developing retrograde type A dissection. This post-operative complication

  16. Surgery for acute Type I aortic dissection without resection of supra-aortic entry sites leads to unfavourable aortic remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Woon; Song, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Shin-Young; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Baek, Min-Young; Yoo, Kyung-Jong

    2018-01-29

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of remnant re-entries in arch branches on postoperative change in the aortic arch and descending aortic diameters and the rate of major adverse aortic events. Between January 2010 and December 2016, 249 patients underwent surgery for acute Type I aortic dissection. Patients who underwent total arch replacement, had Marfan syndrome or had intramural haematoma were excluded. Seventy-two patients with predischarge and follow-up computed tomography scans were enrolled. Patients with and without re-entries in the arch branches after surgery were assigned to the supra-aortic entry (SAE, n = 21) and no supra-aortic entry (n = 51) groups, respectively. Diameters were measured at 7 levels: the innominate artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, 20 mm distal to the left subclavian artery, pulmonary artery bifurcation, coeliac axis and maximal diameter of the descending thoracic aorta. Growth rates at the levels of the pulmonary artery bifurcation and 20 mm distal to the left subclavian artery were significantly higher in the SAE group than in the no supra-aortic entry group. The rate of freedom from major adverse aortic events (annual growth >5 mm or maximal diameter of the descending thoracic aorta >50 mm) at 5 years was significantly higher in the no supra-aortic entry group than in the SAE group. Remnant SAE leads to unfavourable aortic remodelling after acute Type I aortic dissection repair. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Thoracic CT in the ED: a study of thoracic computed tomography utilisation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williams, E

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the use of thoracic Computed Tomography (CT) in the Emergency Department of a Dublin Academic Teaching Hospital over a six month period. Data was retrieved using the hospital\\'s computerised information system. There were 202 referrals in total for thoracic CT from the Emergency Department during this time period. The most common indication for thoracic CT referral was for the investigation of pulmonary embolism with 127 (63%) referrals. There were 40 (25%) referrals for suspected malignancy and lung disease, whilst 8 (4%) of the referrals were for investigation of thoracic aortic dissection, 8 (4%) for infection, and 6 (3%) were for investigation of thoracic injury. Only 8 (4%) of all referrals were for investigation of injury as a result of chest trauma.

  18. RELEVANCIA DEL DIAGNÓSTICO DIFERENCIAL ENTRE EL SÍNDROME AÓRTICO AGUDO Y EL SÍNDROME CORONARIO AGUDO EN PACIENTES CON DOLOR TORÁCICO Y CRISIS HIPERTENSIVA: REVISIÓN A PROPÓSITO DE 2 CASOS / Relevance of the differential diagnosis between acute aortic syndrome and acute coronary syndrome in patients with thoracic pain and hypertensive crisis: review on 2 case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Simó Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic syndrome is a pathological process with low incidence compared with acute coronary syndrome, although with a worse prognosis in the short term, which is why its early diagnosis and urgent treatment are essential to the favorable evolution of thepatient. Electrocardiographic changes suggestive of myocardial ischemia, with acute evolution, are rare in acute aortic syndrome. Even in the presence of a suggestive thoracic pain and high levels of blood pressure, an adequate differential diagnosis is of utmost importance, since the administration of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in high doses can have a dramatic impact on patient outcome. Two cases are presented in which electrocardiographic changes determined the action to take in patients with acute aortic syndrome.

  19. Endoluminal treatment of thoracic aortic lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    known as the cranial neck; (iv) the length of the aorta from below the aneurysm down to the origin of the celiac trunk, known as the distal land- ing zone; (v) the total length of the aneurysm, or pseudo-aneurysm in the case of rupture; (vi) involvement of mesenteric branches and their ori- gin from either the false or true lumen.

  20. Tailored endovascular repair of traumatic aortic disruptions with "stacked" abdominal aortic extension cuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith B; Borkon, A Michael; Laster, Steven B; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Davis, John R; Pak, Alexander F; Stewart, James R; Stuart, R Scott

    2012-01-01

    The management paradigm for traumatic aortic disruptions has evolved from open to endovascular repair. Thoracic stent grafts designed to treat aneurysmal disease, however, have disadvantages, including size mismatch in younger trauma patients and current standard lengths, which may needlessly necessitate coverage of at least 10 cm of thoracic aorta, increasing the risk of spinal cord ischemia. The "off-label" use of abdominal aortic extension cuffs to treat traumatic aortic disruptions may provide an advantage in this regard by better size matching for the younger trauma patient, reduced thoracic aortic coverage, and less cost to the institution. From 2008 to 2011, a total of 16 traumatic aortic disruptions were evaluated and managed with endovascular techniques. The last six were treated with abdominal aortic extensions cuffs (Excluder Extension Cuffs; W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) rather than traditional thoracic stent grafts. In addition to demographics and trauma-related data, additional endpoints evaluated in this retrospective review included operative time, number of cuffs used, stent cost data, procedural complications, and follow-up. All six patients (five men/one woman) with traumatic aortic disruption were successfully treated with complete exclusion of the disruption using abdominal aortic cuffs. There were no complications including death or spinal cord ischemia. The average age was 27 years (range, 18-44 years). The average number of cuffs used to cover the traumatic tear was 2.6 per patient (range, 2-3 cuffs per patient), covering an average of 5.3 cm of thoracic aorta (range, 4-6 cm). Mean procedure time was 70 minutes. Hospital cost for each cuff was $2200 (average total stent cost per patient, $5720). For comparison, a single 10-cm conformable thoracic aortic graft (CTAG) (Gore) costs $14,500. Average follow-up of all six patients for up to 3 years demonstrates no complications or migration of the stent grafts. Traumatic aortic

  1. The evolution of thoracic anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Jay B

    2005-02-01

    The specialty of thoracic surgery has evolved along with the modem practice of anesthesia. This close relationship began in the 1930s and continues today. Thoracic surgery has grown from a field limited almost exclusively to simple chest wall procedures to the present situation in which complex procedures, such as lung volume reduction or lung transplantation, now can be performed on the most severely compromised patient. The great advances in thoracic surgery have followed discoveries and technical innovations in many medical fields. One of the most important reasons for the rapid escalation in the number and complexity of thoracic surgical procedures now being performed has been the evolution of anesthesia for thoracic surgery. There has been so much progress in this area that numerous books and journals are devoted entirely to this subject. The author has been privileged to work with several surgeons who specialized in noncardiac thoracic surgery. As a colleague of 25 years, the noted pulmonary surgeon James B.D. Mark wrote, "Any operation is a team effort... (but) nowhere is this team effort more important than in thoracic surgery, where near-choreography of moves by all participants is essential. Exchange of information, status and plans are mandatory". This team approach between the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesiologist reflects the history of the two specialties. With new advances in technology, such as continuous blood gas monitoring and the pharmacologic management of pulmonary circulation to maximize oxygenation during one-lung ventilation, in the future even more complex procedures may be able to be performed safely on even higher risk patients.

  2. [Transient delayed paraplegia after repair of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Torrijos, M; Aguilar Lloret, C; Ariño Irujo, J J; Serrano Hernando, F J; López Timoneda, F

    2013-11-01

    Thoracoabdominal aneurysm requires multidisciplinary management due to its complexity both in surgical technique and anesthetic considerations. One of the most feared postoperative complication is spinal cord ischemia. It can be presented as different clinical patterns, and its recovery may be partial or complete. The postoperative management of spinal cord ischemia is mainly based on techniques to increase spinal cord perfusion, above all, hemodynamic stability and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. We present two cases of delayed paraplegia after an open repair of a thoracoabdominal aneurysm and a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair using an endovascular stent graft. They both had a complete neurological recovery after cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. [Results of operations for ascending aortic aneurysm in Iceland 2000-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynjarsdottir, Helga Bjork; Melvinsdottir, Inga Hlif; Gudbjartsson, Tomas; Geirsson, Arnar

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is an uncommon disease where treatment is complex and associated with significant comorbidity. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of operations for TAA in Iceland with emphasis on postoperative complications, 30 day mortality and survival. A retrospective study on 105 patients (mean age 60.7 yrs., 69.5% males) that underwent operations for TAA between 2000 and 2014 in Iceland. Patients with aortic injury or acute aortic dissection were excluded. Clinical information was collected from hospital charts and long-term survival estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Mean follow-up was 5.7 yrs. Bicuspid aortic valve was present in 52 patients (51.0%) and family history was positive in 10 of the cases (9.5%). Every other patient (50.5%) was asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally. The most common procedure was aortic root replacement using biological prosthesis. Two out of three patients had complications, that were regarded as major in 31.4% of cases, however, stroke was only detected in 2 (1.9%) patients. Two patients died within 30 days postoperatively (1.9%). The overall survival at one year was 95.1%; more favorable for males compared to females (97.2 vs. 90.4%, p=0.0012, log rank test) and at 5 years 90.3%. Outcome following surgery for TAA in Iceland is comparable to studies in neighbouring countries. The complications rate is high, however, the stroke rate was low, as was 30 day mortality. Longterm survival is favorable, and is more favorable for males than females. Key words: Thoracic aortic aneurysm, ascending aorta, open heart surgery, complications, operative mortality, survival. Correspondance: Arnar Geirsson, arnarge@landspitali.is.

  4. Frozen elephant trunk reconstruction for right-sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and aneurysm of the descending aorta: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotsakis, John; Jarral, Omar A; Harling, Leanne; Tsipas, Panteleimon; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2016-05-05

    A 59-year old man being investigated for back pain was found to have aneurysmal dilatation of a right-sided aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta together with an aberrant left subclavian artery. He underwent repair of this utilising the frozen elephant trunk technique, which dealt with all three pathologies in one-stage. He made an unremarkable recovery and was discharged home on the 8th post-operative day. This case report further demonstrates the flexibility and safety of the frozen elephant trunk in dealing with complex aortic pathology as a single-stage procedure.

  5. Aortic Disease in the Young: Genetic Aneurysm Syndromes, Connective Tissue Disorders, and Familial Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many genetic syndromes associated with the aortic aneurysmal disease which include Marfan syndrome (MFS, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS, Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS, familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD, bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. In the absence of familial history and other clinical findings, the proportion of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms and dissections resulting from a genetic predisposition is still unknown. In this study, we propose the review of the current genetic knowledge in the aortic disease, observing, in the results that the causative genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm disease remain undiscovered and continue to be an area of intensive research.

  6. Imaging techniques in transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaife RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert A Quaife, Jennifer Dorosz, John C Messenger, Ernesto E Salcedo Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Calcific aortic stenosis is now understood as a complex valvular degenerative process sharing many risk factors with atherosclerosis. Once patients develop symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis, the only effective treatment is aortic valve replacement. In the past decade, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR has been developed as an alternative to surgery to treat severe calcific aortic stenosis. Cardiac imaging plays a pivotal role in the contemporary management of patients with calcific aortic stenosis, and particularly in patients being considered for TAVR, who demand detailed imaging of the aortic valve apparatus. In this review, we highlight the role of cardiac imaging for patient selection, procedural guidance, and evaluation of results of TAVR. Keywords: aortic stenosis, cardiovascular imaging, transcutaneous aortic valve replacement

  7. Unusual rapid evolution of type B aortic dissection in a marfan patient following heart transplantation: successful endovascular treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, L; Russo, V; Grigioni, F; Arpesella, G; Rocchi, G; Di Bartolomeo, R; Fattori, R

    2006-10-01

    A patient with Marfan syndrome with previous Bentall operation for mitral and tricuspid valve repair, required orthotopic cardiac transplantation for end stage cardiomyopathy. Postoperatively he suffered type-B aortic dissection, despite normal aortic diameters. Following sudden increase of aortic diameters, two years later, he underwent successful stent graft implantation. In patients with Marfan syndrome, post transplantation morbidity is high, with a 40% incidence of thoracic aortic dissection. This case highlights the potential of endovascular approach for treating post-transplantation aortic dissection.

  8. Mycotic Aneurysm of the Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Seo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is rare. We report a case of mycotic aneurysm that developed in the aortic arch. An 86-year-old man was admitted with fever and general weakness. Blood culture yielded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chest X-ray showed an enlarged aortic arch, and computed tomography scan revealed an aneurysm in the aortic arch. The patient was treated only with antibiotics and not surgically. The size of the aneurysm increased rapidly, resulting in bronchial obstruction and superimposed pneumonia. The patient died of respiratory failure.

  9. Spiral CT aortography: an efficient technique for the diagnosis of traumatic aortic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicky, S.; Capasso, P.; Meuli, R.; Schnyder, P.; Fischer, A.; Segesser, L. von

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of spiral CT (SCT) aortography for diagnosing acute aortic lesions in blunt thoracic trauma patients. Between October 1992 and June 1997, 487 SCT scans of the chest were performed on blunt thoracic trauma patients. To assess aortic injury, the following SCT criteria were considered: hemomediastinum, peri-aortic hematoma, irregular aspect of the aortic wall, aortic pseudodiverticulum, intimal flap and traumatic dissection. Aortic injury was diagnosed on 14 SCT examinations (2.9 %), five of the patients having had an additional digital aortography that confirmed the aortic trauma. Twelve subjects underwent surgical repair of the thoracic aorta, which in all but one case confirmed the aortic injury. Two patients died before surgery from severe brain lesions. The aortic blunt lesions were confirmed at autopsy. According to the follow-up of the other 473 patients, we are aware of no false-negative SCT examination. Our limited series shows a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 99.8 % of SCT aortography in the diagnosis of aortic injury. It is concluded that SCT aortagraphy is an accurate diagnostic method for the assessment of aortic injury in blunt thoracic trauma patients. (orig.)

  10. Rapid prototyping in aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangeas, Petros; Voulalas, Grigorios; Ktenidis, Kiriakos

    2016-04-01

    3D printing provides the sequential addition of material layers and, thus, the opportunity to print parts and components made of different materials with variable mechanical and physical properties. It helps us create 3D anatomical models for the better planning of surgical procedures when needed, since it can reveal any complex anatomical feature. Images of abdominal aortic aneurysms received by computed tomographic angiography were converted into 3D images using a Google SketchUp free software and saved in stereolithography format. Using a 3D printer (Makerbot), a model made of polylactic acid material (thermoplastic filament) was printed. A 3D model of an abdominal aorta aneurysm was created in 138 min, while the model was a precise copy of the aorta visualized in the computed tomographic images. The total cost (including the initial cost of the printer) reached 1303.00 euros. 3D imaging and modelling using different materials can be very useful in cases when anatomical difficulties are recognized through the computed tomographic images and a tactile approach is demanded preoperatively. In this way, major complications during abdominal aorta aneurysm management can be predicted and prevented. Furthermore, the model can be used as a mould; the development of new, more biocompatible, less antigenic and individualized can become a challenge in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary Intimal Sarcoma of Thoracic Aorta Presenting as Hypertensive Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-I; Su, Min-I; Tsai, Cheng-Ting

    2015-11-01

    We report a 45-year-old woman who presented to our facility in a hypertensive crisis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a thoracic aortic tumor, and tissues obtained via endovascular biopsy revealed undifferentiated sarcoma. A final diagnosis of intimal sarcoma was made by intra-operative pathological examination. Despite undergoing surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient died from progressive multiple metastasis and severe sepsis. Although aortic sarcoma is rarely diagnosed, it should be considered a possible etiology of hypertensive crisis. Aortic tumor; Endovascular biopsy; Hypertension crisis; Intimal sarcoma.

  12. MDCT angiography of thoracic aorta endovascular stent-grafts: pearls and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Jenny K; Martinez, Santiago; Hurwitz, Lynne M

    2009-02-01

    The objective of our study was to review expected findings and complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair on CT angiography (CTA). Luminal and extraluminal changes to the thoracic aorta occur after endovascular stent-grafting. The radiologist can facilitate appropriate management by detecting and differentiating expected CTA findings from complications.

  13. Thoracic stent grafts with a distal fenestration for the celiac axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielliu, IFJ; Verhoeven, ELG; Zeebregts, CJ; Prins, TR; van den Dungen, JJAM

    2005-01-01

    Descending thoracic aneurysms can be treated with a stent graft provided that there is sufficient proximal and distal aortic neck length above the celiac axis. One of the options for the treatment of thoracic aneurysms with a too short distal neck is described in this report. For this purpose, a

  14. [Thoracic Outlet Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sven; Sebesta, Pavel; Klenske, Marian; Esche, Mirko

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is one of the most extensively discussed diagnoses. There is neither a clear and homogenous clinical presentation nor an accepted definition. The term describes a complex of symptoms and complaints caused by the compression of nerves and vascular structures at one of the three defined constrictions of the upper thoracic aperture. Methods Based on a comprehensive literature review, this article presents the etiology, epidemiology and clinical diagnostics as well as the possibilities and outcomes of surgical treatment. Results The thoracic outlet syndrome is currently subdivided into three main forms: vascular TOS (vasTOS) including arterial TOS (aTOS) and venous TOS (vTOS), neurogenic TOS (nTOS), which is further subdivided into typical (nTOS) and atypical TOS (disTOS), and a mixed form of nTOS and vasTOS (nvasTOS). The diagnosis is complex and difficult since the disTOS group comprises over 90 % of all patients. In addition to conservative treatment attempts, nTOS may be treated by surgical procedures focusing on the decompression of neurovascular structures. A significant improvement after surgery was found in up to 92 % of cases. The most common access sites are supraclavicular and transaxillary. 50 to 80 % of patients benefit from surgery in the long run. The rates of vascular or neurological complications reported by specialised centres are 0 to 2 %; minor complications such as pneumothorax, bleeding and lymphatic fistula are reported in up to 25 % of cases. Summary Most patients suffering from any form of TOS benefit from surgical treatment. Duration of symptoms, socioeconomic factors and, most notably, stringent diagnostic workup and an adequate operative procedure performed by an experienced centre are crucial to success. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Association Between Thoracic Aorta Calcium and Thoracic Aorta Geometry in a Cohort of Asymptomatic Participants at Increased Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiem, Damian; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Casciaro, Mariano E; El Batti, Salma; Mousseaux, Elie; Sirieix, Marie-Emmanuelle; Simon, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Thoracic aorta calcium detection is known to improve cardiovascular risk prediction for cardiac and noncardiac events beyond traditional risk factors. We investigated the influence of thoracic aorta morphometry on the presence and extent of aortic calcifications. Nonenhanced computed tomography heart scans were performed in 970 asymptomatic participants at increased cardiovascular risk. An automated algorithm estimated the geometry of the entire thoracic aorta and quantified the aortic calcium Agatston score. A nonparametric model was used to analyze the percentiles of calcium score by age. Logistic regression models were calculated to identify anatomical associations with calcium levels. Calcifications were concentrated in the aortic arch and descending portions. Higher amounts of calcium were associated with an enlarged, unfolded, less tapered and more tortuous aorta. The size of the ascending aorta was not correlated with aortic calcium score, whereas enlargement of the descending aorta had the strongest association: the risk of having a global calcium score > 90th percentile was 3.62 times higher (confidence interval, 2.30-5.91; P < .001) for each 2.5-mm increase in descending aorta diameter. Vessel taper, tortuosity, unfolding and aortic arch and descending volumes were also correlated with higher amounts of calcium. Thoracic aorta calcium was predominantly found at the arch and descending aorta and was positively associated with the size of the descending aorta and the aortic arch, but not with the size of the ascending aorta. These findings suggest that aortic dilatation may have different mechanisms and may consequently require different preventive strategies according to the considered segments. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Left subclavian artery revascularization as part of thoracic stent grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saouti, N.; Hindori, V.; Morshuis, W.J.; Heijmen, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intentional covering of the left subclavian artery (LSA) as part of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) can cause (posterior) strokes or left arm malperfusion. LSA revascularization can be done as prophylaxis against, or as treatment of, these complications. We report our

  17. 3D printing based on cardiac CT assists anatomic visualization prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Beth; Kelil, Tatiana; Cheezum, Michael K; Goncalves, Alexandra; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Rybicki, Frank J; Steigner, Mike; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Blankstein, Ron

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is a promising technique that may have applications in medicine, and there is expanding interest in the use of patient-specific 3D models to guide surgical interventions. To determine the feasibility of using cardiac CT to print individual models of the aortic root complex for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) planning as well as to determine the ability to predict paravalvular aortic regurgitation (PAR). This retrospective study included 16 patients (9 with PAR identified on blinded interpretation of post-procedure trans-thoracic echocardiography and 7 age, sex, and valve size-matched controls with no PAR). 3D printed models of the aortic root were created from pre-TAVR cardiac computed tomography data. These models were fitted with printed valves and predictions regarding post-implant PAR were made using a light transmission test. Aortic root 3D models were highly accurate, with excellent agreement between annulus measurements made on 3D models and those made on corresponding 2D data (mean difference of -0.34 mm, 95% limits of agreement: ± 1.3 mm). The 3D printed valve models were within 0.1 mm of their designed dimensions. Examination of the fit of valves within patient-specific aortic root models correctly predicted PAR in 6 of 9 patients (6 true positive, 3 false negative) and absence of PAR in 5 of 7 patients (5 true negative, 2 false positive). Pre-TAVR 3D-printing based on cardiac CT provides a unique patient-specific method to assess the physical interplay of the aortic root and implanted valves. With additional optimization, 3D models may complement traditional techniques used for predicting which patients are more likely to develop PAR. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta following botulinum toxin injection to the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Shiraev, MB, BS (Hons, BSc (Hons

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aortic pseudoaneurysms are uncommon and are usually secondary to penetrating trauma. We describe the presentation and management of an elderly woman who suffered a pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta several days after receiving botulinum toxin injection to the esophagus. Urgent thoracic endovascular aortic repair was performed, and long-term antibiotic therapy was commenced. Despite a slow initial clinical recovery, she returned to an independent lifestyle, with radiographic resolution of the pseudoaneurysm seen at follow-up. This case illustrates that endovascular aortic repair is a suitable and safe treatment option for this unusual presentation.

  19. Fate of remnant sinuses of Valsalva in patients with bicuspid and trileaflet valves undergoing aortic valve, ascending aorta, and aortic arch replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Rita Karianna; Habertheuer, Andreas; Bavaria, Joseph E; Siki, Mary; Szeto, Wilson Y; Krause, Eric; Korutla, Varun; Desai, Nimesh D; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth

    2017-08-01

    the type of valvular pathology (aortic stenosis vs aortic insufficiency) or valvular morphology (bicuspid aortic valve vs tricuspid aortic valve). Aortic valve replacement with supracoronary ascending aorta replacement may have a stabilizing effect on the sinus segment over long-term follow-up in patients with tricuspid aortic valves or bicuspid aortic valves. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thoracic outlet anatomy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a rare condition that occurs when there is compression of vessels and nerves in the ... the last 3 fingers and inner forearm. Thoracic outlet syndrome is usually treated with physical therapy which ...

  1. One-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisci, Emiliano; de Donato, Gianmarco; Fargion, Aaron; Ventoruzzo, Giorgio; Parlani, Gianbattista; Setacci, Carlo; Ercolini, Leonardo; Michelagnoli, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to report the methodology and 1-year experience of a regional service model of teleconsultation for planning and treatment of complex thoracoabdominal aortic disease (TAAD). Complex TAADs without a feasible conventional surgical repair were prospectively evaluated by vascular surgeons of the same public health service (National Health System) located in a huge area of 22,994 km 2 with 3.7 million inhabitants and 11 tertiary hospitals. Surgeons evaluated computed tomography scans and clinical details that were placed on a web platform (Google Drive; Google, Mountain View, Calif) and shared by all surgeons. Patients gave informed consent for the teleconsultation. The surgeon who submits a case discusses in detail his or her case and proposes a possible therapeutic strategy. The other surgeons suggest other solutions and options in terms of grafts, techniques, or access to be used. Computed tomography angiography, angiography, and clinical outcomes of cases are then presented at the following telemeetings, and a final agreement of the operative strategy is evaluated. Teleconsultation is performed using a web conference service (WebConference.com; Avaya Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ) every month. An inter-rater agreement statistic was calculated, and the κ value was interpreted according to Altman's criteria for computed tomography angiography measurements. The rate of participation was constant (mean number of surgeons, 11; range, 9-15). Twenty-four complex TAAD cases were discussed for planning and operation during the study period. The interobserver reliability recorded was moderate (κ = 0.41-0.60) to good (κ = 0.61-0.80) for measurements of proximal and distal sealing and very good (κ = 0.81-1) for detection of any target vessel angulation >60 degrees, significant calcification (circumferential), and thrombus presence (>50%). The concordance for planning and therapeutic strategy among all participants was complete in 16 cases. In

  2. Total Endovascular Aortic Repair in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Mau; Spear, Rafaëlle; Clough, Rachel E; Hertault, Adrien; Azzaoui, Richard; Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Haulon, Stéphan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a total endovascular aortic repair with branched and fenestrated endografts in a young patient with Marfan syndrome and a chronic aortic dissection. Open surgery is the gold standard to treat aortic dissections in patients with aortic disease and Marfan syndrome. In 2000, a 38-year-old man with Marfan syndrome underwent open ascending aorta repair for an acute type A aortic dissection. One year later, a redo sternotomy was performed for aortic valve replacement. In 2013, the patient presented with endocarditis and pulmonary infection, which necessitated tracheostomy and temporary dialysis. In 2014, the first stage of the endovascular repair was performed using an inner branched endograft to exclude a 77-mm distal arch and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. In 2015, a 63-mm thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm was excluded by implantation of a 4-fenestrated endograft. Follow-up after both endovascular repairs was uneventful. Total aortic endovascular repair was successfully performed to treat a patient with arch and thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with chronic aortic dissection and Marfan syndrome. The postoperative images confirmed patency of the endograft and its branches, and complete exclusion of the aortic false lumen. Endovascular repair is a treatment option in patients with connective tissue disease who are not candidates for open surgery. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm these favorable early outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contemporary strategies for repair of complex thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: real-world experiences and multilayer stents as an alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Robert Kolvenbach

    Full Text Available Abstract Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA present special challenges for repair due to their extent, their distinctive pathology, and the fact that they typically cross the ostia of one or more visceral branch vessels. Historically, the established treatment for TAAA was open surgical repair, with the first procedure reported in 1955. Endovascular repair of TAAA with fenestrated and/ or branched endografts, has been studied since the beginning of the current century as a means of mechanical aneurysm exclusion. More recently, flow modulator stents have been employed with the aim at reducing shear stress on aortic aneurysmal wall. In this review we present technical and main results of these techniques, based on literature review and personal experience.

  4. Aortic root and proximal aortic arch replacement (performed by a left-handed surgeon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    We present our standard technique of composite graft replacement performed by a left-handed surgeon. This procedure is performed with a 30-day mortality comparable to that of elective isolated aortic valve replacement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. Aortic aneurysm endovascular treatment with the parallel graft technique from the aortic arch to the iliac axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Gian F; Marino, Mario; Kasemi, Holta; DI Angelo, Costantino L; Dionisi, Carlo P; Cammalleri, Valeria; Setacci, Carlo

    2017-05-26

    The chimney technique has been developed for the treatment of complex aortic aneurysms. We analyzed the midterm to long-term outcomes of this approach from a single- centre experience. From October 2008 to July 2016, 58 patients underwent endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using the chimney technique. Indications for treatment were thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) (n = 11), thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) (n = 2), pararenal aortic aneurysm (PAAA) (n= 15), aortoiliac/isolated hypogastric artery aneurysm (n = 25), type I endoleak after previous TEVAR/EVAR (n=4), proximal pseudoaneurysm after AAA open repair (n = 1). Elective (82.8%) and emergent (17.2%) procedures were included. The immediate technical success was 100%. Single, double and triple chimneys were performed in 46, 10 and 2 patients, respectively. Overall, 61 target vessels (3 left common carotid arteries, 8 left subclavian arteries, 3 celiac trunks, 3 superior mesenteric arteries, 19 renal arteries and 25 hypogastric arteries) were involved. Post-operative mortality was 0. No neurologic complications were registered. Primary patency rate of the chimney stent/stent graft was 98.3%. Low flow type I endoleak was observed in 4 patients (6.9%). Post-operative chimney graft re-intervention rate was 1.7%. The median follow up was 32±20 months (range 3- 96 months). Overall estimated survival at 12, 50 and 80 months was 100%, 89% and 44%, respectively. Estimated freedom from endoleak at 1, 12, 24 and 36 months was 96.5%, 95%, 95% and 93%, respectively. One HA stent graft occluded at the 3rd month of follow up. No reintervention was performed. Our experience with the chimney technique for aortic aneurysms from the aortic arch to the iliac axis shows promising and durable mid- and long term results. Endograft oversizing, associated with the chimney graft diameter and length choice remain fundamental to reduce the risk of the most frequent procedure complications: type I endoleak and CG occlusion.The wider

  6. Feasibility of three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography-fluoroscopy image fusion technique in guiding complex endovascular aortic procedures in patients with renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwein, Adeline; Chinnadurai, Ponraj; Shah, Dipan J; Lumsden, Alan B; Bechara, Carlos F; Bismuth, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional image fusion of preoperative computed tomography (CT) angiography with fluoroscopy using intraoperative noncontrast cone-beam CT (CBCT) has been shown to improve endovascular procedures by reducing procedure length, radiation dose, and contrast media volume. However, patients with a contraindication to CT angiography (renal insufficiency, iodinated contrast allergy) may not benefit from this image fusion technique. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and fluoroscopy image fusion using noncontrast CBCT as a guidance tool during complex endovascular aortic procedures, especially in patients with renal insufficiency. All endovascular aortic procedures done under MRA image fusion guidance at a single-center were retrospectively reviewed. The patients had moderate to severe renal insufficiency and underwent diagnostic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging after gadolinium or ferumoxytol injection. Relevant vascular landmarks electronically marked in MRA images were overlaid on real-time two-dimensional fluoroscopy for image guidance, after image fusion with noncontrast intraoperative CBCT. Technical success, time for image registration, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, number of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) acquisitions before stent deployment or vessel catheterization, and renal function before and after the procedure were recorded. The image fusion accuracy was qualitatively evaluated on a binary scale by three physicians after review of image data showing virtual landmarks from MRA on fluoroscopy. Between November 2012 and March 2016, 10 patients underwent endovascular procedures for aortoiliac aneurysmal disease or aortic dissection using MRA image fusion guidance. All procedures were technically successful. A paired t-test analysis showed no difference between preimaging and postoperative renal function (P = .6). The mean time required for MRA-CBCT image

  7. Unoperated aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Nørgaard, M; Herzog, T M

    1995-01-01

    From 1984 to 1993, 1,053 patients were admitted with aortic aneurysm (AA) and 170 (15%) were not operated on. The most frequent reason for nonoperative management was presumed technical inoperability. Survivals for patients with thoracic, thoracoabdominal, and abdominal AA were comparable....... No significant differences in survival for patients with dissecting and nondissecting AA were detected. In all, 132 patients (78%) died and 78 (59%) of them died of rupture. Mean time to rupture was 1,300 +/- 8 days. Cumulative 5-year hazard of rupture for the dissecting AA was twice that of the nondissecting (p...... A dissections. The results suggest that type B dissections may have a more favorable course if operated on, but a prospective, randomized study is necessary to confirm this observation. We believe that older patients and those with a small aneurysm may benefit from early, elective operation....

  8. A Typical Immune T/B Subset Profile Characterizes Bicuspid Aortic Valve: In an Old Status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela R. Balistreri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid valve disease is associated with the development of thoracic aortic aneurysm. The molecular mechanisms underlying this association still need to be clarified. Here, we evaluated the circulating levels of T and B lymphocyte subsets associated with the development of vascular diseases in patients with bicuspid aortic valve or tricuspid aortic valve with and without thoracic aortic aneurysm. We unveiled that the circulating levels of the MAIT, CD4+IL−17A+, and NKT T cell subsets were significantly reduced in bicuspid valve disease cases, when compared to tricuspid aortic valve cases in either the presence or the absence of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Among patients with tricuspid aortic valve, these cells were higher in those also affected by thoracic aortic aneurysm. Similar data were obtained by examining CD19+ B cells, naïve B cells (IgD+CD27−, memory unswitched B cells (IgD+CD27+, memory switched B cells (IgD−CD27+, and double-negative B cells (DN (IgD−CD27−. These cells resulted to be lower in subjects with bicuspid valve disease with respect to patients with tricuspid aortic valve. In whole, our data indicate that patients with bicuspid valve disease show a quantitative reduction of T and B lymphocyte cell subsets. Future studies are encouraged to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation and its pathophysiological significance.

  9. Clinical testing of Belarusian aortic stent graft system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. П. Шкет

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study looks at the results of clinical testing of the first Belarusian aortic stent graft system developed and manufactured by a team of specialists from RSPC "Cardiology", Minsk, Belarus, and Belarusian Technical University.Methods. The original system of aortic stent graft includes a delivery system and an aortic stent graft itself. It is used in surgical treatment of complicated and common aneurysms of the thoracic aorta, as well as in cases of concomitant thoracic aneurysms and heart pathology to be treated under cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinical testing of the stent graft was carried out according to the requirements of Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of three different cardiac hospitals of the country. Results. All the three hospitals treated one patient each. The first patient underwent implantation of the stent graft into the descending thoracic aorta, with the thoracic aorta aneurysm isolated and the aortic valve replaced with bioprosthesis. The second patient underwent ascending aorta and aortic valve replacement with a conduit and implantation of aortic stent graft into the descending thoracic aorta. In the third patient the domestic aortic stent graft was implanted into the descending thoracic aorta with isolation of the thoracic aneurysm; aortic valve and ascending aorta were replaced with ‘MedEng' conduit and the aortic arch was also replaced, with the brachiocephalic arteries re-implanted in place. All the patients were followed-up for both early and long-term outcomes for more than 1 year and were examined by using CT angiography in the early postoperative period and after 1 year. Uncomplicated postoperative course was observed in all the patients. There were no complications in the long-term follow-up as well. CT angiography data confirmed good positioning of the stent graft and good isolation of the aneurysm lumen. Preoperative and postoperative СТ data of one patient are presented in the

  10. Incidence and progression of mild aortic regurgitation after Tirone David reimplantation valve-sparing aortic root replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Elizabeth H; Liang, David H; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Kari, Fabian A; Fischbein, Michael P; Mitchell, R Scott; Miller, D Craig

    2014-01-01

    The study objective was to determine whether recurrent or residual mild aortic regurgitation, which occurs after valve-sparing aortic root replacement, progresses over time. Between 2003 and 2008, 154 patients underwent Tirone David-V valve-sparing aortic root replacement; 96 patients (62%) had both 1-year (median, 12 ± 4 months) and mid-term (62 ± 22 months) transthoracic echocardiograms available for analysis. Age of patients averaged 38 ± 13 years, 71% were male, 31% had a bicuspid aortic valve, 41% had Marfan syndrome, and 51% underwent aortic valve repair, predominantly cusp free margin shortening. Forty-one patients (43%) had mild aortic regurgitation on 1-year echocardiogram. In 85% of patients (n = 35), mild aortic regurgitation remained stable on the most recent echocardiogram (median, 57 ± 20 months); progression to moderate aortic regurgitation occurred in 5 patients (12%) at a median of 28 ± 18 months and remained stable thereafter; severe aortic regurgitation developed in 1 patient, eventually requiring reoperation. Five patients (5%) had moderate aortic regurgitation at 1 year, which did not progress subsequently. Two patients (2%) had more than moderate aortic regurgitation at 1 year, and both ultimately required reoperation. Although mild aortic regurgitation occurs frequently after valve-sparing aortic root replacement, it is unlikely to progress over the next 5 years and should not be interpreted as failure of the valve-preservation concept. Further, we suggest that mild aortic regurgitation should not be considered nonstructural valve dysfunction, as the 2008 valve reporting guidelines would indicate. We need 10- to 15-year follow-up to learn the long-term clinical consequences of mild aortic regurgitation early after valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extended replacement of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yutaka; Okada, Kenji; Oka, Takanori; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akiko; Omura, Atsushi; Kano, Hiroya; Okita, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We present our experience of total aortic arch replacement. Twenty-nine patients (21 males and 8 females; mean age 63.3 ± 13.3 years) with extended thoracic aortic aneurysms underwent graft replacement. The pathology of the diseased aorta was non-dissecting aneurysm in 11 patients, including one aortitis and aortic dissection in 18 patients (acute type A: one, chronic type A: 11, chronic type B: six). Five patients had Marfan syndrome. In their previous operation, two patients had undergone the Bentall procedure, three had endovascular stenting, one had aortic root replacement with valve sparing and 12 had hemi-arch replacement for acute type A dissection. Approaches to the aneurysm were as follows: posterolateral thoracotomy with rib-cross incision in 16, posterolateral thoracotomy extended to the retroperitoneal abdominal aorta in seven, mid-sternotomy and left pleurotomy in three, anterolateral thoracotomy with partial lower sternotomy in two and clam-shell incision in one patient. Extension of aortic replacement was performed from the aortic root to the descending aorta in 4, from the ascending aorta to the descending aorta in 17 and from the ascending to the abdominal aorta in eight patients. Arterial inflow for cardiopulmonary bypass consisted of the femoral artery in 15 patients, ascending aorta and femoral artery in seven, descending or abdominal aorta in five and ascending aorta in two. Venous drainage site was the femoral vein in 10, pulmonary artery in eight, right atrium in five, femoral artery with right atrium/pulmonary artery in four and pulmonary artery with right atrium in two patients. The operative mortality, 30-day mortality and hospital mortality was one (cardiac arrest due to aneurysm rupture), one (rupture of infected aneurysm) and one (brain contusion), respectively. Late mortality occurred in three patients due to pneumonia, ruptured residual aneurysm and intracranial bleeding. Actuarial survival at 5 years after the operations was 80.6

  12. Long-Term Risk for Aortic Complications After Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve Versus Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Shinobu; Chikwe, Joanna P; Chiang, Yuting P; Egorova, Natalia N; Adams, David H

    2015-06-09

    Bicuspid aortic valves are associated with valve dysfunction, ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection. Management of the ascending aorta at the time of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in these patients is controversial and has been extrapolated from experience with Marfan syndrome, despite the absence of comparative long-term outcome data. This study sought to assess whether the natural history of thoracic aortopathy after AVR in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease is substantially different from that seen in patients with Marfan syndrome. In this retrospective comparison, outcomes of 13,205 adults (2,079 with bicuspid aortic valves, 73 with Marfan syndrome, and 11,053 control patients with acquired aortic valve disease) who underwent primary AVR without replacement of the ascending aorta in New York State between 1995 and 2010 were compared. The median follow-up time was 6.6 years. The long-term incidence of thoracic aortic dissection was significantly higher in patients with Marfan syndrome (5.5 ± 2.7%) compared with those with bicuspid valves (0.55 ± 0.21%) and control group patients (0.41 ± 0.08%, p Marfan syndrome (10.8 ± 4.4%) compared with those with bicuspid valves (4.8 ± 0.8%) and control group patients (1.4 ± 0.2%) (p Marfan syndrome were significantly more likely to undergo thoracic aortic surgery in late follow-up (10.4 ± 4.3%) compared with those with bicuspid valves (2.5 ± 0.6%) and control group patients (0.50 ± 0.09%) (p Marfan syndrome compared with those with bicuspid aortic valves confirm that operative management of patients with bicuspid aortic valves should not be extrapolated from Marfan syndrome and support discrete treatment algorithms for these different clinical entities. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered aortic shape in bicuspid aortic valve relatives influences blood flow patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Susanne; Smith, Danielle A; Barker, Alex J; Entezari, Pegah; Honarmand, Amir R; Carr, Maria L; Malaisrie, S Chris; McCarthy, Patrick M; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is known to exhibit familial inheritance and is associated with aortopathy and altered aortic haemodynamics. However, it remains unclear whether BAV-related aortopathy can be inherited independently of valve morphology. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging for the in vivo assessment of thoracic aortic 3D blood flow was performed in 24 BAV relatives with trileaflet aortic valves (age = 40 ± 14 years) and 15 healthy controls (age = 37 ± 10 years). Data analysis included aortic dimensions, shape (round/gothic/cubic), and 3D blood flow characteristics (semi-quantitative vortex/helix grading and peak velocities). Cubic and gothic aortic shapes were markedly more prevalent in BAV relatives compared with controls (38 vs. 7%). Ascending aorta (AAo) vortex flow in BAV relatives was significantly increased compared with controls (grading = 1.5 ± 1.0 vs. 0.6 ± 0.9, P = 0.015). Aortic haemodynamics were influenced by aortic shape: peak velocities were reduced for gothic aortas vs. round aortas (P = 0.003); vortex flow was increased for cubic aortas in the AAo (P gothic aortas in the AAo and descending aorta (P = 0.003, P = 0.029). Logistic regression demonstrated significant associations of shape with severity of vortex flow in AAo (P < 0.001) and aortic arch (P = 0.016) in BAV relatives. BAV relatives expressed altered aortic shape and increased vortex flow despite the absence of valvular disease or aortic dilatation. These data suggest a heritable component of BAV-related aortopathy affecting aortic shape and aberrant blood flow, independent of valve morphology. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Complex aortic and bilateral renal artery aneurysm repair in a young patient with multiple arterial aneurysm syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Hinojosa, MD, MSc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal disease affecting the aorta and visceral vessels in young patients is uncommon and typically associated with connective tissue disorders. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with acute onset of abdominal pain; computed tomography scan revealed aortic and bilateral renal artery aneurysms and a perirenal hematoma. She was taken to the angiography suite; rupture of the right renal artery aneurysm was identified and immediately treated successfully with coil embolization. The left renal artery aneurysm was repaired with ex-vivo renal autotransplantation; 2 years later, the aorta and right renal artery underwent surgical reconstruction.

  15. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram

  16. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-02-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

  17. 3D printing of an aortic aneurysm to facilitate decision making and device selection for endovascular aneurysm repair in complex neck anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Matthew D B S; Laycock, Stephen D; Brown, James R I; Jakeways, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    To describe rapid prototyping or 3-dimensional (3D) printing of aneurysms with complex neck anatomy to facilitate endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A 75-year-old man had a 6.6-cm infrarenal aortic aneurysm that appeared on computed tomographic angiography to have a sharp neck angulation of ~90°. However, although the computed tomography (CT) data were analyzed using centerline of flow, the true neck length and relations of the ostial origins were difficult to determine. No multidisciplinary consensus could be reached as to which stent-graft to use owing to these borderline features of the neck anatomy. Based on past experience with rapid prototyping technology, a decision was taken to print a model of the aneurysm to aid in visualization of the neck anatomy. The CT data were segmented, processed, and converted into a stereolithographic format representing the lumen as a 3D volume, from which a full-sized replica was printed within 24 hours. The model demonstrated that the neck was adequate for stent-graft repair using the Aorfix device. Rapid prototyping of aortic aneurysms is feasible and can aid decision making and device delivery. Further work is required to test the value of 3D replicas in planning procedures and their impact on procedure time, radiation dose, and procedure cost.

  18. Fístula aortoesofágica após correção endovascular da dissecção de aorta torácica tipo B de Stanford Aortic-esophageal fistula after endovascular repair of Stanford type B thoracic aortic dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Gurgel Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A correção endovascular da dissecção de aorta tipo B tem se mostrado como uma nova alternativa para reduzir o trauma cirúrgico. No entanto, as complicações de médio e longo prazo, tais como a fístula aortoesofágica, são ainda pouco conhecidas e pouco relatadas. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever três casos de fístula aortoesofágica após o tratamento endovascular de 23 casos de dissecção de aorta descendente conduzidos pela equipe de Cirurgia Vascular da Santa Casa de São Paulo em um estudo retrospectivo. Esses pacientes apresentavam características em comum, como dissecção crônica, pós-operatório imediato sem intercorrências, necessidade de reintervenções, oclusão de troncos arteriais como a artéria subclávia, mesentérica, tronco celíaco, e, ainda, uma rápida evolução para o óbito após os primeiros sinais de fístula. Portanto, embora raramente descrita na literatura, a ocorrência de fístula aortoesofágica é uma complicação de causa até o momento indefinida do tratamento endovascular da dissecção de aorta descendente que merece atenção, dada sua recorrência e evolução fatal.Endoluminal stent-graft for type B aortic dissection is a new alternative to reduce surgical trauma. However, medium- and long-term complications are still little known and poorly reported, such as the aortic-esophageal fistula. The objective of this study is to describe three cases of aortic-esophageal fistula after the endovascular treatment of 23 cases of descending aortic dissection conducted by the vascular surgery team of Santa Casa de São Paulo in a retrospective study. These patients presented some common characteristics: chronic dissection, successful early outcome, need of reinterventions, occlusion of arterial trunks such as subclavian artery, mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, and finally, a fast fatal course after the first fistula-related symptoms. Therefore, despite rarely described in the literature, aortic

  19. Ascending aortic injuries following blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiumei; Hong, Jenny; Lowery, Robert; Goldstein, Steven; Wang, Zuyue; Lindsay, Joseph; Hill, Peter C; Corso, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    The diagnosis and the management of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries have undergone significant changes due to new technology and improved prehospital care. Most of the discussions have focused on descending aortic injuries. In this review, we discuss the recent management of ascending aortic injuries. We found 5 cohort studies on traumatic aortic injuries and 11 case reports describing ascending aortic injuries between 1998 to the present through Medline research. Among case reports, 78.9% of cases were caused by motor vehicle accidents (MVA). 42.1% of patients underwent emergent open repair and the operative mortality was 12.5%. 36.8% underwent delayed repair. Associated injuries occurred in 84.2% of patients. Aortic valve injury was concurrent in 26.3% of patients. The incidence of ascending aortic injury ranged 1.9-20% in cohort studies. Traumatic injuries to the ascending aorta are relatively uncommon among survivors following blunt trauma. Aortography has been replaced by computed tomography and echocardiography as a diagnostic tool. Open repair, either emergent or delayed, remains the treatment of choice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Modern aortic surgery in Marfan syndrome--2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, K; Schwill, S; Karck, M

    2011-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a hereditary disease with a prevalence of 2-3 in 10,000 births, leading to a fibrillin connective tissue disorder with manifestations in the skeleton, eye, skin, dura mater and in particular the cardiovascular system. Since other syndromes demonstrate similar vascular manifestations, but therapy may differ significantly, diagnosis should be established using the revised Ghent nosology in combination with genotypic analysis in specialized Marfan centres. The formation of aortic root aneurysms with the subsequent risk of acute aortic dissection type A (AADA) or aortic rupture limits life expectancy in patients with Marfan syndrome. Therefore, prophylactic replacement of the aortic root needs to be performed before the catastrophic event of AADA can occur. The goal of surgery is the complete resection of pathological aortic tissue. This can be achieved with excellent results by using a (mechanically) valved conduit that replaces both the aortic valve and the aortic root (Bentall operation). However, the need for lifelong anticoagulation with Coumadin can be avoided using the aortic valve sparing reimplantation technique according to David. The long-term durability of the reconstructed valve is favourable, and further technical improvements may improve longevity. Although results of prospective randomised long-term studies comparing surgical techniques are lacking, the David operation has become the surgical method of choice for aortic root aneurysms, not only at the Heidelberg Marfan Centre. Replacement of the aneurysmal dilated aortic arch is performed under moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest combined with antegrade cerebral perfusion using a heart-lung machine, which we also use in thoracic or thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Close post-operative follow-up in a Marfan centre is pivotal for the early detection of pathological changes on the diseased aorta.

  1. Technical strategy in a patient with symptomatic thoracic aneurysm near the origin of the left subclavian artery and left internal thoracic artery coronary graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Srdjan D; Radak, Djordje J; Sotirovic, Vuk A; Unic-Stojanovic, Dragana R; Babic, Dusan S; Popov, Petar Z; Sagic, Dragan Z

    2012-11-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a safe and reliable technique utilized in the treatment for aortic aneurysms. However, in up to 40% of patients, devices are typically placed over the left subclavian artery (LSA) origin. In this report, we present a case of a successful TEVAR procedure following the transposition of the LSA with protective carotico-axillary/carotid bypass in a patient with a patent left internal thoracic artery (LITA)-left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery bypass graft and right internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Preoperative renal function and surgical outcomes in patients with acute type A aortic dissection†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, Ken-ichi; Tayama, Eiki; Tomita, Yukihiro

    2015-04-01

    There are few data concerning the impact of preoperative renal function, assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate, on surgical outcomes following acute type A aortic dissection. We investigated the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (in ml/min/1.73 m(2)) in predicting in-hospital mortality and postoperative renal replacement therapy in such cases. We reviewed 114 consecutive patients with non-dialysis-dependent renal dysfunction who underwent thoracic aortic surgery for acute type A aortic dissection between 1997 and 2012. Preoperative renal function was categorized as normal (estimated glomerular filtration rate >90; n = 15) or as mild (60-89; n = 39), moderate I (45-59; n = 39), moderate II (30-44; n = 14) or severe (15-29; n = 7) renal dysfunction. In-hospital mortality was 14.9%. Eighteen (15.8%) of 114 patients required renal replacement therapy. A more severe stage stratified by preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate levels could effectively predict postoperative renal replacement therapy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.786). The best cut-off value of estimated glomerular filtration rate for predicting postoperative renal replacement therapy was 60 (sensitivity 95%, specificity 59%). On multiple regression analysis, the independent preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for postoperative renal replacement therapy were estimated glomerular filtration rate (P replacement (P replacement therapy (OR, 5.47; P regression analysis. Preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate can effectively predict the need for renal replacement therapy after surgery for acute type A aortic dissection. However, it is not an effective diagnostic tool to predict in-hospital mortality. The complexity of the characteristics of patients who undergo surgical procedures may make prediction of surgical outcomes difficult. Risk models to predict hospital mortality and morbidities are needed to assist clinicians in

  3. Mutations in a TGF-β Ligand, TGFB3, Cause Syndromic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Bertoli Avella (Aida); E. Gillis (Elisabeth); H. Morisaki (Hiroko); J.M.A. Verhagen (Judith ); B.M. de Graaf (Bianca); G. Van De Beek (Gerarda); E. Gallo (Elena); B.P.T. Kruithof (Boudewijn); H. Venselaar (Hanka); L.A. Myers (Loretha); S. Laga (Steven); A.J. Doyle (Alexander); G. Oswald (Gretchen); W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); I. Yamanaka (Itaru); R.M. van der Helm (Robert); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); J.E.M.M. de Klein (Annelies); L.M. Pardo (Luba); M. Lammens (Martin); C. Evers (Christina); K. Devriendt (Koenraad); M. Dumoulein (Michiel); J.M. Timmermans (Janneke); H.T. Brüggenwirth (Hennie); F.W. Verheijen (Frans); I. Rodrigus (Inez); G. Baynam (Gareth); M.J.E. Kempers (Marlies); J. Saenen (Johan); E.M. Van Craenenbroeck (Emeline); K. Minatoya (Kenji); R. Matsukawa (Ritsu); T. Tsukube (Takuro); N. Kubo (Noriaki); R.M.W. Hofstra (Robert); M.-J. Goumans (Marie-José); J.A. Bekkers (Jos); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); I.M.B.H. van de Laar (Ingrid); H.C. Dietz (Harry ); L. van Laer (Lut); T. Morisaki (Takayuki); M.W. Wessels (Marja); B.L. Loeys (Bart)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractBACKGROUND Aneurysms affecting the aorta are a common condition associated with high mortality as a result of aortic dissection or rupture. Investigations of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in syndromic types of thoracic aortic aneurysms, such as Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndromes,

  4. Mutations in a TGF-beta ligand, TGFB3, cause syndromic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertoli-Avella, A.M.; Gillis, E.; Morisaki, H.; Verhagen, J.M.A.; Graaf, B.M. de; Beek, G. van de; Gallo, E.; Kruithof, B.P.; Venselaar, H.; Myers, L.A.; Laga, S.; Doyle, A.J.; Oswald, G.; Cappellen, G.W. van; Yamanaka, I.; Helm, R.M. van der; Beverloo, B.; Klein, A.; Pardo, L.; Lammens, M.; Evers, C.; Devriendt, K.; Dumoulein, M.; Timmermans, J.; Bruggenwirth, H.T.; Verheijen, F.; Rodrigus, I.; Baynam, G.; Kempers, M.; Saenen, J.; Craenenbroeck, E.M. Van; Minatoya, K.; Matsukawa, R.; Tsukube, T.; Kubo, N.; Hofstra, R.; Goumans, M.J.; Bekkers, J.A.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Laar, I.M. van de; Dietz, H.C.; Laer, L. Van; Morisaki, T.; Wessels, M.W.; Loeys, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aneurysms affecting the aorta are a common condition associated with high mortality as a result of aortic dissection or rupture. Investigations of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in syndromic types of thoracic aortic aneurysms, such as Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndromes, have revealed

  5. Correção de doenças da aorta torácica com utilização de hipotermia profunda e parada circulatória Surgical treatment of thoracic aortic lesions with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayard Gontijo Filho

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados 14 casos de aneurismas e/ou dissecções da aorta torácica submetidos a correção cirúrgica com o emprego de hipotermia profunda e parada circulatória. Entre os 14 pacientes, seis eram portadores de aneurismas da aorta (um de aorta ascendente, três do arco aórtico, um de aorta ascendente + arco aórtico, um de aorta descendente e oito eram portadores de dissecção aórtica. A hipotermia foi induzida gradualmente até atingir 18ºC de temperatura nasofaríngea. O período médio de parada circulatória foi de 35 minutos. Houve quatro óbitos hospitalares, sendo um por problemas hemorrágicos, um por arritmia ventricular pós IAM, um por insuficiência renal aguda já existente no pré-operatório e um por AVC e infecção pulmonar secundária. Dos 10 pacientes, dois apresentaram insuficiência respiratória com assistência ventilatória prolongada e quatro apresentaram distúrbios neurológicos transitórios, com recuperação total. A técnica de hipotermia profunda e parada circulatória mostrou-se como boa alternativa na abordagem cirúrgica de lesões graves da aorta torácica.The authors report 14 cases of aneurysms and/or dissections of the thoracic aorta, treated with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. There were 6 aneurysms of the aorta (1 of the ascending aorta, 3 of the aortic arch, 1 of the ascending aorta and aortic arch, 1 of the descending aorta and 8 cases of aortic dissections. The patients were gradually colled down to 18ºC of nasopharingeal temperature. The mean circulatory arrest time was 35 minutes. There were 4 hospital deaths; 1 patient died in the operating room, from persistent surgical bleeding; 1 patient died from acute renal failure, which was already present in the pre-operative period; 1 patient died after an acute myocardial infarction followed by ventricular fibrillation; 1 patient died from pulmonary infection following a carebro-vascular accident. This was the only death directly

  6. Surgical treatment of chronic multivascular mesenteric ischemia in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome, abdominal aortic aneurism, and renal cancer: when planning overwhelms complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliogiannis, Panagiotis; Ginesu, Giorgio Carlo; Feo, Claudio Francesco; Cossu, Maria Laura; Pinna, Antonio; Farina, Giulia; Vidili, Gianpaolo; Porcu, Alberto

    2016-12-20

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia is a clinical condition caused by obstructive or occlusive disease of the mesenteric vessels, with potentially lethal consequences. We describe a case of open multiple revascularization in a patient affected by antiphospholipid syndrome and diffuse atherosclerosis, with an abdominal aortic aneurism, a contracted kidney, a renal cancer affecting the contralateral kidney, and as a consequence, a chronic renal failure and hypertension. We revascularized the celiac trunk, the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries, and the right renal artery using saphenous grafts; the aneurism was corrected, and the renal tumor was treated by radiofrequency ablation. Despite the invasiveness and complexity, the surgical strategy adopted allowed to save the patient's life, to treat the chronic mesenteric ischemia and the renal cancer, and to improve the chronic renal insufficiency and hypertension. Graft, Mesenteric ischemia, Occlusion, Revascularization.

  7. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: Getting It Right So You Don't Have to Do It Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micev, Alan J; Abzug, Joshua M; Osterman, A Lee

    2017-02-15

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a disorder caused by thoracic outlet compression of the brachial plexus and/or the subclavian vessels. The characteristics of thoracic outlet syndrome are highly variable. Objective tests, such as electrodiagnostic studies, are often unreliable in characterizing thoracic outlet syndrome. The existence of thoracic outlet syndrome as a discrete entity is controversial. Surgeons who accept the existence of thoracic outlet syndrome acknowledge that diagnosis is clinical. The variability and complexity of thoracic outlet syndrome lends itself to mistakes in both diagnosis and surgical treatment.

  8. Cisto tímico como diagnóstico diferencial de doença aguda da aorta torácica Thymic cyst as a differencial diagnosis of acute thoracic aortic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gradim Tiveron

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Paciente encaminhada de outro serviço com história de dor torácica aguda de forte intensidade com diagnóstico de hematoma intramural na aorta ascendente para correção cirúrgica. Após investigação diagnóstica, identificou-se tumoração cística no mediastino anterior, que envolvia toda a aorta ascendente e que produzia restrição ao enchimento diastólico do ventrículo direito. A análise histológica do tumor ressecado revelou o diagnóstico de cisto tímico. Objetivo deste relato é descrever tumoração mediastinal de baixa prevalência, que pode produzir imagem radiológica com características de hematoma intramural e resultar em conduta terapêutica equivocada.Patient was referred to our Service with acute thoracic pain and diagnosis of intramural hematoma of the ascending aorta for surgical correction. The diagnostic investigation showed a cystic tumor involving the ascending aorta causing restriction of the right ventricular inflow. After resection, the histologic analysis disclosed the diagnosis of thymic cyst. The aim of this study is to describe a rare mediastinal tumor that may simulate a radiologic feature with characteristics of intramural hematoma and may result in a wrong therapeutic approach.

  9. Preoperative computer tomography evaluation in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groudeva, V.; Stoynova, V.; Trendafilova, D.; Dzhorgova, Y.; Nachev, G.

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is rapidly emerging technique alternative to surgery in high risk patients. Imaging and especially computer tomography is important in preoperative assessment of the aortic ring and the prosthetic valve choice. The aim of this study is to share authors initial experience in CT assessment of the aortic ring prior to Transcatheter aortic valve replacement. 49 patients (mean age 76,55) underwent 320 rows MDCT (Acquilon One) prior TAVI. Protocol involved scanning from thoracic inlet to common femoral arteries. Aortic root size, aortic diameter at the level of coronary sinuses and the sinotubular junction and distance to coronary ostia were evaluated on a Vitrea work station. MDCT established maximal aortic ring diameter from 18 to 31 mm mean 25,04 mm while the lesser rate was from 16 to 21 mm. Accordingly positioned prostheses were in 34,75% No. 23, in 49% - No. 26 and in16,3% - No. 29. MDCT is crucial in aortic valve assessment prior to TAVI in experienced hands and multidisciplinary team. (authors) Key words: TRANSCATHETER AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT (TAVI). MDCT AORTIC VALVE ASSESSMENT

  10. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Severe Aortic Regurgitation With Acute Refractory Cardiogenic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkouty, Guy; Amabile, Nicolas; Zannis, Konstantinos; Veugeois, Aurélie; Caussin, Christophe

    2018-03-01

    From January 2013 to January 2017, 686 consecutive patients were referred to our centre for transcatheter aortic valve replacement, including 5 subjects with severe aortic regurgitation and acute refractory cardiogenic shock. These patients were contraindicated for surgical treatment by the heart team because of high surgical risk (median logistic EuroSCORE: 74.6/Society of Thoracic Surgeons score: 37.9). The success rate of valve implantation was 100% through transfemoral access with self-expandable devices. The observed 30-day mortality rate was 20%. Hence, the transcatheter aortic valve replacement procedure might represent a successful and life-saving intervention for treatment of patients with severe aortic regurgitation who present with acute refractory cardiogenic shock. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutations in a TGF-β Ligand, TGFB3, Cause Syndromic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli Avella, Aida; Gillis, Elisabeth; Morisaki, Hiroko; Verhagen, Judith; Graaf, Bianca; Van De Beek, Gerarda; Gallo, Elena; Kruithof, Boudewijn; Venselaar, Hanka; Myers, Loretha; Laga, Steven; Doyle, Alexander; Oswald, Gretchen; Cappellen, Gert; Yamanaka, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractBACKGROUND Aneurysms affecting the aorta are a common condition associated with high mortality as a result of aortic dissection or rupture. Investigations of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in syndromic types of thoracic aortic aneurysms, such as Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndromes, have revealed an important contribution of disturbed transforming growth factor (TGF)-b signaling. OBJECTIVES This study sought to discover a novel gene causing syndromic aortic aneurysms in order ...

  12. Thoracic spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic spine pain, or thoracalgia, is one of the common reasons for seeking for medical advice. The epidemiology and semiotics of pain in the thoracic spine unlike in those in the cervical and lumbar spine have not been inadequately studied. The causes of thoracic spine pain are varied: diseases of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and renal systems, injuries to the musculoskeletal structures of the cervical and thoracic portions, which require a thorough differential diagnosis. Facet, costotransverse, and costovertebral joint injuries and myofascial syndrome are the most common causes of musculoskeletal (nonspecific pain in the thoracic spine. True radicular pain is rarely encountered. Traditionally, treatment for thoracalgia includes a combination of non-drug and drug therapies. The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor meloxicam (movalis may be the drug of choice in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain.

  13. Aortic Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow a low-salt diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables and whole grains and exercise regularly. Wear a seat belt. This reduces the risk of traumatic injury to your chest area. Work with your doctor. If you have a family history of aortic dissection, a connective tissue disorder or ...

  14. Erosion of elephant trunk Dacron graft limb by thoracic endograft causing acute aneurysm expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrenbacher, John W; McCready, Robert A

    2009-02-01

    We recently treated a patient in whom a Gore TAG thoracic endograft (W.L. Gore and Assoc, Flagstaff, Arix) had been used to repair a descending thoracic aneurysm as the second stage of a hybrid procedure. This patient had previously undergone repair of ascending and aortic arch aneurysms, with an elephant trunk graft limb placed in the descending thoracic aorta for subsequent repair of the descending thoracic aneurysm. Eight months after placement of the thoracic endograft, the patient presented with an acutely expanding and symptomatic thoracic aneurysm. The patient was operated on urgently. The proximal portion of the endograft had eroded into the previously placed Dacron elephant trunk limb. The proximal portion of the endograft was removed and was replaced with a Dacron graft. The management of this patient forms the basis of this report.

  15. Delayed Death from Complete Aortic Transection: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakda Sathirareuangchai, M.D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Blunt chest trauma is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in road traffic accident. One of the life- threatening injuries is traumatic aortic injury. The authors reported a case of delayed death from blunt chest trauma in a young Thai male, who had a traffic accident 2 weeks prior to his death. The autopsy revealed complete transection of thoracic aorta at the isthmus and false aneurysm formation. The clinical findings and mechanism of traumatic aortic injury are reviewed. Traumatic aortic injury is a fatal blunt chest trauma in which the victims rarely survive to the hospital. Prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment can decrease morbidity and mortality.

  16. Aortic Dissection Type A in Alpine Skiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schachner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients and Methods. 140 patients with aortic dissection type A were admitted for cardiac surgery. Seventy-seven patients experienced their dissection in the winter season (from November to April. We analyzed cases of ascending aortic dissection associated with alpine skiing. Results. In 17 patients we found skiing-related aortic dissections. Skiers were taller (180 (172–200 cm versus 175 (157–191 cm, and heavier (90 (68–125 kg versus 80 (45–110 kg, than nonskiers. An extension of aortic dissection into the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta was found in 91%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, with no significant difference between skiers and nonskiers. Skiers experienced RCA ostium dissection requiring CABG in 17.6% while this was true for 5% of nonskiers (. Hospital mortality of skiers was 6% versus 13% in nonskiers (. The skiers live at an altitude of 170 (0–853 m.a.s.l. and experience their dissection at 1602 (1185–3105; m.a.s.l. In 82% symptom start was during recreational skiing without any trauma. Conclusion. Skiing associated aortic dissection type A is usually nontraumatic. The persons affected live at low altitudes and practice an outdoor sport at unusual high altitude at cold temperatures. Postoperative outcome is good.

  17. Aortic Dissection Type A in Alpine Skiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Fischler, Nikolaus; Dumfarth, Julia; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Krapf, Christoph; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Grimm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patients and Methods. 140 patients with aortic dissection type A were admitted for cardiac surgery. Seventy-seven patients experienced their dissection in the winter season (from November to April). We analyzed cases of ascending aortic dissection associated with alpine skiing. Results. In 17 patients we found skiing-related aortic dissections. Skiers were taller (180 (172–200) cm versus 175 (157–191) cm, P = 0.008) and heavier (90 (68–125) kg versus 80 (45–110) kg, P = 0.002) than nonskiers. An extension of aortic dissection into the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta was found in 91%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, with no significant difference between skiers and nonskiers. Skiers experienced RCA ostium dissection requiring CABG in 17.6% while this was true for 5% of nonskiers (P = 0.086). Hospital mortality of skiers was 6% versus 13% in nonskiers (P = 0.399). The skiers live at an altitude of 170 (0–853) m.a.s.l. and experience their dissection at 1602 (1185–3105; P < 0.001) m.a.s.l. In 82% symptom start was during recreational skiing without any trauma. Conclusion. Skiing associated aortic dissection type A is usually nontraumatic. The persons affected live at low altitudes and practice an outdoor sport at unusual high altitude at cold temperatures. Postoperative outcome is good. PMID:23971024

  18. Comparison of ascending aortic cohesion between patients with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis and regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedik, Jaroslav; Dohle, Daniel S; Wendt, Daniel; Pilarczyk, Kevin; Price, Vivien; Mourad, Fanar; Zykina, Elizaveta; Stebner, Ferdinand; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Jakob, Heinz

    2014-12-01

    A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is commonly associated with aortic wall abnormalities, including dilatation of the ascending aorta and increased potential for aortic dissection. We compared the mechanical properties of the aortic wall of BAV patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS) and regurgitation (AR) using a dissectometer, a device mimicking transverse aortic wall shear stress. Between March 2010 and February 2013, 85 consecutive patients with bicuspid aortic valve undergoing open aortic valve replacement at our institution were prospectively enrolled, presenting either with stenosis (Group 1, n = 58) or regurgitation (Group 2, n = 27). Aortic wall cohesion measured by the dissectometer (Parameters P7, P8 and P9), aortic diameters measured by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) and thickness of the wall were compared. One patient presenting with the Marfan syndrome was excluded from the study. Patients with aortic regurgitation were significantly younger (48.2 ± 15.8 vs 64.7 ± 10.7, P group (27.3 ± 3.6 vs 25.5 ± 2.4, P = 0.008; 41.1 ± 7.7 vs 36.7 ± 8.0, P = 0.011; 37.6 ± 9.7 vs 33.8 ± 9.1, P = 0.049). The ascending aortic diameter did not differ (43.2 ± 10.6 vs 40.3 ± 9.1, P = 0.292). Patients with AR had significantly worse aortic cohesion, as measured by shear stress testing (P7: 97.2 ± 45.0 vs 145.5 ± 84.9, P = 0.015; P8: 2.00 ± 0.65 vs 3.82 ± 1.56, P cohesion, a thicker aortic wall and a larger aortic root in patients presenting with bicuspid AR compared with patients with AS. These results suggest that bicuspid AR represents a different disease process with possible involvement of the ascending aorta, as demonstrated by dissectometer examination. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Relation between thoracic aortic inflammation and features of plaque vulnerability in the coronary tree in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. An FDG-positron emission tomography and optical coherence tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taglieri, Nevio; Ghetti, Gabriele; Saia, Francesco; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Rapezzi, Claudio [Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Istituto di Cardiologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Bologna (Italy); Nanni, Cristina; Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Lima, Giacomo Maria; Fanti, Stefano [Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Bologna (Italy); Marco, Valeria [CLI Foundation, Rome (Italy); Prati, Francesco [CLI Foundation, Rome (Italy); Ettore Sansavini Health Science Foundation, GVM Care and Research, Cotignola (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between aortic inflammation as assessed by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) and features of plaque vulnerability as assessed by frequency domain-optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). We enrolled 30 consecutive non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. All patients underwent three-vessel OCT before intervention and {sup 18}F-FDG-PET before discharge. Univariable and C-reactive protein (CRP)-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed between features of vulnerability [namely:lipid-rich plaques with and without macrophages and thin cap fibroatheromas (TCFA)] and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in both ascending (AA) and descending aorta (DA) [measured either as averaged mean and maximum target-to-blood ratio (TBR) or as active slices (TBR{sub max} ≥ 1.6)]. Mean age was 62 years, and 26 patients were male. On univariable linear regression analysis TBR{sub mean} and TBR{sub max} in DA was associated with the number of lipid-rich plaques (β = 4.22; 95%CI 0.05-8.39; p = 0.047 and β = 3.72; 95%CI 1.14-6.30; p = 0.006, respectively). TBR{sub max} in DA was also associated with the number of lipid-rich plaques containing macrophages (β = 2.40; 95%CI 0.07-4.72; p = 0.044). A significant CRP adjusted linear association between the TBR{sub max} in DA and the number of lipid-rich plaques was observed (CRP-adjusted β = 3.58; 95%CI -0.91-6.25; p = 0.01). TBR{sub max} in DA showed a trend towards significant CRP-adjusted association with number of lipid-rich plaques with macrophages (CRP-adjusted β = 2.30; 95%CI -0.11-4.71; p = 0.06). We also observed a CRP-adjusted (β = 2.34; 95%CI 0.22-4.47; p = 0.031) linear association between the number of active slices in DA and the number of lipid-rich plaques. No relation was found between FDG uptake in the aorta and the number of TCFAs. In patients with first NSTEACS{sup ,} {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in

  20. Aortic Graft at Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery as a Source of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostina, Daria; Zverev, Dmitry; Grebennik, Vadim; Gordeev, Mikhail; Ignatieva, Elena; Voronkina, Irina; Kostareva, Anna; Malashicheva, Anna

    2017-10-01

    One of the serious obstacles of the aortopathies research is a considerable shortage of human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which can be used to model the disease. SMC in most cases come from the whole aorta of transplant donors, which are rather difficult to access. In the course of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, a fragment of aortic tissue is excised to make a bypass root. In this study, we show a possibility to use CABG leftover fragments of thoracic aorta as a source of human SMC for in vitro research. We isolated SMC from the fragments of aortic tissues obtained during CABG procedure and compared these cells to the cells that were isolated from aortic tissue of transplant donors. The content of key SMC contractile markers (SMA, SM22α, and vimentin) as well as proliferation and migration rates, metalloproteases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were similar in CABG-derived SMC and in transplant donor-derived SMC. In conclusion, leftovers of ascending thoracic aorta obtained during CABG can be used as a source of human aortic SMCs for in vitro research.

  1. Lower thoracic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Nazim

    2017-01-01

    The role of thoracic spine related dysfunction in producing lower extremity symptoms is not clear. This case study describes the assessment and treatment of a patient with low back pain and bilateral lower extremity (BLE) symptoms. It was found that patient education about postural awareness and passive mobilization are valuable aids to decrease BLE symptoms due to sympathetic nervous system (SNS) dysfunction and lower thoracic hypomobility. The clinicians need to consider examination and treatment of the lower thoracic area in patients with BLE symptoms. More research is required to explore the role of SNS dysfunction in producing BLE symptoms.

  2. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  3. Aortic Valve Regurgitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correct direction. These valves include the mitral valve, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve and aortic valve. Each valve has ... Causes of aortic valve regurgitation include: Congenital heart valve disease. You may have been born with an aortic ...

  4. Re-interventions on the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenhoff, Florian S.; Carrel, Thierry P.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of multi-gene panel genetic testing and the discovery of new syndromic and non-syndromic forms of connective tissue disorders have established thoracic aortic aneurysms as a genetically mediated disease. Surgical results in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) provide an important benchmark for this patient population. Prophylactic aortic root surgery prevents acute dissection and has contributed to the improved survival of MFS patients. In the majority of patients, re-interventions...

  5. Predictors of aortic growth in uncomplicated type B aortic dissection from the Acute Dissection Stent Grafting or Best Medical Treatment (ADSORB) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamman, Arnoud V; Brunkwall, Jan; Verhoeven, Eric L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The high-risk patient cohort of uncomplicated type B aortic dissections (uTBADs) needs to be clarified. We compared uTBAD patients treated with best medical treatment (BMT), with and without aortic growth, from the Acute Dissection Stent Grafting or Best Medical Treatment (ADSORB) trial...... database. Furthermore, we looked for trends in outcome for aortic growth and remodeling after BMT and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and BMT (TEVAR+BMT). METHODS: BMT patients with available baseline and a 1-year follow-up arterial computed tomography scan were identified. True lumen and false...

  6. Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Common Questions & Glossary Resources ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome (TIS) ...

  7. Nanotechnology in Thoracic Surgery*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Morgan D.; Khullar, Onkar; Frangioni, John V.; Grinstaff, Mark W.; Colson, Yolonda L.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and rapidly progressive field offering potential solutions to multiple challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer, with the potential for improving imaging and mapping techniques, drug delivery and ablative therapy. With promising preclinical results in many applications directly applicable to thoracic oncology, it is possible that the frontiers of minimally invasive thoracic surgery will eventually be explored on a nanoscale. PMID:20494008

  8. Understanding Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Freischlag, Julie; Orion, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome was once debated in the world of vascular surgery. Today, it is more understood and surprisingly less infrequent than once thought. Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is composed of three types: neurogenic, venous, and arterial. Each type is in distinction to the others when considering patient presentation and diagnosis. Remarkable advances have been made in surgical approach, physical therapy, and rehabilitation of these patients. Dedicated centers of e...

  9. 2D MR angiography of the aortic aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanuma, Makoto; Hasegawa, Makoto; Watabe, Tsuneya; Heshiki, Atsuko

    1992-01-01

    2D time-of-flight MR angiography was performed in 6 cases of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Oblique saturation pulses were used to suppress the signals of the pulmonary artery and SVC, providing excellent selective MR aortograms. Three dimensional extension of the aneurysm and its relation with cervical branches were easily assessed. It could be possible to replace invasive aortography by this technique. (author)

  10. The incidence of contrast medium-induced nephropathy following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair: assessment of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneyli, Serkan; Bozkaya, Halil; Cinar, Celal; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Duman, Soner; Acar, Turker; Akin, Yigit; Parildar, Mustafa; Oran, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) and risk factors for CIN following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair or thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. After exclusion criteria, 139 (121 males, 18 females) patients aged 20-86 (median 65.5) years who underwent endovascular aortic aneurysm repair between January 2002 and September 2013 were included in this retrospective study. CIN, with ≥25% increase in serum creatinine levels within 3 days after contrast medium administration, was compared to the patients' demographics, risk factors, type and complexity of the endovascular operation, parameters regarding to the contrast medium, preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and preoperative and early postoperative serum parameters. Statistical analyses were performed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, χ (2) and Student's t tests. CIN, detected in 39 of 139 patients (28%), was correlated with preoperative eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (P = 0.04) and high preoperative and postoperative serum urea and creatinine levels. Postoperative serum urea levels (P < 0.001) were significant in multivariate analysis. In patients undergoing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair, CIN was correlated with preoperative and postoperative renal impairment, while it was not correlated with the contrast medium dose.

  11. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, John E; Lebus V, George F; Bible, Jesse E

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is a well-described disorder caused by thoracic outlet compression of the brachial plexus and/or the subclavian vessels. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is the most common manifestation, presenting with pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and vasomotor changes of the upper extremity. Vascular complications of thoracic outlet syndrome are uncommon and include thromboembolic phenomena and swelling. The clinical presentation is highly variable, and no reproducible study exists to confirm the diagnosis; instead, the diagnosis is based on a physician's judgment after a meticulous history and physical examination. Both nonsurgical and surgical treatment methods are available for thoracic outlet syndrome. Whereas nonsurgical management appears to be effective in some persons, surgical treatment has been shown to provide predictable long-term cure rates for carefully selected patients. In addition, physicians who do not regularly treat patients with thoracic outlet syndrome may not have an accurate view of this disorder, its treatment, or the possible success rate of treatment. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  12. Selective Aortic Arch and Root Replacement in Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Fernando; Elsayed, Ramsey S; Cohen, Robbin G; Tatum, James M; Kumar, S Ram; Kazerouni, Kayvan; Mack, Wendy J; Barr, Mark L; Cunningham, Mark J; Hackmann, Amy E; Baker, Craig J; Starnes, Vaughn A; Bowdish, Michael E

    2018-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding the optimal extent of repair for type A aortic dissection. Our approach is to replace the ascending aorta, and only replace the aortic root or arch when intimal tears are present in those areas. We examined intermediate outcomes with this approach to acute type A aortic dissection repair. Between March 2005 and October 2016, 195 patients underwent repair of acute type A aortic dissection. Repair was categorized by site of proximal and distal anastomosis and extent of repair. Mean follow-up was 31.0 ± 30.9 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess survival. Multiple variable Cox proportional hazards modeling was utilized to identify factors associated with overall mortality. Overall survival was 85.1%, 83.9%, 79.1%, and 74.4% at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months, respectively. Eight patients required reintervention. The cumulative incidence of aortic reintervention at 1 year with death as a competing outcome was 3.95%. Multiple variable regression analysis identified factors such as age, preoperative renal failure, concomitant thoracic endograft, postoperative myocardial infarction and sepsis, and need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as predictive of overall mortality. Neither proximal or distal extent of repair, nor need for reintervention affected overall survival (proximal: hazard ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.75 to 3.51, p = 0.22; distal: hazard ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.43 to 2.97, p = 0.81; reintervention: hazard ratio 0.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.002 to 0.490, p < 0.01). A selective approach to root and arch repair in acute type A aortic dissection is safe. If aortic reintervention is needed, survival does not appear to be affected. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stratification of complexity in congenital heart surgery: comparative study of the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) method, Aristotle basic score and Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio- Thoracic Surgery (STS-EACTS) mortality score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo Ernando Ferraz; Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Santos, Cecília Andrade dos; Esmeraldo, Isaac Melo; Chaves, Mariana Leal; Lins, Ricardo Felipe de Albuquerque; Lima, Ricardo de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether stratification of complexity models in congenital heart surgery (RACHS-1, Aristotle basic score and STS-EACTS mortality score) fit to our center and determine the best method of discriminating hospital mortality. Surgical procedures in congenital heart diseases in patients under 18 years of age were allocated to the categories proposed by the stratification of complexity methods currently available. The outcome hospital mortality was calculated for each category from the three models. Statistical analysis was performed to verify whether the categories presented different mortalities. The discriminatory ability of the models was determined by calculating the area under the ROC curve and a comparison between the curves of the three models was performed. 360 patients were allocated according to the three methods. There was a statistically significant difference between the mortality categories: RACHS-1 (1) - 1.3%, (2) - 11.4%, (3)-27.3%, (4) - 50 %, (PAristotle basic score (1) - 1.1%, (2) - 12.2%, (3) - 34%, (4) - 64.7%, (PAristotle- 0.766. The three models of stratification of complexity currently available in the literature are useful with different mortalities between the proposed categories with similar discriminatory capacity for hospital mortality.

  14. Initial experience with the treatment of concomitant aortic pseudoaneurysm and thoracolumbar spinal fracture: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zsolt Kovari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One blunt abdominal aortic disruption (BAAD and one blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI case are presented. Both aortic injuries were combined with spinal fractures. In the BAAD case the aortic pseudoaneurysm manifested just above the lumbar fracture while in the BTAI case the aortic injury appeared several vertebras below the thoracal fracture site, suggesting different mechanisms in the aortic wall damage. In both cases the aortic wall first was sealed, successfully, by endovascularly-placed stents, meaning the risks of open aortic reconstructive surgery could be avoided. The adjacent crucial vessel's preservation, despite the stent covering the left subclavian artery and the left common carotid artery in one of the cases was verified by post-operative computed tomography angiography (CTA examination. In second stage those spinal fractures which were deemed unstable were stabilized by the fixateur interne (a transpedicular screw-rod system. With this treatment sequence we wanted to avoid the unnecessary risk of a possible rupture of the unsealed aortic wall during positioning for the spinal procedure and during the spinal surgery. Both patients recovered from their aortic and spinal injuries.

  15. Stratification of complexity in congenital heart surgery: comparative study of the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) method, Aristotle basic score and Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio- Thoracic Surgery (STS-EACTS) mortality score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paulo Ernando Ferraz; Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; dos Santos, Cecília Andrade; Esmeraldo, Isaac Melo; Chaves, Mariana Leal; Lins, Ricardo Felipe de Albuquerque; Lima, Ricardo de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether stratification of complexity models in congenital heart surgery (RACHS-1, Aristotle basic score and STS-EACTS mortality score) fit to our center and determine the best method of discriminating hospital mortality. Methods Surgical procedures in congenital heart diseases in patients under 18 years of age were allocated to the categories proposed by the stratification of complexity methods currently available. The outcome hospital mortality was calculated for each category from the three models. Statistical analysis was performed to verify whether the categories presented different mortalities. The discriminatory ability of the models was determined by calculating the area under the ROC curve and a comparison between the curves of the three models was performed. Results 360 patients were allocated according to the three methods. There was a statistically significant difference between the mortality categories: RACHS-1 (1) - 1.3%, (2) - 11.4%, (3)-27.3%, (4) - 50 %, (P<0.001); Aristotle basic score (1) - 1.1%, (2) - 12.2%, (3) - 34%, (4) - 64.7%, (P<0.001); and STS-EACTS mortality score (1) - 5.5 %, (2) - 13.6%, (3) - 18.7%, (4) - 35.8%, (P<0.001). The three models had similar accuracy by calculating the area under the ROC curve: RACHS-1- 0.738; STS-EACTS-0.739; Aristotle- 0.766. Conclusion The three models of stratification of complexity currently available in the literature are useful with different mortalities between the proposed categories with similar discriminatory capacity for hospital mortality. PMID:26107445

  16. Aortic regurgitation after valve-sparing aortic root replacement: modes of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takanori; Okita, Yutaka; Matsumori, Masamichi; Okada, Kenji; Minami, Hitoshi; Munakata, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akiko; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Omura, Atsushi; Nomura, Takuo

    2011-11-01

    Despite the positive clinical results of valve-sparing aortic root replacement, little is known about the causes of reoperations and the modes of failure. From October 1999 to June 2010, 101 patients underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement using the David reimplantation technique. The definition of aortic root repair failure included the following: (1) intraoperative conversion to the Bentall procedure; (2) reoperation performed because of aortic regurgitation; and (3) aortic regurgitation equal to or greater than a moderate degree at the follow-up. Sixteen patients were considered to have repair failure. Three patients required intraoperative conversion to valve replacement, 3 required reoperation within 3 months, and another 8 required reoperation during postoperative follow-up. At initial surgery 5 patients had moderate to severe aortic regurgitation, 6 patients had acute aortic dissections, 3 had Marfan syndrome, 2 had status post Ross operations, 3 had bicuspid aortic valves, and 1 had aortitis. Five patients had undergone cusp repair, including Arantius plication in 3 and plication at the commissure in 2. The causes of early failure in 6 patients included cusp perforation (3), cusp prolapse (3), and severe hemolysis (1). The causes of late failure in 10 patients included cusp prolapse (4), commissure dehiscence (3), torn cusp (2), and cusp retraction (1). Patients had valve replacements at a mean of 23 ± 20.9 months after reimplantation and survived. Causes of early failure after valve-sparing root replacement included technical failure, cusp lesions, and steep learning curve. Late failure was caused by aortic root wall degeneration due to gelatin-resorcin-formalin glue, cusp degeneration, or progression of cusp prolapse. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blunt traumatic aortic injuries of the ascending aorta and aortic arch: a clinical multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Victor X; Marini, Milagros; Muñiz, Javier; Gulias, Daniel; Asorey-Veiga, Vanesa; Adrio-Nazar, Belen; Herrera, José M; Pradas-Montilla, Gonzalo; Cuenca, José J

    2013-09-01

    To report the clinical and radiological characteristics, management and outcomes of traumatic ascending aorta and aortic arch injuries. Historic cohort multicentre study including 17 major trauma patients with traumatic aortic injury from January 2000 to January 2011. The most common mechanism of blunt trauma was motor-vehicle crash (47%) followed by motorcycle crash (41%). Patients sustaining traumatic ascending aorta or aortic arch injuries presented a high proportion of myocardial contusion (41%); moderate or greater aortic valve regurgitation (12%); haemopericardium (35%); severe head injuries (65%) and spinal cord injury (23%). The 58.8% of the patients presented a high degree aortic injury (types III and IV). Expected in-hospital mortality was over 50% as defined by mean TRISS 59.7 (SD 38.6) and mean ISS 48.2 (SD 21.6) on admission. Observed in-hospital mortality was 53%. The cause of death was directly related to the ATAI in 45% of cases, head and abdominal injuries being the cause of death in the remaining 55% cases. Long-term survival was 46% at 1 year, 39% at 5 years, and 19% at 10 years. Traumatic aortic injuries of the ascending aorta/arch should be considered in any major thoracic trauma patient presenting cardiac tamponade, aortic valve regurgitation and/or myocardial contusion. These aortic injuries are also associated with a high incidence of neurological injuries, which can be just as lethal as the aortic injury, so treatment priorities should be modulated on an individual basis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency use of cardiopulmonary bypass in complicated transcatheter aortic valve replacement: importance of a heart team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Eric E; Idrees, Jay; Mick, Stephanie; Kapadia, Samir; Tuzcu, Murat; Svensson, Lars G; Lytle, Bruce W

    2014-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) expands options for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis but is complex with life-threatening complications. We describe indications for use of salvage cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and assess outcomes. From 2006 to 2011, 303 patients underwent TAVR, and 12 (4%) required emergency CPB. Approach was transapical (9) and transfemoral (3). Mean age was 82±9 years, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 11 and mean gradient was 46±9 mm Hg. Access for CPB was femoral under fluoroscopy. Principal indication for CPB was hemodynamic instability with or without ischemic changes. These resulted from aortic insufficiency (n=5), valve embolization (n=3), coronary malperfusion (n=2), bleeding requiring pericardiocentesis (n=1), and bleeding from ventricular apex (n=1). Additional procedures included valve-in-valve TAVR (n=5), surgical valve replacement (n=3), and coronary intervention (n=2). Additional circulatory support was used in 7 cases: intra-aortic balloon pump (5) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (3). There were 2 hospital deaths. Mean postoperative gradient was 12±9 mm Hg, and median stay was 16 days. There were no myocardial infarctions or renal failure. One patient had stroke with arm weakness, 2 required tracheostomy, and 2 underwent reoperations for bleeding. Median follow-up was 19 months, and there were 5 late deaths. Complications during TAVR can be life threatening and may necessitate additional procedures. Expeditious use of CPB support provided by a multidisciplinary heart team optimizes rescue after myocardial collapse. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-derived ascending aortic flow eccentricity and flow compression are linked to aneurysm morphology†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fabian A; Kocher, Nadja; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Tscheuschler, Anke; Meffert, Philipp; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Russe, Maximilian F; Hope, Michael D

    2015-05-01

    The impact of specific blood flow patterns within ascending aortic and/or aortic root aneurysms on aortic morphology is unknown. We investigated the interrelation of ascending aortic flow compression/peripheralization and aneurysm morphology with respect to sinotubuar junction (STJ) definition. Thirty-one patients (aortic root/ascending aortic aneurysm >45 mm) underwent flow-sensitive 4D magnetic resonance thoracic aortic flow measurement at 3 Tesla (Siemens, Germany) at two different institutions (Freiburg, Germany, and San Francisco, CA, USA). Time-resolved image data post-processing and visualization of mid-systolic, mid-ascending aortic flow were performed using local vector fields. The Flow Compression Index (FCI) was calculated individually as a fraction of the area of high-velocity mid-systolic flow over the complete cross-sectional ascending aortic area. According to aortic aneurysm morphology, patients were grouped as (i) small root, eccentric ascending aortic aneurysm (STJ definition) and (ii) enlarged aortic root, non-eccentric ascending aortic aneurysm with diffuse root and tubular enlargement. The mean FCI over all patients was 0.47 ± 0.5 (0.37-0.99). High levels of flow compression/peripheralization (FCI 0.8) occurred more often in Group B (n = 20). The FCI was 0.48 ± 0.05 in Group A and 0.78 ± 0.14 in Group B (P valve (P = 0.6) and type of valve dysfunction (P = 0.22 for aortic stenosis) was not found to be different between groups. Irrespective of aortic valve morphology and function, ascending aortic blood flow patterns are linked to distinct patterns of ascending aortic aneurysm morphology. Implementation of quantitative local blood flow analyses might help to improve aneurysm risk stratification in the future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Aortic valve bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens T; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Arendrup, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In aortic valve bypass (AVB) a valve-containing conduit is connecting the apex of the left ventricle to the descending aorta. Candidates are patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis rejected for conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). ...

  1. Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    with tricuspid aortic valves matched for age, gender and grade of valvular disease . These studies suggest that the predisposition for aortic...enlargement in healthy patients with normally functioning BAV when compared to healthy subjects with normally functioning tricuspid aortic valves ...ascending aorta but also in the pulmonary arteries of patients with BAV, compared to that of patients with tricuspid aortic valves . These studies

  2. Equine pericardial roll graft replacement of infected pseudoaneurysm of the aortic arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Resection of the infected aorta, debridement of the surrounding tissue, in situ graft replacement, and omentopexy is the standard procedure for treating infected aortic aneurysms, but the question of which graft material is optimal is still a matter of controversy. We recently treated a patient with an infected thoracic aortic aneurysm. The aneurysm was located in the proximal aortic arch. Because the patients had previously undergone abdominal surgery, the aortic arch were replaced in situ with a branched equine pericardial roll grafts. The patient is alive and well 23 months after the operation.

  3. Research of Customized Aortic Stent Graft Manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xin; Liu, Muhan

    2017-03-01

    Thoracic descending aorta diseases include aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm, of which the natural mortality rate is extremely high. At present, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been widely used as an effective means for the treatment of descending aortic disease. Most of the existing coating stents are standard design, which are unable to meet the size or structure of different patients. As a result, failure of treatment would be caused by dimensional discrepancy between stent and vessels, which could lead to internal leakage or rupture of blood vessels. Therefore, based on rapid prototyping sacrificial core - coating forming (RPSC-CF), a customized aortic stent graft manufactured technique has been proposed in this study. The aortic stent graft consists of film and metallic stent, so polyether polyurethane (PU) and nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy with good biocompatibility were chosen. To minimum film thickness without degrading performance, effect of different dip coating conditions on the thickness of film were studied. To make the NiTi alloy exhibit super-elasticity at body temperature (37°C), influence of different heat treatment conditions on austenite transformation temperature (Af) and mechanical properties were studied. The results show that the customized stent grafts could meet the demand of personalized therapy, and have good performance in blasting pressure and radial support force, laying the foundation for further animal experiment and clinical experiment.

  4. Not at random location of atherosclerotic lesions in thoracic aorta and their prognostic significance in relation to the risk of cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewski, Jarosław; Głowacki, Jan; Poloński, Lech

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic calcium deposits are frequently detected on tomography of the chest, and in other imaging modalities. Numerous studies indicated the correlation of hemodynamic parameters such as wall shear stress in relation to distribution aortic calcifications. This publication discusses similarities and differences of two distinct pathomechanisms of arterial calcifications: intimal associated with atherosclerosis and medial knows as Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis. This review also analyzes the frequent coexistence of aortic calcification and coronary artery disease in terms of risk of cardiovascular events

  5. Congenital thoracic vascular anomalies: evaluation with state-of-the-art MR imaging and MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Jeffrey C; Daubert, Melissa; Lee, Edward Y; Epelman, Monica

    2011-09-01

    Congenital thoracic vascular anomalies include embryologic developmental disorders of the thoracic aorta, aortic arch branch arteries, pulmonary arteries, thoracic systemic veins, and pulmonary veins. Diagnostic evaluation of these anomalies in pediatric patients has evolved with innovations in diagnostic imaging technology. State-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR angiography multidetector-row computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography, and advanced postprocessing visualization techniques offer accurate and reliable high-resolution two-dimensional and three-dimensional noninvasive anatomic displays for interpretation and clinical management of congenital thoracic vascular anomalies. This article reviews vascular MR imaging, MR angiography, MDCT angiography, and advanced visualization techniques and applications for the assessment of congenital thoracic vascular anomalies, emphasizing clinical embryology and the characteristic imaging findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Surgical results for aortic involvement in Marfan syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiiya, N; Matsuzaki, K; Maruyama, R; Kunihara, T; Murashita, T; Aoki, H; Yasuda, K

    2002-07-01

    From 1991 through 2001, 21 Marfan patients underwent aortic operations in our hospital. They received a total of 36 aortic operations, 31 by ourselves including 4 non-elective operations and 2 operations before 1991. Extent of replacement was Bentall + total arch (4), Bentall (8), valve sparing aortic root (reimplantation) (2), re-anastomosis + coronary aortic bypass grafting (CABG) after Bentall (1), ascending + total arch (3), ascending (1), total arch (1), total thoracoabdominal (10), thoracoabdominal (1), descending thoracic (2), distal arch (1), abdominal (2). Multiple operations were required in 11 patients (2 operations in 7, 3 operations in 4). Eight reoperations in 6 patients were for adjacent lesion, 5 reoperations were for remote lesion, and 2 others were for complication of Bentall (initial operation elsewhere). Among the 8 reoperations for adjacent lesion, 3 were scheduled operation (2 with elephant trunk), 4 were for residual dissection, and 1 was for annulo-aortic ectasia (AAE). Total aortic replacement was achieved in 4 and subtotal replacement excluding the root in 2. There was no hospital mortality. Paraparesis occurred in 1 who died 4.7 years after operation. The remaining patients are currently alive. No other aortic event occurred. Aortic reoperation-free survival was 83% at 5 year and 28% at 10 year.

  7. Ascending Aorta Stenting After Off-Pump Aortic Wrapping in Stanford A Retrograde Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verscheure, Dorian; Ramadan, Ramzi; Azmoun, Alexandre; Guihaire, Julien; Angel, Claude; Brenot, Philippe; Deleuze, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    We report 4 cases of off-pump ascending aorta wrapping combined with ascending aorta stenting in retrograde Stanford A acute aortic dissection (SAAD). Since 2008, 18 patients have undergone wrapping of the ascending aorta at our institution. Four patients had a persistent circulating false lumen in the ascending aorta after wrapping, with a threat to the aortic root. We chose an endovascular approach with ascending aorta stenting. Follow-up computed tomography showed a reapplication of the intimal flap in the reinforced aorta. Ascending aorta stenting after aortic wrapping for retrograde SAAD is a safe and efficient technique to prevent proximal progression of the dissection. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thoracic endografting is a viable option for the octogenarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventza, Ourania; Bavaria, Joseph; Ramaiah, Venkatesh; Moser, G William; Szeto, Wilson; Wheatley, Grayson; Moeller, Patrick; Rodriquez-Lopez, Julio; Diethrich, Edward

    2010-07-01

    The objective of our study is to determine the feasibility of thoracic aortic endografting in octogenarians. Between 2000 and 2006 a total of 504 consecutive patients from two high-volume institutions underwent thoracic endoluminal graft repair for various thoracic aortic pathologies. The following devices were used: Gore TAG (W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ); Talent (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN); and Zenith (Cook, Inc, Bloomington, IN). One hundred one (101 of 504; 20%) patients were octogenarians; 60 males (1.5:1, M:F) with a mean age of 83.7 years. Indications for intervention included the following: atherosclerotic aneurysms, 75 (75 of 101, 74%); acute and chronic dissections, 11(11 of 101, 11%); penetrating aortic ulcers, 9 (9 of 101, 9%); contained ruptures, 5 (5 of 101, 5%); and 1 transection (1 of 101, 1%). Mean length of follow-up was 3.4 +/- 2.1 years. No intraoperative deaths were noted. Thirty-day mortality was 10% (10 of 101 patients) with an overall late mortality of 26.7% (27 of 101 patients). Mean hospital stay was 6.3 days. A total of 12 neurologic events were noticed: 2 paraplegia (2 of 101, 2%); 4 paraparesis (4 of 101, 4%), 3 with full recovery; and 6 (6 of 101, 6%) cerebrovascular accidents with full recovery in half. A total of 15 endoleaks (15 of 101, 15%) were seen and, in 11, interventions were required. Our data suggest that technical success is high and age-specific outcomes in this group of patients are favorable. Further studies are warranted. Copyright 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Posttraumatic abdominal aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahmann, M.; Richter, G.M.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Schuhmacher, H.; Allenberg, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Dissections due to deceleration trauma are rarely limited to the infradiaphragmal aorta (only 2-3%) and are usually lethal. Here we report the unusual course of an abdominal aortic dissection with aneurysmatic enlargement of the false lumen. Based on diagnostic imaging, a therapeutic stent application was planed in order to close the entry and to prevent rupture. During the intervention sondation of the false lumen revealed that the left renal artery had a reentry. Due to the complexity of the entry - reentry situation of the left renal artery the intervention was not possible, and the patient had to undergo vascular surgery. (orig.) [de

  10. Risk Factors for Late Aortic Valve Dysfunction After the David V Valve-Sparing Root Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Jiro; Leshnower, Bradley G; Binongo, Jose N; Lasanajak, Yi; McPherson, LaRonica; Guyton, Robert A; Chen, Edward P

    2017-11-01

    Valve-sparing root replacement (VSRR) is an established therapy for aortic root pathology. However, late aortic valve dysfunction requiring reoperation remains a primary concern of this procedure. This study examines risk factors for late aortic insufficiency (AI) and aortic stenosis (AS) after David V VSRR. A retrospective review from 2005 to 2015 at a US academic center identified 282 patients who underwent VSRR. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for late AI and AS after VSRR. The mean age was 46.4 years. Sixty-four patients (22.7%) had bicuspid valves, and 41 patients (14.5%) had Marfan syndrome. The incidence of reoperations was 27 (9.6%), and 42 cases (14.9%) presented with acute type A dissection. Operative mortality was 8 (2.8%). Seven-year survival was 90.9%. Seven-year cumulative incidence of reoperation, greater than 2+ AI and greater than moderate AS were 3.1%, 2.2%, and 0.8%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed aortic root size 55 mm or larger (hazard ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.27 to 9.29, p = 0.01) to be a risk factor for late AI whereas bicuspid valve (hazard ratio 16.07, 95% confidence interval: 3.12 to 82.68, p = 0.001) and cusp repair were found to be risk factors (hazard ratio 5.91, 95% confidence interval: 1.17 to 29.86, p = 0.03) for late AS. Valve-sparing root replacement can be performed with low operative risk and good overall long-term survival even in complex clinical settings. Durable valve function can be expected; however, aortic root size 55 cm or more, bicuspid valve anatomy, and cusp repair represent independent risk factors for late aortic valve dysfunction after these procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quadricuspid Aortic Valve Combined with Moderate Ascending Aortic Dilatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiy, Vladimir E.; Osadchii, Alexei M.; Gordeev, Mikhail L.

    2015-01-01

    The quadricuspid aortic valve is a very uncommon malformation associated with aortic insufficiency, aortic stenosis, endocarditis, and ascending aortic dilatation. We report four cases of this aortic valve malformation. One patient with severe aortic regurgitation and moderate aortic dilatation required aortic valve replacement. Three patients had mild or moderate aortic insufficiency combined with moderate ascending aortic dilatation. These patients were referred to follow-up. The presented cases demonstrate that this aortic valve malformation may not be as rare as it appears and that attention must be paid to any quadricuspid findings during computed tomographic angiography and echocardiography. PMID:27390747

  12. New predictor of aortic enlargement in uncomplicated type B aortic dissection based on elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshiro; Kuroda, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Hiroki; Watanabe, Toshitaka; Yasuda, Naomi; Nakazawa, Junji; Harada, Ryo; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to re-examine the conventional predictive factors for dissected aortic enlargement, such as the aortic and false lumen diameter and to consider whether the morphological elements of the dissected aorta could be predictors by quantifying the 'shape' of the true lumen based on elliptic Fourier analysis. A total of 80 patients with uncomplicated type B aortic dissection were included. The patients were divided into 'Enlargement group' and 'No Change group.' Between the 2 groups, the mean systolic blood pressure during follow-up, aortic and false lumen maximum diameters, and analysed morphological data were compared using each statistical method. The maximum aortic and false lumen diameters were significantly larger in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (39.3 vs 35.9 mm; P = 0.0058) (23.5 vs 18.2 mm; P = 0.000095). The principal component 1, which is the data calculated by elliptic Fourier analysis, was significantly lower in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (0.020 vs - 0.072; P = 0.000049). The mean systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg, aortic diameter, false lumen diameter and principal component 1 were included in the Cox proportional hazard model as covariates to determine the significant predictive variable. Principal component 1 demonstrated the only significance with aortic enlargement on multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.32; P = 0.048). The analysed and calculated morphological data of the shape of the true lumen can be more effective predictive factors of aortic enlargement of type B dissection than the conventional factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Society of Thoracic Surgeons Facebook Twitter LinkedIn YouTube Instagram Flickr About STS Governance and Leadership Bylaws Policies ... Tweets by @STS_CTsurgery Facebook Twitter LinkedIn YouTube Instagram Flickr Footer menu Home Contact Us CT Surgery ...

  14. Orthotopic branched endovascular aortic arch repair in patients who cannot undergo classical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Martin; Rylski, Bartosz; Morlock, Julia; Schröfel, Holger; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Saint Lebes, Bertrand; Meyrignac, Olivier; Mokrane, Fatima; Lescan, Mario; Schlensak, Christian; Hazenberg, Constatijn; Bloemert-Tuin, Trijntje; Braithwaite, Sue; van Herwaarden, Joost; Rousseau, Herve

    2018-01-16

    Our goal was to assess the results after orthotopic branched endovascular aortic arch repair using a new double-branch endoprosthesis in patients with thoracic aortic disease affecting the aortic arch who cannot undergo classical surgery. Within a 4-year period, 15 patients with thoracic aortic disease affecting the aortic arch were treated with the Bolton Relay plus double-branch endoprosthesis (Bolton Medical, Sunrise, FL, USA). We assessed clinical outcome, occurrence of endoleaks and the need for secondary interventions. The median logistic EuroSCORE I level was 13.6 (4.2; 22.8). The in-hospital mortality rate was 6.7%. A disabling stroke was observed in 1 (6.7%) patient, whereas non-disabling strokes occurred in 2 (13.3%) patients. Type I and III endoleaks occurred in 6.7%. The median follow-up period was 263 (1st quartile 84; 2nd quartile 564) days. Four patients died during the follow-up period. Aortic-related survival was 100%. Orthotopic branched endovascular aortic arch repair using the Bolton Relay Plus double-branch endoprosthesis is a safe and feasible technique enriching the armamentarium to treat patients with thoracic aortic disease who cannot undergo classical surgery. Aortic-related survival is excellent, and the occurrence of disabling stroke and endoleaks warranting treatment is low. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term durability of this new method. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. RADIOGRAPHIC THORACIC ANATOMY OF THE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-09-01

    The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases. Right lateral (RL) and dorsoventral (DV) inspiratory phase views of the thorax were obtained in 11 adult captive red pandas. Measurements were made and ratios calculated to establish reference ranges for the mean vertebral heart score on the RL (8.34 ± 0.25) and DV (8.78 ± 0.34) views and the mean ratios of the caudal vena cava diameter to the vertebral body length above tracheal bifurcation (0.67 ± 0.05) and tracheal diameter to the width of the third rib (2.75 ± 0.24). The majority of animals (10/11) had 14 thoracic vertebrae, except for one animal that had 15 thoracic vertebrae. Rudimentary clavicles were seen in 3/11 animals. The ovoid, oblique cardiac silhouette was more horizontally positioned and elongated in older animals. A redundant aortic arch was seen in the oldest animal. The trachea was seen with mineralized cartilage rings in all animals. The carina was clearly seen in the majority of animals (10/11). Variations exist in the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of different species. Knowledge of the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the red panda should prove useful for routine health examinations and in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases.

  16. Genetic Bases of Bicuspid Aortic Valve: The Contribution of Traditional and High-Throughput Sequencing Approaches on Research and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Giusti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is a common (0.5–2.0% of general population congenital heart defect with increased prevalence of aortic dilatation and dissection. BAV has an autosomal dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. BAV has been described as an isolated trait or associated with syndromic conditions [e.g., Marfan Marfan syndrome or Loeys-Dietz syndrome (MFS, LDS]. Identification of a syndromic condition in a BAV patient is clinically relevant to personalize aortic surgery indication. A 4-fold increase in BAV prevalence in a large cohort of unrelated MFS patients with respect to general population was reported, as well as in LDS patients (8-fold. It is also known that BAV is more frequent in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA related to mutations in ACTA2, FBN1, and TGFBR2 genes. Moreover, in 8 patients with BAV and thoracic aortic dilation, not fulfilling the clinical criteria for MFS, FBN1 mutations in 2/8 patients were identified suggesting that FBN1 or other genes involved in syndromic conditions correlated to aortopathy could be involved in BAV. Beyond loci associated to syndromic disorders, studies in humans and animal models evidenced/suggested the role of further genes in non-syndromic BAV. The transcriptional regulator NOTCH1 has been associated with the development and acceleration of calcium deposition. Genome wide marker-based linkage analysis demonstrated a linkage of BAV to loci on chromosomes 18, 5, and 13q. Recently, a role for GATA4/5 in aortic valve morphogenesis and endocardial cell differentiation has been reported. BAV has also been associated with a reduced UFD1L gene expression or involvement of a locus containing AXIN1/PDIA2. Much remains to be understood about the genetics of BAV. In the last years, high-throughput sequencing technologies, allowing the analysis of large number of genes or entire exomes or genomes, progressively became available. The latter issue together with

  17. Genetic Bases of Bicuspid Aortic Valve: The Contribution of Traditional and High-Throughput Sequencing Approaches on Research and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Betti; Sticchi, Elena; De Cario, Rosina; Magi, Alberto; Nistri, Stefano; Pepe, Guglielmina

    2017-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common (0.5-2.0% of general population) congenital heart defect with increased prevalence of aortic dilatation and dissection. BAV has an autosomal dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. BAV has been described as an isolated trait or associated with syndromic conditions [e.g., Marfan Marfan syndrome or Loeys-Dietz syndrome (MFS, LDS)]. Identification of a syndromic condition in a BAV patient is clinically relevant to personalize aortic surgery indication. A 4-fold increase in BAV prevalence in a large cohort of unrelated MFS patients with respect to general population was reported, as well as in LDS patients (8-fold). It is also known that BAV is more frequent in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) related to mutations in ACTA2, FBN1 , and TGFBR2 genes. Moreover, in 8 patients with BAV and thoracic aortic dilation, not fulfilling the clinical criteria for MFS, FBN1 mutations in 2/8 patients were identified suggesting that FBN1 or other genes involved in syndromic conditions correlated to aortopathy could be involved in BAV. Beyond loci associated to syndromic disorders, studies in humans and animal models evidenced/suggested the role of further genes in non-syndromic BAV. The transcriptional regulator NOTCH1 has been associated with the development and acceleration of calcium deposition. Genome wide marker-based linkage analysis demonstrated a linkage of BAV to loci on chromosomes 18, 5, and 13q. Recently, a role for GATA4 / 5 in aortic valve morphogenesis and endocardial cell differentiation has been reported. BAV has also been associated with a reduced UFD1L gene expression or involvement of a locus containing AXIN1 / PDIA2 . Much remains to be understood about the genetics of BAV. In the last years, high-throughput sequencing technologies, allowing the analysis of large number of genes or entire exomes or genomes, progressively became available. The latter issue together with the

  18. CT and MR imaging of the thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Cesare Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time, both CT and MRI are valuable techniques in the study of the thoracic aorta. Nowadays, CT represents the most widely employed technique for the study of the thoracic aorta. The new generation CTs show sensitivities up to 100% and specificities of 98-99%. Sixteen and wider row detectors provide isotropic pixels, mandatory for the ineludible longitudinal reconstruction. The main limits are related to the X-ray dose expoure and the use of iodinated contrast media. MRI has great potential in the study of the thoracic aorta. Nevertheless, if compared to CT, acquisition times remain longer and movement artifact susceptibility higher. The main MRI disadvantages are claustrophobia, presence of ferromagnetic implants, pacemakers, longer acquisition times with respect to CT, inability to use contrast media in cases of renal insufficiency, lower spatial resolution and less availability than CT. CT is preferred in the acute aortic disease. Nevertheless, since it requires iodinated contrast media and X-ray exposure, it may be adequately replaced by MRI in the follow up of aortic diseases. The main limitation of MRI, however, is related to the scarce visibility of stents and calcifications.

  19. Mental health status of patients with mechanical aortic valves, with ventricular assist devices and after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Claudia; Kaps, Josefine; Hartmann, Armin; Zeh, Wolfgang; Anjarwalla, Anna Lena; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Siepe, Matthias; Joos, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Mental health is a complex construct, in which emotional aspects and quality of life are central. It has been assessed in patients after heart transplantation (HTX) and occasionally in those with ventricular assist devices (VADs). However, there are no studies that compare patients with primary HTX with those with HTX ending VAD support. Evidence for patients with mechanical aortic valve replacement is also limited. We compared mental outcome for these four groups for the first time. We also focused on the question of an artificial device, i.e. VAD or mechanical aortic valve, as distinct from a biological graft, i.e. HTX. Two questionnaires were applied: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the German version consists of two subscales for anxiety and for depression, and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey, the German version contains two subscales for physical and for mental performance measuring quality of life. We included 46 patients with mechanical aortic valve replacement, 55 after HTX and 22 on support by a long-term VAD. The HTX group consisted of 38 patients with primary HTX and 17 recipients who were on VAD support before transplantation. The index operation was at least 6 months ago. HTX patients suffered less from anxiety and depression than patients with mechanical aortic valve replacement or those on VAD. HTX patients had higher scores on the physical scale but not on the mental component scale of the 12-item Short Form Health Survey compared with VAD patients. Conversely, patients with mechanical aortic valve replacement did worse with regard to mental but not physical performance compared with HTX patients. VAD and mechanical aortic valve replacement patients differed only with regard to physical condition, but not with regard to anxiety, depression and mental status. HTX patients with and without VAD support before transplantation achieved similar values on all scales. Mental scales did not correlate with age or time after surgery. HTX

  20. A technique of aortic annulus enlargement with a Freestyle stentless bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bical, Olivier M; Nutu, Ovidiu; Deleuze, Philippe

    2012-02-01

    We describe our surgical technique to manage a small aortic annulus during aortic valve replacement. Starting with the posterior annular enlargement incision described by Manouguian, a stentless porcine aortic root, with excision of the left and right porcine coronary segments and conservation of the mural wall (Freestyle MS design, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN ), was used. The Freestyle bioprosthesis enlarges the aortic annulus using a direct suture of the valve on the enlarged annulus, and the aorta is closed by a direct suture of the mural wall of the bioprosthesis. Therefore, the aortic annulus enlargement is made only using the aortic bioprosthesis, without other material. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman Dumani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We present the case that has submitted four three times open heart surgery. We used Manouguian technique to enlarge aortic anulus with excellent results during the fourth time of surgery.

  2. Aortography following subdiaphragmal aortic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmler, J.

    1982-01-01

    A juxtaposition of the subdiaphragmal and infrarenal translumbar aortic biopsy sites showed decisive advantages in favour of the higher site: a more stable position because of better anatomic fixation and rarer incidence of vascular alterations, a wider vascular lumen. Disadvantages lie in the fact that the large visceral arteries (especially Tr. coeliacus) branch off nearly and in the close anatomic relationship to large abdominal organs and the thoracal region. Evaluation of the radiographical image of the vascular tree after subdiaphragmal aortic biopsy showed an average 82% of the vessels to the area of the Knees to be assessable (renal arteries approximately 93%, popliteal arteries approximately 70%). Beyong, the method proved unsatisfactory: 52% of the vessels could not, or not safety, be evaluated. A relatively broad spectrum of indications by comparison with transfemoral catheter aortography had no influence on the rate of complications with reference to either method. A comparison of the topographic conditions shows the need for even more scrupulons observation of the technique in subdiaphragmal biopsy than in the infrarenal one. To sum up the results obtained, subdiaphregmal translumbar aortography is to be preferred to the infrarenal one where transfemoral catheter aortography is contra-indicated, within the limits mentioned. (orig.) [de

  3. THE IMPACT OF DIAGNOSTIC DISCREPANCIES IN AORTIC DISSECTION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is uncommon with high mortality rate if untreated. We report a challenging case of long segment aortic dissection in which the dissection type was very difficult to identify due to limitations of the available imaging studies. 66-year-old male presented to us with 3 days history of chest pain and difficulty breathing. He is known to be hypertensive. In the emergency room, patient has systolic blood pressure >190. Chest X-ray showed widening of mediastinum. CT angiography of chest and abdomen showed an acute dissection of the thoracic aorta extending from the mid ascending aorta to the infra-renal aorta suggestive of Stanford type A aortic dissection. Transthoracic and Trans-esophageal echocardiography revealed a partially calcified intimal flap in the distal portion of the arch and in the descending thoracic aorta suggestive of Stanford type B aortic dissection. Medical treatment started, and repeated CT angiography was obtained and it confirmed type B aortic dissection. One week after discharge, patient was readmitted with severe neck pain and difficulty breathing. CT chest without contrast showed grossly stable appearance of type A dissection consistent with the first CT angiography. Cardiothoracic surgery immediately reevaluated the situation and recommended surgical intervention.

  4. Consumption coagulopathy in acute aortic dissection: principles of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuyong; Han, Lu; Li, Jiachen; Gong, Ming; Zhang, Hongjia; Guan, Xinliang

    2017-06-12

    The effect of acute aortic dissection itself on coagulopathy or surgery-related coagulopathy has never been specifically studied. The aim of the present study was to perioperatively describe consumption coagulopathy in patients with acute aortic dissection. Sixty-six patients with acute type A aortic dissection were enrolled in this study from January 2015 to September 2016. Thirty-six patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms were used as a control group during the same period. Consumption coagulopathy was evaluated using standard laboratory tests, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thromboelastograghy at five perioperative time-points. A significant reduction in clotting factors and fibrinogen was observed at the onset of acute aortic dissection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thromboelastograghy also revealed a persistent systemic activation of the coagulation system and the consumption of clotting factors. In contrast, although platelet counts were consistently low, we did not find that platelet function was more impaired in the acute aortic dissection group than the control group. After surgery, clotting factors and fibrinogen were more impaired than platelet function. Thus, we proposed that hemostatic therapy should focus on the rapid and sufficient supplementation of clotting factors and fibrinogen to improve consumption coagulopathy in patients with acute aortic dissection.

  5. Comparing American, European and Asian practice guidelines for aortic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozado, Jose; Martin, Maria; Pascual, Isaac; Hernandez-Vaquero, Daniel; Moris, Cesar

    2017-05-01

    The aortic disease comprises a group of different pathologies of high prevalence, seriousness and ever changing by the medical and surgical investigations. Therefore cardiovascular scientific societies in USA, Europe and Asia have created Task Force on practice guidelines (PG) to develop, update and revise PG for aortic diseases. These documents issue recommendations on the diagnosis and management of different aortic diseases. The three societies agree on the recommendations about diagnostic tests and on the value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance as the main tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of aortic disease. Concerning to acute aortic syndromes (AAS), American and European GPs recognize intramural hematoma (IMH) as a type of AAS with surgery indication; however Asian guidelines consider IMH a pathological process different from AAS and indicate medical treatment. In thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA), all express the need for an adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors, emphasizing strict control of blood pressure, smoking cessation and recommend the use of beta-blockers and statins. The threshold for asymptomatic repair is 5.5 cm in European and American and 6 cm for Asian PG, with lower thresholds in Marfan and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). As regards the abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), the PGs recognize the adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors, but there are differences in class of recommendation on statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or beta-blockers to prevent progression of AAA. For intervention, the threshold diameter in asymptomatic is 5.5 cm but can be reduced to 5 cm in women as recommended by Asian PG. Moreover the specific diseases such as Marfan, BAV, pregnancy or atherosclerosis aortic present specific recommendations with small differences between PGs. In conclusion, PGs are interesting and appropriate documents at present. They issue recommendations based on evidence that help the clinician and

  6. Aortic root surgery in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheick-Yousif, Basheer; Sheinfield, Ami; Tager, Salis; Ghosh, Probal; Priesman, Sergey; Smolinsky, Aram K; Raanani, Ehud

    2008-03-01

    As the shortcomings of the Bentall operation and its variants in the Marfan syndrome have become apparent, the recent cusp-sparing techniques (remodeling or reimplantation) bear promise of better mid-term and long-term outcomes. To examine the results of aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome. During the period March 1994 to September 2007, 220 patients underwent aortic valve-sparing surgery; 20 were Marfan patients (group 1) who were compared with another 20 Marfan patients undergoing composite aortic root replacement (group 2). Fourteen patients had aortic dissection and 26 had thoracic aortic aneurysm. There were 31 males and 9 females with a mean age of 37.9 +/- 13.8 years. In group 1, reimplantation was used in 13 patients, remodeling in 4, and aortic valve repair with sinotubular junction replacement in 3. In group 2, a mechanical valve conduit was used. Mean logistic Euroscore was 12.27 +/- 14.6% for the whole group, five of whom were emergent cases Group 2 had more previous cardiac procedures compared to group 1 (9 vs. 2, P = 0.03) and shorter cross-clamp time (122 +/- 27.1 vs. 153.9 +/- 23.7 minutes, P = 0.0004). Overall mortality was 10%. Early mortality was 10% in group 2 and 5% in group 1 (NS). Mean follow-up time was 25 months for group 2 and 53 months for group 1. Three patients were reoperated; all had undergone the remodeling. Five year freedom from reoperation and death was 86% and 90% in group 2 and 70% and 95% in group 1 (P = 0.6, P = 0.6), respectively. Late survival of patients with Marfan syndrome was similar in both groups. Root reconstruction tends towards a higher incidence of late reoperations if the remodeling technique is used. We now prefer to use the reimplantation technique.

  7. Operative Strategies and Outcomes in Type A Aortic Dissection After the Enactment of a Multidisciplinary Aortic Surgery Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Jared P; Scheinerman, Joshua A; Balsam, Leora B; Ursomanno, Patricia; DeAnda, Abe

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare operative strategies and patient outcomes in acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) repairs before and after the implementation of a multidisciplinary aortic surgery team. Between May 2005 and July 2014, 101 patients underwent ATAAD repair at our institution. A dedicated multidisciplinary aortic surgery team (experienced aortic surgeon, perfusionists, cardiac anesthesiologists, nurses, and radiologists) was formed in 2010. We retrospectively compared ATAAD repair outcomes in patients before (2005-2009, N = 39) and after (2010-2014, N = 62) implementation of our program. Expected operative mortality was calculated using the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection preoperative predictive model. This study demonstrated a significant reduction in operative mortality after implementation of the aortic surgery program (30.8% vs. 9.7%; P = 0.014). There was also an increase in the complexity of surgical technique and perfusion strategies with fewer postoperative complications related to respiratory (P multidisciplinary aortic surgery team.

  8. Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William

    2005-09-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation.

  9. Characterization of atherosclerotic disease in thoracic aorta: A 3D, multicontrast vessel wall imaging study

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    Zhou, Changwu [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chen, Huijun; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Rui [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei; Du, Fang [Department of Radiology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou (China); Li, Cheng, E-mail: cjr.licheng@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Zhao, Xihai, E-mail: xihaizhao@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of plaque in the thoracic aorta using three dimensional multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Elderly subjects (≥60 years) were recruited in this study. Thoracic aorta was imaged on a 3.0T MR scanner by acquiring multicontrast sequences. The plaque burden was evaluated by measuring lumen area, wall area, wall thickness, and normalized wall index. The presence or absence of plaque and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH)/mural thrombus (MT) were identified. The characteristics of atherosclerosis among different thoracic aorta segments (AAO: ascending aorta; AOA: aortic arch, and DOA: descending aorta) were determined. Results: Of 66 recruited subjects (mean age 72.3 ± 6.2 years, 30 males), 55 (83.3%) had plaques in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of plaque in AAO, AOA, and DAO was 5.4%, 72.7%, and 71.2%, respectively. In addition, 21.2% of subjects were found to have lesions with IPH/MT in the thoracic aorta. The prevalence of IPH/MT in segment of AAO, AOA and DAO was 0%, 13.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. The aortic wall showed the highest NWI in DAO (34.1% ± 4.8%), followed by AOA (31.2% ± 5%), and AAO (26.8% ± 3.3%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Three dimensional multicontrast MR imaging is capable of characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta. The findings of high prevalence of plaques and the presence of high risk plaques in the thoracic aorta suggest early screening for aortic vulnerable lesions in the elderly.

  10. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Glaucia; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: the aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. Methods: this was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. Results: the majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). Conclusions: it is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. (author)

  11. Acute Aortic Dissection: Is There Something Better than Physician Gestalt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lane M; Miller, Chadwick D

    2018-03-02

    Acute aortic dissection (AAD) sits at the intersection of rare, deadly, and expensive to diagnose conditions. It is a disease that every emergency physician (EP) considers on a daily basis, but encounters only a handful during a career. Considerable attention has been given to this disease after the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and 10 cosponsoring professional societies published the 2010 thoracic aortic disease guidelines to improve the missed or delayed treatment of AAD (1). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Transluminal endovascular stent-graft for the treatment of aortic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do Yun; Chang, Byung Chul; Shim, Won Heum; Cho, Seung Yun; Chung, Nam Sik; Kwon, Hyuk Moon; Lee, Young Joon; Lee, Jong Tae

    1995-01-01

    The standard treatment for aortic aneurysms is surgical replacement with a prosthetic graft. Currently there is great interest in endoluminal intervention for treatment of aortic aneurysm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of endoluminally placed Stent-graft for the treatment of aortic aneurysms. Transluminal endovascular Stent-graft placements were attempted in 9 patients with infra-renal aortic aneurysms(n 6), thoracic aortic aneurysm(n = 1), and aortic dissection(n = 2). The endovascular Stent-grafts were custom-designed for each patient and were constructed of self-expandable modified Gianturco Stents covered with polytetrafluroethylene. The Stent-grafts were introduced through a 16-18 French sheath and expanded to 17-30 mm in diameter. The endovascular therapy was performed using a common femoral artery cutdown with local anesthesia. The endovascular Stent-graft deployment was achieved in 7 of 9 patients. Two cases failed deployment of the Stent-graft due to iliac artery stenosis and tortousity. There were complete thrombosis of the thoracic and infra-renal aortic aneurysm surround the Stent-graft in 3 patients, and persistent leak with partial thrombosis in 2. Two patients with aortic dissection were successfully treated by obliteration of entry tears. There were no major complication associated with Stent-graft placement. These preliminary results show that transluminal endovascular Stent-grafts offer great promise and good results. Further investigation is needed to establish its long-term safety and efficacy

  13. Clinical evaluation of atherosclerosis and mechanical properties of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Atsushi

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the aortic wall atherosclerosis, X-ray CT and ECG gated radionuclide angiography were performed in 25 subjects. They were classified into 17 normotensive group (N) and 8 hypertensive group (HT). The time-activity curve was generated using radionuclide angiography in the portion of the thoracic aorta. The aortic wall distensibility was expressed as 100ΔV/V 0 / PP, where ΔV was difference between maximum and minimum (V 0 ) counts of the aorta, and PP was pulse pressure. The degree of the aortic wall atherosclerosis was evaluated by X-ray CT. The aortic wall CT-score was calculated from the CT-scores measured whithin the region of interest of the other margin of the aorta and of the background by X-ray CT. There was a significant correlation between aortic wall CT-score and systolic blood pressure (r=0.59, p<0.01) or aortic wall distensibility (r=-0.74, p<0.01)), but no correlation existed between aortic wall CT-score and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.11, p:NS). The aortic wall distensibility was higher and the aortic wall CT-score was lower in N-group than in HT-group, whereas there was no difference of the radius of the aorta between both groups. These results suggest that the aortic wall atherosclerosis advanced progressively in hypertensive patients and systolic blood pressure was a good predictor of the degree of the aortic atherosclerosis. (author)

  14. Invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch with infectious Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Watanabe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient with pulmonary bullae died of massive hemoptysis. At autopsy a hole was observed in the aortic wall. A microscopic examination indicated small Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae and extensive necrotic lesions with Aspergillus hyphae in the media of the thoracic aorta. These findings led to a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch. This is a rare case in which Aspergillus invaded the aorta in a patient without hematologic neoplasms or neutropenia.

  15. A new technique for interrupted aortic arch repair: the Neville tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoënd, Eric; Bouissou, Antoine; Paoli, Florent; Roullet-Renoleau, Nicolas; Duchalais, Alain; Neville, Paul

    2010-10-01

    We have developed a new technique for interrupted aortic arch repair in which the pulmonary artery anterior wall is cut off and tailored so as to re-establish aortic continuity with an autologous tube. We are describing this method herein, with an 8-year follow-up of the first patient. Copyright © 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Trans-apical aortic valve implantation in a patient with stentless valve degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; MacCarthy, Philip; Monaghan, Mark; Wendler, Olaf

    2011-06-01

    Trans-apical valve-in-valve trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has successfully been performed in selected, high-risk patients, who suffered prosthetic degeneration after aortic valve replacement using stented xenografts. We report the case of a 79-year-old male patient who underwent one of the first successful TAVIs in a failing stentless bioprosthesis. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Endovascular Repair of Ascending Aortic Pseudoaneurysm With Custom-Designed Endograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piffaretti, Gabriele; Cottini, Marzia; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Castelli, Patrizio; Beghi, Cesare; Mariscalco, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Open repair of ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm (AscAP) carries high risks and mortality rate. Previous papers reported the off-label use of standard thoracic or abdominal endograft in very selected cases. We present the case of a 57-year-old man with an AscAP successfully managed with a new custom-designed endograft. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MR imaging of the thoracic aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerhoff, B.A.; Sechtem, U.P.; Schiller, N.B.; Higgins, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Gated MR imaging was used to evaluate the thoracic aorta in 11 with Marfan syndrome, eight patients with aneurysm of the ascending aorta, and 20 healthy subjects. The aortic diameter was measured on transverse and sagittal images at the levels of the sinuses of Valsalva, the caudal portion of the ascending aorta, the prearch region, the middle arch, and the descending aorta. The sinus of Valsalva-prearch region aortic diameter ratio in patients with Marfan syndrome was significantly greater than in the two other groups, indicating the characteristic shape of the Maranoid aorta. MR imaging allows definitive measurements' of aortic dimensions and is a valuable noninvasive method for monitoring the course of aortic enlargement

  19. Enhanced delineation of degradation in aortic walls through OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Eusebio; Val-Bernal, José Fernando; Revuelta, José M.; Pontón, Alejandro; Calvo Díez, Marta; Mayorga, Marta; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2015-03-01

    Degradation of the wall of human ascending thoracic aorta has been assessed through Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). OCT images of the media layer of the aortic wall exhibit micro-structure degradation in case of diseased aortas from aneurysmal vessels or in aortas prone to aortic dissections. The degeneration in vessel walls appears as low-reflectivity areas due to the invasive appearance of acidic polysaccharides and mucopolysaccharides within a typical ordered microstructure of parallel lamellae of smooth muscle cells, elastin and collagen fibers. An OCT indicator of wall degradation can be generated upon the spatial quantification of the extension of degraded areas in a similar way as conventional histopathology. This proposed OCT marker offers a real-time clinical insight of the vessel status to help cardiovascular surgeons in vessel repair interventions. However, the delineation of degraded areas on the B-scan image from OCT is sometimes difficult due to presence of speckle noise, variable SNR conditions on the measurement process, etc. Degraded areas could be outlined by basic thresholding techniques taking advantage of disorders evidences in B-scan images, but this delineation is not always optimum and requires complex additional processing stages. This work proposes an optimized delineation of degraded spots in vessel walls, robust to noisy environments, based on the analysis of the second order variation of image intensity of backreflection to determine the type of local structure. Results improve the delineation of wall anomalies providing a deeper physiological perception of the vessel wall conditions. Achievements could be also transferred to other clinical scenarios: carotid arteries, aorto-iliac or ilio-femoral sections, intracranial, etc.

  20. Determination of Effective Thoracic Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H. Marcus

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective thoracic mass is an important parameter in specifying mathematical and mechanical models (such as crash dummies of humans exposed to impact conditions. A method is developed using a numerical optimizer to determine effective thoracic mass (and mass distribution given a number of acceleration signals and a force signal response. Utilizing previously reported lateral and frontal impact tests with human cadaveric test specimens in a number of different conditions, the effective thoracic mass is computed. The effective thoracic masses are then computed for a variety of crash dummies exposed to identical test conditions.

  1. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz

    1995-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  2. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolbergen, David R; Manshanden, Johan S J; Bouma, Berto J; Blom, Nico A; Mulder, Barbara J M; de Mol, Bas A J M; Hazekamp, Mark G

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate our results of valve-sparing aortic root replacement and associated (multiple) valve repair. From September 2003 to September 2013, 97 patients had valve-sparing aortic root replacement procedures. Patient records and preoperative, postoperative and recent echocardiograms were reviewed. Median age was 40.3 (range: 13.4-68.6) years and 67 (69.1%) were male. Seven (7.2%) patients were younger than 18 years, the youngest being 13.4 years. Fifty-four (55.7%) had Marfan syndrome, 2 (2.1%) other fibrous tissue diseases, 15 (15.5%) bicuspid aortic valve and 3 (3.1%) had earlier Fallot repair. The reimplantation technique was used in all, with a straight vascular prosthesis in 11 (26-34 mm) and the Valsalva prosthesis in 86 (26-32 mm). Concomitant aortic valve repair was performed in 43 (44.3%), mitral valve repair in 10 (10.3%), tricuspid valve repair in 5 (5.2%) and aortic arch replacement in 3 (3.1%). Mean follow-up was 4.2 ± 2.4 years. Follow-up was complete in all. One 14-year old patient died 1.3 years post-surgery presumably of ventricular arrhythmia. One patient underwent reoperation for aneurysm of the proximal right coronary artery after 4.9 years and 4 patients required aortic valve replacement, 3 of which because of endocarditis after 0.1, 0.8 and 1.3 years and 1 because of cusp prolapse after 3.8 years. No thrombo-embolic complications occurred. Mortality, root reoperation and aortic regurgitation were absent in 88.0 ± 0.5% at 5-year follow-up. Results of valve-sparing root replacement are good, even in association with a high incidence of concomitant valve repair. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement can be performed at a very young age as long as an adult size prosthesis can be implanted. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Thoracic organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Richard N; Barr, Mark L; McCullough, Keith P; Egan, Thomas; Garrity, Edward; Jessup, Mariell; Murray, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of factors associated with thoracic transplantation outcomes over the past decade and provides valuable information regarding the heart, lung, and heart-lung waiting lists and thoracic organ transplant recipients. Waiting list and post-transplant information is used to assess the importance of patient demographics, risk factors, and primary cardiopulmonary disease on outcomes. The time that the typical listed patient has been waiting for a heart, lung, or heart-lung transplant has markedly increased over the past decade, while the number of transplants performed has declined slightly and survival after transplant has plateaued. Waiting list mortality, however, appears to be declining for each organ and for most diseases and high-severity subgroups, perhaps in response to recent changes in organ allocation algorithms. Based on perceived inequity in organ access and in response to a mandate from Health Resources and Services Administration, the lung transplant community is developing a lung allocation system designed to minimize deaths on the waiting list while maximizing the benefit of transplant by incorporating post-transplant survival and quality of life into the algorithm. Areas where improved data collection could inform evolving organ allocation and candidate selection policies are emphasized.

  4. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  5. HIV infection and aortic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Luisa Helena Maia; Cohen, Ariel; Boccara, Franck

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and receiving antiretroviral therapy now have the same life expectancy as the general population. However, they have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events because of a complex and polyfactorial vasculopathy, combining the effects of antiretroviral therapy, the HIV virus itself, immune activation, chronic inflammation and metabolic disturbances. Whether people living with HIV infection experience increased vascular aging compared with the general population remains controversial. To summarize current knowledge of the association between HIV infection and aortic stiffness as a marker of vascular aging. This review included 18 clinical studies in adult populations, published between 2009 and 2016, and identified on PubMed/MEDLINE or other databases. Search terms were aortic stiffness, arterial stiffness, vascular aging, pulse wave velocity and HIV. All 18 studies were observational, and compared groups infected (HIV+) and not infected (HIV-) with HIV. Ten studies (55%) reported no significant differences in aortic stiffness between HIV+ groups and age-matched HIV- control groups. The main reported determinants of aortic stiffness were age, blood pressure, smoking, metabolic syndrome and HIV-related variables, including CD4/CD8 ratio, current T-CD4 count CD4+ count < 200/mm 3 . We found discordant results regarding whether HIV+ patients had increased aortic stiffness compared with HIV- controls. However, HIV-related conditions were associated with vascular health. This association has been confirmed in recent prospective studies. There is emerging evidence that HIV itself and immune activity affect vascular health and the large arteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison of minimally invasive and standard aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliński, Jarosław; Plicner, Dariusz; Grudzień, Grzegorz; Wąsowicz, Marcin; Musiał, Robert; Andres, Janusz; Kapelak, Bogusław

    2016-10-01

    The study objective was to compare aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy with aortic valve replacement through a median sternotomy. With propensity score matching, we selected 211 patients after aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy and 211 patients after aortic valve replacement who underwent operation between January 2010 and December 2013. Perioperative outcomes were analyzed, and multivariable logistic regression analysis of risk factors of postoperative morbidity was performed. For propensity score-matched patients, hospital mortality was 1.0% in the aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy group and 1.4% in the aortic valve replacement group (P = 1.000). Stroke occurred in 0.5% versus 1.4% (P = .615), myocardial infarction occurred in 1.4% versus 1.9% (P = 1.000), and new onset of atrial fibrillation occurred in 12.8% versus 24.2% (P = .003) of patients in the aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy and aortic valve replacement groups, respectively. Postoperative drainage was 353.5 ± 248.6 mL versus 544.3 ± 324.5 mL (P replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy and aortic valve replacement groups, respectively. Mediastinitis occurred in 2.8% of patients after aortic valve replacement and in 0.0% of patients after aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy surgery (P = .040). Intensive care unit stay (1.3 ± 1.2 days vs 2.6 ± 2.6 days) and hospital stay (5.7 ± 1.6 days vs 8.7 ± 4.4 days) were statistically significantly shorter in the aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy group. Aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy surgery resulted in reduced postoperative morbidity (odds ratio, 0.4; P replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy surgery resulted in a reduced infection rate, diminished postoperative bleeding and blood

  7. Atypical Presentation of Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fu Wah Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blunt thoracic aorta injury (BAI is second only to head injury as cause of mortality in blunt trauma. While most patients do not survive till arrival at the hospital, for the remainder, prompt diagnosis and treatment greatly improve outcomes. We report an atypical presentation of BAI, highlighting the diagnostic challenges of this condition in the emergency department. Case Presentation. A previously well 25-year-old male presented 15 hours after injury hemodynamically stable with delirium. There were no signs or symptoms suggestive of BAI. Sonography showed small bilateral pleural effusions. Chest radiograph showed a normal mediastinum. Eventually, CT demonstrated a contained distal aortic arch disruption. The patient underwent percutaneous endovascular thoracic aortic repair and recovered well. Conclusion. This catastrophic lesion may present with few reliable signs and symptoms; hence, a high index of suspicion is crucial for early diagnosis and definitive surgical management. This paper discusses the diagnostic utility of clinical features, injury mechanism, and radiographic modalities. Consideration of mechanism of injury, clinical features, and chest radiograph findings should prompt advanced chest imaging.

  8. Effect of thoracic stretching, thoracic extension exercise and exercises for cervical and scapular posture on thoracic kyphosis angle and upper thoracic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thoracic stretching, a thoracic extension exercise and exercises for cervical and scapular posture on thoracic kyphosis angle and upper thoracic pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old male, who complained of upper thoracic pain at the T1-4 level with forward head and round shoulders, was the subject. [Methods] He performed thoracic stretching (session 1), a thoracic extension exercise (session 2), and muscle exercises for cervical and scapular posture (session 3). [Results] The upper thoracic pressure pain threshold increased after session 1, session 2, and session 3. The thoracic kyphosis angle decreased after session 1, session 2, and session 3. [Conclusion] We suggest that intervention for thoracic pain or kyphotic thoracic correction should use not only an approach for extending the thoracic muscles, but also an approach treating muscles in the cervical and scapular region.

  9. Outcomes for Low-Risk Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement: A Benchmark for Aortic Valve Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lily E; Downs, Emily A; Hawkins, Robert B; Quader, Mohammed A; Speir, Alan M; Rich, Jeffrey B; Ghanta, Ravi K; Yarboro, Leora T; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2017-10-01

    Two large, randomized trials are underway evaluating transcatheter aortic valve replacement (AVR) against conventional surgical AVR. We analyzed contemporary, real-world outcomes of surgical AVR in low-risk patients to provide a practical benchmark of outcomes and cost for evaluating current and future transapical AVR technology. From 2010 to 2015, 2,505 isolated AVR operations were performed for severe aortic stenosis at 18 statewide cardiac institutions. Of these, 2,138 patients had a Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality of less than 4%, and 1,119 met other clinical and hemodynamic criteria as outlined in the PARTNER 3 (The Placement of Transcatheter Aortic Valves) protocol. Patients with endocarditis, end-stage renal disease, ejection fraction of less than 0.45, bicuspid valves, and previous valve replacements were excluded. Outcomes of interest included operative death and postoperative adverse events. The median Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality for the study-eligible patients was 1.44%, with a median age of 72 years (interquartile range [IQR], 65 to 78 years). Operative mortality was 1.3%, permanent stroke was 1.3%, and pacemaker requirement was 4.2%. The most common adverse events were transfusion of 2 or more units of red blood cells (18%) and atrial fibrillation (28%). The median length of stay was 6 days (IQR, 5 to 8 days). Median total hospital cost was $37,999 (IQR, $30,671 to $46,138). Examination of complications by age younger than 65 vs 65 or older demonstrated a significantly lower need for transfusion (11.2%, p risk patients undergoing surgical AVR in the current era have excellent results. The most common complications were atrial fibrillation and bleeding. These real-world results should provide additional context for upcoming transcatheter clinical trial data. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Open repair of adult aortic coarctation mostly by a resection and graft replacement technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Codreanu, Maria E; Leake, Samuel S; Sandhu, Harleen K; Calderon, Daniel; Azizzadeh, Ali; Estrera, Anthony L; Safi, Hazim J

    2015-01-01

    We report on our experience with treatment of adults requiring de novo or redo open aortic coarctation repair mostly by a resection and interposition graft technique. We retrospectively reviewed all patients older than 16 years requiring open repair of aortic coarctation. Indications for repair, operative details, and outcomes were analyzed. Between 1996 and 2011, we treated 29 adult aortic coarctation patients with open repair. The mean age was 42 years (range, 17-69 years), and there were 15 men. Nine patients had previous repair with recurrence; the remaining 20 had native coarctation. Thoracic aortic aneurysms were present in 22 patients (76%), ranging in size from 3.0 to 9.6 cm (mean, 4.8 cm). Four patients had intercostal artery aneurysms (range, 1.0-2.5 cm), four had left subclavian artery aneurysms, and four had ascending/arch aneurysms. The most common repair was resection of aortic coarctation with interposition graft replacement (93%). Two patients without aneurysm had bypasses from the proximal descending thoracic aorta to the infrarenal aorta without aortic resection. There was no in-hospital mortality, stroke, or paraplegia. Long-term survival was 89% during a median follow-up of 81 months (interquartile range, 47-118 months), with no patient requiring reoperation on the repaired segment. Open repair of native and recurrent adult aortic coarctation has acceptable morbidity and low mortality. Especially in patients with concomitant aneurysm, resection with interposition graft replacement provides a safe and durable repair option. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  12. Detecting atheromatous plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries for more accurate stroke subtype classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyang; Wu, Simiao; Zeng, Quantao; Xiao, Jiahe; Liu, Ming

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the correlations of atheromatous plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries with intracranial arterial stenosis and carotid plaques in stroke patients, and to determine whether taking these plaques into account will reduce the proportion of patients in the undetermined etiology group. We prospectively enrolled 308 ischemic stroke patients, whose clinical characteristics and A-S-C-O classifications were compared with analyses of intracranial arteries, carotid arteries, aortic arch, and supra-aortic arteries. 125(40.6%) patients had plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries, of which 106 (84.8%) had complex plaques. No correlations were observed between these plaques and carotid plaques ( p = 0.283) or intracranial arterial stenosis ( p = 0.097). After detecting the mobile thrombi in the aortic arch and supra-aortic arteries, the proportion of patients in the atherothrombosis group was increased from 33.8% to 55.5% ( p = 0.00), whereas the proportion of patients in stroke of undetermined etiology group was decreased from 19.2% to 11.0% ( p = 0.00). Examining only the carotid and intracranial arteries may not provide adequate information about large arteries in stroke patients. Therefore, it would be better to include a search for relevant plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries in modern stroke workup, for it may lead to more accurate stroke subtype classification and guide secondary prevention.

  13. Aortic Endoprosthesis for the Treatment of Native Aortic Coarctation and Concomitant Aneurysm in an Octogenarian Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Martín; Kotowicz, Vadim; Kenny, Alberto; Kohan, Andres Alejandro; García-Mónaco, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of an 82-year-old female patient with native coarctation of the aorta and poststenotic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. On consultation, she was receiving 4 antihypertensive drugs, and physical examination revealed nonpalpable lower-limb pulses with intermittent claudication at 50 min. Because of her age, high surgical risk and combination of lesions, endovascular treatment was suggested. Placement of a Valiant thoracic aorta endoprosthesis followed by coarctation angioplasty was performed. At 48 hr, the patient was discharged on 1 antihypertensive drug, palpable pulses on both limbs and a normal ankle-brachial index. At 1 month follow-up, the patient remained as discharged and multislice computed tomography angiography depicted complete coarctation expansion without residual stenosis, exclusion of the aortic aneurysm, and no signs of endoleaks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aortic dimensions in girls and young women with turner syndrome: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Mortensen, Kristian H; Holm, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    subjects. The mean age of the patients was 17 +/- 3.3 years. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed for all the patients. The thoracic aortic diameters of the patients were measured at nine positions. Adjustment for body surface area (BSA) was performed. The outcome for the patients was measured in terms...... of absolute and BSA-adjusted aortic dilation. In TS, both the absolute and the BSA-adjusted mean aortic diameters were smaller than or comparable with those of the control subjects. However, individual aortic dilation at one to four positions was found in four TS patients according to the uncorrected data...... and in five TS patients after BSA-adjustment. The aortic diameters correlated with height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and BSA at all positions (R = 0.34-0.60; all p

  15. Role of the frozen elephant trunk procedure for chronic aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Eric E; Bakaeen, Faisal G; Johnston, Douglas R; Soltesz, Edward G; Tong, Michael Z

    2017-01-01

    Considering the chronic and progressive nature of aortic dissection, operative planning must anticipate the need for later interventions. We have increasingly used a modified version of the frozen elephant trunk repair operation to treat these patients. We review the indications, considerations for planning, and important operative details for performing frozen elephant trunk repair for chronic aortic dissection. Frozen elephant trunk repair is performed using selective antegrade brain perfusion, direct placement of commercially available stent grafts with suture fixation in the aortic arch, and proximal aortic replacement. Details are reviewed. We have published details related to the excellent results for the frozen elephant trunk procedure in patients with chronic dissection. The modified frozen elephant trunk repair is particularly well suited for patients with chronic aortic dissection who often require multiple operations to address their extensive disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Results of a multimodal approach for the management of aortic coarctation and its complications in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noly, Pierre-Emmanuel; Legris-Falardeau, Valéry; Ibrahim, Reda; El-Hamamsy, Ismaïl; Cartier, Raymond; Lamarche, Yoan; Bouchard, Denis; Dorval, Jean-François; Poirier, Nancy; Demers, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to assess the results of various tailored management strategies for adults with coarctation in our centre. We reviewed all adults patients treated for aortic caorctation between January 2000 and December 2015 in our institution. The primary end point was a composite of death, perioperative stroke, paraplegia, need for unplanned reoperation or occurrence of pseudoaneurysm during the follow-up. The mean follow-up was 82 ± 5 months. Sixty-three adults were treated for a native coarctation (n = 34), a recurrent coarctation (n = 14) or aneurysmal complication (n = 15). Mean age of the patients was 42 ± 1.7 years. All but 1 patient with native coarctation (33/34, 97%) and recurrent coarctation (13/14, 93%) underwent endovascular repair and 10 (67%) patients with aneurysmal complications were treated surgically. Freedom from the primary composite end point was 94, 84 and 81% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively, without difference between the 3 indication groups (P = 0.96). A tailored management strategy is necessary to provide good results for the treatment of adults with aortic coarctation. Thus, centres that are involved in the care of this complex pathology should be able to propose a multimodal approach, either endovascular or surgical depending on patient's characteristics and anatomic features. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of thoracic aorta hemodynamics using 3D particle tracking velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Diego; Gülan, Utku; Di Stefano, Antonietta; Ponzini, Raffaele; Lüthi, Beat; Holzner, Markus; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2014-09-22

    Parallel to the massive use of image-based computational hemodynamics to study the complex flow establishing in the human aorta, the need for suitable experimental techniques and ad hoc cases for the validation and benchmarking of numerical codes has grown more and more. Here we present a study where the 3D pulsatile flow in an anatomically realistic phantom of human ascending aorta is investigated both experimentally and computationally. The experimental study uses 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to characterize the flow field in vitro, while finite volume method is applied to numerically solve the governing equations of motion in the same domain, under the same conditions. Our findings show that there is an excellent agreement between computational and measured flow fields during the forward flow phase, while the agreement is poorer during the reverse flow phase. In conclusion, here we demonstrate that 3D PTV is very suitable for a detailed study of complex unsteady flows as in aorta and for validating computational models of aortic hemodynamics. In a future step, it will be possible to take advantage from the ability of 3D PTV to evaluate velocity fluctuations and, for this reason, to gain further knowledge on the process of transition to turbulence occurring in the thoracic aorta. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aortic false aneurysm after double valve replacement in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Walters, Henry L; Forbes, Thomas J; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2013-06-01

    Aortic false aneurysm (AFA) is a rare but life threatening complication after aortic surgery. We report a 13-year-old boy who developed AFA after double valve replacement consisting of the following: (1) Bentall procedure utilizing a 25-mm St. Jude aortic valved composite Hemashield Dacron graft (Meadox Medicals, Oakland, NJ); and (2) replacement of right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit with a 25-mm porcine valved conduit. The exterior metal ring of the pulmonary prosthetic valve conduit caused an abrasion of the Hemashield graft, resulting in the AFA. In addition to simple suture repair, the pulmonary conduit was wrapped with a Gore-Tex patch (W.L. Gore Assoc, Flagstaff, AZ) to prevent recurrence. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endovascular repair of aortic disease: a venture capital perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lucas W; Stavropoulos, S William; Resnick, Joshua B; Solomon, Jeffrey

    2009-03-01

    Endovascular devices for the treatment of abdominal and thoracic aortic disease are poised to become the next $1 billion medical device market. A shift from open repair to endovascular repair, advances in technology, screening initiatives, and new indications are driving this growth. Although billion-dollar medical device markets are rare, this field is fraught with risk and uncertainty for startups and their venture capital investors. Technological hurdles, daunting clinical and regulatory timelines, market adoption issues, and entrenched competitors pose significant barriers to successful new venture creation. In fact, the number of aortic endografts that have failed to reach commercialization or have been pulled from the market exceeds the number of Food and Drug Administration-approved endografts in the United States. This article will shed some light on the venture capital mind-set and decision-making paradigm in the context of aortic disease.

  20. Robotic thoracic surgery: The state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Asaf, Belal Bin

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive thoracic surgery has come a long way. It has rapidly progressed to complex procedures such as lobectomy, pneumonectomy, esophagectomy, and resection of mediastinal tumors. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) offered perceptible benefits over thoracotomy in terms of less postoperative pain and narcotic utilization, shorter ICU and hospital stay, decreased incidence of postoperative complications combined with quicker return to work, and better cosmesis. However, despite its obvious advantages, the General Thoracic Surgical Community has been relatively slow in adapting VATS more widely. The introduction of da Vinci surgical system has helped overcome certain inherent limitations of VATS such as two-dimensional (2D) vision and counter intuitive movement using long rigid instruments allowing thoracic surgeons to perform a plethora of minimally invasive thoracic procedures more efficiently. Although the cumulative experience worldwide is still limited and evolving, Robotic Thoracic Surgery is an evolution over VATS. There is however a lot of concern among established high-volume VATS centers regarding the superiority of the robotic technique. We have over 7 years experience and believe that any new technology designed to make minimal invasive surgery easier and more comfortable for the surgeon is most likely to have better and safer outcomes in the long run. Our only concern is its cost effectiveness and we believe that if the cost factor is removed more and more surgeons will use the technology and it will increase the spectrum and the reach of minimally invasive thoracic surgery. This article reviews worldwide experience with robotic thoracic surgery and addresses the potential benefits and limitations of using the robotic platform for the performance of thoracic surgical procedures. PMID:25598601

  1. Long-term results of aortic root repair using the reimplantation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Tirone E; Armstrong, Susan; Manlhiot, Cedric; McCrindle, Brian W; Feindel, Christopher M

    2013-03-01

    Aortic valve sparing is frequently performed to treat patients with aortic root aneurysm, but there is an inadequate amount of information regarding its long-term durability. This study examines the long-term results of reimplantation of the aortic valve in patients with aortic root aneurysms. From August 1989 to December 2010, 296 consecutive patients had reimplantation of the aortic valve into a tubular Dacron graft. Their mean age was 45 years (range, 11-79 years), and 78% were men. Of the patients, 36% had Marfan syndrome and 11% had bicuspid aortic valve. Patients were followed prospectively with periodic images of the aortic root and remaining aorta. The mean follow-up was 6.9 ± 4.5 years. There were 21 patients at risk at 15 years. There were 4 operative and 18 late deaths. The survival at 5, 10, and 15 years was 95.1% ± 3.5%, 93.1% ± 4.4%, and 76.5% ± 18%, respectively. Only 3 patients required reoperation on the aortic valve; all 3 patients had the Bentall procedure. Freedom from reoperation at 5, 10, and 15 years was 99.7% ± 2.0%, 97.8% ± 5.3%, and 97.8% ± 5.3%, respectively. During follow-up, moderate aortic insufficiency developed in 9 patients, and severe aortic insufficiency developed in 2 patients. Freedom from moderate or severe aortic insufficiency at 5, 10, and 15 years was 98.3% ± 3.5%, 92.9% ± 6.5%, and 89.4% ± 12%, respectively. The function of the aortic valve implanted inside a tubular Dacron graft remains normal at 15 years in most patients after this type of aortic valve-sparing operation. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of the entry site on late outcome in acute Stanford type B aortic dissection†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tadashi; Torii, Shinzo; Oka, Norihiko; Horai, Tetsuya; Itatani, Keiichi; Yoshii, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yuki; Shibata, Miyuki; Tamura, Tomoki; Araki, Haruna; Matsunaga, Yoshikiyo; Sato, Hajime; Miyaji, Kagami

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the entry site of acute type B aortic dissection affects late outcomes. Inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed. We identified 224 cases of acute type B aortic dissection between 1998 and 2013. Of these 224 patients, 168 were men and the age was 64.2 ± 12.6 (range 23-94) years, from which 130 presented with the entry at a location downstream of the distal aortic arch, 67 with the entry at the outer curvature of the distal aortic arch and 27 with the entry at the inner curvature. At the initial presentation, 127 patients had descending false lumen thrombosis. The 30-day mortality rate was 2%, and 8% of patients had malperfusion. The entry at the outer curvature was associated with a higher risk of 30-day mortality. Patients with the entry at a location downstream were significantly older, and had a higher chance for primarily thrombosed descending false lumen and a lower risk of malperfusion. At follow-up (6.0 ± 4.1 years), the actuarial survival rates were 97, 83 and 60%, freedoms from open aortic surgery were 96, 91 and 86%, aortic intervention were 73, 66 and 63% and aortic events were 71, 60 and 52% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the outer curvature entry and maximum aortic diameter were correlated with open aortic surgery, aortic intervention and aortic events. Of the 127 patients with primarily thrombosed false lumen, the outer curvature entry was significantly correlated with aortic events. The primary entry at the outer curvature of the distal aortic arch, as well as the large aortic diameter, is associated with a higher risk of late open aortic surgery, aortic intervention and aortic events in acute type B aortic dissection. Thus, the entry site should be taken into consideration in the establishment of an appropriate treatment indication of type B aortic dissection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  3. Primary metastasizing aortic endothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, E; Port, S J; Carroll, R M; Friedman, N B

    1984-10-01

    An instance of malignant endothelioma, primary in the aorta, metastasizing to intestine and bone, is reported. The aortic tumor was successfully resected. The unexpected finding of a large hepatic growth at autopsy raised the possibility that the aortic neoplasm was a metastasis. Histochemical, immunologic, and ultrastructural studies supported the diagnosis of an endothelial neoplasm. Although a number of malignant aortic and large vessel tumors have been reported, only four previous instances appear to be endotheliomatous.

  4. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... assigned to the 'small' aortic size subset. Effective orifice area indices were calculated for all patients to assess the geographic distribution of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for possible confounding variables were performed. RESULTS...

  5. Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohamad Anas; Aljabri, Badr; Al-Omran, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct terms are used to describe vascular thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) depending on which structure is predominantly affected: venous TOS (due to subclavian vein compression) and arterial TOS (due to subclavian artery compression). Although the venous and arterial subtypes of TOS affect only 3% and <1% of all TOS patients respectively, the diagnostic and management approaches to venous and arterial TOS have undergone considerable evolution due to the recent emergence of minimally invasive endovascular techniques such as catheter-directed arterial and venous thrombolysis, and balloon angioplasty. In this review, we discuss the anatomical factors, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of vascular TOS patients. In addition, we use the most up to date observational evidence available to provide a contemporary approach to the diagnosis and management of venous TOS and arterial TOS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thoracic manifestation of tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzl-Palma, D.; Prosch, H.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and transmission is via an airborne route by droplet infection. In the majority of cases patients have thoracic TB, which most frequently presents with hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary manifestation. Due to the rise in incidence of TB in central Europe to be expected over the coming years, it is essential to be acquainted with the radiological manifestations of pulmonary TB, particularly to be able to discriminate active from inactive TB. Due to the use of molecular techniques entailing DNA fingerprinting, the traditional classification of TB in primary and postprimary TB is being challenged. These genetic studies have revealed that variations in the clinical and radiographic appearance of TB are mainly affected by the immune status of the patients. Due to the low prevalence of TB in central Europe and the wide variation of radiological presentations, the diagnosis and therapy of TB is often delayed. In this article, the radiographic manifestations of thoracic TB are summarized and discussed. Together with the medical history and bacteriological tests, chest X-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) play a major role not only in the detection of TB but also in the follow-up during and after therapy. Chest X-radiographs should be the primary diagnostic method in patients with suspected TB in screening as well as for diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The use of CT is more sensitive than chest radiographs and is frequently performed after chest radiographs to obtain detailed information about subtle parenchymal changes or lymph node manifestation. When active TB is suspected CT should be performed. Tree in bud, lobular consolidations, centrilobular nodules, cavities and ground-glass opacification are typical changes in active TB. (orig.) [de

  7. Low-flow antegrade cerebral perfusion attenuates early renal and intestinal injury during neonatal aortic arch reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algra, Selma O; Schouten, Antonius N J; van Oeveren, Wim; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Schoof, Paul H; Jansen, Nicolaas J G; Haas, Felix

    2012-12-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) and antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) are 2 cardiopulmonary bypass strategies mainly used in aortic arch reconstructions. It has been suggested that during ACP, abdominal organs are better protected than during DHCA owing to partial perfusion via collaterals. We tested this hypothesis using intraoperative near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), lactate measurements, and biomarkers for early abdominal injury in neonates undergoing complex aortic arch repair. Neonates scheduled for aortic arch reconstruction via median sternotomy between 2009 and 2011 were randomized to either DHCA or ACP. During surgery, regional oxygen saturations of the abdomen were monitored using NIRS. Immediately aafter DHCA or ACP, lactate concentrations from the inferior vena cava were compared with those from the arterial cannula. Postoperatively, biomarkers for early abdominal organ injury were measured in urine. Twenty-five neonates were analyzed (DHCA, n = 12; ACP, n = 13). Procedures were performed at 18°C, and ACP flow was set at 35 to 50 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1). Median abdominal NIRS value during DHCA was 31% (IQR, 28%-41%) whereas during ACP it was 56% (IQR, 34%-64%; P intestinal damage (gluthatione s-transferase and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, respectively) were higher in the DHCA group than for the ACP group (P = .03, P = .04, respectively). These results substantiate earlier suggestions that ACP provides more abdominal organ protection than DHCA in neonates undergoing aortic arch reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hybrid Approach of Aortic Diseases: Zone 1 Delivery and Volumetric Analysis on the Descending Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, José Augusto; Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro; Dinato, Fabrício José; Fernandes, Fábio; Ramirez, Félix José Álvares; Mady, Charles; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2017-01-01

    Conventional techniques of surgical correction of arch and descending aortic diseases remains as high-risk procedures. Endovascular treatments of abdominal and descending thoracic aorta have lower surgical risk. Evolution of both techniques - open debranching of the arch and endovascular approach of the descending aorta - may extend a less invasive endovascular treatment for a more extensive disease with necessity of proximal landing zone in the arch. To evaluate descending thoracic aortic remodeling by means of volumetric analysis after hybrid approach of aortic arch debranching and stenting the descending aorta. Retrospective review of seven consecutive patients treated between September 2014 and August 2016 for diseases of proximal descending aorta (aneurysms and dissections) by hybrid approach to deliver the endograft at zone 1. Computed tomography angiography were analyzed using a specific software to calculate descending thoracic aorta volumes pre- and postoperatively. Follow-up was done in 100% of patients with a median time of 321 days (range, 41-625 days). No deaths or permanent neurological complications were observed. There were no endoleaks or stent migrations. Freedom from reintervention was 100% at 300 days and 66% at 600 days. Median volume reduction was of 45.5 cm3, representing a median volume shrinkage by 9.3%. Hybrid approach of arch and descending thoracic aorta diseases is feasible and leads to a favorable aortic remodeling with significant volume reduction.

  9. Hybrid Approach of Aortic Diseases: Zone 1 Delivery and Volumetric Analysis on the Descending Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Duncan

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Conventional techniques of surgical correction of arch and descending aortic diseases remains as high-risk procedures. Endovascular treatments of abdominal and descending thoracic aorta have lower surgical risk. Evolution of both techniques - open debranching of the arch and endovascular approach of the descending aorta - may extend a less invasive endovascular treatment for a more extensive disease with necessity of proximal landing zone in the arch. Objective: To evaluate descending thoracic aortic remodeling by means of volumetric analysis after hybrid approach of aortic arch debranching and stenting the descending aorta. Methods: Retrospective review of seven consecutive patients treated between September 2014 and August 2016 for diseases of proximal descending aorta (aneurysms and dissections by hybrid approach to deliver the endograft at zone 1. Computed tomography angiography were analyzed using a specific software to calculate descending thoracic aorta volumes pre- and postoperatively. Results: Follow-up was done in 100% of patients with a median time of 321 days (range, 41-625 days. No deaths or permanent neurological complications were observed. There were no endoleaks or stent migrations. Freedom from reintervention was 100% at 300 days and 66% at 600 days. Median volume reduction was of 45.5 cm3, representing a median volume shrinkage by 9.3%. Conclusion: Hybrid approach of arch and descending thoracic aorta diseases is feasible and leads to a favorable aortic remodeling with significant volume reduction.

  10. Impact of current cryopreservation procedures on mechanical and functional properties of human aortic homografts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, S. E.; Groenink, M.; van der Wall, E. E.; Wassenaar, C.; VanBavel, E.; van Baal, M. C.; Spaan, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the impact f standard cryopreservation on mechanical and functional properties of human aortic homografts. From 14 human heart-valve donors, the thoracic descending aorta was obtained. Effects of cryopreservation on mechanical (elastic properties and breaking stress) and smooth muscle

  11. Traumatic partial avulsion of a single right subclavian artery from the aortic arch and definitive repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Sears-Rogan, Pamela; Young, Richard S; Kanda, Louis T; Ellis, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01

    Blunt injury to the right subclavian artery is a rare complication of severe deceleration trauma often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We describe an atypical presentation in a patient who sustained a traumatic avulsion of his right subclavian artery arising off the aortic arch. An interposition graft was used to restore the continuity of the artery to the ascending thoracic aorta.

  12. Contemporary spinal cord protection during thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic surgery and endovascular aortic repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etz, Christian D; Weigang, Ernst; Hartert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    devastating complication. The aim of this position paper is to provide physicians with broad information regarding spinal cord blood supply, to share strategies for shortening intraprocedural spinal cord ischaemia and to increase spinal cord tolerance to transitory ischaemia through detection of ischaemia...... publications available in the PubMed database, which are cohort studies, experimental research reports, case reports, reviews, short series and meta-analyses. Individual chapters of this position paper were assigned and after delivery harmonized by Christian D. Etz, Ernst Weigang and Martin Czerny....... Consequently, further writing assignments were distributed within the group and delivered in August 2014. The final version was submitted to the EJCTS for review in September 2014....

  13. Candy-Plug Technique Using an Excluder Aortic Extender for Distal Occlusion of a Large False Lumen Aneurysm in Chronic Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukihisa; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Chiba, Kiyoshi; Murakami, Kenji; Sakurai, Yuka; Fujiwara, Keishi; Miyairi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    To describe the candy-plug technique using an Excluder aortic extender for distal occlusion of a large false lumen aneurysm in chronic aortic dissection. A 60-year-old female patient with a history of chronic type B aortic dissection and high-dose steroid use for Churg-Strauss syndrome developed a large 6.2 cm maximum diameter false lumen aneurysm. She underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair from the left common carotid artery to the descending aorta to cover the proximal entry at the level of distal arch, with coil embolization of the left subclavian artery. To occlude the large false lumen from the reentry just below the level of the left renal artery ostium, a modified 32×45-mm Excluder aortic extender was deployed in the false lumen through the reentry, and a 16-mm Amplatzer Vascular Plug I was deployed in the waist of the modified Excluder aortic extender for complete occlusion. No obvious technical complication was seen. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography at 1 and 14 months revealed no endoleaks and showed complete false lumen thrombosis. The candy-plug technique using the Excluder aortic extender is feasible for occlusion of a large false lumen aneurysm in chronic aortic dissection. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Unicuspid aortic valve disease: a magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debl, K.; Buchner, S.; Heinicke, N.; Riegger, G.; Luchner, A. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Innere Medizin II, Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany); Djavidani, B.; Poschenrieder, F.; Feuerbach, S. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany); Schmid, C.; Kobuch, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und herznahe Gefaesschirurgie, Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: congenitally malformed aortic valves are a common finding in adults with aortic valve disease. Most of these patients have bicuspid aortic valve disease. Unicuspid aortic valve disease (UAV) is rare. The aim of our study was to describe valve morphology and the dimensions of the proximal aorta in a cohort of 12 patients with UAV in comparison to tricuspid aortic valve disease (TAV) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods/results: MRI studies were performed on a 1.5 T scanner in a total of 288 consecutive patients with aortic valve disease. 12 aortic valves were retrospectively classified as UAV. Annulus areas and dimensions of the thoracic aorta were retrospectively compared to a cohort of 103 patients with TAV. In UAV, valve morphology was unicuspid unicommissural with a posterior commissure in all patients. Mean annulus areas and mean diameters of the ascending aorta were significantly greater in UAV compared to TAV (12.6 {+-} 4.7 cm{sup 2} vs. 8.7 {+-} 2.3 cm{sup 2}, p < 0.01 and 4.6 {+-} 0.7 cm vs. 3.6 {+-} 0.5 cm, p < 0.0001, respectively), while no differences were observed in the mean diameters of the aortic arch (2.3 {+-} 0.6 cm vs. 2.3 {+-} 0.4 cm, p = 0.69). The diameters of the descending aorta were slightly smaller in UAV compared to TAV (2.2 {+-} 0.5 cm vs. 2.6 {+-} 0.3 cm, p < 0.05). (orig.)

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray dose-equivalent CT for assessing calcified atherosclerotic burden of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Michael; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Leschka, Sebastian; Warschkow, René; Wildermuth, Simon; Hechelhammer, Lukas; Bauer, Ralf W

    2017-12-01

    To determine the value of ultralow-dose chest CT for estimating the calcified atherosclerotic burden of the thoracic aorta using tin-filter CT and compare its diagnostic accuracy with chest direct radiography. A total of 106 patients from a prospective, IRB-approved single-centre study were included and underwent standard dose chest CT (1.7 ± 0.7 mSv) by clinical indication followed by ultralow-dose CT with 100 kV and spectral shaping by a tin filter (0.13 ± 0.01 mSv) to achieve chest X-ray equivalent dose in the same session. Two independent radiologists reviewed the CT images, rated image quality and estimated presence and extent of calcification of aortic valve, ascending aorta and aortic arch. Conventional radiographs were also reviewed for presence of aortic calcifications. The sensitivity of ultralow-dose CT for the detection of calcifications of the aortic valve, ascending aorta and aortic arch was 93.5, 96.2 and 96.2%, respectively, compared with standard dose CT. The sensitivity for the detection of thoracic aortic calcification was significantly lower on chest X-ray (52.3%) compared with ultralow-dose CT (p < 0.001). A reliable estimation of calcified atherosclerotic burden of the thoracic aorta can be achieved with modern tin-filter CT at dose values comparable to chest direct radiography. Advances in knowledge: Our findings suggest that ultralow-dose CT is an excellent tool for assessing the calcified atherosclerotic burden of the thoracic aorta with higher diagnostic accuracy than conventional chest radiography and importantly without the additional cost of increased radiation dose.

  16. Surgery for aortic dilatation in patients with bicuspid aortic valves: A statement of clarification from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratzka, Loren F; Creager, Mark A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Svensson, Lars G; Nishimura, Rick A; Bonow, Robert O; Guyton, Robert A; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2016-04-01

    Two guidelines from the American College of Cardiology (ACC), the American Heart Association (AHA), and collaborating societies address the risk of aortic dissection in patients with bicuspid aortic valves and severe aortic enlargement: The "2010 ACCF/AHA/AATS/ACR/ASA/SCA/SCAI/SIR/STS/SVM Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Thoracic Aortic Disease" (J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:e27-130) and the "2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease" (J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:e57-185). However, the 2 guidelines differ with regard to the recommended threshold of aortic root or ascending aortic dilatation that would justify surgical intervention in patients with bicuspid aortic valves. The ACC and AHA therefore convened a subcommittee representing members of the 2 guideline writing committees to review the evidence, reach consensus, and draft a statement of clarification for both guidelines. This statement of clarification uses the ACC/AHA revised structure for delineating the Class of Recommendation and Level of Evidence to provide recommendations that replace those contained in Section 9.2.2.1 of the thoracic aortic disease guideline and Section 5.1.3 of the valvular heart disease guideline. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Re-interventions on the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenhoff, Florian S; Carrel, Thierry P

    2017-11-01

    The advent of multi-gene panel genetic testing and the discovery of new syndromic and non-syndromic forms of connective tissue disorders have established thoracic aortic aneurysms as a genetically mediated disease. Surgical results in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) provide an important benchmark for this patient population. Prophylactic aortic root surgery prevents acute dissection and has contributed to the improved survival of MFS patients. In the majority of patients, re-interventions are driven by a history of dissection. Patients undergoing elective root repair have a low risk for re-interventions on the root itself. Experienced centers have results after valve-sparing procedures at 10 years comparable with those seen after a modified Bentall procedure. In patients where only the ascending aorta was replaced during the initial surgery, re-intervention rates are high as the root continues to dilate. The fate of the aortic arch in MFS patients presenting with dissection is strongly correlated with the extent of the initial surgery. Not replacing the entire ascending aorta and proximal aortic arch results in a high rate of re-interventions. Nevertheless, the additional burden of replacing the entire aortic arch during emergent proximal repair is not very well defined and makes comparisons with patients undergoing elective arch replacement difficult. Interestingly, replacing the entire aortic arch during initial surgery for acute dissection does not protect from re-interventions on downstream aortic segments. MFS patients suffering from type B dissection have a high risk for re-interventions ultimately leading up to replacement of the entire thoracoabdominal aorta even if the dissection was deemed uncomplicated by conventional criteria. While current guidelines do not recommend the implantation of stent grafts in MFS patients, implantation of a frozen-elephant-trunk to create a stable proximal landing zone for future endovascular or open procedures has

  18. Helical CT of traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengozzi, E.; Burzi, M.; Miceli, M.; Lipparini, M.; Sartoni Galloni, S.

    2000-01-01

    Acute thoracic aortic injuries account for up to 10-20% of fatalities in high-speed deceleration road accidents and have an estimated immediate fatality rate of 80-90%. Untreated survivors to acute trauma (10-20%) have a dismal prognosis: 30% of them die within 6 hours, 40-50% die within 24 hours, and 90% within 4 months. It was investigated the diagnostic accuracy of Helical Computed Tomography (Helical CT) in acute traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta, and the role of this technique in the diagnostic management of trauma patients with a strong suspicion of aortic rupture. It was compared retrospectively the chest Helical CT findings of 256 trauma patients examined June 1995 through August 1999. Chest Helical CT examinations were performed according to trauma score, to associated traumatic lesions and to plain chest radiographic findings. All the examinations were performed with no intravenous contrast agent administration and the pitch 2 technique. After a previous baseline study, contrast-enhanced scans were acquired with pitch 1 in 87 patients. Helical CT showed aortic lesions in 9 of 256 patients examined. In all the 9 cases it was found a mediastinal hematoma and all of them had positive plain chest radiographic findings of mediastinal enlargement. Moreover, in 6 cases aortic knob blurring was also evident on plain chest film and in 5 cases depressed left mainstem bronchus and trachea deviation rightwards were observed. All aortic lesions were identified on axial scans and located at the isthmus of level. Aortic rupture was always depicted as pseudo diverticulum of the proximal descending tract and intimal flap. It was also found that periaortic hematoma in 6 cases and intramural hematoma in 1 case. There were non false positive results in the series: 7 patients with Helical CT diagnosis of aortic rupture were submitted to conventional aortography that confirmed both type and extension of the lesions as detected by Helical CT, and all findings were

  19. Thoracic disc herniation: Surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, C; Mansour, E; Bouthors, C

    2018-02-01

    Thoracic disc herniation is rare and mainly occurs between T8 and L1. The herniation is calcified in 40% of cases and is labeled as giant when it occupies more than 40% of the spinal canal. A surgical procedure is indicated when the patient has severe back pain, stubborn intercostal neuralgia or neurological deficits. Selection of the surgical approach is essential. Mid-line calcified hernias are approached from a transthoracic incision, while lateralized soft hernias can be approached from a posterolateral incision. The complication rate for transthoracic approaches is higher than that of posterolateral approaches; however, the former are performed in more complex herniation cases. The thoracoscopic approach is less invasive but has a lengthy learning curve. Retropleural mini-thoracotomy is a potential compromise solution. Fusion is recommended in cases of multilevel herniation, herniation in the context of Scheuermann's disease, when more than 50% bone is resected from the vertebral body, in patients with preoperative back pain or herniation at the thoracolumbar junction. Along with complications specific to the surgical approach, the surgical risks are neurological worsening, dural breach and subarachnoid-pleural fistulas. Giant calcified herniated discs are the largest contributor to myelopathy, intradural extension and postoperative complications. Some of the technical means that can be used to prevent complications are explored, along with how to address these complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Aortic valve surgery - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while you are connected to this machine. This machine does the work of your heart while your heart is stopped. If your aortic valve is too damaged, you will need a new valve. This is called replacement surgery. Your surgeon will remove your aortic valve ...

  1. Imaging in aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Qing Liu, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is a catastrophic aortic disease. Imaging techniques play an invaluable role in the diagnostic evaluation and management of patients with AD. Major signs of AD with different imaging modalities are described in this article with a pertinent discussion on guidelines for the optimized approach of imaging study (13 refs.)

  2. Aortic arch malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellenberger, Christian J.

    2010-01-01

    Although anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches are relatively uncommon malformations, they are often associated with congenital heart disease. Isolated lesions may be clinically significant when the airways are compromised by a vascular ring. In this article, the development and imaging appearance of the aortic arch system and its various malformations are reviewed. (orig.)

  3. Calcifications of the thoracic aorta on extended non-contrast-enhanced cardiac CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Craiem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of calcified atherosclerosis in different vascular beds has been associated with a higher risk of mortality. Thoracic aorta calcium (TAC can be assessed from computed tomography (CT scans, originally aimed at coronary artery calcium (CAC assessment. CAC screening improves cardiovascular risk prediction, beyond standard risk assessment, whereas TAC performance remains controversial. However, the curvilinear portion of the thoracic aorta (TA, that includes the aortic arch, is systematically excluded from TAC analysis. We investigated the prevalence and spatial distribution of TAC all along the TA, to see how those segments that remain invisible in standard TA evaluation were affected. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 970 patients (77% men underwent extended non-contrast cardiac CT scans including the aortic arch. An automated algorithm was designed to extract the vessel centerline and to estimate the vessel diameter in perpendicular planes. Then, calcifications were quantified using the Agatston score and associated with the corresponding thoracic aorta segment. The aortic arch and the proximal descending aorta, "invisible" in routine CAC screening, appeared as two vulnerable sites concentrating 60% of almost 11000 calcifications. The aortic arch was the most affected segment per cm length. Using the extended measurement method, TAC prevalence doubled from 31% to 64%, meaning that 52% of patients would escape detection with a standard scan. In a stratified analysis for CAC and/or TAC assessment, 111 subjects (46% women were exclusively identified with the enlarged scan. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium screening in the TA revealed that the aortic arch and the proximal descending aorta, hidden in standard TA evaluations, concentrated most of the calcifications. Middle-aged women were more prone to have calcifications in those hidden portions and became candidates for reclassification.

  4. Early and medium term results of the sleeve valve-sparing procedure for aortic root ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Amando; Tasca, Giordano; Giannico, Floriana; Lobiati, Elisabetta; Skouse, Douglas; Galanti, Andrea; Martino, Antonello Stefano; Triggiani, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate our experience of using a simplified aortic valve sleeve procedure to treat aortic root ectasia and aneurysms with or without aortic regurgitation. In experienced hands, 2 aortic valve-sparing procedures, ie, Yacoub and David, have yielded excellent long-term results in the treatment of aortic root aneurysms, with or without aortic regurgitation. However, these techniques are demanding and not widely used. Recently, a new and simplified valve-sparing technique, named "sleeve procedure," has been proposed, and has yielded encouraging early results. Ninety consecutive patients with aortic root aneurysms underwent sleeve procedures from October 2006 to October 2012. Follow-up data (clinical 100% complete and echocardiographic 93% complete) were acquired from our outpatient clinic or from the referring cardiologist. The mean age of the patients was 61.5 ± 12.5 years, 79% were male, 16 (18%) had a bicuspid valve, 3 had Marfan syndrome, and 2 had aortic dissection. Over a mean clinical follow-up of 34 ± 19 months, 2 patients died from noncardiac causes and 1 was reoperated on for the recurrence of aortic regurgitation. On follow-up echocardiography after a mean of 18 ± 9 months, aortic regurgitation was absent/negligible, mild or moderate in 62%, 37%, and 1% of patients, respectively, and the diameters of the annulus, Valsalva sinuses, and sinotubular junction were 27.3 + 2.2, 37.0 + 3.4, and 30.6 + 3.1 mm, respectively. Our encouraging early and medium term results suggest that the sleeve procedure is a safe and effective aortic valve-sparing technique for the treatment of aortic root ectasia and aneurysm. However, longer follow-up is needed in order to draw definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hybrid aortic repair with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castro-Madrazo, José Antonio; Rivas-Domínguez, Margarita; Fernández-Prendes, Carlota; Zanabili Al-Sibbai, Amer; Llaneza-Coto, José Manuel; Alonso-Pérez, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Aortic dissection is a life threatening condition. Hybrid repair has been described for the treatment of complex aortic pathology such as thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) and type A and B dissections, although open and total endovascular repair are also possible. Open surgery is still associated with substantial perioperative morbi-mortality rates, thus less invasive techniques such as endovascular repair and hybrid procedures can achieve good results in centers with experience. We present the case of a patient with a chronic type B dissection and TAAA degeneration that was treated in a single stage hybrid procedure with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from the ascending aorta and TEVAR. At three-year follow up, the patient is free of intervention-related complications.

  6. Blood groups and acute aortic dissection type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatic, Nikola; Nikolic, Aleksandar; Vukmirovic, Mihailo; Radojevic, Nemanja; Zornic, Nenad; Banzic, Igor; Ilic, Nikola; Kostic, Dusan; Pajovic, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    Acute aortic type III dissection is one of the most catastrophic events, with in-hospital mortality ranging between 10% and 12%. The majority of patients are treated medically, but complicated dissections, which represent 15% to 20% of cases, require surgical or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). For the best outcomes adequate blood transfusion support is required. Interest in the relationship between blood type and vascular disease has been established. The aim of our study is to evaluate distribution of blood groups among patients with acute aortic type III dissection and to identify any kind of relationship between blood type and patient's survival. From January 2005 to December 2014, 115 patients with acute aortic type III dissection were enrolled at the Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery in Belgrade, Serbia and retrospectively analyzed. Patients were separated into two groups. The examination group consisted of patients with a lethal outcome, and the control group consisted of patients who survived. The analysis of the blood groups and RhD typing between groups did not reveal a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.220). Our results indicated no difference between different blood groups and RhD typing with respect to in-hospital mortality of patients with acute aortic dissection type III.

  7. Ortner's Syndrome: Secondary Laryngeal Paralysis Caused by a Great Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangirolami, Ana Claudia Alves; Oliveira, Frederico Vieira de; Tepedino, Miguel Soares

    2015-04-01

    Introduction Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury caused by cardiovascular disease is a rare condition, and often it is the only prominent sign of an imminent break of an aortic artery aneurysm. Objective To report left laryngeal paralysis caused by a great aortic arch aneurysm and to highlight the importance of an otorhinolaryngologic evaluation along with a thoracic radiologic study. Resumed Report A 42-year-old man complained of thickness of his voice and dysphagia for 3 months, but no thoracic pain or other relevant complaints. Video laryngoscopy revealed immobility of his left vocal fold in the paramedian position. Imaging was obtained for investigation, including magnetic resonance imaging of his thorax, which showed a fusiform aneurysm in the aortic arch, leading to recurrent compression of the left laryngeal nerve. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular repair of the aneurysm. At 2-month follow-up, there was still no recovery of the laryngeal mobility. Conclusion An aortic artery aneurysm can suddenly break, requiring emergency heart surgery, and the results can be fatal in many cases. We suggest routine exam of the vocal folds in all patients with a heart condition, and we review the literature and suggest the use of imaging to reduce the number of emergency procedures.

  8. Ortner's Syndrome: Secondary Laryngeal Paralysis Caused by a Great Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangirolami, Ana Claudia Alves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury caused by cardiovascular disease is a rare condition, and often it is the only prominent sign of an imminent break of an aortic artery aneurysm. Objective To report left laryngeal paralysis caused by a great aortic arch aneurysm and to highlight the importance of an otorhinolaryngologic evaluation along with a thoracic radiologic study. Resumed Report A 42-year-old man complained of thickness of his voice and dysphagia for 3 months, but no thoracic pain or other relevant complaints. Video laryngoscopy revealed immobility of his left vocal fold in the paramedian position. Imaging was obtained for investigation, including magnetic resonance imaging of his thorax, which showed a fusiform aneurysm in the aortic arch, leading to recurrent compression of the left laryngeal nerve. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular repair of the aneurysm. At 2-month follow-up, there was still no recovery of the laryngeal mobility. Conclusion An aortic artery aneurysm can suddenly break, requiring emergency heart surgery, and the results can be fatal in many cases. We suggest routine exam of the vocal folds in all patients with a heart condition, and we review the literature and suggest the use of imaging to reduce the number of emergency procedures.

  9. Congenital diseases of the thoracic aorta. Role of MRI and MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Renzulli, Matteo; Palombara, Cesare la; Fattori, Rossella

    2006-01-01

    Aortic malformations may be associated with other congenital heart abnormalities or may present independently, as incidental findings in asymptomatic patients. For more than 30 years, conventional imaging techniques for detection and assessment of congenital anomalies of the aorta have been chest X-ray, echocardiography and angiography. In recent times, considerable interest in congenital aortic diseases has been shown, due to technical progresses of noninvasive imaging modalities. Among them, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) almost certainly offers the greatest advantages, especially in young patients in which a radiation exposure must be avoided as much as possible. MRI provides an excellent visualization of vascular structures with a wide field of view, well suited for evaluation of the thoracic aorta malformations. With the implementation of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) it is also possible to depict any relationship with supra-aortic or mediastinal vessels. Phase contrast technique allows identification of the hemodynamic significance of the aortic alteration. Some technical considerations, which include fast spin-echo, gradient-echo and, especially, MRA techniques with phase-contrast and contrast enhanced methods, are discussed and applied in the evaluation of congenital thoracic aorta diseases. (orig.)

  10. Current role of endovascular therapy in Marfan patients with previous aortic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Akin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Akin, Stephan Kische, Tim C Rehders, Tushar Chatterjee, Henrik Schneider, Thomas Körber, Christoph A Nienaber, Hüseyin InceDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology at the University Hospital Rostock, Rostock School of Medicine, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 6, 18057 Rostock, GermanyAbstract: The Marfan syndrome is a heritable disorder of the connective tissue which affects the cardiovascular, ocular, and skeletal system. The cardiovascular manifestation with aortic root dilatation, aortic valve regurgitation, and aortic dissection has a prevalence of 60% to 90% and determines the premature death of these patients. Thirty-four percent of the patients with Marfan syndrome will have serious cardiovascular complications requiring surgery in the first 10 years after diagnosis. Before aortic surgery became available, the majority of the patients died by the age of 32 years. Introduction in the aortic surgery techniques caused an increase of the 10 year survival rate up to 97%. The purpose of this article is to give an overview about the feasibility and outcome of stent-graft placement in the descending thoracic aorta in Marfan patients with previous aortic surgery.Keywords: Marfan syndrome, aortic dissection, root replacement, stent-graft, previous aortic surgery

  11. Characterization of complex flow patterns in the ascending aorta in patients with aortic regurgitation using conventional phase-contrast velocity MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech-Hanssen, Odd; Svensson, Frida; Polte, Christian L; Johnsson, Åse A; Gao, Sinsia A; Lagerstrand, Kerstin M

    2018-03-01

    Ascending aorta (AA) flow displacement (FD) is a surrogate for increased wall shear stress. We prospectively studied the flow profile in the AA in patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), to identify predictors of FD and investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phase-contrast flow rate curves (PC-FRC) contain quantitative information related to FD. Forty patients with chronic moderate (n = 14) or severe (n = 26) AR (21 (53%) with bicuspid aortic valve) and 22 controls were investigated. FD was determined from phase-contrast velocity profiles and defined as the distance between the center of the lumen and the "center of velocity" of the peak systolic forward flow or the peak diastolic negative flow, normalized to the lumen radius. Forward and backward volume flow was determined separately for systole and diastole. Seventy percent had systolic backward flow and 45% had diastolic forward flow in large areas of the vessel. AA dimension was an independent predictor of systolic FD while AA dimension and regurgitant volume were independent predictors of diastolic FD. Valve phenotype was not an independent predictor of systolic or diastolic FD. The linear relationships between systolic backward flow and systolic FD and diastolic forward flow and diastolic FD were strong (R = 0.77 and R = 0.76 respectively). Systolic backward flow and diastolic forward flow identified marked systolic and diastolic FD (≥0.35) with a positive likelihood ratio of 6.0 and 10.8, respectively. In conclusion, conventional PC-FRC data can detect and quantify FD in patients with AR suggesting the curves as a research and screening tool in larger patient populations.

  12. Mutations in a TGF-β ligand, TGFB3, cause syndromic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli-Avella, Aida M; Gillis, Elisabeth; Morisaki, Hiroko; Verhagen, Judith M A; de Graaf, Bianca M; van de Beek, Gerarda; Gallo, Elena; Kruithof, Boudewijn P T; Venselaar, Hanka; Myers, Loretha A; Laga, Steven; Doyle, Alexander J; Oswald, Gretchen; van Cappellen, Gert W A; Yamanaka, Itaru; van der Helm, Robert M; Beverloo, Berna; de Klein, Annelies; Pardo, Luba; Lammens, Martin; Evers, Christina; Devriendt, Koenraad; Dumoulein, Michiel; Timmermans, Janneke; Bruggenwirth, Hennie T; Verheijen, Frans; Rodrigus, Inez; Baynam, Gareth; Kempers, Marlies; Saenen, Johan; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Minatoya, Kenji; Matsukawa, Ritsu; Tsukube, Takuro; Kubo, Noriaki; Hofstra, Robert; Goumans, Marie Jose; Bekkers, Jos A; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; van de Laar, Ingrid M B H; Dietz, Harry C; Van Laer, Lut; Morisaki, Takayuki; Wessels, Marja W; Loeys, Bart L

    2015-04-07

    Aneurysms affecting the aorta are a common condition associated with high mortality as a result of aortic dissection or rupture. Investigations of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in syndromic types of thoracic aortic aneurysms, such as Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndromes, have revealed an important contribution of disturbed transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. This study sought to discover a novel gene causing syndromic aortic aneurysms in order to unravel the underlying pathogenesis. We combined genome-wide linkage analysis, exome sequencing, and candidate gene Sanger sequencing in a total of 470 index cases with thoracic aortic aneurysms. Extensive cardiological examination, including physical examination, electrocardiography, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. In adults, imaging of the entire aorta using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was done. Here, we report on 43 patients from 11 families with syndromic presentations of aortic aneurysms caused by TGFB3 mutations. We demonstrate that TGFB3 mutations are associated with significant cardiovascular involvement, including thoracic/abdominal aortic aneurysm and dissection, and mitral valve disease. Other systemic features overlap clinically with Loeys-Dietz, Shprintzen-Goldberg, and Marfan syndromes, including cleft palate, bifid uvula, skeletal overgrowth, cervical spine instability and clubfoot deformity. In line with previous observations in aortic wall tissues of patients with mutations in effectors of TGF-β signaling (TGFBR1/2, SMAD3, and TGFB2), we confirm a paradoxical up-regulation of both canonical and noncanonical TGF-β signaling in association with up-regulation of the expression of TGF-β ligands. Our findings emphasize the broad clinical variability associated with TGFB3 mutations and highlight the importance of early recognition of the disease because of high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  13. Differences in aortic arch radius of curvature, neck size, and taper in patients with traumatic and aortic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Secor, Jessica L; Smits, Taylor C; Farber, Mark A; Jordan, William D; Matsumura, Jon S

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in aortic morphology that would potentially affect the management of thoracic endovascular aneurysm/aortic repair between trauma and aneurysm patients. This was a prospective analysis of the pretreatment digital imaging of 98 traumatic injury patients and 63 aneurysm patients enrolled in multicenter regulatory studies of the Conformable GORE TAG Thoracic Device (CTAG Device) (manufactured by W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ). A standardized protocol was used to perform an independent assessment of the images and measurements of the radius of curvature and proximal and distal neck diameters. The radius of curvature was measured using axial images and the proximal and distal intimal neck diameter measurements were completed using the orthogonal "centerline" view. Taper was measured over the entire treated aorta and was calculated by subtracting the distal neck diameter measurement from the proximal neck diameter. The results were analyzed with independent t-tests. The trauma patients had a significantly smaller radius of curvature than aneurysm patients. There was a significant difference in the aortic neck size, with trauma patients having smaller proximal and distal intimal neck diameters. Taper was noted in trauma patients but not in aneurysm patients. The aortic anatomy varies between treated aortic pathologies. Aneurysm patients have a wider arch and larger aortas when compared with trauma patients. Aneurysm patients have less taper than trauma patients. Despite these differences, both of these cohorts of patients are treatable under the broader oversizing ranges of the CTAG Device. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival and freedom from aortic valve-related reoperation after valve-sparing aortic root replacement in 1015 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fabian A; Doll, Kai-Nicolas; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Liebrich, Markus; Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Richardt, Doreen; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Detter, Christian; Siepe, Matthias; Czerny, Martin; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize mortality and aortic valve replacement after valve-sparing aortic root replacement (V-SARR) in a multicentre cohort. Between 1994 and 2014, 1015 patients had V-SARR with (n = 288, 28%) or without cusp/commissure repair (n = 727, 72%) at the centres of Lübeck (n = 343, 34%), Stuttgart (n = 346, 34%), Hamburg (n = 109, 11%) and Freiburg (n = 217, 21%), Germany. Comparative survival of an age- and gender-matched general population was calculated. Log-rank tests and multiple logistic regression were used to identify risk factors. The mean follow-up was 5.2 ± 3.9 years. Cumulative follow-up comprised 2933 patient-years. Early survival was 98%. NYHA status and aneurysm size were predictive of death during mid-term follow-up (P = 0.025). Freedom from aortic valve replacement was 90% at 8 years, with the type of V-SARR (root remodelling, David II) being a risk factor (P = 0.015). Bicuspid aortic valve (P = 0.26) and initial valve function (P = 0.4) did not impact reoperation. The need of additional valve repair (cusps/commissures) was not linked to reoperation: freedom from aortic valve replacement at 8 years was 84% if cusp repair was performed versus 90% if V-SARR alone was performed (P = 0.218). Marfan syndrome had no impact on survival or on aortic valve replacement. Mid-term survival of patients after V-SARR is comparable with that of a matched general population. The regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve is a favourable substrate for V-SARR. Prophylactic surgery should be performed before symptoms or large aneurysms are present to achieve optimal mid-term outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation after total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Nan; Chen, Lei; Ge, Yi-Peng; Zhu, Jun-Ming; Liu, Yong-Min; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Wei; Ma, Wei-Guo; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    EuroSCORE II is an objective risk scoring model. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of EuroSCORE II in the prediction of prolonged mechanical ventilation following total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection and evaluate the risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Between February 2009 to February 2012, data from 240 patients who underwent total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection were collected retrospectively. Mechanical ventilation after the surgery longer than 48 hours was defined as postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation. EuroSCORE II was applied to predict prolonged mechanical ventilation. A C statistic (receiver operating characteristic curve) was used to test discrimination of the model. Calibration was assessed with a Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the final risk factors of prolonged mechanical ventilation. The overall mortality was 10%. The mean length of mechanical ventilation after total aortic arch replacement was 42.72 ± 51.45 hours. Total 74 patients needed prolonged mechanical ventilation. EuroSCORE II showed poor discriminatory ability (C statistic 0.52) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow, pmechanical ventilation. On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for postoperative prolonged mechanical ventilation were age ≥ 48.5 years (pmechanical ventilation following total aortic arch replacement for acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection. Preoperative high level of leukocyte, age and surgical period from symptom onset are risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Midterm outcome of valve-sparing aortic root replacement in inherited connective tissue disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ogino, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Hitoshi; Minatoya, Kenji; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Iba, Yutaka

    2011-11-01

    This study determined the midterm outcome of valve-sparing aortic root replacement for patients with inherited connective tissue disorders. From 1993 to 2008, 94 patients underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Sixty patients (64%), average age 33 years (range, 15 to 61 years), had inherited connective tissue disorders: Marfan syndrome, 54 (92%); Loeys-Dietz syndrome, 5 (8%); and smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) mutation in 1. Median preoperative sinus diameter was 52 mm (range, 42 to 76 mm), and moderate/severe aortic regurgitation was present in 14 (23%). Seven (12%, 1993 to 1999) underwent remodeling procedures, and 53 had reimplantation procedures. Cusp repair was performed in 4. Median follow-up was 55 months (range, 1 to 149 months). There were 15 patients in the early term (1993 to 2000) and 45 in the late term (2001 to 2008). Four late deaths occurred (cardiac, 3; aortic, 1), with 10-year survival of 86%. Rates of freedom from aortic valve replacement at 5 and 10 years were 85% and 58% in remodeling and 96% and 58% in reimplantation. Risk factors for reoperations were postprocedure intraoperative aortic insufficiency greater than mild (p = 0.046), remodeling procedure (p = 0.016), and early term (p = 0.0002). One patient (2%) with none/trivial postprocedure aortic insufficiency required aortic valve replacement. Freedom from reoperation in patients with none/trivial postprocedure aortic insufficiency at 5 and 10 years was 100% and 67%. Meticulous control of aortic insufficiency during operation would bring favorable midterm durability in valve-sparing aortic root replacement using a reimplantation technique, even in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expanding indications for valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction: early and midterm results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valo, Johanna; Jokinen, Janne J; Kaarne, Markku; Ihlberg, Leo

    2013-02-01

    Valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction (VSRR) is an accepted method to treat patients with aortic root dilation. The role of the VSRR is less well defined for patients with bicuspid aortic valve, severe aortic valve insufficiency, congenital heart defects, and type A aortic dissection. We studied the clinical outcome of patients who underwent VSRR for expanded indications. Seventy-eight patients underwent VSRR between the 2005 and 2012. Seventy-two patients (92%) underwent reimplantation and 6 patients (8%) were operated on with the remodeling technique. The mean age was 51 ± 12 years (range 24 to 73). For 71 patients (91%), the operation was elective, and for 7 (9%; all with type A aortic dissection), on an emergency basis. Preoperatively, the degree of aortic insufficiency was graded as 2+ or greater for 27 patients (35%). Connective tissue disorder (Marfan or Loeys-Dietz), bicuspid aortic valve, or congenital heart disease was present in 15 (19%), 15 (19%), and 7 patients (9%), respectively. Concomitant aortic valve leaflet repair was performed for 39 patients (50%). The mean follow-up time was 2.4 ± 1.7 years (range, 0.1 to 7.0). Thirty-day mortality was zero. The rate of postoperative complications was low: stroke 3%, renal failure 3%, prosthesis infection 1%, and low cardiac output syndrome 1%. Survival was 100% at 1 year and 97% at 5 years. Freedom from recurrent aortic valve insufficiency (≥2+) during the follow-up was 94%. The midterm results of VSRR in terms of survival, freedom from recurrent aortic valve insufficiency, and the need for reoperation are excellent, even for high-risk patients. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in the Thoracic Aorta by Region and Sex in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Siegert, Anna-Maria; Bonorino, Fabio; Meirelles, Thayna; Barberà, Laura; Dantas, Ana P; Vila, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 ( Fbn1 ) allele encoding a missense mutation ( Fbn1 C1039G/+ ), the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally, MFS

  19. Differences in the Thoracic Aorta by Region and Sex in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Jiménez-Altayó

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome (MFS is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 (Fbn1 allele encoding a missense mutation (Fbn1C1039G/+, the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally

  20. Differences in the Thoracic Aorta by Region and Sex in a Murine Model of Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Siegert, Anna-Maria; Bonorino, Fabio; Meirelles, Thayna; Barberà, Laura; Dantas, Ana P.; Vila, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue that causes life-threatening aortic aneurysm, which initiates at the aortic root and can progress into the ascending portion. However, analysis of ascending aorta reactivity in animal models of MFS has remained elusive. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that although MFS is equally prevalent in men and women, men are at a higher risk of aortic complications than non-pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is no experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are regional and sex differences in the thoracic aorta function of mice heterozygous for the fibrillin 1 (Fbn1) allele encoding a missense mutation (Fbn1C1039G/+), the most common class of mutation in MFS. Ascending and descending thoracic aorta reactivity was evaluated by wire myography. Ascending aorta mRNA and protein levels, and elastic fiber integrity were assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and Verhoeff-Van Gieson histological staining, respectively. MFS differently altered reactivity in the ascending and descending thoracic aorta by either increasing or decreasing phenylephrine contractions, respectively. When mice were separated by sex, contractions to phenylephrine increased progressively from 3 to 6 months of age in MFS ascending aortas of males, whereas contractions in females were unchanged. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was unaltered in the MFS ascending aorta of either sex; an effect related to augmented endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization-type dilations. In MFS males, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin prevented the MFS-induced enhancement of phenylephrine contractions linked to increased COX-2 expression. In MFS mice of both sexes, the non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME revealed negative feedback of nitric oxide on phenylephrine contractions, which was associated with upregulation of eNOS in females. Finally, MFS ascending

  1. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Versus Aortic Valve Bypass: A Comparison of Outcomes and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John W; Boyd, Jack H; Patel, Parth M; Baker, Mary L; Syed, Amjad; Ladowski, Joe; Corvera, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is currently offered to patients who are high-risk candidates for conventional surgical aortic valve replacement. For the past 37 years, off-pump aortic valve bypass (AVB) has been used in elderly patients at our center for this similarly high-risk group. Although TAVR and AVB were offered to similar patients at our center, comparisons of clinical outcomes and hospital economics for each strategy were not reported. We reviewed the clinical and financial records of 53 consecutive AVB procedures performed since 2008 with the records of 51 consecutive TAVR procedures performed since 2012. Data included demographics, hemodynamics, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk score, extent of coronary disease, and ventricular function. Follow-up was 100% in both groups. Hospital financial information for both cohorts was obtained. Mean risk score for the TAVR group was 10.1% versus 17.6% for AVB group (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier hospital rates of 3- and 6-month survival and of 1-year survival were 88%, 86%, 81%, and 61% and 89%, 83%, 83%, and 70% for the TAVR and AVB groups, respectively (p = 0.781). Two patients who had undergone TAVR had a procedure-related stroke. The one stroke in an AVB recipient was late and not procedure related. At discharge, mild and moderate perivalvular and central aortic insufficiency were present in 31% and 16% of TAVR recipients, respectively; no AVB valve leaked. Transvalvular gradients were reduced to less than 10 mm Hg in both groups. The average hospital length of stay for the AVB-treated patients was 13 days, and it was 9 days for the TAVR-treated patients. Median hospital charges were $253,000 for TAVR and $158,000 for AVB. Mean payment to the hospital was $65,000 (TAVR) versus $64,000 (AVB), and the mean positive contribution margin (profit) to the hospital was $14,000 for TAVR versus $29,000 for AVB. TAVR and AVB relieve aortic stenosis and have similar and acceptable procedural mortality

  2. Surgical outcome of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatou, E; Steinmetz, E; Jazayeri, S; Benhamiche, B; Brenot, R; David, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to point out the results of different techniques of spinal cord protection in surgically-treated patients with traumatic thoracic aorta (TTA). A multicentric study was carried out involving 182 patients with TTA. Four patients died before surgery. Two patients were operated on without any investigation and 2 had no aortic tear at thoracotomy. The remaining 174 patients had aortic isthmus disruption and were included in the study. The mean age was 32.3+/-14.29 years with 126 men (72.4%) and 48 women (27.6%). Road accidents were causal in 163 patients (93.66%); polytraumatism was frequent. A standard chest roentgenogram led to a diagnosis which was confirmed with aortography in 94.8% of cases. Surgical repair of visceral lesions was performed in 52 patients (29.9%) for traumatic spleen, liver, diaphragm, mesentery, and gut. These operations were done before or after aortic operation in 21.3% and 8.6% of cases, respectively. Thirty-three patients (19%) died and 9 (5.2%) had paraplegia. Sixty-nine patients had clamp and sew technique (group 1). Ninety-three patients had different types of extracorporeal circulation (group 2), and 12 patients had Gott shunt (group 3). No difference appeared between the 3 groups according to mortality and paraplegia. But the sex ratio, age, visceral lesions, craniocerebral lesions, the type of aortic repair, and cross-clamp time were discriminative. The univariate analysis point out age, cross-clamp time, hemothorax, and anatomical type of aortic injury as the risk factors of death. This was confirmed by a multivariable test which retained age, cross-clamp time, and hemothorax as risk factors. When not diagnosed in time, TTA is serious and has a bad prognosis. In spite of a high mortality and morbidity, the surgical management has improved. Immediate operation and medullar protection are the stumbling block in this operation. Operation can be delayed in some cases, but one must take care of hemodynamic

  3. Aortic Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is then replaced with an artificial valve (prosthesis). There are two valve options for aortic valve ... place, the catheter will be withdrawn from your body through the original access point. Because not all ...

  4. A quarter of a century of experience with aortic valve-sparing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Tirone E; Feindel, Christopher M; David, Carolyn M; Manlhiot, Cedric

    2014-09-01

    To examine the late outcomes of aortic valve-sparing operations to treat patients with aortic root aneurysm with and without aortic insufficiency (AI) in a cohort of patients followed up prospectively since 1988. A total of 371 consecutive patients had undergone aortic valve-sparing surgery (mean age, 47 ± 15 years; 78% men) from 1988 through 2010. In addition to the aortic root aneurysm, 47% had moderate or severe AI, 35.5% had Marfan syndrome, 12.1% had type A aortic dissection, 9.2% had bicuspid aortic valve, 8.4% had mitral insufficiency, 16.1% had aortic arch aneurysm, and 10.2% had coronary artery disease. Reimplantation of the aortic valve was used in 296 patients and remodeling of the aortic root in 75. Cusp repair by plication of the free margin along the nodule of Arantius was used in 36.6% of patients, and reinforcement of the free margin with a double layer of fine Gore-Tex suture in 24.2%. The patients were followed up prospectively with images of the aortic root for a median follow-up of 8.9 ± 5.2 years. A total of 4 operative and 39 late deaths occurred. Survival at 18 years was 76.8% ± 4.31%, lower than that for the general population matched for age and gender. Age, type A aortic dissection, impaired ventricular function, and preoperative AI were associated with increased mortality on multivariable analysis. Reoperations on the aortic valve were performed in 8 patients for recurrent AI and in 2 for infective endocarditis. Freedom from reoperation on the aortic valve at 18 years was 94.8% ± 2.0%. No predictors of the need for reoperation were found on multivariable analysis. Eighteen patients developed AI greater than mild. Freedom from AI greater than mild at 18 years was 78.0% ± 4.8%. No predictors of recurrent AI were identified on multivariable analysis. Aortic valve-sparing operations continue to provide excellent clinical outcomes, although a slow but progressive deterioration of aortic valve function seems to occur during the first 2

  5. Endovascular stent-graft exclusion of aortic dissection combined with renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiang; Jing Zaiping; Yuan Weijie; Bao Junmin; Zhao Zhiqing; Zhao Jun; Lu Qingsheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the indications and peri-operative management of endovascular graft exclusion of aortic dissection combined with renal failure. Methods: Endovascular graft exclusion for Stanford B type thoracic aortic dissection had been preformed on 136 patients including two complicated with renal failure. Hemodialysis was preformed before operation with the fluid infusion controlled during the operation and bed-side hemodialysis after the operation for the latter. Results: All the 2 cases with renal failure complication were successfully carried out, and the peri-operative metabolism and circulation were kept on smoothly. Conclusions: Under good peri-operative management, patients having aortic dissection combined with renal failure could receive the endovascular graft exclusion of aortic dissection safely

  6. Temporoparietal Headache as the Initial Presenting Symptom of a Massive Aortic Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic dissection is a life-threatening medical emergency often presenting with severe chest pain and acute hemodynamic compromise. The presentation of aortic dissection can sometimes be different thus leading to a challenge in prompt diagnosis and treatment as demonstrated by the following presentation and discussion. We present a case of a 71-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with complaints of left sided temporoparietal headache and was eventually diagnosed with a thoracic aortic dissection involving the ascending aorta and descending aorta, with an intramural hematoma in the descending aorta. This case illustrates the importance of keeping in mind aortic dissection as a differential diagnosis in patients with acute onset headaches in which any intracranial source of headache is not found.

  7. Endovascular “Intimal Flap Septostomy” for Safe Landing of a Stent Graft in an Anastomotic Pseudoaneurysm of Chronic Type B Aortic Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Saito

    Full Text Available : Objective/Background: The purpose of this report is to demonstrate a novel endovascular technique for gaining and producing the maximal landing zone for a thoracic stent graft in a patient with a chronic type B aortic dissection. Methods: The patient was a 64 year old man with chronic type B aortic dissection. He had developed acute type B aortic dissection and undergone descending thoracic replacement (Zone 2–Th10 12 years earlier. During follow-up, he developed an anastomotic false aneurysm distally. In the initial operation, the distal anastomosis was performed with fenestration of the dissecting membrane. Computed tomography showed a pseudoaneurysm of 54 mm that was positioned 9 cm proximal to the coeliac artery. The landing zone was < 20 mm in the fenestrated area. At surgery, the true and false lumens were each cannulated from the femoral artery, and a pull through form was made just above the fenestrated flap. After the wire exchange, a 4 mm cutting balloon was positioned on the bottom of the flap, and the flap was gently sawed about 3.5 cm. Results: After stent graft placement no endoleak was observed. The patient was discharged without any complications. Conclusion: This technique was effective in producing a sufficient landing zone for endovascular aortic repair in a patient with an anastomotic pseudoaneurysm of chronic type B aortic dissection. Keywords: TEVAR, Thoracic aortic aneurysm, Chronic type B aortic dissection, Endovascular fenestration

  8. Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azizzadeh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 50 years, significant progress has been made in the surgical repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA.  Improvements in perioperative care and surgical techniques have resulted in reductions in complication and mortality rates. Adjunctive use of distal aortic perfusion and cerebrospinal fluid drainage has been especially helpful, reducing the incidence of neurological deficits to 2.4%. Current research is aimed at improving organ preservation. This review focuses on the current diagnosis and management of TAAA.

  9. The Role at Rehabilitation in Treatment of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hosseinian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thoracic outlet syndrome is a complex disorder caused by neurovascular irritation in the region of the thoracic outlet. The syndrome have been said to be mainly due to anomalous structures in the thoracic outlet, treatment for thoracic outlet syndrome varies among different institutions, and there has not been any standard program. In general conservative and surgical treatment can be do if necessary. Materials & Methods: The rehabilitation program consists of exercise and physiotherapy and brace designed to hold the posture in which thoracic outlet is enlarged. Exercise program was designed simple enough to be performed in the daily living or during work after minimal training and isometric exercises of Serratus anterior, Levator Scapulae and Erector Spinae muscles to be performed in one posture: flexion and elevation of scapular girdle and correction position of upper-thoracic spine. During 7 years, 131 cases of (T.O.S. were evaluated that 26 cases (20% have operated and 84 cases (64% have treated with conservative treatment and 21 cases (16% have been candidate for surgery but they didn't accepted. Results: All of the cases have treated with conservative treatment for four months. 84 cases responded well and no further treatment was needed. 47 cases were not satisfied with. The outcome of their treatment, that 26 cases have operated and 21 cases have not accepted the operation and continued the conservative treatment, they have had pain and slightly disability. 23 cases of operated group responded well and they have resumed to work, one case has had neuropraxia for about one year. Conclusion: Most cases of thoracic outlet syndrome (T.O.S. can be treated conservatively. Surgically treatment is indicated only in cases severe enough to make them disable to work. It is better all the patients undergo conservative treatment for at least four months then will decided for surgical treatment.

  10. Mild aerobic exercise blocks elastin fiber fragmentation and aortic dilatation in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Christine; Nielsen, Cory; Alex, Ramona; Cooper, Kimbal; Farney, Michael; Gaufin, Douglas; Cui, Jason Z; van Breemen, Cornelis; Broderick, Tom L; Vallejo-Elias, Johana; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2017-07-01

    Regular low-impact physical activity is generally allowed in patients with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. However, being above average in height encourages young adults with this syndrome to engage in high-intensity contact sports, which unfortunately increases the risk for aortic aneurysm and rupture, the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary (cage-wheel) or forced (treadmill) aerobic exercise at different intensities on aortic function and structure in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. Four-week-old Marfan and wild-type mice were subjected to voluntary and forced exercise regimens or sedentary lifestyle for 5 mo. Thoracic aortic tissue was isolated and subjected to structural and functional studies. Our data showed that exercise improved aortic wall structure and function in Marfan mice and that the beneficial effect was biphasic, with an optimum at low intensity exercise (55-65% V̇o 2max ) and tapering off at a higher intensity of exercise (85% V̇o 2max ). The mechanism underlying the reduced elastin fragmentation in Marfan mice involved reduction of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 within the aortic wall. These findings present the first evidence of potential beneficial effects of mild exercise on the structural integrity of the aortic wall in Marfan syndrome associated aneurysm. Our finding that moderate, but not strenuous, exercise protects aortic structure and function in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome could have important implications for the medical care of young Marfan patients. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study provides conclusive scientific evidence that daily exercise can improve aortic health in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm, and it establishes the threshold for the exercise intensity beyond which exercise may not be as protective. These findings establish a platform

  11. Thoracic complications of rheumatoid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, H.; Darby, M.; Edey, A.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a relatively common multisystem disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Thoracic disease, both pleural and pulmonary, is a frequent extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis and responsible for approximately 20% of rheumatoid-associated mortality. Rheumatoid disease and its associated therapies can affect all compartments of the lung inciting a range of stereotyped pathological responses and it is not infrequent for multiple disease entities to co-exist. In some instances, development of pulmonary complications may precede typical rheumatological presentation of the disease and be the first indication of an underlying connective tissue disease. The spectrum of thoracic disease related to rheumatoid arthritis is reviewed

  12. Thoracic outlet syndrome: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, Juan Camilo; Acosta, Mauricio Fernando; Uribe Jorge Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of vascular thoracic outlet syndrome in a young man, diagnosed with upper limb arteriography, leading to repeated arterio-arterial emboli originating from a post-stenotic subclavian artery aneurysm. It is of our interest due to its low incidence and the small number of cases reported that have been diagnosed by arteriography. The thoracic outlet is the path through which vascular and neural structures goes from the neck to the axilla, and it has three anatomical strictures, that when pronounced, can compress the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels, leading to different symptoms and signs.

  13. Evaluation of Marfan patients status post valve-sparing aortic root replacement with 4D flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Thomas A; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Hope, Michael D; Miller, D Craig; Markl, Michael; Herfkens, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    Over the past two decades elective valve-sparing aortic root replacement (V-SARR) has become more common in the treatment of patients with aortic root and ascending aortic aneurysms. Currently there are little data available to predict complications in the post-operative population. The study goal was to determine if altered flow patterns in the thoracic aorta, as measured by MRI, are associated with complications after V-SARR. Time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast MRI (4D flow) was used to image 12 patients with Marfan syndrome after V-SARR. The patients were followed up for an average of 5.8 years after imaging and 8.2 years after surgery. Additionally 5 volunteers were imaged for comparison. Flow profiles were visualized during peak systole using streamlines. Wall shear stress estimates and normalized flow displacement were evaluated at multiple planes in the thoracic aorta. During the follow-up period, a single patient developed a Stanford Type B aortic dissection. At initial imaging, prior to the development of the dissection, the patient had altered flow patterns, wall shear stress estimates, and increased normalized flow displacement in the thoracic aorta in comparison to the remaining V-SARR patients and volunteers. This is the first follow-up study of patients after 4D flow imaging. An aortic dissection developed in one patient with altered flow patterns and hemodynamic stresses in the thoracic aorta. These results suggest that flow and altered hemodynamics may play a role in the development of post-operative intramural hematomas and dissections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical treatment of thoraco-abdominal and low thoracic aneurysms of the aorta. One single center experience over ten years

    OpenAIRE

    El Arid, J.-M.; CREEMERS, Etienne; Limet, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the results of surgery in thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAA) and thoracic descending aortic aneurysms (TDA) in one single center between January 1rst, 1996 and December 31, 2005. It concerns open surgery in 42 and endovascular procedures in ten patients. Forty two patients (11 TDA and 31 TAA (4 type I, 12 type II, 6 type III and 9 type IV)) define the open surgery series. Twenty six patients were operated on elective basis and 16 patients in emergency condition. Surgi...

  15. Model-based segmentation and motion analysis of the thoracic aorta from 4D ECG-gated CTA images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesdorf, Andreas; Wörz, Stefan; Müller, Tobias; Weber, Tim Frederik; Heye, Tobias; Hosch, Waldemar; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Rohr, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Pathologies of the thoracic aorta can alter the shape and motion pattern of the aorta throughout the cardiac cycle. For diagnosis and therapy planning, determination of the aortic shape and motion is important. We introduce a new approach for segmentation and motion analysis of the thoracic aorta from 4D ECG-CTA images, which combines spatial and temporal tracking, motion determination by intensity-based matching, and 3D fitting of vessel models. The approach has been successfully applied to 30 clinically relevant 4D CTA image sequences. We have also performed a quantitative evaluation of the segmentation accuracy.

  16. Magnetic resonance diagnosis of aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukohara, Nobuhiko; Yoshida, Yutaka; Nakamura, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in thirty-one patients with aortic dissection to evaluate its usefulness in diagnosing the site of communicating orifice between the true and false lumens and the presence of retrograde dissection. 1. MRI revealed the site of the entry as a defect in the intimal flap in the images of 12 of 15 patients (80 %). 2. The site of the communicating orifice between the true and false lumens in the abdominal aorta could be determined in six of eight patients (75 %). 3. MRI diagnosis of retrograde dissection was successful in three patients. 4. Cross-sectional analysis of the abdominal aorta based on the location of the true lumen revealed that the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries tended to arise from the true lumen when the latter was situated in the anterior part of the abdominal aorta. The right and left renal arteries arose from the true lumen when it was positioned anterolaterally. In conclusion, MRI was a useful diagnostic method for aortic dissection, especially for determining the site of entry in the thoracic aorta. The changes in signal intensity in the false lumen provided useful information for locating the communicating orifice between the true and false lumens and for diagnosis of retrograde dissection. Cross-sectional analysis of dissection in the abdominal aorta was useful for predicting the branching of the main arteries from the true or false lumen. (author)

  17. Aortic wrapping for stanford type A acute aortic dissection: short and midterm outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demondion, Pierre; Ramadan, Ramzi; Azmoun, Alexandre; Raoux, François; Angel, Claude; Nottin, Rémi; Deleuze, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Conventional surgical treatment of Stanford type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) is associated with considerable in-hospital mortality. As regards very elderly or high-risk patients with type A AAD, some may meet the criteria for less invasive surgery likely to prevent the complications associated with aortic replacement. We have retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients admitted to our center for Stanford type A AAD and having undergone surgery between 2008 and 2012. The outcomes of the patients having had an aortic replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass (group A) have been compared with the outcomes of the patients who underwent off-pump wrapping of the ascending aorta (group B). Among the 54 patients admitted for Stanford type A AAD, 15 with a mean age of 77 years [46 to 94] underwent wrapping of the aorta. Regarding the new standard European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE II), the median result in our group B patients was 10.47 [5.02 to 30.07]. In-hospital mortality was 12.80% in group A and 6.6% in group B (p=0.66). For patients who underwent external wrapping of the ascending aorta, follow-up mortality rate was 13.3% with a median follow-up of 15 months [range 0 to 47]. The gold standard in cases of Stanford type A AAD consists of emergency surgical replacement of the dissected ascending aorta. In some cases in which the aortic root is not affected a less invasive surgical approach consisting of wrapping the dissected ascending aorta can be suggested as an alternative. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute type A aortic dissection: characteristics and outcomes comparing patients with bicuspid versus tricuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etz, Christian D; von Aspern, Konstantin; Hoyer, Alexandro; Girrbach, Felix F; Leontyev, Sergey; Bakhtiary, Farhad; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics and postoperative outcome of patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) suffering acute dissection in comparison with their tricuspid peers. Between 1995 and 2011, 460 consecutive patients underwent emergency repair for acute type A aortic dissection. In 379 patients without connective tissue disease, the aortic valve morphology could clearly be specified (91.6% tricuspid and 8.4% bicuspid). At the time of dissection, patients with a bicuspid valve were younger (46.7 ± 13 vs 61.6 ± 12 years, P tricuspid valve (bicuspid: 31.3% vs tricuspid: 6.3%, P tricuspid valve patients (P tricuspid patients (P = 0.166). Hospital mortality was 20.3% and not significantly different between the two valve morphologies, even despite the younger age of bicuspid patients: 28.1% among bicuspids vs 19.6% among tricuspids (P = 0.255). Survival after discharge was 63.3% at 10 years for all patients. BAV patients had a significantly better survival with 100% at 10 years compared with 60.2% in tricuspid valve patients (P = 0.011). Mean follow-up among survivors was comparable for bicuspid and tricuspid patients (3.7 and 4.1 years, respectively). Patients with BAV have a distinctive dissection pattern with the entry tear frequently located in the aortic root and-despite their younger age-are subject to substantial hospital mortality. For bicuspid patients suffering from dissection, composite root replacement yields an excellent outcome equal to an age- and gender-matched normal population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation on the Regional Loss Factor and Its Anisotropy for Aortic Aneurysms

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    Nastaran Shahmansouri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An aortic aneurysm is a lethal arterial disease that mainly occurs in the thoracic and abdominal regions of the aorta. Thoracic aortic aneurysms are prevalent in the root/ascending parts of the aorta and can lead to aortic rupture resulting in the sudden death of patients. Understanding the biomechanical and histopathological changes associated with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAAs, this study investigates the mechanical properties of the aorta during strip-biaxial tensile cycles. The loss factor—defined as the ratio of dissipated energy to the energy absorbed during a tensile cycle—the incremental modulus, and their anisotropy indexes were compared with the media fiber compositions for aneurysmal (n = 26 and control (n = 4 human ascending aortas. The aneurysmal aortas were categorized into the aortas with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV and tricuspid aortic valves (TAV. The strip-biaxial loss factor correlates well with the diameter of the aortas with BAV and TAV (for the axial direction, respectively, R2 = 0.71, p = 0.0022 and R2 = 0.54, p = 0.0096. The loss factor increases significantly with patients’ age in the BAV group (for the axial direction: R2 = 0.45, p = 0.0164. The loss factor is isotropic for all TAV quadrants, whereas it is on average only isotropic in the anterior and outer curvature regions of the BAV group. The results suggest that loss factor may be a useful surrogate measure to describe the histopathology of aneurysmal tissue and to demonstrate the differences between ATAAs with the BAV and TAV.

  20. Haemolytic anaemia resulting from the surgical repair of acute type A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yuji; Yamamoto, Shin; Fujikawa, Takuya; Oshima, Susumu; Ono, Makoto; Sasaguri, Shiro

    2014-02-01

    Haemolytic anaemia after acute aortic dissection surgery is extremely rare. We report 4 cases of haemolytic anaemia with different aetiologies. Four patients underwent emergency operation for acute type A aortic dissection and subsequently developed haemolytic anaemia. Case 1: a 41-year old man underwent hemiarch replacement. We performed total arch replacement 3 years postoperatively, which revealed that haemolytic anaemia was induced by proximal anastomotic stenosis caused by inverted internal felt strip. Case 2: a 28-year old man diagnosed with Marfan syndrome underwent total arch replacement. Five months postoperatively, we noted severe stenosis at the previous distal anastomotic site, which caused the haemolytic anaemia, and performed descending thoracic aortic replacement for a residual dissecting aneurysm. Case 3: a 49-year old man underwent hemiarch replacement. Three years postoperatively, we performed total arch replacement for a residual dissecting aortic arch aneurysm and repaired a kinked graft responsible for haemolytic anaemia. Case 4: a 42-year old man underwent total arch replacement. Eighteen months later, we performed descending thoracic aortic replacement. We repaired a portion of the ascending aorta as haemolityc anaemia was induced by kinking of a total arch replacement redundant graft. All the haemolityc anaemia patients were successfully released after surgical reintervention.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging 4-D flow-based analysis of aortic hemodynamics in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Raoul; Neu, Marie; Hirtler, Daniel; Gimpel, Charlotte; Markl, Michael; Geiger, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular surveillance is important in Turner syndrome because of the increased risk of aortic dilation and dissection with consecutively increased mortality. To compare 4-D flow MRI for the characterization of aortic 3-D flow patterns, dimensions and vessel wall parameters in pediatric patients with Turner syndrome and age-matched controls. We performed 4-D flow MRI measuring in vivo 3-D blood flow with coverage of the thoracic aorta in 25 patients with Turner syndrome and in 16 female healthy controls (age mean ± standard deviation were 16 ± 5 years and 17 ± 4 years, respectively). Blood flow was visualized by time-resolved 3-D path lines. Visual grading of aortic flow in terms of helices and vortices was performed by two independent observers. Quantitative analysis included measurement of aortic diameters, quantification of peak systolic wall shear stress, pulsatility index and oscillatory shear index at eight defined sites. Patients with Turner syndrome had significantly larger aortic diameters normalized to BSA, increased vortices in the ascending aorta and elevated helix flow in the ascending and descending aorta compared to controls (all PTurner patients compared to controls (p=0.02, p=0.002 and p=0.01 respectively). Four-dimensional flow MRI provides new insights into the altered aortic hemodynamics and wall shear stress that could have an impact on the development of aortic dissections.

  2. Prediction of aortic dilation in Turner syndrome - enhancing the use of serial cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of the subset females with Turner syndrome who face especially high risk of aortic dissection is difficult, and more optimal risk assessment is pivotal in order to improve outcomes. This study aimed to provide comprehensive, dynamic mathematical models of aortic disease in Turner syndrome by use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods A prospective framework of long-term aortic follow-up was used, which comprised diameters of the thoracic aorta prospectively assessed at nine positions by CMR at the three points in time (baseline [n = 102, age 38 ± 11 years], follow-up [after 2.4 ± 0.4 years, n = 80] and end-of-study [after 4.8 ± 0.5 years, n = 78]). Mathematical models were created that cohesively integrated all measurements at all positions, from all visits and for all participants, and using these models cohesive risk factor analyses were conducted based on which predictive modeling was performed on which predictive modelling was performed. Results The cohesive models showed that the variables with effect on aortic diameter were aortic coarctation (P aortic valves (P treatment (P = 0.005). Oestrogen replacement therapy had an effect of borderline significance (P = 0.08). From these data, mathematical models were created that enabled preemption of aortic dilation from CMR derived aortic diameters in scenarios both with and without known risk factors. The fit of the models to the actual data was good. Conclusion The presented cohesive model for prediction of aortic diameter in Turner syndrome could help identifying females with rapid growth of aortic diameter, and may enhance clinical decision-making based on serial CMR. PMID:23742092

  3. ADAMTS-1 in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

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    Emina Vorkapic

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix degradation is a hallmark of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Among proteases that are capable of degrading extracellular matrix are a disintegrin and metalloproteases with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS. Pathogenesis of these proteases in AAA has not been investigated until date.Human aneurysmal and control aortas were collected and analyzed with RT-PCR measuring the ADAMTS-1, 4,5,6,8,9,10,13,17 and ADAMTSL-1. Expression of a majority of the investigated ADAMTS members on mRNA level was decreased in aneurysm compared to control aorta. ADAMTS-1 was one of the members that was reduced most. Protein analysis using immunohistochemistry and western blot for localization and expression of ADAMTS-1 revealed that ADAMTS-1 was present predominantly in areas of SMCs and macrophages in aneurysmal aorta and higher expressed in AAA compared to control aortas. The role of ADAMTS-1 in AAA disease was further examined using ADAMTS-1 transgenic/apoE-/- mice with the experimental angiotensin II induced aneurysmal model. Transgenic mice overexpressing ADAMTS-1 showed to be similar to ADAMTS-1 wild type mice pertaining collagen, elastin content and aortic diameter.Several of the ADAMTS members, and especially ADAMTS-1, are down regulated at mRNA level in AAA, due to unknown mechanisms, at the same time ADAMTS-1 protein is induced. The cleavage of its substrates, don't seem to be crucial for the pathogenesis of AAA but rather more important in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis as shown in previous studies.

  4. Screening for traumatic aortic tear with chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raptopoulos, V.; Sheiman, R.G.; Phillips, D.A.; Davidoff, A.; Silva, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines if chest CT can be used in the screening of traumatic aortic tear, using CT evidence of mediastinal fluid (presumably blood) as a criterion for aortography. Dynamic CT limited to the region of the aortic arch was performed in all patients undergoing abdominal CT because of blunt trauma. Over a period of 2 years, 131 such patients also had thoracic aortograms performed within 123 hours of CT. Traumatic tear of the aorta was identified in 10 patients; all had abnormal CT scans (evidence of fluid), but only eight had abnormal chest radiographs. Of the 121 patients with normal aortograms, 86 had normal and 35 had abnormal CT scans. The chest radiographs were normal in 18 and abnormal in 103. Comparing chest radiography with CT, there was no significant difference in sensitivity (80% vs 100%), but the specificity and accuracy of CT were significantly higher (71% vs 15% and 74% vs 20%, respectively)

  5. Unexpected traumatic rupture of left atrium mimicking aortic rupture

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    Abdallah K Alameddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial (LA rupture is rare following blunt chest injury. We describe a case of blunt LA rupture that was treated surgically. This report is intended to alert practitioners for a need of a close multiple disciplinary collaborations among them for optimal management of patients with this type of trauma; because other non-cardiac injuries involving the head, abdomen, or extremities are considered covariates for in-hospital mortality. As in the present case, the patient eventually died from associated extrathoracic injuries. The diagnosis of LA rupture is by exclusion. However, the initial radiological reading may be misinterpreted, because this injury can easily be mistaking for an aortic rupture. The final reappraisal of the chest imaging studies should be interpreted by a skilled radiologist to avoid misdiagnosis. Subtle radiological features can help distinguish aortic thoracic injury as illustrated in this patient. These factors may be useful to the practicing surgeon in deciding surgical approach.

  6. Thoracic periaortal fibrosis and Ormond's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacl, G.M.; Bino, M.; Salomon, F.; Risti, B.; Marincek, B.

    1995-01-01

    Two cases of thoracic periaortal fibrosis as a manifestation of retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond's disease) are shown on CT and MRI. Thoracic periaortal fibrosis can result in an inflammatory aneurysmo with chronic dissection. Manifestation of thoracic periaortal fibrosis may typically occur intermittently over decades. (orig.) [de

  7. Thoracic trauma in newborn foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, D.; Laverty, S.; Halley, J.; Hannigan, D.; Leveille, R.

    1999-01-01

    In a report describing life ending fractures (255 horses) from the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center, Kentucky (1993 and 1994), 32 foals had rib fractures. The purpose of our study was to examine the incidence of rib fractures in newborn foals on a Thoroughbred studfarm by physical and radiographic examination, to determine factors which may contribute to the problem and to document any clinical consequences. All foals (263) included were examined within 3 days of birth. The thoracic cage was palpated externally for abnormalities and all foals were placed in dorsal recumbency to evaluate thoracic cage symmetry. Radiographs were used to diagnose foals with thoraciccage asymmetry (TCA) and rib fracture (RF). A diagnosis of costochondral dislocation (CD) was made when no radiographic evidence of fracture was present but there was severe TCA, Fifty-five foals (20.1%) had TCA (9 RF), One to 5 ribs were fractured on 9 of 40 radiographic studies. No consequences of the thoracic trauma was detected clinically, radiographically or ultrasonographically in this group of foals or at a 2- and 4-week follow-up examination. The percentage of foals with a history of abnormal parturition was higher in the TCA foals (15%) compared to the normal foals (6.8%). There weremore primiparous dams in the TCA group than in the normal foal group. Fillies (56.6%) had a higher incidence of birth trauma than colts (43.4%), Thisstudy demonstrates that thoracic trauma is often present in newborn foals and may not always be of clinical significance. Dystocia foals and foals from primiparous mares should be considered high risk for thoracic trauma

  8. Evaluation of aortic distensibility using cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Mori, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Regional aortic distensibility was measured noninvasively using cine MR imaging to determine whether it correlates with aging or risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-two patients with CAD confirmed by angiography and 33 without CAD underwent cine MR imaging. Thirty-two sequential images were obtained in one cardiac cycle. The cross sectional area of the descending thoracic aorta was measured on both diastolic (A) and systolic (A') images. Aortic distensibility (A.D.) was calculated from the following equation: A.D.=(A'-A)/A/ΔP.(ΔP represents pulse pressure). Results of a simple regression analysis showed that decreased regional aortic distensibility was significantly correlated with the age of the patients (r=-0.762, p<0.005). In addition, the parameter was lower in patients with CAD than those without CAD (p<0.05). In conclusion, regional aortic distensibility derived from cine MR imaging is a useful parameter to evaluate not only aging but also pathological atherosclerosis of the aorta. In addition, this parameter might have some potential to evaluate the prediction of CAD in patients with normal serum cholesterol. (author)

  9. Early Results of Chimney Technique for Type B Aortic Dissections Extending to the Aortic Arch

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    Huang, Chen [Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Department of General Surgery (China); Tang, Hanfei; Qiao, Tong; Liu, Changjian; Zhou, Min, E-mail: 813477618@qq.com [The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Vascular Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital (China)

    2016-01-15

    ObjectiveTo summarize our early experience gained from the chimney technique for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) extending to the aortic arch and to evaluate the aortic remodeling in the follow-up period.MethodsFrom September 2011 to July 2014, 27 consecutive TBAD patients without adequate proximal landing zones were retrograde analyzed. Chimney stent-grafts were deployed parallel to the main endografts to reserve flow to branch vessels while extending the landing zones. In the follow-up period, aortic remodeling was observed with computed tomography angiography.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100 %, and endografts were deployed in zone 0 (n = 3, 11.1 %), zone 1 (n = 18, 66.7 %), and zone 2 (n = 6, 22.2 %). Immediately, proximal endoleaks were detected in 5 patients (18.5 %). During a mean follow-up period of 17.6 months, computed tomography angiography showed all the aortic stent-grafts and chimney grafts to be patent. Favorable remodeling was observed at the level of maximum descending aorta and left subclavian artery with expansion of true lumen (from 18.4 ± 4.8 to 25 ± 0.86 mm, p < 0.001 and 27.1 ± 0.62 to 28.5 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and depressurization of false lumen (from 23.7 ± 2.7 to 8.7 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.001, from 5.3 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001). While at the level of maximum abdominal aorta, suboptimal remodeling of the total aorta (from 24.1 ± 0.4 to 23.6 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.06) and true lumen (from 13.8 ± 0.6 to 14.5 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.08) was observed.ConclusionBased on our limited experience, the chimney technique with thoracic endovascular repair is demonstrated to be promising for TBAD extending to the arch with favorable aortic remodeling.

  10. Three-year-old child with middle aortic syndrome treated by endovascular stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moszura, Tomasz; Goreczny, Sebastian; Dryzek, Pawel; Niwald, Marek

    2013-04-01

    Middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is an extremely rare anomaly and represents both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, particularly in young children. A case of a 3.5 year-old child with MAS and arterial hypertension is reported, where owing to the patient's young age and the length of the hypoplastic aortic segment, surgical correction with end-to-end anastomosis was not feasible. Instead of palliative bypass grafting between the thoracic and abdominal aorta, successful percutaneous balloon angioplasty and stenting of the lesion was performed with the assistance of three-dimensional rotational angiography.

  11. Regression in left ventricular mass after aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation is unrelated to prosthetic valve size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Morgan L; Schaff, Hartzell V; Suri, Rakesh M; Li, Zhuo; Sundt, Thoralf M; Dearani, Joseph A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice

    2011-08-01

    We examined the role of prosthesis-patient mismatch on left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic valve regurgitation. We selected patients who had complete preoperative and follow-up echocardiograms with measurement of left ventricular mass. Patients were excluded who had moderate or greater aortic valve stenosis, concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, or mitral valve procedures. Patients' mean age was 55 ± 17 years; 21% were female. The mean preoperative indexed left ventricular mass was 150 ± 45 g/m(2). Patients with mildly (n = 44; mean indexed mass, 126 ± 15 g/m(2)), moderately (n = 31; mean indexed mass, 168 ± 11 g/m(2)), or severely (n = 15; mean indexed mass, 241 ± 34 g/m(2)) increased preoperative indexed left ventricular mass, were similar, except for lower ejection fractions, larger end-diastolic dimensions, and larger ventricular wall thicknesses in the severely enlarged group (P regression was unrelated to labeled valve size, prosthesis-patient mismatch, or measured indexed effective aortic valve area. A greater preoperative indexed left ventricular mass (P regression. Despite having greater left ventricular mass regression, patients with severe preoperative indexed left ventricular mass did not return to normal values (mean, 142 ± 25 g/m(2)). Left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement for chronic aortic regurgitation is unrelated to indexed prosthetic valve area. Although incomplete, regression is greatest in patients with the largest preoperative indexed left ventricular mass. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Endovascular Repair of Aortic Dissection in Marfan Syndrome: Current Status and Future Perspectives

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    Rosario Parisi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, improvement of medical and surgical therapy has increased life expectancy in Marfan patients. Consequently, the number of such patients requiring secondary interventions on the descending thoracic aorta due to new or residual dissections, and distal aneurysm formation has substantially enlarged. Surgical and endovascular procedures represent two valuable options of treatment, both associated with advantages and drawbacks. The aim of the present manuscript was to review endovascular outcomes in Marfan syndrome and to assess the potential role of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR in this subset of patients.

  13. Aortic valve-sparing operation after correction of heart displacement due to pectus excavatum using Nuss procedure in a Marfan syndrome patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Naoto; Yuzaki, Mitsuru; Hamakawa, Hiroshi; Nasu, Michihiro; Takahashi, Yutaka; Okada, Yukikatsu

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular surgery in the setting of chest wall deformities is a clinical challenge. Pectus excavatum, for example, can cause heart displacement to the left thoracic cavity, following the poor operative field. This report highlights a case in which a successful aortic valve-sparing operation via conventional median sternotomy after correction of the heart displacement due to pectus excavatum using Nuss procedure in Marfan syndrome. This technique can be one surgical option in Marfan syndrome patients with pectus excavatum and thoracic aortic aneurysm under close follow up.

  14. [Aortic arch advancement surgery as treatment for aortic coarctation with hypoplastic aortic arch in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Macedo-Quenot, Alexis; Urencio, Miguel; Ponce-De-León-Rosales, Sergio; López-Terrazas, Javier; Castañuela-Sánchez, Violeta; March-Mifsut, Almudena; López-Magallón, Alejandro; Pérez-Juárez, Fabiola; Cedillo-Rendón, Irma; Tamariz-Cruz, Orlando

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of aortic coarctation with hypoplastic aortic arch is still a surgical challenge. The aortic arch advancement surgery has shown less re-coarctation frequency. To determine the re-coarctation frequency in patients who underwent aortic arch advancement technique for aortic coarctation with hypoplastic aortic arch and analyze the results. Retrospective and observational study of 38 patients who underwent aortic arch advancement in a third level Institution from 2002 to 2010. Twenty four males and 14 females all with aortic arch Z index diameter of coarctation was O%. With the previously mentioned technique the recoarctation frequency on medium and long term basis was 0%. From the anatomical and functional point of view, we believe this technique offers the best possible results.

  15. Follow-up of patients with previous treatment for coarctation of the thoracic aorta: comparison between contrast-enhanced MR angiography and fast spin-echo MR imaging

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    Bogaert, J.; Kuzo, R.; Dymarkowski, S.; Janssen, L.; Celis, I. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Budts, W. [Dept. of Cardiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Gewillig, M. [Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

    2000-12-01

    Regular follow-up is required in patients with previous intervention for coarctation of the aorta to detect recoarctation or aneurysm formation. In this study we describe the findings encountered on routine follow-up exams and we compare the use of contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography (CE MRA) with fast spin-echo MRI (FSE) to study the thoracic aorta after previous intervention. In 51 consecutive patients previously treated for aortic coarctation, 74 MR studies of the thoracic aorta were performed during a 2-year period using CE MRA and FSE MRI. The thoracic aorta was evaluated for abnormalities of course, caliber, shape, and pathology of side branches. The CE MRA and FSE MRI studies were evaluated side by side by consensus of two reviewers evaluating which MR technique depicted the abnormalities of the thoracic aorta the best. Of 74 exams, six clinically important abnormalities were found: four aneurysms and two restenoses. Two small pseudoaneurysms were missed on the FSE studies. Contrast-enhanced MRA was judged to visualize aortic abnormalities better than FSE (47 of 74 MR studies) especially for the transverse aortic arch, coarctation site, left subclavian artery, and aortic arch configuration. For the ascending aorta and distal descending aorta, CE MRA and FSE performed equally well. Aortic diameters measured at four levels in the first 18 MRI studies showed no significant differences in diameter when measured by FSE or CE MRA (p = not significant). Clinically important abnormalities, such as aneurysm formation and restenosis, can be present years after treatment for aortic coarctation. In the regular follow-up of these patients, CE MRA may provide additional diagnostic information compared with FSE and should be included as part of the routine exam. (orig.)

  16. Treatment of a Chronic Aneurysmal Aortic Dissection in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome Using a Staged Hybrid Procedure and a Fenestrated Endograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkden, R. Miles; Morgan, Rob A.; Loftus, Ian; Thompson, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal dissections involving both the thoracic and the abdominal aorta are particularly challenging to treat with endovascular techniques because of the natural communications at the level of the visceral arteries. We present the case of a patient with Marfan syndrome with an aneurysmal aortic dissection involving the thoracic and abdominal aorta who was treated by a combination of endografts, surgical bypass, and a fenestrated tube graft.

  17. Case of successful prosthetics of aortic arch in a patient with congenital deformation of aortic arch in severe hypothermia and circulatory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokeria L.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Atresia of the aortic arch is a rare congenital disease, often accompanied by congenital heart defects. Isolated atresia of the aorta is rare and usually has a complex deformation with multiple aneurysms, bending of the aorta and its branches. This anatomy complicates the exposure and makes surgery technically complicated with conventional approaches. The aim of the work is the presentation of a case of successful prosthetics of aortic arch and a 5-year observation of a patient with congenital deformation of the aortic arch in severe hypothermia and circulatory arrest. The article presents the variant of surgical tactics in treatment of patients with this form of atresia of aortic arch.

  18. Treatment of traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

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    Davidović Lazar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Interest for traumatic thoracic aorta rupture stems from the fact that its number continually increases, and it can be rapidly lethal. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to present early and long term results as well as experiences of our team in surgical treatment of traumatic thoracic aorta rupture. METHOD Our retrospective study includes 12 patients with traumatic thoracic aorta rupture treated between 1985 and 2007. There were 10 male and two female patients of average age 30.75 years (18-74. RESULTS In six cases, primary diagnosis was established during the first seven days days after trauma, while in 6 more than one month later. In 11 cases, classical open surgical procedure was performed, while endovascular treatment was used in one patient. Three (25% patients died, while two (16.6% had paraplegia. Nine patients (75% were treated without complications, and are in good condition after a mean follow-up period of 9.7 years (from one month to 22 years. CONCLUSION Surgical treatment requires spinal cord protection to prevent paraplegia, using cardiopulmonary by-pass (three of our cases or external heparin-bonded shunts (five of our cases. Cardiopulmonary by-pass is followed with lower incidence of paraplegia, however it is not such a good solution for patients with polytrauma because of hemorrhage. The endovascular repair is a safe and feasible procedure in the acute phase, especially because of traumatic shock and polytrauma which contributes to higher mortality rate after open surgery. On the other hand, in chronic postrauamatic aortic rupture, open surgical treatment is connected with a lower mortality rate and good long-term results. There have been no published data about long-term results of endovascular treatment in the chronic phase.

  19. Aortic dissection with acute malperfusion syndrome: Endovascular fenestration via the funnel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, Anne; Frandon, Julien; Rodiere, Mathieu; Chavanon, Olivier; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Bricault, Ivan; Boussat, Bastien; Ferretti, Gilbert Raymond; Thony, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the short- and long-term results of an original aortic fenestration method using the funnel technique during aortic dissection complicated by malperfusion syndrome. The funnel technique consists of deployment of an uncovered aortic stent graft placed from the false to the right lumen through an intimal flap aortic fenestration made by balloon angioplasty. Twenty-eight patients presenting with an aortic dissection (type A, n = 19; type B, n = 9) were treated for malperfusion syndrome owing to dynamic compression (16 renal, 17 bowel, and 13 lower limb ischemia) using the aforementioned technique, and had follow-up evaluation at short term (30 days) and long term (mean: 55 ± 40 months). Eight patients had severe ischemia on arrival (6 bowel, 7 renal, 3 lower limb). Technical success was achieved in 27 of 28 patients (96%), and ischemic symptoms had disappeared in 25 of 28 patients (89%) at short-term follow up. Five patients presented postprocedure complications: 4 minor and 1 major with arterial thrombosis which caused technical failure (3.6%). The 30-day mortality rate was 7% (n = 2), related to bowel ischemia complications. At long-term follow up, 21 patients had a stable thoracic aortic diameter (91%). The funnel technique, in cases of malperfusion syndrome after aortic dissection, safely improves short- and long-term clinical outcome, and could represent an interesting alternative in the management of patients. The hemodynamic efficiency of this technique may account for a lower mortality in our series. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quadricuspid Aortic Valve Combined with Moderate Ascending Aortic Dilatation: A Report of Four Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiy, Vladimir E; Osadchii, Alexei M; Gordeev, Mikhail L

    2015-12-01

    The quadricuspid aortic valve is a very uncommon malformation associated with aortic insufficiency, aortic stenosis, endocarditis, and ascending aortic dilatation. We report four cases of this aortic valve malformation. One patient with severe aortic regurgitation and moderate aortic dilatation required aortic valve replacement. Three patients had mild or moderate aortic insufficiency combined with moderate ascending aortic dilatation. These patients were referred to follow-up. The presented cases demonstrate that this aortic valve malformation may not be as rare as it appears and that attention must be paid to any quadricuspid findings during computed tomographic angiography and echocardiography.

  1. Activation of coagulation and hyperfibrinolysis in patients with aortic arch atheromatosis (Aortic AA) as a risk factor for cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Hans-Joachim G; Mirau, Wladimir; Brueckner, Sabine; Jahn, Juergen; Roth-Isigkeit, Angela; Gutsche, Sven; Mitusch, Rolf; Sheikhzadeh, Abdolhamid

    2005-04-01

    In patients with cerebral ischemia, a frequent finding is atheromatous plaques in the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. Since we were able to demonstrate that patients with atrial fibrillation have an increased coagulatory activity, we wanted to evaluate a potential systemic activation of the coagulatory system in patients with aortic arch atheromatosis (Aortic AA). In 134 consecutive patients, we determined several parameters of the coagulatory and fibrinolytic systems as well as several thrombophilia risk factors and compared the results with 134 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In 90 of the 134 patients, transesophageal echocardiography showed Aortic AA, and in the remaining 44 patients, there were no aortic findings. The Aortic AA group showed higher concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (PAP). Further division into 4 subgroups of different severity (grade I: no plaques; grade II: plaques 2-5 mm, grade III: plaques > 5 mm, grade IV: mobile plaques), revealed increasing concentrations of fibrinogen, D-dimers and tissue-type plasminogen activator. The grade IV-group displayed the highest values in comparison to all other groups. In conclusion, Aortic AA as such is a risk factor for cerebral ischemia. It causes a systemically detectable activation of coagulation which substantially exceeds the values for controls. This observation is in accordance with our findings in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  2. Shoulder Pain After Thoracic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten R; Andersen, Claus; Ørding, Helle

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the time course of ipsilateral shoulder pain after thoracic surgery with respect to incidence, pain intensity, type of pain (referred versus musculoskeletal), and surgical approach. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Odense University Hospital, Denmark....... PARTICIPANTS: Sixty patients for major lung resection. INTERVENTIONS: Postoperative observation of ipsilateral shoulder pain. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Postoperative numeric rating scale score of shoulder pain and thoracic pain and postoperative examination of the sites of shoulder pain...... for musculoskeletal involvement (muscle tenderness on palpation and movement) with follow-up 12 months after surgery. Clinically relevant pain was defined as a numeric rating scale score>3. Of the 60 patients included, 47 (78%) experienced ipsilateral shoulder pain, but only 25 (42%) reported clinically relevant...

  3. Contemporary management of symptomatic primary aortic mural thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Himanshu; Meda, Narendranadh; Vora, Simit; George, Robbie K; Tripathi, Ramesh K

    2014-12-01

    Primary aortic mural thrombus (PAMT) is an uncommon condition but an important source of noncardiogenic emboli with a difficult diagnosis and a high rate of complications, including high mortality. We report our experience of thromboembolic disease from PAMT and review its contemporary management. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all patients who presented with acute occlusion of a limb or visceral vessels between January 2011 and September 2013 was performed. A total of 88 patients presented with acute occlusion of the extremities or visceral arteries. All underwent extensive evaluation for the possible source of the embolism. Of these 88 patients, 19 patients (mean age, 41.2 years; male:female ratio, 1:2.1) were found to have aortic mural thrombus as the source of distal embolism. Thrombus was located in the thoracic aorta in 10 patients, in the perivisceral aorta in three patients, and in the infrarenal aorta in six patients. Thrombus in the thoracic aorta was treated with stent grafts in four patients, bare metal stents in three patients, and anticoagulation alone in two patients. In the suprarenal abdominal aorta, all three patients underwent trapdoor aortic thrombectomy. Infrarenal aortic thrombus was managed by aortobifemoral embolectomy in two patients, aortic stenting in two patients, surgical thrombectomy in one patient, and anticoagulation alone in one patient. Successful treatment, defined as freedom from further embolic events or recurrence of thrombus, was achieved in 14 of 19 patients (76.4%) with a mean follow-up period of 16.2 months (range, 2-28 months). There were four (21%) thrombus-related deaths, all due to primary thromboembolic insults. One patient needed a below-knee amputation because of a recurrent thrombotic episode. Symptomatic PAMT is an uncommon but important source of noncardiogenic embolus. It appears to occur more frequently in young women. Endovascular coverage of the aortic thrombus, when feasible

  4. Method for aortic wall strain measurement with three-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking and fitted finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatolios, Konstantinos; Wittek, Andreas; Nwe, Thet Htar; Bihari, Peter; Shelke, Amit; Josef, Dennis; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Geks, Josef; Maisch, Bernhard; Blase, Christopher; Moosdorf, Rainer; Vogt, Sebastian

    2013-11-01

    Aortic wall strains are indicators of biomechanical changes of the aorta due to aging or progressing pathologies such as aortic aneurysm. We investigated the potential of time-resolved three-dimensional ultrasonography coupled with speckle-tracking algorithms and finite element analysis as a novel method for noninvasive in vivo assessment of aortic wall strain. Three-dimensional volume datasets of 6 subjects without cardiovascular risk factors and 2 abdominal aortic aneurysms were acquired with a commercial real time three-dimensional echocardiography system. Longitudinal and circumferential strains were computed offline with high spatial resolution using a customized commercial speckle-tracking software and finite element analysis. Indices for spatial heterogeneity and systolic dyssynchrony were determined for healthy abdominal aortas and abdominal aneurysms. All examined aortic wall segments exhibited considerable heterogenous in-plane strain distributions. Higher spatial resolution of strain imaging resulted in the detection of significantly higher local peak strains (p ≤ 0.01). In comparison with healthy abdominal aortas, aneurysms showed reduced mean strains and increased spatial heterogeneity and more pronounced temporal dyssynchrony as well as delayed systole. Three-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking enables the analysis of spatially highly resolved strain fields of the aortic wall and offers the potential to detect local aortic wall motion deformations and abnormalities. These data allow the definition of new indices by which the different biomechanical properties of healthy aortas and aortic aneurysms can be characterized. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multifactorial relationship between 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography signaling and biomechanical properties in unruptured aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchimi, Alain; Cheramy-Bien, Jean-Paul; Gasser, T Christian; Namur, Gauthier; Gomez, Pierre; Seidel, Laurence; Albert, Adelin; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Labropoulos, Nicos; Sakalihasan, Natzi

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between biomechanical properties and biological activities in aortic aneurysms was investigated with finite element simulations and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography. The study included 53 patients (45 men) with aortic aneurysms, 47 infrarenal (abdominal aortic) and 6 thoracic (thoracic aortic), who had ≥1 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography. During a 30-month period, more clinical events occurred in patients with increased 18F-FDG uptake on their last examination than in those without (5 of 18 [28%] versus 2 of 35 [6%]; P=0.03). Wall stress and stress/strength index computed by finite element simulations and 18F-FDG uptake were evaluated in a total of 68 examinations. Twenty-five (38%) examinations demonstrated ≥1 aneurysm wall area of increased 18F-FDG uptake. The mean number of these areas per examination was 1.6 (18 of 11) in thoracic aortic aneurysms versus 0.25 (14 of 57) in abdominal aortic aneurysms, whereas the mean number of increased uptake areas colocalizing with highest wall stress and stress/strength index areas was 0.55 (6 of 11) and 0.02 (1 of 57), respectively. Quantitatively, 18F-FDG positron emission tomographic uptake correlated positively with both wall stress and stress/strength index (P<0.05). 18F-FDG uptake was particularly high in subjects with personal history of angina pectoris and familial aneurysm. Increased 18F-FDG positron emission tomographic uptake in aortic aneurysms is strongly related to aneurysm location, wall stress as derived by finite element simulations, and patient risk factors such as acquired and inherited susceptibilities.

  6. Mutations in a TGF-β Ligand, TGFB3, Cause Syndromic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli-Avella, Aida M.; Gillis, Elisabeth; Morisaki, Hiroko; Verhagen, Judith M.A.; de Graaf, Bianca M.; van de Beek, Gerarda; Gallo, Elena; Kruithof, Boudewijn P.T.; Venselaar, Hanka; Myers, Loretha A.; Laga, Steven; Doyle, Alexander J.; Oswald, Gretchen; van Cappellen, Gert W.A.; Yamanaka, Itaru; van der Helm, Robert M.; Beverloo, Berna; de Klein, Annelies; Pardo, Luba; Lammens, Martin; Evers, Christina; Devriendt, Koenraad; Dumoulein, Michiel; Timmermans, Janneke; Bruggenwirth, Hennie T.; Verheijen, Frans; Rodrigus, Inez; Baynam, Gareth; Kempers, Marlies; Saenen, Johan; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M.; Minatoya, Kenji; Matsukawa, Ritsu; Tsukube, Takuro; Kubo, Noriaki; Hofstra, Robert; Goumans, Marie Jose; Bekkers, Jos A.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; van de Laar, Ingrid M.B.H.; Dietz, Harry C.; Van Laer, Lut; Morisaki, Takayuki; Wessels, Marja W.; Loeys, Bart L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysms affecting the aorta are a common condition associated with high mortality as a result of aortic dissection or rupture. Investigations of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in syndromic types of thoracic aortic aneurysms, such as Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndromes, have revealed an important contribution of disturbed transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. Objectives This study sought to discover a novel gene causing syndromic aortic aneurysms in order to unravel the underlying pathogenesis. Methods We combined genome-wide linkage analysis, exome sequencing, and candidate gene Sanger sequencing in a total of 470 index cases with thoracic aortic aneurysms. Extensive cardiological examination, including physical examination, electrocardiography, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. In adults, imaging of the entire aorta using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was done. Results Here, we report on 43 patients from 11 families with syndromic presentations of aortic aneurysms caused by TGFB3 mutations. We demonstrate that TGFB3 mutations are associated with significant cardiovascular involvement, including thoracic/abdominal aortic aneurysm and dissection, and mitral valve disease. Other systemic features overlap clinically with Loeys-Dietz, Shprintzen-Goldberg, and Marfan syndromes, including cleft palate, bifid uvula, skeletal overgrowth, cervical spine instability and clubfoot deformity. In line with previous observations in aortic wall tissues of patients with mutations in effectors of TGF-β signaling (TGFBR1/2, SMAD3, and TGFB2), we confirm a paradoxical up-regulation of both canonical and noncanonical TGF-β signaling in association with up-regulation of the expression of TGF-β ligands. Conclusions Our findings emphasize the broad clinical variability associated with TGFB3 mutations and highlight the importance of early recognition of the disease because of high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25835445

  7. Double aortic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery can be done to fix double aortic arch. The surgeon ties off the smaller branch and separates it from the larger branch. Then the surgeon closes the ends of the aorta with stitches. This relieves pressure on the esophagus and windpipe.

  8. Bicuspid aortic valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... females. A BAV often exists in babies with coarctation of the aorta (narrowing of the aorta). BAV is also seen ... to view the blood vessels of the heart Treatment ... to the heart and into the narrow opening of the aortic valve. A balloon attached to the end of ...

  9. Tissue engineered aortic valve

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, P M

    2012-01-01

    Several prostheses are available to replace degenerative diseased aortic valves with unique advantages and disadvantages. Bioprotheses show excellent hemodynamic behavior and low risk of thromboembolic complications, but are limited by tissue deterioration. Mechanical heart valves have extended durability, but permanent anticoagulation is mandatory. Tissue engineering created a new generation heart valve, which overcome limitations of biological and mechanical heart valves due to remodelling,...

  10. Aortic valve insufficiency in the teenager and young adult: the role of prosthetic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Scott M

    2013-10-01

    The contents of this article were presented in the session "Aortic insufficiency in the teenager" at the congenital parallel symposium of the 2013 Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) annual meeting. The accompanying articles detail the approaches of aortic valve repair and the Ross procedure.(1,2) The current article focuses on prosthetic valve replacement. For many young patients requiring aortic valve surgery, either aortic valve repair or a Ross procedure provides a good option. The advantages include avoidance of anticoagulation and potential for growth. In other patients, a prosthetic valve is an appropriate alternative. This article discusses the current state of knowledge regarding mechanical and bioprosthetic valve prostheses and their specific advantages relative to valve repair or a Ross procedure. In current practice, young patients requiring aortic valve surgery frequently undergo valve replacement with a prosthetic valve. In STS adult cardiac database, among patients ≤30 years of age undergoing aortic valve surgery, 34% had placement of a mechanical valve, 51% had placement of a bioprosthetic valve, 9% had aortic valve repair, and 2% had a Ross procedure. In the STS congenital database, among patients 12 to 30 years of age undergoing aortic valve surgery, 21% had placement of a mechanical valve, 18% had placement of a bioprosthetic valve, 30% had aortic valve repair, and 24% had a Ross procedure. In the future, the balance among these options may be altered by design improvements in prosthetic valves, alternatives to warfarin, the development of new patch materials for valve repair, and techniques to avoid Ross autograft failure.

  11. Measurement of the aortic diameter in the asymptomatic Korean population: Assessment with multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hwan; Lee, Whal; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Dae Jin; Park, Eun Ah; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To determine normal reference values for aortic diameters in asymptomatic Korean adults. Three hundred adults without signs or symptoms of cardiovascular diseases were enrolled in this study. Aortic diameters were measured at nine predetermined levels on CT images. Aortic diameter measurements were adjusted for body surface area. Analysis of data was performed with regard to age, sex, weight, height and hypertension. Aortic diameters were 2.99 ± 0.57 cm at the ascending aorta, 2.54 ± 0.35 cm at the transverse aortic arch, 2.36 ± 0.35 cm at the proximal descending thoracic aorta (DTA), 2.23 ± 0.37 cm at the mid DTA, 2.17 ± 0.38 cm at the distal DTA, 2.16 ± 0.37 cm at the thoracoabdominal junction, 2.10, 00B1, 0.35 cm at the level of the celiac axis, 1.94, 00B1, 0.36 cm at the suprarenal aorta, 1.58 ± 0.24 cm at the aortic bifurcation. Men had slightly larger diameters than women (p < 0.05). All diameters increased with age and hypertension, with statistical significance (p < 0.01). And all aortic diameters increased with height (p < 0.05) except at the level of the aortic arch (p = 0.056), and increased with weight (p < 0.05) except at the level of the suprarenal aorta (p = 0.067). Male sex, higher weight and height, age and hypertension are associated with larger aortic diameters in asymptomatic Korean adults.

  12. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement in Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nishant D; Arnaoutakis, George J; George, Timothy J; Allen, Jeremiah G; Alejo, Diane E; Dietz, Harry C; Cameron, Duke E; Vricella, Luca A

    2011-08-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a recently recognized aggressive aortic disorder characterized by root aneurysm, arterial tortuosity, hypertelorism, and bifid uvula or cleft palate. The results of prophylactic root replacement using valve-sparing procedures (valve-sparing root replacement [VSRR]) in patients with LDS is not known. We reviewed all patients with clinical and genetic (transforming growth factor-β receptor mutations) evidence of LDS who underwent VSRR at our institution. Echocardiographic and clinical data were obtained from hospital and follow-up clinic records. From 2002 to 2009, 31 patients with a firm diagnosis of LDS underwent VSRR for aortic root aneurysm. Mean age was 15 years, and 24 (77%) were children. One (3%) patient had a bicuspid aortic valve. Preoperative sinus diameter was 3.9±0.8 cm (z score 7.0±2.9) and 2 (6%) had greater than 2+ aortic insufficiency. Thirty patients (97%) underwent reimplantation procedures using a Valsalva graft. There were no operative deaths. Mean follow-up was 3.6 years (range, 0 to 7 years). One patient required late repair of a pseudoaneurysm at the distal aortic anastomosis, and 1 had a conversion to a David reimplantation procedure after a Florida sleeve operation. No patient suffered thromboembolism or endocarditis, and 1 (3%) patient experienced greater than 2+ late aortic insufficiency. No patient required late aortic valve repair or replacement. Loeys-Dietz syndrome is an aggressive aortic aneurysm syndrome that can be addressed by prophylactic aortic root replacement with low operative risk. Valve-sparing procedures have encouraging early and midterm results, similar to those in Marfan syndrome, and are an attractive option for young patients. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Contemporary Management of Type B Aortic Dissection in the Endovascular Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannazadeh, Mohsen; Tadros, Rami O; McKinsey, James; Chander, Rajiv; Marin, Michael L; Faries, Peter L

    2016-04-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is one of the most common catastrophic pathologies affecting the aorta. Anatomic classification is based on the origin of entry tear and its extension. Type A dissections originate in the ascending aorta, whereas the entry tear in Type B dissections starts distal to the left subclavian artery. The patients with aortic dissection who manifest complications such as rupture, malperfusion, aneurysmal degeneration, and intractable pain are classified as complicated AD. Risk factors for developing aortic dissection include age, male gender, and aortic wall structural abnormalities. The most common presenting symptom of acute aortic dissection is pain. Malperfusion occurs as a result of end-organ ischemia due to involvement of aortic branches from the dissecting process. This can happen in various locations causing mesenteric ischemia (mesenteric vessels), stroke (aortic arch vessels), renal failure (renal arteries), spinal ischemia, and limb ischemia (iliac or subclavian arteries). Aneurysmal degeneration is the most common complication of patients with chronic Type B dissection who are managed with medical therapy. Management of Type B aortic dissection (TBAD) remains controversial. Many groups recommend conservative therapy for newly diagnosed TBAD and reserve surgical management for patients who develop complications such as rupture, malperfusion, aneurysmal dilatation, and refractory pain. The mainstay of medical therapy includes antihypertensive medication to reduced ΔP/ ΔT by lowering blood pressure and heart rate. With the continued success of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), this procedure has been extended to treat TBAD in selected patients. The outcomes of TEVAR are promising, with early mortality rates from 10% to 20%. With promising results from these series, some groups recommend early TEVAR in uncomplicated TBAD to prevent future adverse events. The goals of endovascular treatment of TBAD are to cover the entry tear

  14. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair in patients with marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommertz, G; Sigala, F; Langer, S; Koeppel, T A; Mess, W H; Schurink, G W H; Jacobs, M J

    2008-02-01

    We assessed the surgical outcome of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair (DTAA) and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurym (TAAA) repair in patients with Marfan syndrome. During a six year period, 206 patients underwent DTAA and TAAA repair. In 22 patients, Marfan syndrome was confirmed. The median age was 40 years with a range between 18 and 57 years. The extend of the aneurysms included 6 DTAA (1 with total arch, 2 with distal hemi-arch), 11 type II TAAA (2 with total arch, 3 with distal hemi-arch), 4 type III and one type IV TAAA. All patients suffered from previous type A (n=6) or type B (n=16) aortic dissection and 15 already underwent aortic procedures like Bentall (n=7) and ascending aortic replacement (n=8). All patients were operated on according to the standard protocol with cerebrospinal fluid drainage, distal aortic and selective organ perfusion and monitoring motor evoked potentials. In patients undergoing simultaneous arch replacement (via left thoracotomy), transcranial Doppler and EEG assessed cerebral physiology during antegrade brain perfusion. In four patients circulatory arrest under moderate hypothermia was required. In-hospital mortality did not occur. Major postoperative complications like paraplegia, renal failure, stroke and myocardial infarction were not encountered. Mean pre-operative creatinine level was 125mmol/L, which peaked to a mean maximal level of 130 and returned to 92mmol/L at discharge. Median intubation time was 1.5 days (range 0.33-30 days). Other complications included bleeding requiring surgical intervention (n=1), arrhythmia (n=2), pneumonia (n=2) and respiratory distress syndrome (n=1). At a median follow-up of 38 months all patients were alive. Using CT surveillance, new or false aneurysms were not detected, except in one patient who developed a visceral patch aneurysm six years after open type II repair. Surgical repair of descending and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms provides excellent short- and mid-term results in

  15. Complicated thoraco-abdominal aortic dissection presenting with lower limb ischemia in a patient with bovine arch and arteria lusoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joliat, G-R; Dubuis, C; Déglise, S

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with thoraco-abdominal pain and right lower limb ischemia due to type B aortic dissection. Moreover, the patient was discovered to have several concomitant aortic arch anomalies (bovine arch, arteria lusoria, and left vertebral artery arising from the aortic arch). Taking into account this complex anatomy, emergent femoral exploration with fenestration and thrombectomy was performed. The blood flow to the right lower limb was restored. A few days later the aortic dissection spread proximally, and the aortic arch dilatation enlarged. Before total arch replacement could be performed, the aorta ruptured and the patient unfortunately died.

  16. Proximal aortic stiffening in Turner patients may be present before dilation can be detected: a segmental functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Daniel G H; De Groote, Katya; Babin, Danilo; Demulier, Laurent; Taeymans, Yves; Westenberg, Jos J; Van Bortel, Luc; Segers, Patrick; Achten, Eric; De Schepper, Jean; Rietzschel, Ernst

    2017-02-13

    To study segmental structural and functional aortic properties in Turner syndrome (TS) patients. Aortic abnormalities contribute to increased morbidity and mortality of women with Turner syndrome. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows segmental study of aortic elastic properties. We performed Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and distensibility measurements using CMR of the thoracic and abdominal aorta in 55 TS-patients, aged 13-59y, and in a control population (n = 38;12-58y). We investigated the contribution of TS on aortic stiffness in our entire cohort, in bicuspid (BAV) versus tricuspid (TAV) aortic valve-morphology subgroups, and in the younger and older subgroups. Differences in aortic properties were only seen at the most proximal aortic level. BAV Turner patients had significantly higher PWV, compared to TAV Turner (p = 0.014), who in turn had significantly higher PWV compared to controls (p = 0.010). BAV Turner patients had significantly larger ascending aortic (AA) luminal area and lower AA distensibility compared to both controls (all p Turner patients. TAV Turner had similar AA luminal areas and AA distensibility compared to Controls. Functional changes are present in younger and older Turner subjects, whereas ascending aortic dilation is prominent in older Turner patients. Clinically relevant dilatation (TAV and BAV) was associated with reduced distensibility. Aortic stiffening and dilation in TS affects the proximal aorta, and is more pronounced, although not exclusively, in BAV TS patients. Functional abnormalities are present at an early age, suggesting an aortic wall disease inherent to the TS. Whether this increased stiffness at young age can predict later dilatation needs to be studied longitudinally.

  17. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta. A review of 49 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, P.; Cook, M.; Vincent, A.; Smith, D.C.

    1987-09-01

    We examined retrospectively the chest radiograph of forty-nine patients with angiographically proven aortic ruptures. The plain film findings found most consistently were a wide mediastinum (69.5%), partial obliteration of the descending aorta (67.3%), left apical cap (65.3%), downward displacement of the left main bronchus (65.3%), tracheal deviation to the right (63.2%), obscuration of the aortic arch (55.1%), right paratracheal stripe thickening (53%) and nasogastric tube deviation to the right (50%). We also examined 113 sequential aortograms performed after thoracic trauma over 3 years, to determine the positive rate in our series; 14 studies were positive for a rate of 12.4%. No single case of proved ruptured aorta with a normal chest radiograph was detected.

  18. Leaflet reconstructive techniques for aortic valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzitelli, Domenico; Stamm, Christof; Rankin, J Scott; Pfeiffer, Steffen; Fischlein, Theodor; Pirk, Jan; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Detter, Christian; Kroll, Johannes; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Shrestha, Malakh; Schreiber, Christian; Lange, Rüdiger

    2014-12-01

    Refining leaflet reconstruction has become a primary issue in aortic valve repair. This descriptive analysis reviews leaflet pathology, repair techniques, and early results in a prospective regulatory trial of aortic valve repair. Sixty-five patients underwent valve repair for predominant moderate to severe aortic insufficiency (AI). The mean age was 63 ± 13 years, and 69% of the patients were male. Ascending aortic/root replacement was required in 62%. As a first step, ring annuloplasty was performed, and then leaflet repair included leaflet plication for prolapse, nodular unfolding, double pericardial patching of commissural defects or holes, complete pericardial leaflet replacement, leaflet extension, and Gore-Tex reinforcement. Leaflet techniques and causes of adverse outcomes were evaluated. The follow-up time was 2-years maximal and 0.9 years mean, with a survival of 97%. Eighty percent of patients required repair of leaflet defects: leaflet prolapse (52/65-80%), ruptured commissures (6/65-9%), leaflet holes (4/65-6%), and nodular retraction (6/65-9%). The average preoperative AI grade of 2.9 ± 0.8 fell to 0.7 ± 0.7 (p Gore-Tex reinforcements in 2 patients. Two patients with single pericardial leaflet replacements and all those with double pericardial reconstructions did well. Leaflet defects are common in patients with moderate to severe AI. Leaflet plication, nodular unfolding, and double pericardial patching performed well. Gore-Tex and leaflet extension seemed less satisfactory. Standardization and experience with leaflet reconstruction will be important for optimizing the outcomes of aortic valve repair. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison between continuous thoracic epidural block and continuous thoracic paravertebral block in the management of thoracic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shalendra; Jacob, Mathews; Hasnain, S; Krishnakumar, Mathangi

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative pain is thought to be the single most important factor leading to ineffective ventilation and impaired secretion clearance after thoracic trauma. Effective pain relief can be provided by thoracic epidural analgesia but may have side effects or contraindications. Paravertebral block is an effective alternative method without the side effects of a thoracic epidural. We did this study to compare efficacy of thoracic epidural and paravertebral block in providing analgesia to thoracic trauma patients. After ethical clearance, 50 patients who had thoracic trauma were randomized into two groups. One was a thoracic epidural group (25), and second was a paravertebral group (25). Both groups received 10 ml of bolus of plain 0.125% bupivacaine and a continuous infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine at the rate of 0.1 ml/kg/h for 24 h. Assessment of pain, hemodynamic parameters, and spirometric measurements of pulmonary function were done before and after procedure. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores were accepted as main outcome of the study and taken for power analysis. There was significant decrease in postoperative pain in both the groups as measured by VAS score. However, the degree of pain relief between the groups was comparable. There was a significant improvement in pulmonary function tests in both the groups post-procedure. The change in amount of inflammatory markers between both the groups was not significantly different. Paravertebral block for analgesia is comparable to thoracic epidural in thoracic trauma patients and is associated with fewer side effects.

  20. Predictors of cardiogenic shock in cardiac surgery patients receiving intra-aortic balloon pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Amit; Kwon, Oh Jin; Bailey, Katherine L; Ashfaq, Adeel; Abdelkarim, Ayman; Shemin, Richard J; Benharash, Peyman

    2018-02-01

    Cardiogenic shock after cardiac surgery leads to severely increased mortality. Intra-aortic balloon pumps may be used during the preoperative period to increase coronary perfusion. The purpose of this study was to characterize predictors of postoperative cardiogenic shock in cardiac surgery patients with and without intra-aortic balloon pumps support. We performed a retrospective analysis of our institutional database of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons for patients operated between January 2008 to July 2015. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model postoperative cardiogenic shock in both the intra-aortic balloon pumps and matched control cohorts. Overall, 4,741 cardiac surgery patients were identified during the study period, of whom 192 (4%) received a preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump. Intra-aortic balloon pumps patients had a greater prevalence of diabetes, previous cardiac surgery, congestive heart failure, and an urgent/emergent status (P pumps patients also had greater 30-day mortality and more postoperative cardiogenic shock (9% vs 3%, P pumps cohort, only sex, previous percutaneous coronary intervention and preoperative arrhythmia remained significant on multivariable analysis (all P pumps and those who do not. Further analysis of the effects of prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pumps support is warranted. (Surgery 2017;160:XXX-XXX.). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glutathione system participation in thoracic aneurysms from patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra María; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Núñez-Garrido, Elías; Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Huesca-Gómez, Claudia; Gamboa-Ávila, Ricardo; Soto, María Elena

    2017-05-01

    Aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome (MFS) is progressive. It is associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction that contribute to the early acute dissection of the vessel and can result in rupture of the aorta and sudden death. We evaluated the participation of the glutathione (GSH) system, which could be involved in the mechanisms that promote the formation and progression of the aortic aneurysms in MFS patients. Aortic aneurysm tissue was obtained during chest surgery from eight control subjects and 14 MFS patients. Spectrophotometrical determination of activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), lipid peroxidation (LPO) index, carbonylation, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and concentration of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH and GSSG respectively), was performed in the homogenate from aortic aneurysm tissue. LPO index, carbonylation, TGF-β1, and GR activity were increased in MFS patients (p < 0.04), while TAC, GSH/GSSG ratio, GPx, and GST activity were significantly decreased (p < 0.04). The depletion of GSH, in spite of the elevated activity of GR, not only diminished the activity of GSH-depend GST and GPx, but increased LPO, carbonylation and decreased TAC. These changes could promote the structural and functional alterations in the thoracic aorta of MFS patients.

  2. Delayed rupture of thoracic aorta aneurysm following a kick to the abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Antonio; De Giorgio, Fabio; Partemi, Sara; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Carbone, Arnaldo

    2009-03-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the Blunt Traumatic Aortic Rupture (BTAR) because different mechanical forces act on the aorta, at anatomically susceptible sites, including shearing, torsion and stretching, but the origin, transduction and relative importance of these forces remain uncertain. We report a case of a 74-year-old man injured by a kick to the abdomen. After 2 days he felt chest pain paroxysm and weakness in his left leg. The patient was admitted to an emergency care department where he experienced sudden and severe hemodynamic deterioration, dying rapidly. The autopsy, performed 3 days later, showed haemorragic infarction of hypogastric subcutaneous tissues and revealed an extended dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with following haemopericardium. In our case we con