WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex societal processes

  1. FACET: A simulation software framework for modeling complex societal processes and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-02

    FACET, the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory to address the need for a simulation software architecture in the style of an agent-based approach, but with sufficient robustness, expressiveness, and flexibility to be able to deal with the levels of complexity seen in real-world social situations. FACET is an object-oriented software framework for building models of complex, cooperative behaviors of agents. It can be used to implement simulation models of societal processes such as the complex interplay of participating individuals and organizations engaged in multiple concurrent transactions in pursuit of their various goals. These transactions can be patterned on, for example, clinical guidelines and procedures, business practices, government and corporate policies, etc. FACET can also address other complex behaviors such as biological life cycles or manufacturing processes. To date, for example, FACET has been applied to such areas as land management, health care delivery, avian social behavior, and interactions between natural and social processes in ancient Mesopotamia.

  2. A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-15

    The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

  3. Evaluating landscape health: Integrating societal goals and biophysical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, D.J.; Gaudet, C.; Karr, J.R.; Baron, Jill S.; Bohlen, C.; Jackson, W.; Jones, B.; Naiman, R.J.; Norton, B.; Pollock, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating landscape change requires the integration of the social and natural sciences. The social sciences contribute to articulating societal values that govern landscape change, while the natural sciences contribute to understanding the biophysical processes that are influenced by human activity and result in ecological change. Building upon Aldo Leopold's criteria for landscape health, the roles of societal values and biophysical processes in shaping the landscape are explored. A framework is developed for indicators of landscape health and integrity. Indicators of integrity are useful in measuring biological condition relative to the condition in landscapes largely unaffected by human activity, while indicators of health are useful in evaluating changes in highly modified landscapes. Integrating societal goals and biophysical processes requires identification of ecological services to be sustained within a given landscape. It also requires the proper choice of temporal and spatial scales. Societal values are based upon inter-generational concerns at regional scales (e.g. soil and ground water quality). Assessing the health and integrity of the environment at the landscape scale over a period of decades best integrates societal values with underlying biophysical processes. These principles are illustrated in two contrasting case studies: (1) the South Platte River study demonstrates the role of complex biophysical processes acting at a distance; and (2) the Kissimmee River study illustrates the critical importance of social, cultural and economic concerns in the design of remedial action plans. In both studies, however, interactions between the social and the biophysical governed the landscape outcomes. The legacy of evolution and the legacy of culture requires integration for the purpose of effectively coping with environmental change.

  4. Advances in complex societal, environmental and engineered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Essaaidi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses recent technological progress that has led to an increased complexity in many natural and artificial systems. The resulting complexity research due to the emergence of new properties and spatio-temporal interactions among a large number of system elements - and between the system and its environment - is the primary focus of this text. This volume is divided into three parts: Part one focuses on societal and ecological systems, Part two deals with approaches for understanding, modeling, predicting and mastering socio-technical systems, and Part three includes real-life examples. Each chapter has its own special features; it is a self-contained contribution of distinguished experts working on different fields of science and technology relevant to the study of complex systems. Advances in Complex Systems of Contemporary Reality: Societal, Environmental and Engineered Systems will provide postgraduate students, researchers and managers with qualitative and quantitative methods for handling th...

  5. Improving societal acceptance of rad waste management policy decisions: an approach based on complex intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Suman

    2008-01-01

    In today's context elaborate public participation exercises are conducted around the world to elicit and incorporate societal risk perceptions into nuclear policy Decision-Making. However, on many occasions, such as in the case of rad waste management, the society remains unconvinced about these decisions. This naturally leads to the questions: are techniques for incorporating societal risk perceptions into the rad waste policy decision making processes sufficiently mature? How could societal risk perceptions and legal normative principles be better integrated in order to render the decisions more equitable and convincing to society? Based on guidance from socio-psychological research this paper postulates that a critical factor for gaining/improving societal acceptance is the quality and adequacy of criteria for option evaluation that are used in the policy decision making. After surveying three rad waste public participation cases, the paper identifies key lacunae in criteria abstraction processes as currently practiced. A new policy decision support model CIRDA: Complex Intelligent Risk Discourse Abstraction model that is based on the heuristic of Risk-Risk Analysis is proposed to overcome these lacunae. CIRDA's functionality of rad waste policy decision making is modelled as a policy decision-making Abstract Intelligent Agent and the agent program/abstraction mappings are presented. CIRDA is then applied to a live (U.K.) rad waste management case and the advantages of this method as compared to the Value Tree Method as practiced in the GB case are demonstrated. (author)

  6. Introducing systems oriented design for complex societal contexts in design engineering education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo da Costa Junior

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As our society faces large-scale wicked problems like global warming, resource depletion, poverty and humanitarian emergencies, problem solvers are required to apply new reasoning models more appropriate to deal with these complex societal problems. Dealing with these problems poses unfamiliar challenges in contexts with poor financial and infrastructural resources. Systems Oriented Design (SOD has been recognized in the literature as a promising approach, capable to support design engineers to deal with these complex societal problems. This paper explores the application of SOD in the development of Product-Service System (PSS concepts by student teams in a multidisciplinary master course. The course resulted in twelve concepts that were analysed using a case study approach with the support of protocol analysis. The analysis results in a description of advantages, context- and process-related challenges of using SOD. From an education point-of-view, the results demonstrate that even though SOD provides students with a broad knowledge base and skills to deal with problems in complex societal contexts, there is still the need to introduce the appropriate scope and depth in the design engineering curricula, making the transition from traditional product design, a challenging one.

  7. Coping with Complex Environmental and Societal Flood Risk Management Decisions: An Integrated Multi-criteria Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love Ekenberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, a great deal of attention has been focused on the financial risk management of natural disasters. One reason behind is that the economic losses from floods, windstorms, earthquakes and other disasters in both the developing and developed countries are escalating dramatically. It has become apparent that an integrated water resource management approach would be beneficial in order to take both the best interests of society and of the environment into consideration. One improvement consists of models capable of handling multiple criteria (conflicting objectives as well as multiple stakeholders (conflicting interests. A systems approach is applied for coping with complex environmental and societal risk management decisions with respect to flood catastrophe policy formation, wherein the emphasis is on computer-based modeling and simulation techniques combined with methods for evaluating strategies where numerous stakeholders are incorporated in the process. The resulting framework consists of a simulation model, a decision analytical tool, and a set of suggested policy strategies for policy formulation. The framework will aid decision makers with high risk complex environmental decisions subject to significant uncertainties.

  8. Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern

    2001-01-01

    In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than

  9. Societal rationality; towards an understanding of decision making processes in society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstroem, Bjoern [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    In a search for new ways to structure decision making on complex and controversial issues it is necessary to build an understanding of why traditional decision making processes break down. One reason is connected to the issues themselves. They represent steps into the unknown and decisions should therefore be made with prudence. A second reason is connected to a track record according to which new technologies are seen as generating more problems than solutions. A third and more fundamental reason is connected to the decision making processes themselves and a need to find better ways to approach difficult questions in the society. One way to approach societal decision making processes is to investigate their hidden rationality in an attempt to understand causes of observed difficulties. The paper is based mainly on observations from the nuclear industry, but it builds also on controversies experienced in attempts to agree on global efforts towards sustainable approaches to development. It builds on an earlier paper, which discussed the basis of rationality both on an individual and a societal level. Research in societal decision making has to rely on a true multi-disciplinary approach. It is nor enough to understand the technical and scientific models by which outcomes are predicted, but it is also necessary to understand how people make sense of their environment and how they co-operate. Rationality is in this connection one of the key concepts, with an understanding that people always are rational in their own frame of action. The challenge in this connection is to understand how this subjective rationality is formed. Societal rationality has to do with the allocation of resources. There are decisions in which several conflicting views have to be considered. Spending time and resources ex ante may support a consensus ex post, but unfortunately there is no panacea for approaching difficult decisions. Decisions with an uncertain future have to be more robust than

  10. A Process Towards Societal Value within a Community-Based Regional Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Åslund

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Processes, activities and tasks of a community-based area development project are described. The main process has been used three times and a model is presented. An earlier developed process map has been verified. The description of the project can help other communities to plan development projects. The illustration can be valuable for entrepreneurs who are planning a societal value initiative and for decision-makers and stakeholders who can contribute to, are concerned with, or may be affected by societal entrepreneurship. Observation, participating studies, dokumentations and an interview with the project leader has been carried out. Data have been analyzed and compared with the previously developed process map to achieve a deeper understanding of the processes within societal entrepreneurship. The purpose was to study and describe the processes of a community-based area development project and to compare it with a previously developed process map and to verify the process map.

  11. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    supports approximately 40 USGS research specialists who utilize cooperative agreements with universities, industry, and other governmental agencies to support their collaborative research and information exchange. Scientists of the WMERSC study how and where non-fuel mineral resources form and are concentrated in the earth's crust, where mineral resources might be found in the future, and how mineral materials interact with the environment to affect human and ecosystem health. Natural systems (ecosystems) are complex - our understanding of how ecosystems operate requires collecting and synthesizing large amounts of geologic, geochemical, biologic, hydrologic, and meteorological information. Scientists in the Center strive to understand the interplay of various processes and how they affect the structure, composition, and health of ecosystems. Such understanding, which is then summarized in publicly available reports, is used to address and solve a wide variety of issues that are important to society and the economy. WMERSC scientists have extensive national and international experience in these scientific specialties and capabilities - they have collaborated with many Federal, State, and local agencies; with various private sector organizations; as well as with foreign countries and organizations. Nearly every scientific and societal challenge requires a different combination of scientific skills and capabilities. With their breadth of scientific specialties and capabilities, the scientists of the WMERSC can provide scientifically sound approaches to a wide range of societal challenges and issues. The following sections describe examples of important issues that have been addressed by scientists in the Center, the methods employed, and the relevant conclusions. New directions are inevitable as societal needs change over time. Scientists of the WMERSC have a diverse set of skills and capabilities and are proficient in the collection and integration of

  12. E-inclusion Process and Societal Digital Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolina, Ieva

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the focus shifts from information and communication technology access to skills and knowledge. Moreover, lack of digital skills is an obstacle in the process of learning new digital competences using technologies and e-learning. The objective of this research is to investigate how to facilitate students to use the acquired digital skills…

  13. The complexity of heritage and societal development - The example of Gjirokastra, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosse Lagerqvist

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Albania is formerly the most closed country in Europe and has suffered from severe economic and political problems during the last two decades. In the southern part lies Gjirokastra, birthplace of former dictator Enver Hoxha, and home to diverse communities of Albanians and Greeks. Gjirokastra Old Town, proclaimed Museum City by the regime in 1961 and later turned into a UNESCO World Heritage City, climbs the steep western side of the Drinos valley. During the communist era the city was heavily industrialized with a metal work factory as well as factories for products such as shoes, refrigerators, and umbrellas. On the eastern side is the archaeological site of the ancient city of Antigonea, thus defining a landscape with long historical processes and a multitude of narratives and interpretations. In recent years this landscape has witnessed increased efforts to secure what are perceived heritage values, focusing on the older structures i.e. the world heritage part of the city and the archaeological site. However, the structures of post-war era of Albania contribute significantly to the full context of the landscape, but since the mid-1990s and the collapse of Albanian post-communist economy the former industrial sites are increasingly deteriorating. Parallel with severe economic problems with massive volumes of unemployed, a criminally based economy on drug trafficking is increasing. This paper will discuss the societally based problems in securing different heritage assets for a positive societal development.

  14. How Multilevel Societal Learning Processes Facilitate Transformative Change: A Comparative Case Study Analysis on Flood Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable resources management requires a major transformation of existing resource governance and management systems. These have evolved over a long time under an unsustainable management paradigm, e.g., the transformation from the traditionally prevailing technocratic flood protection toward the holistic integrated flood management approach. We analyzed such transformative changes using three case studies in Europe with a long history of severe flooding: the Hungarian Tisza and the German and Dutch Rhine. A framework based on societal learning and on an evolutionary understanding of societal change was applied to identify drivers and barriers for change. Results confirmed the importance of informal learning and actor networks and their connection to formal policy processes. Enhancing a society's capacity to adapt is a long-term process that evolves over decades, and in this case, was punctuated by disastrous flood events that promoted windows of opportunity for change.

  15. Addressing Complex Societal Problems: Enabling Multiple Dimensions of Proximity to Sustain Partnerships for Collective Impact in Quebec

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    Nii A. Addy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable solutions for complex societal problems, like poverty, require informing stakeholders about progress and changes needed as they collaborate. Yet, inter-organizational collaboration researchers highlight monumental challenges in measuring seemingly intangible factors during collective impact processes. We grapple with the question: How can decision-makers coherently conceptualize and measure seemingly intangible factors to sustain partnerships for the emergence of collective impact? We conducted an inductive process case study to address this question, analyzing data from documents, observations, and interviews of 24 philanthropy leaders and multiple stakeholders in a decades-long partnership involving Canada’s largest private family foundation, government and community networks, and during which a “collective impact project” emerged in Quebec Province, Canada. The multidimensional proximity framework provided an analytical lens. During the first phase of the partnership studied, there was a lack of baseline measurement of largely qualitative factors—conceptualized as cognitive, social, and institutional proximity between stakeholders—which evaluations suggested were important for explaining which community networks successfully brought about desired outcomes. Non-measurement of these factors was a problem in providing evidence for sustained engagement of stakeholders, such as government and local businesses. We develop a multidimensional proximity model that coherently conceptualizes qualitative proximity factors, for measuring their change over time.

  16. The Dynamics of Hope and Motivations in Groups Working on Complex Societal Issues

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    Pia Andersson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a study of how participants’ sense of personal hope and motivation was affected by a facilitated process in which four groups of people worked on different complex social issues. The group interventions were designed to scaffold increased understanding of the complexity of the chosen issue. A method called The Integral Process for Working on Complex Issues was used in all of the groups. Issues addressed in the four groups were: neighborhood deterioration, lack of community engagement, the need for better strategies for communication between rescue service actors in critical life-and-death situations, and transition to a more environmentally sustainable city. The study investigated the participants’ self-reported changes in their levels of hope regarding the possibility of achieving positive results on the selected issue, and changes in their motivation to engage in work to that end. The data were gathered through interviews with individual group participants before and after the group process. The sessions supported group members to develop more awareness of the complexity of the issues, and to develop strategies for action. The study indicates that the discovery of new potential pathways to manage an issue, through a more comprehensive understanding of the complexity involved, was a key factor influencing levels of hope and motivation. Reports from participants showed that when the participants formulated concrete actions that made sense to them, then “particularized hope” emerged, as well as motivation to continue to engage. Thus, increased levels of hope about a delimited part of the issue were reported, while in some cases, participants reported having less hope about the issue complex as a whole.

  17. The Evolution of English Language Teaching during Societal Transition in Finland--A Mutual Relationship or a Distinctive Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Riitta; Saarivirta, Toni

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the evolution of English language teaching in Finland and looks into the connections of the societal and educational changes in the country as explanatory factors in the process. The results of the study show that the language teaching methodology and the status of foreign languages in Finland are clearly connected to the…

  18. Complexity of Perceptual Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito Arecchi, F.

    2005-09-01

    At the borderline between neuroscience and physics of complex phenomena, a new paradigm is under investigation, namely feature binding. This terminology denotes how a large collection of coupled neurons combines external signals with internal memories into new coherent patterns of meaning. An external stimulus spreads over an assembly of coupled neurons, building up a corresponding collective state. Thus, the synchronization of spike trains of many individual neurons is the basis of a coherent perception. Based on recent investigations, a novel conjecture for the dynamics of single neurons and, consequently, for neuron assemblies has been formulated. Homoclinic chaos is proposed as the most suitable way to code information in time by trains of equal spikes occurring at apparently erratic times; a new quantitative indicator, called propensity, is introduced to select the most appropriate neuron model. In order to classify the set of different perceptions, the percept space is given a metric structure by introducing a distance measure between distinct percepts. The distance in percept space is conjugate to the duration of the perception in the sense that an uncertainty relation in percept space is associated with time limited perceptions. Thus coding of different percepts by synchronized spike trains entails fundamental quantum features. It is conjectured that they are related to the details of the perceptual chain rather than depending on Planck's action.

  19. Societal and Political Issues of Site Selection Process Development for the LILW Repository in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polic, Marko; KoS, Drago; Zeleznik, Nadja

    2006-01-01

    The siting of the radioactive waste repository, even the low and intermediate level radioactivity waste (LILW), presents a great problem in almost every country that produces these materials. Attempts to locate a disposal facility in Slovenia have until now proven unsuccessful. After the failure of the first 'technocratic' approach it became evident that the main problem was not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the public acceptability of any radioactive waste disposal facility (RWD). In general people strongly oppose to any kind of such a facility in their vicinity and exhibit a 'Not in my Backyard' (NIMBY) attitude even if they are aware of its necessity. However there are slight signs of changes especially in argumentation supporting the public denial of LIL RWD. The main LILW producer in Slovenia is nuclear power plant in Krsko (NEK). The project for the construction of this plant did not include consideration of the LIL RWD while at that time plans for new NPP's in Yugoslavia with a centralized LILW repository were present. The search for possible locations of LILW repository started only after the beginning of its commercial operation in 1983. The general development of radioactive waste management (RWM) issue in Slovenia was similar to the development in other developed countries, while its details and context differ in smaller or greater degree due to different cultural, political, social and economic backgrounds. The RWM process was following the same general course: technological approach neglecting public issues - public reactance - move toward public involvement. All this was accompanied by the relevant public attitudes: neutrality - rejection - eventual conditional public acceptance. The procedure to find a LILW repository is proposed and established, but the processes leading to final solution are going on without being completely foreseen yet. The general underlying view is connected to the fear of radioactivity and general negative

  20. Societal and Political Issues of Site Selection Process Development for the LILW Repository in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polic, Marko; KoS, Drago [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zeleznik, Nadja [ARAO, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-09-15

    The siting of the radioactive waste repository, even the low and intermediate level radioactivity waste (LILW), presents a great problem in almost every country that produces these materials. Attempts to locate a disposal facility in Slovenia have until now proven unsuccessful. After the failure of the first 'technocratic' approach it became evident that the main problem was not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the public acceptability of any radioactive waste disposal facility (RWD). In general people strongly oppose to any kind of such a facility in their vicinity and exhibit a 'Not in my Backyard' (NIMBY) attitude even if they are aware of its necessity. However there are slight signs of changes especially in argumentation supporting the public denial of LIL RWD. The main LILW producer in Slovenia is nuclear power plant in Krsko (NEK). The project for the construction of this plant did not include consideration of the LIL RWD while at that time plans for new NPP's in Yugoslavia with a centralized LILW repository were present. The search for possible locations of LILW repository started only after the beginning of its commercial operation in 1983. The general development of radioactive waste management (RWM) issue in Slovenia was similar to the development in other developed countries, while its details and context differ in smaller or greater degree due to different cultural, political, social and economic backgrounds. The RWM process was following the same general course: technological approach neglecting public issues - public reactance - move toward public involvement. All this was accompanied by the relevant public attitudes: neutrality - rejection - eventual conditional public acceptance. The procedure to find a LILW repository is proposed and established, but the processes leading to final solution are going on without being completely foreseen yet. The general underlying view is connected to the fear of

  1. Epidemic processes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Castellano, Claudio; Van Mieghem, Piet; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    In recent years the research community has accumulated overwhelming evidence for the emergence of complex and heterogeneous connectivity patterns in a wide range of biological and sociotechnical systems. The complex properties of real-world networks have a profound impact on the behavior of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in various systems, and the study of epidemic spreading is central to our understanding of the unfolding of dynamical processes in complex networks. The theoretical analysis of epidemic spreading in heterogeneous networks requires the development of novel analytical frameworks, and it has produced results of conceptual and practical relevance. A coherent and comprehensive review of the vast research activity concerning epidemic processes is presented, detailing the successful theoretical approaches as well as making their limits and assumptions clear. Physicists, mathematicians, epidemiologists, computer, and social scientists share a common interest in studying epidemic spreading and rely on similar models for the description of the diffusion of pathogens, knowledge, and innovation. For this reason, while focusing on the main results and the paradigmatic models in infectious disease modeling, the major results concerning generalized social contagion processes are also presented. Finally, the research activity at the forefront in the study of epidemic spreading in coevolving, coupled, and time-varying networks is reported.

  2. Understanding Societal Impact in Research and Technology Organisations using Productive Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, Aad; Löwik, Sandor; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Research organisations receiving at least partly public funding are increasingly required to show their societal impact. Assessing societal impact is a complex task, because it involves very different aspects, is prone to bias from the assessor and even may be contradictory. Using the process and

  3. Beyond the current Dutch spatial planning system: Towards a beneficial spatial system that accommodates today’s complex societal needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Lodder (Marleen); J. Rotmans (Jan); M. Braungart (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper will analyse the developments in the spatial planning system in the Netherlands, as of the industrial revolution, as it has led to good practices of international recognition, but now seems to be under pressure because of the increasing complexity and multiple crises induced

  4. Information processing in complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Quax, R.

    2013-01-01

    Eerste resultaten van onderzoek van Rick Quax suggereren dat een combinatie van informatietheorie, netwerktheorie en statistische mechanica kan leiden tot een veelbelovende theorie om het gedrag van complexe netwerken te voorspellen. Er bestaat nog weinig theorie over het gedrag van dynamische eenheden die verbonden zijn in een netwerk, zoals neuronen in een breinnetwerk of genen in een gen-regulatienetwerk. Quax combineert informatietheorie, netwerktheorie, en statistische onderzoeken en mec...

  5. Adaptive Beamforming Based on Complex Quaternion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-wu Tao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the benefits of array signal processing in quaternion domain, we investigate the problem of adaptive beamforming based on complex quaternion processes in this paper. First, a complex quaternion least-mean squares (CQLMS algorithm is proposed and its performance is analyzed. The CQLMS algorithm is suitable for adaptive beamforming of vector-sensor array. The weight vector update of CQLMS algorithm is derived based on the complex gradient, leading to lower computational complexity. Because the complex quaternion can exhibit the orthogonal structure of an electromagnetic vector-sensor in a natural way, a complex quaternion model in time domain is provided for a 3-component vector-sensor array. And the normalized adaptive beamformer using CQLMS is presented. Finally, simulation results are given to validate the performance of the proposed adaptive beamformer.

  6. Effective Complexity of Stationary Process Realizations

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    Arleta Szkoła

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effective complexity of an object as the minimal description length of its regularities has been initiated by Gell-Mann and Lloyd. The regularities are modeled by means of ensembles, which is the probability distributions on finite binary strings. In our previous paper [1] we propose a definition of effective complexity in precise terms of algorithmic information theory. Here we investigate the effective complexity of binary strings generated by stationary, in general not computable, processes. We show that under not too strong conditions long typical process realizations are effectively simple. Our results become most transparent in the context of coarse effective complexity which is a modification of the original notion of effective complexity that needs less parameters in its definition. A similar modification of the related concept of sophistication has been suggested by Antunes and Fortnow.

  7. Simulation of Complex Logistical Service Processes

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    Gubán Miklós

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The world around us is a very complex and multi-parametric system, like the weather, traffic, operation of machines, production processes, service processes, etc. Understanding of the characteristics, operation and behaviour of these systems and processes is not easy due to their complexity. The design of optimal production and service procedures is an essential task for planners. The target is the increasing of the efficiency of the production and service and analysis of the effect of parameter changing. There are lot of tools and sophisticated methods for design, analysis and improvement of logistical processes. The most often used analysis tool is the simulation in the production processes. Our aim in this article is to show that the simulation can be used efficiently in case of analysis of service processes, not only in case of production processes. The simulation is available for bottleneck analysis of service activities not only for production processes. In this study the simulation of a service process was realized by the AnyLogic software. The relevance of the simulation technique for analysis of complex service processes is proved by a case study of a service and maintenance activity of a multinational shopping centre.

  8. Design Patterns for Complex Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Currently engineering efficient and successful event-driven applications based on the emerging Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology, is a laborious trial and error process. The proposed CEP design pattern approach should support CEP engineers in their design decisions to build robust and efficient CEP solutions with well understood tradeoffs and should enable an interdisciplinary and efficient communication process about successful CEP solutions in different application domains.

  9. Process analysis and metrics of complex organisational processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bošković, Dražen

    2008-01-01

    The model of process analysis and process metrics is presented for complex organisational processes, as applied in the management of construction contract documents. The model was applied on four test samples of public-works clients. The qualitative data collected during the survey were converted into quantitative ones using the modified Likert scale. It was demonstrated that the organisational capacity is at the basic level, with an insufficient integration and optimisation of processes, and...

  10. Societal assessment overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The decision to proceed with SPS depends on a political determination that commitment of the economic, institutional, and social energies required for its implementation is a worthwhile investment. This determination is national (and international) in scope and is based on knowledge of the environmental and societal impacts of the SPS, its projected economics and technological risks, expressed through the influence of contending segments of society. To assist the decision makers, an assessment of societal issues associated with the SPS was undertaken as part of the Concept Development and Evaluation Program. Results of the assessment are reported. The primary societal assessment objectives are to determine if the societal ramifications of an SPS might significantly impede its development, and to establish an information base regarding these issues. Estimates regarding SPS impacts commensurate with its stage of development and the needs of the decision makers are provided.

  11. Comparison of societal risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    The utility of the societal risk approach to the design and evaluation of safeguards systems is examined with particular reference to the comparison of the relative effectiveness of various safeguards mechanisms. Research on threat evaluation is reviewed, and the need for further research on consequences is discussed in terms of the extension of the definition of the safeguards objective from system capability to societal consequences and the establishment of public confidence. 14 references

  12. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis....... Its particular focus is on subjectivity - as an aspect of the research object and as an aspect of the research process. By the term "approach" is indicated the intrinsic connection between the theorizing of an empirical object and the reflection of the research process and the epistemic subject....... In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FOS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (Breuer, Mruck and Roth 2002; Mruck and Breuer 2003). This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology...

  13. A Multilevel Design Model : The mutual relationship between product-service system development and societal change processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joore, J.P.; Brezet, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Change actors like designers play a strategic role in innovation and transition processes towards a sustainable society. They act at all levels of society and need help to find their way through increasingly interrelated innovation systems. To support their efforts, there is a need for a design

  14. Societal transformations in the face of climate. Research priorities for the next decade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.J.; Behagel, J.H.; Hegger, D.; Mees, H.; Rijswick, M.; Termeer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change Creates new challenges for the global society. Responding to climate change is a complex process of societal transformations that should be studied as such. The contribution of the social sciences is crucial to the understanding of these processes of change. The growing body of

  15. Children's proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    This article will argue for and unfold the conceptualization of children’s proximal societal conditions. Through out different research project in which children’s everyday life in different day care settings and in schools has been studied, it becomes clear that ‘the societal’ is not something...... that is above or outside the institutional setting or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn...... and develop. Understanding school or kindergarten as (part of) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda are no longer simply thoughts about the school – for economic reasons – having space for as many pupils...

  16. Ethical issues and societal expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlay, D.

    2010-01-01

    Daniel Metlay (NWTRB) declared that institutions had always recognised an ethical obligation to manage high- level radioactive waste in unprecedented ways. This obligation has not only endured, but has become more explicit and multidimensional and it now subsumed under a more general rubric of 'societal expectations'. D. Metlay directed attention toward the proceedings of previous RWMC-RF workshop ', which contains five essays, authored by Kjell Andersson, Andrew Blowers, Carl-Reinhold Braakenhielm, Francois Dermange, and Patricia Fleming, that are relevant to the question of ethical issues and societal expectations. D. Metlay observed that 'societal expectations' are hard to define and thus very hard to measure. They may vary considerably with time and from country to country. As an illustration he referred to an inquiry performed by a task group 30 years ago in a document entitled 'Proposed Goals for Radioactive Waste Management' (NUREG-0300) on behalf of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Conclusions from D. Metlay are that, for the most part, societal expectations in the United States appear to be quite stable over a period of more than 30 years. In two areas, however, there are clear differences in emphasis between expectations articulated in the last few years and those recorded in 1978. (1) While then there was emphasis on the operational reliability of organisations and institutions. In particular, much care was taken to discuss the inherent limitations on bureaucratic error-correction in the future. The focus is nowadays more on bureaucratic behaviours associated with carrying out decision-making processes in the present. (2) While there is current emphasis on the importance of trust, transparency, and accountability, the NRC document may cast some doubt on the reliability of a stepwise decision-making process. In the domain of radioactive waste management, error signals are notoriously unclear, and strong disagreements over objectives and value trade

  17. Societal embedding of climate-friendly innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeyrynen, E.; Kivisaari, Sirkku; Lovio, R.

    2002-01-01

    This project assesses the possibilities of constructing a market for climate-friendly energy technologies by applying the process of 'societal embedding of innovations'. The term refers to an interactive learning process amongst three groups of key actors: producers, users and societal actors. Their co-operation shapes the innovation to fit the needs of the market and contributes to creation of conditions in which the innovation can be adopted. The project consists of two case studies: (1) Shaping of the ESCO energy service concept in Finnish municipalities and (2) Increasing the use of wood pellets in single-family houses. The case studies have illustrated the possibilities and limitations concerning the application of societal embedding in the energy sector. The project indicates that societal embedding may promote the implementation of climate-friendly energy technologies in at least three ways. Firstly, the process mobilises key actors to cooperation. This generates interactive learning on the problem and its solving. Market construction is forged ahead by mutual adaptation of the innovation and its environment. Secondly, this approach offers a tool to examine the societal quality of the innovation, a question related vitally to climate change. Thirdly, by producing new knowledge of the needs on the market this approach supports the societal actors in choosing different instruments to induce the intended transition to sustainability. (orig.)

  18. Advanced monitoring with complex stream processing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Making sense of metrics and logs for service monitoring can be a complicated task. Valuable information is normally scattered across several streams of monitoring data, requiring aggregation, correlation and time-based analysis to promptly detect problems and failures. This presentations shows a solution which is used to support the advanced monitoring of the messaging services provided by the IT Department. It uses Esper, an open-source software product for Complex Event Processing (CEP), that analyses series of events for deriving conclusions from them.

  19. Complex diffusion process for noise reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Barari, A.

    2014-01-01

    equations (PDEs) in image restoration and de-noising prompted many researchers to search for an improvement in the technique. In this paper, a new method is presented for signal de-noising, based on PDEs and Schrodinger equations, named as complex diffusion process (CDP). This method assumes that variations...... for signal de-noising. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a number of experiments have been performed using Sinusoid, multi-component and FM signals cluttered with noise. The results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the approaches for signal de-noising known in prior art....

  20. Complex plasmochemical processing of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology of complex plasmaochemical processing of solid fuel by Ecibastuz bituminous and Turgay brown coals is presented. Thermodynamic and experimental study of the technology was fulfilled. Use of this technology allows producing of synthesis gas from organic mass of coal and valuable components (technical silicon, ferrosilicon, aluminum and silicon carbide and microelements of rare metals: uranium, molybdenum, vanadium etc. from mineral mass of coal. Produced a high-calorific synthesis gas can be used for methanol synthesis, as high-grade reducing gas instead of coke, as well as energy gas in thermal power plants.

  1. Supercritical separation process for complex organic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chum, H.L.; Filardo, G.

    1990-10-23

    A process is disclosed for separating low molecular weight components from complex aqueous organic mixtures. The process includes preparing a separation solution of supercritical carbon dioxide with an effective amount of an entrainer to modify the solvation power of the supercritical carbon dioxide and extract preselected low molecular weight components. The separation solution is maintained at a temperature of at least about 70 C and a pressure of at least about 1,500 psi. The separation solution is then contacted with the organic mixtures while maintaining the temperature and pressure as above until the mixtures and solution reach equilibrium to extract the preselected low molecular weight components from the organic mixtures. Finally, the entrainer/extracted components portion of the equilibrium mixture is isolated from the separation solution. 1 fig.

  2. Perceptual processing of a complex musical context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga Martinez, David Ricardo; Hansen, Niels Christian; Højlund, Andreas

    play a fundamental role in music perception. The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain response that offers a unique insight into these processes. The MMN is elicited by deviants in a series of repetitive sounds and reflects the perception of change in physical and abstract sound regularities. Therefore......Background: One striking property of the human auditory system is its capacity to transform a simple acoustic wave into a complex percept such as music. While the exact mechanisms of this process are unknown, the evidence suggests that the formulation, violation and update of auditory predictions......, it is regarded as a prediction error signal and a neural correlate of the updating of predictive perceptual models. In music, the MMN has been particularly valuable for the assessment of musical expectations, learning and expertise. However, the MMN paradigm has an important limitation: its ecological validity...

  3. Penalised Complexity Priors for Stationary Autoregressive Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sørbye, Sigrunn Holbek

    2017-05-25

    The autoregressive (AR) process of order p(AR(p)) is a central model in time series analysis. A Bayesian approach requires the user to define a prior distribution for the coefficients of the AR(p) model. Although it is easy to write down some prior, it is not at all obvious how to understand and interpret the prior distribution, to ensure that it behaves according to the users\\' prior knowledge. In this article, we approach this problem using the recently developed ideas of penalised complexity (PC) priors. These prior have important properties like robustness and invariance to reparameterisations, as well as a clear interpretation. A PC prior is computed based on specific principles, where model component complexity is penalised in terms of deviation from simple base model formulations. In the AR(1) case, we discuss two natural base model choices, corresponding to either independence in time or no change in time. The latter case is illustrated in a survival model with possible time-dependent frailty. For higher-order processes, we propose a sequential approach, where the base model for AR(p) is the corresponding AR(p-1) model expressed using the partial autocorrelations. The properties of the new prior distribution are compared with the reference prior in a simulation study.

  4. Critical Zone Science and Global Societal Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M. B.; Banwart, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the thin outer veneer of our planet from the top of the tree canopy to the bottom of our drinking water aquifers that supports almost all human activity. Despite its fundamental importance to terrestrial life, understanding of the operation of the coupled geologic, hydrologic, topographic, and biotic CZ processes across time and space is far from complete. These interactions are complex and they establish a mechanistic 'chain of impact' that transmits the effects of environmental change throughout the CZ. Characterization of these processes is made more urgent by the fact that globally, the CZ is experiencing ever-increasing pressure from growth in human population and wealth. Within the next four decades, demand for food and fuel is expected to double along with a more than 50% increase in demand for clean water. Understanding, predicting and managing intensification of land use and associated economic services, while mitigating and adapting to rapid climate change, is now one of the most pressing societal challenges of the 21st century. In this talk we summarize the profound global societal impacts to the Earth's near surface arising from exponential human population growth, increasing affluence, and technological advance, to provide context for discussions on constructing an array of CZ observatories to both characterize fundamental critical zone processes and forecast the effects of planetary change. We will suggest goals and options relevant to planning for a future international array of CZ observatories and a research agenda that matches the urgency of the projected resource demands and environmental pressures of the coming four decades.

  5. ADVANCED CONTROL OF A COMPLEX CHEMICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Both

    Full Text Available Abstract Three phase catalytic hydrogenation reactors are important reactors with complex behavior due to the interaction among gas, solid and liquid phases with the kinetic, mass and heat transfer mechanisms. A nonlinear distributed parameter model was developed based on mass and energy conservation principles. It consists of balance equations for the gas and liquid phases, so that a system of partial differential equations is generated. Because detailed nonlinear mathematical models are not suitable for use in controller design, a simple linear mathematical model of the process, which describes its most important properties, was determined. Both developed mathematical models were validated using plant data. The control strategies proposed in this paper are a multivariable Smith Predictor PID controller and multivariable Smith Predictor structure in which the primary controllers are derived based on Internal Model Control. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection tests are presented for both methods based on scenarios implemented in Matlab/SIMULINK.

  6. Aridity and decomposition processes in complex landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Nyman, Petter

    2015-04-01

    Decomposition of organic matter is a key biogeochemical process contributing to nutrient cycles, carbon fluxes and soil development. The activity of decomposers depends on microclimate, with temperature and rainfall being major drivers. In complex terrain the fine-scale variation in microclimate (and hence water availability) as a result of slope orientation is caused by differences in incoming radiation and surface temperature. Aridity, measured as the long-term balance between net radiation and rainfall, is a metric that can be used to represent variations in water availability within the landscape. Since aridity metrics can be obtained at fine spatial scales, they could theoretically be used to investigate how decomposition processes vary across complex landscapes. In this study, four research sites were selected in tall open sclerophyll forest along a aridity gradient (Budyko dryness index ranging from 1.56 -2.22) where microclimate, litter moisture and soil moisture were monitored continuously for one year. Litter bags were packed to estimate decomposition rates (k) using leaves of a tree species not present in the study area (Eucalyptus globulus) in order to avoid home-field advantage effects. Litter mass loss was measured to assess the activity of macro-decomposers (6mm litter bag mesh size), meso-decomposers (1 mm mesh), microbes above-ground (0.2 mm mesh) and microbes below-ground (2 cm depth, 0.2 mm mesh). Four replicates for each set of bags were installed at each site and bags were collected at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 12 months since installation. We first tested whether differences in microclimate due to slope orientation have significant effects on decomposition processes. Then the dryness index was related to decomposition rates to evaluate if small-scale variation in decomposition can be predicted using readily available information on rainfall and radiation. Decomposition rates (k), calculated fitting single pool negative exponential models, generally

  7. [Societal evolution of sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cour, F

    2013-07-01

    To understand the societal evolution of sexuality with a reflection on its possible consequences on the therapeutic management of sexual disorders. Synthesis of key points from articles or books selected according to their scientific relevance, and epidemiologic studies published on this subject. Far from the classic framework of marriage and parallely to the social empowerment of women, relationships evolve in an increasingly short-lived way. The development of social networks leads to an externalization of owns intimacy. Adolescents are prematurely exposed to the easily accessible pornographic models through Internet. The development of internet encounters, this virtual sexuality, can lead to excessive behavior, at most a cyber addiction, with sometimes a major impact on the real relationship. The diktats of fashion, performance and youth are ever-present and broadly conveyed by the medias. The therapist must be aware of the societal evolution of sexuality, mainly orchestrated by the net and medias, to be able to adapt his management of the sexual disorders. He will ensure to protect each one's individuality, without anxiety, in our normative society. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. RNA assemblages orchestrate complex cellular processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Heidi Theil; Christiansen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs are monocistronic, and therefore mechanisms exist that coordinate the synthesis of multiprotein complexes in order to obtain proper stoichiometry at the appropriate intracellular locations. RNA-binding proteins containing low-complexity sequences are prone to generate liquid drop...

  9. Risk assessment and societal choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned; plans for further technological progress are being met by a variety of demands for a closer examination of the benefits and risks of large-scale technologies. In this paper the concepts of risk assessment are presented and a model is proposed which illustrates the importance of socio-psychological mechanisms in the acceptance of technological risks. The research plan of the Joint IAEA/IIASA Research Project is outlined: this work is directed toward gaining an improved understanding of how societies judge the acceptability of technologies and how societal attitudes and anticipated responses may be better integrated into the decision-making process. Some preliminary results are reported. (author)

  10. Modelling societal transitions with agent transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Schilperoord (Michel); J. Rotmans (Jan); N. Bergman (Noam)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTransition models explain long-term and large-scale processes fundamentally changing the structure of a societal system. Our concern is that most transition models are too static. Although they capture a move of focus from static equilibria to transitions between dynamic equilibria, they

  11. Intercalation processes of copper complexes in DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; García-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Cheatham, Thomas E.; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The family of anticancer complexes that include the transition metal copper known as Casiopeínas® shows promising results. Two of these complexes are currently in clinical trials. The interaction of these compounds with DNA has been observed experimentally and several hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action have been developed, and these include the generation of reactive oxygen species, phosphate hydrolysis and/or base-pair intercalation. To advance in the understanding on how these ligands interact with DNA, we present a molecular dynamics study of 21 Casiopeínas with a DNA dodecamer using 10 μs of simulation time for each compound. All the complexes were manually inserted into the minor groove as the starting point of the simulations. The binding energy of each complex and the observed representative type of interaction between the ligand and the DNA is reported. With this extended sampling time, we found that four of the compounds spontaneously flipped open a base pair and moved inside the resulting cavity and four compounds formed stacking interactions with the terminal base pairs. The complexes that formed the intercalation pocket led to more stable interactions. PMID:25958394

  12. Religion and Societal Development: A Philosophical Appraisal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Obi: Religion and Societal Development: A Philosophical Appraisal of African Situation. 150 ... concerning the existence, nature, and worship of a deity or deities and divine involvement in the universe and human life. Societal development, on the other, involves the process ... that the present stage of the less developed ...

  13. Perceptual processing of a complex auditory context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga Martinez, David Ricardo; Hansen, Niels Christian; Højlund, Andreas

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain response elicited by deviants in a series of repetitive sounds. It reflects the perception of change in low-level sound features and reliably measures perceptual auditory memory. However, most MMN studies use simple tone patterns as stimuli, failing...... to represent the complexity of everyday auditory contexts. We aim to develop a new MMN paradigm using more real-sounding and complex musical stimuli. For this purpose, we will improve a previous design based on the Alberti bass by adding a melody through dichotic presentation. We will use....... The ear of presentation will be counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesize that right-lateralized MMNs will be elicited for all types of deviants and their amplitude will be similar for both sound streams in all blocks. Once developed the design can be used to assess auditory perception...

  14. Controlling production variances in complex business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, Paul; Christiaanse, Rob; Hulstijn, Joris; Cerone, Antonio; Roveri, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Products can consist of many sub-assemblies and small disturbances in the process can lead to larger negative effects downstream. Such variances in production are a challenge from a quality control and operational risk management perspective but also it distorts the assurance processes from an

  15. ADVANCED CONTROL OF A COMPLEX CHEMICAL PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Both,Roxana; Dulf,Eva-Henrietta; Cormos,Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three phase catalytic hydrogenation reactors are important reactors with complex behavior due to the interaction among gas, solid and liquid phases with the kinetic, mass and heat transfer mechanisms. A nonlinear distributed parameter model was developed based on mass and energy conservation principles. It consists of balance equations for the gas and liquid phases, so that a system of partial differential equations is generated. Because detailed nonlinear mathematical models are not...

  16. APACS: Monitoring and diagnosis of complex processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, B.M.; Mylopoulos, J.; Cheng Wang

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes APACS - a new framework for a system that detects, predicts and identifies faults in industrial processes. The APACS frameworks provides a structure in which a heterogeneous set of programs can share a common view of the problem and a common model of the domain. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs

  17. Academic writing development: a complex, dynamic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penris, Wouter; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Pfenniger, Simone; Navracsics, Judit

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally we look at learning outcomes by examining single outcomes. A new and future direction is to look at the actual process of development. Imagine an advanced, 17-year-old student of English (L2) who has just finished secondary school in the Netherlands and wants to become an English

  18. Curcumin complexation with cyclodextrins by the autoclave process: Method development and characterization of complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbani, Turki Al; Nazzal, Sami

    2017-03-30

    One approach to enhance curcumin (CUR) aqueous solubility is to use cyclodextrins (CDs) to form inclusion complexes where CUR is encapsulated as a guest molecule within the internal cavity of the water-soluble CD. Several methods have been reported for the complexation of CUR with CDs. Limited information, however, is available on the use of the autoclave process (AU) in complex formation. The aims of this work were therefore to (1) investigate and evaluate the AU cycle as a complex formation method to enhance CUR solubility; (2) compare the efficacy of the AU process with the freeze-drying (FD) and evaporation (EV) processes in complex formation; and (3) confirm CUR stability by characterizing CUR:CD complexes by NMR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and XRD. Significant differences were found in the saturation solubility of CUR from its complexes with CD when prepared by the three complexation methods. The AU yielded a complex with expected chemical and physical fingerprints for a CUR:CD inclusion complex that maintained the chemical integrity and stability of CUR and provided the highest solubility of CUR in water. Physical and chemical characterizations of the AU complexes confirmed the encapsulated of CUR inside the CD cavity and the transformation of the crystalline CUR:CD inclusion complex to an amorphous form. It was concluded that the autoclave process with its short processing time could be used as an alternate and efficient methods for drug:CD complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFECTIVE COMPLEX PROCESSING OF RAW TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIDA M. GADZHIEVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5 - 6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids, 0.5 % minerals, etc. are used as research material. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have long term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace, the CO2 extraction method is applied. The technological and environmental feasibility of graded tomato drying in the atmosphere of an inert gas and in a solar drier is evaluated; the scheme of dried tomatoes production is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a scheme of tomato powder production from pulp, skin and seeds is developed. The combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing hot nitrogen on the product surface. Conducting the drying process in the atmosphere of nitrogen intensifies the process of removing moisture from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as an enriching additive is proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from the Dagestan varieties, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of finished products, we prove the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder in the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  20. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  1. The Superintendent as Societal Architect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Walter L.

    1981-01-01

    The role of the superintendent as a societal architect is one which combines the needs of clients with the superintendent's educational beliefs and philosophy. This role creates a learning environment that deals with the future needs of society. (CJ)

  2. Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovden, J.; Rausand, M.; Sergeev, G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today's Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier exclamation point

  3. Solutions for Coding Societal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    SOLUTIONS FOR CODING SOCIETAL EVENTS RAYTHEON BBN TECHNOLOGIES CORP. DECEMBER 2016 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...Unit Manager Deputy Chief, Information Intelligence Systems & Analysis Division Information Directorate This report is...SOCIETAL EVENTS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-15-C-0276 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Elizabeth Boschee 5d

  4. Creating Societal Benefits and Corporate Profits

    OpenAIRE

    Raisch, Sebastian; Probst, Gilbert; Gomez, Peter; Zimmermann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The odds of launching a new business that creates value for both the company and the public can be improved with good planning. An in-depth analysis of how four companies created for-profit initiatives that also have high societal value suggests that each followed a similar step-by-step process to achieve what the researchers call synergistic value creation. Those steps include establishing cross-business incubators and installing multi-perspective monitoring systems.

  5. Is complex signal processing for bone conduction hearing aids useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompis, Martin; Kurz, Anja; Pfiffner, Flurin; Senn, Pascal; Arnold, Andreas; Caversaccio, Marco

    2014-05-01

    To establish whether complex signal processing is beneficial for users of bone anchored hearing aids. Review and analysis of two studies from our own group, each comparing a speech processor with basic digital signal processing (either Baha Divino or Baha Intenso) and a processor with complex digital signal processing (either Baha BP100 or Baha BP110 power). The main differences between basic and complex signal processing are the number of audiologist accessible frequency channels and the availability and complexity of the directional multi-microphone noise reduction and loudness compression systems. Both studies show a small, statistically non-significant improvement of speech understanding in quiet with the complex digital signal processing. The average improvement for speech in noise is +0.9 dB, if speech and noise are emitted both from the front of the listener. If noise is emitted from the rear and speech from the front of the listener, the advantage of the devices with complex digital signal processing as opposed to those with basic signal processing increases, on average, to +3.2 dB (range +2.3 … +5.1 dB, p ≤ 0.0032). Complex digital signal processing does indeed improve speech understanding, especially in noise coming from the rear. This finding has been supported by another study, which has been published recently by a different research group. When compared to basic digital signal processing, complex digital signal processing can increase speech understanding of users of bone anchored hearing aids. The benefit is most significant for speech understanding in noise.

  6. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  7. Inclusive Education as Complex Process and Challenge for School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khamisy, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Education may be considered as a number of processes, actions and effects affecting human being, as the state or level of the results of these processes or as the modification of the functions, institutions and social practices roles, which in the result of inclusion become new, integrated system. Thus this is very complex process. Nowadays the…

  8. Inclusive Education as Complex Process and Challenge for School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Khamisy Danuta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Education may be considered as a number of processes, actions and effects affecting human being, as the state or level of the results of these processes or as the modification of the functions, institutions and social practices roles, which in the result of inclusion become new, integrated system. Thus this is very complex process. Nowadays the complexity appears to be one of very significant terms both in science and in philosophy. It appears that despite searching for simple rules, strategies, solutions everything is still more complex. The environment is complex, the organism living in it and exploring it, and just the exploration itself is a complex phenomenon, much more than this could initially seem to be.

  9. The societal role of lifelong vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Maarten J; Carroll, Stuart; Brandão, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The full economic and societal value of vaccination is complex to assess. Although direct protection is the immediate goal of vaccination programmes, it is rare that 100% uptake is attained. An important facet of vaccines value comes from the indirect (or herd) protection they provide. The evolving dynamics of our society, including the increase in the proportion of older individuals enhances the value of indirect protection in reducing disease transmission within the family setting and the society as a whole. For example, grandparents are increasingly involved in childcare, putting them at risk of disease transmission if they or the children are not vaccinated. Preventing disease in children can also reduce absenteeism for parents who otherwise would take days off work to care for their sick children, leading to a substantial societal burden. Preventing disease in working adults reduces absenteeism and presenteeism, enhancing productivity and contributing in turn to economic growth. Quality of life is essential at all ages. It is fundamental in children for their life chances, educational achievements, and healthy wellbeing. Additionally, preventing common diseases in adults and the elderly also contributes to their quality of life and helps to assure healthy ageing for growing ageing populations. These wider economic and societal values, although difficult to measure, should be taken into consideration in assessments of the economic value and cost-effectiveness of vaccination programmes.

  10. Fairness hypothesis and managing the risks of societal technology choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantor, R.; Rayner, S.

    1986-08-01

    Much of the literature on risk perception and management has asked how society should resolve the question, ''How safe is safe enough'' There has been political and technical disagreement over the types of answers that may be given, as well as over the social values attached to perceived probabilities and magnitudes of various outcomes. Despite controversy, there seems to have been a large measure of consensus that, ''How safe is safe enough'' is the right question to ask. This paper sets out to question that assumption. Various ingenious techniques of risk analysis have sought to discover the real risks inherent in various activities, but from a sociocultural viewpoint it can be seen that no single answer can be given to the problem of adequate safety in a complex society which contains a wide variety of perceptual biases about danger, expectations of the good life, and levels of demand for safety. The paper argues that, from a societal risk-management perspective, we should be addressing a different range of questions that views societal risk as a whole rather than as the sum of individual hazards. Resolving the question, ''How safe is safe enough'' is less important in making societal technology choices than ''How fair is safe enough?'' A recent empirical pilot study is reported which explored the fairness hypotheses in the context of nuclear power. The results indicate that the process of technology choice should recognize explicitly the preferred principles different parties hold with respect to obtaining consent from those affected by the risks, distributing the liabilities, and justifying trust in the relevant institutions. The paper closes with a discussion of future prospects for the fairness approach in areas such as noxious facility siting

  11. The Cognitive Complexity in Modelling the Group Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates for some basic contextual factors (such
    us the problem complexity, the users' creativity and the problem space complexity the cognitive complexity associated with modelling the group decision processes (GDP in e-meetings. The analysis is done by conducting a socio-simulation experiment for an envisioned collaborative software tool that acts as a stigmergic environment for modelling the GDP. The simulation results revels some interesting design guidelines for engineering some contextual functionalities that minimize the cognitive complexity associated with modelling the GDP.

  12. Microterritorialidade e controle societal Micro-territoriality and societal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Moretto Amâncio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa empírica que revelou uma intensa atuação de controle societal relacionada com a provisão de serviços públicos de saúde e assistência realizada em regiões de baixa renda em São Paulo. O foco microterritorial adotado permitiu tornar visíveis os atores coletivos que, contrariando as proposições da literatura, não constituem protagonistas dos seus respectivos setores e não restringem ações de controle societal aos espaços de participação institucionalizada.The paper presents results of an empirical research that revealed the existence of intense societal accountability actions related to service delivery in health and social assistance performed in low income regions in the city of Sao Paulo. The micro-territorial approach adopted by the research gave visibility to collective actors that, contrary to what might be expected based on the literature, are not the protagonists of their respective sectors and do not restrict their societal accountability actions to institutionalized participatory spaces.

  13. A Psycho-Societal Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellon, Karsten

    This is a project about Danish vocational bachelor students admitted on the basis of an Individual Competency Assessment (VPL/IKV) in light of a Psycho-Societal Approach. The core idea of this paper is to present a PhD project which aims to contribute findings regarding students enrolled in a Dan......This is a project about Danish vocational bachelor students admitted on the basis of an Individual Competency Assessment (VPL/IKV) in light of a Psycho-Societal Approach. The core idea of this paper is to present a PhD project which aims to contribute findings regarding students enrolled...

  14. Communication Regarding Sustainability: Conceptual Perspectives and Exploration of Societal Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rieckmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues are typically characterized by high complexity and uncertainty. In light of this, communication plays a crucial role in coping with these challenges. The previous debate on sustainability communication has largely focused on how to communicate sustainability issues to others. Sustainability communication, however, involves more than sender oriented communication to persuade others (“communication of sustainability”; it also embraces processes of dialogue and discourse (“communication about sustainability”. Based on this distinction, we develop a typology of communication modes, including communication for sustainability. Inspired by the notion of functional communication systems, we explore sustainability communication in six societal subsystems, applying the typology of communication modes. Drawing mostly on examples from Germany, we find a shift from “communication of” towards “communication about” sustainability in most subsystems. While communication subsystems have a tendency towards operational closure, a variety of interlinkages exist. We discuss three key areas of “opening up” communication subsystems, leading to transdisciplinarity, societal deliberation and governance, each meeting one of sustainability’s core challenges.

  15. PROGRAM COMPLEX FOR MODELING OF THE DETAILS HARDENING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kundas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented the program complex ThermoSim, consisting of preprocessor, processor and postprocessor and intended for modeling (analysis of thermalphysic processes and characteristics of details of instrument-making and machine-building, diagnostics and optimization of technological processes of heat treatment and details constructions without using the destructive control methods.

  16. The Effects of Syntactic Complexity on Processing Sentences in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of stationary (non-fluctuating) noise on processing and understanding of sentences, which vary in their syntactic complexity (with the factors canonicity, embedding, ambiguity). It presents data from two RT-studies with 44 participants testing processing of German sentences in silence and in noise. Results show a…

  17. Objectification, Self-Objectification, and Societal Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen L. Zurbriggen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the ways in which the objectification of individuals and groups of people, as well as the self-objectification that typically develops from such treatment, is implicated in positive and negative societal change. Four areas are reviewed: (a objectification (including dehumanization, infra-humanization, dehumanized perception, sexualization, and colonialism, (b self-objectification (including double consciousness, internalized oppression, and colonial mentality, (c genocide and mass violence, and (c collective action. After reviewing theories in each area, a set of underlying constructs is presented, organized under higher-order categories. Finally, connections between objectification and genocide perpetration, as well as between self-objectification and collective action, are described. It is concluded that the objectification of other people contributes to societal change that runs counter to principles of equality and respect for others, threatens civil rights, and ultimately can result in genocide or mass killings. Furthermore, self-objectification impairs the ability of oppressed groups to act collectively on their own behalf. In contrast, the process of decolonization supports collective action and positive societal change, in part because it liberates oppressed people from self-objectification.

  18. Design and implementation of a distributed Complex Event Processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shang, Yanlei

    2017-01-01

    Making use of the massive events from event sources such as sensors and bank transactions and extract valuable information is of significant importance. Complex Event Processing (CEP), a method of detecting complex events from simple events stream, provides a solution of processing data in real time fast and efficiently. However, a single node CEP system can't satisfy requirements of processing massive event streams from multitudinous event sources. Therefore, this article designs a distributed CEP system, which combine Siddhi, a CEP engine, and Storm, a distributed real time computation architecture. This system can construct topology automatically based on the event streams and execution plans provided by users and process the event streams parallel. Compared with single node complex event system, the distributed system can achieve better performance.

  19. Societal Forces That ERODE Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert; Kaufman, James C.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or…

  20. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R and D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about $30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about $23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about $50 million (of which NSF awards about $30 million and EPA about $6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public

  1. Societal Controversies in Wikipedia Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, E.; Weltevrede, E.; Ciuccarelli, P.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Laniado, D.; Magni, G.; Mauri, M.; Rogers, R.; Venturini, T.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative content creation inevitably reaches situations where different points of view lead to conflict. We focus on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia anyone may edit, where disputes about content in controversial articles often reflect larger societal debates. While Wikipedia has a public edit

  2. Habitat Complexity in Aquatic Microcosms Affects Processes Driven by Detritivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Lorea; Bailey, R A; Elosegi, Arturo; Larrañaga, Aitor; Reiss, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Habitat complexity can influence predation rates (e.g. by providing refuge) but other ecosystem processes and species interactions might also be modulated by the properties of habitat structure. Here, we focussed on how complexity of artificial habitat (plastic plants), in microcosms, influenced short-term processes driven by three aquatic detritivores. The effects of habitat complexity on leaf decomposition, production of fine organic matter and pH levels were explored by measuring complexity in three ways: 1. as the presence vs. absence of habitat structure; 2. as the amount of structure (3 or 4.5 g of plastic plants); and 3. as the spatial configuration of structures (measured as fractal dimension). The experiment also addressed potential interactions among the consumers by running all possible species combinations. In the experimental microcosms, habitat complexity influenced how species performed, especially when comparing structure present vs. structure absent. Treatments with structure showed higher fine particulate matter production and lower pH compared to treatments without structures and this was probably due to higher digestion and respiration when structures were present. When we explored the effects of the different complexity levels, we found that the amount of structure added explained more than the fractal dimension of the structures. We give a detailed overview of the experimental design, statistical models and R codes, because our statistical analysis can be applied to other study systems (and disciplines such as restoration ecology). We further make suggestions of how to optimise statistical power when artificially assembling, and analysing, 'habitat complexity' by not confounding complexity with the amount of structure added. In summary, this study highlights the importance of habitat complexity for energy flow and the maintenance of ecosystem processes in aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Meeting ecological and societal needs for freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Poff, N.L.; Angermeier, P.L.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gleick, P.H.; Hairston, N.G.; Jackson, R.B.; Johnston, C.A.; Richter, B.D.; Steinman, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Human society has used freshwater from rivers, lakes, groundwater, and wetlands for many different urban, agricultural, and industrial activities, but in doing so has overlooked its value in supporting ecosystems. Freshwater is vital to human life and societal well-being, and thus its utilization for consumption, irrigation, and transport has long taken precedence over other commodities and services provided by freshwater ecosystems. However, there is growing recognition that functionally intact and biologically complex aquatic ecosystems provide many economically valuable services and long-term benefits to society. The short-term benefits include ecosystem goods and services, such as food supply, flood control, purification of human and industrial wastes, and habitat for plant and animal life—and these are costly, if not impossible, to replace. Long-term benefits include the sustained provision of those goods and services, as well as the adaptive capacity of aquatic ecosystems to respond to future environmental alterations, such as climate change. Thus, maintenance of the processes and properties that support freshwater ecosystem integrity should be included in debates over sustainable water resource allocation.The purpose of this report is to explain how the integrity of freshwater ecosystems depends upon adequate quantity, quality, timing, and temporal variability of water flow. Defining these requirements in a comprehensive but general manner provides a better foundation for their inclusion in current and future debates about allocation of water resources. In this way the needs of freshwater ecosystems can be legitimately recognized and addressed. We also recommend ways in which freshwater ecosystems can be protected, maintained, and restored.Freshwater ecosystem structure and function are tightly linked to the watershed or catchment of which they are a part. Because riverine networks, lakes, wetlands, and their connecting groundwaters, are literally the

  4. Statistical methods for anomaly detection in the complex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Mouhamed, Mayez

    1977-09-01

    In a number of complex physical systems the accessible signals are often characterized by random fluctuations about a mean value. The fluctuations (signature) often transmit information about the state of the system that the mean value cannot predict. This study is undertaken to elaborate statistical methods of anomaly detection on the basis of signature analysis of the noise inherent in the process. The algorithm presented first learns the characteristics of normal operation of a complex process. Then it detects small deviations from the normal behavior. The algorithm can be implemented in a medium-sized computer for on line application. (author) [fr

  5. COMPLEX THINKING IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Hudnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the learning process which aim is developing original creativity, has its central role complex thinking. This is important for the sensibilisation and intensification of the individual creative abilities. Multidisciplinary approach, various mind strategies and techniques of creating and resolving problems encourage by the individual and the group creativity, innovation, teamwork and critical thinking. The article represents four examples of the process in which new creative ideas, translated into complex graphical compositions representing the combination of architectural and fine arts contents, experience, ethical and esthetical sensitivity, existential self-awareness and the holistic personal development, are born.

  6. Increasing process understanding by analyzing complex interactions in experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Allesø, Morten; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2009-01-01

    There is a recognized need for new approaches to understand unit operations with pharmaceutical relevance. A method for analyzing complex interactions in experimental data is introduced. Higher-order interactions do exist between process parameters, which complicate the interpretation...... understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVAmodel was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited...... for modeling complex interactions and making easily understandable models of these. GEMANOVA modeling allowed a simple visualization of the entire experimental space. Furthermore, information was obtained on how relative changes in the settings of process parameters influence the film quality and thereby drug...

  7. Ferric and cobaltous hydroacid complexes for forward osmosis (FO) processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun

    2014-07-01

    Cupric and ferric hydroacid complexes have proven their advantages as draw solutes in forward osmosis in terms of high water fluxes, negligible reverse solute fluxes and easy recovery (Ge and Chung, 2013. Hydroacid complexes: A new class of draw solutes to promote forward osmosis (FO) processes. Chemical Communications 49, 8471-8473.). In this study, cobaltous hydroacid complexes were explored as draw solutes and compared with the ferric hydroacid complex to study the factors influencing their FO performance. The solutions of the cobaltous complexes produce high osmotic pressures due to the presence of abundant hydrophilic groups. These solutes are able to dissociate and form a multi-charged anion and Na+ cations in water. In addition, these complexes have expanded structures which lead to negligible reverse solute fluxes and provide relatively easy approaches in regeneration. These characteristics make the newly synthesized cobaltous complexes appropriate as draw solutes. The FO performance of the cobaltous and ferric-citric acid (Fe-CA) complexes were evaluated respectively through cellulose acetate membranes, thin-film composite membranes fabricated on polyethersulfone supports (referred as TFC-PES), and polybenzimidazole and PES dual-layer (referred as PBI/PES) hollow fiber membranes. Under the conditions of DI water as the feed and facing the support layer of TFC-PES FO membranes (PRO mode), draw solutions at 2.0M produced relatively high water fluxes of 39-48 LMH (Lm-2hr-1) with negligible reverse solute fluxes. A water flux of 17.4 LMH was achieved when model seawater of 3.5wt.% NaCl replaced DI water as the feed and 2.0M Fe-CA as the draw solution under the same conditions. The performance of these hydroacid complexes surpasses those of the synthetic draw solutes developed in recent years. This observation, along with the relatively easy regeneration, makes these complexes very promising as a novel class of draw solutes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Stochastic processes with values in Riemannian admissible complex: Isotropic process, Wiener measure and Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouziane, T.

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to construct a Brownian motion with values in simplicial complexes with piecewise differential structure. After a martingale theory attempt, we constructed a family of continuous Markov processes with values in an admissible complex; we named every process of this family, isotropic transport process. We showed that the family of the isotropic processes contains a subsequence, which converged weakly to a measure; we named it the Wiener measure. Then, we constructed, thanks to the finite dimensional distributions of the Wiener measure a new continuous Markov process with values in an admissible complex: the Brownian motion. We finished with a geometric analysis of this Brownian motion, to determinate, under hypothesis on the complex, the recurrent or transient behavior of such process. (author)

  9. Societal Controversies in Wikipedia Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Borra, E.; Weltevrede, E.; Ciuccarelli, P.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Laniado, D.; Magni, G.; Mauri, M.; Rogers, R.; Venturini, T.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative content creation inevitably reaches situations where different points of view lead to conflict. We focus on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia anyone may edit, where disputes about content in controversial articles often reflect larger societal debates. While Wikipedia has a public edit history and discussion section for every article, the substance of these sections is difficult to phantom for Wikipedia users interested in the development of an article and in locating which...

  10. Modeling Cognitive Strategies during Complex Task Performing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Altun, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine individuals' computer based complex task performing processes and strategies in order to determine the reasons of failure by cognitive task analysis method and cued retrospective think aloud with eye movement data. Study group was five senior students from Computer Education and Instructional Technologies…

  11. Some considerations on Bible translation as complex process | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that translation is a complex process: meaning is "created" by decoding the source text on several levels (for instance, grammatical; structural; literary; and socio-cultural levels). This "meaning" must then be encoded into the target language by means of the linguistic, literary, and cultural conventions of the target ...

  12. Capturing connectivity and causality in complex industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fan; Shah, Sirish L; Chen, Tongwen

    2014-01-01

    This brief reviews concepts of inter-relationship in modern industrial processes, biological and social systems. Specifically ideas of connectivity and causality within and between elements of a complex system are treated; these ideas are of great importance in analysing and influencing mechanisms, structural properties and their dynamic behaviour, especially for fault diagnosis and hazard analysis. Fault detection and isolation for industrial processes being concerned with root causes and fault propagation, the brief shows that, process connectivity and causality information can be captured in two ways: ·      from process knowledge: structural modeling based on first-principles structural models can be merged with adjacency/reachability matrices or topology models obtained from process flow-sheets described in standard formats; and ·      from process data: cross-correlation analysis, Granger causality and its extensions, frequency domain methods, information-theoretical methods, and Bayesian ne...

  13. Visual perception of complex shape-transforming processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Filipp; Fleming, Roland W

    2016-11-01

    Morphogenesis-or the origin of complex natural form-has long fascinated researchers from practically every branch of science. However, we know practically nothing about how we perceive and understand such processes. Here, we measured how observers visually infer shape-transforming processes. Participants viewed pairs of objects ('before' and 'after' a transformation) and identified points that corresponded across the transformation. This allowed us to map out in spatial detail how perceived shape and space were affected by the transformations. Participants' responses were strikingly accurate and mutually consistent for a wide range of non-rigid transformations including complex growth-like processes. A zero-free-parameter model based on matching and interpolating/extrapolating the positions of high-salience contour features predicts the data surprisingly well, suggesting observers infer spatial correspondences relative to key landmarks. Together, our findings reveal the operation of specific perceptual organization processes that make us remarkably adept at identifying correspondences across complex shape-transforming processes by using salient object features. We suggest that these abilities, which allow us to parse and interpret the causally significant features of shapes, are invaluable for many tasks that involve 'making sense' of shape. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Managing complexity in process digitalisation with dynamic condition response graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Debois, Søren; Slaats, Tijs

    2017-01-01

    Digitalisation of work and business processes with the aim to provide more efficient services at a higher and consistent quality is high on the agendas in many countries. In Denmark the push for digitalisation is witnessed by the national strategy for digitalisation published every four years....... Sadly, it is also witnessed by a number of expensive failed digitalisation projects. In this paper we point to two key problems in state-of-The art BPM technologies: 1) the use of rigid flow diagrams as the "source code" of process digitalisation is not suitable for managing the complexity of knowledge......, bottom-up digitalisation of business and workflow processes....

  15. Managing complexity in process digitalisation with dynamic condition response graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Debois, Søren; Slaats, Tijs

    2017-01-01

    . Sadly, it is also witnessed by a number of expensive failed digitalisation projects. In this paper we point to two key problems in state-of-The art BPM technologies: 1) the use of rigid flow diagrams as the "source code" of process digitalisation is not suitable for managing the complexity of knowledge...... workflows and regulations and 2) insufficient support for continuous and agile end-user mapping and adaptation of processes. We report on research in progress on how the Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graph technology and collaborative process repository DCRGraphs.net could support agile and collaborative...

  16. Complex processing of rubber waste through energy recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Smelík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the applied energy recovery solutions for complex processing of rubber waste for energy recovery. It deals specifically with the solution that could maximize possible use of all rubber waste and does not create no additional waste that disposal would be expensive and dangerous for the environment. The project is economically viable and energy self-sufficient. The outputs of the process could replace natural gas and crude oil products. The other part of the process is also the separation of metals, which can be returned to the metallurgical secondary production.

  17. Bim Automation: Advanced Modeling Generative Process for Complex Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, F.; Fai, S.; Brumana, R.

    2017-08-01

    The new paradigm of the complexity of modern and historic structures, which are characterised by complex forms, morphological and typological variables, is one of the greatest challenges for building information modelling (BIM). Generation of complex parametric models needs new scientific knowledge concerning new digital technologies. These elements are helpful to store a vast quantity of information during the life cycle of buildings (LCB). The latest developments of parametric applications do not provide advanced tools, resulting in time-consuming work for the generation of models. This paper presents a method capable of processing and creating complex parametric Building Information Models (BIM) with Non-Uniform to NURBS) with multiple levels of details (Mixed and ReverseLoD) based on accurate 3D photogrammetric and laser scanning surveys. Complex 3D elements are converted into parametric BIM software and finite element applications (BIM to FEA) using specific exchange formats and new modelling tools. The proposed approach has been applied to different case studies: the BIM of modern structure for the courtyard of West Block on Parliament Hill in Ottawa (Ontario) and the BIM of Masegra Castel in Sondrio (Italy), encouraging the dissemination and interaction of scientific results without losing information during the generative process.

  18. Articulation: how societal goals matter in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018387

    2016-01-01

    Science policies try to steer scientists to conduct societally relevant research. This societal relevance is often expressed in large societal goals, such as addressing sustainability or helping with the problems that an ageing society might bring. Emerging technologies, like nanotechnology, are

  19. Ecological network analysis of China's societal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Li, Yating; Yang, Zhifeng; Li, Shengsheng; Yang, Naijin

    2012-01-01

    Uncontrolled socioeconomic development has strong negative effects on the ecological environment, including pollution and the depletion and waste of natural resources. These serious consequences result from the high flows of materials and energy through a socioeconomic system produced by exchanges between the system and its surroundings, causing the disturbance of metabolic processes. In this paper, we developed an ecological network model for a societal system, and used China in 2006 as a case study to illustrate application of the model. We analyzed China's basic metabolic processes and used ecological network analysis to study the network relationships within the system. Basic components comprised the internal environment, five sectors (agriculture, exploitation, manufacturing, domestic, and recycling), and the external environment. We defined 21 pairs of ecological relationships in China's societal metabolic system (excluding self-mutualism within a component). Using utility and throughflow analysis, we found that exploitation, mutualism, and competition relationships accounted for 76.2, 14.3, and 9.5% of the total relationships, respectively. In our trophic level analysis, the components were divided into producers, consumers, and decomposers according to their positions in the system. Our analyses revealed ways to optimize the system's structure and adjust its functions, thereby promoting healthier socioeconomic development, and suggested ways to apply ecological network analysis in future socioeconomic research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Foundations for Streaming Model Transformations by Complex Event Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávid, István; Ráth, István; Varró, Dániel

    2018-01-01

    Streaming model transformations represent a novel class of transformations to manipulate models whose elements are continuously produced or modified in high volume and with rapid rate of change. Executing streaming transformations requires efficient techniques to recognize activated transformation rules over a live model and a potentially infinite stream of events. In this paper, we propose foundations of streaming model transformations by innovatively integrating incremental model query, complex event processing (CEP) and reactive (event-driven) transformation techniques. Complex event processing allows to identify relevant patterns and sequences of events over an event stream. Our approach enables event streams to include model change events which are automatically and continuously populated by incremental model queries. Furthermore, a reactive rule engine carries out transformations on identified complex event patterns. We provide an integrated domain-specific language with precise semantics for capturing complex event patterns and streaming transformations together with an execution engine, all of which is now part of the Viatra reactive transformation framework. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with two case studies: one in an advanced model engineering workflow; and one in the context of on-the-fly gesture recognition.

  1. The societal costs of insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Wade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan G WadeCPS Research, Glasgow, ScotlandObjective: Insomnia can be broadly defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or sleep that is not refreshing or of poor quality with negative effect on daytime function. Insomnia can be a primary condition or comorbid to an underlying disorder. Subjective measures of insomnia used in population studies, usually based on complaints of unsatisfactory sleep, put the prevalence at about 10%. Insomnia is more common in the elderly and in women, and is often associated with medical and psychiatric disorders. This review examines the measures used to assess quality of sleep (QOS and daytime functioning and the impact of insomnia on society using these measures.Methods: Literature searches were performed to identify all studies of insomnia (primary and comorbid in adults (aged 18–64 years and the elderly (aged ≥ 65 years with baseline and/or outcomes relating to QOS or daytime functioning. The impact of poor QOS on quality of life (QOL, psychomotor and cognitive skills, health care resource utilization, and other societal effects was examined.Results: Although definitions and measurement scales used to assess sleep quality vary widely, it is clear that the societal consequences of insomnia are substantial and include impaired QOL and increased health care utilization. The impact of poor QOS and impaired daytime functioning common in insomnia can lead to indirect effects such as lower work productivity, increased sick leave, and a higher rate of motor vehicle crashes.Conclusions: Insomnia is associated with substantial direct and indirect costs to society. It is almost impossible to separate the costs associated with primary and comorbid insomnia. More studies are required which control for the severity of any primary disorder to accurately evaluate the costs of comorbid insomnia. Development of standardized diagnostic and assessment scales will enable more accurate quantification of the true

  2. Methodology and Results of Mathematical Modelling of Complex Technological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Nataliya V.

    2018-03-01

    The methodology of system analysis allows us to draw a mathematical model of the complex technological process. The mathematical description of the plasma-chemical process was proposed. The importance the quenching rate and initial temperature decrease time was confirmed for producing the maximum amount of the target product. The results of numerical integration of the system of differential equations can be used to describe reagent concentrations, plasma jet rate and temperature in order to achieve optimal mode of hardening. Such models are applicable both for solving control problems and predicting future states of sophisticated technological systems.

  3. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex Event Processing (CEP has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT. Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is proposed as sequential decision model. A Q-learning method is proposed for this model. The experimental evaluations show that this method works well when used to control congestion in in intelligent transportation systems.

  4. Prospects of modelling societal transitions : Position paper of an emerging community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtz, G.; Alkemade, F.; De Haan, F.; Köhler, J.; Trutnevyte, E.; Luthe, T.; Halbe, J.; Papachristos, G.; Chappin, E.; Kwakkel, J.H.; Ruutu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Societal transitions involve multiple actors, changes in institutions, values and technologies, and interactions across multiple sectors and scales. Given this complexity, this paper takes on the view that the societal transitions research field would benefit from the further maturation and broader

  5. Complex collaborative problem-solving processes in mission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Stephen M; Wiltshire, Travis J; Oglesby, James M; O'Keefe, William S; Salas, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    NASA's Mission Control Center (MCC) is responsible for control of the International Space Station (ISS), which includes responding to problems that obstruct the functioning of the ISS and that may pose a threat to the health and well-being of the flight crew. These problems are often complex, requiring individuals, teams, and multiteam systems, to work collaboratively. Research is warranted to examine individual and collaborative problem-solving processes in this context. Specifically, focus is placed on how Mission Control personnel-each with their own skills and responsibilities-exchange information to gain a shared understanding of the problem. The Macrocognition in Teams Model describes the processes that individuals and teams undertake in order to solve problems and may be applicable to Mission Control teams. Semistructured interviews centering on a recent complex problem were conducted with seven MCC professionals. In order to assess collaborative problem-solving processes in MCC with those predicted by the Macrocognition in Teams Model, a coding scheme was developed to analyze the interview transcriptions. Findings are supported with excerpts from participant transcriptions and suggest that team knowledge-building processes accounted for approximately 50% of all coded data and are essential for successful collaborative problem solving in mission control. Support for the internalized and externalized team knowledge was also found (19% and 20%, respectively). The Macrocognition in Teams Model was shown to be a useful depiction of collaborative problem solving in mission control and further research with this as a guiding framework is warranted.

  6. Modeling Stochastic Complexity in Complex Adaptive Systems: Non-Kolmogorov Probability and the Process Algebra Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, William H

    2017-10-01

    Walter Freeman III pioneered the application of nonlinear dynamical systems theories and methodologies in his work on mesoscopic brain dynamics.Sadly, mainstream psychology and psychiatry still cling to linear correlation based data analysis techniques, which threaten to subvert the process of experimentation and theory building. In order to progress, it is necessary to develop tools capable of managing the stochastic complexity of complex biopsychosocial systems, which includes multilevel feedback relationships, nonlinear interactions, chaotic dynamics and adaptability. In addition, however, these systems exhibit intrinsic randomness, non-Gaussian probability distributions, non-stationarity, contextuality, and non-Kolmogorov probabilities, as well as the absence of mean and/or variance and conditional probabilities. These properties and their implications for statistical analysis are discussed. An alternative approach, the Process Algebra approach, is described. It is a generative model, capable of generating non-Kolmogorov probabilities. It has proven useful in addressing fundamental problems in quantum mechanics and in the modeling of developing psychosocial systems.

  7. Complex Ornament Machining Process on a CNC Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the CNC routering possibilities for three species of wood, namely ash (Fraxinus Excelsior, lime wood (Tilia cordata and fir wood (Abies Alba, in order to obtain right surfaces of Art Nouveau sculptured ornaments. Given the complexity of the CNC tool path for getting wavy shapes of Art Nouveau decorations, the choice of processing parameters for each processed species of wood requires a laborious research work to correlate these parameters. Two Art Nouveau ornaments are proposed for the investigation. They are CNC routered using two types of cutting tools. The processed parameters namely the spindle speed, feed speed and depth of cut were the three variables of the machining process for the three species of wood, which were combined so, to provide good surface finish as a quality attribute. There were totally forty six variants of combining the processing parameter which were applied for CNC routering the samples made of the three species of wood. At the end, an optimum combination of the processed parameters is recommended for each species of wood.

  8. State-based Event Detection Optimization for Complex Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanglian PENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Detection of patterns in high speed, large volume of event streams has been an important paradigm in many application areas of Complex Event Processing (CEP including security monitoring, financial markets analysis and health-care monitoring. To assure real-time responsive complex pattern detection over high volume and speed event streams, efficient event detection techniques have to be designed. Unfortunately evaluation of the Nondeterministic Finite Automaton (NFA based event detection model mainly considers single event query and its optimization. In this paper, we propose multiple event queries evaluation on event streams. In particular, we consider scalable multiple event detection model that shares NFA transfer states of different event queries. For each event query, the event query is parse into NFA and states of the NFA are partitioned into different units. With this partition, the same individual state of NFA is run on different processing nodes, providing states sharing and reducing partial matches maintenance. We compare our state-based approach with Stream-based And Shared Event processing (SASE. Our experiments demonstrate that state-based approach outperforms SASE both on CPU time usage and memory consumption.

  9. Dystrophic Cardiomyopathy: Complex Pathobiological Processes to Generate Clinical Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Tsuda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD, and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XL-DCM consist of a unique clinical entity, the dystrophinopathies, which are due to variable mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a common complication of dystrophinopathies, but the onset, progression, and severity of heart disease differ among these subgroups. Extensive molecular genetic studies have been conducted to assess genotype-phenotype correlation in DMD, BMD, and XL-DCM to understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases, but the results are not always conclusive, suggesting the involvement of complex multi-layers of pathological processes that generate the final clinical phenotype. Dystrophin protein is a part of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC that is localized in skeletal muscles, myocardium, smooth muscles, and neuronal tissues. Diversity of cardiac phenotype in dystrophinopathies suggests multiple layers of pathogenetic mechanisms in forming dystrophic cardiomyopathy. In this review article, we review the complex molecular interactions involving the pathogenesis of dystrophic cardiomyopathy, including primary gene mutations and loss of structural integrity, secondary cellular responses, and certain epigenetic and other factors that modulate gene expressions. Involvement of epigenetic gene regulation appears to lead to specific cardiac phenotypes in dystrophic hearts.

  10. A psycho-societal approach to life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2016-01-01

    particularly interested in the relations between the culturally mediated and the sensory/bodily aspects of experience processes because this is the boundary zones of knowledge and seat of the dynamics of learning. My psycho-societal approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain...... other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main...

  11. Specificity, promiscuity, and the structure of complex information processing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    Both the top-down designs of engineered systems and the bottom-up serendipities of biological evolution must negotiate tradeoffs between specificity and control: overly specific interactions between components can make systems brittle and unevolvable, while more generic interactions can require elaborate control in order to aggregate specificity from distributed pieces. Complex information processing systems reveal network organizations that navigate this landscape of constraints: regulatory and signaling networks in cells involve the coordination of molecular interactions that are surprisingly promiscuous, and object-oriented design in software systems emphasizes the polymorphic composition of objects of minimal necessary specificity [C.R. Myers, Phys Rev E 68, 046116 (2003)]. Models of information processing arising both in systems biology and engineered computation are explored to better understand how particular network organizations can coordinate the activity of promiscuous components to achieve robust and evolvable function.

  12. International Conference on Informatics and Communication Technologies for Societal Developmen

    CERN Document Server

    Bhojan, Anand; Peter, J

    2015-01-01

    This volume comprises research papers presented at the International Conference on Informatics and Communication Technologies for Societal Development (ICICTS 2014) held at Karunya University, India. The content focuses on the recent advancements in image or signal processing, computer vision, communication technologies, soft computing, advanced computing, data mining, and knowledge discovery. The primary objective of this volume is to facilitate advancement and application of the knowledge and to promote ideas that solve problems faced by society through cutting-edge technologies. The chapters contain selected articles from academicians, researchers, and industry experts in the form of frameworks, models, and architectures. Practical approaches, observations, and results of research that promotes societal development are also incorporated. This volume will serve as a useful compendium for interested readers and researchers working towards societal development from the technological perspective.

  13. DEEP ECOLOGY: THE AWAKENING PROCESS TO A COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Braga Lovatto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Facing the contemporary environmental crisis, the environmental education emerges as a tool for coping and minimizing the impacts of human civilization on natural resources. So, in most of the works, what is observed is the predominance of environmental thinking, often devoid of ecosystem vision. The speech is limited to the need of preserving resources related to a distorted and uncritical development. Little attention is given to the dimensions of sustainability, the environment being treated as a part of the individual, mere outer portion of the human body. This perspective demonstrates the fragility of this speech to an effective awareness by revealing the disorder of the actions that occur within a deterministic ecological process, with little attention to the educational sphere, related to cognitive, ethical and cultural factors. Within these aspects, Complex Environmental Education suggests self-knowledge, awareness and environmental action in pursuit of the development that considers the integral quality of life, rather than the economic variable. In this sense, the deep ecology booster acts as an agent in the process of awakening to environmental education that is self-sustainability and so complex, because it helps the human perception on the integrative and dependent view of all beings, unifying them for the life.

  14. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Herrera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with data coming from autonomous sensors (e.g. reporting carbon emission in protected areas and from citizens providing information (e.g. illegal dumping in a voluntary way. Complex Event Processing (CEP technologies allow processing large amount of event data and detecting patterns from them. However, they do not provide native support for the geographic dimension of events which is essential for monitoring requirements which apply to specific geographic areas. This paper proposes a geospatial extension for CEP that allows monitoring environmental requirements considering the geographic location of the processed data. We extend an existing platform-independent, model-driven approach for CEP adding the geographic location to events and specifying patterns using geographic operators. The use and technical feasibility of the proposal is shown through the development of a case study and the implementation of a prototype.

  15. COMPLEX PROCESSING OF CELLULOSE WASTE FROM POULTRY AND SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sklyadnev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary.To solve the problem of disposing of huge volumes of cellulose waste from sugar production in the form of beet pulp and waste of poultry farms in the form of poultry manure is proposed to use the joint use of two methods of thermal processing of waste - pyrolysis and gasification. The possibility of using pyrolysis applied to the waste are confirmed by experimental results. Based on the results of laboratory studies of the properties of by-products resulting from the thermal processing of the feedstock, it is proposed complex processing to produce useful products, to be implemented in the form of marketable products, and the organization's own process energy utilization. Developed flow diagram of an integrated processing said waste comprises 3 sections, which successively carried out: pyrolytic decomposition of the feedstock to obtain a secondary product in the form of solid, liquid and gas fractions, the gasification of solids to obtain combustible gas and separating the liquid fraction by distillation to obtain valuable products. The main equipment in the first region is the pyrolysis reactor cascade condensers; the second section - gasifiers layers and stream type; the third - one or more distillation columns with the necessary strapping. Proper power supply installation is organized by the use of the heat produced during combustion of the synthesis gas for heating and gasification reactor. For the developed scheme presents calculations of the heat balance of the installation, supporting the energy efficiency of the proposed disposal process. Developments carried out in the framework of the project the winner of the Youth Prize Competition Government of Voronezh region to support youth programs in the 2014-2015.

  16. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  17. The EU societal awareness of landscape indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, P.J.; Andersen, E.; Capitani, C.; Carvalho Ribeiro, S.; Griffiths, G.H.; Loupa-Ramos, I.; Madeira, L.; Mortimer, S.R.; Paracchini, M.L.; Pinto Correia, T.; Schmidt, A.M.; Simoncini, R.; Wascher, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that agricultural landscapes meet multiple societal needs and demands beyond provision of economic and environmental goods and services. Accordingly, there have been significant calls for the inclusion of societal, amenity and cultural values in agri-environmental

  18. Processing of complex auditory patterns in musicians and nonmusicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan Boh

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the capacity of the memory store underlying the mismatch negativity (MMN response in musicians and nonmusicians for complex tone patterns. While previous studies have focused either on the kind of information that can be encoded or on the decay of the memory trace over time, we studied capacity in terms of the length of tone sequences, i.e., the number of individual tones that can be fully encoded and maintained. By means of magnetoencephalography (MEG we recorded MMN responses to deviant tones that could occur at any position of standard tone patterns composed of four, six or eight tones during passive, distracted listening. Whereas there was a reliable MMN response to deviant tones in the four-tone pattern in both musicians and nonmusicians, only some individuals showed MMN responses to the longer patterns. This finding of a reliable capacity of the short-term auditory store underlying the MMN response is in line with estimates of a three to five item capacity of the short-term memory trace from behavioural studies, although pitch and contour complexity covaried with sequence length, which might have led to an understatement of the reported capacity. Whereas there was a tendency for an enhancement of the pattern MMN in musicians compared to nonmusicians, a strong advantage for musicians could be shown in an accompanying behavioural task of detecting the deviants while attending to the stimuli for all pattern lengths, indicating that long-term musical training differentially affects the memory capacity of auditory short-term memory for complex tone patterns with and without attention. Also, a left-hemispheric lateralization of MMN responses in the six-tone pattern suggests that additional networks that help structuring the patterns in the temporal domain might be recruited for demanding auditory processing in the pitch domain.

  19. Processing of complex auditory patterns in musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boh, Bastiaan; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the capacity of the memory store underlying the mismatch negativity (MMN) response in musicians and nonmusicians for complex tone patterns. While previous studies have focused either on the kind of information that can be encoded or on the decay of the memory trace over time, we studied capacity in terms of the length of tone sequences, i.e., the number of individual tones that can be fully encoded and maintained. By means of magnetoencephalography (MEG) we recorded MMN responses to deviant tones that could occur at any position of standard tone patterns composed of four, six or eight tones during passive, distracted listening. Whereas there was a reliable MMN response to deviant tones in the four-tone pattern in both musicians and nonmusicians, only some individuals showed MMN responses to the longer patterns. This finding of a reliable capacity of the short-term auditory store underlying the MMN response is in line with estimates of a three to five item capacity of the short-term memory trace from behavioural studies, although pitch and contour complexity covaried with sequence length, which might have led to an understatement of the reported capacity. Whereas there was a tendency for an enhancement of the pattern MMN in musicians compared to nonmusicians, a strong advantage for musicians could be shown in an accompanying behavioural task of detecting the deviants while attending to the stimuli for all pattern lengths, indicating that long-term musical training differentially affects the memory capacity of auditory short-term memory for complex tone patterns with and without attention. Also, a left-hemispheric lateralization of MMN responses in the six-tone pattern suggests that additional networks that help structuring the patterns in the temporal domain might be recruited for demanding auditory processing in the pitch domain.

  20. Usefulness of surgical complexity classification index in cataract surgery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Méndez, R; Cuesta García, M; Llaneza Velasco, M E; Rodríguez Villa, S; Cubillas Martín, M; Alonso Álvarez, C M

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of surgical complexity classification index (SCCI) to predict the degree of surgical difficulty in cataract surgery. This retrospective study includes data collected between January 2013 and December 2014 from patients who underwent cataract extraction by phacoemulsification at our hospital. A sample size of 159 patients was obtained by simple random sampling (P=.5, 10% accuracy, 95% confidence). The main variables were: recording and value of SCCI in electronic medical record (EMR), presence of exfoliation syndrome (XFS), criteria for inclusion in surgical waiting list (SWL), and functional results. SCCI was classified into 7 categories (range: 1-4) according to predictors of technical difficulty, which was indirectly estimated in terms of surgical time (ST). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v15.0 statistical software. Prevalence of XFS was 18.2% (95%CI: 11.9-24.5). In terms of quality indicators in the cataract surgery process, 96.8% of patients met at least one of the criteria to be included in SWL, and 98.1% gained ≥2 Snellen lines. The SCCI was recorded in EMR of 98.1% patients, and it was grouped for study into 2 categories: High and low surgical complexity. Statistically significant differences in the distribution of ST were found depending on the assigned SCCI (Pde Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Microfluidic-SANS: flow processing of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos G; Watanabe, Takaichi; Martel, Anne; Porcar, Lionel; Cabral, João T

    2015-01-12

    Understanding and engineering the flow-response of complex and non-Newtonian fluids at a molecular level is a key challenge for their practical utilisation. Here we demonstrate the coupling of microfluidics with small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Microdevices with high neutron transmission (up to 98%), low scattering background (≲10⁻² cm⁻¹), broad solvent compatibility and high pressure tolerance (≈3-15 bar) are rapidly prototyped via frontal photo polymerisation. Scattering from single microchannels of widths down to 60 μm, with beam footprint of 500 μm diameter, was successfully obtained in the scattering vector range 0.01-0.3 Å(-1), corresponding to real space dimensions of ≃10-600 Å. We demonstrate our approach by investigating the molecular re-orientation and alignment underpinning the flow response of two model complex fluids, namely cetyl trimethylammonium chloride/pentanol/D₂O and sodium lauryl sulfate/octanol/brine lamellar systems. Finally, we assess the applicability and outlook of microfluidic-SANS for high-throughput and flow processing studies, with emphasis of soft matter.

  2. Societal acceptance of unnecessary evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Jamie W.; Mundzir, Ibnu; Patt, Anthony; Rosemary, Rizanna; Safrina, Lely; Mahdi, Saiful; Daly, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Uncertainties in forecasting extreme events force an unavoidable tradeoff between false alarms and misses. The appropriate balance depends on the level of societal acceptance of unnecessary evacuations, but there has been little empirical research on this. Intuitively it may seem that an unnecessary evacuation would make people less likely to evacuate again in the future, but our study finds no support for this intuition. Using new quantitative (n=800) and qualitative evidence, we examine individual- and household-level evacuation decisions in response to the strong 11-Apr-2012 earthquake in Aceh, Indonesia. This earthquake did not produce a tsunami, but the population had previously experienced the devastating 2004 tsunami. In our sample, the vast majority of people (86%) evacuated in the 2012 earthquake, and nearly all (94%) say they would evacuate again if a similar earthquake happened in the future. Self-reported level of fear at the moment of the 2012 earthquake explains more of the variance in evacuation decisions and intentions than does a combination of perceived tsunami risk and perceived efficacy of evacuation modeled on protection motivation theory. These findings suggest that the appropriate balance between false alarms and misses may be highly context-specific. Investigating this in each context would make an important contribution to the effectiveness of early-warning systems.

  3. [Effect of the microencapsulation process parameters piroxicam by complex coacervation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoudi, L; Chaumeil, J-C; Daoud, K

    2015-01-01

    The gelatin-acacia system is used for the microencapsulation of piroxicam by complex coacervation. The effect of some formulation parameters and process, namely the ratio of gelatin/gum acacia, core/wall ratio, concentration of crosslinking agent and crosslinking time are studied. The microcapsules properties are evaluated. The results showed that the microcapsules have a spherical shape, a coacervation efficiency greater than 70%, an average diameter less than 250 microns, a good stability and finally, the better values are obtained for gelatin/acacia ratio (5/3), ratio core/wall (1/4), an amount of 2 mL of crosslinking agent and a crosslinking time of 60 minutes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Linking soil systems to societal value systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Daedlow, Katrin; Techen, Anja; Kaiser, David Brian

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable management of soils is needed to avoid soil degradation and to maintain soil functions. This requires the assessment of how human activities drive soil management, how soil management affect soil functions and soil degradation, which trade-offs occur and how they compromise sustainable development targets. In the frame of the German research programme "Soils as a sustainable resource for the bio-economy - BonaRes", we developed an enhanced approach of the DPSIR (driver-pressure-state-impact-response) cycle which helps to assess these interrelations. Because not all soil functions can be maximized simultaneously in space and time and trade-offs are inevitable, it depends on the societal value system to decide which management practices and respective soil functional performances are valued sustainably. We analysed the applicability of three valuation concepts being prominent in research about social-ecological systems, namely resource efficiency, ecosystem services, and ethics and equity. The concept of resource efficiency is based in the life-cycle thinking and is often applied at the level of the farming systems and in the context of bio-economy strategies. It covers the use of natural (water, energy, nutrients, land) and economic resources. At the landscape level, the concept of ecosystem services is prominent. Here, the contribution of soils to the provisioning, regulating and cultural services of the natural ecosystems is considered. Ethical considerations include the intrinsic values of nature as well as issues of local and global equity between different societal groups, generations, and localities. The three concepts cover different problem dimensions and complexity levels of soil management and decision making. Alone, none of them are capable to discover complex questions of sustainable soil management and development. Rather, the exact spatial and temporal framing of the sustainability problem at stake determines which combination of the value

  5. La Società Umanitaria e la diffusione del Metodo Montessori (1908-1923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pozzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Società Umanitaria ofMilan, between 1918 and 1923, played an essential role in spreading and developing the Montessori Method. Studying in the Historical Archive of Società Umanitaria the numerous documents there collected, the author reconstructed the crucial moments of the extremely significant collaboration between Maria Montessori and Augusto Osimo, General Secretary of the Società Umanitaria.This complex and in-depth investigation was guided by the analysis, in specific, of the training courses for Montessori teachers organised by Società Umanitaria, essentially unexamined before this study, that allowed the researcher to have a deep insight into the action of Società Umanitaria aimed to promote and implement the Montessori Method in Italy and all around the world.

  6. Supporting change processes in design: Complexity, prediction and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change to existing products is fundamental to design processes. New products are often designed through change or modification to existing products. Specific parts or subsystems are changed to similar ones whilst others are directly reused. Design by modification applies particularly to safety critical products where the reuse of existing working parts and subsystems can reduce cost and risk. However change is rarely a matter of just reusing or modifying parts. Changing one part can propagate through the entire design leading to costly rework or jeopardising the integrity of the whole product. This paper characterises product change based on studies in the aerospace and automotive industry and introduces tools to aid designers in understanding the potential effects of change. Two ways of supporting designers are described: probabilistic prediction of the effects of change and visualisation of change propagation through product connectivities. Change propagation has uncertainties which are amplified by the choices designers make in practice as they implement change. Change prediction and visualisation is discussed with reference to complexity in three areas of product development: the structural backcloth of connectivities in the existing product (and its processes), the descriptions of the product used in design and the actions taken to carry out changes

  7. An analytical approach to managing complex process problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramstad, Kari; Andersen, Espen; Rohde, Hans Christian; Tydal, Trine

    2006-03-15

    The oil companies are continuously investing time and money to ensure optimum regularity on their production facilities. High regularity increases profitability, reduces workload on the offshore organisation and most important; - reduces discharge to air and sea. There are a number of mechanisms and tools available in order to achieve high regularity. Most of these are related to maintenance, system integrity, well operations and process conditions. However, for all of these tools, they will only be effective if quick and proper analysis of fluids and deposits are carried out. In fact, analytical backup is a powerful tool used to maintain optimised oil production, and should as such be given high priority. The present Operator (Hydro Oil and Energy) and the Chemical Supplier (MI Production Chemicals) have developed a cooperation to ensure that analytical backup is provided efficiently to the offshore installations. The Operator's Research and Development (R and D) departments and the Chemical Supplier have complementary specialties in both personnel and equipment, and this is utilized to give the best possible service when required from production technologists or operations. In order for the Operator's Research departments, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) departments and Operations to approve analytical work performed by the Chemical Supplier, a number of analytical tests are carried out following procedures agreed by both companies. In the present paper, three field case examples of analytical cooperation for managing process problems will be presented. 1) Deposition in a Complex Platform Processing System. 2) Contaminated Production Chemicals. 3) Improved Monitoring of Scale Inhibitor, Suspended Solids and Ions. In each case the Research Centre, Operations and the Chemical Supplier have worked closely together to achieve fast solutions and Best Practice. (author) (tk)

  8. Address the Major Societal Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred

    In his famous historical account about the origins of molecular biology Gunther Stent introduced a three phase sequence that turns out to be characteristic for many newly emerging paradigms within science. New ideas, according to Stent, follow a sequence of romantic, dogmatic, and academic phases. One can easily see that complex systems science followed this path. The question now is whether we are in an extended academic phase of gradually expanding both theoretical and practical knowledge, or whether we are entering a new transformation of complex systems science that might well bring about a new romantic phase. I would argue that complexity science, indeed, is at the dawn of a new period - let's call it complexity 3.0. The last academic phase has seen the application of complex systems ideas and methods in a variety of different domains. It has been to a large extent business as usual...

  9. Biological processing of dinuclear ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Heimann, Kirsten; Dinh, Xuyen Thi; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2016-10-20

    The biological processing - mechanism of cellular uptake, effects on the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial membranes, intracellular sites of localisation and induction of reactive oxygen species - of two dinuclear polypyridylruthenium(ii) complexes has been examined in three eukaryotic cells lines. Flow cytometry was used to determine the uptake of [{Ru(phen)2}2{μ-bb12}](4+) (Rubb12) and [Ru(phen)2(μ-bb7)Ru(tpy)Cl](3+) {Rubb7-Cl, where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and bbn = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane} in baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The results demonstrated that the major uptake mechanism for Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl was active transport, although with a significant contribution from carrier-assisted diffusion for Rubb12 and passive diffusion for Rubb7-Cl. Flow cytometry coupled with Annexin V/TO-PRO-3 double-staining was used to compare cell death by membrane damage or apoptosis. Rubb12 induced significant direct membrane damage, particularly with HepG2 cells, while Rubb7-Cl caused considerably less membrane damage but induced greater levels of apoptosis. Confocal microscopy, coupled with JC-1 assays, demonstrated that Rubb12 depolarises the mitochondrial membrane, whereas Rubb7-Cl had a much smaller affect. Cellular localisation experiments indicated that Rubb12 did not accumulate in the mitochondria, whereas significant mitochondrial accumulation was observed for Rubb7-Cl. The effect of Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl on intracellular superoxide dismutase activity showed that the ruthenium complexes could induce cell death via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway. The results of this study demonstrate that Rubb12 predominantly kills eukaryotic cells by damaging the cytoplasmic membrane. As this dinuclear ruthenium complex has been previously shown to exhibit greater toxicity towards bacteria than eukaryotic cells, the results of the present study suggest that

  10. Advances in statistical monitoring of complex multivariate processes with applications in industrial process control

    CERN Document Server

    Kruger, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The development and application of multivariate statistical techniques in process monitoring has gained substantial interest over the past two decades in academia and industry alike.  Initially developed for monitoring and fault diagnosis in complex systems, such techniques have been refined and applied in various engineering areas, for example mechanical and manufacturing, chemical, electrical and electronic, and power engineering.  The recipe for the tremendous interest in multivariate statistical techniques lies in its simplicity and adaptability for developing monitoring applica

  11. Archives and societal provenance Australian essays

    CERN Document Server

    Piggott, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Records and archival arrangements in Australia are globally relevant because Australia's indigenous people represent the oldest living culture in the world, and because modern Australia is an ex-colonial society now heavily multicultural in outlook. Archives and Societal Provenance explores this distinctiveness using the theoretical concept of societal provenance as propounded by Canadian archival scholars led by Dr Tom Nesmith. The book's seventeen essays blend new writing and re-workings of earlier work, comprising the fi rst text to apply a societal provenance perspective to a national sett

  12. Real-time complex event processing for cloud resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, M.; Cordeiro, C.; Field, L.; Giordano, D.; Magnoni, L.

    2017-10-01

    The ongoing integration of clouds into the WLCG raises the need for detailed health and performance monitoring of the virtual resources in order to prevent problems of degraded service and interruptions due to undetected failures. When working in scale, the existing monitoring diversity can lead to a metric overflow whereby the operators need to manually collect and correlate data from several monitoring tools and frameworks, resulting in tens of different metrics to be constantly interpreted and analyzed per virtual machine. In this paper we present an ESPER based standalone application which is able to process complex monitoring events coming from various sources and automatically interpret data in order to issue alarms upon the resources’ statuses, without interfering with the actual resources and data sources. We will describe how this application has been used with both commercial and non-commercial cloud activities, allowing the operators to quickly be alarmed and react to misbehaving VMs and LHC experiments’ workflows. We will present the pattern analysis mechanisms being used, as well as the surrounding Elastic and REST API interfaces where the alarms are collected and served to users.

  13. The societal impact value of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, D.E.

    1995-04-01

    A key ill-defined issue in the management and regulation of potentially hazardous conditions is that of the value to be associated with a reduction (or existence) of human health risks, such as radiation exposure or hazardous substance ingestion. Empirical observations of societal behavior patterns lead to a relationship for the quantitative value of societal risk impact which is consistent with general societal risk acceptance, is not inconsistent with ''de facto'' risk regulation, and is suitable and appropriate as a specification or guide for risk management and risk regulation. This societal risk impact expression is: Impact ($/year) = (8 x 10 7 ) NR i 4/3 where Ri = individual annual mortality risk; N = number of persons in the population sharing the risk and benefits. The change in Impact which can be derived from a regulation or risk management activity is the value of annual benefit which society would expect to forego (or annual equivalent cost to incur) in consideration of the activity

  14. The use of individual and societal risk criteria within the Dutch flood safety policy--nationwide estimates of societal risk and policy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Jongejan, Ruben; Maaskant, Bob

    2011-02-01

    The Dutch government is in the process of revising its flood safety policy. The current safety standards for flood defenses in the Netherlands are largely based on the outcomes of cost-benefit analyses. Loss of life has not been considered separately in the choice for current standards. This article presents the results of a research project that evaluated the potential roles of two risk metrics, individual and societal risk, to support decision making about new flood safety standards. These risk metrics are already used in the Dutch major hazards policy for the evaluation of risks to the public. Individual risk concerns the annual probability of death of a person. Societal risk concerns the probability of an event with many fatalities. Technical aspects of the use of individual and societal risk metrics in flood risk assessments as well as policy implications are discussed. Preliminary estimates of nationwide levels of societal risk are presented. Societal risk levels appear relatively high in the southwestern part of the country where densely populated dike rings are threatened by a combination of river and coastal floods. It was found that cumulation, the simultaneous flooding of multiple dike rings during a single flood event, has significant impact on the national level of societal risk. Options for the application of the individual and societal risk in the new flood safety policy are presented and discussed. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Modeling Climate and Societal Resilience in the Mediterranean During the Last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Xoplaki, E.; Luterbacher, J.; Zorita, E.; Fleitmann, D.; Preiser-Kapeller, J.; Toreti, A., , Dr; Sargent, A. M.; Bozkurt, D.; White, S.; Haldon, J. F.; Akçer-Ön, S.; Izdebski, A.

    2017-12-01

    Past civilisations were influenced by complex external and internal forces, including changes in the environment, climate, politics and economy. A geographical hotspot of the interplay between those agents is the Mediterranean, a cradle of cultural and scientific development. We analyse a novel compilation of high-quality hydroclimate proxy records and spatial reconstructions from the Mediterranean and compare them with two Earth System Model simulations (CCSM4, MPI-ESM-P) for three historical time intervals - the Crusaders, 1095-1290 CE; the Mamluk regime in Transjordan, 1260-1516 CE; and the Ottoman crisis and Celâlî Rebellion, 1580-1610 CE - when environmental and climatic stress tested the resilience of complex societies. ESMs provide important information on the dynamical mechanisms and underlying processes that led to anomalous hydroclimatic conditions of the past. We find that the multidecadal precipitation and drought variations in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean during the three periods cannot be explained by external forcings (solar variations, tropical volcanism); rather they were driven by internal climate dynamics. The integrated analysis of palaeoclimate proxies, climate reconstructions and model simulations sheds light on our understanding of past climate change and its societal impact. Finally, our research emphasises the need to further study the societal dimension of environmental and climate change in the past, in order to properly understand the role that climate has played in human history.

  16. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  17. A Psycho-Societal Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellon, Karsten

    The project is based on understanding subjective perspectives in the learning process and education participation. It will focus on recognition of prior learning, how that plays a role in the learning subjects student-career, and how the process of identity progresses. The students here are from ...

  18. A Psycho-Societal Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellon, Karsten

    The project is based on understanding subjective perspectives in the learning process and education participation. It will focus on recognition of prior learning, how that plays a role in the learning subjects student-career, and how the process of identity progresses. The students here are from...

  19. Simulation and Analysis of Complex Biological Processes: an Organisation Modelling Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how the dynamics of complex biological processes can be modelled and simulated as an organisation of multiple agents. This modelling perspective identifies organisational structure occurring in complex decentralised processes and handles complexity of the analysis of the dynamics

  20. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  1. Can Models Capture the Complexity of the Systems Engineering Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Krishna; Chow, Sam; de Weck, Olivier L.; Lafon, Christian; Lekkakos, Spyridon D.; Lyneis, James; Rinaldi, Matthew; Wang, Zhiyong; Wheeler, Paul; Zborovskiy, Marat; Wojcik, Leonard A.

    Many large-scale, complex systems engineering (SE) programs have been problematic; a few examples are listed below (Bar-Yam, 2003 and Cullen, 2004), and many others have been late, well over budget, or have failed: Hilton/Marriott/American Airlines system for hotel reservations and flights; 1988-1992; 125 million; "scrapped"

  2. Phenylketonuria and Complex Spatial Visualization: An Analysis of Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study of the ability of 16 early treated phenylketonuric (PKU) patients (ages 6-23 years) to solve complex spatial problems suggested that choice of problem-solving strategy, attention span, and accuracy of mental representation may be affected in PKU patients, despite efforts to maintain well-controlled phenylalanine concentrations in the…

  3. Zinc removal from wastewater by complexation-microfiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivunac Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of its wide industrial applications, zinc has become an important contaminant in aquatic environment since it is a toxic heavy metal and some of its compounds such as zinc arsenate and zinc cyanide, may be extremely hazardous. Therefore, there is a growing need for developing simple methods capable of separating and recovering trace zinc from environmental waters. Nowadays, the ultra and microfiltration method for trace metals removal from waters by the addition of water-soluble polymers into the aqueous solutions has become a significant research area. The choice of watersoluble macroligands remains important for developing this technology. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC was selected as complexing agent. The microfiltration experiments were carried out in stirred dead-end cell. To separate formed polymer-metal complex Versapor membranes were used. The concentration of heavy metal ions after microfiltration in aqueous solution was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. Effects of amount of complexing agent, pH value, type of anion, ionic strength and operating pressure on the flux (J and rejection coefficient (R were investigated. Experimental results indicate a considerable influence of the pH, ionic strength and type of anion on the rejection coefficient, while effect of amount of complexing agent is relatively insignificant. The Na-CMC used in the research proved to be very effective, which may be supported by the high rejection coefficients obtained (99%.

  4. The societal gain of medical development and innovation in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hoed, Caroline M; Isendoorn, Kees; Klinkhamer, Wouter; Gupta, Anshu; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2013-10-01

    have led to significant societal gains in the past three decades. This process will continue in the near future as a result of further developments. These calculations provide a template for calculations on the need for specialist training as well as research and implementation of new developments in our field.

  5. Global challenges for e-waste management: the societal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalini, Federico

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decades the electronics industry and ICT Industry in particular has revolutionized the world: electrical and electronic products have become ubiquitous in today's life around the planet. After use, those products are discarded, sometimes after re-use cycles in countries different from those where they were initially sold; becoming what is commonly called e-waste. Compared to other traditional waste streams, e-waste handling poses unique and complex challenges. e-Waste is usually regarded as a waste problem, which can cause environmental damage and severe human health consequences if not safely managed. e-Waste contains significant amounts of toxic and environmentally sensitive materials and is, thus, extremely hazardous to humans and the environment if not properly disposed of or recycled. On the other hand, e-waste is often seen as a potential source of income for individuals and entrepreneurs who aim to recover the valuable materials (metals in particular) contained in discarded equipment. Recently, for a growing number of people, in developing countries in particular, recycling and separation of e-waste has become their main source of income. In most cases, this is done informally, with no or hardly any health and safety standards, exposing workers and the surrounding neighborhoods to extensive health dangers as well as leading to substantial environmental pollution. Treatment processes of e-waste aim to remove the hazardous components and recover as much reusable material (e.g. metals, glass and plastics) as possible; achieving both objectives is most desired. The paper discuss societal implications of proper e-waste management and key elements to be considered in the policy design at country level.

  6. Iron and Manganese complexes for investigation of superoxide relevant processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dürr, Anna Katharina

    2010-01-01

    In the course of this work, stoichiometric superoxide reactions, as well as mechanistic details on catalytic superoxide dismutation with iron heme and iron and manganese non-heme complexes, respectively, have been elucidated. For the first time, quantitative investigations on superoxide reactions with metal centers have been achieved, particularly with regard to experiments under high pressure, at low temperatures and with variable superoxide concentrations resulting in crucial kinetic, therm...

  7. Evaluation of various processes for simultaneous complexation and granulation to incorporate drug-cyclodextrin complexes into solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyanani, Vijay; Siddalingappa, Basavaraj; Betageri, Guru V

    2015-01-01

    Insoluble drugs often formulated with various excipients to enhance the dissolution. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are widely used excipients to improve dissolution profile of poorly soluble drugs. Drug-CD complexation process is complex and often requires multiple processes to produce solid dosage form. Hence, this study explored commonly used granulation processes for simultaneous complexation and granulation. Poorly soluble drugs ibuprofen and glyburide were selected as experimental drugs. Co-evaporation of drug:CD mixture from a solvent followed by wet granulation with water was considered as standard process for comparison. Spray granulation and fluid bed processing (FBP) using drug:CD solution in ethanol were evaluated as an alternative processes. The dissolution data of glyburide tablets indicated that tablets produced by spray granulation, FBP and co-evaporation-granulation have almost identical dissolution profile in water and 0.1% SLS (>70% in water and >60% in SLS versus 30 and 34%, respectively for plain tablet, in 120 min). Similarly, ibuprofen:CD tablets produced by co-evaporation-granulation and FBP displayed similar dissolution profile in 0.01 M HCl (pH 2.0) and buffer pH 5.5 (>90 and 100% versus 44 and 80% respectively for plain tablets, 120 min). Results of this study demonstrated that spray granulation is simple and cost effective process for low dose poorly soluble drugs to incorporate drug:CD complex into solid dosage form, whereas FBP is suitable for poorly soluble drugs with moderate dose.

  8. [Dying and death in societal transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Andreas; Wegleitner, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Dying and death in modern societies are subject to profound social, professional and cultural-religious changes. Secularization and a stronger differentiation of societies have led to a change in the way humans handle the dying process. Normatively ritualized collective behaviour has been replaced by an individual, subjectivized approach. In late modern societies there are many different views of what "successful" or "good" dying means.In the article this change is described by the following seven theses: 1. We live longer and we die longer. 2. We no longer die suddenly and unexpectedly but slowly and foreseeably. 3. Even though our biological life on earth has become longer, our life has been shortened by the loss of eternity. 4. We no longer die on the stage of ritualized relationships with our family and neighbours but behind the curtains of organizations. 5. We live and die in a society of organizations and have to get organized for the final phase of our life. 6. Living and dying are no large, state-owned enterprises but small, private enterprises. 7. The hospice movement as well as palliative medicine have created public awareness, made dying a matter of discussion and offered a new set of options.In late modernism end-of-life care requires new approaches based on individual and shared responsibility as well as cooperation between professional institutions and community-based voluntary care.A change towards community care is visible. Thus "dying" is a topic in the discussion about the future of public health and societal solidarity.

  9. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  10. Human development in societal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Aletha C; Bentley, Alison C

    2010-01-01

    Low family socioeconomic position is a net of related conditions-low income, material deprivation, single-parent family structure, low educational level, minority ethnic group membership, and immigrant status. According to ecological theory, proximal contexts experienced by children, including family, material resources, out-of-school experiences, schools, neighborhoods, and peers, are mediators of poverty effects. Developmental timing of exposure to poverty conditions and the processes by which effects occur differ for cognitive and social domains of development. Understanding how contexts combine and interact is as important as understanding their independent influences. Effects may be cumulative, but advantages in one context can also ameliorate disadvantages in others. Although research is typically based on unidirectional causal models, the relations between the developing child and the contexts he or she experiences are reciprocal and transactional. Finally, although income inequality has increased greatly, little is known about the influences of relative poverty and social inequality on human development.

  11. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronteltap, Amber; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Tobi, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.

  12. Shaping societal impact: between Control and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messemaker, M.; Wolbers, J.; Treurniet, W.; Boersma, K.

    2013-01-01

    In our modern society, the impact of large-scale safety and security incidents can be large and diverse. Yet, this societal impact is makeable and controllable to a limited extent. At best, the effect of concrete response actions is that the direct damage is somewhat reduced and that the recovery is

  13. Shaping Societal Impact: between control and cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messemaker, M.; Wolbers, J.J.; Treurniet, W.; Boersma, F.K.; Comes, T; Fiedrich, F; Fortier, S; Geldermann, J; Muller, T

    2013-01-01

    In our modern society, the impact of large-scale safety and security incidents can be large and diverse. Yet, this societal impact is makeable and controllable to a limited extent. At best, the effect of concrete response actions is that the direct damage is somewhat reduced and that the recovery is

  14. Individual and societal consequences of hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dømgaard, Mikala; Bagger, Malene; Rhee, Nicolai Alexander

    2015-01-01

    -sectional survey of Danish Diabetes Association members was conducted to investigate individual and societal consequences of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A total of 3117/9951 individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) (32.2%) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (67.8%) completed the survey. The calculated incidence rates of self...

  15. Understanding societal impact through studying productive interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S; Barker, K.; Cox, D.; Sveinsdottir, T.; van den Besselaar, P.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Universities are increasingly expected to fulfill a third mission in addition to those of research and education. Universities must demonstrate engagement with society through the application and exploitation of knowledge. As societal impact of research is uncertain, long term and always dependent

  16. Implementation of computer-based patient records in primary care: the societal health economic effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Arias-Vimárlund, V.; Ljunggren, M.; Timpka, T.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Exploration of the societal health economic effects occurring during the first year after implementation of Computerised Patient Records (CPRs) at Primary Health Care (PHC) centres. DESIGN: Comparative case studies of practice processes and their consequences one year after CPR implementation, using the constant comparison method. Application of transaction-cost analyses at a societal level on the results. SETTING: Two urban PHC centres under a managed care contract in Ostergötland...

  17. Anticipating the Future, Influencing the Present: Assessing the Societal Implications of Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Evan S.

    A growing challenge for the American policymaking system is to respond effectively to a wide range of interconnected, complex, long-term science and technology issues. Simultaneously, current approaches and institutions of governance are ill suited to address these multidimensional challenges. As the next generation of innovations in science and technology is arriving at an accelerating rate, the governance system is lagging behind. This realization leads to a vital overarching consideration that steers this study: What approaches are well suited to anticipate the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies in the 21st Century? This study identifies and examines strategies for anticipating the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies by way of a qualitative case study. It explores one area of technology (nanotechnology), in one particular governance system (the United States), and with a focus on one high profile non-governmental organization (NGO) involved in addressing a range of nanotechnology's societal and policy implications: the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN). Based at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, PEN's goal was to ensure "that as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized." The conceptual framework of anticipatory governance guides the research, which offers a real-world example about how anticipatory governance applies in the nongovernmental sector and shows how this idea links to broader theoretical debates about the policymaking process. The study's main conclusion is that PEN utilized a set of interconnected strategies related to advancing foresight, operating in a boundary-spanning role, and promoting communications and public engagement in its attempt to influence, anticipate, and shape the societal implications of emerging technologies. The findings are

  18. Complex media from processing of agricultural crops for microbial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    This mini-review describes the concept of the green biorefinery and lists a number of suitable agricultural by-products, which can be used for production of bioenergy and/or biochemicals. A process, in which one possible agricultural by-product from the green crop drying industry, brown juice...... examples of such products-polylactic acid and L-lysine-are given. A cost calculation shows that this fermentation medium can be produced at a very low cost approximate to 1.7 Euro cent/kg, when taking into account that the green crop industry has expenses amounting to 270,000 Euro/year for disposal...... of the brown juice. A newly built lysine factory in Esbjerg, Denmark, can benefit from this process by buying a low price medium for the fermentation process instead of more expensive traditional fermentation liquids such as corn steep liquor....

  19. The biotechnological ways of blue-green algae complex processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nykyforov, Volodymyr; Malovanyy, Myroslav; Kozlovskaya, Tatyana; Novokhatko, Olha; Digtiar, Sergii

    2016-01-01

    The results of long­term research of various ways and methods of collection and processing of blue­green algae that cause “bloom” of the Dnieper reservoirs were presented. The possibility and feasibility of the blue­green algae biomass processing to biogas by methanogenesis were substantiated. It was found experimentally that preliminary mechanical cavitation of the blue­green algae biomass increases the biogas yield by 21.5 %. It was determined that the biogas produced contains up to 72 % of...

  20. Societal costs of multiple sclerosis in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Peter; O'Boyle, Derek; Larkin, Aidan; McGuigan, Christopher; O'Rourke, Killian

    2018-02-07

    This paper evaluates the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Ireland, and estimates the associated direct, indirect, and intangible costs to society based on a large nationally representative sample. A questionnaire was developed to capture the demographics, disease characteristics, healthcare use, informal care, employment, and wellbeing. Referencing international studies, standardized survey instruments were included (e.g. CSRI, MFIS-5, EQ-5D) or adapted (EDSS) for inclusion in an online survey platform. Recruitment was directed at people with MS via the MS Society mailing list and social media platforms, as well as in traditional media. The economic costing was primarily conducted using a 'bottom-up' methodology, and national estimates were achieved using 'prevalence-based' extrapolation. A total of 594 people completed the survey in full. The sample had geographic, disease, and demographic characteristics indicating good representativeness. At an individual level, average societal cost was estimated at €47,683; the average annual costs for those with mild, moderate, and severe MS were calculated as €34,942, €57,857, and €100,554, respectively. For a total Irish MS population of 9,000, the total societal costs of MS amounted to €429m. Direct costs accounted for just 30% of the total societal costs, indirect costs amounted to 50% of the total, and intangible or QoL costs represented 20%. The societal cost associated with a relapse in the sample is estimated as €2,438. The findings highlight that up to 70% of the total costs associated with MS are not routinely counted. These "hidden" costs are higher in Ireland than the rest of Europe, due in part to significantly lower levels of workforce participation, a higher likelihood of permanent workforce withdrawal, and higher levels of informal care needs. The relationship between disease progression and costs emphasize the societal importance of managing and slowing the progression of the illness.

  1. Epidemic Processes on Complex Networks : Modelling, Simulation and Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Bovenkamp, R.

    2015-01-01

    Local interactions on a graph will lead to global dynamic behaviour. In this thesis we focus on two types of dynamic processes on graphs: the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptilbe (SIS) virus spreading model, and gossip style epidemic algorithms. The largest part of this thesis is devoted to the SIS

  2. Low-field magnetization process and complex permeability of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biphase wires consisting of a soft magnetic amorphous nucleus surrounded by a hard magnetic CoNi layer of variable thickness were obtained by means of rotating water-quenching method and subsequent electroplating technique. Magnetization processes for all the biphase wires were resolved in terms of reversible ...

  3. some considerations on bible translation as complex process 1.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The definition of “translation” adopted by a particular translator will have a critical impact on the course taken by the translation process.3 It is this preconceived idea (definition) of what a translation entails that determines. 1. Prof. Jan G. van der Watt, Department of New Testament, Faculty of Theolo- gy, University of Pretoria, ...

  4. Category and Word Search: Generalizing Search Principles to Complex Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    control processing resources will be required. For the remainder of the introduction we will discuss seven issues that have been prominent in the...Washington, DC J. Anderson, Psychology Dept., Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA J. Annett, Pschology Dept., Univ. of Warwick, Coventry, England

  5. Process and device for automatically surveying complex installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekrul, P.J.; Thiele, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a process for automatically analysing separate signal processing channels in real time, one channel per signal, in a facility with significant background noise in signals varying in time and coming from transducers at selected points for the continuous monitoring of the operating conditions of the various components of the installation. The signals are intended to determine potential breakdowns, determine conclusions as to the severity of these potential breakdowns and indicate to an operator the measures to be taken in consequence. The feature of this process is that it comprises the automatic and successive selection of each channel for the purpose of spectral analysis, the automatic processing of the signal of each selected channel to show energy spectrum density data at pre-determined frequencies, the automatic comparison of the energy spectrum density data of each channel with pre-determined sets of limits varying with the frequency, and the automatic indication to the operator of the condition of the various components of the installation associated to each channel and the measures to be taken depending on the set of limits [fr

  6. Nonlinear signal processing for ultrasonic imaging of material complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dos Santos, S.; Vejvodová, Šárka; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 108-117 ISSN 1736-6046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear signal processing * TR-NEWS * symmetry analysis * DORT Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.464, year: 2010 www.eap.ee/proceedings

  7. Complex Dynamics in Academics' Developmental Processes in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Caroline; Nückles, Matthias; Merkt, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Improving teaching in higher education is a concern for universities worldwide. This study explored academics' developmental processes in teaching using episodic interviews and teaching portfolios. Eight academics in the context of teaching development reported changes in their teaching and change triggers. Thematic analyses revealed seven areas…

  8. Certain aspects of the reactivity of carotenoids. Redox processes and complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, Nikolay E; Leshina, Tatyana V

    2006-01-01

    The published data on the redox reactions of carotenoids, their supramolecular inclusion complexes and the composition, properties and practical application of these complexes are generalised. Special attention is given to the effect of complexation on radical processes involving carotenoids and on the antioxidant activity of carotenoids.

  9. The visual illustration of complex process information during abnormal incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimbuerger, H.; Kautto, A.; Norros, L.; Ranta, J.

    1985-01-01

    One of the proposed solutions to the man-process interface problem in nuclear power plants is the integration of a system in the control room that can provide the operator with a display of a minimum set of critical plant parameters defining the safety status of the plant. Such a system has been experimentally validated using the Loviisa training simulator during the fall of 1982. The project was a joint effort between Combustion Engineering Inc., the Halden Reactor Project, Imatran Voima Oy and VTT. Alarm systems are used in nuclear power plants to tell the control room operators that an unexpected change in the plant operation state has occurred. One difficulty in using the alarms for checking the actions of the operator is that the conventional way of realizing the alarm systems implies that several alarms are active also during normal operation. The coding and representation of alarm information will be discussed in the paper. An important trend in control room design is the move away from direct, concrete indication of process parameters towards use of more abstract/logical representation of information as a basis for plant supervision. Recent advances in computer graphics provide the possibility that, in the future, visual information will be utilized to make the essential dynamics of the process more intelligible. A set of criteria for use of visual information will be necessary. The paper discusses practical aspects for the realisation of such criteria in the context of nuclear power plant. The criteria of the decomposition of the process information concerning the sub-goals safety and availability and also the tentative results of the conceptualization of a PWR-process are discussed in the paper

  10. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the hydrolysis complexes of cisplatin: implications for the hydrolysis process of platinum complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifan, Xie; Pieter, Colin; Jan, Van Bocxlaer

    2017-07-01

    Non-enzyme-dependent hydrolysis of the drug cisplatin is important for its mode of action and toxicity. However, up until today, the hydrolysis process of cisplatin is still not completely understood. In the present study, the hydrolysis of cisplatin in an aqueous solution was systematically investigated by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography. A variety of previously unreported hydrolysis complexes corresponding to monomeric, dimeric and trimeric species were detected and identified. The characteristics of the Pt-containing complexes were investigated by using collision-induced dissociation (CID). The hydrolysis complexes demonstrate distinctive and correlative CID characteristics, which provides tools for an informative identification. The most frequently observed dissociation mechanism was sequential loss of NH 3 , H 2 O and HCl. Loss of the Pt atom was observed as the final step during the CID process. The formation mechanisms of the observed complexes were explored and experimentally examined. The strongly bound dimeric species, which existed in solution, are assumed to be formed from the clustering of the parent compound and its monohydrated or dihydrated complexes. The role of the electrospray process in the formation of some of the observed ions was also evaluated, and the electrospray ionization-related cold clusters were identified. The previously reported hydrolysis equilibria were tested and subsequently refined via a hydrolysis study resulting in a renewed mechanistic equilibrium system of cisplatin as proposed from our results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate

  12. Workplace noise exposure after modernisation of an aluminium processing complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Lukić, Jela; Udovicić, Ruzica; Zuskin, Eugenija; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Zajec, Zdenko

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess to which extent modernisation of an aluminium production complex reduced occupational noise hazard for jobs with the highest potential of exposure. Periodical measurements of noise level were taken at the same workplaces using the same method, before and after modernisation of all plants. The results were compared with the recommended standard. After modernisation, the noise was significantly reduced in all sections of all plants. The greatest reduction was measured in the foundry. After modernisation, the portion of workplaces with excessive noise level dropped significantly (chisquare=21.315; pdross skimming section. In the anode plant, noise remained a problem in the green mill section where noise intensities generated by mills and vibrocompactors varied from 95 dB(A) to 102 dB(A). In the electrolysis plant, the portion of workplaces with extensive noise dropped from 77.8% to 39.3% after modernisation (p=0.0019). Noise remains to be a problem at the anode covering section where levels rise up to 100 dB(A). The modernisation of the factory has considerably reduced the noise level in the working environment of all plants, but it can not be reduced completely.

  13. SbcCD-Mediated Processing of Covalent Gyrase-DNA Complex in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Aedo, Sandra; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Quinolones trap the covalent gyrase-DNA complex in Escherichia coli, leading to cell death. Processing activities for trapped covalent complex have not been characterized. A mutant strain lacking SbcCD nuclease activity was examined for both accumulation of gyrase-DNA complex and viability after quinolone treatment. Higher complex levels were found in ΔsbcCD cells than in wild-type cells after incubation with nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. However, SbcCD activity protected cells against th...

  14. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Sebastian P; Ellenbroek, Stéfan Ph; Meijer, Ingeborg; van Ark, Gerrit; Klasen, Eduard C

    2010-10-12

    The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research). For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC)) was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre.The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research) outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector). For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity). These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance), after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles.Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms of learning for the

  15. A Meta Model of the Innovation Process to Support the Decision Making Process Using Structural Complexity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kortler, Sebastian;Lindemann, Udo

    2017-01-01

    The innovation process is characterized by numerous interactions of numerous domains. Cyclic interdependencies intensify the pressure in terms of quality and schedule, causing shortened testing phases, frequent releases of new models, and thus hardly calculable risks. Structural Complexity management is established in order to avoid wrong decisions, instable processes and error-prone solutions. Therefore, Structural Complexity Management evaluates system’s characteristics by analyzing system’...

  16. How fair is safe enough? The cultural approach to societal technology choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, S.; Cantor, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper consists of an argument and a pilot study. First is a general, perhaps philosophical, argument against the National Academy's viewpoint that dealing with risk is a two-stage process consisting of (a) assessment of facts, and (b) evaluation of facts in sociopolitical context. They argue that societal risk intrinsically revolves around social relations as much as around evaluations of probability. Second, they outline one particular approach to analyzing societal risk management styles. They call this the fairness hypothesis. Rather than focusing on probabilities and magnitudes of undesired events, this approach emphasizes societal preferences for principles of achieving consent to a technology, distributing liabilities, and investing trust in institutions. Conflict rather than probability is the chief focus of this approach to societal risk management. This view is illustrated by a recent empirical pilot study that explored the fairness hypothesis in the context of new nuclear technologies

  17. Societal impacts of regenerative medicine: reflections on the views of orthopedic professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemansburg, Sophie L; Tempels, Tjidde H; Dhert, Wouter J A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Bredenoord, Annelien L

    2015-01-01

    As the amount of clinical studies in orthopedic regenerative medicine (RM) is increasing, it is time to take into account its impact on society. A total of 36 biomedical professionals working at the front row of orthopedic RM were interviewed to explore their attitudes, opinions and expectations regarding the societal impacts of RM. Professionals mainly recognized the societal impacts of counteraction of aging, prevention of disease and social justice. The 'soft' sides of these impacts were hardly mentioned. Whereas they did not perceive themselves in the position to mitigate these impacts, professionals should take up their role as actor and become involved in the societal debate. This is important as they can co-shape the societal impacts during the developmental process of technologies and thereby stimulate responsible innovation.

  18. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2010-03-01

    We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino

  19. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Salvati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event – measured by the total number of casualties in the event – follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950–2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide

  20. Best practice for peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization and collection in adults and children: results of a Società Italiana Di Emaferesi e Manipolazione Cellulare (SIDEM) and Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO) consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierelli, Luca; Perseghin, Paolo; Marchetti, Monia; Accorsi, Patrizia; Fanin, Renato; Messina, Chiara; Olivieri, Attilio; Risso, Marco; Salvaneschi, Laura; Bosi, Alberto

    2012-04-01

    A large heterogeneity in current mobilization and collection practices is perceived. Moreover, recent evidence introduced novel issues into some specific topics. Optimization of the clinical practice, through the adoption of clinical practice guidelines, previously proved to reduce health care resource use. Two Italian scientific societies, Società Italiana Di Emaferesi e Manipolazione Cellulare (SIDEM) and Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO), perceived the need of hematologists and transfusionists to share a common paradigm in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). The aim of the current position paper is to provide common definitions and criteria for mobilization and collection of peripheral blood stem cells both in autologous and in the allogeneic setting. Current international and national standards (i.e., International Society of Hematotherapy and Graft Engineering) and recommendations (i.e., European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation) were harmonized with the Panel recommendations. The Expert Panel consisted of nine members (five transfusionists and four hematologists with both clinical and scientific experience of SCT in both pediatric and adult setting) and one methodologist and first convened on April 19, 2010: they in turn agreed on the questions to be answered by the project. Available literature was reviewed by one expert and the methodologist and presented to the other members. Statements were then formulated. SIDEM and GITMO planned an informal meeting of the Panel every 2 years to discuss relevant updates and possible changes to the recommendations. The efforts of the expert panel members allowed to set up and share a common approach to the mobilization, enumeration, and collection issues in the field of both autologous and allogeneic peripheral blood SCT. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Children’s proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    Inspired from especially Danish/German critical psychology but also from John Dewey’s ethical, educational and psychological thoughts, this presentation will elaborate on an understanding of the dialectic between an ethical society, -school and -theory. To this aim I will argue for and unfold...... the conceptualization of children’s “proximal societal conditions”. Throughout different research projects in which children’s everyday life in different daycare settings and in schools has been studied, it becomes clear that ‘the societal’ is not something that is above or outside the institutional setting......) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda in a (Danish) welfare state with well-developed school- and daycare system, are no longer simply thoughts about the school having space for as many pupils as possible...

  2. Understanding the Societal Impact of Humanities Scholarship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz; Johansson, Lasse Gøhler

    2016-01-01

    The critical problem for understanding the societal impact of humanities scholarship is that we currently have no satisfactory tools for understanding how wider social impacts occur and, by implication, very few guidelines for stimulating a reflexive dialogue about the influence of the humanities...... in an incomplete and hence misleading picture of research outcomes and their causality. In this paper, I explore how the emerging research impact agenda is embarking on the humanities and which tools and frameworks are available for tracing and mapping the impact of humanities breakthroughs in society. Examining...... both quantitative and qualitative tools, the paper argues that we need a better and more comprehensive understanding of the role the humanities as part of a wider web of societal institutions, networks, and agents. Granted that the impact of humanities breakthroughs cannot be located at clearly...

  3. Societal costs of diabetes mellitus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sortsø, C; Green, A; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide comprehensive real-world evidence on societal diabetes-attributable costs in Denmark. METHODS: National register data are linked on an individual level through unique central personal registration numbers in Denmark. All patients in the Danish National Diabetes Register in 2011 (N...... = 318 729) were included in this study. Complication status was defined according to data from the Danish National Hospital Register. Diabetes-attributable costs were calculated as the difference between costs of patients with diabetes and the expected costs given the annual resource consumption...... of the diabetes-free population. RESULTS: Societal costs attributable to diabetes were estimated to be at least 4.27 billion EUR in 2011, corresponding to 14,349 EUR per patient-year. A twofold higher healthcare resource usage was found for patients with diabetes as compared with the diabetes-free population...

  4. Extrinsic and intrinsic complexities of the Los Alamos plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearse, R.C.; Roberts, N.J.; Longmire, V.L.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of the data obtained in one year of plutonium accounting at Los Alamos reveals significant complexity. Much of this complexity arises from the complexity of the processes themselves. Additional complexity is induced by errors in the data entry process. It is important to note that there is no evidence that this complexity is adversely affecting the accounting in the plant. The authors have been analyzing transaction data from fiscal year 1983 processing. This study involved 62,595 transactions. The data have been analyzed using the relational database program INGRES on a VAX 11/780 computer. This software allows easy manipulation of the original data and subsets drawn from it. The authors have been attempting for several years to understand the global features of the TA-55 accounting data. This project has underscored several of the system's complexities

  5. Extrinsic and intrinsic complexities of the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bearse, R.C.; Longmire, V.L.; Roberts, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of the data obtained in one year of plutonium accounting at Los Alamos reveals significant complexity. Much of this complexity arises from the complexity of the processes themselves. Additional complexity is induced by errors in the data entry process. It is important to note that there is no evidence that this complexity is adversely affecting the accounting in the plant. We have been analyzing transaction data from fiscal year 1983 processing. This study involved 62,595 transactions. The data have been analyzed using the relational database program INGRES on a VAX 11/780 computer. This software allows easy manipulation of the original data and subsets drawn from it. We have been attempting for several years to understand the global features of the TA-55 accounting data. This project has underscored several of the system's complexities. Examples that will be reported here include audit trails, lot-name multiplicity, etc

  6. Redesigning pharmacy delivery processes of a health care complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Vincent; Xie, Xiaolan

    2009-06-01

    This paper addresses a pharmacy delivery design problem with two types of human resources: pharmacy assistants and transporters within a hospital. Each medical unit of the hospital has a mobile medicine closet which is conveyed each week by transporters to the central pharmacy for inventory assessment and refill by assistants. Transportation is carried out by foot, by tractor or by truck depending on the location. The problem consists in creating a transportation and supply planning for each day of the week in order to balance workloads for both transporters and assistants while ensuring the availability of medicine to each medical service. A two-step approach using mixed-integer linear programming formulation is proposed to determine a near optimal schedule. Numerical results are given to assess its efficiency. The proposed approach is then combined with a simulation model to redesign the delivery process of the pharmacy department of a French university teaching hospital. Methodology of this real-life reengineering study is presented and discussed.

  7. Societal Dynamics Understanding Social Knowledge and Wisdom

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    At both a micro-information level and a macro-societal level, the concepts of “knowledge” and “wisdom” are complementary – in both decisions and in social structures and institutions.  At the decision level, knowledge is concerned with how to make a proper choice of means, where “best” is measured as the efficiency toward achieving an end.  Wisdom is concerned with how to make a proper choice of ends  that attain “best” values. At a societal level, knowledge is managed through science/technology and innovation.  And while science/technology is society's way to create new means with high efficiencies, they reveal nothing about values.  Technology can be used for good or for evil, to make the world into a garden or to destroy all life.  It is societal wisdom which should influence the choice of proper ends -- ends to make the world a garden. How can society make progress in wisdom as well as knowledge?  Historically, the disciplines of the physical sciences and biology have provided sci...

  8. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  9. Societal Innovation: between dream and reality lies complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rotmans (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractJan Rotmans (1961) is one of the founders of Integrated Assessment (IA), and has outstanding experience in IA modeling, scenario-building, uncertainty management and transition management. During the past twenty years he has led a diversity of innovative projects in the field of climate

  10. The societal aspects of decision making in complex radiological situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Following the Keynote Address 10 papers were presented on various aspects of decision making, the public's role, social involvement, regional issues, risks and other important topics concerned with waste management impacts. The final paper, a Summary and Conclusions gives an excellent review of the meeting. All papers were abstracted and indexed for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  11. "Working to shape what society's expectations of us should be": Philip Morris' societal alignment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J S; Malone, R E

    2008-12-01

    A key element of Philip Morris's (PM's) corporate social responsibility initiatives is "societal alignment", defined as "strategies and programs to meet society's expectations of a responsible tobacco company". This study explored the genesis and implementation of Philip Morris' (PM) societal alignment efforts. The study retrieved and analysed approximately 375 previously undisclosed PM documents now available electronically. Using an iterative process, the study categorised themes and prepared a case analysis. Beginning in 1999, PM sought to become "societally aligned" by identifying expectations of a responsible tobacco company through public opinion research and developing and publicising programs to meet those expectations. Societal alignment was undertaken within the US and globally to ensure an environment favourable to PM's business objectives. Despite PM's claims to be "changing", however, societal alignment in practice was highly selective. PM responded to public "expectations" largely by retooling existing positions and programs, while entirely ignoring other expectations that might have interfered with its business goals. It also appears that convincing employees of the value and authenticity of societal alignment was difficult. As implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control proceeds, tobacco control advocates should closely monitor development of such "alignment" initiatives and expose the motivations and contradictions they reveal.

  12. Growth, financial development, societal norms and legal institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses whether societal norms help to explain cross-country differences in financial development. We analyze whether societal norms in addition to legal institutions have an impact on financial development. We address the implications of the inclusion of societal norms for the analysis

  13. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58) or low (n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  14. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hagemann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes, the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58 or low (n = 58 collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes

  15. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high ( n = 58) or low ( n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  16. Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Anne

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Normalization Process Model is a theoretical model that assists in explaining the processes by which complex interventions become routinely embedded in health care practice. It offers a framework for process evaluation and also for comparative studies of complex interventions. It focuses on the factors that promote or inhibit the routine embedding of complex interventions in health care practice. Methods A formal theory structure is used to define the model, and its internal causal relations and mechanisms. The model is broken down to show that it is consistent and adequate in generating accurate description, systematic explanation, and the production of rational knowledge claims about the workability and integration of complex interventions. Results The model explains the normalization of complex interventions by reference to four factors demonstrated to promote or inhibit the operationalization and embedding of complex interventions (interactional workability, relational integration, skill-set workability, and contextual integration. Conclusion The model is consistent and adequate. Repeated calls for theoretically sound process evaluations in randomized controlled trials of complex interventions, and policy-makers who call for a proper understanding of implementation processes, emphasize the value of conceptual tools like the Normalization Process Model.

  17. Simulating Complex, Cold-region Process Interactions Using a Multi-scale, Variable-complexity Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Wheater, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate management of water resources is necessary for social, economic, and environmental sustainability worldwide. In locations with seasonal snowcovers, the accurate prediction of these water resources is further complicated due to frozen soils, solid-phase precipitation, blowing snow transport, and snowcover-vegetation-atmosphere interactions. Complex process interactions and feedbacks are a key feature of hydrological systems and may result in emergent phenomena, i.e., the arising of novel and unexpected properties within a complex system. One example is the feedback associated with blowing snow redistribution, which can lead to drifts that cause locally-increased soil moisture, thus increasing plant growth that in turn subsequently impacts snow redistribution, creating larger drifts. Attempting to simulate these emergent behaviours is a significant challenge, however, and there is concern that process conceptualizations within current models are too incomplete to represent the needed interactions. An improved understanding of the role of emergence in hydrological systems often requires high resolution distributed numerical hydrological models that incorporate the relevant process dynamics. The Canadian Hydrological Model (CHM) provides a novel tool for examining cold region hydrological systems. Key features include efficient terrain representation, allowing simulations at various spatial scales, reduced computational overhead, and a modular process representation allowing for an alternative-hypothesis framework. Using both physics-based and conceptual process representations sourced from long term process studies and the current cold regions literature allows for comparison of process representations and importantly, their ability to produce emergent behaviours. Examining the system in a holistic, process-based manner can hopefully derive important insights and aid in development of improved process representations.

  18. Wave processes in the human cardiovascular system: The measuring complex, computing models, and diagnostic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiev, R. F.; Reviznikov, D. L.; Rogoza, A. N.; Slastushenskiy, Yu. V.; Ukrainskiy, L. E.

    2017-03-01

    A description of a complex approach to investigation of nonlinear wave processes in the human cardiovascular system based on a combination of high-precision methods of measuring a pulse wave, mathematical methods of processing the empirical data, and methods of direct numerical modeling of hemodynamic processes in an arterial tree is given.

  19. Processing capacity defined by relational complexity: implications for comparative, developmental, and cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, G S; Wilson, W H; Phillips, S

    1998-12-01

    Working memory limits are best defined in terms of the complexity of the relations that can be processed in parallel. Complexity is defined as the number of related dimensions or sources of variation. A binary relation has one argument and one source of variation; its argument can be instantiated in only one way at a time. A binary relation has two arguments, two sources of variation, and two instantiations, and so on. Dimensionality is related to the number of chunks, because both attributes on dimensions and chunks are independent units of information of arbitrary size. Studies of working memory limits suggest that there is a soft limit corresponding to the parallel processing of one quaternary relation. More complex concepts are processed by "segmentation" or "conceptual chunking." In segmentation, tasks are broken into components that do not exceed processing capacity and can be processed serially. In conceptual chunking, representations are "collapsed" to reduce their dimensionality and hence their processing load, but at the cost of making some relational information inaccessible. Neural net models of relational representations show that relations with more arguments have a higher computational cost that coincides with experimental findings on higher processing loads in humans. Relational complexity is related to processing load in reasoning and sentence comprehension and can distinguish between the capacities of higher species. The complexity of relations processed by children increases with age. Implications for neural net models and theories of cognition and cognitive development are discussed.

  20. Ionic flotation of complexing oxyanions. Thermodynamics of uranyl complexation in a sulfuric medium. Definition of selectivity conditions of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzat, G.

    1987-01-01

    Oxyanion ionic flotation process with dodecylamine hydrochloride as collector is studied by investigation of flotation and filtration recovery curves, suspension turbidity, conductimetric measurements, and solubility of ionic species. The process is controlled by chemical reactions of precipitation and by adsorption of surfactant confering hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface properties to the solid phase respectively when one or two monolayers of surfactant are successively adsorbed. Equilibrium constants (in terms of activity) of the uranium (VI) complexation with sulphate oxyanions are calculated through Raman spectroscopic study of uranyl sulphate aqueous solutions. The complexation results in a shift of the symmetrical stretching vibration band of U0 2 to low wavenumbers and an increase of their cross section. The solubility curves of ionic species in the precipitation of uranyl -sulphate complexes by dodecylamine hydrochloride are modelled. The knowledge of solubility products, activity coefficients of the species and critical micellar concentration of the surfactant allow the modelling of flotation recovery curves. Temperature and collector structure modifications are studied in terms of optimization parameters and uranium extraction of mine drainage water is processed. Residual concentration of surfactant is considerably lowered by adsorption on montmorillonite

  1. Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

  2. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity: An Interdisciplinary Methodological Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Salling Olesen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thematic issue presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis. Its particular focus is on subjectivity—as an aspect of the research object and as an aspect of the research process. By the term "approach" is indicated the intrinsic connection between the theorizing of an empirical object and the reflection of the research process and the epistemic subject. In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FQS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (BREUER, MRUCK & ROTH, 2002; MRUCK & BREUER, 2003. This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120345

  3. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive processingdemands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were recorded...... that increasing noise levels had a greater impact on the perceived difficulty than sentence complexity. In contrast, the processing of complex sentences resulted in greater and more prolonged pupil dilations. The results suggest that while pupil dilations may correlate with cognitive processing demands, acoustic...... in 19 normal-hearing participants while processing sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex and presented in either high- or low-level background noise. Furthermore, the participants were asked to rate the subjectively perceived difficulty of sentence comprehension. The results showed...

  4. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive pro- cessing demands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were...... showed that increasing noise levels had a greater impact on the perceived difficulty than sentence complexity. In contrast, the processing of complex sentences resulted in greater and more prolonged pupil dilations. The results suggest that while pupil dilations may correlate with cognitive processing...... recorded in 19 normal-hearing participants while processing sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex and presented in either high- or low-level background noise. Furthermore, the participants were asked to rate the sub- jectively perceived difficulty of sentence comprehension. The results...

  5. Complex processing of antimony-mercury gold concentrates of Dzhizhikrut Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdusalyamova, M.N.; Gadoev, S.A.; Dreisinger, D.; Solozhenkin, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Present article is devoted to complex processing of antimony-mercury gold concentrates of Dzhizhikrut Deposit. The purpose of research was obtaining the metallic mercury and antimony with further gold and thallium extraction.

  6. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    of each potential infrastructure investment, and funding those investments that collectively produce the largest expected net benefit over time. While this type of process is clearly subject to budget constraints, it could quantify the often informal evaluation of linkages between infrastructure, ocean research, the value of information produced, societal objectives, and economic benefits. Addressing the numerous complex science questions facing the entire ocean research enterprise in 2030 from government to academia, industry to nonprofits, local to global scale represents a major challenge, requiring collaboration across the breadth of the ocean sciences community and nearly seamless coordination between ocean-related federal agencies.

  7. A Supernetwork-Based Model for Design Processes of Complex Mechanical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jie Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex mechanical products are a priority area of advanced manufacturing strategy in the USA and Europe. Excellent models for design processes of complex mechanical products are essential for managers or designers to manage design processes and further improve design efficiency. Multiple elements and complicated relationships between elements in the design processes of complex mechanical products cause difficulties in systematically and quantitatively expressing the design processes. Therefore, we put forth a supernetwork-based model for designing complex mechanical products. First, we identified the key elements in the design processes of complex mechanical products. Next, based on this we analyzed sub-elements of the key elements and relationships between sub-elements. Then we built sub-networks with sub-elements as nodes and their relationships as edges and the supernetwork model for design processes of complex mechanical products based on the sub-networks and their relationships. Meanwhile, we also present a method for combining linguistic variables with the corresponding triangular fuzzy numbers, and a max/min synthesis method to accurately compute the edge weights. Finally, we suggest the practical applications of the proposed model and give a comparison of the proposed model and existing ones to verify the feasibility and validity of this study.

  8. Social dimension and complexity differentially influence brain responses during feedback processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Gittenberger, Marianne; Lamm, Claus

    2017-10-30

    Recent research emphasizes the importance of social factors during performance monitoring. Thus, the current study investigated the impact of social stimuli -such as communicative gestures- on feedback processing. Moreover, it addressed a shortcoming of previous studies, which failed to consider stimulus complexity as potential confounding factor. Twenty-four volunteers performed a time estimation task while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Either social complex, social non-complex, non-social complex, or non-social non-complex stimuli were used to provide performance feedback. No effects of social dimension or complexity were found for task performance. In contrast, Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes were sensitive to both factors, with larger FRN and P300 amplitudes after social compared to non-social stimuli, and larger FRN amplitudes after complex positive than non-complex positive stimuli. P2 amplitudes were solely sensitive to feedback valence and social dimension. Subjectively, social complex stimuli were rated as more motivating than non-social complex ones. Independently of each other, social dimension and visual complexity influenced amplitude variation during performance monitoring. Social stimuli seem to be perceived as more salient, which is corroborated by P2, FRN and P300 results, as well as by subjective ratings. This could be explained due to their given relevance during every day social interactions.

  9. Evaluation of societal quality of public sector research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Barend; Rip, Arie

    2000-01-01

    Dutch thinking about the issues, tools and practices of evaluation is explored, with special reference to societal quality. Indicators are identified and positioned through the review of 17 evaluation processes in the Netherlands. The context for the review process is examined.

  10. Humanities and the future notion of societal impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author relates various areas such as Higher Education, social media, educational politics, society and humanistic research in regards to comment on the challenges faced by Humanities and its future notion of societal impact. It is argued that in order to identify and understand...... the future impact of the Humanities, it is necessary to develop a methodologically and theoretically based mapping design in which the complexity of the development can be understood and explored. The article draws upon the PhD thesis Ad nye veje (Mønsted 2015) in which a specific study programme in Higher...... Education in Denmark is explored as an educational example of both the development and future of Humanities and its notion of impact. The specific study programme in question is a humanities-based Higher Educational programme called Humanistic Informatics at Aalborg University. The collective purpose...

  11. Application of complex inoculants in improving the process-ability of grey cast iron for cylinder blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wei-ming

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of several complex inoculants on mechanical properties, process-ability and sensibility of grey cast iron used in cylinder block were investigated. The experimental results showed that the grey cast iron treated with 60%FeSi75+40%RE complex inoculants has tensile strength consistently at about 295 MPa along with good hardness and improved metallurgy quality. While the grey cast iron inoculated with 20%FeSi75+80%Sr compound inoculants has the best process-ability, the lowest cross-section sensibility and the least microhardness difference. The wear amount of the drill increases correspondingly with the increase of the microhardness difference of matrix structure, indicating the great effect of homogeneousness of matrix structure in the grey cast iron on the machinability of the grey cast iron.

  12. Societal reintegration following cadaveric orthotopic liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan; Hurton, Scott; Ayloo, Subhashini; Cwinn, Mathew; De Coutere-Bosse, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies on patients’ societal reintegration following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are scarce. Methods Between September 2006 and January 2008, all adults who were alive after 3 years post OLT were included in this prospective cohort study. Validated questionnaires were administered to all candidates with the primary aim of investigating the rate of their social re-integration following OLT and potential barriers they might have encountered. Results Among 157 eligible patients 110 (70%) participated. Mean participants’ age was 57 years (SD 11.4) and 43% were females. Prior to OLT, 75% of patients were married and 6% were divorced. Following OLT there was no significant difference in marital status. Employment rate fell from 72% to 30% post-OLT. Patients who had been employed in either low-skill or advanced-skill jobs were less likely to return to work. After OLT, personal income fell an average of 4,363 Canadian dollars (CAN$) (SD 20,733) (P=0.03) but the majority of recipients (80%) reported high levels of satisfaction for their role in society. Conclusions Although patients’ satisfaction post-OLT is high, employment status is likely to be negatively affected for individuals who are not self-employed. Strategies to assist recipients in returning to their pre-OLT jobs should be developed to improve patients’ economical status and societal ability to recoup resources committed for OLT. PMID:27275465

  13. Methodology development for the sustainability process assessment of sheet metal forming of complex-shaped products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, D L; Kashapova, L R

    2015-01-01

    A methodology was developed for automated assessment of the reliability of the process of sheet metal forming process to reduce the defects in complex components manufacture. The article identifies the range of allowable values of the stamp parameters to obtain defect-free punching of spars trucks. (paper)

  14. The Primary Physical Education Curriculum Process: More Complex That You Might Think!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess, Mike; Carse, Nicola; Keay, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the curriculum development process as a complex, iterative and integrated phenomenon. Building on the early work of Stenhouse [1975, "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development". London: Heinemann Educational], we position the teacher at the heart of this process and extend his ideas by exploring how…

  15. Perpetual Learning Framework based on Type-2 Fuzzy Logic System for a Complex Manufacturing Process

    OpenAIRE

    Baraka, A.; Panoutsos, G.; Cater, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a perpetual type-2 Neuro-Fuzzy modelling structure for continuous learning and its application to the complex thermo-mechanical metal process of steel Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The ‘perpetual’ property refers to the capability of the proposed system to continuously learn from new process data, in an incremental learning fashion. This is particularly important in industrial/manufacturing processes, as it eliminates the need to retrain the model in the presence of new d...

  16. An Intelligent Complex Event Processing with D Numbers under Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuan Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient matching of incoming mass events to persistent queries is fundamental to complex event processing systems. Event matching based on pattern rule is an important feature of complex event processing engine. However, the intrinsic uncertainty in pattern rules which are predecided by experts increases the difficulties of effective complex event processing. It inevitably involves various types of the intrinsic uncertainty, such as imprecision, fuzziness, and incompleteness, due to the inability of human beings subjective judgment. Nevertheless, D numbers is a new mathematic tool to model uncertainty, since it ignores the condition that elements on the frame must be mutually exclusive. To address the above issues, an intelligent complex event processing method with D numbers under fuzzy environment is proposed based on the Technique for Order Preferences by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method. The novel method can fully support decision making in complex event processing systems. Finally, a numerical example is provided to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL COMPLEX HYDRIDESSYNTHESIZED VIA MOLTEN STATE PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidan, R

    2006-01-09

    This study developed novel hydrides for hydrogen storage through a novel synthesis technique utilizing high hydrogen overpressure at elevated temperatures denoted as Molten State Processing, MSP. The ultimate goal is to produce materials that have high hydrogen capacity, are stable after cycling and possess favorable thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics compatible with onboard hydrogen storage for automotive applications. In order to achieve these goals the MSP Process was developed and used to modify and form new complex hydride compounds with desired characteristics. This synthesis technique holds the potential of fusing different known complex hydrides at elevated temperatures and pressures to form new complexes having different sorption and thermodynamic properties. The new complex hydrides produced by this method were identified through structural determination and thermodynamic characterization in order to achieve a more fundamental understanding of their formation and dissociation mechanisms.

  18. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  19. A single cognitive heuristic process meets the complexity of domain-specific moral heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubljević, Veljko; Racine, Eric

    2014-10-01

    The inherence heuristic (a) offers modest insights into the complex nature of both the is-ought tension in moral reasoning and moral reasoning per se, and (b) does not reflect the complexity of domain-specific moral heuristics. Formal and general in nature, we contextualize the process described as "inherence heuristic" in a web of domain-specific heuristics (e.g., agent specific; action specific; consequences specific).

  20. A Complex of Business Process Management Models for a Service-Providing IT Company

    OpenAIRE

    Yatsenko Roman M.; Balykov Oleksii H.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of a complex of business process management models that are designed to improve the performance of service-providing IT companies. This class of enterprises was selected because of their significant contribution to the Ukrainian economy: third place in the structure of exports, significant budget revenues, high development dynamics, and prospects in the global marketplace. The selected complex of models is designed as a sequence of stages that must be accompli...

  1. Process modeling of the platform choise for development of the multimedia educational complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олександрівна Бондар

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a methodical approach to the platform choice as the technological basis for building of open and functional structure and the further implementation of the substantive content of the modules of the network multimedia complex for the discipline. The proposed approach is implemented through the use of mathematical tools. The result of the process modeling is the decision of the most appropriate platform for development of the multimedia complex

  2. Da psicologia social à psicologia societal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doise Willem

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O principal fator que diferencia os psicólogos sociais, para além dos diferentes paradigmas científicos, é sua posição em relação à legitimidade e à necessidade de uma psicologia societal. O objetivo desta psicologia sempre foi o de articular explicações no nível do indivíduo e explicações de ordem social, mostrando como o indivíduo dispõe de processos que lhe permitem funcionar em sociedade e, de uma maneira complementar, como as dinâmicas sociais, particularmente interacionistas, posicionais ou de valores e de crenças gerais, orientam o funcionamento desses processos.

  3. Da psicologia social à psicologia societal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Doise

    Full Text Available O principal fator que diferencia os psicólogos sociais, para além dos diferentes paradigmas científicos, é sua posição em relação à legitimidade e à necessidade de uma psicologia societal. O objetivo desta psicologia sempre foi o de articular explicações no nível do indivíduo e explicações de ordem social, mostrando como o indivíduo dispõe de processos que lhe permitem funcionar em sociedade e, de uma maneira complementar, como as dinâmicas sociais, particularmente interacionistas, posicionais ou de valores e de crenças gerais, orientam o funcionamento desses processos.

  4. Applications and societal benefits of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L; Neal, Mike A

    2009-07-27

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years.

  5. Applications and societal benefits of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrady, Anthony L.; Neal, Mike A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed ‘plastics’. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years. PMID:19528050

  6. Girls, science and epistemology: A societal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arner Welsh, Jennifer M.

    This study examines the ways in which girls' personal epistemologies are applied and modulated in relationship with scientific disciplinary epistemology in the context of their early science learning. The research takes a societal approach, assuming that both girls' reasoning and scientific disciplinary epistemology are socially constituted, emphasizing the role of gendered discourses, realities and experiences in the construction of girls' subjectivities and disciplinary epistemology. Initially, three research scientists were interviewed to provide a naturalized understanding of scientific disciplinary epistemology. Subsequently, over the course of spring semester, seven ninth-grade girls from a small middle-class town participated in a series of in-depth interviews about their reasoning in scientific contexts. The focus of the interview analysis is two-fold. Possible points of connection and contention are examined between the ways in which girls deploy their personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. Individual profiles of each girl are also developed, describing patterns and tensions in her reasoning. This study reveals the intersection between personal and disciplinary epistemology as a productive area for research, and further, shows that examining societal context and personal epistemologies provides new insight into the issues facing girls learning science. Results suggest that there are both significant disjuncts and points of connection between these girls' personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. In particular, the personal understandings of knowledge as perspectival and the role of experience as providing frameworks for thinking which were shown by the girls in this study could be meaningfully used in conjunction with contemporary trends in philosophy of science to enhance understanding of science and scientific disciplinary epistemology.

  7. Societal Benefits of Ocean Altimetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasen, Margaret; Leben, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/CNES Jason satellite, follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon mission, continues to provide oceanographers and marine operators across the globe with a continuous twelve-year, high quality stream of sea surface height data. The mission is expected to extend through 2007, when the NASA/NOAA/CNES follow-on mission, OSTM, will be launched with the wide-swath ocean altimeter on board. This unprecedented resource of valuable ocean data is being used to map sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed over the global oceans. Altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and improve our understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. Ocean altimeter data has many societal benefits and has proven invaluable in many practical applications including; a) Ocean forecasting systems; b) Climate research and forecasting; c) Ship routing; d) Fisheries management; e) Marine mammal habitat monitoring; f) Hurricane forecasting and tracking; g) Debris tracking; and h) Precision marine operations such as cable-laying and oil production. The data has been cited in nearly 2,000 research and popular articles since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992, and almost 200 scientific users receive the global coverage altimeter data on a monthly basis. In addition to the scientific and operational uses of the data, the educational community has seized the unique concepts highlighted by these altimeter missions as a resource for teaching ocean science to students from grade school through college. This presentation will highlight societal benefits of ocean altimetry data in the areas of climate studies, marine operations, marine research, and non-ocean investigations.

  8. Influence of new societal factors on neovascular age-related macular degeneration outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocanti-Aurégan, Audrey; Chbat, Elige; Darugar, Adil; Morel, Christophe; Morin, Bruno; Conrath, John; Devin, François

    2018-02-01

    To assess the impact of unstudied societal factors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) on functional outcomes after anti-VEGFs. Charts of 94 nAMD patients treated in the Monticelli-Paradis Centre, Marseille, France, were reviewed. Phone interviews were conducted to assess societal factors, including transportation, living status, daily reading and social security scheme (SSS). Primary outcome was the impact of family support and disease burden on functional improvement in nAMD. Between baseline and month 24 (M24), 42.4% of the variability in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was explained by the cumulative effect of the following societal factors: intermittent out-patient follow-up, marital status, daily reading, transportation type, commuting time. No isolated societal factor significantly correlated with ETDRS BCVA severity at M24. A trend to correlation was observed between the EDTRS score at M24 and the SSS (P = 0.076), economic burden (P = 0.075), time between diagnosis and treatment initiation (P = 0.070). A significant correlation was found for the disease burdensome on the patient (P = 0.034) and low vision rehabilitation (P = 0.014). Societal factors could influence functional outcomes in nAMD patients treated with anti-VEGFs. They could contribute to the healing process or sustain disease progression.

  9. Non-parametric genetic prediction of complex traits with latent Dirichlet process regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Zhou, Xiang

    2017-09-06

    Using genotype data to perform accurate genetic prediction of complex traits can facilitate genomic selection in animal and plant breeding programs, and can aid in the development of personalized medicine in humans. Because most complex traits have a polygenic architecture, accurate genetic prediction often requires modeling all genetic variants together via polygenic methods. Here, we develop such a polygenic method, which we refer to as the latent Dirichlet process regression model. Dirichlet process regression is non-parametric in nature, relies on the Dirichlet process to flexibly and adaptively model the effect size distribution, and thus enjoys robust prediction performance across a broad spectrum of genetic architectures. We compare Dirichlet process regression with several commonly used prediction methods with simulations. We further apply Dirichlet process regression to predict gene expressions, to conduct PrediXcan based gene set test, to perform genomic selection of four traits in two species, and to predict eight complex traits in a human cohort.Genetic prediction of complex traits with polygenic architecture has wide application from animal breeding to disease prevention. Here, Zeng and Zhou develop a non-parametric genetic prediction method based on latent Dirichlet Process regression models.

  10. Advanced Signal Processing and Command Synthesis for Memory-Limited Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Toma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents advanced signal processing methods and command synthesis for memory-limited complex systems. For accurate measurements performed on limited time interval, some specific methods should be added. For signal processing, a robust filtering and sampling procedure performed on a specific working interval is required, so as the influence of low-amplitude and high-frequency fluctuations to be diminished. This study shows that such a signal processing method for the case of memory-limited complex systems requires the use of certain differentiation/integration procedures performed by oscillating systems, so as robust results suitable for efficient command synthesis to be available. A brief comparison with uncertainty aspects in modern physics (where quantum aspects can be considered as features of complex systems is also presented.

  11. Improved motion contrast and processing efficiency in OCT angiography using complex-correlation algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Li; Li, Pei; Pan, Cong; Cheng, Yuxuan; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng; Liao, Rujia; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The complex-based OCT angiography (Angio-OCT) offers high motion contrast by combining both the intensity and phase information. However, due to involuntary bulk tissue motions, complex-valued OCT raw data are processed sequentially with different algorithms for correcting bulk image shifts (BISs), compensating global phase fluctuations (GPFs) and extracting flow signals. Such a complicated procedure results in massive computational load. To mitigate such a problem, in this work, we present an inter-frame complex-correlation (CC) algorithm. The CC algorithm is suitable for parallel processing of both flow signal extraction and BIS correction, and it does not need GPF compensation. This method provides high processing efficiency and shows superiority in motion contrast. The feasibility and performance of the proposed CC algorithm is demonstrated using both flow phantom and live animal experiments. (paper)

  12. Traditions and Transitions in Quantitative Societal Culture Research in Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Mark, F.; Søndergaard, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative societal culture research (QSCR) in organization studies crystallizes a configuration of social science perspectives and methods that became prominent in the 1970s. We consider the qualities of and boundaries around cultural groups that this tradition emphasizes, and other...... characteristics of cultural groups that it does not emphasize. Current debates surrounding this tradition reflect both recent social science innovations and rediscoveries of early social science perspectives. Our analysis of quantitative cross-cultural societal research in organization studies considers...... this process of crystallization, innovation and rediscovery. We suggest ways to address current controversies and promote conversations with other research approaches....

  13. A psycho-societal perspective on neoliberal welfare services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Lundgaard

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a psycho-societal approach to the micro-processes of Danish neoliberal welfare services, elaborating a learning and identity perspective. My many years of encounters with professionals in welfare services have illuminated how they display a strong identification with...... of neoliberal policies and practices has dominated the Danish welfare sector. By applying a psycho-societal conceptual approach - illustrated by an empirical example - I sketch out how identification, ambivalence and defence are significant features of welfare service professionals’ learning and practices...

  14. Complexity, depth, and rapidity of processes that formed the lunar crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, G.; Dasch, J.

    1988-01-01

    From its birth the moon had a large-scale, complex magma system. The evidence is the massive differentiation of the moon that was partially preserved. The system might be a magma ocean or a magmasphere; even in the former case it was superposed by smaller but also very complex magma systems. The main episode produced a plagioclase-rich crust including genuine anorthosites; it was over by about 4.35 b.y. ago, although magmatism continues. The processes of crust-building remain in serious dispute. Lunar crusts; massive differentiation; crustal material composition; processes which produced crustal materials; and differences from earth are briefly discussed

  15. Learning in Life History - psycho-societal interpretation of biographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2008-01-01

    of subjectivity and experience, derived from European critical theory, are briefly introduced with respect to their intellectual background. Based on examples from the author’s research into the professional learning, the article outlines the implications of these concepts in relation to an understanding...... of emotional aspects of learning in everyday life and to an understanding of knowledge. The pivotal role of language use and language socialisation is explained in brief, and a psychodynamic complement to a language game concept of language use is developed.......Taking its point of departure from some critical remarks about some of the most important recent theorizing of learning, this article presents an alternative framework for theorizing learning as a subjective process in a social and societal context, based on life history research. The key concepts...

  16. Theorizing Learning in Life History - a psycho-societal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2007-01-01

    derived from European critical theory, subjectivity and experience, are briefly introduced with a view to their intellectual background. The chapter elaborates the implication of these concepts in relation to the understanding of emotional aspects of learning in everyday life and in relation...... to the understanding of knowledge, based on examples from the author's research into professional learning (general practitioners). The pivotal role of language use and language socialisation is explained in brief, developing a psychodynamic complement to a language game concept of language use.......  Taking it's point of departure in some critical remarks to some of the most important recent theorizing of learning, this article presents an alternative framework for theorizing learning as a subjective process in a social and societal context, based in life history research. Key concepts...

  17. Satellite Climate Data Records: Development, Applications, and Societal Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenze Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review paper discusses how to develop, produce, sustain, and serve satellite climate data records (CDRs in the context of transitioning research to operation (R2O. Requirements and critical procedures of producing various CDRs, including Fundamental CDRs (FCDRs, Thematic CDRs (TCDRs, Interim CDRs (ICDRs, and climate information records (CIRs are discussed in detail, including radiance/reflectance and the essential climate variables (ECVs of land, ocean, and atmosphere. Major international CDR initiatives, programs, and projects are summarized. Societal benefits of CDRs in various user sectors, including Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Energy, Heath, Water, Transportation, and Tourism are also briefly discussed. The challenges and opportunities for CDR development, production and service are also addressed. It is essential to maintain credible CDR products by allowing free access to products and keeping the production process transparent by making source code and documentation available with the dataset.

  18. Functions of Utopia: How Utopian Thinking Motivates Societal Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Julian W; Burden, Nicholas; Ferguson, Adam; O'Brien, Léan V; Judge, Madeline; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2018-05-01

    Images of ideal societies, utopias, are all around us; yet, little is known of how utopian visions affect ordinary people's engagement with their societies. As goals for society, utopias may elicit processes of collective self-regulation, in which citizens are critical of, or take action to change, the societies they live in. In three studies, we investigated the psychological function of utopian thinking. In Study 1, measured utopianism was correlated with the activation of three utopian functions: change, critique, and compensation. In Study 2, primed utopian thinking consistently enhanced change and criticism intentions. Study 3 also provided evidence that mental contrasting-first imagining a utopian vision and then mentally contrasting the current society to this vision-underlies the facilitative effect of utopian thinking on societal engagement.

  19. A Complex of Business Process Management Models for a Service-Providing IT Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsenko Roman M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of a complex of business process management models that are designed to improve the performance of service-providing IT companies. This class of enterprises was selected because of their significant contribution to the Ukrainian economy: third place in the structure of exports, significant budget revenues, high development dynamics, and prospects in the global marketplace. The selected complex of models is designed as a sequence of stages that must be accomplished in order to optimize business processes. The first stage is an analysis of the nature of the process approach, approaches to strategic management, and the characteristics of service-providing IT companies. The second stage is to build the formal and hierarchical models to define the characteristics of the business processes and their structure, respectively. The third stage is to evaluate individual business processes (information model and the entire business process system (multi-level assessment of business processes. The fourth stage is to optimize the business processes at each level: strategic, tactical and operational. The fifth stage is to restructure the business processes after optimization. The sixth (final stage is to analyze the efficiency of the restructured system of business processes.

  20. Symmetrical modified dual tree complex wavelet transform for processing quadrature Doppler ultrasound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbes, G; Aydin, N

    2011-01-01

    Dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT), which is a shift invariant transform with limited redundancy, is an improved version of discrete wavelet transform. Complex quadrature signals are dual channel signals obtained from the systems employing quadrature demodulation. An example of such signals is quadrature Doppler signal obtained from blood flow analysis systems. Prior to processing Doppler signals using the DTCWT, directional flow signals must be obtained and then two separate DTCWT applied, increasing the computational complexity. In this study, in order to decrease computational complexity, a symmetrical modified DTCWT algorithm is proposed (SMDTCWT). A comparison between the new transform and the symmetrical phasing-filter technique is presented. Additionally denoising performance of SMDTCWT is compared with the DWT and the DTCWT using simulated signals. The results show that the proposed method gives the same output as the symmetrical phasing-filter method, the computational complexity for processing quadrature signals using DTCWT is greatly reduced and finally the SMDTCWT based denoising outperforms conventional DWT with same computational complexity.

  1. Application of the hybrid complexation-ultrafiltration process for metal ion removal from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Jianxian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China) and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)], E-mail: zengjianxian@163.com; Ye Hongqi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu Zhongyu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China)

    2009-01-30

    Complexation-ultrafiltration process was investigated for mercury and cadmium removal from aqueous solutions by using poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PAASS) as a complexing agent. The kinetics of complexation reactions of PAASS with the metal ions were studied under a large excess PAASS and pH 5.5. It takes 25 and 50 min for mercury and cadmium to get the complexation equilibrium, respectively, and the reaction kinetics can be described by a pseudo-first-order equation. Effects of various operating parameters such as loading ratios, pH values, etc. on metal rejection coefficients (R) were investigated. In the process of concentration, membrane fluxes decline slowly and R values are about 1. The concentrated retentates were used further for the decomplexation. The decomplexation ratio of mercury-PAASS complex is about 30%, whereas that of cadmium-PAASS complex reaches 93.5%. After the decomplexation, diafiltration experiments were carried out at pH 2.5. Cadmium can be diafiltrated satisfactorily from the retentate, but for mercury it is the contrary. Selective separation of the both metal ions was studied from a binary solution at pH 5. When mercury, cadmium and PAASS concentrations are 30, 30 and 40 mg L{sup -1}, respectively, mercury is retained by ultrafiltration while almost all cadmium passes through the membrane.

  2. Design process and philosophy of TVA's latest advance control room complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, G.R.; Masters, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    TVA's latest nuclear power plant control room design includes a greater emphasis on human factors as compared to their earlier plant designs. This emphasis has resulted in changes in the overall design philosophy and design process. This paper discusses some of the prominent design features of both the control room and the surrounding control room complex. In addition, it also presents some of the important activities involved in the process of developing the advanced control room design

  3. Aspects of data modeling and query processing for complex multidimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This thesis is about data modeling and query processing for complex multidimensional data. Multidimensional data has become the subject of much attention in both academia and industry in recent years, fueled by the popularity of data warehousing and On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) applications....... One application area where complex multidimensional data is common is within medical informatics, an area that may benefit significantly from the functionality offered by data warehousing and OLAP. However, the special nature of clinical applications poses different and new requirements to data...... support, advanced classification structures, continuously valued data, dimensionally reduced data, and the integration of complex data. OLAP systems typically employ multidimensional data models to structure their data. This thesis identifies eleven modeling requirements for multidimensional data models...

  4. Further Understanding of Complex Information Processing in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    More than 20?years ago, Minshew and colleagues proposed the Complex Information Processing model of autism in which the impairment is characterized as a generalized deficit involving multiple modalities and cognitive domains that depend on distributed cortical systems responsible for higher order abilities. Subsequent behavioral work revealed a…

  5. Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robinson, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

  6. Complex Network Structure Influences Processing in Long-Term and Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Chan, Kit Ying; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks describe how entities in systems interact; the structure of such networks is argued to influence processing. One measure of network structure, clustering coefficient, C, measures the extent to which neighbors of a node are also neighbors of each other. Previous psycholinguistic experiments found that the C of phonological…

  7. Condition-based maintenance for complex systems : Coordinating maintenance and logistics planning for the process industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Keizer, Minou Catharina Anselma

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance planning in the process industries is extremely complex for various reasons. Plants often run nonstop, allowing little time for performing preventive maintenance. Failures should be prevented, however, as they can lead to system downtime and high losses of revenue. Corrective maintenance

  8. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  9. Processing of complex shapes with single-mode resonant frequency microwave applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, L.A.; Delgado, R.; Hawley, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Microwave processing is an alternative to conventional composite processing techniques. Single-mode microwave applicators efficiently couple microwave energy into the composite. The application of the microwave energy is greatly affected by the geometry of the composite. In the single mode microwave applicator, two types of modes are available. These modes are best suited to processing flat planar samples or cylindrical samples with geometries that align with the electric fields. Mode-switching is alternating between different electromagnetic modes with the intelligent selection of the modes to alleviate undesirable temperature profiles. This method has improved the microwave heating profiles of materials with complex shapes that do not align with either type of electric field. Parts with two different complex geometries were fabricated from a vinyl toluene/vinyl ester resin with a continuous glass fiber reinforcement by autoclaving and by microwave techniques. The flexural properties of the microwave processed samples were compared to the flexural properties of autoclaved samples. The trends of the mechanical properties for the complex shapes were consistent with the results of experiments with flat panels. This demonstrated that mode-switching techniques are as applicable for the complex shapes as they are for the simpler flat panel geometry

  10. Localizing components of a complex task : sentence processing and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, L.A.; Broere, C.A.J.; Paans, A.MJ; Wijers, A.A.; Mulder, G.; Vaalburg, W.; Zwarts, Frans

    1998-01-01

    THREE areas of the left hemisphere play different roles in sentence comprehension. An area of posterior middle and superior temporal gyrus shows activation correlated with the structural complexity of a sentence, suggesting that this area supports processing of sentence structure. The lateral

  11. Self-Disclosure and Adults with Learning Disabilities: Practical Ideas about a Complex Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Paul J.; Price, Lynda A.

    2008-01-01

    Self-disclosure for adults with learning disabilities is very complex after the beyond-school years. The issues of invisibility, risk/benefit, and the multiple contexts of adult functioning create many challenges in the process of disclosure. Moreover, self-disclosure, one element of the larger issue of self-determination, is viewed as an entry…

  12. Acumulação primitiva:  um processo atuante na sociedade contemporânea Accumulation Primitive: un processus actif dans la societé contemporaine Primitive accumulation: a process active in contemporary society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lencioni

    2012-03-01

    èrement le lien entre l’accumulation primitive et la reproduction du capital dans la société contemporaine.With the hegemony of the social accumulation reproduction, the primitive accumulation is interpreted sometimes like a fact of the past and sometimes like a process that continues until today. Our point of view is that the historical primitive accumulation has not disappeared, including being one of the important components of contemporary society. In this society, the capitalists processes of primitive accumulation and the reproduction of capital coexist and complement each other in a contradictory and dialectical way. The first, the process of primitive accumulation is related to spoliation and to the production of new capital, while the second, the reproduction of capital is related to the exploration and it is a part of a capital already existing. The difference between the names 'spoliation' and 'exploitation' is confronted and the Harvey's opinion about accumulation by dispossession is discussed in the first part of the text. The second part discusses about the primitive accumulation of today, repeating the fraud, the theft and the violence, that were presents in the moment of the genesis of capitalism. Although the world seems to have changed, with both technical advancement and a variety of laws about human rights, it has not changed that much. Acts of fraud, theft and violence as expedients to generate capital still continues. Several examples of robbery of the natural resources are given, including the bio-piracy. Also, the debt slavery is emphasized as a violent form of spoliation, a form of primitive accumulation of capital in which the free worker, by mechanisms of subjection which he is subjugated, loses his freedom. The theft of land constitutes another example of primitive accumulation of the contemporary society. It is stated that all forms of dispossession are producing money and producing potential capital. Particularly, the financial capital is

  13. Graceful Failure and Societal Resilience Analysis Via Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, P. S.; Cioffi-Revilla, C.; Rogers, J. D.; Bassett, J.; Hailegiorgis, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Agent-based social modeling is opening up new methodologies for the study of societal response to weather and climate hazards, and providing measures of resiliency that can be studied in many contexts, particularly in coupled human and natural-technological systems (CHANTS). Since CHANTS are complex adaptive systems, societal resiliency may or may not occur, depending on dynamics that lack closed form solutions. Agent-based modeling has been shown to provide a viable theoretical and methodological approach for analyzing and understanding disasters and societal resiliency in CHANTS. Our approach advances the science of societal resilience through computational modeling and simulation methods that complement earlier statistical and mathematical approaches. We present three case studies of social dynamics modeling that demonstrate the use of these agent based models. In Central Asia, we exmaine mutltiple ensemble simulations with varying climate statistics to see how droughts and zuds affect populations, transmission of wealth across generations, and the overall structure of the social system. In Eastern Africa, we explore how successive episodes of drought events affect the adaptive capacity of rural households. Human displacement, mainly, rural to urban migration, and livelihood transition particularly from pastoral to farming are observed as rural households interacting dynamically with the biophysical environment and continually adjust their behavior to accommodate changes in climate. In the far north case we demonstrate one of the first successful attempts to model the complete climate-permafrost-infrastructure-societal interaction network as a complex adaptive system/CHANTS implemented as a ``federated'' agent-based model using evolutionary computation. Analysis of population changes resulting from extreme weather across these and other cases provides evidence for the emergence of new steady states and shifting patterns of resilience.

  14. Knowledge as Public Property : The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouter, Lex M

    2008-01-01

    Universities are funded by public means to a large extend. It’s reasonable to expect that society benefits from the results. For scientific research this means that it should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual investigators must explicitly consider the societal

  15. The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteath, Sheryl A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the influence of societal factors on Western women's perceptions of their bodies. Finds that women typically underestimate their body size and want smaller bodies; two-fifths of women expressed negative feelings about their bodies; and that body satisfaction is best explained by societal influences, self-esteem and body mass index.…

  16. Ox red-metric study of complex formation processes of manganese (II, III) in glycin aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamidov, B.O.; Offengenden, E.Ya.; Dikaya, I.R.; Yegorova, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    Present article is devoted to ox red-metric study of complex formation processes of manganese (II, III) in glycin aqueous solution. The possibility of application of ox red-metric method for study of complex formation processes of manganese (II, III) was shown. The composition of complex compounds was determined.

  17. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  18. The neural correlates of morphological complexity processing: Detecting structure in pseudowords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Swetlana; Scharinger, Mathias; Brooks, Colin; Lahiri, Aditi; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2018-03-02

    Morphological complexity is a highly debated issue in visual word recognition. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that speakers are sensitive to degrees of morphological complexity. Two-step derived complex words (bridging through bridge N  > bridge V  > bridging) led to more enhanced activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus than their 1-step derived counterparts (running through run V  > running). However, it remains unclear whether sensitivity to degrees of morphological complexity extends to pseudowords. If this were the case, it would indicate that abstract knowledge of morphological structure is independent of lexicality. We addressed this question by investigating the processing of two sets of pseudowords in German. Both sets contained morphologically viable two-step derived pseudowords differing in the number of derivational steps required to access an existing lexical representation and therefore the degree of structural analysis expected during processing. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we found lexicality effects to be distinct from processing signatures relating to structural analysis in pseudowords. Semantically-driven processes such as lexical search showed a more frontal distribution while combinatorial processes related to structural analysis engaged more parietal parts of the network. Specifically, more complex pseudowords showed increased activation in parietal regions (right superior parietal lobe and left precuneus) relative to pseudowords that required less structural analysis to arrive at an existing lexical representation. As the two sets were matched on cohort size and surface form, these results highlight the role of internal levels of morphological structure even in forms that do not possess a lexical representation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Arab Societal Awareness of Dental Veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfouzan, Afnan; Al-Sanie, Aisha A; Al-Dhafiri, Reem A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the Arab society's knowledge, awareness, and attitudes toward dental veneers. A cross-sectional study was performed by collecting data through an online questionnaire created using the Survey Monkey website and distributed among Middle Eastern societies through social media to ascertain participants' knowledge and awareness regarding dental veneers. The sample included Arab laypeople who were over 18 years old, to represent the awareness of the majority regarding dental veneers. The sample of this study included 1,332 subjects from different Middle Eastern nationalities, mainly Saudis, Kuwaitis, and Emiratis (15.6% of males and 84.4% of females). The results of this study showed that the total knowledge of dental veneers is 50.12%. The respondents with the highest level of knowledge acquired their information mainly from newspapers and magazines, followed by the Internet, then dentists, then social media, and, finally, friends and relatives. Cost was the only factor limiting 38.4% of subjects from receiving veneers, and 56% of the subjects would receive veneers if they were free of cost. In total, 72.6% of the respondents believed that veneers are currently overused. The knowledge and awareness of dental veneers were below a satisfactory level. Participants who relied on social media as a source of information had lower knowledge levels. This study emphasized the need for continual societal education regarding dental veneers.

  20. Childhood obesity: a societal problem to solve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M B; Puhl, R

    2003-02-01

    In contrast to other threats to American children's health, the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity are considered the responsibility of individual children and their parents. This pressure exists in the context of the societal stigmatization of overweight children and the powerful environmental inducements aimed directly at children to eat nutritionally poor foods. Parents of overweight children are left in the difficult position of fearing the social and health consequences of their child's obesity, and fighting a losing battle against the omnipotent presence of the media and constant exposure to unhealthy foods. This paper brings together several literatures to provide a comprehensive examination of the major challenges facing obese children and their families. In particular, this paper documents the extent of stigmatization towards overweight children and reviews evidence of the conflicting advice given to parents about how to help children develop healthful eating in the face of biological and learned food preferences. We conclude with a call for a shift in thinking about the role of our society in the aetiology, treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  1. Future societal issues in industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurbiers, Daan; Osseweijer, Patricia; Kinderlerer, Julian

    2007-09-01

    Three international stakeholder meetings were organized by The Netherlands-based "Kluyver Center for Genomics of Industrial Fermentation" with the objective to identify the future societal issues in the field of industrial biotechnology and to develop a coordinated strategy for public dialogue. The meetings resulted in five unanimous recommendations: (i) that science, industry and the European Commission in conjunction with other stakeholders create a comprehensive roadmap towards a bio-based economy; (ii) that the European Commission initiate a series of round-table meetings to further articulate the views, interests and responsibilities of the relevant stakeholders and to define policy; (iii) that the development of new innovative communication activities is stimulated to increase public engagement and to discuss the ways that we do or do not want technologies to shape our common future; (iv) that further social studies are undertaken on public attitudes and behaviors to the bio-based economy and that novel methods are developed to assess public views of future technological developments; and (v) that the concept of sustainability is further operationalized and taken as a core value driving research and development and policy making.

  2. Satellite Power System (SPS) societal assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Construction and operation of a 60-unit (300 GW) domestic SPS over the period 2000 to 2030 would stress many segments of US society. A significant commitment of resources (land, energy, materials) would be required, and a substantial proportion of them would have to be committed prior to the production of any SPS electricity. Estimated resource demands, however, seem to be within US capabilities. Modifications will be required of institutions called upon to deal with SPS. These include financial, managerial and regulatory entities and, most particularly, the utility industry. Again, the required changes, while certainly profound, seem to be well within the realm of possibility. Enhanced cooperation in international affairs will be necessary to accommodate development and operation of the SPS. To remove its potential as a military threat and to reduce its vulnerability, either the SPS itself must become an international enterprise, or it must be subject to unrestricted international inspection. How either of these objectives could, in fact, be achieved, or which is preferable, remains unclear. Forty-four concerns about the SPS were identified via a public outreach experiment involving 9000 individuals from three special interest organizations. The concerns focused on environmental impacts (particularly the effects of microwave radiation) and the centralizing tendency of the SPS on society. The interim results of the public outreach experiment influenced the scope and direction of the CDEP; the final results will be instrumental in defining further societal assessment efforts.

  3. Survey of Applications of Complex Event Processing (CEP in Health Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Mahmood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is always difficult to manipulate the production of huge amount of data which comes from multiple sources and to extract meaningful information to make appropriate decisions. When data comes from various input resources, to get required streams of events form this complex input network, the one of the strong functionality of Business Intelligence (BI the Complex Event Processing (CEP is the appropriate solution for the above mention problems. Real time processing, pattern matching, stream processing, big data management, sensor data processing and many more are the application areas of CEP. Health domain itself is a multi-dimension domain such as hospital supply chain, OPD management, disease diagnostic, In-patient, out-patient management, and emergency care etc. In this paper, the main focus is to discuss the application areas of Complex Event Processing (CEP in health domain by using sensor device, such that how CEP manipulate health data set events coming from sensor devices such as blood pressure, heart rate, fall detection, sugar level, temperature or any other vital signs and how this systems respond to these events as quickly as possible. Different existing models and application using CEP are discussed and summarized according to different characteristics.

  4. Digging through model complexity: using hierarchical models to uncover evolutionary processes in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoro, M; Prévost, E; Gimenez, O

    2012-10-01

    The growing interest for studying questions in the wild requires acknowledging that eco-evolutionary processes are complex, hierarchically structured and often partially observed or with measurement error. These issues have long been ignored in evolutionary biology, which might have led to flawed inference when addressing evolutionary questions. Hierarchical modelling (HM) has been proposed as a generic statistical framework to deal with complexity in ecological data and account for uncertainty. However, to date, HM has seldom been used to investigate evolutionary mechanisms possibly underlying observed patterns. Here, we contend the HM approach offers a relevant approach for the study of eco-evolutionary processes in the wild by confronting formal theories to empirical data through proper statistical inference. Studying eco-evolutionary processes requires considering the complete and often complex life histories of organisms. We show how this can be achieved by combining sequentially all life-history components and all available sources of information through HM. We demonstrate how eco-evolutionary processes may be poorly inferred or even missed without using the full potential of HM. As a case study, we use the Atlantic salmon and data on wild marked juveniles. We assess a reaction norm for migration and two potential trade-offs for survival. Overall, HM has a great potential to address evolutionary questions and investigate important processes that could not previously be assessed in laboratory or short time-scale studies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Gaussian random-matrix process and universal parametric correlations in complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attias, H.; Alhassid, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce the framework of the Gaussian random-matrix process as an extension of Dyson's Gaussian ensembles and use it to discuss the statistical properties of complex quantum systems that depend on an external parameter. We classify the Gaussian processes according to the short-distance diffusive behavior of their energy levels and demonstrate that all parametric correlation functions become universal upon the appropriate scaling of the parameter. The class of differentiable Gaussian processes is identified as the relevant one for most physical systems. We reproduce the known spectral correlators and compute eigenfunction correlators in their universal form. Numerical evidence from both a chaotic model and weakly disordered model confirms our predictions

  6. New strategies in actinide separation - water-soluble complexing agents for the innovative SANEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, Christian M.; Muelllich, Udo; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J.

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of the radiotoxicity and thermal output of radioactive wastes prior to their permanent disposal is a topic of extreme interest for the issue of final nuclear waste disposal. One possibility to this end is a process referred to as actinide separation. This process can be optimised by means of a newly developed water-soluble molecule, as has been shown in studies on the molecule's complex chemistry using ultra-modern laser-based spectroscopy methods under process-relevant reaction conditions. Through the use of curium (III) and europium (III), which as members of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides family have excellent spectroscopic properties, it has been possible to generate spectroscopic and thermodynamic data which will facilitate our understanding of the complex chemistry and extraction chemistry of this molecule family.

  7. Effects of operating parameters on efficiency of lead removal by complexation-microfiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivunac Katarina V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of lead content found in the environment is the result of human activities. Heavy metals can be hazardous because they tend to bioaccumulate. Complexation-microfiltration process for the removal of Pb(II ions was studied. The aim of microfiltration of the model wastewater containing heavy metal ions was finding an optimum ratio between the concentrations of the complexing agent and metal, and determining the most favorable pH value. The microfiltration experiments were carried out in a stirred dead-end cell. Diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE 23 was selected as the complexing agent. Versapor membranes were used to separate formed polymer-metal complex. The concentration of heavy metal ions after microfiltration in aqueous solution was determined using the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. Effects on the amount of complexing agent, concentration of metal ion, pH value and operating pressure on the flux, J, and rejection coefficient, R, were investigated. Experimental results indicate that the pH of the solution has considerable influence on the rejection coefficient. An increase in pH and the amount of complexing agents enabled us to obtain very high retention coefficient (99%.

  8. Modular-block complex on preparation and processing of oil slurry, spilled and raw petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The use of non-serial small petroleum equipment for development of remote and low output petroleum deposit, collection and processing of spilled petroleum is urgent issue. Joint-stock company Montazhengineering developed and mastered production of small modular-block complexes for preparation and processing of petroleum. The complex can include the following modules: preparation of raw petroleum for getting commodity petroleum; petroleum processing installation for getting gas, diesel fuel and black oil; installation for refining of nafta; installation for cleaning petroleum products from mercaptans; installation for getting basic oil; installation for getting bitumen and mastic; installation for processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Each of modules can work separately and in various combinations depending on input and necessary assortment of commodity petroleum. One of urgent ecological problem in Kazakhstan petroleum-processing regions is large number barns with spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Their processing will allow to solve the ecological and economical problems. Processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry in developed installations it's possible to get commodity petroleum and petroleum products

  9. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  10. ERP correlates of lexical analysis: N280 reflects processing complexity rather than category or frequency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelliere, Angele; Hoen, Michel; Dominey, Peter F

    2005-09-08

    In the context of language processing, the N280 is an anterior negative event-related potential profile associated with the lexical categorization of grammatical function words versus content words. Subsequent studies suggested that this effect was related to word statistics including length and frequency in the lexicon. The current research tests the hypothesis that the N280 effect is related to an index of grammatical complexity. We recorded event-related potentials during a sentence reading task. Comparing content versus function words revealed the classic N280. Within function words, we compared the relative pronouns 'qui' and 'que' (which are identical for length and frequency) that in French indicate a subsequent simple (subject-subject) and complex (subject-object) relative clause, respectively. A left anterior N280 effect was observed only for 'que', supporting our hypothesis that the N280 reflects grammatical complexity that can be confounded with lexical category and statistical properties.

  11. THE MAIN FACTORS COMPLEX CLASSIFICATION OF THE ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES REENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Abdullaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to disclose and group the factors influencing the management processes reengineering at the enterprise.Methods. The paper is based on the methods of grouping, survey, system and logic analysis.Result. The complex of main factors reengineering which play a defining role in the management processes reengineering efficiency at the enterprise is systematized. The factors are given as four blocks on different activity directions stipulating high efficiency and enterprise development dynamics at any root reforms and management processes improvement. Special attention of the management processes reengineering efficiency is paid to personnel factors of reengineering success. A form of teaching as innovative-oriented individual retraining of specialists and executives of the enterprise with corresponding recommendations on the organization is proposed. The questionnaire has been worked out and the survey has been held to reveal the department manager’s work content.Conclusion. The main factors complex classification of the management processes reengineering at the enterprise creates a conceptual basis to provide efficiency of the management processes improvement methods at the enterprise.

  12. Membrane Processes Based on Complexation Reactions of Pollutants as Sustainable Wastewater Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Poerio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Water is today considered to be a vital and limited resource due to industrial development and population growth. Developing appropriate water treatment techniques, to ensure a sustainable management, represents a key point in the worldwide strategies. By removing both organic and inorganic species using techniques based on coupling membrane processes and appropriate complexing agents to bind pollutants are very important alternatives to classical separation processes in water treatment. Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM and Complexation Ultrafiltration (CP-UF based processes meet the sustainability criteria because they require low amounts of energy compared to pressure driven membrane processes, low amounts of complexing agents and they allow recovery of water and some pollutants (e.g., metals. A more interesting process, on the application point of view, is the Stagnant Sandwich Liquid Membrane (SSwLM, introduced as SLM implementation. It has been studied in the separation of the drug gemfibrozil (GEM and of copper(II as organic and inorganic pollutants in water. Obtained results showed in both cases the higher efficiency of SSwLM with respect to the SLM system configuration. Indeed higher stability (335.5 vs. 23.5 hours for GEM; 182.7 vs. 49.2 for copper(II and higher fluxes (0.662 vs. 0.302 mmol·h-1·m-2 for GEM; 43.3 vs. 31.0 for copper(II were obtained by using the SSwLM. Concerning the CP-UF process, its feasibility was studied in the separation of metals from waters (e.g., from soil washing, giving particular attention to process sustainability such as water and polymer recycle, free metal and water recovery. The selectivity of the CP-UF process was also validated in the separate removal of copper(II and nickel(II both contained in synthetic and real aqueous effluents. Thus, complexation reactions involved in the SSwLM and the CP-UF processes play a key role to meet the sustainability criteria.

  13. Processing of simple and complex acoustic signals in a tonotopically organized ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Jennifer; Wolf, Konstantin; Kössl, Manfred; Nowotny, Manuela

    2014-12-07

    Processing of complex signals in the hearing organ remains poorly understood. This paper aims to contribute to this topic by presenting investigations on the mechanical and neuronal response of the hearing organ of the tropical bushcricket species Mecopoda elongata to simple pure tone signals as well as to the conspecific song as a complex acoustic signal. The high-frequency hearing organ of bushcrickets, the crista acustica (CA), is tonotopically tuned to frequencies between about 4 and 70 kHz. Laser Doppler vibrometer measurements revealed a strong and dominant low-frequency-induced motion of the CA when stimulated with either pure tone or complex stimuli. Consequently, the high-frequency distal area of the CA is more strongly deflected by low-frequency-induced waves than by high-frequency-induced waves. This low-frequency dominance will have strong effects on the processing of complex signals. Therefore, we additionally studied the neuronal response of the CA to native and frequency-manipulated chirps. Again, we found a dominant influence of low-frequency components within the conspecific song, indicating that the mechanical vibration pattern highly determines the neuronal response of the sensory cells. Thus, we conclude that the encoding of communication signals is modulated by ear mechanics. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Intelligent monitoring and fault diagnosis for ATLAS TDAQ: a complex event processing solution

    CERN Document Server

    Magnoni, Luca; Luppi, Eleonora

    Effective monitoring and analysis tools are fundamental in modern IT infrastructures to get insights on the overall system behavior and to deal promptly and effectively with failures. In recent years, Complex Event Processing (CEP) technologies have emerged as effective solutions for information processing from the most disparate fields: from wireless sensor networks to financial analysis. This thesis proposes an innovative approach to monitor and operate complex and distributed computing systems, in particular referring to the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system currently in use at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The result of this research, the AAL project, is currently used to provide ATLAS data acquisition operators with automated error detection and intelligent system analysis. The thesis begins by describing the TDAQ system and the controlling architecture, with a focus on the monitoring infrastructure and the expert system used for error detection and automated reco...

  15. The rumor diffusion process with emerging independent spreaders in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihua; Tang, Shaoting; Pei, Sen; Yan, Shu; Jiang, Shijin; Teng, Xian; Zheng, Zhiming

    2014-03-01

    Rumor diffusion on complex networks has been widely investigated assuming that an individual learns the rumor merely from its neighbors, which, however, is not always the case. Recent studies of layered models have shown that individuals belonging to many different networks can affect the spreading process on one network. In this paper, we take this phenomenon into consideration and discuss its influence on rumor diffusion in complex networks by introducing independent spreaders. Independent spreaders are nodes that know the rumor from other channels rather than their neighbors. A new stochastic technique is used to obtain the dynamics of rumor diffusion. Results reveal that independent spreaders boost the process by bringing the rumor to regions remote from current spreaders. In order to accelerate diffusion, we find that improving the network connectivity is more efficient than adding more independent spreaders.

  16. Multiple evolutionary processes drive the patterns of genetic differentiation in a forest tree species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Lavery, Martyn; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2013-01-01

    Forest trees frequently form species complexes, complicating taxonomic classification and gene pool management. This is certainly the case in Eucalyptus, and well exemplified by the Eucalyptus globulus complex. This ecologically and economically significant complex comprises four taxa (sspp. bicostata, globulus, maidenii, pseudoglobulus) that are geographically and morphologically distinct, but linked by extensive “intergrade” populations. To resolve their genetic affinities, nine microsatellites were used to genotype 1200 trees from throughout the natural range of the complex in Australia, representing 33 morphological core and intergrade populations. There was significant spatial genetic structure (FST = 0.10), but variation was continuous. High genetic diversity in southern ssp. maidenii indicates that this region is the center of origin. Genetic diversity decreases and population differentiation increases with distance from this area, suggesting that drift is a major evolutionary process. Many of the intergrade populations, along with other populations morphologically classified as ssp. pseudoglobulus or ssp. globulus, belong to a “cryptic genetic entity” that is genetically and geographically intermediate between core ssp. bicostata, ssp. maidenii, and ssp. globulus. Geography, rather than morphology, therefore, is the best predictor of overall genetic affinities within the complex and should be used to classify germplasm into management units for conservation and breeding purposes. PMID:23403692

  17. COMPLEX SIMULATION MODEL OF TRAIN BREAKING-UP PROCESS AT THE HUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Demchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of the priorities of station sorting complex functioning improvement is the breaking-up process energy consumptions reduction, namely: fuel consumption for train pushing and electric energy consumption for cut braking. In this regard, an effective solution of the problem of energy consumption reduction at breaking-up subsystem requires a comprehensive handling of train pushing and cut rolling down processes. At the same time, the analysis showed that the current task of pushing process improvement and cut rolling down effectiveness increase are solved separately. To solve this problem it is necessary to develop the complex simulation model of train breaking up process at humps. Methodology. Pushing process simulation was done based on adapted under the shunting conditions traction calculations. In addition, the features of shunting locomotives work at the humps were taken into account. In order to realize the current pushing mode the special algorithm of hump locomotive controlling, which along with the safety shunting operation requirements takes into account behavioral factors associated with engineer control actions was applied. This algorithm provides train smooth acceleration and further movement with speed, which is close to the set speed. Hump locomotive fuel consumptions were determined based on the amount of mechanical work performed by locomotive traction. Findings. The simulation model of train pushing process was developed and combined with existing cut rolling down model. Cut initial velocity is determined during simulation process. The obtained initial velocity is used for further cut rolling process modeling. In addition, the modeling resulted in sufficiently accurate determination of the fuel rates consumed for train breaking-up. Originality. The simulation model of train breaking-up process at the humps, which in contrast to the existing models allows reproducing complexly all the elements of this process in detail

  18. A Retrospective Analysis of Development of the National Oil Processing Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a retrospective analysis of development of the national oil processing complex, which enabled the author to conclude about its decline both in the resource and the production as well as in the infrastructural components. However, this type of industry has to be driven by the world trends, which increase its uncompetitiveness towards the foreign counterparts. Ukraine does not take advantage of the global oil market, but is forced to adapt to the demands of individual exporting countries.

  19. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Martin, Leigh R.; Nash, Ken; Nakamura, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N(double p rime),N(double p rime)-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  20. Physical, Ecological, and Societal Indicators for the National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Chen, Robert; Baptista, Sandra R.; Quattrochi, Dale; O'Brien, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), pursuant to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, Section 106, which requires a report to Congress every 4 years. The current NCA (http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/) differs in multiple ways from previous U.S. climate assessment efforts, being: (1) more focused on supporting the Nation s activities in adaptation and mitigation and on evaluating the current state of scientific knowledge relative to climate impacts and trends; (2) a long-term, consistent process for evaluation of climate risks and opportunities and providing information to support decision-making processes within regions and sectors; and (3) establishing a permanent assessment capacity both inside and outside of the federal government. As a part of ongoing, long-term assessment activities, the NCA intends to develop an integrated strategic framework and deploy climate-relevant physical, ecological, and societal indicators. The NCA indicators framework is underdevelopment by the NCA Development and Advisory Committee Indicators Working Group and are envisioned as a relatively small number of policy-relevant integrated indicators designed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities across sectors, regions, and timeframes. The potential questions that could be addressed by these indicators include: How do we know that there is a changing climate and how is it expected to change in the future? Are important climate impacts and opportunities occurring or predicted to occur in the future? Are we adapting successfully? What are the vulnerabilities and resiliencies given a changing climate? Are we preparing adequately for extreme events? It is not expected that the NCA societal indicators would be linked directly to a single decision or portfolio of

  1. Complex permittivity measurement at millimetre-wave frequencies during the fermentation process of Japanese sake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzai, Masaki; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Fukunaga, Kaori; Miyaoka, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    Various chemical reactions occur simultaneously in barrels during the fermentation processes of alcoholic beverages. Chemical analyses are employed to monitor the change in chemical components, such as glucose and ethyl alcohol. The tests are carried out with extracted specimens, are costly and require time. We have developed a permittivity measurement system for liquid specimens in the frequency range from 2.6 to 50 GHz, and applied the system to fermentation monitoring. Experimental results proved that the observed change in complex permittivity suggests a decrease in the amount of glucose and an increase in alcohol content, which are the key chemical components during the fermentation process

  2. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site's radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials)

  3. The Impact of Environmental Complexity and Team Training on Team Processes and Performance in Multi-Team Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cobb, Marshall

    1999-01-01

    This study examined how manipulating the level of environmental complexity and the type of team training given to subject volunteers impacted important team process behaviors and performance outcomes...

  4. Societal and economic valuation of technology-transfer deals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Joseph S., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The industrial adoption of concepts such as open innovation brings new legitimacy to activities technology-transfer professionals have conducted for over 20 years. This movement highlights the need for an increased understanding of the valuation of intellectual property (IP) and technology-transfer deals. Valuation, though a centerpiece of corporate finance, is more challenging when applied to the inherent uncertainty surrounding innovation. Technology-transfer professionals are often overwhelmed by the complexity and data requirements of valuation techniques and skeptical of their applicability to and utility for technology transfer. The market longs for an approach which bridges the gap between valuation fundamentals and technology-transfer realities. This paper presents the foundations of a simple, flexible, precise/accurate, and useful framework for considering the valuation of technology-transfer deals. The approach is predicated on a 12-factor model—a 3×4 value matrix predicated on categories of economic, societal, and strategic value. Each of these three categories consists of three core subcategories followed by a fourth "other" category to facilitate inevitable special considerations. This 12-factor value matrix provides a framework for harvesting data during deals and for the application of best-of-breed valuation techniques which can be employed on a per-factor basis. Future work will include framework implementation within a database platform.

  5. Numerical simulation of complex part manufactured by selective laser melting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belle, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process belonging to the family of the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies, enable to build parts layer by layer, from metallic powder and a CAD model. Physical phenomena that occur in the process have the same issues as conventional welding. Thermal gradients generate significant residual stresses and distortions in the parts. Moreover, the large and complex parts to manufacturing, accentuate the undesirable effects. Therefore, it is essential for manufacturers to offer a better understanding of the process and to ensure production reliability of parts with high added value. This paper focuses on the simulation of manufacturing turbine by SLM process in order to calculate residual stresses and distortions. Numerical results will be presented.

  6. Mapping the Delivery of Societal Benefit through the International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, S. M.; Gallo, J.

    2017-12-01

    The international Arctic scientific community has identified the need for a sustained and integrated portfolio of pan-Arctic Earth-observing systems. In 2017, an international effort was undertaken to develop the first ever Value Tree framework for identifying common research and operational objectives that rely on Earth observation data derived from Earth-observing systems, sensors, surveys, networks, models, and databases to deliver societal benefits in the Arctic. A Value Tree Analysis is a common tool used to support decision making processes and is useful for defining concepts, identifying objectives, and creating a hierarchical framework of objectives. A multi-level societal benefit area value tree establishes the connection from societal benefits to the set of observation inputs that contribute to delivering those benefits. A Value Tree that relies on expert domain knowledge from Arctic and non-Arctic nations, international researchers, Indigenous knowledge holders, and other experts to develop a framework to serve as a logical and interdependent decision support tool will be presented. Value tree examples that map the contribution of Earth observations in the Arctic to achieving societal benefits will be presented in the context of the 2017 International Arctic Observations Assessment Framework. These case studies will highlight specific observing products and capability groups where investment is needed to contribute to the development of a sustained portfolio of Arctic observing systems.

  7. Productive interactions for societal impact: Developing a research information system for agriculture (RIS-Agric) at Stellenbosch University, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, N.; Esterhuyse, H.

    2016-07-01

    Assessments of the societal impact of research rely on primary data as input to the relevant indicators. In the current project, the data collection for indicator construction is guided by the SIAMPI approach to societal impact assessment. According to SIAMPI, the achievement of societal impact involves two elements: stakeholders and productive interactions. The latter includes three kinds of interactions: direct personal interactions; indirect interactions where contact is mediated by a material or human ‘carrier’; and financial interactions that refer to the economic exchanges between researchers and stakeholders. The question to be explored is whether the assessment of the societal impact of research can be facilitated by capturing any direct, indirect and financial interactions between researchers and societal stakeholders in a research information system. CREST/SciSTIP is developing such a system, called RIS-Agric, in cooperation with the Faculty of AgriSciences at Stellenbosch University and four agricultural research funders in South Africa that represent different agricultural commodities. A RIS with productive interactions at its core – and the funded research project as the unit of observation – will produce the necessary data for indicators linked to the societal impact of research, in addition to generating insights about the ‘pathway’ from research to societal impact. The indicators need to be ‘socially robust’ in the sense that their validation processes should include the research beneficiaries and their representatives. In doing so, RIS-Agric will produce a useful, standardised measurement mechanism that is aligned across the different commodities. The focus on productive interactions will be supplemented by other methods in order to enable the quantification of societal impact in the form of ‘impact scores’. (Author)

  8. “Working to shape what society's expectations of us should be”: Philip Morris' societal alignment strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J S; Malone, R E

    2009-01-01

    Background A key element of Philip Morris's (PM's) corporate social responsibility initiatives is “societal alignment”, defined as “strategies and programs to meet society's expectations of a responsible tobacco company”. This study explored the genesis and implementation of Philip Morris' (PM) societal alignment efforts. Methods The study retrieved and analysed approximately 375 previously undisclosed PM documents now available electronically. Using an iterative process, the study categorised themes and prepared a case analysis. Results Beginning in 1999, PM sought to become “societally aligned” by identifying expectations of a responsible tobacco company through public opinion research and developing and publicising programs to meet those expectations. Societal alignment was undertaken within the US and globally to ensure an environment favourable to PM's business objectives. Despite PM's claims to be “changing”, however, societal alignment in practice was highly selective. PM responded to public “expectations” largely by retooling existing positions and programs, while entirely ignoring other expectations that might have interfered with its business goals. It also appears that convincing employees of the value and authenticity of societal alignment was difficult. Conclusions As implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control proceeds, tobacco control advocates should closely monitor development of such “alignment” initiatives and expose the motivations and contradictions they reveal. PMID:18845623

  9. Estimating HAPs and radionuclide emissions from a laboratory complex at a nuclear processing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.A.; Faugl, T.

    1993-01-01

    A unique methodology was developed for conducting an air emission inventory (AEI) at a DOE nuclear processing facility. This methodology involved the use of computer-assisted design (CAD) drawings to document emission points, computerized process drawings to document industrial processes leading to emissions, and a computerized data base of AEI forms to document emission estimates and related process data. A detailed air emissions inventory for operating years 1985--1991 was recently implemented for the entire site using this methodology. One industrial area at the DOE Site is comprised of laboratory facilities that provide direct support to the nuclear reactor and recovery operations, developmental studies to support reactor and separation operations, and developmental studies to support waste handling and storage. The majority of the functions are conducted in a single large building complex wherein bench scale and pilot scale experiments are carried out involving radionuclides, hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and other chemicals reportable under the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and Superfund Amendments and Re-authorization Act (SARA) Title 111. The results of the inventory showed that HAP and radionuclide emissions from the laboratory complex were relatively minor

  10. Changing governments, kitchens, supermarkets, firms and farms: the governance of transitions between societal practices and supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grin, J.; Spaargaren, G.; Oosterveer, P.; Loeber, A.

    2012-01-01

    In current studies of transitions, more often than not the units of analysis are defined by supply systems. It is fair to say that more attention is due to the agency involved in daily practices as well as to the mutual, complex interferences of different practices into wider patterns of societal

  11. Teacher Collaboration in Times of Uncertainty and Societal Change: The Case Study of Post-Soviet Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The work of teachers is subject to changing not only policies and reforms but also the complexities and contradictions of societal transformations. This paper examines teachers' perceptions of the impact of post-Soviet transformations on teacher collaboration amid the changing education policies and reforms in Ukraine. Drawing on qualitative…

  12. Half-sandwich cobalt complexes in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, Colin [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Hapke, Marko; Thiel, Indre [Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. an der Universität Rostock (LIKAT), Albert-Einstein-Straße 29a, Rostock 18059 (Germany); Hildebrandt, Alexander [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Waechtler, Thomas; Schulz, Stefan E. [Fraunhofer Institute of Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Technologie-Campus 3, Chemnitz 09126 (Germany); Technische Universität Chemnitz, Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Lang, Heinrich, E-mail: heinrich.lang@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany)

    2015-03-02

    A series of cobalt half-sandwich complexes of type [Co(η{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(L)(L′)] (1: L, L′ = 1,5-hexadiene; 2: L = P(OEt){sub 3}, L′ = H{sub 2}C=CHSiMe{sub 3}; 3: L = L′ = P(OEt){sub 3}) has been studied regarding their physical properties such as the vapor pressure, decomposition temperature and applicability within the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process, with a focus of the influence of the phosphite ligands. It could be shown that an increasing number of P(OEt){sub 3} ligands increases the vapor pressure and thermal stability of the respective organometallic compound. Complex 3 appeared to be a promising MOCVD precursor with a high vapor pressure and hence was deposited onto Si/SiO{sub 2} (100 nm) substrates. The resulting reflective layer is closed, dense and homogeneous, with a slightly granulated surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies demonstrated the formation of metallic cobalt, cobalt phosphate, cobalt oxide and cobalt carbide. - Highlights: • Thermal studies and vapor pressure measurements of cobalt half-sandwich complexes was carried out. • Chemical vapor deposition with cobalt half-sandwich complexes is reported. • The use of Co-phosphites results in significant phosphorous-doped metallic layers.

  13. Using AI and Semantic Web Technologies to attack Process Complexity in Open Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Simon; Giles, Nick; Li, Yang; Gharib, Hamid; Nguyen, Thuc Duong

    Recently many vendors and groups have advocated using BPEL and WS-BPEL as a workflow language to encapsulate business logic. While encapsulating workflow and process logic in one place is a sensible architectural decision the implementation of complex workflows suffers from the same problems that made managing and maintaining hierarchical procedural programs difficult. BPEL lacks constructs for logical modularity such as the requirements construct from the STL [12] or the ability to adapt constructs like pure abstract classes for the same purpose. We describe a system that uses semantic web and agent concepts to implement an abstraction layer for BPEL based on the notion of Goals and service typing. AI planning was used to enable process engineers to create and validate systems that used services and goals as first class concepts and compiled processes at run time for execution.

  14. Cochlear Implant: the complexity involved in the decision making process by the family1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sheila de Souza; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília; Ferreira, Noeli Marchioro Liston Andrade; Dupas, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Objective to understand the meanings the family attributes to the phases of the decision-making process on a cochlear implant for their child. Method qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semistructured interview. Nine families participated in the study (32 participants). Results knowledge deficit, difficulties to contextualize benefits and risks and fear are some factors that make this process difficult. Experiences deriving from interactions with health professionals, other cochlear implant users and their relatives strengthen decision making in favor of the implant. Conclusion deciding on whether or not to have the implant involves a complex process, in which the family needs to weigh gains and losses, experience feelings of accountability and guilt, besides overcoming the risk aversion. Hence, this demands cautious preparation and knowledge from the professionals involved in this intervention. PMID:25029052

  15. Cochlear Implant: the complexity involved in the decision making process by the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila de Souza Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the meanings the family attributes to the phases of the decision-making process on a cochlear implant for their child.METHOD: qualitative research, using Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory as the theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. Data collection instrument: semistructured interview. Nine families participated in the study (32 participants.RESULTS: knowledge deficit, difficulties to contextualize benefits and risks and fear are some factors that make this process difficult. Experiences deriving from interactions with health professionals, other cochlear implant users and their relatives strengthen decision making in favor of the implant.CONCLUSION: deciding on whether or not to have the implant involves a complex process, in which the family needs to weigh gains and losses, experience feelings of accountability and guilt, besides overcoming the risk aversion. Hence, this demands cautious preparation and knowledge from the professionals involved in this intervention.

  16. A digital processing method for the analysis of complex nuclear spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.; Abani, M.C.; Bairi, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a digital processing method using frequency power spectra for the analysis of complex nuclear spectra. The power spectra were estimated by employing modified discrete Fourier transform. The method was applied to observed spectral envelopes. The results for separating closely-spaced doublets in nuclear spectra of low statistical precision compared favorably with those obtained by using a popular peak fitting program SAMPO. The paper also describes limitations of the peak fitting methods. It describes the advantages of digital processing techniques for type II digital signals including nuclear spectra. A compact computer program occupying less than 2.5 kByte of memory space was written in BASIC for the processing of observed spectral envelopes. (orig.)

  17. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

    2010-02-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

  18. A new theoretical approach to analyze complex processes in cytoskeleton proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2014-03-20

    Cytoskeleton proteins are filament structures that support a large number of important biological processes. These dynamic biopolymers exist in nonequilibrium conditions stimulated by hydrolysis chemical reactions in their monomers. Current theoretical methods provide a comprehensive picture of biochemical and biophysical processes in cytoskeleton proteins. However, the description is only qualitative under biologically relevant conditions because utilized theoretical mean-field models neglect correlations. We develop a new theoretical method to describe dynamic processes in cytoskeleton proteins that takes into account spatial correlations in the chemical composition of these biopolymers. Our approach is based on analysis of probabilities of different clusters of subunits. It allows us to obtain exact analytical expressions for a variety of dynamic properties of cytoskeleton filaments. By comparing theoretical predictions with Monte Carlo computer simulations, it is shown that our method provides a fully quantitative description of complex dynamic phenomena in cytoskeleton proteins under all conditions.

  19. Markov and non-Markov processes in complex systems by the dynamical information entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulmetyev, R. M.; Gafarov, F. M.

    1999-12-01

    We consider the Markov and non-Markov processes in complex systems by the dynamical information Shannon entropy (DISE) method. The influence and important role of the two mutually dependent channels of entropy alternation (creation or generation of correlation) and anti-correlation (destroying or annihilation of correlation) have been discussed. The developed method has been used for the analysis of the complex systems of various natures: slow neutron scattering in liquid cesium, psychology (short-time numeral and pattern human memory and effect of stress on the dynamical taping-test), random dynamics of RR-intervals in human ECG (problem of diagnosis of various disease of the human cardio-vascular systems), chaotic dynamics of the parameters of financial markets and ecological systems.

  20. Evaluation of Uncertainties in the Design Process of Complex Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Villecco

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of the evaluation of the uncertainties that originate in the complex design process of a new system is analyzed, paying particular attention to multibody mechanical systems. To this end, the Wiener-Shannon’s axioms are extended to non-probabilistic events and a theory of information for non-repetitive events is used as a measure of the reliability of data. The selection of the solutions consistent with the values of the design constraints is performed by analyzing the complexity of the relation matrix and using the idea of information in the metric space. Comparing the alternatives in terms of the amount of entropy resulting from the various distribution, this method is capable of finding the optimal solution that can be obtained with the available resources. In the paper, the algorithmic steps of the proposed method are discussed and an illustrative numerical example is provided.

  1. Contribution of cubilin and amnionless to processing and membrane targeting of cubilin-amnionless complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coudroy, Gwénaëlle; Gburek, Jakub; Kozyraki, Renata

    2005-01-01

    retained in the endoplasmic reticulum or partially secreted into the medium. Coexpression with AMN led to efficient transport to the apical cell surface of the cubilin constructs, which included the EGF domains, and prevented release into the medium. AMN co-precipitated with cubilin and co-localized......Cubilin is a peripheral apical membrane receptor for multiple ligands that are taken up in several absorptive epithelia. Recently, amnionless (AMN) was identified to form a functional receptor complex with cubilin. By expression in transfected polarized MDCK cells of AMN and several cubilin...... fragments, including a functional "mini" version of cubilin, the processing, sorting, and membrane anchoring of the complex to the apical membrane were investigated. The results show that truncation mutants, including the N-terminal domain of cubilin, did not appear at the plasma membrane but instead were...

  2. Landscape community genomics: understanding eco-evolutionary processes in complex environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Kovach, Ryan P.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Luikart, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic factors influencing evolutionary processes are often categorically lumped into interactions that are environmentally (e.g., climate, landscape) or community-driven, with little consideration of the overlap or influence of one on the other. However, genomic variation is strongly influenced by complex and dynamic interactions between environmental and community effects. Failure to consider both effects on evolutionary dynamics simultaneously can lead to incomplete, spurious, or erroneous conclusions about the mechanisms driving genomic variation. We highlight the need for a landscape community genomics (LCG) framework to help to motivate and challenge scientists in diverse fields to consider a more holistic, interdisciplinary perspective on the genomic evolution of multi-species communities in complex environments.

  3. Integrating societal perspectives and values for improved stewardship of a coastal ecosystem engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Scyphers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oyster reefs provide coastal societies with a vast array of ecosystem services, but are also destructively harvested as an economically and culturally important fishery resource, exemplifying a complex social-ecological system (SES. Historically, societal demand for oysters has led to destructive and unsustainable levels of harvest, which coupled with multiple other stressors has placed oyster reefs among the most globally imperiled coastal habitats. However, more recent studies have demonstrated that large-scale restoration is possible and that healthy oyster populations can be sustained with effective governance and stewardship. However, both of these require significant societal support or financial investment. In our study, we explored relationships among how coastal societies (1 perceive and value oyster ecosystem services, (2 recognize and define problems associated with oyster decline, and (3 perceive or support stewardship initiatives. We specifically focused on the SES of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica and coastal societies in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a region identified as offering among the last and best opportunities to sustainably balance conservation objectives with a wild fishery. We found that, in addition to harvest-related benefits, oysters were highly valued for providing habitat, mitigating shoreline erosion, and improving water quality or clarity. Our results also showed that although most respondents recognized that oyster populations have declined, many respondents characterized the problem differently than most scientific literature does. Among a variety of initiatives for enhancing sustainability, spawning sanctuaries and reef restoration were well supported in all states, but support for harvest reductions was less consistent. Our study suggests that public support for maintaining both harvest and ecosystem services exists at societal levels and that enhancing public awareness regarding the extent and causes

  4. Optimization of PSA screening policies: a comparison of the patient and societal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Denton, Brian T; Balasubramanian, Hari; Shah, Nilay D; Inman, Brant A

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the benefit of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer from the patient and societal perspectives. A partially observable Markov decision process model was used to optimize PSA screening decisions. Age-specific prostate cancer incidence rates and the mortality rates from prostate cancer and competing causes were considered. The model trades off the potential benefit of early detection with the cost of screening and loss of patient quality of life due to screening and treatment. PSA testing and biopsy decisions are made based on the patient's probability of having prostate cancer. Probabilities are inferred based on the patient's complete PSA history using Bayesian updating. The results of all PSA tests and biopsies done in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1993 to 2005 (11,872 men and 50,589 PSA test results). Patients' perspective: to maximize expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); societal perspective: to maximize the expected monetary value based on societal willingness to pay for QALYs and the cost of PSA testing, prostate biopsies, and treatment. From the patient perspective, the optimal policy recommends stopping PSA testing and biopsy at age 76. From the societal perspective, the stopping age is 71. The expected incremental benefit of optimal screening over the traditional guideline of annual PSA screening with threshold 4.0 ng/mL for biopsy is estimated to be 0.165 QALYs per person from the patient perspective and 0.161 QALYs per person from the societal perspective. PSA screening based on traditional guidelines is found to be worse than no screening at all. PSA testing done with traditional guidelines underperforms and therefore underestimates the potential benefit of screening. Optimal screening guidelines differ significantly depending on the perspective of the decision maker.

  5. How the brain processes different dimensions of argument structure complexity: Evidence from fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Mack, Jennifer E.; Barbieri, Elena; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Verbs are central to sentence processing, as they encode argument structure (AS) information, i.e., information about the syntax and interpretation of the phrases accompanying them. The behavioral and neural correlates of AS processing have primarily been investigated in sentence-level tasks, requiring both verb processing and verb-argument integration. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated AS processing using a lexical decision task requiring only verb processing. We examined three aspects of AS complexity: number of thematic roles, number of thematic options, and mapping (non)canonicity (unaccusative vs. unergative and transitive verbs). Increased number of thematic roles elicited greater activation in the left posterior perisylvian regions claimed to support access to stored AS representations. However, the number of thematic options had no neural effects. Further, unaccusative verbs elicited longer response times and increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus, reflecting the processing cost of unaccusative verbs and, more generally, supporting the role of the IFG in noncanonical argument mapping. PMID:25658635

  6. Impact of processes of care aimed at complication reduction on the cost of complex cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Marah N; Ho, Vivian; Aloia, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    Health care providers add multiple processes to the care of complex cancer patients, believing they prevent and/or ameliorate complications. However, the relationship between these processes, complication remediation, and expenditures is unknown. Data for patients with cancer diagnoses undergoing colectomy, rectal resection, pulmonary lobectomy, pneumonectomy, esophagectomy, and pancreatic resection were obtained from hospital and inpatient physician Medicare claims for the years 2005-2009. Risk-adjusted regression analyses measured the association between hospitalization costs and processes presumed to prevent and/or remedy complications common to high-risk procedures. After controlling for comorbidities, analysis identified associations between increased costs and use of multiple processes, including arterial lines (4-12% higher; P costs. Consultations were associated with 24-44% (P costs, and total parenteral nutrition was associated with 13-31% higher costs (P processes and services presumed to avoid and/or ameliorate complications are associated with increased surgical oncology costs. This suggests that the patient-centered value of each process should be measured on a procedure-specific basis. Likewise, further attention should be focused on defining the efficacy of each of these costly, but frequently unproven, additions to perioperative care. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Application of the recurrent multilayer perceptron in modeling complex process dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, A G; Chong, K T; Atiya, A F

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model is developed for a process system, namely a heat exchanger, using the recurrent multilayer perceptron network as the underlying model structure. The perceptron is a dynamic neural network, which appears effective in the input-output modeling of complex process systems. Dynamic gradient descent learning is used to train the recurrent multilayer perceptron, resulting in an order of magnitude improvement in convergence speed over a static learning algorithm used to train the same network. In developing the empirical process model the effects of actuator, process, and sensor noise on the training and testing sets are investigated. Learning and prediction both appear very effective, despite the presence of training and testing set noise, respectively. The recurrent multilayer perceptron appears to learn the deterministic part of a stochastic training set, and it predicts approximately a moving average response of various testing sets. Extensive model validation studies with signals that are encountered in the operation of the process system modeled, that is steps and ramps, indicate that the empirical model can substantially generalize operational transients, including accurate prediction of instabilities not in the training set. However, the accuracy of the model beyond these operational transients has not been investigated. Furthermore, online learning is necessary during some transients and for tracking slowly varying process dynamics. Neural networks based empirical models in some cases appear to provide a serious alternative to first principles models.

  8. Reflecting Societal Values in Designing Flood Risk Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Office of Public Works (OPW began the National Catchment-based Flood Risk Assessment and Management (CFRAM Programme through a series of pilot studies. A Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA Framework was developed through the pilot studies that integrated a number of objectives related to a wide range of potential impacts and benefits into the core of process of appraising and selecting suitable flood risk management measures for a given area or location, and then for prioritising national investments for different schemes and projects. This MCA Framework, that provides a systematic process of developing a non-monetised but numerical indicator of benefit and impact, has since been implemented nationally in the preparation of the Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs. A key feature of the MCA is that it should represent societal values. To this end, nationally representative quantitative research was undertaken to determine global weights that reflect the perceived importance of each of the objectives for reducing economic, social and environmental / cultural risks in flood management strategies. Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, in conjunction with a pair-wise comparison of criteria relating to these risks, was utilised to determine weights. In excess of 1,000 structured interviews were completed where the relative importance of these objectives were assessed using a seven-point scale. The weighting given to each of the 13 specific objectives identified broadly followed expectations, with risk to people followed by risk to homes and properties being respectively the first and second most important, although some were given greater or less weighting than expected. The national application of the MCA Framework, using the weighted objectives based on this process, through the CFRAM Programme has generally lead to the identification of appropriate and, based on local consultation, acceptable options for each community.

  9. Complex processing and utilization of waste as the basis for sustainable economic development district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.М. Ilchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main environmental problems of Ukraine. The problems that are connected with complex processing and recycling, the example Dnieper economic paradise-one, which allows more detailed present environmental situation of the country at this stage. The article is used and analyzed recent environmental performance and the basic problems of on-disposal and recycling. Basic research methods: observation, analysis and comparison. The aim was to find ways to overcome the ecological crisis in Ukraine. As a result of the research, it was determined that most types of waste-tion prevail in Ukraine and found the best solutions to problems related to waste and their processing. It was possible to find the main problem that has caused serious environmental situation, and the main task for the country at this stage. The main problems and tasks Dnieper economic region. Also indicate how to save, due to complex processing waste. The article is very relevant and important because it is here that the basic problems and tasks of Ukraine concerning the ecological situation. It also focuses on eco-logical problems, which the government does not pay enough attention.

  10. Towards Hybrid Online On-Demand Querying of Realtime Data with Stateful Complex Event Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2013-10-09

    Emerging Big Data applications in areas like e-commerce and energy industry require both online and on-demand queries to be performed over vast and fast data arriving as streams. These present novel challenges to Big Data management systems. Complex Event Processing (CEP) is recognized as a high performance online query scheme which in particular deals with the velocity aspect of the 3-V’s of Big Data. However, traditional CEP systems do not consider data variety and lack the capability to embed ad hoc queries over the volume of data streams. In this paper, we propose H2O, a stateful complex event processing framework, to support hybrid online and on-demand queries over realtime data. We propose a semantically enriched event and query model to address data variety. A formal query algebra is developed to precisely capture the stateful and containment semantics of online and on-demand queries. We describe techniques to achieve the interactive query processing over realtime data featured by efficient online querying, dynamic stream data persistence and on-demand access. The system architecture is presented and the current implementation status reported.

  11. Semantic Complex Event Processing over End-to-End Data Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi [University of Southern California; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging Complex Event Processing (CEP) applications in cyber physical systems like SmartPower Grids present novel challenges for end-to-end analysis over events, flowing from heterogeneous information sources to persistent knowledge repositories. CEP for these applications must support two distinctive features - easy specification patterns over diverse information streams, and integrated pattern detection over realtime and historical events. Existing work on CEP has been limited to relational query patterns, and engines that match events arriving after the query has been registered. We propose SCEPter, a semantic complex event processing framework which uniformly processes queries over continuous and archived events. SCEPteris built around an existing CEP engine with innovative support for semantic event pattern specification and allows their seamless detection over past, present and future events. Specifically, we describe a unified semantic query model that can operate over data flowing through event streams to event repositories. Compile-time and runtime semantic patterns are distinguished and addressed separately for efficiency. Query rewriting is examined and analyzed in the context of temporal boundaries that exist between event streams and their repository to avoid duplicate or missing results. The design and prototype implementation of SCEPterare analyzed using latency and throughput metrics for scenarios from the Smart Grid domain.

  12. The confines of triple oxygen isotope exponents in elemental and complex mass-dependent processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Huiming; Cao, Xiaobin; Hayles, Justin A.

    2015-12-01

    Small differences in triple isotope relationships, or Δ17O in the case of oxygen, have been increasingly used to study a range of problems including hydrological cycles, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, biogeochemical pathways and fluxes, and the Moon's origin in the geochemical and cosmochemical communities. A Δ17O value depends on the triple isotope exponent θ of involved reaction steps. However, the probabilistic distribution of the intrinsic and apparent θ values has not been examined for elemental processes and for processes that are out of equilibrium or bearing reservoir-transport complexities. A lack of knowledge on the confines of θ may hamper our understanding of the subtle differences among mass-dependent processes and may result in mischaracterization of a set of mass-dependent processes as being in violation of mass-dependent rules. Here we advocate a reductionist approach and explore θ confines starting from kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) within the framework of transition state theory (TST). The advantage of our KIE approach is that any elemental or composite, equilibrium or non-equilibrium process can be reduced to a set of KIEs with corresponding θKIE. We establish that the KIE between a reactant and a transition state (TS) is intrinsic. Given a range of KIEs known for Earth processes involving oxygen, we use a Monte Carlo calculation method and a range of oxygen-bonded molecular masses to obtain a distribution of θKIE values and subsequently that of θeq. Next, complexities are examined by looking into expected effects due to reaction progress, unbalanced fluxes, and reference frame. Finally, compounded reservoir-transport effects are examined using two simple processes - Rayleigh Distillation (RD) and Fractional Distillation (FD). Our results show that the apparent θ values between two species or two states of the same evolving species have much broader confines than the commonly used ;canonical; confines of 0.51-0.53, particularly

  13. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J' Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated

  14. Processing morphologically complex words in second-language learners: the effect of proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lijuan; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-07-01

    The present study explored how the processing of morphologically complex words in second-language (L2) learners changes as their proficiency increases. ERPs were recorded from highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners, using the repetition priming paradigm. Three experimental conditions were investigated: morphological related/unrelated pairs, semantically related/unrelated pairs, and form related/unrelated pairs. The presence of priming in each condition was assessed by comparing responses to targets preceded by related primes with those preceded by unrelated primes. ERP results showed that highly proficient L2 learners demonstrated priming effect within 350-550 ms in the morphological condition, associating with an N400 reduction, while less proficient L2 learners showed no morphological priming effect within the N400 range. Besides, form priming effect was observed in both highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners within 400-450 ms and 450-500 ms, and semantic inhibiting effect was observed in both groups within 450-500 ms, suggesting that less proficient L2 learners were equally sensitive to the word form and meaning. The ERP results indicate that highly proficient L2 learners manifest rule-based decomposition, while less proficient L2 learners rely more on lexical storage in processing morphologically complex words. Less proficient L2 learners have not developed the decomposing mechanism, despite their sensitivity to word form and meaning. The way in which morphologically complex words are processed in L2 learners does change as their proficiency increases, validating the predictions of the declarative/procedural model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a numerical methodology for flowforming process simulation of complex geometry tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sonia; Santos, Maite; Arroyo, Amaia; Pérez, Iñaki; Puigjaner, Joan Francesc; Puigjaner, Blanca

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the incremental flowforming process is widely explored because of the usage of complex tubular products is increasing due to the light-weighting trend and the use of expensive materials. The enhanced mechanical properties of finished parts combined with the process efficiency in terms of raw material and energy consumption are the key factors for its competitiveness and sustainability, which is consistent with EU industry policy. As a promising technology, additional steps for extending the existing flowforming limits in the production of tubular products are required. The objective of the present research is to further expand the current state of the art regarding limitations on tube thickness and diameter, exploring the feasibility to flowform complex geometries as tubes of elevated thickness of up to 60 mm. In this study, the analysis of the backward flowforming process of 7075 aluminum tubular preform is carried out to define the optimum process parameters, machine requirements and tooling geometry as demonstration case. Numerical simulation studies on flowforming of thin walled tubular components have been considered to increase the knowledge of the technology. The calculation of the rotational movement of the mesh preform, the high ratio thickness/length and the thermomechanical condition increase significantly the computation time of the numerical simulation model. This means that efficient and reliable tools able to predict the forming loads and the quality of flowformed thick tubes are not available. This paper aims to overcome this situation by developing a simulation methodology based on FEM simulation code including new strategies. Material characterization has also been performed through tensile test to able to design the process. Finally, to check the reliability of the model, flowforming tests at industrial environment have been developed.

  16. Fault detection and diagnosis for complex multivariable processes using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasinghe, M.

    1998-06-01

    Development of a reliable fault diagnosis method for large-scale industrial plants is laborious and often difficult to achieve due to the complexity of the targeted systems. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the application of neural networks to the diagnosis of non-catastrophic faults in an industrial nuclear fuel processing plant. The proposed methods were initially developed by application to a simulated chemical process prior to further validation on real industrial data. The diagnosis of faults at a single operating point is first investigated. Statistical data conditioning methods of data scaling and principal component analysis are investigated to facilitate fault classification and reduce the complexity of neural networks. Successful fault diagnosis was achieved with significantly smaller networks than using all process variables as network inputs. Industrial processes often manufacture at various operating points, but demonstrated applications of neural networks for fault diagnosis usually only consider a single (primary) operating point. Developing a standard neural network scheme for fault diagnosis at all operating points would be usually impractical due to the unavailability of suitable training data for less frequently used (secondary) operating points. To overcome this problem, the application of a single neural network for the diagnosis of faults operating at different points is investigated. The data conditioning followed the same techniques as used for the fault diagnosis of a single operating point. The results showed that a single neural network could be successfully used to diagnose faults at operating points other than that it is trained for, and the data conditioning significantly improved the classification. Artificial neural networks have been shown to be an effective tool for process fault diagnosis. However, a main criticism is that details of the procedures taken to reach the fault diagnosis decisions are embedded in

  17. How do young people in Cambodia perceive the impact of societal attitudes, media and religion on suicidal behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Dahlblom, Kjerstin

    2016-03-01

    Young people in low and middle income countries (LMICs) in societal transitions with rapidly changing norms face an increased risk of suicide. This study explores how young people in Cambodia understand the impact on suicidal behaviour from societal attitudes, media and religion. Focus group discussions were held with school students from a suburban area. Thematic analysis was used to interpret the data. Participants perceived the prevailing suicide-stigmatizing societal attitudes, the double-edged media and suicide-ambiguity in Buddhist religion as challenging. Globalization was recognized as contradicting with traditional Cambodian norms and values. Suicide prevention programmes should take into consideration the complex picture of suicide that young people are exposed to. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Complex internal rearrangement processes triggered by electron transfer to acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limão-Vieira, P.; Meneses, G.; Cunha, T.; Gil, A.; Calhorda, M. J.; García, G.; Ferreira da Silva, F.

    2015-09-01

    We present negative ion formation from collisions of 100 eV neutral potassium atoms with acetic acid (CH3COOH) and its deuterated analogue molecules (CH3COOD, CD3COOH). From the negative ion time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra, OH- is the main fragment detected accounting on average for more than 25% of the total anion yield. The complex internal rearrangement processes triggered by electron transfer to acetic acid have been evaluated with the help of theoretical calculations at the DFT levels explaining the fragmentation channel yielding OH-.

  19. Societal Effects and the Transfer of Business Practices to Britain and France

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Lorenz

    1998-01-01

    This paper seeks to reconcile the notion of a 'societal effect' in business organisation with the considerable evidence that competitive pressures continuously lead national producers to emulate the business practices of other nations, which are perceived as providing a basis for superior economic performance. The paper identifies three sources of national specificity in the process of emulation giving rise to 'hybrid' models. First, the fact that a nation's manufacturers have a distinctive k...

  20. Detection of a novel, integrative aging process suggests complex physiological integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Bergeron, Patrick; Poirier, Roxane; Dusseault-Bélanger, Francis; Fülöp, Tamàs; Leroux, Maxime; Legault, Véronique; Metter, E Jeffrey; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Many studies of aging examine biomarkers one at a time, but complex systems theory and network theory suggest that interpretations of individual markers may be context-dependent. Here, we attempted to detect underlying processes governing the levels of many biomarkers simultaneously by applying principal components analysis to 43 common clinical biomarkers measured longitudinally in 3694 humans from three longitudinal cohort studies on two continents (Women's Health and Aging I & II, InCHIANTI, and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging). The first axis was associated with anemia, inflammation, and low levels of calcium and albumin. The axis structure was precisely reproduced in all three populations and in all demographic sub-populations (by sex, race, etc.); we call the process represented by the axis "integrated albunemia." Integrated albunemia increases and accelerates with age in all populations, and predicts mortality and frailty--but not chronic disease--even after controlling for age. This suggests a role in the aging process, though causality is not yet clear. Integrated albunemia behaves more stably across populations than its component biomarkers, and thus appears to represent a higher-order physiological process emerging from the structure of underlying regulatory networks. If this is correct, detection of this process has substantial implications for physiological organization more generally.

  1. Switching industrial production processes from complex to defined media: method development and case study using the example of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Andreas E; Spadiut, Oliver; Herwig, Christoph

    2012-06-22

    Filamentous fungi are versatile cell factories and widely used for the production of antibiotics, organic acids, enzymes and other industrially relevant compounds at large scale. As a fact, industrial production processes employing filamentous fungi are commonly based on complex raw materials. However, considerable lot-to-lot variability of complex media ingredients not only demands for exhaustive incoming components inspection and quality control, but unavoidably affects process stability and performance. Thus, switching bioprocesses from complex to defined media is highly desirable. This study presents a strategy for strain characterization of filamentous fungi on partly complex media using redundant mass balancing techniques. Applying the suggested method, interdependencies between specific biomass and side-product formation rates, production of fructooligosaccharides, specific complex media component uptake rates and fungal strains were revealed. A 2-fold increase of the overall penicillin space time yield and a 3-fold increase in the maximum specific penicillin formation rate were reached in defined media compared to complex media. The newly developed methodology enabled fast characterization of two different industrial Penicillium chrysogenum candidate strains on complex media based on specific complex media component uptake kinetics and identification of the most promising strain for switching the process from complex to defined conditions. Characterization at different complex/defined media ratios using only a limited number of analytical methods allowed maximizing the overall industrial objectives of increasing both, method throughput and the generation of scientific process understanding.

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Substrate Processing by the Cdc48 ATPase Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Nicholas O; Rapoport, Tom A

    2017-05-04

    The Cdc48 ATPase and its cofactors Ufd1/Npl4 (UN) extract polyubiquitinated proteins from membranes or macromolecular complexes, but how they perform these functions is unclear. Cdc48 consists of an N-terminal domain that binds UN and two stacked hexameric ATPase rings (D1 and D2) surrounding a central pore. Here, we use purified components to elucidate how the Cdc48 complex processes substrates. After interaction of the polyubiquitin chain with UN, ATP hydrolysis by the D2 ring moves the polypeptide completely through the double ring, generating a pulling force on the substrate and causing its unfolding. ATP hydrolysis by the D1 ring is important for subsequent substrate release from the Cdc48 complex. This release requires cooperation of Cdc48 with a deubiquitinase, which trims polyubiquitin to an oligoubiquitin chain that is then also translocated through the pore. Together, these results lead to a new paradigm for the function of Cdc48 and its mammalian ortholog p97/VCP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Normalisation process theory: a framework for developing, evaluating and implementing complex interventions

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Elizabeth

    2010-10-20

    Abstract Background The past decade has seen considerable interest in the development and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. Such interventions can only have a significant impact on health and health care if they are shown to be effective when tested, are capable of being widely implemented and can be normalised into routine practice. To date, there is still a problematic gap between research and implementation. The Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) addresses the factors needed for successful implementation and integration of interventions into routine work (normalisation). Discussion In this paper, we suggest that the NPT can act as a sensitising tool, enabling researchers to think through issues of implementation while designing a complex intervention and its evaluation. The need to ensure trial procedures that are feasible and compatible with clinical practice is not limited to trials of complex interventions, and NPT may improve trial design by highlighting potential problems with recruitment or data collection, as well as ensuring the intervention has good implementation potential. Summary The NPT is a new theory which offers trialists a consistent framework that can be used to describe, assess and enhance implementation potential. We encourage trialists to consider using it in their next trial.

  4. Inhomogeneous point-process entropy: An instantaneous measure of complexity in discrete systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    Measures of entropy have been widely used to characterize complexity, particularly in physiological dynamical systems modeled in discrete time. Current approaches associate these measures to finite single values within an observation window, thus not being able to characterize the system evolution at each moment in time. Here, we propose a new definition of approximate and sample entropy based on the inhomogeneous point-process theory. The discrete time series is modeled through probability density functions, which characterize and predict the time until the next event occurs as a function of the past history. Laguerre expansions of the Wiener-Volterra autoregressive terms account for the long-term nonlinear information. As the proposed measures of entropy are instantaneously defined through probability functions, the novel indices are able to provide instantaneous tracking of the system complexity. The new measures are tested on synthetic data, as well as on real data gathered from heartbeat dynamics of healthy subjects and patients with cardiac heart failure and gait recordings from short walks of young and elderly subjects. Results show that instantaneous complexity is able to effectively track the system dynamics and is not affected by statistical noise properties.

  5. Application of a Dual-Arm Robot in Complex Sample Preparation and Measurement Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Heidi; Drews, Robert Ralf; Janson, Jessica; Chinna Patlolla, Bharath Reddy; Chu, Xianghua; Klos, Michael; Thurow, Kerstin

    2016-10-01

    Automation systems with applied robotics have already been established in industrial applications for many years. In the field of life sciences, a comparable high level of automation can be found in the areas of bioscreening and high-throughput screening. Strong deficits still exist in the development of flexible and universal fully automated systems in the field of analytical measurement. Reasons are the heterogeneous processes with complex structures, which include sample preparation and transport, analytical measurements using complex sensor systems, and suitable data analysis and evaluation. Furthermore, the use of nonstandard sample vessels with various shapes and volumes results in an increased complexity. The direct use of existing automation solutions from bioscreening applications is not possible. A flexible automation system for sample preparation, analysis, and data evaluation is presented in this article. It is applied for the determination of cholesterol in biliary endoprosthesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A dual-arm robot performs both transport and active manipulation tasks to ensure human-like operation. This general robotic concept also enables the use of manual laboratory devices and equipment and is thus suitable in areas with a high standardization grade. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Normalisation process theory: a framework for developing, evaluating and implementing complex interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Bie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past decade has seen considerable interest in the development and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health. Such interventions can only have a significant impact on health and health care if they are shown to be effective when tested, are capable of being widely implemented and can be normalised into routine practice. To date, there is still a problematic gap between research and implementation. The Normalisation Process Theory (NPT addresses the factors needed for successful implementation and integration of interventions into routine work (normalisation. Discussion In this paper, we suggest that the NPT can act as a sensitising tool, enabling researchers to think through issues of implementation while designing a complex intervention and its evaluation. The need to ensure trial procedures that are feasible and compatible with clinical practice is not limited to trials of complex interventions, and NPT may improve trial design by highlighting potential problems with recruitment or data collection, as well as ensuring the intervention has good implementation potential. Summary The NPT is a new theory which offers trialists a consistent framework that can be used to describe, assess and enhance implementation potential. We encourage trialists to consider using it in their next trial.

  7. Comprehension of complex biological processes by analytical methods: how far can we go using mass spectrometry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes is the basis for many biomedical issues of great relevance for modern society including risk assessment, drug development, quality control of industrial products and many more. Screening methods provide means for investigating biological samples without research hypothesis. However, the first boom of analytical screening efforts has passed and we again need to ask whether and how to apply screening methods. Mass spectrometry is a modern tool with unrivalled analytical capacities. This applies to all relevant characteristics of analytical methods such as specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, multiplicity and diversity of applications. Indeed, mass spectrometry qualifies to deal with complexity. Chronic inflammation is a common feature of almost all relevant diseases challenging our modern society; these diseases are apparently highly diverse and include arteriosclerosis, cancer, back pain, neurodegenerative diseases, depression and other. The complexity of mechanisms regulating chronic inflammation is the reason for the practical challenge to deal with it. The presentation shall give an overview of capabilities and limitations of the application of this analytical tool to solve critical questions with great relevance for our society. (author)

  8. Computer-based diagnostic monitoring to enhance the human-machine interface of complex processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.

    1992-02-01

    There is a growing interest in introducing an automated, on-line, diagnostic monitoring function into the human-machine interfaces (HMIs) or control rooms of complex process plants. The design of such a system should be properly integrated with other HMI systems in the control room, such as the alarms system or the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). This paper provides a conceptual foundation for the development of a Plant-wide Diagnostic Monitoring System (PDMS), along with functional requirements for the system and other advanced HMI systems. Insights are presented into the design of an efficient and robust PDMS, which were gained from a critical review of various methodologies developed in the nuclear power industry, the chemical process industry, and the space technological community

  9. The manager and the organizational complexity: an important factor in the process of internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ernesto Buitrago Rubiano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization processes of the firm require capabilities that differ from those that support local efforts. Accordingly, managers face special challenges when confronted with the possibility of going abroad. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of processes carried out by individuals in the deep internationalization and organizational complexity, and therefore the role of decision makers as fundamental actors for change and stability. The methodology is a literature review of articles from the International Business and Management field. The findings are that the social and economic impacts of internationalization efforts go well beyond the realm of the firm, therefore well rounded managers with global mindsets and social sensitivities have the ability to make decisions that work at many levels.

  10. An attempt of reduction of optimization costs of complex industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztangret, Łukasz; Kusiak, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Reduction of computational costs of optimization of real industrial processes is crucial, because the models of these processes are often complex and demand time consuming numerical computations. Iterative optimization procedures have to run the simulations many times and therefore the computational costs of the optimization may be unacceptable high. This is why a new optimization methods and strategies which need less simulation runs are searched. The paper is focused on the problem of reduction of computational costs of optimization procedure. The main goal is the presentation of developed by the Authors new, efficient Approximation Based Optimization (ABO) and Modified Approximation Based Optimization (MABO) methods which allow finding the global minimum in smaller number of objective function calls. Detailed algorithm of the MABO method as well as the results of tests using several benchmark functions are presented. The efficiency of MABO method was compared with heuristic methods and the results show that MABO method reduces the computational costs and improve the optimization accuracy.

  11. The Vector Idea and its spheres: a training proposal for curriculum greening processes from the complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genina CALAFELL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is in the framework of Education for Sustainability and, specifically, in the curriculum greening processes. In the first place, a conceptualization about curriculum greening is briefly presented following the ACES model. In the second instance, the research is exposed. It is concretized in the analysis of the degree of curriculum greening in a training program aimed at education professionals. This training programme has been elaborated from the perspective of complexity and based on the proposal of Vector Idea and its spheres (conceptual, methodological, creative, and investigative. The research carried out has an interpretative approach and the participants were teachers who followed the training programme. The results allow obtain guidelines for the development of a training process in curriculum greening, coherent with the ACES model, and with real impact on the participants. These orientations are based on the following ideas: credibility, cosmovision, conceptualization and action. 

  12. Inverse Processing of Undefined Complex Shape Parts from Structural High Alloyed Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Monkova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of 3D digitization as a tool for increasing production efficiency of complex shaped parts. Utilizes the concept of reverse engineering and new the model of NC program generation STEP-NC, for the of templates production for winding the stator coil of electromotors that is for electric household appliances. The manual production of prototype was substituted by manufacturing with NC machines. A 3D scanner was used for data digitizing, CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineering was used for NC program generation, and 3D measuring equipment was used for verification of new produced parts. The company estimated that only due to the implementation of STEP NC standard into production process it was allowed to read the 3D geometry of the product without problems. It helps the workshop to shorten the time needed for part production by about 30%.

  13. A bioactive molecule in a complex wound healing process: platelet-derived growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltalioglu, Kaan; Coskun-Cevher, Sule

    2015-08-01

    Wound healing is considered to be particularly important after surgical procedures, and the most important wounds related to surgical procedures are incisional, excisional, and punch wounds. Research is ongoing to identify methods to heal non-closed wounds or to accelerate wound healing; however, wound healing is a complex process that includes many biological and physiological events, and it is affected by various local and systemic factors, including diabetes mellitus, infection, ischemia, and aging. Different cell types (such as platelets, macrophages, and neutrophils) release growth factors during the healing process, and platelet-derived growth factor is a particularly important mediator in most stages of wound healing. This review explores the relationship between platelet-derived growth factor and wound healing. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Fault Diagnosis of Complex Industrial Process Using KICA and Sparse SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches are proposed for complex industrial process monitoring and fault diagnosis based on kernel independent component analysis (KICA and sparse support vector machine (SVM. The KICA method is a two-phase algorithm: whitened kernel principal component analysis (KPCA. The data are firstly mapped into high-dimensional feature subspace. Then, the ICA algorithm seeks the projection directions in the KPCA whitened space. Performance monitoring is implemented through constructing the statistical index and control limit in the feature space. If the statistical indexes exceed the predefined control limit, a fault may have occurred. Then, the nonlinear score vectors are calculated and fed into the sparse SVM to identify the faults. The proposed method is applied to the simulation of Tennessee Eastman (TE chemical process. The simulation results show that the proposed method can identify various types of faults accurately and rapidly.

  15. The contribution of parental and societal conditional regard to adjustment of high school dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, Yael; Itzhaky, Haya; Yablon, Yaacov B

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of parental conditional regard (PCR) and societal conditional regard (SCR) - divided into positive and negative regard - to high school dropouts' adjustment (i.e., well-being, loneliness, and future orientation) along the different stages of the dropout process. Specifically, the current study focused on dropouts from a traditional community, where dropping out was accompanied by various social repercussions. The study, conducted in Israel among Ultraorthodox Jewish males, included 261 participants, ages 14-21 (M = 17, SD = 1.17), who were at different stages in the dropout process. Structural equation modeling indicated a negative contribution of parental conditional negative regard to adjustment, while societal conditional positive regard made a positive contribution to adjustment. Moreover, dropouts indicated higher parental and societal conditional regard than students at other stages of the dropout process. Findings highlight the importance of SCR and PCR in understanding the adjustment of dropouts in traditional communities. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient physical embedding of topologically complex information processing networks in brains and computer circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S Bassett

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nervous systems are information processing networks that evolved by natural selection, whereas very large scale integrated (VLSI computer circuits have evolved by commercially driven technology development. Here we follow historic intuition that all physical information processing systems will share key organizational properties, such as modularity, that generally confer adaptivity of function. It has long been observed that modular VLSI circuits demonstrate an isometric scaling relationship between the number of processing elements and the number of connections, known as Rent's rule, which is related to the dimensionality of the circuit's interconnect topology and its logical capacity. We show that human brain structural networks, and the nervous system of the nematode C. elegans, also obey Rent's rule, and exhibit some degree of hierarchical modularity. We further show that the estimated Rent exponent of human brain networks, derived from MRI data, can explain the allometric scaling relations between gray and white matter volumes across a wide range of mammalian species, again suggesting that these principles of nervous system design are highly conserved. For each of these fractal modular networks, the dimensionality of the interconnect topology was greater than the 2 or 3 Euclidean dimensions of the space in which it was embedded. This relatively high complexity entailed extra cost in physical wiring: although all networks were economically or cost-efficiently wired they did not strictly minimize wiring costs. Artificial and biological information processing systems both may evolve to optimize a trade-off between physical cost and topological complexity, resulting in the emergence of homologous principles of economical, fractal and modular design across many different kinds of nervous and computational networks.

  17. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Abigail M.; Rudd, Murray A.

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on `expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent `shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  18. A report on the medieval mining and ore processing complex: Zilan valley, Van, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Yusuf; Kılıη, Sinan

    Literature has records of the use of obsidian that shows the existence of a knowledge base on raw material resources around Lake Van extending to very ancient times. Against this background, very little information can be obtained from literature about accurate location of historical mining activities in the region today. An ancient mining and processing complex, located northwest of the city of Van (Turkey) has been discovered by chance in 2007. The purpose of this article is to describe this historical mining area. The site contains mining structures such as shafts and galleries, and heaves of stone chips indicating some ore enrichment activities taking place there. The XRD and chemical analyses show the samples taken from the ore vein are rich in Manganese (Mn) and Barium (Ba), and it is concluded that the Zilan Valley Mining and Processing Complex was for Pyrolusite (MnO2), Barium or both. The site is being described for the first time in the literature and offers an opportunity to fulfill the gap in literature regarding mining history. The discovery and the description of the site would also have implications in a wide multidisciplinary scientific community, including metallurgy, archeology, and world heritage.

  19. Science and societal partnerships to address cumulative impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn J Lundquist

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Funding and priorities for ocean research are not separate from the underlying sociological, economic, and political landscapes that determine values attributed to ecological systems. Here we present a variation on science prioritisation exercises, focussing on inter-disciplinary research questions with the objective of shifting broad scale management practices to better address cumulative impacts and multiple users. Marine scientists in New Zealand from a broad range of scientific and social-scientific backgrounds ranked 48 statements of research priorities. At a follow up workshop, participants discussed five over-arching themes based on survey results. These themes were used to develop mechanisms to increase the relevance and efficiency of scientific research while acknowledging socio-economic and political drivers of research agendas in New Zealand’s ocean ecosystems. Overarching messages included the need to: 1 determine the conditions under which ‘surprises’ (sudden and substantive undesirable changes are likely to occur and the socio-ecological implications of such changes; 2 develop methodologies to reveal the complex and cumulative effects of change in marine systems, and their implications for resource use, stewardship, and restoration; 3 assess potential solutions to management issues that balance long-term and short-term benefits and encompass societal engagement in decision-making; 4 establish effective and appropriately resourced institutional networks to foster collaborative, solution-focused marine science; and 5 establish cross-disciplinary dialogues to translate diverse scientific and social-scientific knowledge into innovative regulatory, social and economic practice. In the face of multiple uses and cumulative stressors, ocean management frameworks must be adapted to build a collaborative framework across science, governance and society that can help stakeholders navigate uncertainties and socio-ecological surprises.

  20. Hyperplane distance neighbor clustering based on local discriminant analysis for complex chemical processes monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chunhong; Xiao, Shaoqing; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The collected training data often include both normal and faulty samples for complex chemical processes. However, some monitoring methods, such as partial least squares (PLS), principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA) and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), require fault-free data to build the normal operation model. These techniques are applicable after the preliminary step of data clustering is applied. We here propose a novel hyperplane distance neighbor clustering (HDNC) based on the local discriminant analysis (LDA) for chemical process monitoring. First, faulty samples are separated from normal ones using the HDNC method. Then, the optimal subspace for fault detection and classification can be obtained using the LDA approach. The proposed method takes the multimodality within the faulty data into account, and thus improves the capability of process monitoring significantly. The HDNC-LDA monitoring approach is applied to two simulation processes and then compared with the conventional FDA based on the K-nearest neighbor (KNN-FDA) method. The results obtained in two different scenarios demonstrate the superiority of the HDNC-LDA approach in terms of fault detection and classification accuracy

  1. Adaptive Fault Detection for Complex Dynamic Processes Based on JIT Updated Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinna Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel fault detection technique is proposed to explicitly account for the nonlinear, dynamic, and multimodal problems existed in the practical and complex dynamic processes. Just-in-time (JIT detection method and k-nearest neighbor (KNN rule-based statistical process control (SPC approach are integrated to construct a flexible and adaptive detection scheme for the control process with nonlinear, dynamic, and multimodal cases. Mahalanobis distance, representing the correlation among samples, is used to simplify and update the raw data set, which is the first merit in this paper. Based on it, the control limit is computed in terms of both KNN rule and SPC method, such that we can identify whether the current data is normal or not by online approach. Noted that the control limit obtained changes with updating database such that an adaptive fault detection technique that can effectively eliminate the impact of data drift and shift on the performance of detection process is obtained, which is the second merit in this paper. The efficiency of the developed method is demonstrated by the numerical examples and an industrial case.

  2. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  3. Simple Systems - Complex Capacities. Integrative Processes of Computational Morphogenesis in Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Menges

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the cultural, social, economical and particularly ecological context in which architecture is practised today necessitates design strategies and tactics that achieve a high level of integration of seemingly opposed demands and criteria within the material and construction systems we design. One possibility of unfolding novel synergies in such extreme conditions is to utilize the capacity of computers in the design process in an alternative way, one that foregrounds and instrumentalizes the innate capacities of materials, manufacturing and construction processes rather than merely elaborating form in the digital realm. The computational approach that will be presented here questions the nature of current design processes, but it is not a call for the replacement of the architect by computer driven design. Rather, under this approach, architects, instead of creating exuberant shapes subsequently rationalised for constructability and superimposed functions, are able to define specific material and construction systems by the combined logics of formation and materialisation encoded in generative processes of computational morphogenesis.

  4. Visualizing complex processes using a cognitive-mapping tool to support the learning of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Grotzer, Tina A; Liu, Jun; Johnson, Janice M

    2016-08-22

    Practical experience with clinical cases has played an important role in supporting the learning of clinical reasoning. However, learning through practical experience involves complex processes difficult to be captured by students. This study aimed to examine the effects of a computer-based cognitive-mapping approach that helps students to externalize the reasoning process and the knowledge underlying the reasoning process when they work with clinical cases. A comparison between the cognitive-mapping approach and the verbal-text approach was made by analyzing their effects on learning outcomes. Fifty-two third-year or higher students from two medical schools participated in the study. Students in the experimental group used the computer-base cognitive-mapping approach, while the control group used the verbal-text approach, to make sense of their thinking and actions when they worked with four simulated cases over 4 weeks. For each case, students in both groups reported their reasoning process (involving data capture, hypotheses formulation, and reasoning with justifications) and the underlying knowledge (involving identified concepts and the relationships between the concepts) using the given approach. The learning products (cognitive maps or verbal text) revealed that students in the cognitive-mapping group outperformed those in the verbal-text group in the reasoning process, but not in making sense of the knowledge underlying the reasoning process. No significant differences were found in a knowledge posttest between the two groups. The computer-based cognitive-mapping approach has shown a promising advantage over the verbal-text approach in improving students' reasoning performance. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of the cognitive-mapping approach in improving the construction of subject-matter knowledge on the basis of practical experience.

  5. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Investigating societal determinants of oral health-Opportunities and challenges in multilevel studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankur; Harford, Jane; Peres, Marco A

    2018-02-20

    The high prevalence of oral diseases and the persistent nature of socioeconomic inequalities in oral health outcomes across societies presents a significant challenge for public health globally. A debate exists in epidemiology on the merits of investigating population variations in health and its determinants over studying individual health and its individual risk factors. The choice of analytical unit for health outcomes at the population level has policy implications and consequences for the causal understanding of population-level variations in health/disease. There is a lack of discussion in oral epidemiology on the relevance of studying population variations in oral health. Evidence on the role of societal factors in shaping variations in oral health at both the individual level and the population level is also mounting. Multilevel studies are increasingly applied in social epidemiology to address hypotheses generated at different levels of social organization, but the opportunities offered by multilevel approaches are less applied for studying determinants of oral health at the societal level. Multilevel studies are complex as they aim to examine hypotheses generated at multiple levels of social organization and require attention to a range of theoretical and methodological aspects from the stage of design to analysis and interpretation. This discussion study aimed to highlight the value in studying population variations in oral health. It discusses the opportunities provided by multilevel approaches to study societal determinants of oral health. Finally, it reviews the key methodological aspects related to operationalizing multilevel studies of societal determinants of oral health. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Low light adaptation: energy transfer processes in different types of light harvesting complexes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulisová, Vladimíra; Luer, Larry; Hoseinkhani, Sajjad; Brotosudarmo, Tatas H P; Collins, Aaron M; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Blankenship, Robert E; Cogdell, Richard J

    2009-12-02

    Energy transfer processes in photosynthetic light harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes isolated from purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grown at different light intensities were studied by ground state and transient absorption spectroscopy. The decomposition of ground state absorption spectra shows contributions from B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a rings, the latter component splitting into a low energy and a high energy band in samples grown under low light (LL) conditions. A spectral analysis reveals strong inhomogeneity of the B850 excitons in the LL samples that is well reproduced by an exponential-type distribution. Transient spectra show a bleach of both the low energy and high energy bands, together with the respective blue-shifted exciton-to-biexciton transitions. The different spectral evolutions were analyzed by a global fitting procedure. Energy transfer from B800 to B850 occurs in a mono-exponential process and the rate of this process is only slightly reduced in LL compared to high light samples. In LL samples, spectral relaxation of the B850 exciton follows strongly nonexponential kinetics that can be described by a reduction of the bleach of the high energy excitonic component and a red-shift of the low energetic one. We explain these spectral changes by picosecond exciton relaxation caused by a small coupling parameter of the excitonic splitting of the BChl a molecules to the surrounding bath. The splitting of exciton energy into two excitonic bands in LL complex is most probably caused by heterogenous composition of LH2 apoproteins that gives some of the BChls in the B850 ring B820-like site energies, and causes a disorder in LH2 structure.

  8. URDME: a modular framework for stochastic simulation of reaction-transport processes in complex geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drawert Brian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiments in silico using stochastic reaction-diffusion models have emerged as an important tool in molecular systems biology. Designing computational software for such applications poses several challenges. Firstly, realistic lattice-based modeling for biological applications requires a consistent way of handling complex geometries, including curved inner- and outer boundaries. Secondly, spatiotemporal stochastic simulations are computationally expensive due to the fast time scales of individual reaction- and diffusion events when compared to the biological phenomena of actual interest. We therefore argue that simulation software needs to be both computationally efficient, employing sophisticated algorithms, yet in the same time flexible in order to meet present and future needs of increasingly complex biological modeling. Results We have developed URDME, a flexible software framework for general stochastic reaction-transport modeling and simulation. URDME uses Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes to resolve general geometries, and relies on the Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation formalism to model the processes under study. An interface to a mature geometry and mesh handling external software (Comsol Multiphysics provides for a stable and interactive environment for model construction. The core simulation routines are logically separated from the model building interface and written in a low-level language for computational efficiency. The connection to the geometry handling software is realized via a Matlab interface which facilitates script computing, data management, and post-processing. For practitioners, the software therefore behaves much as an interactive Matlab toolbox. At the same time, it is possible to modify and extend URDME with newly developed simulation routines. Since the overall design effectively hides the complexity of managing the geometry and meshes, this means that newly developed methods

  9. Forecasting Significant Societal Events Using The Embers Streaming Predictive Analytics System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Andy; Katz, Graham; Summers, Kristen; Ackermann, Chris; Zavorin, Ilya; Lim, Zunsik; Muthiah, Sathappan; Butler, Patrick; Self, Nathan; Zhao, Liang; Lu, Chang-Tien; Khandpur, Rupinder Paul; Fayed, Youssef; Ramakrishnan, Naren

    2014-12-01

    Developed under the Intelligence Advanced Research Project Activity Open Source Indicators program, Early Model Based Event Recognition using Surrogates (EMBERS) is a large-scale big data analytics system for forecasting significant societal events, such as civil unrest events on the basis of continuous, automated analysis of large volumes of publicly available data. It has been operational since November 2012 and delivers approximately 50 predictions each day for countries of Latin America. EMBERS is built on a streaming, scalable, loosely coupled, shared-nothing architecture using ZeroMQ as its messaging backbone and JSON as its wire data format. It is deployed on Amazon Web Services using an entirely automated deployment process. We describe the architecture of the system, some of the design tradeoffs encountered during development, and specifics of the machine learning models underlying EMBERS. We also present a detailed prospective evaluation of EMBERS in forecasting significant societal events in the past 2 years.

  10. LP-HT anatectic processes and lithological heterogeneity in the Mindelo Migmatite Complex (NW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areias, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mindelo Migmatitic Complex crops out in the coastal zone north of Porto (Portugal and consists of a set of migmatitic and granitic lithologies. Field relationships, petrography, geochemistry and isotopic signature of the various lithologies allow inferring the sequence of anatectic processes that resulted in their characteristic lithological heterogeneity. The metasedimentary sequences (Schist-Greywacke Complex show chemical composition and isotopic signature identical to the metatexites. So is suggested to be the protolith of Mindelo Migmatite Complex lithologies. The melting has occurred in several structural levels and thus at different pressure and temperature conditions, resulting in rocks with specific characteristics. In shallow levels ( 3. The several pulses of different fluids that affected the Mindelo Migmatitic Complex probably are related to the emplacement of the syn and late- D3 variscan granites. The Mindelo Migmatite Complex represents an example of migmatites formed in low pressure conditions and illustrates some of the reactions involving melting in high grade pelitic rocks and subsequent mineral alterations due to infiltration of late different fluids.El Complejo Migmatítico de Mindelo aflora en la zona costera de Portugal al norte de Oporto y se compone de un conjunto de litologías migmatíticas y graníticas. Las relaciones de campo, petrografía, geoquímica y las características isotópicas de las diferentes litologías permiten inferir la secuencia de procesos anatécticos que dio lugar a su típica heterogeneidad litológica. La composición química e isotópica de la secuencia metasedimentaria del Complejo Esquisto-Grauváquico es idéntica a la de las metatexitas, lo que sugiere que sea el protolito de las litologías del Complejo de Mindelo. La fusión se ha producido en varios niveles estructurales y por lo tanto en diferentes condiciones de presión y temperatura, dando lugar a rocas con caracter

  11. Xafs studies on actinide-pyridine-diamide complexes for development of an innovative separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideaki, Shiwaku; Tsuyoshi, Yaita; Tohru, Kobayashi; Masahiko, Numakura; Tsuyoshi, Yaita; Shinichi, Suzuki; Yoshihiro, Okamoto

    2007-01-01

    We have been studying the bond properties and the structures of actinide (An) and lanthanide (Ln) complexes in detail using several kinds of X-ray analyses by synchrotron radiation in order to elucidate the ionic recognition mechanism of organic ligands. Generally, an oxygen donor type ligand separates both An and Ln from solutions of spent fuel or high level radioactive waste. Separation ability of this type of ligand for An and Ln follows the order of the surface charge density of an ion, i.e., An 4+ > AnO 2 2+ > An 3+ = Ln 3+ > AnO 2+ and/or a few structural factors. Therefore, this type of ligand is ineffective for the separation of An 3+ and Ln 3+ due to their similar chemical properties. Recently, new extractants like aromatic N-donor ligands have been developed using the preference of soft-donors to achieve the An 3+ /Ln 3+ separation. However, aromatic N-donor ligands often show a few problems such as protonation. In this developing process, we synthesized a new type of ligand, N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-diphenyl-pyridine-2,6-carboxy-amide (DMDPh-PDA). The PDA is hybrid type ligand having oxygen and nitrogen as donor atoms and follows a unique separation order, i.e., An 4+ > An 3+ > AnO 2 2+ > Ln 3+ > AnO 2 + , probably arising from the combined effects of covalent bonding and steric hindrance. Hence, clarification of any ionic recognition mechanism of the PDA is very interesting from the view point of structural analysis. In this presentation, we will show XAFS results of An and Ln complexes with PDA in solution and discuss separation mechanism of An and Ln by PDA. Various kinds of complexes between Ln/An and PDA were prepared for XAFS analysis. The Ln complexes were measured in transmission mode at the K absorption edge on the BL11XU at SPring-8. On the other hand, the U complexes were measured in fluorescence mode at the L III absorption edge on the BL-27B at Photon Factory, High-energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). (authors)

  12. Habitat complexity influences fine scale hydrological processes and the incidence of stormwater runoff in managed urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Hahs, Amy Kristin; Livesley, Stephen John

    2015-08-15

    Urban ecosystems have traditionally been considered to be pervious features of our cities. Their hydrological properties have largely been investigated at the landscape scale and in comparison with other urban land use types. However, hydrological properties can vary at smaller scales depending upon changes in soil, surface litter and vegetation components. Management practices can directly and indirectly affect each of these components and the overall habitat complexity, ultimately affecting hydrological processes. This study aims to investigate the influence that habitat components and habitat complexity have upon key hydrological processes and the implications for urban habitat management. Using a network of urban parks and remnant nature reserves in Melbourne, Australia, replicate plots representing three types of habitat complexity were established: low-complexity parks, high-complexity parks, and high-complexity remnants. Saturated soil hydraulic conductivity in low-complexity parks was an order of magnitude lower than that measured in the more complex habitat types, due to fewer soil macropores. Conversely, soil water holding capacity in low-complexity parks was significantly higher compared to the two more complex habitat types. Low-complexity parks would generate runoff during modest precipitation events, whereas high-complexity parks and remnants would be able to absorb the vast majority of rainfall events without generating runoff. Litter layers on the soil surface would absorb most of precipitation events in high-complexity parks and high-complexity remnants. To minimize the incidence of stormwater runoff from urban ecosystems, land managers could incrementally increase the complexity of habitat patches, by increasing canopy density and volume, preserving surface litter and maintaining soil macropore structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PROCESSING OF UAV BASED RANGE IMAGING DATA TO GENERATE DETAILED ELEVATION MODELS OF COMPLEX NATURAL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Kohoutek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are more and more used in civil areas like geomatics. Autonomous navigated platforms have a great flexibility in flying and manoeuvring in complex environments to collect remote sensing data. In contrast to standard technologies such as aerial manned platforms (airplanes and helicopters UAVs are able to fly closer to the object and in small-scale areas of high-risk situations such as landslides, volcano and earthquake areas and floodplains. Thus, UAVs are sometimes the only practical alternative in areas where access is difficult and where no manned aircraft is available or even no flight permission is given. Furthermore, compared to terrestrial platforms, UAVs are not limited to specific view directions and could overcome occlusions from trees, houses and terrain structures. Equipped with image sensors and/or laser scanners they are able to provide elevation models, rectified images, textured 3D-models and maps. In this paper we will describe a UAV platform, which can carry a range imaging (RIM camera including power supply and data storage for the detailed mapping and monitoring of complex structures, such as alpine riverbed areas. The UAV platform NEO from Swiss UAV was equipped with the RIM camera CamCube 2.0 by PMD Technologies GmbH to capture the surface structures. Its navigation system includes an autopilot. To validate the UAV-trajectory a 360° prism was installed and tracked by a total station. Within the paper a workflow for the processing of UAV-RIM data is proposed, which is based on the processing of differential GNSS data in combination with the acquired range images. Subsequently, the obtained results for the trajectory are compared and verified with a track of a UAV (Falcon 8, Ascending Technologies carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GNSS data acquisition. The results showed that the UAV's position using differential GNSS could be determined in the centimetre to the decimetre

  14. Flexible simulation framework to couple processes in complex 3D models for subsurface utilization assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Nakaten, Benjamin; De Lucia, Marco; Nakaten, Natalie; Otto, Christopher; Pohl, Maik; Tillner, Elena; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Utilization of the geological subsurface for production and storage of hydrocarbons, chemical energy and heat as well as for waste disposal requires the quantification and mitigation of environmental impacts as well as the improvement of georesources utilization in terms of efficiency and sustainability. The development of tools for coupled process simulations is essential to tackle these challenges, since reliable assessments are only feasible by integrative numerical computations. Coupled processes at reservoir to regional scale determine the behaviour of reservoirs, faults and caprocks, generally demanding for complex 3D geological models to be considered besides available monitoring and experimenting data in coupled numerical simulations. We have been developing a flexible numerical simulation framework that provides efficient workflows for integrating the required data and software packages to carry out coupled process simulations considering, e.g., multiphase fluid flow, geomechanics, geochemistry and heat. Simulation results are stored in structured data formats to allow for an integrated 3D visualization and result interpretation as well as data archiving and its provision to collaborators. The main benefits in using the flexible simulation framework are the integration of data geological and grid data from any third party software package as well as data export to generic 3D visualization tools and archiving formats. The coupling of the required process simulators in time and space is feasible, while different spatial dimensions in the coupled simulations can be integrated, e.g., 0D batch with 3D dynamic simulations. User interaction is established via high-level programming languages, while computational efficiency is achieved by using low-level programming languages. We present three case studies on the assessment of geological subsurface utilization based on different process coupling approaches and numerical simulations.

  15. The Complex Sol–Gel Process for producing small ThO{sub 2} microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brykala, Marcin, E-mail: m.brykala@ichtj.waw.pl; Rogowski, Marcin

    2016-05-15

    Thorium based fuels offer several benefits compared to uranium based fuels thus they might be an attractive alternative to conventional fuel types. This study is devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of small thorium dioxide microspheres (Ø <50 μm). Their application involves using powder-free process, called the Complex Sol–Gel Process. The source sols used for the processes were prepared by the method where in the starting ascorbic acid solution the solid thorium nitrate was dissolved and partially neutralized by aqueous ammonia under pH control. The microspheres of thorium-ascorbate gel were obtained using the ICHTJ Process (INCT in English). Studies allowed to determine an optimal heat treatment with calcination temperature of 700 °C and temperature rate not higher than 2 °C/min which enabled us to obtain a crack-free surface of microspheres. The main parameters which have a strong influence on the synthesis method and features of the spherical particles of thorium dioxide are described in this article. - Highlights: • ThO{sub 2} were prepared for the first time using combination of ICHTJ methods. • The homogeneous thorium-ascorbate sol was used as starting solutions in CSGP method. • The gelation by IChTJ Process to microspheres (Ø <50 μm) with 100% efficiency was used. • ThO{sub 2} microspheres exhibit a high sphericity, crack-free surface and microstructure. • The cubic crystalline structure of ThO{sub 2} was produced at 700 °C.

  16. Red Queen Processes Drive Positive Selection on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejsmond, Maciej Jan; Radwan, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes code for proteins involved in the incitation of the adaptive immune response in vertebrates, which is achieved through binding oligopeptides (antigens) of pathogenic origin. Across vertebrate species, substitutions of amino acids at sites responsible for the specificity of antigen binding (ABS) are positively selected. This is attributed to pathogen-driven balancing selection, which is also thought to maintain the high polymorphism of MHC genes, and to cause the sharing of allelic lineages between species. However, the nature of this selection remains controversial. We used individual-based computer simulations to investigate the roles of two phenomena capable of maintaining MHC polymorphism: heterozygote advantage and host-pathogen arms race (Red Queen process). Our simulations revealed that levels of MHC polymorphism were high and driven mostly by the Red Queen process at a high pathogen mutation rate, but were low and driven mostly by heterozygote advantage when the pathogen mutation rate was low. We found that novel mutations at ABSs are strongly favored by the Red Queen process, but not by heterozygote advantage, regardless of the pathogen mutation rate. However, while the strong advantage of novel alleles increased the allele turnover rate, under a high pathogen mutation rate, allelic lineages persisted for a comparable length of time under Red Queen and under heterozygote advantage. Thus, when pathogens evolve quickly, the Red Queen is capable of explaining both positive selection and long coalescence times, but the tension between the novel allele advantage and persistence of alleles deserves further investigation.

  17. Directional dual-tree complex wavelet packet transforms for processing quadrature signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbes, Gorkem; Gulcur, Halil Ozcan; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2016-03-01

    Quadrature signals containing in-phase and quadrature-phase components are used in many signal processing applications in every field of science and engineering. Specifically, Doppler ultrasound systems used to evaluate cardiovascular disorders noninvasively also result in quadrature format signals. In order to obtain directional blood flow information, the quadrature outputs have to be preprocessed using methods such as asymmetrical and symmetrical phasing filter techniques. These resultant directional signals can be employed in order to detect asymptomatic embolic signals caused by small emboli, which are indicators of a possible future stroke, in the cerebral circulation. Various transform-based methods such as Fourier and wavelet were frequently used in processing embolic signals. However, most of the times, the Fourier and discrete wavelet transforms are not appropriate for the analysis of embolic signals due to their non-stationary time-frequency behavior. Alternatively, discrete wavelet packet transform can perform an adaptive decomposition of the time-frequency axis. In this study, directional discrete wavelet packet transforms, which have the ability to map directional information while processing quadrature signals and have less computational complexity than the existing wavelet packet-based methods, are introduced. The performances of proposed methods are examined in detail by using single-frequency, synthetic narrow-band, and embolic quadrature signals.

  18. Red Queen Processes Drive Positive Selection on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Jan Ejsmond

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes code for proteins involved in the incitation of the adaptive immune response in vertebrates, which is achieved through binding oligopeptides (antigens of pathogenic origin. Across vertebrate species, substitutions of amino acids at sites responsible for the specificity of antigen binding (ABS are positively selected. This is attributed to pathogen-driven balancing selection, which is also thought to maintain the high polymorphism of MHC genes, and to cause the sharing of allelic lineages between species. However, the nature of this selection remains controversial. We used individual-based computer simulations to investigate the roles of two phenomena capable of maintaining MHC polymorphism: heterozygote advantage and host-pathogen arms race (Red Queen process. Our simulations revealed that levels of MHC polymorphism were high and driven mostly by the Red Queen process at a high pathogen mutation rate, but were low and driven mostly by heterozygote advantage when the pathogen mutation rate was low. We found that novel mutations at ABSs are strongly favored by the Red Queen process, but not by heterozygote advantage, regardless of the pathogen mutation rate. However, while the strong advantage of novel alleles increased the allele turnover rate, under a high pathogen mutation rate, allelic lineages persisted for a comparable length of time under Red Queen and under heterozygote advantage. Thus, when pathogens evolve quickly, the Red Queen is capable of explaining both positive selection and long coalescence times, but the tension between the novel allele advantage and persistence of alleles deserves further investigation.

  19. Toward a better understanding of the complex geochemical processes governing subsurface contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puls, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Identification and understanding of the geochemical processes, including ion exchange, precipitation, organic partitioning, chemisorption, aqueous complexation, and colloidal stability and transport, controlling subsurface contamination is essential for making accurate predictions of the fate and transport of these constituents. Current approaches to quantify the effect of these processes primarily involve laboratory techniques, including the use of closed static systems (batch experiments) where small amounts of aquifer solids or minerals are contacted with an aqueous phase containing the components of interest for relatively short durations; and dynamic systems (column experiments) where a larger segment of the aquifer is investigated by analyzing the breakthrough profiles of reactive and non-reactive species. Both approaches are constrained by differences in scale, alteration of media during sample collection and use, and spatial variability. More field reactivity studies are needed to complement established laboratory approaches for the determination of retardation factors and scaling factors, corroboration of batch and column results, and validation of sampling techniques. These studies also serve to accentuate areas of geochemical process research where data deficiencies exist, such as the kinetics of adsorption-desorption, metal-organic-mineral interactions, and colloidal mobility. The advantages and disadvantages of the above approaches are discussed in the context of achieving a more completely integrated approach to geochemical transport experiments, with supportive data presented from selected studies. (Author) (16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.)

  20. Perovskite synthesis via complex sol-gel process to immobilize radioactive waste elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolinski, T.; Deptula, A.; Olczak, T.; Lada, W.; Brykala, M.; Wojtowicz, P.; Wawszczak, D.; Rogowski, M.; Zaza, F.

    2014-01-01

    Synroc (Synthetic Rocks) materials have been regarded as the second generation of high level waste forms in the world. It allows incorporating into their crystal structures almost all of the elements present in high-level radioactive waste. One of the components of Synroc-C is perovskite (CaTiO 3 ) which immobilize mainly fission products, but also allow immobilizing in his structure long-lived actinides such as plutonium (Pu). Perovskite phase has been fabricated by a sol-gel route. In the present work complex sol-gel process (CSGP Polish Patent PL 172618, 1997) and method of synthesis Me-titanates (Polish Patent PL 198039, 2001) were adapted to prepare of perovskite. Additions of 10 % molar Sr, Co, Cs and Nd into Ti-Ca-nitrate sols were carried out by CSGP. Gels obtained by evaporation of sols under reduced pressure were thermal treated according thermogravimetric (TG, DTA) analysis. Transformation of ascorbat-nitrate gels into doped orthorhombic perovskite phases was definitely lower (about 650 deg C) than those pure nitrate gels (approx. 700 deg C). All structures were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analyses. Surrogates were homogeneously distributed into crystalline structure of perovskite. It means that elaborated process can be applied for synthesis Synroc materials and it might be competitive to vitrification process. (author)

  1. Scheduling of Changes in Complex Engineering Design Process via Genetic Algorithm and Elementary Effects Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Engineering design changes constantly occur in a complex engineering design process. Designers have to put an appropriate procedure in place to handle these changes in order to realize successful product development in a timely and cost-effective manner. When many change propagation paths are present, selection of the best change evolution paths and distribution of change results to downstream tasks become critical to the progress management of the project. In this paper, based on the available change propagation simulation algorithm, a global sensitivity analysis method known as elementary effects (EE is employed to rank the importance of each potential propagation path with those involved design dependencies in the process. Further, an EE-based heuristic design dependency encoding method is applied to the genetic algorithm which is then adopted to schedule the change updating process. Finally, the optimal results obtained by the complete search and the heuristic dependency encoding methods are compared to illustrate the improvements and effectiveness of the latter method.

  2. Epigenetics and Shared Molecular Processes in the Regeneration of Complex Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib Rouhana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regenerate complex structures is broadly represented in both plant and animal kingdoms. Although regenerative abilities vary significantly amongst metazoans, cumulative studies have identified cellular events that are broadly observed during regenerative events. For example, structural damage is recognized and wound healing initiated upon injury, which is followed by programmed cell death in the vicinity of damaged tissue and a burst in proliferation of progenitor cells. Sustained proliferation and localization of progenitor cells to site of injury give rise to an assembly of differentiating cells known as the regeneration blastema, which fosters the development of new tissue. Finally, preexisting tissue rearranges and integrates with newly differentiated cells to restore proportionality and function. While heterogeneity exists in the basic processes displayed during regenerative events in different species—most notably the cellular source contributing to formation of new tissue—activation of conserved molecular pathways is imperative for proper regulation of cells during regeneration. Perhaps the most fundamental of such molecular processes entails chromatin rearrangements, which prime large changes in gene expression required for differentiation and/or dedifferentiation of progenitor cells. This review provides an overview of known contributions to regenerative processes by noncoding RNAs and chromatin-modifying enzymes involved in epigenetic regulation.

  3. Electron beam accelerator at BARC-BRIT complex - electron beam processing of materials and industrial utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khader, S.A.; Patkari, R.K.; Sharma, K.S.S.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, the 2MeV/20kW electron beam (EB) accelerator located at BARC-BRIT complex, Vashi has been successfully utilised for non-thermal applications to develop speciality products useful for the industry. Polymer materials are exposed to high energy electrons to induce crosslinking and degradation reactions in a number of industrial products without the use of external chemicals and additives. Various EB crosslinked products viz. PE O-rings, automotive components, automobile tyres, electrical insulations, etc have been found to be much superior in quality compared to those produced conventionally. A process has been developed to enhance colours in the polished diamonds and gem stones using EB irradiation at the facility which has attracted much attention in the Indian diamond industry as a value-addition process. Recycling of polymer waste processed under EB to produce microfine PTFE powder, to reuse in automobile industry etc. has shown good potential for the industrial use. The process feasibility both in terms of economics and technology have been amply demonstrated on a technological scale by installing special conveyors at our facility for irradiating various industrial products. Around 100 km cable insulations, 1.5 million PE O-rings and more than 40000 carats of polished diamonds have been processed in our facility over a period of time on commercial scale. Encouraged with the results, Indian private entrepreneurs have set up dedicated EB machines in some of the most significant industries producing wire and cables, electrical gadgets based on polymer composites, automobile tyres and diamonds. The products are unique in properties and are in some cases, became import substitutes. The industry is now fully geared up to adapt the technology by realising the advantages viz ease in adaptability, convenient, safe and environmental-friendly nature. Encouraged by the process demonstrations, while five EB accelerators were setup and are in operation

  4. Differences Between Individual and Societal Health State Valuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Franks, Peter; Duberstein, Paul R.; Jerant, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Objective The concept of “adaptation” has been proposed to account for differences between individual and societal valuations of specific health states in patients with chronic diseases. Little is known about psychological indices of adaptational capacity, which may predict differences in individual and societal valuations of health states. We investigated whether such differences were partially explained by personality traits in chronic disease patients. Research Design Analysis of baseline data of randomized controlled trial. Subjects Three hundred seventy patients with chronic disease. Measures The NEO-five factor inventory measure of personality, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) societal-based, and the EQ visual analogue scale individually-based measures of health valuation. Results Regression analyses modeled Dev, a measure of difference between the EQ-Visual Analogue Scale and EQ-5D, as a function of personality traits, sociodemographic factors, and chronic diseases. Individual valuations were significantly and clinically higher than societal valuations among patients in the second and third quartile of conscientiousness (Dev = 0.08, P = 0.01); among covariates, only depression (Dev = -0.04, P = 0.046) was also associated with Dev. Conclusion Compared with societal valuations of a given health state, persons at higher quartiles of conscientiousness report less disutility associated with poor health. The effect is roughly twice that of some estimates of minimally important clinical differences on the EQ-5D and of depression. Although useful at the aggregate level, societal preference measures may systematically undervalue the health states of more conscientious individuals. Future work should examine the impact this has on individual patient outcome evaluation in clinical studies. PMID:19543121

  5. Societal costs of fetal alcohol syndrome in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Lisa; Magnusson, Lennart; Hovstadius, Bo

    2017-06-01

    To estimate the annual societal cost of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in Sweden, focusing on the secondary disabilities thought feasible to limit via early interventions. Prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis of FAS in Sweden for 2014. Direct costs (societal support, special education, psychiatric disorders and alcohol/drug abuse) and indirect costs (reduced working capacity and informal caring), were included. The calculations were based on published Swedish studies, including a register-based follow-up study of adults with FAS, reports and databases, and experts. The annual total societal cost of FAS was estimated at €76,000 per child (0-17 years) and €110,000 per adult (18-74 years), corresponding to €1.6 billion per year in the Swedish population using a prevalence of FAS of 0.2 %. The annual additional cost of FAS (difference between the FAS group and a comparison group) was estimated at €1.4 billion using a prevalence of 0.2 %. The major cost driver was the cost of societal support. The cost burden of FAS on the society is extensive, but likely to be underestimated. A reduction in the societal costs of FAS, both preventive and targeted interventions to children with FAS, should be prioritized. That is, the cost of early interventions such as placement in family homes or other forms of housing, and special education, represent unavoidable costs. However, these types of interventions are highly relevant to improve the individual's quality of life and future prospects, and also, within a long-term perspective, to limit the societal costs and personal suffering.

  6. Societal impacts of information and communications technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Dé

    2016-01-01

    The promise of information and communications technology (ICT) to deliver change is attractive and draws practitioners to experiment and build. Academics and researchers too believe in such benefits but point to certain challenges: changing processes and people to adapt to a new technology, which is invariably an import from a Western nation; the conflicts arising from the changes introduced by ICT, with some groups benefitting over others; and ensuring that the social change that is desired ...

  7. Hanford Central Waste Complex: Waste Receiving and Processing Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Central Waste Complex is an existing and planned series of treatment, and/or disposal (TSD) unites that will centralize the management of solid waste operations at a single location on the Hanford Facility. The Complex includes two units: the WRAP Facility and the Radioactive Mixed Wastes Storage Facility (RMW Storage Facility). This Part B permit application addresses the WRAP Facility. The Facility will be a treatment and storage unit that will provide the capability to examine, sample, characterize, treat, repackage, store, and certify radioactive and/or mixed waste. Waste treated and stored will include both radioactive and/or mixed waste received from onsite and offsite sources. Certification will be designed to ensure and demonstrate compliance with waste acceptance criteria set forth by onsite disposal units and/or offsite facilities that subsequently are to receive waste from the WRAP Facility. This permit application discusses the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characterization; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plant; personnel training; exposure information report; waste minimization plan; closure and postclosure requirements; reporting and recordkeeping; other relevant laws; certification

  8. New possibilities using additive manufacturing with materials that are difficult to process and with complex structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Anders; Hellsing, Maja S.; Rennie, Adrian R.

    2017-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) opens the possibility of creating new designs and manufacturing objects with new materials rapidly and economically. Particularly for use with polymers and polymer composites, simple printers can make high quality products, and these can be produced easily in offices, schools and in workshops and laboratories. This technology has opened a route for many to test ideas or to make custom devices. It is possible to easily manufacture complex geometries that would be difficult or even impossible to create with traditional methods. Naturally this technology has attracted attention in many fields that include the production of medical devices and prostheses, mechanical engineering as well as basic sciences. Materials that are highly problematic to machine can be used. We illustrate process developments with an account of the production of printer parts to cope with polymer fillers that are hard and abrasive; new nozzles with ruby inserts designed for such materials are durable and can be used to print boron carbide composites. As with other materials, complex parts can be printed using boron carbide composites with fine structures, such as screw threads and labels to identify materials. General ideas about design for this new era of manufacturing customised parts are presented.

  9. New possibilities using additive manufacturing with materials that are difficult to process and with complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Anders; Hellsing, Maja S; Rennie, Adrian R

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) opens the possibility of creating new designs and manufacturing objects with new materials rapidly and economically. Particularly for use with polymers and polymer composites, simple printers can make high quality products, and these can be produced easily in offices, schools and in workshops and laboratories. This technology has opened a route for many to test ideas or to make custom devices. It is possible to easily manufacture complex geometries that would be difficult or even impossible to create with traditional methods. Naturally this technology has attracted attention in many fields that include the production of medical devices and prostheses, mechanical engineering as well as basic sciences. Materials that are highly problematic to machine can be used. We illustrate process developments with an account of the production of printer parts to cope with polymer fillers that are hard and abrasive; new nozzles with ruby inserts designed for such materials are durable and can be used to print boron carbide composites. As with other materials, complex parts can be printed using boron carbide composites with fine structures, such as screw threads and labels to identify materials. General ideas about design for this new era of manufacturing customised parts are presented. (invited comment)

  10. Design Methodology: ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahim, Farah [Fermilab

    2014-10-31

    The development of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) for pixel detectors with complex in-pixel processing using Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools that are, themselves, mainly developed for the design of conventional digital circuits requires a specialized approach. Mixed signal pixels often require parasitically aware detailed analog front-ends and extremely compact digital back-ends with more than 1000 transistors in small areas below 100μm x 100μm. These pixels are tiled to create large arrays, which have the same clock distribution and data readout speed constraints as in, for example, micro-processors. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout.

  11. Modeling Electronic-Nuclear Interactions for Excitation Energy Transfer Processes in Light-Harvesting Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Kyung; Coker, David F

    2016-08-18

    An accurate approach for computing intermolecular and intrachromophore contributions to spectral densities to describe the electronic-nuclear interactions relevant for modeling excitation energy transfer processes in light harvesting systems is presented. The approach is based on molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of classical correlation functions of long-range contributions to excitation energy fluctuations and a separate harmonic analysis and single-point gradient quantum calculations for electron-intrachromophore vibrational couplings. A simple model is also presented that enables detailed analysis of the shortcomings of standard MD-based excitation energy fluctuation correlation function approaches. The method introduced here avoids these problems, and its reliability is demonstrated in accurate predictions for bacteriochlorophyll molecules in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex, where excellent agreement with experimental spectral densities is found. This efficient approach can provide instantaneous spectral densities for treating the influence of fluctuations in environmental dissipation on fast electronic relaxation.

  12. Development of a new continuous process for mixing of complex non-Newtonian fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, Simona; Mazzei, Luca; Sochon, Bob; Angeli, Panagiota; Thames Multiphase Team; Coral Project Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Design of new continuous mixing operations poses many challenges, especially when dealing with highly viscous non-Newtonian fluids. Knowledge of complex rheological behaviour of the working mixture is crucial for development of an efficient process. In this work, we investigate the mixing performance of two different static mixers and the effects of the mixture rheology on the manufacturing of novel non-aqueous-based oral care products using experimental and computational fluid dynamic methods. The two liquid phases employed, i.e. a carbomer suspension in polyethylene glycol and glycerol, start to form a gel when they mix. We studied the structure evolution of the liquid mixture using time-resolved rheometry and we obtained viscosity rheograms at different phase ratios from pressure drop measurements in a customized mini-channel. The numerical results and rheological model were validated with experimental measurements carried out in a specifically designed setup. EPSRS-CORAL.

  13. Strategy Complexity of Finite-Horizon Markov Decision Processes and Simple Stochastic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2012-01-01

    Markov decision processes (MDPs) and simple stochastic games (SSGs) provide a rich mathematical framework to study many important problems related to probabilistic systems. MDPs and SSGs with finite-horizon objectives, where the goal is to maximize the probability to reach a target state in a given...... finite time, is a classical and well-studied problem. In this work we consider the strategy complexity of finite-horizon MDPs and SSGs. We show that for all ε > 0, the natural class of counter-based strategies require at most loglog(1 ϵ )+n+1 memory states, and memory of size Ω(loglog(1 ϵ )+n......) is required, for ε-optimality, where n is the number of states of the MDP (resp. SSG). Thus our bounds are asymptotically optimal. We then study the periodic property of optimal strategies, and show a sub-exponential lower bound on the period for optimal strategies....

  14. Automated information and control complex of hydro-gas endogenous mine processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davkaev, K. S.; Lyakhovets, M. V.; Gulevich, T. M.; Zolin, K. A.

    2017-09-01

    The automated information and control complex designed to prevent accidents, related to aerological situation in the underground workings, accounting of the received and handed over individual devices, transmission and display of measurement data, and the formation of preemptive solutions is considered. Examples for the automated workplace of an airgas control operator by individual means are given. The statistical characteristics of field data characterizing the aerological situation in the mine are obtained. The conducted studies of statistical characteristics confirm the feasibility of creating a subsystem of controlled gas distribution with an adaptive arrangement of points for gas control. The adaptive (multivariant) algorithm for processing measuring information of continuous multidimensional quantities and influencing factors has been developed.

  15. Energy Consumption in the Process of Excavator-Automobile Complexes Distribution at Kuzbass Open Pit Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panachev Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year worldwide coal mining companies seek to maintain the tendency of the mining machine fleet renewal. Various activities to maintain the service life of already operated mining equipment are implemented. In this regard, the urgent issue is the problem of efficient distribution of available machines in different geological conditions. The problem of “excavator-automobile” complex effective distribution occurs when heavy dump trucks are used in mining. For this reason, excavation and transportation of blasted rock mass are the most labor intensive and costly processes, considering the volume of transported overburden and coal, as well as diesel fuel, electricity, fuel and lubricants costs, consumables for repair works and downtime, etc. Currently, it is recommended to take the number of loading buckets in the range of 3 to 5, according to which the dump trucks are distributed to faces.

  16. Societal risk approach to safeguards design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphey, W.M.; Sherr, T.S.; Bennett, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive rationale for safeguards design and evaluation, and a framework for continuing systematic assessment of the system's effectiveness and efficient allocation of available safeguards resources for balanced protection, were developed. The societal risk approach employed considers the likelihood of successful destructive acts involving nuclear materials or facilities and the magnitude of the effects on society. The safeguards problem is described in terms of events affecting societal risk and adversary actions. Structure of the safeguards system and the evaluation of its adequacy are discussed. Adversary characteristics are also discussed

  17. Routinely-collected general practice data are complex, but with systematic processing can be used for quality improvement and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2006-03-01

    Conclusions Routinely collected primary care data could contribute more to the process of health improvement; however, those working with these data need to understand fully the complexity of the context within which data entry takes place.

  18. Regulation of amyloid precursor protein processing by the Beclin 1 complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp A Jaeger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular degradation pathway that functions in protein and organelle turnover in response to starvation and cellular stress. Autophagy is initiated by the formation of a complex containing Beclin 1 (BECN1 and its binding partner Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, class 3 (PIK3C3. Recently, BECN1 deficiency was shown to enhance the pathology of a mouse model of Alzheimer Disease (AD. However, the mechanism by which BECN1 or autophagy mediate these effects are unknown. Here, we report that the levels of Amyloid precursor protein (APP and its metabolites can be reduced through autophagy activation, indicating that they are a substrate for autophagy. Furthermore, we find that knockdown of Becn1 in cell culture increases the levels of APP and its metabolites. Accumulation of APP and APP C-terminal fragments (APP-CTF are accompanied by impaired autophagosomal clearance. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagosomal-lysosomal degradation causes a comparable accumulation of APP and APP-metabolites in autophagosomes. Becn1 reduction in cell culture leads to lower levels of its binding partner Pik3c3 and increased presence of Microtubule-associated protein 1, light chain 3 (LC3. Overexpression of Becn1, on the other hand, reduces cellular APP levels. In line with these observations, we detected less BECN1 and PIK3C3 but more LC3 protein in brains of AD patients. We conclude that BECN1 regulates APP processing and turnover. BECN1 is involved in autophagy initiation and autophagosome clearance. Accordingly, BECN1 deficiency disrupts cellular autophagy and autophagosomal-lysosomal degradation and alters APP metabolism. Together, our findings suggest that autophagy and the BECN1-PIK3C3 complex regulate APP processing and play an important role in AD pathology.

  19. SBGNViz: A Tool for Visualization and Complexity Management of SBGN Process Description Maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mecit Sari

    Full Text Available Information about cellular processes and pathways is becoming increasingly available in detailed, computable standard formats such as BioPAX and SBGN. Effective visualization of this information is a key recurring requirement for biological data analysis, especially for -omic data. Biological data analysis is rapidly migrating to web based platforms; thus there is a substantial need for sophisticated web based pathway viewers that support these platforms and other use cases.Towards this goal, we developed a web based viewer named SBGNViz for process description maps in SBGN (SBGN-PD. SBGNViz can visualize both BioPAX and SBGN formats. Unique features of SBGNViz include the ability to nest nodes to arbitrary depths to represent molecular complexes and cellular locations, automatic pathway layout, editing and highlighting facilities to enable focus on sub-maps, and the ability to inspect pathway members for detailed information from EntrezGene. SBGNViz can be used within a web browser without any installation and can be readily embedded into web pages. SBGNViz has two editions built with ActionScript and JavaScript. The JavaScript edition, which also works on touch enabled devices, introduces novel methods for managing and reducing complexity of large SBGN-PD maps for more effective analysis.SBGNViz fills an important gap by making the large and fast-growing corpus of rich pathway information accessible to web based platforms. SBGNViz can be used in a variety of contexts and in multiple scenarios ranging from visualization of the results of a single study in a web page to building data analysis platforms.

  20. Mathematical Optimal Sequence Model Development to Process Planes and Other Interconnected Surfaces of Complex Body Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Kravchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience in application of multi-operational machines CNC (MOM CNC shows that they are efficient only in case of significantly increasing productivity and dramatically reducing time-to-market cycle of new products. Most full technological MOM capabilities are revealed when processing the complex body parts. The more complex is a part design and the more is its number of machined surfaces, the more tools are necessary for its processing and positioning, the more is an efficiency of their application. At the same time, the case history of using these machines in industry shows that MOM CNC are, virtually, used mostly for technological processes of universal equipment, which is absolutely unacceptable. One way to improve the processing performance on MOM CNC is to reduce nonproductive machine time through reducing the mutual idle movements of the working machine. This problem is solved using dynamic programming methods, one of which is the solution of the traveling salesman problem (Bellman's method. With a known plan for treatment of all elementary surfaces of the body part, i.e. the known number of performed transitions, each transition is represented as a vertex of some graph, while technological links between the vertices are its edges. A mathematical model is developed on the Bellman principle, which is adapted to technological tasks to minimize the idle time of mutual idle movements of the working machine to perform all transitions in the optimal sequence. The initial data to fill matrix of time expenditures are time consumed by the hardware after executing the i-th transition, and necessary to complete the j-transition. The programmer fills in matrix cells according to known routing body part taking into account the time for part and table positioning, tool exchange, spindle and table approach to the working zone, and the time of table rotation, etc. The mathematical model was tested when machining the body part with 36 transitions on the

  1. Improving the normalization of complex interventions: measure development based on normalization process theory (NoMAD): study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, Tracy L; Rapley, Tim; Girling, Melissa; Mair, Frances S; Murray, Elizabeth; Treweek, Shaun; McColl, Elaine; Steen, Ian Nicholas; May, Carl R

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding implementation processes is key to ensuring that complex interventions in healthcare are taken up in practice and thus maximize intended benefits for service provision and (ultimately) care to patients. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) provides a framework for understanding how a new intervention becomes part of normal practice. This study aims to develop and validate simple generic tools derived from NPT, to be used to improve the implementation of complex healthca...

  2. Uterine Wound Healing: A Complex Process Mediated by Proteins and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrumento, Dario D; Di Nardo, Maria A; De Falco, Marianna; Di Lieto, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Wound healing is the process by which a complex cascade of biochemical events is responsible of the repair the damage. In vivo, studies in humans and mice suggest that healing and post-healing heterogeneous behavior of the surgically wounded myometrium is both phenotype and genotype dependent. Uterine wound healing process involves many cells: endothelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, myometrial cells as well a stem cell population found in the myometrium, myoSP (side population of myometrial cells). Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) isoforms, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-β) are involved in the wound healing mechanisms. The increased TGF- β1/β3 ratio reduces scarring and fibrosis. The CTGF altered expression may be a factor involved in the abnormal scars formation of low uterine segment after cesarean section and of the formation of uterine dehiscence. The lack of bFGF is involved in the reduction of collagen deposition in the wound site and thicker scabs. The altered expression of TNF-β, VEGF, and PDGF in human myometrial smooth muscle cells in case of uterine dehiscence, it is implicated in the uterine healing process. The over-and under-expressions of growth factors genes involved in uterine scarring process could represent patient's specific features, increasing the risk of cesarean scar complications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Providing Context for Complexity: Using Infographics and Conceptual Models to Teach Global Change Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding modern and historical global changes requires interdisciplinary knowledge of the physical and life sciences. The Understanding Global Change website from the UC Museum of Paleontology will use a focal infographic that unifies diverse content often taught in separate K-12 science units. This visualization tool provides scientists with a structure for presenting research within the broad context of global change, and supports educators with a framework for teaching and assessing student understanding of complex global change processes. This new approach to teaching the science of global change is currently being piloted and refined based on feedback from educators and scientists in anticipation of a 2016 website launch. Global change concepts are categorized within the infographic as causes of global change (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, volcanism), ongoing Earth system processes (e.g., ocean circulation, the greenhouse effect), and the changes scientists measure in Earth's physical and biological systems (e.g., temperature, extinctions/radiations). The infographic will appear on all website content pages and provides a template for the creation of flowcharts, which are conceptual models that allow teachers and students to visualize the interdependencies and feedbacks among processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. The development of this resource is timely given that the newly adopted Next Generation Science Standards emphasize cross-cutting concepts, including model building, and Earth system science. Flowchart activities will be available on the website to scaffold inquiry-based lessons, determine student preconceptions, and assess student content knowledge. The infographic has already served as a learning and evaluation tool during professional development workshops at UC Berkeley, Stanford University, and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. At these workshops, scientists and educators used the infographic

  4. PLF and Sustainability, Ethics and Societal Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild

    2011-01-01

    . However, new farming technologies may have a much wider impact on society than the immediate consequences for farmers and their livestock; this impact can be evaluated objectively using different methods for ethical assessment. Precision livestock farming can be defined as the management of livestock......Precision livestock farming is a new concept that has great potential to transform livestock farming by introducing a degree of management control over the component processes that was previously impossible. An essential difference from the former husbandry is the scale of the modern livestock farm...

  5. ASPIE: A Framework for Active Sensing and Processing of Complex Events in the Internet of Manufacturing Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid perception and processing of critical monitoring events are essential to ensure healthy operation of Internet of Manufacturing Things (IoMT-based manufacturing processes. In this paper, we proposed a framework (active sensing and processing architecture (ASPIE for active sensing and processing of critical events in IoMT-based manufacturing based on the characteristics of IoMT architecture as well as its perception model. A relation model of complex events in manufacturing processes, together with related operators and unified XML-based semantic definitions, are developed to effectively process the complex event big data. A template based processing method for complex events is further introduced to conduct complex event matching using the Apriori frequent item mining algorithm. To evaluate the proposed models and methods, we developed a software platform based on ASPIE for a local chili sauce manufacturing company, which demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods for active perception and processing of complex events in IoMT-based manufacturing.

  6. Squaring the Arctic Circle: connecting Arctic knowledge with societal needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the coming years the landscape of the Arctic will change substantially- environmentally, politically, and economically. Furthermore, Arctic change has the potential to significantly impact Arctic and non-Arctic countries alike. Thus, our science is in-demand by local communities, politicians, industry leaders and the public. During these times of transition it is essential that the links between science and society be strengthened further. Strong links between science and society is exactly what is needed for the development of better decision-making tools to support sustainable development, enable adaptation to climate change, provide the information necessary for improved management of assets and operations in the Arctic region, and and to inform scientific, economic, environmental and societal policies. By doing so tangible benefits will flow to Arctic societies, as well as for non-Arctic countries that will be significantly affected by climate change. Past experience has shown that the engagement with a broad range of stakeholders is not always an easy process. Consequently, we need to improve collaborative opportunities between scientists, indigenous/local communities, private sector, policy makers, NGOs, and other relevant stakeholders. The development of best practices in this area must build on the collective experiences of successful cross-sectorial programmes. Within this session we present some of the outreach work we have performed within the EU programme ICE-ARC, from community meetings in NW Greenland through to sessions at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP Conferences, industry round tables, and an Arctic side event at the World Economic Forum in Davos.

  7. Web mapping system for complex processing and visualization of environmental geospatial datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Alexander; Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Environmental geospatial datasets (meteorological observations, modeling and reanalysis results, etc.) are used in numerous research applications. Due to a number of objective reasons such as inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets, big dataset volume, complexity of data models used, syntactic and semantic differences that complicate creation and use of unified terminology, the development of environmental geodata access, processing and visualization services as well as client applications turns out to be quite a sophisticated task. According to general INSPIRE requirements to data visualization geoportal web applications have to provide such standard functionality as data overview, image navigation, scrolling, scaling and graphical overlay, displaying map legends and corresponding metadata information. It should be noted that modern web mapping systems as integrated geoportal applications are developed based on the SOA and might be considered as complexes of interconnected software tools for working with geospatial data. In the report a complex web mapping system including GIS web client and corresponding OGC services for working with geospatial (NetCDF, PostGIS) dataset archive is presented. There are three basic tiers of the GIS web client in it: 1. Tier of geospatial metadata retrieved from central MySQL repository and represented in JSON format 2. Tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods handling: --- NetCDF metadata --- Task XML object for configuring user calculations, input and output formats --- OGC WMS/WFS cartographical services 3. Graphical user interface (GUI) tier representing JavaScript objects realizing web application business logic Metadata tier consists of a number of JSON objects containing technical information describing geospatial datasets (such as spatio-temporal resolution, meteorological parameters, valid processing methods, etc). The middleware tier of JavaScript objects implementing methods for handling geospatial

  8. Mushy magma processes in the Tuolumne intrusive complex, Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memeti, V.; Paterson, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Debates continue on the nature of volcanic-plutonic connections and the mechanisms of derivation of large volcanic eruptions, which require large volumes of magma to be readily available within a short period of time. Our focus to understand these magma plumbing systems has been to study the nature of their mid-to upper crustal sections, such as the 1,000 km2, 95-85 Ma old Tuolumne intrusive complex in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. The Tuolumne intrusive complex is a great example where the magma mush model nicely explains observations derived from several datasets. These data suggest that a magma mush body was present and may have been quite extensive especially at times when the Tuolumne intrusive complex was undergoing waxing periods of magmatism (increased magma input), which alternated with waning periods of magmatism (decreased magma addition) and thus a smaller mush body, essentially mimicking in style periodic flare-ups and lulls at the arc scale. During waxing stages, magma erosion and mixing were the dominant processes, whereas waning stages allowed mush domains to continue to undergo fractional crystallization creating additional compositional variations. Over time, the imprint left behind by previous waxing and waning stages was partly overprinted, but individual crystals successfully recorded the compositions of these earlier magmas. Waxing periods in the Tuolumne intrusive complex during which large magma mush bodies formed are supported by the following evidence: 1) Hybrid units and gradational contacts are commonly present between major Tuolumne units. 2) CA-TIMS U/Pb zircon geochronology data demonstrate that antecrystic zircon recycling took place unidirectional from the oldest, marginal unit toward the younger, interior parts of the intrusion, where increasing zircon age spread encompasses the entire age range of the Tuolumne. 3) The younger, interior units also show an increasing scatter and complexity in geochemical element and isotope

  9. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the hydrolysis complexes of cisplatin : Implications for the hydrolysis process of platinum complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Feifan; Colin, Pieter; Van Bocxlaer, Jan

    Non-enzyme-dependent hydrolysis of the drug cisplatin is important for its mode of action and toxicity. However, up until today, the hydrolysis process of cisplatin is still not completely understood. In the present study, the hydrolysis of cisplatin in an aqueous solution was systematically

  10. Bioregenerative Life Support Systems Test Complex (Bio-Plex) Food Processing System: A Dual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Vittadini, Elena; Peterson, Laurie J.; Swango, Beverly E.; Toerne, Mary E.; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Bioregenerative Life Support Test Complex, BIO-Plex, is currently being constructed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX. This facility will attempt to answer the questions involved in developing a lunar or planetary base. The Food Processing System (FPS) of the BIO-Plex is responsible for supplying food to the crew in coordination with the chosen mission scenario. Long duration space missions require development of both a Transit Food System and of a Lunar or Planetary Food System. These two systems are intrinsically different since the first one will be utilized in the transit vehicle in microgravity conditions with mostly resupplied foods, while the second will be used in conditions of partial gravity (hypogravity) to process foods from crops grown in the facility. The Transit Food System will consist of prepackaged food of extended shelf life. It will be supplemented with salad crops that will be consumed fresh. Microgravity imposes significant limitation on the ability to handle food and allows only for minimal processing. The challenge is to develop food systems similar to the International Space Station or Shuttle Food Systems but with a shelf life of 3 - 5 years. The Lunar or Planetary Food System will allow for food processing of crops due to the presence of some gravitational force (1/6 to 1/3 that of Earth). Crops such as wheat, soybean, rice, potato, peanut, and salad crops, will be processed to final products to provide a nutritious and acceptable diet for the crew. Not only are constraints imposed on the FPS from the crops (e.g., crop variation, availability, storage and shelf-life) but also significant requirements are present for the crew meals (e.g., RDA, high quality, safety, variety). The FPS becomes a fulcrum creating the right connection from crops to crew meals while dealing with issues of integration within a closed self-regenerative system (e.g., safe processing, waste production, volumes, air contaminations, water usage, etc

  11. Processing Complex Sounds Passing through the Rostral Brainstem: The New Early Filter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Campbell, Tom A.

    2016-01-01

    The rostral brainstem receives both “bottom-up” input from the ascending auditory system and “top-down” descending corticofugal connections. Speech information passing through the inferior colliculus of elderly listeners reflects the periodicity envelope of a speech syllable. This information arguably also reflects a composite of temporal-fine-structure (TFS) information from the higher frequency vowel harmonics of that repeated syllable. The amplitude of those higher frequency harmonics, bearing even higher frequency TFS information, correlates positively with the word recognition ability of elderly listeners under reverberatory conditions. Also relevant is that working memory capacity (WMC), which is subject to age-related decline, constrains the processing of sounds at the level of the brainstem. Turning to the effects of a visually presented sensory or memory load on auditory processes, there is a load-dependent reduction of that processing, as manifest in the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) evoked by to-be-ignored clicks. Wave V decreases in amplitude with increases in the visually presented memory load. A visually presented sensory load also produces a load-dependent reduction of a slightly different sort: The sensory load of visually presented information limits the disruptive effects of background sound upon working memory performance. A new early filter model is thus advanced whereby systems within the frontal lobe (affected by sensory or memory load) cholinergically influence top-down corticofugal connections. Those corticofugal connections constrain the processing of complex sounds such as speech at the level of the brainstem. Selective attention thereby limits the distracting effects of background sound entering the higher auditory system via the inferior colliculus. Processing TFS in the brainstem relates to perception of speech under adverse conditions. Attentional selectivity is crucial when the signal heard is degraded or masked: e

  12. Radiation a new paradigm... Societal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Latency is associated with the time lag it takes for the health effects resulting from exposure to ionising radiation to show up. However, the term latency can also be applied to the time it takes for a policy to be implemented. This length of time has been suggested as broadly 40-year process. Given that radioactivity was identified and named in 1896, three paradigms are identified and examined from 1896 to 2016 and the criteria for a 4th paradigm suggested for the period 2017-2056. The review examines the changes that have taken place in scientific understanding and in public trust, a few key developments and the associated establishment of the related organisational infrastructure designed to collate and assess the evidence.

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Remote Estimation of Flooded Areas Based on Complex Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Popescu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Floods are natural disasters which cause the most economic damage at the global level. Therefore, flood monitoring and damage estimation are very important for the population, authorities and insurance companies. The paper proposes an original solution, based on a hybrid network and complex image processing, to this problem. As first novelty, a multilevel system, with two components, terrestrial and aerial, was proposed and designed by the authors as support for image acquisition from a delimited region. The terrestrial component contains a Ground Control Station, as a coordinator at distance, which communicates via the internet with more Ground Data Terminals, as a fixed nodes network for data acquisition and communication. The aerial component contains mobile nodes—fixed wing type UAVs. In order to evaluate flood damage, two tasks must be accomplished by the network: area coverage and image processing. The second novelty of the paper consists of texture analysis in a deep neural network, taking into account new criteria for feature selection and patch classification. Color and spatial information extracted from chromatic co-occurrence matrix and mass fractal dimension were used as well. Finally, the experimental results in a real mission demonstrate the validity of the proposed methodologies and the performances of the algorithms.

  14. Image processing for cryogenic transmission electron microscopy of symmetry-mismatched complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiskonen, Juha T

    2018-02-08

    Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) is a high-resolution biological imaging method, whereby biological samples, such as purified proteins, macromolecular complexes, viral particles, organelles and cells, are embedded in vitreous ice preserving their native structures. Due to sensitivity of biological materials to the electron beam of the microscope, only relatively low electron doses can be applied during imaging. As a result, the signal arising from the structure of interest is overpowered by noise in the images. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, different image processing-based strategies that aim at coherent averaging of signal have been devised. In such strategies, images are generally assumed to arise from multiple identical copies of the structure. Prior to averaging, the images must be grouped according to the view of the structure they represent and images representing the same view must be simultaneously aligned relatively to each other. For computational reconstruction of the three-dimensional structure, images must contain different views of the original structure. Structures with multiple symmetry-related substructures are advantageous in averaging approaches because each image provides multiple views of the substructures. However, the symmetry assumption may be valid for only parts of the structure, leading to incoherent averaging of the other parts. Several image processing approaches have been adapted to tackle symmetry-mismatched substructures with increasing success. Such structures are ubiquitous in nature and further computational method development is needed to understanding their biological functions. ©2018 The Author(s).

  15. Low-complexity image processing for real-time detection of neonatal clonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntonfo, Guy Mathurin Kouamou; Ferrari, Gianluigi; Raheli, Riccardo; Pisani, Francesco

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we consider a novel low-complexity real-time image-processing-based approach to the detection of neonatal clonic seizures. Our approach is based on the extraction, from a video of a newborn, of an average luminance signal representative of the body movements. Since clonic seizures are characterized by periodic movements of parts of the body (e.g., the limbs), by evaluating the periodicity of the extracted average luminance signal it is possible to detect the presence of a clonic seizure. The periodicity is investigated, through a hybrid autocorrelation-Yin estimation technique, on a per-window basis, where a time window is defined as a sequence of consecutive video frames. While processing is first carried out on a single window basis, we extend our approach to interlaced windows. The performance of the proposed detection algorithm is investigated, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, through receiver operating characteristic curves, considering video recordings of newborns affected by neonatal seizures.

  16. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Remote Estimation of Flooded Areas Based on Complex Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Dan; Ichim, Loretta; Stoican, Florin

    2017-02-23

    Floods are natural disasters which cause the most economic damage at the global level. Therefore, flood monitoring and damage estimation are very important for the population, authorities and insurance companies. The paper proposes an original solution, based on a hybrid network and complex image processing, to this problem. As first novelty, a multilevel system, with two components, terrestrial and aerial, was proposed and designed by the authors as support for image acquisition from a delimited region. The terrestrial component contains a Ground Control Station, as a coordinator at distance, which communicates via the internet with more Ground Data Terminals, as a fixed nodes network for data acquisition and communication. The aerial component contains mobile nodes-fixed wing type UAVs. In order to evaluate flood damage, two tasks must be accomplished by the network: area coverage and image processing. The second novelty of the paper consists of texture analysis in a deep neural network, taking into account new criteria for feature selection and patch classification. Color and spatial information extracted from chromatic co-occurrence matrix and mass fractal dimension were used as well. Finally, the experimental results in a real mission demonstrate the validity of the proposed methodologies and the performances of the algorithms.

  17. Treatment of complex heavy metal wastewater using a multi-staged ferrite process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yao-Jen; Chang, Chien-Kuei; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Shan-Li

    2012-03-30

    Complete removal of heavy metal from complex heavy-metal wastewater (CHMW) requires advanced technology. This study investigated the feasibility of a multi-staged ferrite process (MSFP) for treating CHMW, containing Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ag, Hg, Ni, Sn and Mn. Our experimental results showed that most of the supernatants after conventional single-step ferrite process could conform to the effluent standard of Environmental Protection Administration in Taiwan. However, the sludge could not satisfy the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limits due to high Cd, Cu, and Pb concentrations. The performance of MSFP in removing heavy metals from wastewater was subsequently investigated and the parameters of three treating steps in MSFP were optimized under 70°C and 90°C at pH 9, and 80°C at pH 10. After the three-staged procedures, all heavy metals in supernatant and sludge could fulfill the contamination levels regulated by law. In addition, the sludge generated from the MSFP was examined by XRD and forms a stable spinel structure, which could be effectively separated by external magnetic field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An analysis of the processing requirements of a complex perceptual-motor task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A. F.; Wickens, C. D.; Donchin, E.

    1983-01-01

    Current concerns in the assessment of mental workload are discussed, and the event-related brain potential (ERP) is introduced as a promising mental-workload index. Subjects participated in a series of studies in which they were required to perform a target acquisition task while also covertly counting either auditory or visual probes. The effects of several task-difficulty manipulations on the P300 component of the ERP elicited by the counted stimulus probes were investigated. With sufficiently practiced subjects the amplitude of the P300 was found to decrease with increases in task difficulty. The second experiment also provided evidence that the P300 is selectively sensitive to task-relevant attributes. A third experiment demonstrated a convergence in the amplitude of the P300s elicited in the simple and difficult versions of the tracking task. The amplitude of the P300 was also found to covary with the measures of tracking performance. The results of the series of three experiments illustrate the sensitivity of the P300 to the processing requirements of a complex target acquisition task. The findings are discussed in terms of the multidimensional nature of processing resources.

  19. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONALMETHODS FOR COMPLEX SIMULATION OF THERMAL PROCESSES IN POWER ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risto V. Filkoski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The overall frame and principal steps of complex numerical modelling of thermal processes in power boiler furnaces on pulverised coal with tangential disposition of the burners are presented in the paper. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique is used as a tool to perform comprehensive thermal analysis in two test cases. The methodology for creation of three-dimensional models of boiler furnaces is briefly described. Standard steady k- model is employed for description of the turbulent flow. The coupling of continuity and momentum is achieved by the SIMPLEC method. Coal combustion is modelled by the mixture fraction/probability density function approach for the reaction chemistry, with equilibrium assumption applied for description of the system chemistry. Thermal radiation is computed by means of the simplified P-N model, based on expansion of the radiation intensity into an orthogonal series of spherical harmonics.Comparison between the simulation predictions and available site measurements leads to a conclusion that the model produces realistic insight into the furnace processes. Qualitative agreement of the results indicates reasonability of the calculations and validates the employed sub-models. The described test cases and other experiences with CFD modelling stress the advantages over a purely field data study, such as the ability to quickly and cheaply analyse a variety of design options without actually modifying the object and the availability of significantly more data to interpret the results.

  20. Use of sealants: societal and professional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, P J

    1984-02-01

    two primary constraints are inadequate manpower and lack of financial resources. Clearly there has been a time-lag in the adoption of new sealant products, and it is apparent that no one factor can explain this lag; rather, many complex factors must be taken into account simultaneously. Extent of need does not appear to have influenced use, to date. Often, social change is slow, and all things considered, the lag observed for sealants may not be totally unreasonable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Individual Empowerment. Global Societal Trends to 2030: Thematic Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Marlon; Ghez, Jeremy; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Yaqub, Ohid

    2015-01-01

    This Research Report forms part of our series on global societal trends and their impact on the EU in 2030. This analysis is embedded within the framework of the European Strategy and Policy Analysis System (ESPAS) set up to develop a lasting framework to assess global trends and to develop policy responses across EU institutions over the next…

  2. Societal perspective on the burden of migraine in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Michel, B. C.; Rutten, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive overview of the societal burden of migraine in The Netherlands. We assessed the direct and indirect costs of this disease, and the health status of patients with migraine. We developed the 'illness and labour' (I&L) questionnaire to collect data on the effect of

  3. Education in Alberta: Some Major Societal Trends. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Policy Secretariat.

    The major societal trends happening in Alberta, Canada, have an impact on educational effectiveness in the region. Statistics are provided in the areas of demographics, family and society, Alberta's youth, labor force, and advances in science and technology. The section on demographics includes data on population growth, births, fertility rates,…

  4. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van der Lans, Ivo A.; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-05-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  5. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhi.gupta@wur.nl; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl; Lans, Ivo A. van der, E-mail: Ivo.vanderLans@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  6. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology : an expert stakeholder analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, N.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an

  7. Lorenzo Cini, Società civile e democrazia radicale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La nostra collana Methexis ha pubblicato ad accesso aperto il volume di Lorenzo Cini, Società civile e democrazia radicale, Firenze, Firenze University Press, 2012. La versione digitale del testo, in formato PDF, è a disposizione di tutti presso l’archivio elettronico dell'editore.

  8. Power and contexts – some societal conditions for participatory projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen; Kristiansen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    between two societal Discourses: an economic-management Discourse versus a pedagogic-social Discourse. Unfortunately, we were not aware of the strength and the extent of the economic-management Discourse before it was too late. Thirdly, the article speaks in favor of continuous context inquiring dialogues...

  9. Societal Renewal : where social entrepreneurship and municipal government meet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glad, Tatiana; Bos, Rense; During, R.

    2015-01-01

    On November 2014 at Impact Hub Amsterdam, 30 civil servants, politicians and social entrepreneurs were brought together for a two-part innovation lab – named the Societal Renewal Lab – where a dedicated group with diverse perspectives was invited to take a deeper dive into understanding the system

  10. Une societe aux reperes ambigus | Belinga | African Anthropologist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une societe aux reperes ambigus. JMZ Belinga. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aa.v10i1.46101 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  11. Taxonomic bias in biodiversity data and societal preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troudet, Julien; Grandcolas, Philippe; Blin, Amandine; Vignes-Lebbe, Régine; Legendre, Frédéric

    2017-08-22

    Studying and protecting each and every living species on Earth is a major challenge of the 21 st century. Yet, most species remain unknown or unstudied, while others attract most of the public, scientific and government attention. Although known to be detrimental, this taxonomic bias continues to be pervasive in the scientific literature, but is still poorly studied and understood. Here, we used 626 million occurrences from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), the biggest biodiversity data portal, to characterize the taxonomic bias in biodiversity data. We also investigated how societal preferences and taxonomic research relate to biodiversity data gathering. For each species belonging to 24 taxonomic classes, we used the number of publications from Web of Science and the number of web pages from Bing searches to approximate research activity and societal preferences. Our results show that societal preferences, rather than research activity, strongly correlate with taxonomic bias, which lead us to assert that scientists should advertise less charismatic species and develop societal initiatives (e.g. citizen science) that specifically target neglected organisms. Ensuring that biodiversity is representatively sampled while this is still possible is an urgent prerequisite for achieving efficient conservation plans and a global understanding of our surrounding environment.

  12. Development of stock markets, societal norms and legal institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    2000-01-01

    We explain the development of stock markets by both legal and societal determinants and analyze the relevance of both determinants in the Levine-Zervos (1998) cross-sectional growth regressions. We argue that the legal indicators as developed by La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, Shleifer and Vishny (1998)

  13. Anticipating societal collapse; Hints from the stone age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Marten

    2016-01-01

    Few aspects of human history are as mindboggling as the sudden disintegration of advanced societies. It is tempting to seek common patterns or even draw some lessons for modern times from the many ancient cases of societal disintegration. In PNAS, Downey et al. (1) report that universal warning

  14. Predictive Societal Indicators of Radicalism - Forecasting Domestic Political Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    are reserved by the copyright owner. 14. ABSTRACT The Predictive Societal Indicators of Radicalism (PSIR) Model of Domestic Political Violence ...for instances of increased domestic political violence , with implications for resource allocation and intelligence asset assignment. Using a regression...demonstrated correlation with political violence . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Forecasting Domestic Political Violence , Social Cultural Models 16. SECURITY

  15. Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Low, Ee Ling

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this special issue is "Character and Citizenship Education: Conversations between Personal and Societal Values." Character education and citizenship education, taken separately or as a single entity are currently riding high on the political and educational policy agendas of several governments (Arthur, 2003; Berkowitz & Bier, 2007;…

  16. The Influence of Psychological and Societal Factors on Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of psychological and societal factors on students' performance in mathematics at Senior Secondary School Level in. Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. A simple random sampling technique was used to sample three hundred secondary school students who supplied information on the ...

  17. Factors influencing societal response of nanotechnology: an expert stakeholder analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology can be described as an emerging technology and, as has been the case with other emerging technologies such as genetic modification, different socio-psychological factors will potentially influence societal responses to its development and application. These factors will play an important role in how nanotechnology is developed and commercialised. This article aims to identify expert opinion on factors influencing societal response to applications of nanotechnology. Structured interviews with experts on nanotechnology from North West Europe were conducted using repertory grid methodology in conjunction with generalized Procrustes analysis to examine the psychological constructs underlying societal uptake of 15 key applications of nanotechnology drawn from different areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, chemical, food, military, sports, and cosmetics). Based on expert judgement, the main factors influencing societal response to different applications of nanotechnology will be the extent to which applications are perceived to be beneficial, useful, and necessary, and how 'real' and physically close to the end-user these applications are perceived to be by the public.

  18. Developing and Testing a Method to Measure Academic Societal Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paul; Moutinho, Luiz; Godinho, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to extend understanding of the business and societal impact of academic research. From a business school perspective, it has taken stock of the role of academic research and relevance in business and society. The proposed conceptual framework highlights the forces influencing the pursuit of academic rigour and relevance in…

  19. Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption, Politics and Societal values in Tanzania: An evaluation of the Mkapa administration's anti corruption efforts. Bruce Heilman, Lawrean Ndumbaro. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2001 7(1): 1-20). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. United States societal experiments via the Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    After a brief description of the Communication Technology Satellite and its U.S. coverage, the U.S. societal experiments via the CTS are discussed. These include education (college curriculum sharing, and project interchange), health care (biomedical communications, health communications, and communication support for decentralized education), and community and special experiments (satellite library information network, and transportable earth terminal).

  1. Societal trends : the aging baby boom and women's increased independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The two most important societal trends today are the aging baby boom and women's increased independence. This paper compares the travel profiles of women aged 40 to 49(early baby boomers) with women aged 75 and over and with men aged 75 and over (par...

  2. Societal constraints related to environmental remediation and decommissioning programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Monken-Fernandes, Horst; Martell, Meritxell; Zeleznik, Nadja; O'Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-06-20

    The decisions related to decommissioning or environmental remediation projects (D/ER) cannot be isolated from the socio-political and cultural environment. Experiences of the IAEA Member States point out the importance of giving due attention to the societal aspects in project planning and implementation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: i) to systematically review societal constraints that some organisations in different IAEA Member States encounter when implementing D/ER programmes, ii) to identify different approaches to overcome these constraints and iii) to collect examples of existing practices related to the integration of societal aspects in D/ER programmes worldwide. The research was conducted in the context of the IAEA project Constraints to Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation (CIDER). The research results show that societal constraints arise mostly as a result of the different perceptions, attitudes, opinions and concerns of stakeholders towards the risks and benefits of D/ER programmes and due to the lack of stakeholder involvement in planning. There are different approaches to address these constraints, however all approaches have common points: early involvement, respect for different views, mutual understanding and learning. These results are relevant for all on-going and planned D/ER programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Can value-based insurance impose societal costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lane; Dall, Timothy M; Ruiz, David; Saavoss, Josh; Tongue, John

    2014-09-01

    Among policy alternatives considered to reduce health care costs and improve outcomes, value-based insurance design (VBID) has emerged as a promising option. Most applications of VBID, however, have not used higher cost sharing to discourage specific services. In April 2011, the state of Oregon introduced a policy for public employees that required additional cost sharing for high-cost procedures such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Our objectives were to estimate the societal impact of higher co-pays for TKA using Oregon as a case study and building on recent work demonstrating the effects of knee osteoarthritis and surgical treatment on employment and disability outcomes. We used a Markov model to estimate the societal impact in terms of quality of life, direct costs, and indirect costs of higher co-pays for TKA using Oregon as a case study. We found that TKA for a working population can generate societal benefits that offset the direct medical costs of the procedure. Delay in receiving surgical care, because of higher co-payment or other reasons, reduced the societal savings from TKA. We conclude that payers moving toward value-based cost sharing should consider consequences beyond direct medical expenses. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Challenge Based Innovation: Translating Fundamental Research into Societal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikka, Joona; Utriainen, Tuuli; Repokari, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on work done at IdeaSquare, a new innovation experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The paper explores the translation of fundamental research into societal applications with the help of multidisciplinary student teams, project- and problem-based learning and design thinking methods. The theme is…

  5. Increasing societal value of earth observation data and services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User @

    Despite the enormous capital required to fund remote sensing initiatives, governments worldwide are increasingly adopting earth observation technologies to optimise operational efficiency and societal benefit. However, the value of information derived from earth observation will increase substantially if augmented by ...

  6. Opportunities for Increasing Societal Value of Remote Sensing Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the enormous capital required to fund remote sensing initiatives, governments worldwide are increasingly adopting earth observation technologies to optimise operational efficiency and societal benefit. However, the value of information derived from earth observation will increase substantially if augmented by ...

  7. Societal development and the impact of information technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are several theories on societal development, especially concerning issues that are affecting globalization. Those issues include the impact of information technology on developing countries of Africa, the social and cultural schools of thought on globalization of information technology, the defining issues that are ...

  8. The Need for Societal Investment to Improve Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    in reducing premature deaths of women at the prime of their productive lives. From a societal perspective ... compared to about 6,000 in 19802. Also, approximately 6,000 deaths were attributed to cervical cancer in 2010 compared to about 3,000 deaths in 19802. ... bear the cost for such lifesaving preventive and therapeutic ...

  9. Societal costs and burden of otitis media in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speets AM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anouk Speets1, Judith Wolleswinkel1, Cristina Cardoso21Pallas health research and consultancy, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Algés, PortugalAbstract: This study aimed to estimate the resource consumption and societal impact of otitis media (OM in children younger than five years of age in Portugal. An Internet survey on generic childhood symptoms and diseases was administered to a sample of parents. This self-report survey had been previously implemented in other European countries. Medically confirmed OM was defined as symptoms of earache or “running ear” and/or a diagnosis of OM provided by a medical doctor. Direct medical, nonmedical, and indirect nonmedical costs were calculated for individual cases. Mean total costs per OM episode were estimated at €334. This corresponds to an estimated societal impact of 72 million €/year, of which 39% were indirect nonmedical costs. An epidemiological study should help to confirm the results of this study, and evaluate whether an intervention to reduce the occurrence and/or duration of OM may have an impact on societal costs and quality of life for affected families.Keywords: otitis media, costs, societal burden, Portugal

  10. Managing expectations: cognitive authority and experienced control in complex healthcare processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Katherine J; May, Carl R

    2017-07-05

    Balancing the normative expectations of others (accountabilities) against the personal and distributed resources available to meet them (capacity) is a ubiquitous feature of social relations in many settings. This is an important problem in the management of long-term conditions, because of widespread problems of non-adherence to treatment regimens. Using long-term conditions as an example, we set out middle range theory of this balancing work. A middle-range theory was constructed four stages. First, a qualitative elicitation study of men with heart failure was used to develop general propositions about patient and care giver experience, and about the ways that the organisation and delivery of care affected this. Second, these propositions were developed and confirmed through a systematic review of qualitative research literature. Third, theoretical propositions and constructs were built, refined and presented as a logic model associated with two main theoretical propositions. Finally, a construct validation exercise was undertaken, in which construct definitions informed reanalysis of a set of systematic reviews of studies of patient and caregiver experiences of heart failure that had been included in an earlier meta-review. Cognitive Authority Theory identifies, characterises and explains negotiation processes in in which people manage their relations with the expectations of normative systems - like those encountered in the management of long-term conditions. Here, their cognitive authority is the product of an assessment of competence, trustworthiness and credibility made about a person by other participants in a healthcare process; and their experienced control is a function of the degree to which they successfully manage the external process-specific limiting factors that make it difficult to otherwise perform in their role. Cognitive Authority Theory assists in explaining how participants in complex social processes manage important relational aspects of

  11. Complex processing patterns of mRNAs of the large ATP synthase operon in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Malik Ghulam

    Full Text Available Chloroplasts are photosynthetic cell organelles which have evolved from endosymbiosis of the cyanobacterial ancestor. In chloroplasts, genes are still organized into transcriptional units as in bacteria but the corresponding poly-cistronic mRNAs undergo complex processing events, including inter-genic cleavage and 5' and 3' end-definition. The current model for processing proposes that the 3' end of the upstream cistron transcripts and the 5' end of the downstream cistron transcripts are defined by the same RNA-binding protein and overlap at the level of the protein-binding site. We have investigated the processing mechanisms that operate within the large ATP synthase (atp operon, in Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplasts. This operon is transcribed by the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase starting from two promoters, which are upstream and within the operon, respectively, and harbors four potential sites for RNA-binding proteins. In order to study the functional significance of the promoters and the protein-binding sites for the maturation processes, we have performed a detailed mapping of the atp transcript ends. Our data indicate that in contrast to maize, atpI and atpH transcripts with overlapping ends are very rare in Arabidopsis. In addition, atpA mRNAs, which overlap with atpF mRNAs, are even truncated at the 3' end, thus representing degradation products. We observe, instead, that the 5' ends of nascent poly-cistronic atp transcripts are defined at the first protein-binding site which follows either one of the two transcription initiation sites, while the 3' ends are defined at the subsequent protein-binding sites or at hairpin structures that are encountered by the progressing RNA polymerase. We conclude that the overlapping mechanisms of mRNA protection have only a limited role in obtaining stable processed atp mRNAs in Arabidopsis. Our findings suggest that during evolution of different plant species as maize and Arabidopsis, chloroplasts

  12. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    hydrocarbon fuel returning to the storage tank.Mathematical models of cooling and heating processes are built on the assumption that the heat exchange process of storage and environment is quasistationary.The paper presents relationships for determining the relative masses of nitrogen and time to perform the operation of cooling fuel from the initial to the desired final temperature as well as relationships to define the time of heating operation for a given capacity of the heat exchanger-heater and the pump station fueling system.The results of calculations of the relative liquid nitrogen costs during cooling of hydrocarbon gases depending on the mass flow rate of nitrogen in the cooling fuel system are shown in comparison with experimental data and numerical calculations. The maximum error of analytical calculation results and experimental values of the relative cost of liquid nitrogen does not exceed 4.5% and the error in determining the time required for operations of temperature preparation does not exceed 5%.Analytical relationships and results of calculations obtained on their basis are adequate and in compliance with experimental results, in accuracy are on a par with results of numerical calculations and, as compared to numerical solution, greatly simplify a procedure of implemented design calculations of fuel temperature preparation processes. Using these relationships allows to analyze the effectiveness of the operations of heating and cooling hydrocarbon fuel depending on the design parameters of the storage capacity, its thermal insulation, mass of fuel, thermal power of the heating devices, flow of nitrogen, as well as to determine the required mass of liquid nitrogen and the operation parameters of cooling (heating fuel for filling systems of launch complexes for different values of the environmental parameters, the initial and desired final temperaturesof the fuel.

  13. Societal and individual landslide risk to the population of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Mondini, Alessandro; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2010-05-01

    Landslides cause damage to people every year in Italy. The number of fatalities (deaths and missing persons) and the number of casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) are a direct, quantitative measure of the intensity of a disaster, and can be used to evaluate individual and societal risk quantitatively. Individual-risk criteria are expressed using mortality (or death) rates, which are given by the number of deaths per 100,000 people, in a given period. Societal-risk criteria are commonly established constructing frequency-consequences plots. In these plots, the number of losses (deaths, fatalities, or casualties) in each event is plotted versus the frequency of the event. Societal risk is then determined investigating the relationships linking the frequency of the events to their intensity, measured by the number of the losses. We have updated existing estimates of societal and individual landslide risk in Italy. For our assessment, we have used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injured people, and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 AD to 2008. This information was used to update the existing national estimates and to obtain first regional estimates of societal and individual landslide risk in Italy. To model the distribution of the frequency of landslide events with casualties in Italy, and in each of the 20 Regions in Italy, we adopted a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium and large events, to compare societal landslide risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. To consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we have scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in

  14. Role of Conserved Oligomeric Golgi Complex in the Abnormalities of Glycoprotein Processing in Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zolov, Sergey N

    2006-01-01

    ...: protein glycosylation and its sorting. For analysis of COG complex function we utilized RNA interference assay to knockdown COG3p subunit of COG complex in normal and breast cancer cells and other tumor cell lines...

  15. The Societal Cost of Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huajie; Mosweu, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Cost-of-illness (COI) studies provide useful information on the economic burden that schizophrenia imposes on a society. This study aims to give a general overview of COI studies for schizophrenia and to compare the societal cost of schizophrenia across countries. It also aims to identify the main cost components of schizophrenia and factors associated with higher societal cost to improve the quality and reporting of COI studies for schizophrenia. We performed an electronic search on multiple databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Health Management Information Consortium [HMIC] and the System for Information on Grey Literature [openSIGLE]) to identify COI studies of schizophrenia published between 1996 and 2016. The primary outcome of this review was societal cost per schizophrenia patient, by cost component. All costs were converted to $US, year 2015 values. We included 19 studies in this review. The annual societal cost per patient varied from $US5818 in Thailand to $US94,587 in Norway; whereas the lifetime societal cost per patient was estimated to be $US988,264 in Australia (all year 2015 values). The main cost drivers were direct healthcare costs and productivity losses. Factors associated with higher individual costs included patient demographics, severity of disease and methods used to calculate the costs of productivity losses and comorbidities. This review highlights the large economic burden of schizophrenia. The magnitude of the cost estimates differs considerably across countries, which might be caused by different economic conditions and healthcare systems and widespread methodological heterogeneity among COI studies. Proposed recommendations based on this review can be used to improve the consistency and comparability of COI studies for schizophrenia.

  16. Neural Correlates in the Processing of Phoneme-Level Complexity in Vowel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeil; Iverson, Gregory K.; Park, Hae-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how articulatory complexity at the phoneme level is manifested neurobiologically in an overt production task. fMRI images were acquired from young Korean-speaking adults as they pronounced bisyllabic pseudowords in which we manipulated phonological complexity defined in terms of vowel duration and instability (viz., COMPLEX:…

  17. Abordagem societal das representações sociais The societal approach of social representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Oliveira Almeida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é apresentar as principais contribuições de Willem Doise para o desenvolvimento da teoria das representações sociais. Nesta direção, foram examinados: a Teoria das Representações Sociais como a grande teoria; a criação do Laboratório de Psicologia Social Experimental na Universidade de Genebra; os estudos experimentais sobre o desenvolvimento social da inteligência; os estudos experimentais das representações sociais; os quatro níveis de análise em Psicologia Social; as relações grupais; o paradigma das três fases; a pesquisa sobre os direitos humanos. Ainda que se considere que a adesão à Teoria das Representações Sociais pressupõe o estudo de indicadores que organizam o campo representacional, a análise dos posicionamentos individuais neste campo e a ancoragem destes posicionamentos nas dinâmicas societais, é preciso reconhecer que esta forma de fazê-lo ainda é pouco difundida nos meios científicos da América Latina.The aim of this paper is to present the main contributions of Willem Doise to the development of the Social Representations Theory. The following topics were examined: the Social Representations Theory as the grand theory; the foundation of Experimental Social Psychology Laboratory in University of Geneva; the experimental studies in social development of intelligence; the experimental studies in Social Representations; the four levels of analysis in Social Psychology; group relationships; the paradigm of three level and the human rights research. The adherence to the Social Representation Theory assumes the study of indicators that organize the representational field, the analysis of the individual positioning in this field and the anchoring of these positioning in the societal dynamics. Nevertheless, it is necessary to admit that this way of analysing is still little diffused in the scientific area of Latin America.

  18. Interpreting complex data by methods of recognition and classification in an automated system of aerogeophysical material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' , L.A.; Dolgov, S.V.; Liokumovich, G.B.; Ovcharenko, A.V.; Priyezzhev, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    The system of automated processing of aerogeophysical data, ASOM-AGS/YeS, is equipped with complex interpretation of multichannel measurements. Algorithms of factor analysis, automatic classification and apparatus of a priori specified (selected) decisive rules are used. The areas of effect of these procedures can be initially limited to the specified geological information. The possibilities of the method are demonstrated by the results of automated processing of the aerogram-spectrometric measurements in the region of the known copper-porphyr manifestation in Kazakhstan. This ore deposit was clearly noted after processing by the method of main components by complex aureole of independent factors U (severe increase), Th (noticeable increase), K (decrease).

  19. Process evaluation of an integrated care pathway in geriatric rehabilitation for people with complex health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everink, Irma H J; van Haastregt, Jolanda C M; Maessen, Jose M C; Schols, Jos M G A; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2017-01-13

    An integrated care pathway in geriatric rehabilitation was developed to improve coordination and continuity of care for community-living older adults in the Netherlands, who go through the process of hospital admission, admission to a geriatric rehabilitation facility and discharge back to the home situation. This pathway is a complex intervention and is focused on improving communication, triage and transfers of patients between the hospital, geriatric rehabilitation facility and primary care organisations. A process evaluation was performed to assess the feasibility of this pathway. The study design incorporated mixed methods. Feasibility was assessed thru if the pathway was implemented according to plan (fidelity and dose delivered), (b) if patients, informal caregivers and professionals were satisfied with the pathway (dose received) and (c) which barriers and facilitators influenced implementation (context). These components were derived from the theoretical framework of Saunders and colleagues. Data were collected using three structured face-to-face interviews with patients, self-administered questionnaires among informal caregivers, and group interviews with professionals. Furthermore, data were collected from the information transfer system in the hospital, patient files of the geriatric rehabilitation facility and minutes of evaluation meetings. In total, 113 patients, 37 informal caregivers and 19 healthcare professionals participated in this process evaluation. The pathway was considered largely feasible as two components were fully implemented according to plan and two components were largely implemented according to plan. The timing and quality of medical discharge summaries were not sufficiently implemented according to plan and professionals indicated that the triage instrument needed refinement. Healthcare professionals were satisfied with the implementation of the pathway and they indicated that due to improved collaboration, the quality of care

  20. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part IV: Framework for Societal Structures: the Societal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2015-12-01

    For the purposes of research and/or evaluation, a community/society is organized into 13 Societal Systems under the umbrella of an overall Coordination and Control System. This organization facilitates descriptions of a community/society or a component of a community for assessment at any designated time across the Temporal Phases of a disaster. Such assessments provide a picture of the functional status of one or more Systems that comprise a community. Since no system operates in isolation from the other systems, information of the concomitant status of several Societal Systems is crucial to gaining a complete understanding of compromised functions, as well as the effects and side effects of any intervention directed at restoring the functional state of the affected community or risk-reduction interventions of a community-at-risk. The 13 Societal Systems include: (1) Public Health; (2) Medical Care; (3) Water and Sanitation; (4) Shelter and Clothing; (5) Food and Nutrition; (6) Energy Supply; (7) Public Works and Engineering; (8) Social Structures; (9) Logistics and Transportation; (10) Security; (11) Communications; (12) Economy; and (13) Education. Many functions and sub-functions of the Systems overlap, or share some common sub-functions with other systems. For the purposes of research/evaluation, it is necessary to assign functions and sub-functions to only one of the Societal Systems.

  1. The geological processes time scale of the Ingozersky block TTG complex (Kola Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkina, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Ingozersky block located in the Tersky Terrane of the Kola Peninsula is composed of Archean gneisses and granitoids [1; 5; 8]. The Archaean basement complexes on the regional geological maps have called tonalite-trondemit-gneisses (TTG) complexes [6]. In the previous studies [1; 3; 4; 5; 7] within Ingozersky block the following types of rocks were established: biotite, biotite-amphibole, amphibole-biotite gneisses, granites, granodiorites and pegmatites [2]. In the rocks of the complex following corresponding sequence of endogenous processes observed (based on [5]): stage 1 - the biotitic gneisses formation; 2 - the introduction of dikes of basic rocks; 3 phase - deformation and foliation; 4 stage - implementation bodies of granite and migmatization; 5 stage - implementation of large pegmatite bodies; stage 6 - the formation of differently pegmatite and granite veins of low power, with and without garnet; stage 7 - quartz veins. Previous U-Pb isotopic dating of the samples was done for biotite gneisses, amphibole-biotite gneisses and biotite-amphibole gneisses. Thus, some Sm-Nd TDM ages are 3613 Ma - biotite gnesses, 2596 Ma - amphibole-biotite gnesses and 3493 Ma biotite-amphibole gneisses.. U-Pb ages of the metamorphism processes in the TTG complex are obtained: 2697±9 Ma - for the biotite gneiss, 2725±2 and 2667±7 Ma - for the amphibole-biotite gneisses, and 2727±5 Ma for the biotite-amphibole gneisses. The age defined for the biotite gneisses by using single zircon dating to be about 3149±46 Ma corresponds to the time of the gneisses protolith formation. The purpose of these studies is the age establishing of granite and pegmatite bodies emplacement and finding a geological processes time scale of the Ingozerskom block. Preliminary U-Pb isotopic dating of zircon and other accessory minerals were held for granites - 2615±8 Ma, migmatites - 2549±30 Ma and veined granites - 1644±7 Ma. As a result of the isotope U-Pb dating of the different Ingozerskogo TTG

  2. A superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes with improved solubility and dissolution: Supercritical fluid process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of the supercritical fluid (SCF process compared to the conventional solution stirring method (CSSM in the preparation of daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD complexes were investigated. Formation of daidzein/ HPβCD inclusion complexes was confirmed by Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Particle size, inclusion yield, drug solubility and dissolution of daidzein/HPβCD complexes were evaluated. Compared to CSSM, the SCF process resulted in higher inclusion yield and higher solubility. Also, extended dissolution of daidzein from the SCF processed HPβCD inclusion complexes was observed, with only 22.94 % released in 45 min, compared to its rapid release from those prepared by CSSM, with 98.25 % drug release in 15 min. This extended release of daidzein from SCF prepared inclusion complexes was necessary to avoid drug precipitation and improve drug solubilisation in the gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that the SCF process is a superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes.

  3. From olivine to ringwoodite: a TEM study of a complex process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Ji, Gang; Yamaguchi, Akira; Schryvers, Dominique; Debaille, Vinciane; Claeys, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    The study of shock metamorphism of olivine might help to constrain impact events in the history of meteorites. Although shock features in olivine are well known, so far, there are processes that are not yet completely understood. In shock veins, olivine clasts with a complex structure, with a ringwoodite rim and a dense network of lamellae of unidentified nature in the core, have been reported in the literature. A highly shocked (S5-6), L6 meteorite, Asuka 09584, which was recently collected in Antarctica by a Belgian-Japanese joint expedition, contains this type of shocked olivine clasts and has been, therefore, selected for detailed investigations of these features by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Petrographic, geochemical, and crystallographic studies showed that the rim of these shocked clasts consists of an aggregate of nanocrystals of ringwoodite, with lower Mg/Fe ratio than the unshocked olivine. The clast's core consists of an aggregate of iso-oriented grains of olivine and wadsleyite, with higher Mg/Fe ratio than the unshocked olivine. This aggregate is crosscut by veinlets of nanocrystals of olivine, with extremely low Mg/Fe ratio. The formation of the ringwoodite rim is likely due to solid-state, diffusion-controlled, transformation from olivine under high-temperature conditions. The aggregate of iso-oriented olivine and wadsleyite crystals is interpreted to have formed also by a solid-state process, likely by coherent intracrystalline nucleation. Following the compression, shock release is believed to have caused opening of cracks and fractures in olivine and formation of olivine melt, which has lately crystallized under postshock equilibrium pressure conditions as olivine.

  4. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  5. Complex responsive processes: a new lens for leadership in twenty-first-century health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Sandra Jean

    2010-01-01

    Health care is currently in the midst of an age change. Leadership styles and organizational structures that were prevalent in the twentieth century no longer apply in twenty-first-century health care. Leaders of health care must embrace and help others to embrace new ways of being and relating in twenty-first-century organizations. This paper introduces a new framework through which leaders can see their organizations differently. Complex responsive processes (CRPs) focus on the interactions between people that take place in the living present as the building block of transformative organizations. This paper also introduces the seven da Vincian principles as a personal tool that twenty-first-century leaders might use to increase their capacity for creativity and to develop their ability to thrive in uncertainty. The power to shape the preferred future of health care lies within our relationships with others that take place locally and in the living present. Viewing organizations through the lens of CRPs and developing practices around the seven da Vincian principles provides directions and a starting point for traditional leaders to move away from rationalist, twentieth-century practices toward transformative leadership practices.

  6. Measuring microscopic evolution processes of complex networks based on empirical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Liping

    2015-04-01

    Aiming at understanding the microscopic mechanism of complex systems in real world, we perform the measurement that characterizes the evolution properties on two empirical data sets. In the Autonomous Systems Internet data, the network size keeps growing although the system suffers a high rate of node deletion (r = 0.4) and link deletion (q = 0.81). However, the average degree keeps almost unchanged during the whole time range. At each time step the external links attached to a new node are about c = 1.1 and the internal links added between existing nodes are approximately m = 8. For the Scientific Collaboration data, it is a cumulated result of all the authors from 1893 up to the considered year. There is no deletion of nodes and links, r = q = 0. The external and internal links at each time step are c = 1.04 and m = 0, correspondingly. The exponents of degree distribution p(k) ∼ k-γ of these two empirical datasets γdata are in good agreement with that obtained theoretically γtheory. The results indicate that these evolution quantities may provide an insight into capturing the microscopic dynamical processes that govern the network topology.

  7. A Validation System for the Complex Event Processing Directives of the ATLAS Shifter Assistant Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, Gabriel; The ATLAS collaboration; Kazarov, Andrei; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Santos, Alejandro; Soloviev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is a methodology that combines data from different sources in order to identify events or patterns that need particular attention. It has gained a lot of momentum in the computing world in the past few years and is used in ATLAS to continuously monitor the behaviour of the data acquisition system, to trigger corrective actions and to guide the experiment’s operators. This technology is very powerful, if experts regularly insert and update their knowledge about the system’s behaviour into the CEP engine. Nevertheless, writing or modifying CEP directives is not trivial since the used programming paradigm is quite different with respect to what developers are normally familiar with. In order to help experts verify that the directives work as expected, we have thus developed a complete testing and validation environment. This system consists of three main parts: the first is the persistent storage of all relevant data streams that are produced during data taking, the second is a...

  8. A Validation System for the Complex Event Processing Directives of the ATLAS Shifter Assistant Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Alejandro; The ATLAS collaboration; Avolio, Giuseppe; Kazarov, Andrei; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Soloviev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is a methodology that combines data from many sources in order to identify events or patterns that need particular attention. It has gained a lot of momentum in the computing world in the past few years and is used in ATLAS to continuously monitor the behaviour of the data acquisition system, to trigger corrective actions and to guide the experiment’s operators. This technology is very powerful, if experts regularly insert and update their knowledge about the system’s behaviour into the CEP engine. Nevertheless, writing or modifying CEP rules is not trivial since the used programming paradigm is quite different with respect to what developers are normally familiar with. In order to help experts verify that the directives work as expected, we have thus developed a complete testing and validation environment. This system consists of three main parts: the first is the data reader from existing storage of all relevant data streams that are produced during data taking, the second...

  9. More Perspectives, New Politics, New Life: How a Small Group UsedThe Integral Process For Working On Complex Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Ross

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a small research project with citizens who wanted to address their community’s chronically adversarial behaviors and atmosphere. It complements a longer research report on the same project, which is also published in this issue of Integral Review. The project used a structured public discourse process, The Integral Process For Working On Complex Issues (TIP). This article supplies background on TIP’s origins, then focuses on two areas. First, it explains the process st...

  10. Influencing governance of a public-private partnership in plant genomics: The societal interface group as a new instrument for public involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Lucien; Gremmen, Bart

    2013-08-01

    The Centre for BioSystems Genomics (CBSG) is a Dutch public-private partnership in plant genomics active in potato and tomato research and exploitation. Its Societal Interface Group (SIG) has been developed to inform its communication strategy and governance practice. This new instrument identifies and discusses early signals from society by bringing together people from different societal backgrounds with members of CBSG management. This interactive learning process facilitates the inclusion of public concerns and needs in scientific developments in the field of plant genomics, and simultaneously enables genomics scientists to search for more societal aims, meanings, and starting points for their research agenda. Analysis of the SIG sessions revealed that the input of public expertise is not threatening or irrational, but provides the opportunity to harness the creative potential of future users highly relevant for the development of societal practices in which plant genomics plays a role.

  11. The societal and economic value of rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Richard C; Koenig, Lane; Acevedo, Daniel; Dall, Timothy M; Gallo, Paul; Romeo, Anthony; Tongue, John; Williams, Gerald

    2013-11-20

    Although rotator cuff disease is a common musculoskeletal problem in the United States, the impact of this condition on earnings, missed workdays, and disability payments is largely unknown. This study examines the value of surgical treatment for full-thickness rotator cuff tears from a societal perspective. A Markov decision model was constructed to estimate lifetime direct and indirect costs associated with surgical and continued nonoperative treatment for symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. All patients were assumed to have been unresponsive to one six-week trial of nonoperative treatment prior to entering the model. Model assumptions were obtained from the literature and data analysis. We obtained estimates of indirect costs using national survey data and patient-reported outcomes. Four indirect costs were modeled: probability of employment, household income, missed workdays, and disability payments. Direct cost estimates were based on average Medicare reimbursements with adjustments to an all-payer population. Effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). The age-weighted mean total societal savings from rotator cuff repair compared with nonoperative treatment was $13,771 over a patient's lifetime. Savings ranged from $77,662 for patients who are thirty to thirty-nine years old to a net cost to society of $11,997 for those who are seventy to seventy-nine years old. In addition, surgical treatment results in an average improvement of 0.62 QALY. Societal savings were highly sensitive to age, with savings being positive at the age of sixty-one years and younger. The estimated lifetime societal savings of the approximately 250,000 rotator cuff repairs performed in the U.S. each year was $3.44 billion. Rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears produces net societal cost savings for patients under the age of sixty-one years and greater QALYs for all patients. Rotator cuff repair is cost-effective for all populations. The results

  12. Assessing and Responding to the Risks of Global and Societal Changes in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    combined risks posed by the MENA region being considered a climatic and a societal "hot spot", as described above. These risks will have to be effectively communicated to stakeholders and the research community in order to outline, specify and implement research towards efficacious mitigation and adaption strategies aimed to minimize adverse effects of challenges posed by global and societal changes in the MENA region. The paper will describe the current state of advancing such a process and will introduce a first draft of a "Future Earth Research Strategy for the MENA Region", as formulated by the FEMRC and its Regional Advisory Committee.

  13. Societal value of stem cell therapy in stroke--a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johanna; Ghatnekar, Ola; Lindgren, Arne; Lindvall, Olle; Norrving, Bo; Persson, Ulf; Kokaia, Zaal

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is one of the major causes of disability in the adult population and represents a heavy social and economic burden. Currently available therapeutic tools to support the recovery of impaired brain functions are quite limited. Animal studies have demonstrated that neuronal replacement and partial reconstruction of neural circuitry or modulation of the recovery process is possible with cell transplantation in the damaged adult brain. Stem cell therapy (SCT) may promote functional recovery also in stroke patients, thereby improving quality of life and reducing costs. Our aim was to estimate the potential societal value of SCT in stroke patients. We created a decision-analytic model in Microsoft Excel 2010 to assess life-long costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of SCT versus standard care for stroke patients from a societal perspective. The model structure consisted of 7 health states in accordance with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We modeled for age (55, 65, and 75 years), functional status at discharge (mRS 2, 3, and 4), effectiveness of SCT (50 and 25% increase in the probability to improve 1 mRS grade), mode of stem cell administration, risk of recurrent stroke, complications of intervention, and use of immunosuppressive drugs. The difference between an assumed societal willingness to pay for a QALY gain in Sweden (110,400 USD) and the cost per QALY gain resulting from the model was interpreted as the value of SCT. Increased survival (1.06 life years) and improved functional status gave rise to an estimated gain of 1.34 QALY in a cohort of patients aged 55 with mRS 2 at hospital discharge. Although the SCT intervention increased costs by 64,014 USD (excluding cost of stem cells), the costs of intervention were offset mainly by decreased productivity losses. In total, the intervention saved 19,055 USD, i.e., at a price of 19,055 USD for stem cells, the SCT would be cost neutral. The societal value of SCT was 166,500 USD. The application of the

  14. Hydrothermal activity and subsoil complexity: implication for degassing processes at Solfatara crater, Campi Flegrei caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanaro, Cristian; Mayer, Klaus; Isaia, Roberto; Gresse, Marceau; Scheu, Bettina; Yilmaz, Tim I.; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Ricci, Tullio; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-12-01

    The Solfatara area and its fumaroles are the main surface expression of the vigorous hydrothermal activity within the active Campi Flegrei caldera system. At depth, a range of volcanic and structural processes dictate the actual state of the hydrothermal system below the crater. The presence of a large variety of volcanic products at shallow depth (including pyroclastic fallout ash beds, pyroclastic density current deposits, breccias, and lavas), and the existence of a maar-related fault system appears to exert major controls on the degassing and alteration behavior. Adding further to the complexity of this environment, variations in permeability and porosity, due to subsoil lithology and alteration effects, may further influence fluid flow towards the surface. Here, we report results from a field campaign conducted in July 2015 that was designed to characterize the in situ physical (temperature, humidity) and mechanical (permeability, strength, stiffness) properties of the Solfatara crater subsoil. The survey also included a mapping of the surficial hydrothermal features and their distributions. Finally, laboratory measurements (porosity, granulometry) of selected samples were performed. Our results enable the discrimination of four main subsoils around the crater: (1) the Fangaia domain located in a topographic low in the southwestern sector, (2) the silica flat domain on the western altered side, (3) the new crust domain in the central area, and (4) the crusted hummocks domain that dominates the north, east, and south parts. These domains are surrounded by encrusted areas, reworked material, and vegetated soil. The distribution of these heterogeneous subsoils suggests that their formation is mostly related to (i) the presence of the Fangaia domain within the crater and (ii) a system of ring faults bordering it. The subsoils show an alternation between very high and very low permeabilities, a fact which seems to affect both the temperature distribution and

  15. The societal cost of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Schmidt, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Taenia solium is a zoonotic parasite prevalent in many low income countries throughout Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, including Tanzania. The parasite is recognized as a public health threat; however the burden it poses on populations of Tanzania is unknown. The aim of this study...... was to estimate the societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis in Tanzania, by assessing both the health and economic burden. The societal cost of T. solium cysticercosis was assessed in humans and pigs based on data obtained by a systematic review. Experts' opinion was sought in cases where data were...... not retrievable. The health burden was assessed in terms of annual number of neurocysticercosis (NCC) associated epilepsy incident cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), while the economic burden was assessed in terms of direct and indirect costs imposed by NCC-associated epilepsy and potential...

  16. Societal impact metrics for non-patentable research in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D.; Isett, K.; Melkers, J.; Song, L.; Trivedi, R.

    2016-07-01

    Indicators of research impact tend to revolve around patents, licenses and startups. However, much university research is non-patentable and therefore doesn’t register in those metrics. That does not mean such research lacks impact, just that it follows different pathways to use in society. Without the visibility of patents, license income and jobs created in startups, society risks ignoring or discounting the societal impact of such research and therefore of undervaluing the research itself. In order to make visible the importance of research advances underpinning broader societal advance, in this project we explore the possibility of developing metrics of research impact for research whose results are relevant to professional practice. (Author)

  17. SKB's program for societal research 2004-2011. An evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, Olof

    2012-04-01

    This evaluation of the program of societal research that SKB conducted the years 2004-2011 has been performed on behalf of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The review has focused on answers to a series of questions as follows: General questions - Why was a program started? - What was SKB's purpose with the program? - Does the result mean that the objective has been achieved? - Has the program had effects (positive or negative) that were not anticipated when the purpose was formulated? - Strengths and weaknesses of the program? Questions about the implementation - How did announcement and selection procedures work? - Which forms were used for reporting results from the research projects? Questions about the continued investment in societal research - Are there such needs? - In that case, is it in SKB's interest to contribute financially to such research? - What forms might be appropriate if SKB sees interest to contribute financially to such research?

  18. Grand societal challenges in information systems research and education

    CERN Document Server

    vom Brocke, Jan; Hofmann, Sara; Tumbas, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    This book examines how information systems research and education can play a major role in contributing to solutions to the Societal Grand Challenges formulated in "The Millennium Project" (millenium-project.org). Individual chapters focus on specific challenges, review existing approaches and contributions towards solutions in information systems research and outline a research agenda for these challenges. The topics considered in this volume range from climate change, population growth, global ICT availability, breakthroughs in science and technology and energy demand to ethical decision-making, policymaking, gender status and transnational crime prevention. It is the first book to present ideas on how the Information Systems discipline can contribute to the solution on this wide spectrum of grand societal challenges.

  19. Foreign research reactor uranium supply program: The Y-12 national security complex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.; Eddy, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Uranium Supply Program at the Y-12 National Security Complex supports the nonproliferation objectives of the HEU Disposition Program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, and the United States FRR Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program. The Y-12 National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Y-12 Site Office maintains the prime contracts with foreign governments for the supply of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) for their research reactors. The LEU is produced by down blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) that has been declared surplus to the U.S. national defense needs. The down blending and sale of the LEU supports the Surplus HEU Disposition Program Record of Decision to make the HEU non-weapons usable and to recover the economic value of the uranium to the extent feasible. This program supports the important U.S. government and nuclear nonproliferation commitment to serve as a reliable and cost-effective uranium supplier for those foreign research reactors that are converting or have converted to LEU fuel under the guidance of the NNSA RERTR Program. In conjunction with the FRR SNF Acceptance Program which supports the global nonproliferation efforts to disposition U.S.-origin HEU, the Y-12 FRR Uranium Supply Program can provide the LEU for the replacement fuel fabrication. In addition to feedstock for fuel fabrication, Y-12 supplies LEU for target fabrication for medical isotope production. The Y-12 process uses supply forecasting tools, production improvements and efficient delivery preparations to successfully support the global research reactor community

  20. Improving food security on the basis of integration processes in the agroindustrial complex of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Stukalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers ways of improving food security in the region. Food production, necessary for the existence of mankind, and the level and quality of nutrition characterize the degree of socio-economic development, health and life expectancy of the person. Extreme importance and many unresolved issues related to ensuring food security in the meat subcomplex are doing highly relevant research questions related to the development of integration formations. In regions where integrated economic entities it is necessary to state financial and material (starting help them operate more efficiently. It is important that controls were not carried out functions of economic management and promoted it within its own competence. In the Voronezh region with the aim of providing stable meat raw material has been implemented the investment project creation of the tribal enterprise for the breeding and fattening of beef cattle at the production sites of Zarechnoe, OOO, with a capacity of 30,000 heads of cattle. Commissioning which made it possible to complete creation in the Voronezh region meat cluster. Existing integration ties in the meat sub-complex are formed is not yet on a mutually advantageous basis and, in practice, infringe on economic interests of agricultural producers. In order to ensure further development and improve the efficiency of specialized and cooperative groups, namely in production, processing and realization of meat products it is expedient to establish at the regional level, the formation of agricultural holding type in the Voronezh region. The particular relevance of the project becomes due to the current shortage of animal protein, growth in the import of raw materials and products and is aimed at the development of domestic production by maximizing the use of reserves local resources to importsubstituting technologies.

  1. The Gateway Hypothesis of substance abuse: developmental, biological and societal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Denise; Kandel, Eric

    2015-02-01

    The Gateway Hypothesis describes how tobacco or alcohol use precedes marijuana and other illicit drug use. We review the epidemiological data, explore the underlying molecular mechanisms in mice and discuss the societal implications of the hypothesis, including the use of e-cigarettes by young people. Our mouse model identifies biological processes underlying the hypothesis, showing that nicotine is a gateway drug that exerts a priming effect on cocaine through increased global acetylation in the striatum. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ragaiy [Aiken, SC; Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Wang, Jun [Columbia, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  3. Innovative and responsible governance of nanotechnology for societal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.; Harthorn, Barbara; Guston, David; Shapira, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Governance of nanotechnology is essential for realizing economic growth and other societal benefits of the new technology, protecting public health and environment, and supporting global collaboration and progress. The article outlines governance principles and methods specific for this emerging field. Advances in the last 10 years, the current status and a vision for the next decade are presented based on an international study with input from over 35 countries.

  4. Access to Information About Stuttering and Societal Knowledge of Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little...

  5. Innovative and responsible governance of nanotechnology for societal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov [National Science Foundation (United States); Harthorn, Barbara [University of California, Center for Nanotechnology in Society (United States); Guston, David [Arizona State University, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (United States); Shapira, Philip [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Governance of nanotechnology is essential for realizing economic growth and other societal benefits of the new technology, protecting public health and environment, and supporting global collaboration and progress. The article outlines governance principles and methods specific for this emerging field. Advances in the last 10 years, the current status and a vision for the next decade are presented based on an international study with input from over 35 countries.

  6. Linking the Observation of Essential Variables to Societal Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylak-Glassman, E.

    2017-12-01

    Different scientific communities have established sets of commonly agreed upon essential variables to help coordinate data collection in a variety of Earth observation areas. As an example, the World Meteorological Organization Global Climate Observing System has identified 50 Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), such as sea-surface temperature and carbon dioxide, which are required to monitoring the climate and detect and attribute climate change. In addition to supporting climate science, measuring these ECVs deliver many types of societal benefits, ranging from disaster mitigation to agricultural productivity to human health. While communicating the value in maintaining and improving observational records for these variables has been a challenge, quantifying how the measurement of these ECVs results in the delivery of many different societal benefits may help support their continued measurement. The 2016 National Earth Observation Assessment (EOA 2016) quantified the impact of individual Earth observation systems, sensors, networks, and surveys (or Earth observation systems, for short) on the achievement of 217 Federal objectives in 13 societal benefit areas (SBAs). This study will demonstrate the use of the EOA 2016 dataset to show the different Federal objectives and SBAs that are impacted by the Earth observation systems used to measure ECVs. Describing how the measurements from these Earth observation systems are used not only to maintain the climate record but also to meet additional Federal objectives may help articulate the continued measurement of the ECVs. This study will act as a pilot for the use of the EOA 2016 dataset to map between the measurements required to observe additional sets of variables, such as the Essential Ocean Variables and Essential Biodiversity Variables, and the ability to achieve a variety of societal benefits.

  7. The societal cost of bipolar disorder in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Mattias; Granström, Ola; Omérov, Sead; Jacob, Johanna; Landén, Mikael

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive cost-of-illness studies in bipolar disorder, in particular studies based on patient-level data. The purpose of this study was to estimate the societal cost of bipolar disorder and to relate costs to disease severity, depressive episodes, hospitalisation and patient functioning. Retrospective resource use data in inpatient and outpatient care during 2006-2008, as well as ICD-10 diagnoses and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores, were obtained from the Northern Stockholm psychiatric clinic with a catchment area including 47% of the adult inhabitants in Stockholm. This dataset was combined with national register data on prescription pharmaceuticals and sick leave to estimate the societal cost of bipolar disorder. The study was conducted from a societal perspective, with indirect costs valued according to the human capital method. The average annual cost per patient was 28,011 in 2008 (n = 1,846). Indirect costs due to sick leave and early retirement represented 75%, inpatient costs 13%, outpatient costs 8%, pharmaceuticals 2% and community care another 2% of the total cost. Total costs were considerably higher during mood episodes (six times higher than in remission), for hospitalised patients (55,500 vs. 22,200) and for patients with low GAF scores. The high cost of bipolar disorder is driven primarily by indirect costs. Costs were strongly associated with mood episodes, hospitalisations and low GAF scores. This suggests that treatment that reduces the risk for relapses and hospitalizations and improve functioning may decrease both the societal cost of bipolar disorder and patient suffering.

  8. Construct Validity of the Societal Outreach Scale (SOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David S; Denton, Jason; Walk, Matt; Kish, Jennifer; Gorman, Ira

    2018-01-30

    The American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has been working toward a vision of increasing professional focus on societal level health. However, performance of social responsibility and related behaviors by physical therapists remains relatively poorly integrated into practice. Promoting a focus on societal outreach is necessary for all healthcare professionals to impact the health of their communities. The objective was to document the validity of the 14-item Societal Outreach Scale (SOS) for use with practicing physical therapists. This study used a cross-sectional survey. The SOS was transmitted via email to all therapists who were licensed and practicing in 10 states in the United States that were purposefully selected to assure a broad representation. A sample of 2612 useable responses were received. Factor analysis was applied to assess construct validity of the instrument. Of alternate models, a 3-factor model best demonstrated goodness of fit with the sample data according to conventional indices (standardized root mean squared residual [SRMR] = .03, CFI = .96, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .06). The 3 factors measured by the SOS were labeled Societal-Level Health Advocacy, Community Engagement/Social Integration, and Political Engagement. Internal consistency reliability was ≥ .7 for all factors. The 3-factor SOS demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. Though the sample included a broad representation of physical therapists, this was a single cross-sectional study. Additional confirmatory factor analysis, reliability testing, and word refinement of the tool are warranted. Given the construct validity and reliability of the 3-factor SOS, it is recommended for use as a validated instrument to measure physical therapists' performance of social responsibility and related behaviors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Physical Therapy Association 2018.

  9. Areva. 2007 figures economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document presents the 2007 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation; 2 - Financial performance: 2007 results; 3 - Commitment to employees: Stakeholder relations, Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, Workforce, Workforce and training; 4 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 5 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  10. Areva 2006 figures - Economic, social, societal and environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the 2006 economic, social, societal and environmental data of the Areva Group. Content: 1 - Improvement initiative: Continuous improvement, Innovation, stakeholder relations, local economic development, Financial performance; 2 - Commitment to employees: Health and safety, Radiation protection, Radiological impacts, Technological risks, employees and training; 3 - Environment: Water, Energy, Gaseous releases, Liquid releases, Conventional waste, Radioactive waste; 4 - Reporting and performance indicators: Reporting methodology, Auditors' report, Social indicators, Environmental indicators

  11. When Inequality Fails: Power, Group Dominance, and Societal Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Pratto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social dominance theory was developed to account for why societies producing surplus take and maintain the form of group-based dominance hierarchies, in which at least one socially-constructed group has more power than another, and in which men are more powerful than women and adults more powerful than children. Although the theory has always allowed for societies to differ in their severity of group-based dominance and how it is implemented, it has predicted that alternative forms of societal organization will occur rarely and not last. This paper revisits aspects of the theory that allow for the possibility of societal alternatives and change. We also consider boundary conditions for the theory, and whether its current theoretical apparatus can account for societal change. By expanding the typical three-level dynamic system to describe societies (micro-meso-macro into four levels (including meta to consider how societies relate to one another, we identify political tensions that are unstable power structures rather than stable hierarchies. In research on institutions, we identify smaller-scale alternative forms of social organization. We identify logical, empirical, and theoretical shortcomings in social dominance theory’s account of stability and change, consider alternative forms of social organization, and suggest fruitful avenues for theoretical extension.

  12. 76 FR 70971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Societal Response to Tornado Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Societal Response to Tornado Warnings AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... developing social science, wishes to examine the societal impacts of tornado warnings, specifically the...

  13. Laser materials processing of complex components. From reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgl, R.; Brandstätter, E.

    2016-03-01

    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser welding, laser cladding and additive laser manufacturing are given.

  14. Societal objectives as drivers in the search for criteria weights when ranking energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, José L.; Martins, António G.; Jorge, Humberto M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address a ranking problem from a tender mechanism established by the Portuguese energy regulator to promote energy efficiency measures in electricity consumption. Measures candidates to this tender are subjected to previously known assessment rules, and weighted criteria. Our proposal has explicitly taken avoided consumption and cost of saved kWh as decision variables for defining two societal objectives. In order to define ranges for the weights of the criteria and reference performance values, the search for the most suitable sets of weights is done by an evolutionary algorithm. Measures were used that applied for funding in previous tender calls. The results demonstrate that in face of different sets of measures, the range of weights for each criterion may vary significantly. The proposal, besides helping to obtain a more suitable set of criteria weights, can also assist in the very process of formulating the criteria, in view of the regulator’s societal objectives, since it was found that some of the used criteria actually lack the ability to discriminate between candidate measures. After a post-processing analysis, the DM is presented with a set of criteria weights from which he can select the one that better reflects his preferences. - Highlights: ► We address a Portuguese energy efficiency fostering tender mechanism. ► We used a genetic algorithm to search for sets of criteria weights. ► We used societal objectives to guide the selection of energy efficiency measures. ► Flexibility in the weights can help finding the best possible use of public money.

  15. The Emparassment of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Helga

    My vision of complexity sciences targets their potential to extend the range, precision, and depth in making predictions. While this has always been the ambition and yardstick for the physicalmathematical sciences, complexity sciences now allow to include society and social behavior - to some extent. There is agreement that society is a complex adaptive system, CAS, with a few peculiarities. Ignoring, downplaying, or naturalizing them, i.e. to take them as essential and given, carries the risk to end up with abstractions which are cutoff from the dynamics of societal contexts. One of the peculiarities of society as a CAS is that the models with which we try to make sense of the world are invented and constructed by us. It is humans who make observations and provide the assumptions on which models are based. Humans leave traces that are collected and processed to be transformed into data. Humans decide to which purpose they will be put and how they will be repurposed. Humans are object of research and subject. Coping with these peculiarities requires an inbuilt reflexivity. Practioners must perform a double act and do so repeatedly. They must engage in a focused way with their scientific work and equally distance themselves by critically reflecting their often tacit assumptions. A friend of mine, Yehuda Elkana, called this twotier thinking...

  16. The Evaluation Scale: Exploring Decisions about Societal Impact in Peer Review Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Gemma E.; Samuel, Gabrielle N.

    2016-01-01

    Realising the societal gains from publicly funded health and medical research requires a model for a reflexive evaluation precedent for the societal impact of research. This research explores UK Research Excellence Framework evaluators' values and opinions and assessing societal impact, prior to the assessment taking place. Specifically, we…

  17. Emotion Perception or Social Cognitive Complexity: What Drives Face Processing Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer A.; Creighton, Sarah E.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Some, but not all, relevant studies have revealed face processing deficits among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, deficits are revealed in face processing tasks that involve emotion perception. The current study examined whether either deficits in processing emotional expression or deficits in processing social cognitive…

  18. THE SYNTHESIS OF BIOCONJUGATE BASED ON RHENIUM(I CARBONYL COMPLEX FOR VISUALIZATION OF PATHOLOGICAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. O. Piletska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tricarbonyl rhenium(I complexes have a great potential like biomarkers. It is caused their biological stability, low toxicity, large Stokes shifts, and long luminescence lifetimes. Rhenium tricarbonyl complexes fac-[Re(CO3(N^N], where N^N is a ligand with low π* orbitals are excellent candidates as imaging dyes. The method of obtaining potential biomarkers based on tricarbonyl rhenium(I complex with a 4-methyl-2,2’-bipyridine-4’-carboxylate by the addition of biomolecules by peptide synthesis was developed. The new complex [Re(CO3MebpyCOOHBr] was synthesized, composition and structure of which were established by mass spectrometry, IR and NMR spectroscopy. A selective attachment of receptor peptide enkephalin to complex [Re(CO3(MebpyCOOHBr] was performed. The formation of a new compound and its structure has been confirmed by HPLC and mass spectral analysis. The method which has been developed allows to connect various peptides to rhenium(I complex in the solution.

  19. Denoising performance of modified dual-tree complex wavelet transform for processing quadrature embolic Doppler signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbes, Gorkem; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2014-01-01

    Quadrature signals are dual-channel signals obtained from the systems employing quadrature demodulation. Embolic Doppler ultrasound signals obtained from stroke-prone patients by using Doppler ultrasound systems are quadrature signals caused by emboli, which are particles bigger than red blood cells within circulatory system. Detection of emboli is an important step in diagnosing stroke. Most widely used parameter in detection of emboli is embolic signal-to-background signal ratio. Therefore, in order to increase this ratio, denoising techniques are employed in detection systems. Discrete wavelet transform has been used for denoising of embolic signals, but it lacks shift invariance property. Instead, dual-tree complex wavelet transform having near-shift invariance property can be used. However, it is computationally expensive as two wavelet trees are required. Recently proposed modified dual-tree complex wavelet transform, which reduces the computational complexity, can also be used. In this study, the denoising performance of this method is extensively evaluated and compared with the others by using simulated and real quadrature signals. The quantitative results demonstrated that the modified dual-tree-complex-wavelet-transform-based denoising outperforms the conventional discrete wavelet transform with the same level of computational complexity and exhibits almost equal performance to the dual-tree complex wavelet transform with almost half computational cost.

  20. Crystallization, data collection and processing of the chymotrypsin–BTCI–trypsin ternary complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Gisele Ferreira; Teles, Rozeni Chagas Lima; Cavalcante, Nayara Silva; Neves, David; Ventura, Manuel Mateus [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil); Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CeBiME), Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), CP 6192, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Freitas, Sonia Maria de, E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Laboratório de Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília-DF (Brazil)

    2007-12-01

    A ternary complex of the proteinase inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized and its crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement. A ternary complex of the black-eyed pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) with trypsin and chymotrypsin was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000 and 5%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as precipitant. BTCI is a small protein with 83 amino-acid residues isolated from Vigna unguiculata seeds and is able to inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin simultaneously by forming a stable ternary complex. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal of the trypsin–BTCI–chymotrypsin ternary complex to 2.7 Å resolution under cryogenic conditions. The structure of the ternary complex was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structures of the BTCI–trypsin binary complex (PDB code) and chymotrypsin (PDB code) as search models.

  1. GeoComplexity and scale: surface processes and remote sensing of geosystems. GeoComplexity and scale: surface processes and remote sensing of geosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jan-Peter

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the role of scaling in different planetary surface processes within our Solar System is one of the fundamental goals of planetary and solid earth scientific research. There has been a revolution in planetary surface observations over the past decade for the Earth, Mars and the Moon, especially in 3D imaging of surface shape (from the planetary scale down to resolutions of 75cm). I will examine three areas that I have been active in over the last 25 years giving examples of newly processed global datasets ripe for scaling analysis: topography, BRDF/albedo and imaging. For understanding scaling in terrestrial land surface topography we now have global 30m digital elevation models (DEMs) from different types of sensors (InSAR and stereo-optical) along with laser altimeter data to provide global reference models (to better than 1m in cross-over areas) and airborne laser altimeter data over small areas at resolutions better than 1m and height accuracies better than 10-15cm. We also have an increasing number of sub-surface observations from long wavelength SAR in arid regions, which will allow us to look at the true surface rather than the one buried by sand. We also still have a major limitation of these DEMs in that they represent an unknown observable surface with C-band InSAR DEMs representing being somewhere near the top of the canopy and X-band InSAR and stereo near the top of the canopy but only P-band representing the true understorey surface. I will present some of the recent highlights of topography on Mars including 3D modelling of surface shape from the ESA Mars Express HRSC (High Resolution Stereo Camera), see [1], [2] at 30-100m grid-spacing; and then co-registered to HRSC using a resolution cascade of 20m DTMs from NASA MRO stereo-CTX and 0.75m digital terrain models (as there is no land cover on Mars) DTMs from MRO stereo-HiRISE [3]. Comparable DTMs now exist for the Moon from 100m up to 1m. I will show examples of these DEM/DTM datasets

  2. C-terminal lysine repeats in Streptomyces topoisomerase I stabilize the enzyme–DNA complex and confer high enzyme processivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzałka, Agnieszka; Szafran, Marcin J.; Strick, Terence

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Streptomyces topoisomerase I (TopA) exhibits exceptionally high processivity. The enzyme, as other actinobacterial topoisomerases I, differs from its bacterial homologs in its C-terminal domain (CTD). Here, bioinformatics analyses established that the presence of lysine repeats is a characteristic feature of actinobacterial TopA CTDs. Streptomyces TopA contains the longest stretch of lysine repeats, which terminate with acidic amino acids. DNA-binding studies revealed that the lysine repeats stabilized the TopA–DNA complex, while single-molecule experiments showed that their elimination impaired enzyme processivity. Streptomyces coelicolor TopA processivity could not be restored by fusion of its N-terminal domain (NTD) with the Escherichia coli TopA CTD. The hybrid protein could not re-establish the distribution of multiple chromosomal copies in Streptomyces hyphae impaired by TopA depletion. We expected that the highest TopA processivity would be required during the growth of multigenomic sporogenic hyphae, and indeed, the elimination of lysine repeats from TopA disturbed sporulation. We speculate that the interaction of the lysine repeats with DNA allows the stabilization of the enzyme–DNA complex, which is additionally enhanced by acidic C-terminal amino acids. The complex stabilization, which may be particularly important for GC-rich chromosomes, enables high enzyme processivity. The high processivity of TopA allows rapid topological changes in multiple chromosomal copies during Streptomyces sporulation. PMID:28981718

  3. Thresholds of Knowledge Development in Complex Problem Solving: A Multiple-Case Study of Advanced Learners' Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Treavor; Liu, Min; Chiang, Yueh-hui Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-case study examined how advanced learners solved a complex problem, focusing on how their frequency and application of cognitive processes contributed to differences in performance outcomes, and developing a mental model of a problem. Fifteen graduate students with backgrounds related to the problem context participated in the study.…

  4. Using eye movements for analyzing the influence of linguistic complexity, noise, and hearing loss on sentence processing time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Müller, Jana; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    and compares the ET method to electrooculography (EOG). The processing time of sentences with different linguistic complexity was measured in quiet and in modulated noise using ET and EOG simultaneously. Eleven participants with hearing impairment and five participants with normal hearing participated...

  5. Complex of structural roentgenometric and optical parameters of chest X-ray picture for automated fluorograms processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodzaevskij, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The formalized description necessary for the development of algorithms for determination of main object boundaries by the roentgenologic picture during computerized photoroentgenograms processing is drawn up on the basis of the complex of structural roentgenometric parameters of the chest X-ray picture

  6. River basins as social-ecological systems: linking levels of societal and ecosystem water metabolism in a semiarid watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Cabello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available River basin modeling under complexity requires analytical frameworks capable of dealing with the multiple scales and dimensions of environmental problems as well as uncertainty in the evolution of social systems. Conceptual and methodological developments can now be framed using the wide socio-eco-hydrological approach. We add hierarchy theory into the mix to discuss the conceptualization of river basins as complex, holarchic social-ecological systems. We operationalize the social-ecological systems water metabolism framework in a semiarid watershed in Spain, and add the governance dimension that shapes human-environment reciprocity. To this purpose, we integrate an eco-hydrological model with the societal metabolism accounting scheme for land use, human activity, and water use. We explore four types of interactions: between societal organization and water uses/demands, between ecosystem organization and their water requirements/supplies, between societal metabolism and aquatic ecosystem health, and between water demand and availability. Our results reveal a metabolic pattern of a high mountain rural system striving to face exodus and agricultural land abandonment with a multifunctional economy. Centuries of social-ecological evolution shaping waterscapes through traditional water management practices have influenced the eco-hydrological functioning of the basin, enabling adaptation to aridity. We found a marked spatial gradient on water supply, use pattern, and impact on water bodies from the head to the mouth of the basin. Management challenges posed by the European water regulatory framework as a new driver of social-ecological change are highlighted.

  7. Information-Theoretic Approach May Shed a Light to a Better Understanding and Sustaining the Integrity of Ecological-Societal Systems under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Considering high levels of uncertainty, epistemological conflicts over facts and values, and a sense of urgency, normal paradigm-driven science will be insufficient to mobilize people and nation toward sustainability. The conceptual framework to bridge the societal system dynamics with that of natural ecosystems in which humanity operates remains deficient. The key to understanding their coevolution is to understand `self-organization.' Information-theoretic approach may shed a light to provide a potential framework which enables not only to bridge human and nature but also to generate useful knowledge for understanding and sustaining the integrity of ecological-societal systems. How can information theory help understand the interface between ecological systems and social systems? How to delineate self-organizing processes and ensure them to fulfil sustainability? How to evaluate the flow of information from data through models to decision-makers? These are the core questions posed by sustainability science in which visioneering (i.e., the engineering of vision) is an essential framework. Yet, visioneering has neither quantitative measure nor information theoretic framework to work with and teach. This presentation is an attempt to accommodate the framework of self-organizing hierarchical open systems with visioneering into a common information-theoretic framework. A case study is presented with the UN/FAO's communal vision of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) which pursues a trilemma of efficiency, mitigation, and resilience. Challenges of delineating and facilitating self-organizing systems are discussed using transdisciplinary toold such as complex systems thinking, dynamic process network analysis and multi-agent systems modeling. Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMA-2012-0001-A (WISE project).

  8. MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS OF TECHNICAL OPERATION FOR ONBOARD COMPLEXES AND FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS OF AVIONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Viktorovich Kuznetsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern aircraft are equipped with complicated systems and complexes of avionics. Aircraft and its avionics tech- nical operation process is observed as a process with changing of operation states. Mathematical models of avionics pro- cesses and systems of technical operation are represented as Markov chains, Markov and semi-Markov processes. The pur- pose is to develop the graph-models of avionics technical operation processes, describing their work in flight, as well as during maintenance on the ground in the various systems of technical operation. The graph-models of processes and sys- tems of on-board complexes and functional avionics systems in flight are proposed. They are based on the state tables. The models are specified for the various technical operation systems: the system with control of the reliability level, the system with parameters control and the system with resource control. The events, which cause the avionics complexes and func- tional systems change their technical state, are failures and faults of built-in test equipment. Avionics system of technical operation with reliability level control is applicable for objects with constant or slowly varying in time failure rate. Avion- ics system of technical operation with resource control is mainly used for objects with increasing over time failure rate. Avionics system of technical operation with parameters control is used for objects with increasing over time failure rate and with generalized parameters, which can provide forecasting and assign the borders of before-fail technical states. The pro- posed formal graphical approach avionics complexes and systems models designing is the basis for models and complex systems and facilities construction, both for a single aircraft and for an airline aircraft fleet, or even for the entire aircraft fleet of some specific type. The ultimate graph-models for avionics in various systems of technical operation permit the beginning of

  9. [Nursing undergraduate education in relation to the death-dying process: perceptions in light of the complex thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Matheus Viero; Backes, Dirce Stein; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; de Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to perceive the death-dying process from the perspective of nursing students. This is an exploratory, descriptive and qualitative research study. Data were collected between June and July 2013, from three focus groups with six nursing students at a University Center located in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The meetings were organized with an approach to increase discussions about the death-dying process from the perspective of the complex thinking. Data were analyzed by means of the Strategic Focal Analysis, and three categories were created: Death: a process of rupture or continuity?; Recognizing weaknesses in the undergraduate educational process; and Outlining strategies to broaden academic discussions. It is possible to conclude that the death/dying process is minimally discussed in undergraduate courses, and when it is discussed, it happens in a fragmented and disjunctive manner, without integrating it into the human living process. Descriptors: Death. Education, nursing. Attitude to death.

  10. Improving high impact weather and climate prediction for societal resilience in Subtropical South America: Proyecto RELAMPAGO-CACTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, S. W.; Salio, P. V.; Varble, A.; Trapp, R. J.; Roberts, R. R.; Dominguez, F.; Machado, L.; Saulo, C.

    2017-12-01

    Subtropical South America is host to many types of weather and climate hazards. The convective systems that initiate near and apart from the complex terrain of the Andes and Sierras de Córdoba are by many measures the most intense in the world, producing hazards such as damaging winds, hail, tornadoes, extreme and unusual lightning behavior, and flash and riverine flooding. These systems are modulated by interannual, intraseasonal, and synoptic drivers, however multi-scale models suffer from extreme biases in low level temperature and humidity due to their poor representation of organized convection and representation of convection near complex terrain, which hampers predictive skill of relevant processes across all timescales. To address these cross-cutting issues, we have proposed a large, multi-agency international field campaign called RELAMPAGO-CACTI, which will address key gaps in physical process understanding in the production of convective storms in this region. RELAMPAGO (Remote sensing of Electrification, Lightning, And Mesoscale/microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations), funded by NSF/NOAA/NASA/MinCyT/FAPESP, will be a 24-month hydrological-meteorological field campaign, with an intensive observing period 1 Nov - 15 Dec 2018 in the near the Sierras de Córdoba (SDC), the Andes foothills near Mendoza, and the region near São Borja, Brazil. A complementary funded 7-month DOE field campaign called Clouds, Aerosols, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI), which will focus on detailed observations of cloud and aerosol lifecycle near the SDC while an intensive observing period featuring aircraft observations will match RELAMPAGO's. While collecting the observations will enhance knowledge of the processes acting to modulate extremes in the region, a coordinated modeling effort will aim to evaluate coupled weather, climate, and hydrologic models using RELAMPAGO-CACTI observations. In addition, partnerships with the Servicio Meteorol

  11. The tumor suppressors p53, p63, and p73 are regulators of microRNA processing complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmanane Boominathan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressors p53, p73, and p63 are known to function as transcription factors. They promote either growth arrest or apoptosis, depending upon the DNA damage. A number of microRNAs (miRNAs have been shown to function as transcriptional targets of p53 and they appear to aid p53 in promoting growth arrest and apoptosis. However, the question of p53/p63/p73 regulating the miRNA processing complex has not been addressed in depth so far. Comparative/computational genomic analysis was performed using Target scan, Mami, and Diana software to identify miRNAs that regulate the miRNA processing complex. Here, I present evidence for the first time that the tumor suppressors p53, p63, and p73 function as both positive and negative regulators of the miRNA processing components. Curated p53-dependent miRNA expression data was used to identify p53-miRs that target the components of the miRNA-processing complex. This analysis suggests that most of the components (mRNAs' 3'UTR of the miRNA processing complex are targeted by p53-miRs. Remarkably, this data revealed the conserved nature of p53-miRs in targeting a number of components of the miRNA processing complex. p53/p73/p63 appears to regulate the major components of the miRNA processing, such as Drosha-DGCR8, Dicer-TRBP2, and Argonaute proteins. In particular, p53/p73/p63 appears to regulate the processing of miRNAs, such as let-7, miR-200c, miR-143, miR-107, miR-16, miR-145, miR-134, miR-449a, miR-503, and miR-21. Interestingly, there seems to be a phenotypic similarity between p63(-/- and dicer(-/- mice, suggesting that p63 and dicer could regulate each other. In addition, p63, p73, and the DGCR8 proteins contain a conserved interaction domain. Further, promoters of a number of components of the miRNA processing machinery, including dicer and P2P-R, contain p53-REs, suggesting that they could be direct transcriptional targets of p63/p73/p53. Together, this study provides mechanistic insights into

  12. Blog Citations as Indicators of the Societal Impact of Research : Content Analysis of Social Sciences Blogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes motivations behind social sciences blog posts citing journal articles in order to find out whether blog citations are good indicators for the societal impact or benefits of research. A random sample of 300 social sciences blog posts (out of 1,233 blog posts from ResearchBlogging.org published between 01/01/2012 to 18/06/2014 were subjected to content analysis. The 300 blog posts had 472 references including 424 journal articles from 269 different journals. Sixty‐one (22.68% of all cited journals were from the social sciences and most of the journals with high frequency were highly cited general science journals such as PNAS and Science. Seventy‐five percent of all journals were referenced only once. The average age of articles cited at the time of citation was 5.8 years. Discussion and criticism were the two main categories of motivations. Overall, the study shows the potential of blog citations as an altmetric measure and as a proxy for assessing the research impact. A considerable number of citation motivations in blogs such as disputing a belief, suggesting policies, providing a solution to a problem, reacting to media, criticism and the like seemed to support gaining societal benefits. Societal benefits are considered as helping stimulate new approaches to social issues, or informing public debate and policymaking. Lower self‐citation (compared to some other altmetric measures such as tweets and the fact that blogging involves generating content (i.e. an intellectual process give them an advantage for altmetrics. However, limitations and contextual issues such as disciplinary differences and low uptake of altmetrics, in general, in scholarly communication should not be ignored when using blogs as a data source for altmetrics.

  13. The effects of stimulus complexity on the preattentive processing of self-generated and nonself voices: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Tatiana; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Pinheiro, Ana P

    2016-02-01

    The ability to differentiate one's own voice from the voice of somebody else plays a critical role in successful verbal self-monitoring processes and in communication. However, most of the existing studies have only focused on the sensory correlates of self-generated voice processing, whereas the effects of attentional demands and stimulus complexity on self-generated voice processing remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of stimulus complexity on the preattentive processing of self and nonself voice stimuli. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 17 healthy males who watched a silent movie while ignoring prerecorded self-generated (SGV) and nonself (NSV) voice stimuli, consisting of a vocalization (vocalization category condition: VCC) or of a disyllabic word (word category condition: WCC). All voice stimuli were presented as standard and deviant events in four distinct oddball sequences. The mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP component peaked earlier for NSV than for SGV stimuli. Moreover, when compared with SGV stimuli, the P3a amplitude was increased for NSV stimuli in the VCC only, whereas in the WCC no significant differences were found between the two voice types. These findings suggest differences in the time course of automatic detection of a change in voice identity. In addition, they suggest that stimulus complexity modulates the magnitude of the orienting response to SGV and NSV stimuli, extending previous findings on self-voice processing.

  14. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants’ working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level...... and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful...

  15. Stream computing for biomedical signal processing: A QRS complex detection case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B M; O'Driscoll, C; Boylan, G B; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in "Big Data" have brought significant gains in the ability to process large amounts of data on commodity server hardware. Stream computing is a relatively new paradigm in this area, addressing the need to process data in real time with very low latency. While this approach has been developed for dealing with large scale data from the world of business, security and finance, there is a natural overlap with clinical needs for physiological signal processing. In this work we present a case study of streams processing applied to a typical physiological signal processing problem: QRS detection from ECG data.

  16. Structurally complex habitats provided by Acropora palmata influence ecosystem processes on a reef in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, N. P.; Valentine, J. F.

    2012-09-01

    The disappearance of Acropora palmata from reefs in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS) represents a significant loss in the amount of structurally complex habitat available for reef-associated species. The consequences of such a widespread loss of complex structure on ecosystem processes are still unclear. We sought to determine whether the disappearance of complex structure has adversely affected grazing and invertebrate predation rates on a shallow reef in the FKNMS. Surprisingly, we found grazing rates and invertebrate predation rates were lower in the structurally complex A. palmata branches than on the topographically simple degraded reefs. We attribute these results to high densities of aggressively territorial damselfish, Stegastes planifrons, living within A. palmata. Our study suggests the presence of agonistic damselfish can cause the realized spatial patterns of ecosystem processes to deviate from the expected patterns. Reef ecologists must therefore carefully consider the assemblage of associate fish communities when assessing how the mortality of A. palmata has affected coral reef ecosystem processes.

  17. Preservation of Agricultural Land as an Issue of Societal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Slätmo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on concerns about food security and food sovereignty, it is appropriate to scrutinise societal measures for protecting agricultural land from conversion to other uses. Changes from agricultural to urban land use are particularly problematic, as they are largely irreversible. By analysing relevant Swedish policy, the present study investigated how the protection of agricultural land is framed as an issue of societal importance. Protection of agricultural land is enshrined in Swedish law, but its use is still continually changing to housing and other constructions. In a structured policy analysis, two questions were examined: (1 what are the societal motives for protecting agricultural land in Sweden, and (2 how do these motives influence the governance of agricultural land? The meaning of ‘national importance’, ‘suitable for cultivation’ and ‘significant national interests’ in Swedish land-use law was also analysed. The results showed that formulations in the law reflect the ambivalent discourses on agricultural land preservation and that the Swedish authorities view other land uses as more important than agriculture. The Swedish governance system is currently built on trust that municipal institutions will make satisfactory decisions concerning land and water use. However, it has been shown that these decisions have not been satisfactory concerning the protection of agricultural land, and it is important to acknowledge that the sum of local decisions can be degrading for these life-supporting resources. The present analysis revealed a looming conflict between the preservation of soils for food production, on one hand, and local participation in decision making, on the other. This raises the question of whether it is more important to defend subsidiarity or to preserve certain resources which are important for food security, such as agricultural land.

  18. The SMC5/6 complex is involved in crucial processes during human spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, Dideke E.; Langedijk, Nathalia S. M.; Jordan, Philip W.; Repping, Sjoerd; Hamer, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Genome integrity is crucial for safe reproduction. Therefore, chromatin structure and dynamics should be tightly regulated during germ cell development. Chromatin structure and function are in large part determined by the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes, of which SMC5/6

  19. Software and hardware complex for research and management of the separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the development of a program for studying the operation of an asynchronous electric drive using vector-algorithmic switching of windings, as well as the development of a hardware-software complex for controlling parameters and controlling the speed of rotation of an asynchronous electric drive for investigating the operation of a cyclone. To study the operation of an asynchronous electric drive, a method was used in which the average value of flux linkage is found and a method for vector-algorithmic calculation of the power and electromagnetic moment of an asynchronous electric drive feeding from a single-phase network is developed, with vector-algorithmic commutation, and software for calculating parameters. The software part of the complex allows to regulate the speed of rotation of the motor by vector-algorithmic switching of transistors or, using pulse-width modulation (PWM), set any engine speed. Also sensors are connected to the hardware-software complex at the inlet and outlet of the cyclone. The developed cyclone with an inserted complex allows to receive high efficiency of product separation at various entrance speeds. At an inlet air speed of 18 m / s, the cyclone’s maximum efficiency is achieved. For this, it is necessary to provide the rotational speed of an asynchronous electric drive with a frequency of 45 Hz.

  20. The diminishing role of hubs in dynamical processes on complex networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, R.; Apolloni, A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    It is notoriously difficult to predict the behaviour of a complex self-organizing system, where the interactions among dynamical units form a heterogeneous topology. Even if the dynamics of each microscopic unit is known, a real understanding of their contributions to the macroscopic system