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Sample records for complex se iceland

  1. Linkages between Icelandic Low position and SE Greenland winter precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, M.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Hammann, A. C.; Mioduszewski, J.; Hameed, S.; Tedesco, M.; Stroeve, J. C.; Mote, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Greenland's largest flux of precipitation occurs in its Southeast (SE) region. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling precipitation in this region is lacking despite its disproportionate importance in the mass balance of Greenland and the consequent contributions to sea level rise. We use weather station data from the Danish Meteorological Institute to reveal the governing influences on precipitation in SE Greenland during the winter and fall. We find that precipitation in the fall is significantly correlated to the longitude of the Icelandic Low and the NAO. Winter precipitation is correlated with the strength and longitude of the Icelandic Low, as well as the NAO. We show that in years of extreme high precipitation, onshore winds dominate, thereby advecting more moisture inland. In low precipitation years, winds are more westerly, approaching the stations from land. Understanding the controls of SE Greenland precipitation will help us predict how future precipitation in this key region may change in a warming climate.

  2. Drilling into Rhyolitic Magma at Shallow depth at Krafla Volcanic Complex, NE-Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, A. K.; Markússon, S. H.; Gudmundsson, Á.; Pálsson, B.

    2017-12-01

    Krafla volcanic complex in NE-Iceland is an active volcano but the latest eruption was the Krafla Fires in 1975-1984. Though recent volcanic activity has consisted of basaltic fissure eruptions, then it is rhyolitic magma that has been intercepted on at least two occasions while drilling geothermal production wells in the geothermal field suggesting a layered magma plumbing system beneath the Krafla volcanic complex. In 2008 quenched rhyolitic glass was retrieved from the bottom of well KJ-39, which is 2865 m deep ( 2571 m true vertical depth). In 2009 magma was again encountered at an even shallower depth and in more than 2,5 km distance from the bottom of well KJ-39, but in 2009 well IDDP-1 was drilled into magma three times just below 2100 m depth. Only on the last occasion was quenched glass retrieved to confirm that magma had been encountered. In well KJ-39 the quenched glass was rhyolitic in composition. The glass contained resorbed minerals of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and titanomagnetite, but the composition of the glass resembles magma that has formed by partial melting of hydrated basalt. The melt was encountered among cuttings from impermeable, coarse basaltic intrusives at a depth, where the well was anticipated to penetrate the Hólseldar volcanic fissure. In IDDP-1 the quenched glass was also rhyolitic in composition. The glass contained less than 5% of phenocrysts, but the phenocryst assemblage included andesine plagioclase, augite, pigeonite, and titanomagnetite. At IDDP-1 the melt was encountered below a permeable zone composed of fine to coarse grained felsite and granophyre. The disclosure of magma in two wells at Krafla volcanic complex verify that rhyolitic magma can be encountered at shallow depth across a larger area within the caldera. The encounter of magma at shallow depth conforms with that superheated conditions have been found at >2000 m depth in large parts of Krafla geothermal field.

  3. Icelandic Geopower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maguire, James

    into these discussions through an ethnographic and practice based approach to the study of renewable energy. It does so by examining the production of geothermal energy in the Hengill volcanic zone in the southwest of Iceland. The analysis that is produced is based upon an engagement with the practices, ideas...... with those who make geothermal energy (geologists) as well as those who protest against its production (residents living in the vicinity of the volcanic zone) allows me to understand how geothermal energy is produced and resisted through particular sets of practices and technologies. At the same time it also....... Carrying out ethnographic fieldwork with key actors allows me to examine how this complex techno-political work is carried out and to what effects. However, drilling deep in the subterranean of a highly active seismic area is dangerous and risky. In producing geothermal energy, other consequences...

  4. Magmatic emulsion texture formed by mixing during extrusion, Rauðafell composite complex, Breiðdalur volcano, eastern Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charreteur, Gilles; Tegner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Rauoafell composite complex is part of the Neogene Breiodalur volcano, eastern Iceland and is composed of a composite feeder dyke, a vent structure and a composite flow. The two end-members of the composite complex are rhyolite and basalt, and both are rich in plagioclase macrocrysts: bytowni...

  5. Evolution of Icelandic Central Volcanoes: Evidence from the Austurhorn Plutonic and Vestmannaeyjar Volcanic Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    complex (figure 3.2; Blake, 1964, 1970). They consist of basic, intermediate and acid lavas as well as pyroclastic deposits. Early propylitic ...hypothesis because dikes are heavily fractured and commonly show incipient propylitization along fracture surfaces. Mafic dikes exhibit a sharp maximum in

  6. Complexing in (NH4)2SeO4-UO2SeO4 H2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkina, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    Isotherm of solubility in the (NH 4 ) 2 SeO 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O system has been constructed at 25 deg C. (NH 4 ) 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 x6H 2 O formation is established for the first time and certain its physicochemical properties are determined. Regularities of complexing in the R 2 Se) 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O systems, where R-univalent cation are under discussion. 6 refs.; 3 tabs

  7. Magmatic emulsion texture formed by mixing during extrusion, Rauðafell composite complex, Breiðdalur volcano, eastern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreteur, Gilles; Tegner, Christian

    2013-06-01

    The Rauðafell composite complex is part of the Neogene Breiðdalur volcano, eastern Iceland and is composed of a composite feeder dyke, a vent structure and a composite flow. The two end-members of the composite complex are rhyolite and basalt, and both are rich in plagioclase macrocrysts: bytownite in basalt and oligoclase in rhyolite. The rhyolite also includes ferroaugite macrocrysts. The mixed rocks are separated in three textural groups related to mixing proportions. When the basaltic end-member is dominant, a hybrid texture with a homogeneous matrix is observed and the only evidence of mixing is the presence of antecrysts of both end-members. When the basaltic end-member represents c. 65 to 30 % of the mixture, we observe emulsion textures composed of finely co-mingled basalt and rhyolite. The difference between these two textural expressions of mixing is due to effects of diffusion. The third texture shows mafic enclaves suspended in a rhyolitic matrix. In these rocks, the proportion of the basaltic end-member is inferior to 30 %, implying that the basalt froze solid in contact with the rhyolite. Zoning of plagioclase shows that the mixing processes are driven initially by highly efficient micro-mingling; the emulsification is possibly a result of compositional gradient stresses (Korteweg stress) between miscible basalt and rhyolite. This is followed by chemical diffusion (hybridisation) and tend to protect antecrysts from reaction with the primitive magmas. When antecrysts originated in the evolved magma, they undergo dissolution due to thermal disequilibrium during mingling and chemical disequilibrium during hybridisation. We argue that such mixing processes are important in producing intermediate rocks in Iceland and elsewhere that shows only the chemical attributes of an origin by mixing. The preservation of emulsion textures is rare and highly dependent on cooling history.

  8. Complexation in the system K2SeO4-UO2SeO4-H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serezhkina, L.B.; Kuchumova, N.V.; Serezhkin, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    Complexation in the system K 2 SeO 4 -UO 2 SeO 4 -H 2 O at 25 degrees C is studied by isothermal solubility. Congruently soluble K 2 UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 ·4H 2 O (I) and incongruently soluble K 2 (UO 2 ) 2 (SeO 4 ) 3 ·6H 2 O (II) are observed. The unit-cell constants of I and II are determined from an X-ray diffraction investigation. For I, a = 12,969, b = 11.588, c = 8.533 angstrom, Z = 4, space group Pmmb. For II, a = 23.36, b = 6.784, c = 13.699 angstrom, β = 104.42 degrees, Z = 4, space group P2/m, P2, or Pm. Complexes I and II are representatives of the crystal-chemical groups AB 2 2 M 1 and A 2 T 3 3 M 1 , respectively, of uranyl complexes

  9. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrún; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna

    2017-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (CIV) is a newly developed open-access web resource (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is) intended to serve as an official source of information about volcanoes in Iceland for the public and decision makers. CIV contains text and graphic information on all 32 active volcanic systems in Iceland, as well as real-time data from monitoring systems in a format that enables non-specialists to understand the volcanic activity status. The CIV data portal contains scientific data on all eruptions since Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and is an unprecedented endeavour in making volcanological data open and easy to access. CIV forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the European Union funded effort FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. The supersite concept implies integration of space and ground based observations for improved monitoring and evaluation of volcanic hazards, and open data policy. This work is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.

  10. An incipient public authority: A short pre-history of the Central Bank of Iceland Stjórnvald í mótun: Drög að forsögu Seðlabankans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgi Skúli Kjartansson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The author surveys the central banking functions progressively assumed by the National Bank of Iceland (Landsbanki Íslands prior to the establishment in 1961 of the separate Icelandic Central Bank (Seðlabanki Íslands. The NBI took over the issuance of banknotes in 1924; its central banking functions were defined by law (unrealistically, as the law foresaw a functioning gold standard which never was put into practice in 1927; its central banking section became financially separate in 1930; it was put under separate administration by law in 1957, and given the right, first exercised in 1960 onwards, to determine interest rates and reserve requirement in commercial banking. Among the particular points under discussion are NBI´s responsibility for other banks (none whatsoever when the country´s second bank failed in 1930; its involvement, from the early 1930s onward, in a regime of currency controls; its control of interest rates (limited and largely by persuasion as its rediscount rate was not an instrument of monetary policy; and its increasing willingness to state its own its monetary policy, even in opposition to the policy pursued by national government.Í greininni er fjallað um seðlabankahlutverk Landsbanka Íslands fram til 1961 þegar Seðlabanki Íslands varð að sjálfstæðri stofnun. Landsbankinn hafði annast seðlaútgáfu frá 1924 og verið skilgreindur sem seðlabanki að lögum frá 1927, en þar sem lögin gengu út frá föstu gullgengi og gullinnlausn krónunnar, sem aldrei varð að veruleika, var það reynslan fremur en lögin sem mótaði seðlabankahlutverk Landsbankans í raun. Seðlabankinn var sérstök deild Landsbankans, fjárhagslega aðskilin frá 1930 (þó hún annaðist fyrst um sinn stóran hluta af viðskiptabankastarfseminni líka og undir sérstakri stjórn frá 1957, en það var stærsta skrefið í átt til sjálfstæðs seðlabanka. Meðal annars er rætt um afskiptaleysi Landsbankans af falli

  11. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation.......The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...

  12. Iceland country update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmason, G.; Gudmundsson, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides information on geothermal energy utilization in Iceland. Topics include: the present and planned production of electricity in Iceland, from all primary sources, the present and planned utilization of geothermal energy for electricity generation, the use of geothermal energy in all public district heating systems, high temperature geothermal localities, high-temperature wells drilled for electrical utilization and wells drilled for the combined use for district heating and power production, and wells drilled for direct use

  13. GLO polymorphism in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, S; Arnason, A; Jensson, O

    1980-01-01

    The phenotypes of red cell glyoxalase I (GLO) were determined in two Icelandic population samples using starch-gel electrophoresis and high-voltage agarose-gel electrophoresis. The gene frequencies of 178 unrelated individuals were 0.46 for GLO/sup 1/ and 0.54 for GLO/sup 2/. In a group of Icelandic insulin-dependent diabetics the gene frequencies were found to be very similar. The evaluation of 30 mother-child pairs is also shown.

  14. High-Resolution Digital Elevation Modeling from TLS and UAV Campaign Reveals Structural Complexity at the 2014/2015 Holuhraun Eruption Site, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fissure eruptions are commonly linked to magma dikes at depth and are associated with elastic and inelastic surface deformation. Elastic deformation is well described by subsidence occurring above the dike plane and uplift and lateral widening occurring perpendicular to the dike plane. Inelastic deformation is associated with the formation of a graben, which is bordered by graben parallel faults that might express as sets of fractures at the surface. Additionally, secondary structures, such as push-ups, bends and step overs, yield information about the deforming domain. However, once these structures are formed during fissure eruptions, they are rarely preserved in nature, due to the effects of rapid erosion, sediment coverage or overprinting by other faulting events. Therefore, simple normal fault displacements are commonly assumed at dikes. At the 2014/2015 Holuhraun eruption sites (Iceland, increasing evidence suggests that developing fractures exhibited variations in their displacement modes. In an attempt to investigate these variations, a fieldwork mapping project combining Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-based aerophoto analysis was undertaken. Using these data, we generated local high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and a structural map that facilitated the identification of kinematic indicators and the assessment of the observed structures. We identified 315 fracture segments from these satellite data. We measured the strike directions of single segments, including the amount of opening and opening angles, which indicate that many of the measured fractures show transtensional dislocations. Of these, ~81% exhibit a significant left-lateral component and only ~17% exhibit a right-lateral component. Here, we demonstrate that the local complexities in these fracture traces and geometries are closely related to variations in their transtensional opening directions. Moreover, we identified local

  15. Latin Hagiography in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensson, Gottskálk

    2017-01-01

    I. INTRODUCTION A. Latin literacy in Iceland and the cult of saints B. Icelandic quasi-hagiography and the Christian monarchs of Norway II. THE ICELANDIC SAINTS AND THEIR LATIN TEXTS A. S. Thorlacus Scalotensis episcopus. – 1. The texts: the Latin hagiography about St Þorlákur. – 2. The historical...

  16. The Icelandic ITQ System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sofie; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Oddsson, Geir

    2009-01-01

    volume of landings is constituted by pelagic species. Cod, which is mainly caught in the Icelanders’ own exclusive economic zone, is the economically most important fish. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the Icelandic individual transferable quota shares system with its management innovations, e.......g. harvest control rule for cod, cod equivalents, temporary closed areas, community quotas and features for regulation of quota concentration. The evaluation considers four possible fisheries management objectives, namely biological robustness, cost-effectiveness of management, economic efficiency......ABSTRACT: The fisheries sector is tremendously important for Iceland: the export of fish products accounts for a large part of the value of exported goods. Fisheries policy in Iceland is, consequently, of national importance to a degree that is not comparable to any of the EU member states...

  17. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  18. Energy taxes in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhjalmsson, A.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed survey, including data, of energy taxation, and related reforms and plans for reforms, in Iceland is presented. The current energy tax system here is mostly connected with consumption. There is as yet no taxation on air pollutants from fuel combustion. (AB)

  19. The Icelandic ITQ System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sofie; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Oddsson, Geir

    2009-01-01

    volume of landings is constituted by pelagic species. Cod, which is mainly caught in the Icelanders’ own exclusive economic zone, is the economically most important fish. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the Icelandic individual transferable quota shares system with its management innovations, e...

  20. Complexing in the system Rb2SeO4-UO2SeO4-H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchumova, N.V.; Shtokova, I.P.; Serezhkina, L.B.; Serezhkin, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Method of isothermal solubility at 25 deg C is used to study interaction of rubidium and uranyl selenates in aqueous solution. Formation of congruently soluble Rb 2 UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 x2H 2 O and Rb 2 (UO 2 ) 2 x(SeO 4 ) 3 x6H 2 O is stated. For the last compound crystallographic characteristics (a=10.668; b=14.935(9); c=13.891(7) A; β=104.94(1); Z=4, sp.gr. P2 1 /c) are determined. Thermal decomposition of a compound results in formation of Rb 2 U 2 O 7

  1. Learning from Bjartur About Today's Icelandic Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Paganelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Economies are complex systems resulting from human action but not from human design. The economic success of Iceland in recent decades was the result of the development of good institutions combined with a positive global economic climate. The recent economic downturn, not just in Iceland but around the world, should be a reminder that good institutions matter and should serve as an exhortation to continue building good institutions rather than dismissing them in favor of institutions that generate poverty.

  2. Defect complexes formed with Ag atoms in CDTE, ZnTe, and ZnSe

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, H; Ostheimer, V; Hamann, J; Lany, S; Wichert, T

    2000-01-01

    Using the radioactive acceptor $^{111}\\!$Ag for perturbed $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$-angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy for the first time, defect complexes formed with Ag are investigated in the II-VI semiconductors CdTe, ZnTe and ZnSe. The donors In, Br and the Te-vacancy were found to passivate Ag acceptors in CdTe via pair formation, which was also observed in In-doped ZnTe. In undoped or Sb-doped CdTe and in undoped ZnSe, the PAC experiments indicate the compensation of Ag acceptors by the formation of double broken bond centres, which are characterised by an electric field gradient with an asymmetry parameter close to h = 1. Additionally, a very large electric field gradient was observed in CdTe, which is possibly connected with residual impurities.

  3. Geochemical constraints on the link between volcanism and plutonism at the Yunshan caldera complex, SE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lili; He, Zhenyu; Beier, Christoph; Klemd, Reiner

    2018-01-01

    The Yunshan caldera complex is part of a larger scale, ca. 2000-km-long volcanic-plutonic complex belt in the coastal region of SE China. The volcanic rocks in the caldera complex are characterized by high-silica peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites associated with an intracaldera porphyritic quartz monzonite pluton. In this study, we present zircon U-Pb, Hf and stable O isotopes along with geochemical data of both volcanic and plutonic rocks to evaluate the potential petrogenetic link between volcanism and plutonism in the Yunshan caldera complex. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology of both volcanic and plutonic rocks yields almost identical ages ranging from 95.6 to 93.1 Ma. The peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites show negative anomalies of Sr, P, Ti and Ba and to a lesser extent negative Nb and Ta anomalies, along with positive Rb anomalies and `seagull-like' rare earth element (REE) patterns with negative Eu anomalies and low (La/Yb)N ratios. The intracaldera porphyritic quartz monzonite displays minor negative Rb, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti anomalies and a positive Ba anomaly with REE patterns characterized by relatively high (La/Yb)N ratios and lack significant Eu anomalies. The peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites and the porphyritic quartz monzonite exhibit consistent ɛ Nd( t) of - 3.7 to - 2.2 and display zircon ɛ Hf( t) values of - 2.1 to 3.7. They further have similar, mantle-like, zircon oxygen isotopic compositions (δ18OVSMOW mainly = 4.63 to 5.76‰). We interpret these observations to be in agreement with a crystal mush model in which the parental magma of the volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Yunshan caldera complex was likely produced by interaction of asthenosphere melts with subduction-influenced enriched mantle wedge. The peralkaline rhyolites are interpreted to represent the most differentiated magma that has subsequently experienced significant fluid-melt interactions, whereas the porphyritic quartz monzonite may be representative of the

  4. Strike-slip deformation reflects complex partitioning of strain in the Nankai Accretionary Prism (SE Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco C.; Alves, Tiago M.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested predominant extensional tectonics acting, at present, on the Nankai Accretionary Prism (NAP), and following a parallel direction to the convergence vector between the Philippine Sea and Amur Plates. However, a complex set of thrusts, pop-up structures, thrust anticlines and strike-slip faults is observed on seismic data in the outer wedge of the NAP, hinting at a complex strain distribution across SE Japan. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data reveal three main families of faults: (1) NE-trending thrusts and back-thrusts; (2) NNW- to N-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults; and (3) WNW-trending to E-W right-lateral strike-slip faults. Such a fault pattern suggests that lateral slip, together with thrusting, are the two major styles of deformation operating in the outer wedge of the NAP. Both styles of deformation reflect a transpressional tectonic regime in which the maximum horizontal stress is geometrically close to the convergence vector. This work is relevant because it shows a progressive change from faults trending perpendicularly to the convergence vector, to a broader partitioning of strain in the form of thrusts and conjugate strike-slip faults. We suggest that similar families of faults exist within the inner wedge of the NAP, below the Kumano Basin, and control stress accumulation and strain accommodation in this latter region.

  5. The Crash Course from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huginn Freyr Þorsteinsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The years between 2006 and 2008 are key in understanding the Icelandic economic crisis. One of the main questions one gets when discussing the lessons from Iceland is: Was the quick recovery due to how the country 'burned' the creditors? Myth has it that when things got tough for the banks, the Icelandic government denied to bail them out and the country therefore escaped the difficult long-term consequence felt by, for example, Ireland. But that is a serious distortion of what happened. The Icelandic banks were on Central Bank life support from 2006 to 2008. It was only when the CBI ran out of steam that an alternative approach in crisis management was put in place. For admirers of historical contingencies, this case is of interest. Iceland did not take a calculated decision to let the banks fail, but an attempted bail-out failed. This meant that that its tackling of a banking crisis took an unexpected turn as banks were put into administration; a move only considered in the face of failure. And despite the route taken by Iceland, the total cost of the economic crisis for the State has surpassed Ireland's and is one of the costliest any sovereign has faced in the ongoing crisis. This is interesting, given the ongoing discussion about the Icelandic 'miraculous' escape from an economic crisis and that the possibilities countries face during crisis management may be many more than those that are discussed.

  6. Moral panic in Icelandic society: Arrival of ecstasy to Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónas Orri Jónasson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of illegal drugs has often been shown to ignite fear and insecurity in society. When a new drug appears the media typically reports on this drug and the risk it poses. Soon after ecstasy appeared in Iceland in the 1990s its use created a major public uproar and insecurity in Icelandic society. In the article the theory of moral panic will be used to examine if the arrival of ecstasy to Iceland ignited a moral panic. Media reports on ecstasy, public reactions, interest groups and government institutions will be analysed. Discourse analysis is employed on newspaper reporting on ecstasy between 1985 and 1997 to detect signs of moral panic. The main conclusion is that evidence suggests that a moral panic existed in Iceland as described in well-known theories on the subject.

  7. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  8. Preparation of EuSe nanoparticles from Eu(III) complex containing selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Taka-aki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The EuSe nanoparticles were prepared by the thermal reduction of Europium nitrate with new organic selenium compound, tetraphenylphosphonium diphenylphosphinediselenide (PPh 4 )(Se 2 P(C 6 H 5 ) 2 ), for the first time. EuSe nanoparticles were identified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements. The average size of the EuSe nanoparticles was found to be 19 nm. The energy gap in EuSe nanoparticles of 19 nm was estimated by edge of absorption band, giving the energy gap of 1.86 eV

  9. Direct Observation of Very Large Zero-Field Splitting in a Tetrahedral Ni(II)Se4 Coordination Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shang-Da; Maganas, Dimitrios; Levesanos, Nikolaos; Ferentinos, Eleftherios; Haas, Sabrina; Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; Krzystek, J; Dressel, Martin; Bogani, Lapo; Neese, Frank; Kyritsis, Panayotis

    2015-10-14

    The high-spin (S = 1) tetrahedral Ni(II) complex [Ni{(i)Pr2P(Se)NP(Se)(i)Pr2}2] was investigated by magnetometry, spectroscopic, and quantum chemical methods. Angle-resolved magnetometry studies revealed the orientation of the magnetization principal axes. The very large zero-field splitting (zfs), D = 45.40(2) cm(-1), E = 1.91(2) cm(-1), of the complex was accurately determined by far-infrared magnetic spectroscopy, directly observing transitions between the spin sublevels of the triplet ground state. These are the largest zfs values ever determined--directly--for a high-spin Ni(II) complex. Ab initio calculations further probed the electronic structure of the system, elucidating the factors controlling the sign and magnitude of D. The latter is dominated by spin-orbit coupling contributions of the Ni ions, whereas the corresponding effects of the Se atoms are remarkably smaller.

  10. Amphipod family distributions around Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Brix

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphipod crustaceans were collected at all 55 stations sampled with an epibenthic sledge during two IceAGE expeditions (Icelandic marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology in 2011 and 2013. In total, 34 amphipod families and three superfamilies were recorded in the samples. Distribution maps are presented for each taxon along with a summary of the regional taxonomy for the group. Statistical analyses based on presence/absence data revealed a pattern of family distributions that correlated with sampling depth. Clustering according to the geographic location of the stations (northernmost North Atlantic Sea and Arctic Ocean can also be observed. IceAGE data for the Amphilochidae and Oedicerotidae were analysed on species level; in case of the Amphilochidae they were compared to the findings from a previous Icelandic benthic survey, BIOICE (Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic waters, which also identified a high abundance of amphipod fauna.

  11. Holocene and latest Pleistocene climate and glacier fluctuations in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Axford, Yarrow; Ólafsdóttir, Sædís

    2009-10-01

    Multiproxy climate records from Iceland document complex changes in terrestrial climate and glacier fluctuations through the Holocene, revealing some coherent patterns of change as well as significant spatial variability. Most studies on the Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation reveal a dynamic Iceland Ice Sheet (IIS) that responded abruptly to changes in ocean currents and sea level. The IIS broke up catastrophically around 15 ka as the Polar Front migrated northward and sea level rose. Indications of regional advance or halt of the glaciers are seen in late Alleröd/early Younger Dryas time and again in PreBoreal time. Due to the apparent rise of relative sea level in Iceland during this time, most sites contain evidence for fluctuating, tidewater glacier termini occupying paleo fjords and bays. The time between the end of the Younger Dryas and the Preboreal was characterized by repeated jökulhlaups that eroded glacial deposits. By 10.3 ka, the main ice sheet was in rapid retreat across the highlands of Iceland. The Holocene thermal maximum (HTM) was reached after 8 ka with land temperatures estimated to be 3 °C higher than the 1961-1990 reference, and net precipitation similar to modern. Such temperatures imply largely ice-free conditions across Iceland in the early to mid-Holocene. Several marine and lacustrine sediment climate proxies record substantial summer temperature depression between 8.5 and 8 ka, but no moraines have been detected from that time. Termination of the HTM and onset of Neoglacial cooling took place sometime after 6 ka with increased glacier activity between 4.5 and 4.0 ka, intensifying between 3.0 and 2.5 ka. Although a distinct warming during the Medieval Warm Period is not dramatically apparent in Icelandic records, the interval from ca AD 0 to 1200 is commonly characterized by relative stability with slow rates of change. The literature most commonly describes Little Ice Age moraines (ca AD 1250-1900) as representing the

  12. EROI and the Icelandic society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the societal Energy Return on Investment (EROIsoc) is estimated for Iceland between 1960 and the present. The results indicate that the overall EROIsoc was around 27:1 in the early 1960s, and was volatile for a period of time before stabilizing at around 45:1 in 1974 after establis...

  13. Pectinoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Waren, A.; Gudmundsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Icelandic pectinoid fauna is reviewed, based on material from the benthic survey programme BIOICE and 17 species are recorded. Similipecten oskarssoni is proposed as a replacement name for Pecten groenlandicus var. minor Locard, 1898 (Propeamussiidae), which is considered a valid species.

  14. The influence of phthalocyanine aggregation in complexes with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on the photophysical properties of the complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Martynenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of nonluminescent aggregates of aluminium sulfonated phthalocyanine in complexes with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots causes a decrease of the intracomplex energy transfer efficiency with increasing phthalocyanine concentration. This was confirmed by steady-state absorption and photoluminescent spectroscopy. A corresponding physical model was developed that describes well the experimental data. The results can be used at designing of QD/molecule systems with the desired spatial arrangement for photodynamic therapy.

  15. Psychotropic drug use among Icelandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines Reg...... extensive psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. Further scrutiny is needed to assess the rationale behind this widespread use....

  16. Complex formation of CdSe/ZnS/TOPO nanocrystal vs. molecular chaperone in aqueous solution by hydrophobic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Hiromi; Iwami, Noriya; Tachibana, Fumi; Ohtaki, Akashi; Iizuka, Ryo; Zako, Tamotsu; Oda, Masaru; Yohda, Masafumi; Tani, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    Feasibilities to stabilize CdSe/ZnS/trioctylphosphineoxide (TOPO) nanocrystals (quantum dots, QDs) in aqueous solutions with prefoldin macromolecules in their bioactive states are reported. Prefoldin is a jellyfish-shaped hexameric co-chaperone of the group II chaperonins. As a protein folding intermediate is captured within its central cavity, so CdSe/ZnS/TOPO QDs would also be included within this cavity. It is also found the QDs can be much more dispersed in aqueous solutions and suspended for certain period of time by adding trace amount of t-butanol in the buffer prior to the mixing of the QDs mother solution. While biochemical procedures are evaluated with ordinary fluorescence measurements, possible complex formations are also evaluated with TIRFM single-molecule detection techniques

  17. Influence of citrate ions as complexing agent for electrodeposition of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chraibi, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Sciences des Materiaux et Electrochimie; Universite Mohammed 5, Rabat (Morocco). Dept. de Physique; Fahoume, M.; Ennaoui, A. [Universite Mohammed 5, Rabat (Morocco). Dept. de Physique; Delplancke, J.L. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Sciences des Materiaux et Electrochimie

    2001-08-16

    The preparation of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films by electrodeposition is studied. The effect of sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}) as complexing agent on the electrodeposition of pure copper, indium, selenium and of their ternary alloy is emphasized. Cathodic shifts of the copper and selenium electrodeposition potentials with increasing citrate concentration are observed. On the contrary, the presence of citrate in the electrolyte does not change the indium electrodeposition potential but improves its crystallinity. The surface morphology and the composition of the deposited films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The texture of the deposits and their compositions are analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The formation of CuInSe{sub 2} films with a chalcopyrite structure and good stoichiometry is observed. (orig.)

  18. Dynamiques complexes et morphogenèse Introduction aux sciences non linéaires

    CERN Document Server

    Misbah, Chaouqi

    2011-01-01

    Les sciences non linéaires ont pour objet l’ensemble des phénomènes dont l’analyse résiste au principe de superposition. Elles concernent en grande partie les systèmes dits « complexes » dont l’interaction et l’interdépendance entre les parties empêchent de prédire précisément l’évolution du système. Pour expliquer ces phénomènes, deux approches complémentaires ont été proposées : la théorie des bifurcations et la théorie des catastrophes. Mais la pleine compréhension et la modélisation de la non-linéarité restent chacune un défi pour les scientifiques du XXIe siècle. C’est dans la perspective d’accompagner tous ceux qui voudront le relever que ce livre a été conçu. Son objectif est d’exposer au lecteur le langage et le formalisme nécessaires à l’étude de la non-linéarité. Partant d’exemples simples, pour ensuite atteindre un niveau d’abstraction visant l’universalité, l’auteur explore les divers scénarios possibles de bifurcations et les catastr...

  19. Dating an actively exhuming metamorphic core complex, the Suckling Dayman Massif in SE Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, J.; Seward, D.; Little, T.; Stockli, D. F.; Mizera, M.

    2016-12-01

    Low-temperature thermochronology is a powerful tool for revealing the thermal and kinematic evolution of metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). Most globally studied MCCs are ancient, partially eroded, and have been modified by deformation events that postdate their origin. The Mai'iu Fault is a rapidly slipping active low-angle normal fault (LANF) in the Woodlark Rift in Papua New Guinea that has exhumed a >25 km-wide (in the slip direction), and over 3 km-high domal fault surface in its footwall called the Suckling-Dayman massif. Some knowledge of the present-day thermal structure in the adjacent Woodlark Rift, and the pristine nature of this active MCC make it an ideal candidate for thermochronological study of a high finite-slip LANF. To constrain the thermal and kinematic evolution of this MCC we apply the U/Pb, fission-track (FT) and (U-Th)/He methods. Zircon U/Pb analyses from the syn-extensional Suckling Granite that intrudes the footwall of the MCC yield an intrusion age of 3.3 Ma. Preliminary zircon FT ages from the same body indicate cooling below 300 °C at 2.7 Ma. Ages decrease to 2.0 Ma with increasing proximity to the Mai'iu Fault and imply cooling controlled by tectonic exhumation. Almost coincident zircon U/Pb and FT ages from the nearby syn-extensional Mai'iu Monzonite, on the other hand, record extremely rapid cooling from magmatic temperatures to 300 °C at 2 Ma. As apparent from the preliminary He extraction stage, these syn-extensional plutons have young zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He ages. These initial results suggest that the Mai'iu Fault was initiated as an extensional structure by 3.3 Ma. We infer that it reactivated an older ophiolitic suture that had emplaced the Papuan Ultramafic body in the Paleogene. Rapid cooling of the Mai'iu Monzonite indicates that it was intruded into a part of the MCC's footwall that was already shallow in the crust by 2 Ma. This inference is further supported by the mineral andalusite occurring in the contact

  20. Reactivity of uranium(IV) bridged chalcogenido complexes UIV–E–UIV (E = S, Se) with elemental sulfur and selenium: synthesis of polychalcogenido-bridged uranium complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Sebastian M.; Heinemann, Frank W.; Meyer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    We report the syntheses, electronic properties, and molecular structures of a series of polychalcogenido-bridged dinuclear uranium species. These complexes are supported by the sterically encumbering but highly flexible, single N-anchored tris(aryloxide) chelator (AdArO)3N3−. Reaction of an appropriate uranium precursor, either the U(III) starting material, [((AdArO)3N)U(DME)], or the dinuclear mono-chalcogenido-bridged uranium(IV/IV) compounds [{((AdArO)3N)U(DME)}2(μ-E)] (E = S, Se), with el...

  1. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  2. EROI and the Icelandic society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the societal Energy Return on Investment (EROIsoc) is estimated for Iceland between 1960 and the present. The results indicate that the overall EROIsoc was around 27:1 in the early 1960s, and was volatile for a period of time before stabilizing at around 45:1 in 1974 after...... the standard of living greatly. For policymakers in island nations, attention should be given to this relationship between high-EROI energy sources with low price volatility and the standard of living....

  3. Self Censorship among Icelandic Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on media self-censorship has flourished in Iceland after the attacks on the Charlie Hebdo editorial offices in January 2015 and after some dramatic changes in the top management and owner-groups of some of the media firms. But what is this experience that journalists describe as self censorship? This paper attempts to answer two main research questions. On the one hand the question how journalists understand the concept of selfcensorship. On the other hand the question: what is the experience of Icelandic journalist of self-censorship? The approach is the one of a qualitative research and is based on interviews with six experienced journalists. The main findings suggest important influence of the social discourse on news and news values of journalists and their tendency for self-censorship. This discourse is partly directed by politicians and influential bloggers and also by a massive discussion by active social media users. Furthermore the findings suggest, that ownership and the location of the particular medium where a journalist works in the lineup of different commercial-political blocks in the media market, is important for self-censorship. Finally it seems that journalists understand the concept selfcensorship in a different manner and that it is important to define the term carefully if it is to be used as an analytical tool.

  4. Effect of lanthanide contraction on the mixed polyamine systems Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien): Syntheses and characterizations of lanthanide complexes with a tetraelenidoantimonate ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Liang Jingjing; Pan Yingli; Zhang Yong; Jia Dingxian

    2011-01-01

    Mixed polyamine systems Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien) (Ln=lanthanide, en=ethylenediamine, dien=diethylenetriamine, trien=triethylenetetramine) were investigated under solvothermal conditions, and novel mixed-coordinated lanthanide(III) complexes [Ln(en) 2 (dien)(η 2 -SbSe 4 )] (Ln=Ce(1a), Nd(1b)), [Ln(en) 2 (dien)(SbSe 4 )] (Ln=Sm(2a), Gd(2b), Dy(2c)), [Ln(en)(trien)(μ-η 1 ,η 2 -SbSe 4 )] ∞ (Ln=Ce(3a), Nd(3b)) and [Sm(en)(trien)(η 2 -SbSe 4 )] (4a) were prepared. Two structural types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates were obtained across the lanthanide series in both en+dien and en+trien systems. The tetrahedral anion [SbSe 4 ] 3- acts as a monodentate ligand mono-SbSe 4 , a bidentate chelating ligand η 2 -SbSe 4 or a tridentate bridging ligand μ-η 1 ,η 2 -SbSe 4 to the lanthanide(III) center depending on the Ln 3+ ions and the mixed ethylene polyamines, indicating the effect of lanthanide contraction on the structures of the lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates. The lanthanide selenidoantimonates exhibit semiconducting properties with E g between 2.08 and 2.51 eV. - Graphical Abstract: Two structural types of lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates are formed in both en-dien and en-trien mixed polyamines across lanthanide series, indicating the lanthanide contraction effect on the structures of the lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates. Highlights: → Two structural types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates are prepared across the lanthanide series in both Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien) systems. → The [SbSe 4 ] 3- anion acts as a mono-SbSe 4 , a η 2 -SbSe 4 or a μ-η 1 ,η 2 -SbSe 4 ligand to the Ln 3+ ions. → The soft base ligand [SbSe 4 ] 3- can be controlled to coordinate to the Ln 3+ ions with en+dien and en+trien as co-ligands.

  5. Iceland's Economic Eruption and Meltdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf; Torfason, Bjarni K.

    2012-01-01

    The Icelandic financial collapse, which occurred in the fall of 2008, is without precedent. Never before in modern history has an entire financial system of a developed country collapsed so dramatically. This paper describes the country's path towards financial liberalisation and the economic...... background that lead to an initially flourishing banking sector. In doing so, the paper elaborates on the economic oversights that were made during the financial build-up of the country and how such mistakes contributed to the crash. The focus is thus on identifying the main factors that contributed...... to the financial collapse and on drawing conclusions about how these missteps could have been avoided. Also summarised are the mistakes that followed in the attempted rescue phase after the disaster had struck. The paper discusses these issues from a general perspective to provide an overview of the pitfalls...

  6. Medical isotope applications in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-10-15

    About $ 12 000 worth of equipment and the services of an expert in the medical applications of radioisotopes were provided by IAEA to the Government of Iceland. The expert was primarily concerned with the establishment of a medical radioisotope laboratory at the State Hospital, Reykjavik. His specific tasks included the setting up of the equipment furnished by IAEA for radioactive measurements in medical work, the establishment of techniques for the routine uses of radioisotopes in medicine, and the training of personnel. The apparatus installed includes a well-type scintillation counter for small samples, a directional scintillation counter, and Geiger counters of different types. The laboratory is thus well equipped for nearly all the conventional applications of radioisotopes in medicine, except those involving very soft beta-ray emitting isotopes

  7. Geomagnetic polarity zones for icelandic lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagley, P.; Wilson, R.L.; Ade-Hall, J. M.; Walker, G.P.L.; Haggerty, S.E.; Sigurgeirsson, T.; Watkins, N.D.; Smith, P.J.; Edwards, J.; Grasty, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of cores collected from a sequence of lavas in Eastern Iceland has made possible an accurate calculation of the average rate of reversal of the Earth's magnetic field. ?? 1967 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Building Information Modelling in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Jóhannesson, Elvar Ingi

    2013-01-01

    with BIM is studied. Based on findings from both parts, ideas and recommendations are put forward for the Icelandic building industry about feasible ways of implementing BIM. Findings – Among the results are that the use of BIM is very limited in the Icelandic companies compared to the other Nordic...... for making standards and guidelines related to BIM. Public building clients are also encouraged to consider initiating projects based on making simple building models of existing buildings in order to introduce the BIM technology to the industry. Icelandic companies are recommended to start implementing BIM...... countries. Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to the Nordic countries in Europe, but many recommendations could be relevant to other countries. Practical implications – It is recommended to the Icelandic building authorities to get into cooperation with their Nordic counterparts...

  9. Geothermal and hydropower production in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of current and future development of geothermal and hydropower production on the economy of Iceland. Natural conditions in Iceland favor the increased utilization and development of both of these abundant power sources. The mean surface run-off in Iceland is about 50 l/s/km 2 (liters per second per square kilometer), with a large part of the country consisting of a plateau more than 400 meters above sea level. More than half of the country is above 500 meters above sea level. ne technically harnessable hydropower potential is estimated at 64 TWh/year (terawatthours per year), of which 30 TWh/year is considered economically and environmentally harnessable. In addition, Iceland has abundant geothermal energy sources. A quarter of the entire country is a volcanic area. Keeping in mind that geothermal resources are not strictly renewable, it is estimated that the potential power production from this source is 20 TWh/year. Present utilization of these two resources totals only 4.2 TWh/year, or only about 8% of Iceland's aggregate potential. There are many issues facing Iceland today as it considers development opportunities utilizing both of these abundant power supplies. This paper will first consider the technical aspects of both hydropower and geothermal power production in Iceland. Then, the economic consequences of alternative utilization of these energy sources will be evaluated. The first alternative to be considered will be the direct export of power by HVDC submarine cable to other countries, such as Scotland or the United Kingdom. Iceland could, as a second alterative, concentrate its efforts on bringing in energy intensive industries into the country

  10. Icelandic occupational therapists' attitudes towards educational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundsd ttir, ELIN EBBA; Kaplan, SUSAN

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of occupational therapists in Iceland to accept a professional as opposed to a technical view of the profession. Most Icelandic occupational therapists were educated in other countries, with little emphasis on liberal arts, sciences and research. The first Icelandic occupational therapy programme, a university-level programme, was founded in 1997. All Icelandic occupational therapists were surveyed. Eighty-seven questionnaires were sent out and 80 (92%) were returned and used for statistical analysis. The results of the study showed that Icelandic occupational therapists valued academic skills over technical skills, emphasizing occupational therapy theory unique to the profession and research to validate practice. More recognition among other health professionals was considered the most needed change in the profession. The results of the study showed that the clinicians' attitudes confirmed in general what is emphasized in the curriculum and in students' fieldwork. Further research is needed to explore whether the Icelandic occupational therapy profession succeeds in promoting research and recognition by other health professions.

  11. New concepts in hydrogen production in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnason, B.; Sigfusson, T.I.; Jonsson, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some new concepts of hydrogen production in Iceland for domestic use and export. A brief overview of the Icelandic energy consumption and available resources is given. The cost of producing hydrogen by electrolysis is calculated for various alternatives such as plant size, load factors and electricity cost. Comparison is made between the total cost of liquid hydrogen delivered to Europe from Iceland and from Northern America, showing that liquid hydrogen delivered to Europe from Iceland would be 9% less expensive. This assumes conventional technology. New technologies are suggested in the paper and different scenarios for geothermally assisted hydrogen production and liquefaction are discussed. It is estimated that the use of geothermal steam would lead to 19% lower hydrogen gas production costs. By analysing the Icelandic fishing fleet, a very large consumer of imported fuel, it is argued that a transition of fuel technology from oil to hydrogen may be a feasible future option for Iceland and a testing ground for changing fuel technology. (Author)

  12. Lanthanide(III) complexes with μ-SnSe{sub 4} and μ-Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6} linkers. Solvothermal syntheses and properties of new Ln(III) selenidostannates decorated with linear polyamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shuzhen; Sun, Peipei; Shen, Yali; Han, Jingyu; Sun, Hui; Jia, Dingxian [Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2017-06-01

    New lanthanide-selenidostannate complexes [{La(peha)(Cl)}{La(peha)(NO_3)}(μ-1κ{sup 2}:2κ{sup 2}-SnSe{sub 4})] (1), [H{sub 2}trien][{La(trien)_2}{sub 2}(μ-1-κ:2κ-Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6})][Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6}].H{sub 2}O (2) and [{Ln(tepa)(μ-OH)}{sub 2}(μ-1κ:2κ-Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6})]{sub n}.nH{sub 2}O (Ln=Sm(3), Eu(4)) were prepared by solvothermal methods in pentaethylenehexamine (peha), triethylenetetramine (trien) and tetraethylenepentamine (tepa), respectively. Acting as a tetradentate chelating and bridging ligand, μ-1κ{sup 2}:2κ{sup 2}-SnSe{sub 4}, the tetrahedral SnSe{sub 4} unit joins {La(peha)(Cl)}{sup 2+} and {La(peha)(NO_3)}{sup 2+} complex fragments to generate the neutral coordination compound 1. The tetradentate μ-1κ{sup 2}:2κ{sup 2} bridge in 1 represents a new coordination mode for the SnSe{sub 4} tetrahedron. In 2, dinuclear [Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6}]{sup 4-} anions are formed of SnSe{sub 4} tetrahedra via edge-sharing. One [Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6}]{sup 4-} anion acts as a bidentate bridging ligand in a μ-1κ:2κ coordination mode to join two {La(trien)_2}{sup 3+} units, and the other [Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6}]{sup 4-} anion exists as a free charge compensating ion. In 3 and 4, the [Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6}]{sup 4-} anion connects binuclear [{Ln(tepa)(μ-OH)}{sub 2}]{sup 2+}(Ln=Sm, Eu) units with a bidentate μ-1κ:2κ mode, giving neutral coordination polymers [{Ln(tepa)(μ-OH)}{sub 2}(μ-1κ:2κ-Sn{sub 2}Se{sub 6})]{sub n}. The La(2){sup 3+} ion in 1 is in a 10-fold coordination environment of LaN{sub 6}O{sub 2}Se{sub 2}, whereas the La(1){sup 3+} ions in 1 and 2 are in 9-fold coordinated environments forming polyhedra LaN{sub 6}ClSe{sub 2} and LaN{sub 8}Se, respectively. The Sm{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions in 3 and 4 are both in an 8-fold coordination environment of LnN{sub 5}O{sub 2}Se. Compounds 1-4 exhibit optical band gaps between 2.21 and 2.42 eV. Their thermal stabilities were investigated by thermogravimetric analyses.

  13. Detection of DNA via the fluorescence quenching of Mn-doped ZnSe D-dots/doxorubicin/DNA ternary complexes system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xue; Niu, Lu; Su, Xingguang

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports a method for the detection of double-stranded DNA, based on Mn:ZnSe d-dots and intercalating agent doxorubicin (DOX). DOX can quench the photoluminescence (PL) of Mn:ZnSe d-dots through photoinduced electron transfer process, after binding with Mn:ZnSe d-dots. The addition of DNA can result in the formation of the Mn:ZnSe d-dots-DOX-DNA ternary complexes, the fluorescence of the Mn:ZnSe d-dots-DOX complexes would be further quenched by the addition of DNA, thus allowing the detection of DNA. The formation mechanism of the Mn:ZnSe d-dots-DOX-DNA ternary complexes was studied in detail in this paper. Under optimal conditions, the quenched fluorescence intensity of Mn:ZnSe d-dots-DOX system are perfectly described by Stern-Volmer equation with the concentration of hsDNA ranging from 0.006 μg mL(-1) to 6.4 μg mL(-1). The detection limit (S/N = 3) for hsDNA is 0.5 ng mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the detection of DNA in synthetic samples and the results were satisfactory.

  14. Depths of Magma Chambers in the Icelandic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Kapostasy, D. D.; Barton, M.

    2004-05-01

    There is considerable interest in the structure and thermal state of the crust in Iceland, which lies across the Mid Atlantic Ridge. However, interpretations of seismic and gravity data yield conflicting views of the nature of the lower crust. Some interpretations prefer a model in which the lower crust (15-25 km) is relatively cool and solid, whereas other interpretations, based largely on gravity data, prefer a model in which the lower crust is relatively warm and possibly partially molten. Knowledge of the depth of magma chambers is critical to constrain the geothermal gradient in Icelandic crust and to resolve discrepancies in interpretation of geophysical data. Analyses of aphyric lavas and of glasses in Icelandic lavas erupted from 11 volcanic centers have been compiled. The compositions are picritic and basaltic with SiO2 - 47 to 50 wt%, MgO - 6 to 15wt%, FeO - 8 to 14wt%, to, Na2O - 1.3 to 3.3 wt%, and K2O - 0.03-46 wt%. The pressures of equilibration of these liquids with ol, high-Ca pyx and plag were estimated qualitatively from projections into the pseudoternary system Ol-Di-Silica using methods described by Walker and coworkers and Grove and coworkers. The results (ca. 0.5 GPa) indicate crystallization in magma chambers located at about 16 km depth. Equilibration pressures were also calculated using the method described by Yang and coworkers and by a modified version of this method. Calculated pressures (0.45±0.15 GPa) indicate magma chambers located at 15±4 km depth. Equilibration pressures for Rekjanes Ridge glasses determined using the same techniques are 0.2±0.1 GPa, corresponding to depths of 7.6±3 km. The results indicate the presence of magma chambers in the deep Icelandic crust and that the latter is relatively warm. Shallower chambers (3-7 km) have been identified from seismic studies suggesting a complex magma plumbing system. The results also confirm that magma chambers beneath Iceland are located at greater depths than those beneath the

  15. Framework for foreign investment in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingvarsson, G.; Svanbjoernson, A.

    1992-01-01

    Iceland possesses a wealth of hydro power and geothermal energy. No less than 50,000 GWh/year of power are estimated to be producible from hydro and geothermal in Iceland at a sufficiently low cost to be of interest to power-intensive industries and for export. Only a fraction of this energy potential has been developed or some 5,000 GWh/year. The power resources of Iceland represent one of the country's best opportunities for large scale development and economic growth and their utilization is high on the Government's priority list. In the past Iceland has run a successful campaign attracting foreign investors in power intensive industries and about half of the electric production today is consumed by power intensive industries. New industries can be sure of highly competitive power prices compared with Europe and North America for new contracts. Many other reasons for locating energy intensive industry in Iceland are outlined in the paper, such as the educated work-force, European culture and political stability, Mid-Atlantic location and proximity to markets, good transport and communication facilities, abundance of fresh water, good industrial sites with a large extension potential and excellent harbors for large vessels. The future prospects for hydro and geothermal energy include large greenfield aluminium smelters, direct export of electricity by submarine cables to the European continent and industries using geothermal steam for process application. The Icelandic Energy Marketing Unit, established in 1988 is mandated to promote and market Iceland's energy resources and seek investors in the field of power intensive industries. Currently marketing efforts are being undertaken to promote the direct use of geothermal steam for industrial application

  16. Strength and deformation properties of volcanic rocks in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    2016-01-01

    rock from Iceland has been the topic for rock mechanical studies carried out by Ice-landic guest students at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Den-mark over a number of years in cooperation with University of Iceland, Vegagerðin (The Icelandic Road Directorate......) and Landsvirkjun (The National Power Company of Iceland). These projects involve engineering geological properties of volcanic rock in Iceland, rock mechanical testing and parameter evaluation. Upscaling to rock mass properties and modelling using Q- or GSI-methods have been studied by the students......Tunnelling work and preinvestigations for road traces require knowledge of the strength and de-formation properties of the rock material involved. This paper presents results related to tunnel-ling for Icelandic water power plants and road tunnels from a number of regions in Iceland. The volcanic...

  17. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human, food, veterinary and environmental sources in Iceland using PFGE, MLST and fla-SVR sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnússon, S H; Guðmundsdóttir, S; Reynisson, E; Rúnarsson, A R; Harðardóttir, H; Gunnarson, E; Georgsson, F; Reiersen, J; Marteinsson, V Th

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates from various sources in Iceland were genotyped with the aim of assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, source distribution and campylobacter transmission routes to humans. A collection of 584 Campylobacter isolates were collected from clinical cases, food, animals and environment in Iceland in 1999-2002, during a period of national Campylobacter epidemic in Iceland. All isolates were characterized by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and selected subset of 52 isolates representing the diversity of the identified PFGE types was further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and fla-SVR sequencing to gain better insight into the population structure. The results show a substantial diversity within the Icelandic Campylobacter population. Majority of the human Campylobacter infections originated from domestic chicken and cattle isolates. MLST showed the isolates to be distributed among previously reported and common sequence type complexes in the MLST database. The genotyping of Campylobacter from various sources has not previously been reported from Iceland, and the results of the study gave a valuable insight into the population structure of Camp. jejuni in Iceland, source distribution and transmission routes to humans. The geographical isolation of Iceland in the north Atlantic provides new information on Campylobacter population dynamics on a global scale. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to Icelandic Government works.

  18. Individualistic Vikings: Culture, Economics and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Wolfgang Mixa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Icelandic culture has generally been considered to share many similarities to the Nordic cultures. However, the financial crisis in 2008 painted a completely different picture, with the Nordic nations faring much less worse than Iceland, which saw its banking system becoming almost entirely worthless. Looking at traditional cultural yardsticks in the vein of the most commonly used research in the field of business and organizational management, generally linked to Hofstede´s dimensional studies, one would at first glance conclude that Icelanders would have behaved in a similar manner as people in the Nordic nations. By focusing on savings ratio, it is shown that Icelanders were much more risk-seeking during the prelude of the crisis. Many nations badly hit during the 2008 financial crisis have a high level of individualism inherent in their culture. Iceland fits this scenario. Thus while general cultural characteristics may lack explanatory power regarding economic behavior of people between cultures, the individual/collective cultural dimension may provide clues of what dangers (and possible strengths lurk within societies from a financial point of view. Such developments may affect the financial stability of nations, especially those with a high level of individualism where financial liberalization with possible abuses is occurring.

  19. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Iceland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. These studies, conducted in Iceland and in Antarctica, investigated physical and chemical weathering mechanisms and rates, eolitan processes, mudflow phenomena, drainage development, and catastrophic fluvial and volcanic phenomena. Continuing investigations in Iceland fall in three main catagories: (1) catastrophic floods of the Jokulsa a Fjollum, (2) lahars associated with explosive volcanic eruptions of Askja caldera, and (3) rates of eolian abrasion in cold, volcanic deserts. The ice-free valleys of Antarctica, in particular those in South Victoria Land, have much is common with the surface of Mars. In addition to providing independent support for the application of the Iceland findings to consideration of the martian erosional system, the Antarctic observations also provide analogies to other martian phenomena. For example, a family of sand dunes in Victoria Valley are stabilized by the incorporation of snow as beds.

  20. Gendering in one Icelandic preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Alda Hardardottir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed light on gendering in preschool. It analyzes the opinions and beliefs of preschool teachers with regard to boys and girls in one Icelandic preschool, and how gender performative acts are manifested in the preschool’s children. The preschool, which was observed for one school year, comprised 60 children, aged 18 months to five years, and 20 employees, of which eight were qualified teachers. The research material is analyzed in terms of Judith Butler’s gender constructivism. Butler contends that gender is constituted by, and is a product of, society, and that the individual’s empowerment is therefore limited in relation to society, with individuals typically seeking to identify themselves with the dominant norms concerning gender. The main conclusions suggest that “gendering” is prominent within the preschool. There is a strong tendency among the preschool teachers to classify the children into categories of boys/masculine and girls/feminine, and specific norms direct the children into the dominant feminine and masculine categories, thus maintaining and reinforcing their gender stereotypes. The children used symbols such as colors, locations and types of play as means to instantiate the “girling” and the “boying”. These findings are consistent with previous Nordic research and indicate a prevailing essentialist perspective towards both girls and boys. The originality of the research, however, lies in focusing on children’s gender from the individual’s perspective and how the individual child generally enacts gender performatively within the confines of society’s norms.

  1. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  2. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Björnsson, Halldór

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling simulations performed with theWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3...... is higher by 100 e700 W m_2 than that of offshore winds. Based on these results, 14 test sites were selected for more detailed analyses using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license...

  3. Iceland blasts millennium bugs in speed governors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislason, Gisli [Landsvirkjun, Reykjavik (Iceland). Electromechanical Dept.; Ferme, J.-M. [Voith Hydro, Heidenheim (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    This article focuses on the examination of distribution management systems to identify any potential problems related to the year 2000 (Y2K) that would affect the operation of speed governors with date management capacity at Iceland's hydroelectric power plants. Details are given of the work carried out by Landsvirkjun, Iceland's main power generator, the use of date for monitoring functions, the different governor models, the testing of the digital speed governors, and the modification of software in cases where protection relays were untestable.

  4. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1996-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  5. Iceland as a Landscape Investigation Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campanini, Manuela Silvia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Icelanders continue an ancient dialogue. Nature is part of their soul and they take with them bits of their terrestrial landscape when they move to the elsewhere. When they move out in the sea they often name their ships or boats after natural spots (waterfalls, mountains, etc., Moving to the town, architects build monuments inspired by wild nature like Hallgrimskirkja (inspired by Hraundrangar and the columnar basalt or Perlan (inspired by the Geysir and the geothermal water. This is the way Icelanders compensate and take care of their perennial landscape nostalgia.

  6. Silicic magma generation at Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2009-04-01

    Rate of magma differentiation is an important parameter for hazard assessment at active volcanoes. However, estimates of these rates depend on proper understanding of the underlying magmatic processes and magma generation. Differences in isotope ratios of O, Th and B between silicic and in contemporaneous basaltic magmas have been used to emphasize their origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered metabasaltic crust in the rift-zones favoured by a strong geothermal gradient. An alternative model for the origin of silicic magmas in the Iceland has been proposed based on U-series results. Young mantle-derived mafic protolith is thought to be metasomatized and partially melted to form the silicic end-member. However, this model underestimates the compositional variations of the hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. New data on U-Th disequilibria and O-isotopes in basalts and dacites from Askja volcano reveal a strong correlation between (230Th/232Th) and delta 18O. The 1875 AD dacite has the lowest Th- and O isotope ratios (0.94 and -0.24 per mille, respectively) whereas tephra of evolved basaltic composition, erupted 2 months earlier, has significantly higher values (1.03 and 2.8 per mille, respectively). Highest values are observed in the most recent basalts (erupted in 1920 and 1961) inside the Askja caldera complex and out on the associated fissure swarm (Sveinagja basalt). This correlation also holds for older magma such as an early Holocene dacites, which eruption may have been provoked by rapid glacier thinning. Silicic magmas at Askja volcano thus bear geochemical signatures that are best explained by partial melting of extensively hydrothermally altered crust and that the silicic magma source has remained constant during the Holocene at least. Once these silicic magmas are formed they appear to erupt rapidly rather than mixing and mingling with the incoming basalt heat-source that explains lack of icelandites and the bi-modal volcanism at Askja

  7. Nation in a sheep’s coat: The Icelandic sweater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Helgadottir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic sweater is presented and received as being traditional—even ancient—authentically Icelandic and hand made by Icelandic women from the wool of Icelandic sheep. Even so, the sweater type, the so-called ‘Icelandic sweater’ in English, only dates back to the mid-20th century and is not necessarily made in Iceland nor from indigenous wool. Nevertheless, the sweater is a successful invention of a tradition (Hobsbawm & Ranger, 1983, popular among Icelanders and tourists alike since its introduction in the mid-20th century. It has gained ground as a national symbol, particularly in times of crisis for example in the reconstruction of values in the aftermath of the Icelandic bank collapse of 2008. I traced the development of the discourse about wool and the origins of the Icelandic sweater by looking at publications of the Icelandic National Craft Association, current design discourse in Iceland and its effect on the development of the wool industry. I then tied these factors to notions of tradition, authenticity, national culture, image and souvenirs.

  8. Environmental mapping and monitoring of Iceland by remote sensing (EMMIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Falco, Nicola; Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Rustowicz, Rose; Belart, Joaquin M.-C.; Gísladóttir, Gudrun; Benediktsson, Jón A.

    2016-04-01

    Iceland is exposed to rapid and dynamic landscape changes caused by natural processes and man-made activities, which impact and challenge the country. Fast and reliable mapping and monitoring techniques are needed on a big spatial scale. However, currently there is lack of operational advanced information processing techniques, which are needed for end-users to incorporate remote sensing (RS) data from multiple data sources. Hence, the full potential of the recent RS data explosion is not being fully exploited. The project Environmental Mapping and Monitoring of Iceland by Remote Sensing (EMMIRS) bridges the gap between advanced information processing capabilities and end-user mapping of the Icelandic environment. This is done by a multidisciplinary assessment of two selected remote sensing super sites, Hekla and Öræfajökull, which encompass many of the rapid natural and man-made landscape changes that Iceland is exposed to. An open-access benchmark repository of the two remote sensing supersites is under construction, providing high-resolution LIDAR topography and hyperspectral data for land-cover and landform classification. Furthermore, a multi-temporal and multi-source archive stretching back to 1945 allows a decadal evaluation of landscape and ecological changes for the two remote sensing super sites by the development of automated change detection techniques. The development of innovative pattern recognition and machine learning-based approaches to image classification and change detection is one of the main tasks of the EMMIRS project, aiming to extract and compute earth observation variables as automatically as possible. Ground reference data collected through a field campaign will be used to validate the implemented methods, which outputs are then inferred with geological and vegetation models. Here, preliminary results of an automatic land-cover classification based on hyperspectral image analysis are reported. Furthermore, the EMMIRS project

  9. Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Iceland. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. E...

  10. Esperanto and Icelandic: Two Contrasting Lexical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmans, Theodore

    1972-01-01

    The article comprises a table listing Esperanto words conveying international concepts, accompained by equivalents in English, French, German, Russian, Hungarian, Hebrew and Icelandic, representing various language groups. The comparison shows that although the world language would opt for international terms, a language making no claims on…

  11. Recent saltmarsh foraminiferal assemblages from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbers, Julia; Schönfeld, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    This study reports for the first time boreal to subarctic intertidal foraminiferal assemblages from saltmarshes at Borgarnes and Faskrudsfjördur on Iceland. The composition of living and dead foraminiferal assemblages was investigated along transects from the tidal flat to the highest reach of halophytic plants. The foraminiferal assemblages from Borgarnes showed 18 species in the total foraminiferal assemblage of which only 7 species were recorded in the living fauna. The assemblages were dominated by agglutinated taxa, whereas 3 calcareous species were recorded, of which only Haynesina orbicularis was found in the living fauna. The distribution limit of calcifying species corresponds to the lower boundary of the lower saltmarsh vegetation zone. Furthermore, calcareous tests showed many features of dissolution, which is an indication of a carbonate corrosive environment. The species forming the dead assemblages were mainly derived from the ambient intertidal areas and were displaced by tidal currents into the saltmarsh. The foraminiferal assemblages from Faskrudsfjördur showed two species, of which only one species was recorded in the living fauna. The assemblage was dominated by the agglutinated foraminifer Trochaminita irregularis. The foraminiferal species recorded on Iceland were the same as commonly found elsewhere in Europa. Since no species was found which is endemic to North America, Iceland is considered part of the European bio province. The foraminiferal could have been immigrated to Iceland from Europe through warm water currents, migratory birds or marine traffic since the last Ice Age.

  12. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...

  13. Physical properties of suspended dust in Iceland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Olafsson, H.; Arnalds, O.; Škrabalová, L.; Sigurdardottir, G.; Braniš, M.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Navrátil, Tomáš; von Lowis of Menar, S.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2014), s. 8565-8565 ISSN 1607-7962. [ European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 27.04.2014-02.05.2014, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : dust * volcanology * Iceland http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2014/EGU2014-8565.pdf

  14. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  15. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Grímsson, A

    2000-01-01

    Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would lower reimb...

  16. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G

    2016-01-01

    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  17. Historic magmatism on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.; Jakobssen, Sveinn P.

    2009-01-01

    We present new compositional data on a suite of historic lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. They were erupted over a short time period between c. 940 and c. 1340 AD and provide a snap-shot view of melt generation and evolution processes beneath this onshore, 65 km long, ridge segment...

  18. Hydrogeology of the Krafla geothermal system, northeast Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Krafla geothermal system is located in Iceland's northeastern neovolcanic zone, within the Krafla central volcanic complex. Geothermal fluids are superheated steam closest to the magma heat source, two-phase at higher depths, and sub-boiling at the shallowest depths. Hydrogen isotope ratios...... of geothermal fluids range from -87‰, equivalent to local meteoric water, to -94‰. These fluids are enriched in 18O relative to the global meteoric line by +0.5-3.2‰. Calculated vapor fractions of the fluids are 0.0-0.5 wt% (~0-16% by volume) in the northwestern portion of the geothermal system and increase...... the benefits of combining phase segregation effects in two-phase systems during analysis of wellhead fluid data with stable isotope values of hydrous alteration minerals when evaluating the complex hydrogeology of volcano-hosted geothermal systems....

  19. Long-term variability of dust-storms in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Ólafur

    2013-04-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland are volcanic sandy deserts. Natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect not only regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze") but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean > 1000 km at times. The study places Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long term frequency of dust storm events in NE Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in NE Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the NE erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the NE deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust is not only a substantial source for regional air pollution, but may be considered to contribute to the Arctic haze phenomena and Arctic air pollution.

  20. Charnockitic ortho gneisses and mafic granulites of Cerro Olivo complex, proterozoic basement of SE Uruguay, Part 1: Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masquelin, H.

    2008-01-01

    Charnockitic ortho gneisses and mafic granulite s exposed in the Cerro Bori Block, in the center of Punta del Este terrain, were the first document occurrence of granulitic rocks from SE sector of the Uruguayan Shield. We present here their main geological features, with the purpose to suggest some petrologic and structural interesting problems for a future lithogeochemical, mineral chemistry, stable isotopes and fluid inclusion studies about these rocks. We propose some speculation form field-based studies considering a cognate magmatic origin of both kinds of rocks, previous to a homogeneous granulitic metamorphism. Some structural evidences indicate that after their uplift, these rocks were located on over thickened crust, at great to medium deepness. A cataclasis during anatexis and amphibolite-facies mineral association stabilization are common phenomena. Other evidences suggest a polycyclic character for the regional geologic evolution

  1. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D......Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D...

  2. The electric power sector in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingimarsson, J.

    1992-01-01

    In Iceland the government must give permission for the building of a power station etc. but in practise the power plant administrators determine the tariffs. The structure of electric power supply mirrors a strong engagement on the part of the state and the local authorities. Almost all the power plants and distribution systems are state owned or owned by both the state and the local authorities, and so constitute a monopoly, producing 93% of the total amount of electricity supply. Government policy in this field, the Icelandic electric power distribution system and the setting of electricity prices are briefly described. It is claimed that there would be economical advantages in restructuring the distribution network and that the government favours an increase in possibilities for competition and making legislative changes. This will mean that in the future the market will play a more important role and that power plant administrators must review their duties regarding consumer satisfaction, tariffs etc. (AB)

  3. Maximizing industrial infrastructure efficiency in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingason, Helgi Thor; Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I.

    2010-08-01

    As a consequence of the increasing aluminum production in Iceland, local processing of aluminum skimmings has become a feasible business opportunity. A recycling plant for this purpose was built in Helguvik on the Reykjanes peninsula in 2003. The case of the recycling plant reflects increased concern regarding environmental aspects of the industry. An interesting characteristic of this plant is the fact that it is run in the same facilities as a large fishmeal production installation. It is operated by the same personnel and uses—partly—the same equipment and infrastructure. This paper reviews the grounds for these decisions and the experience of this merger of a traditional fish melting industry and a more recent aluminum melting industry after 6 years of operation. The paper is written by the original entrepreneurs behind the company, who provide observations on how the aluminum industry in Iceland has evolved since the starting of Alur’s operation and what might be expected in the near future.

  4. Characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Han Jia

    2006-01-01

    The basic characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar was studied. The experimental result indicates the longevity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is about 2 h under 30 degree C. The thermoluminescence peak moves to the high temperature when the heating speed increasing. The intensity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is directly proportional to radiation dose under 15 Gy. (authors)

  5. Food 
Security
 in
 Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of food security applies in both poor and rich societies and concerns the steady availability of food in the right quantity and quality, at the right price. Globally, policies to assure it remain confused and world food prices are rising. Despite large exports of fish, Iceland produces only around half of its inhabitants’ nutritional needs and relies significantly on imports, also for food production inputs like fodder and seeds. Icelandic supplies are affected by oligopoly in the retail market, and could be put at risk by events in other security dimensions ranging from natural disasters and infrastructure failures to terrorism, neighbouring conflicts and other people’s shortages. Icelandic farmers have used the terminology of ‘food security’ to press their claims for more home-grown production, and more recently also in their campaign against EU membership. The general public however shows little sign of security-awareness in this field. The government possesses suitable non-military security frameworks to address food-related risks and has initiated useful, general and specific, studies. Yet it has not developed a strategy or contingency plan for food security, even following the lessons of the 2008 economic crash and 2010-2011 eruptions. Suitable remedies would include larger emergency stocks and a range of measures to reduce vulnerability and improve resilience in crises. Above all, Iceland needs a balanced and open policy-making process to decide what its general future strategy should be as a food-producing and -importing nation. Food security could then be more precisely defined and pursued with the aim of minimizing threats and risks to that agreed vision.

  6. New Proposed Drilling at Surtsey Volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Marie D.

    2014-12-01

    Surtsey, an isolated oceanic island and a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is a uniquely well-documented natural laboratory for investigating processes of rift zone volcanism, hydrothermal alteration of basaltic tephra, and biological colonization and succession in surface and subsurface pyroclastic deposits. Deposits from Surtsey's eruptions from 1963 to 1967 were first explored via a 181-meter hole drilled in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey and Icelandic Museum of Natural History.

  7. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tímarit.is. Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  8. Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2001-07-01

    A small nation in the middle of the North Atlantic, Iceland currently has a population of 265,000 (1996). The Iceland language has changed very little since the island was settled some 11 centuries ago. Despite the relatively small number of people who speak the language and irrespective of the globalisation efforts by the international community, which includes the ever-increasing influence of English worldwide, the Icelandic language and culture are stronger than ever. The current volume and variety of publications of Icelandic works in all areas have never been as great. Icelandic is a living and growing language. Growth in vocabulary, in response to recent phenomena like the introduction of new technology, has primarily come about with the development of new words from the language's roots. The near absence of Latin, Greek and, more recently, English or Danish words in Icelandic, is striking. Iceland's language policy is not only a governmental policy. It is a policy that comes from the grassroots with the government and official institutions viewing their job as one of service to the people of Iceland. Icelanders are very proud of their language and are extremely determined to continually develop and preserve it for future generations.

  9. Corporate taxation in Iceland and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnarsdóttir Fjóla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the development in the field of corporate tax law in Iceland, from both legal and economic point of view, with a focus on measures taken to protect the tax base and in order to try to make Iceland an attractive place for investment and establishment companies. First, there will be a brief general description of the development of the corporate tax rate in Iceland since 2004 and an overview of new taxes that have been introduced for companies over the past ten years. Second, there will be an analysis of how the Icelandic legal framework provides for incentives for investment and establishment of companies in Iceland. Third, this discussion is to be followed by a section on the steps Iceland has taken in order to combat tax avoidance. Fourth, there is a general description of the economic development for the corporate taxation in Iceland since 1990 and fifth, there is brief discussion of the development of revenues from the corporate tax. Sixth, a short overview of the real investment in the Icelandic economy is given, and finally, the main conclusions of this article will be summed up with a short discussion on the main challenges Iceland is currently facing in the field of corporate taxation in today’s globalised economy.

  10. Petrologic Constraints on Iceland's Lower Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Leftwich, T. E.; Barton, M.

    2005-05-01

    Iceland is an area of relatively thick ocean crust that straddles the spreading MAR. Iceland was created by seafloor spreading originating about 55 Ma above abnormally hot mantle. The high temperatures resulted in greater melt volumes that enhanced crustal thickening. Geophysical investigations provide fundamental insight on crustal features, but results are contradictory. Early seismic, magneto-telluric, and resistivity studies predicted thin crust with partial melt regions at depths of 10-15 km beneath the neovolcanic zones. Reinterpretations based on recent seismic studies suggest thicker and cooler crust. These studies have shown magma lenses at shallow depths beneath volcanic centers, but cannot confirm their presence in the lower crust. Knowledge of the depth of magma chambers is critical to constrain the geothermal gradients in Icelandic crust and to resolve discrepancies in interpretation of geophysical data. Analyses of glasses in Icelandic lavas erupted from 11 volcanic centers throughout the rift zones have been compiled. The pressures of equilibration of these liquids with ol, high-Ca pyx, and plag were estimated qualitatively from projections into the pseudoternary system Ol-Di-Qtz. The results (ca. 0.6 GPa) indicate crystallization in magma chambers located at about 20 km depth. Equilibrium pressures also have been calculated quantitatively. These results (0.6±0.2 GPa) indicate magma chambers at 19.8±6.5 km depth beneath the volcanic centers. Magma chamber at these depths are located in the lower crust inferring that it must be relatively warm. Geothermal gradients have been calculated using the depths of the sourcing magma chambers and any shallow seismically detected magma chambers at each location. An average crustal composition has been calculated from the compiled geochemical data and was used to calculate density variations and seismic velocities along the geotherms. The distribution of sample locations in this study provides sufficient data

  11. Sedimentological analysis and bed thickness statistics from a Carboniferous deep-water channel-levee complex: Myall Trough, SE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palozzi, Jason; Pantopoulos, George; Maravelis, Angelos G.; Nordsvan, Adam; Zelilidis, Avraam

    2018-02-01

    This investigation presents an outcrop-based integrated study of internal division analysis and statistical treatment of turbidite bed thickness applied to a Carboniferous deep-water channel-levee complex in the Myall Trough, southeast Australia. Turbidite beds of the studied succession are characterized by a range of sedimentary structures grouped into two main associations, a thick-bedded and a thin-bedded one, that reflect channel-fill and overbank/levee deposits, respectively. Three vertically stacked channel-levee cycles have been identified. Results of statistical analysis of bed thickness, grain-size and internal division patterns applied on the studied channel-levee succession, indicate that turbidite bed thickness data seem to be well characterized by a bimodal lognormal distribution, which is possibly reflecting the difference between deposition from lower-density flows (in a levee/overbank setting) and very high-density flows (in a channel fill setting). Power law and exponential distributions were observed to hold only for the thick-bedded parts of the succession and cannot characterize the whole bed thickness range of the studied sediments. The succession also exhibits non-random clustering of bed thickness and grain-size measurements. The studied sediments are also characterized by the presence of statistically detected fining-upward sandstone packets. A novel quantitative approach (change-point analysis) is proposed for the detection of those packets. Markov permutation statistics also revealed the existence of order in the alternation of internal divisions in the succession expressed by an optimal internal division cycle reflecting two main types of gravity flow events deposited within both thick-bedded conglomeratic and thin-bedded sandstone associations. The analytical methods presented in this study can be used as additional tools for quantitative analysis and recognition of depositional environments in hydrocarbon-bearing research of ancient

  12. Geographic Names of Iceland's Glaciers: Historic and Modern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurðsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Climatic changes and resulting glacier fluctuations alter landscapes. In the past, such changes were noted by local residents who often documented them in historic annals; eventually, glacier variations were recorded on maps and scientific reports. In Iceland, 10 glacier place-names are to be found in Icelandic sagas, and one of Iceland's ice caps, Snaefellsjokull, appeared on maps of Iceland published in the 16th century. In the late 17th century, the first description of eight of Iceland's glaciers was written. Therefore, Iceland distinguishes itself in having a more than 300-year history of observations by Icelanders on its glaciers. A long-term collaboration between Oddur Sigurdsson and Richard S. Williams, Jr., led to the authorship of three books on the glaciers of Iceland. Much effort has been devoted to documenting historical glacier research and related nomenclature and to physical descriptions of Icelandic glaciers by Icelanders and other scientists from as far back as the Saga Age to recent (2008) times. The first book, Icelandic Ice Mountains, was published by the Icelandic Literary Society in 2004 in cooperation with the Icelandic Glaciological Society and the International Glaciological Society. Icelandic Ice Mountains was a glacier treatise written by Sveinn Palsson in 1795 and is the first English translation of this important scientific document. Icelandic Ice Mountains includes a Preface, including a summary of the history and facsimiles of page(s) from the original manuscript, a handwritten copy, and an 1815 manuscript (without maps and drawings) by Sveinn Palsson on the same subject which he wrote for Rev. Ebenezer Henderson; an Editor's Introduction; 82 figures, including facsimiles of Sveinn Palsson's original maps and perspective drawings, maps, and photographs to illustrate the text; a comprehensive Index of Geographic Place-Names and Other Names in the treatise; References, and 415 Endnotes. Professional Paper 1746 (this book) is the second

  13. Explaining Gender Inequality in Iceland: What Makes the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijstra, Thamar M.; O'Connor, Pat; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the explanations offered by men and women, at different academic ranks, for the scarcity of women in full professorial positions in Icelandic universities. Data derive from interviews and a survey involving the total Icelandic academic population. We test three hypotheses: Firstly, academics will not see family…

  14. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic

  15. The Origin of Noble Gas Isotopic Heterogeneity in Icelandic Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, E. T.; Honda, M.; McDougall, I.

    2001-01-01

    Two models for generation of heterogeneous He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios in Icelandic basalts are evaluated using a mixing model and the observed noble gas elemental ratios in Icelandic basalts,Ocean island Basalt (OIBs) and Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORBs). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Interventions to curb rising pharmaceutical costs in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2003-01-01

    . The cancellation of reimbursement for antibiotics in 1991 resulted in a slight decrease in sales. The change in the list of "hospital only" medicines caused massive protests from pharmacists and physicians. The pharmaceutical policy in Iceland has been problematic in its formulations and implementations....... Recommendations in the light of the problems of Icelandic pharmaceutical policies have been provided in the article....

  17. Heat flow and geothermal processes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.; Saemundsson, Kristján

    1993-09-01

    Heat flow values, derived from temperature measurements in shallow boreholes in Iceland, vary substantially across the country. The near-surface temperature gradients range from almost 0 to 500°C/km. The thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks varies from 1.6 to 2.0 W/m°C. The temperature gradient in Iceland is mainly dependent on four factors: (1) the regional heat flow through the crust, (2) hydrothermal activity, (3) the permeability of the rock, and (4) residual heat in extinct volcanic centers. As Iceland is mainly made of basaltic material the radiogenic heat production is almost negligible. The thermal conductivity is, on the other hand, mainly influenced by the porosity of the rock; it increases as the porosity decreases. Iceland is made of sequences of flood basalts that formed within the volcanic rift zone—a continuation of the axis of the Mid-Atlantic ridge—and subsequently drifted sideways. Fresh basaltic lava is usually highly porous (30%) and fractured, and heat is mainly transported by convection. Therefore, a very low or even no temperature gradient is observed at shallow levels within the volcanic rift zone. As the basalt becomes buried the pores close due to lithostatic pressure and formation of secondary minerals. Below 500-1000 m depth in an uneroded lava pile, the heat is mainly transported by conduction. In the lowlands and valleys of Iceland outside the volcanic rift zone, 1000-1500 m of the original lava pile has been eroded, leaving thermal conduction as the most important heat transport mechanism. The regional temperature gradient has been measured in drillholes in dense and poorly permeable rocks away from the geothermal fields. The results show that the temperature gradient varies from 50 to 150°C/km. The highest values are found close to the volcanic rift zone and the gradient decreases with distance from the spreading axis. This result is mainly based on numerous shallow boreholes (60-500 m) but in some cases the results

  18. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Icelandic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, K.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of hydrothermally altered basalts from depth of up to approx.3 km are reported from three localities in Iceland: International Research Drilling Project (IRDP) core at Reydarfjordur, eastern Iceland (Tertiary age); drill cuttings from Reykjavik (Plio-Pleistocene age); and Halocene drill cuttings from the active Krafla central volcano. Whole rock samples from these three localities have delta 18 O values averaging +3.9 +- 1.3, +2.4 +- 1.1, and -7.7 +- 2.4%, respectively. The observed values in the deeper samples from Krafla are as low as the values for any rocks previously reported. There seems to be a slight negative gradient in delta 18 O with depth at the former two localities and a more pronounced one at Krafla. Oxygen isotope fractionations between epidote and quartz and those between calcite and fluid suggests that the basalts were altered at temperatures of 300 0 --400 0 C. Low deltaD and delta 18 O of epidote and low delta 34 S of anhydrite indicate that the altering fluids in all three areas originated as meteoric waters and have undergone varied 'oxygen shifts'. Differences in the 18 O shift of the fluids are attributed to differences in hydrothermal systems; low water/rock ratios ( 5) at Krafla. The convective hydrothermal activity, which is probably driven by silicic magma beneath the central volcanoes, has caused strong subsolidus depletion of 18 O in the rocks. The primary-magnetic delta 18 O value of the rocks in the Tertiary IRDP core was about +3.9%, which is lower than that obtained for fresh basalt from other places. Such exceptionally low delta 18 O magmas are common in Iceland and may occur as the result of oxygen isotope exchange with or assimilation of altered rocks that form a thick sequence beneath the island due to isostatic subsidence

  19. Lithium Isotopes in Geothermal Fluids from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Asmundsson, R.; Sanjuan, B.

    2008-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the HITI project (HIgh Temperature Instruments for supercritical geothermal reservoir characterization and exploitation), partially funded by the European Union, is to develop methods to characterize the reservoir and fluids of deep and very high temperature geothermal systems. The chemical composition of geothermal waters in terms of major and trace elements is related to the temperature, the degree of water/rock interaction and the mineralogical assemblage of the bedrock. Traditional geothermometers, such as silica, Na-K, Na-K-Ca or K-Mg applied to geothermal waters, make it possible to estimate the temperature at depth of the reservoir from which the waters are derived. However, the values estimated for deep temperature are not always concordant. The chemical geothermometer Na/Li which presents the singularity of associating two chemical elements, one a major element (sodium) and the other a trace element (Li), can be also used and gives an additional temperature estimation. The primary objective of this work was to better understand the behavior of this last geothermometer using the isotopic systematics of Li in order to apply it at very high temperature Icelandic geothermal systems. One particularly important aspect was to establish the nature, extent and mechanism of Li isotope fractionation between 100 and 350°C during water/rock interaction. For that purpose, we measured Li isotopes of about 25 geothermal waters from Iceland by using a Neptune MC-ICP-MS that enabled the analysis of Li isotopic ratios in geothermal waters with a level of precision of ±0.5‰ (2 standard deviations) on quantities of 10-50 ng of Li. Geothermal waters from Reykjanes, Svartsengi, Nesjavellir, Hveragerdi, Namafjall and Krafla geothermal systems were studied and particular emphasis was placed on the characterization of the behavior of Li isotopes in this volcanic context at high temperature with or without the presence of seawater during water

  20. The Relevance of English Language Instruction in a Changing Linguistic Environment in Iceland: The L2 Self of Young Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeves, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study perceptions of post-compulsory school studies in Iceland were investigated through semi-structured interviews. While colloquial English suffices for entertainment, hobbies and Internet use in Iceland, a high level of proficiency is required for employment and tertiary study. School learners and young people in tertiary study and…

  1. Icelandic: Linguistic Maintenance or Change? The Role of English. Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda

    The Icelandic language has a long and stable history, and Old Icelandic is still accessible to modern day Icelanders. This is despite being ruled from Denmark, with influence by the Danish language, for about 500 years. Icelandic may now be under a more serious threat from the onslaught of English. This paper evaluates the linguistic situation in…

  2. Epidemiology of organising pneumonia in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G; Sveinsson, O; Isaksson, H J; Jonsson, S; Frodadottir, H; Aspelund, T

    2006-01-01

    Background Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) has also been called idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia. In secondary organising pneumonia (SOP) the causes can be identified or it occurs in a characteristic clinical context. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and epidemiological features of COP and SOP nationwide in Iceland over an extended period. Methods A retrospective study of organising pneumonia (OP) in Iceland over 20 years was conducted and the epidemiology and survival were studied. All pathological reports of patients diagnosed with or suspected of having COP or SOP in the period 1984–2003 were identified and the pathology samples were re‐evaluated using strict diagnostic criteria. Results After re‐evaluation, 104 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for OP (58 COP and 46 SOP). The mean annual incidence of OP was 1.97/100 000 population (1.10/100 000 for COP and 0.87/100 000 for SOP). The mean age at diagnosis was 67 years with a wide age range. The most common causes of death were lung diseases other than OP, and only one patient died from OP. Patients with OP had a lower rate of survival than the general population, but there was no statistical difference between COP and SOP. Conclusions The incidence of OP is higher than previously reported, suggesting that OP needs to be considered as a diagnosis more often than has been done in the past. PMID:16809413

  3. Hot spots based gold nanostar@SiO2@CdSe/ZnS quantum dots complex with strong fluorescence enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel gold nanostar (NS@SiO2@CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs complex with plasmon-enhanced fluorescence synthesized using a step-by-step surface linkage method was presented. The gold NS was synthesized by the seed growth method. The synthesized gold NS with the apexes structure has a hot-spot effect due to the strong electric field distributed at its sharp apexes, which leads to a plasmon resonance enhancement. Because the distance between QDs and metal nanostructures can be precisely controlled by this method, the relationship between enhancement and distance was revealed. The thickness of SiO2 shell was also optimized and the optimum distance of about 21 nm was obtained. The highest fluorescence enhancement of 4.8-fold accompanied by a minimum fluorescence lifetime of 2.3 ns were achieved. This strong enhancement comes from the hot spots distributed at the sharp tip of our constructed nanostructure. Through the finite element method, we calculated the field distribution on the surface of NS and found that gold NS with the sharpest apexes exhibited the highest field enhancement, which matches well with our experiment result. This complex shows tremendous potential applications for liquid-dependent biometric imaging systems.

  4. Hot spots based gold nanostar@SiO2@CdSe/ZnS quantum dots complex with strong fluorescence enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Feng; Su, Dan; Li, Wei; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Tong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a novel gold nanostar (NS)@SiO2@CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) complex with plasmon-enhanced fluorescence synthesized using a step-by-step surface linkage method was presented. The gold NS was synthesized by the seed growth method. The synthesized gold NS with the apexes structure has a hot-spot effect due to the strong electric field distributed at its sharp apexes, which leads to a plasmon resonance enhancement. Because the distance between QDs and metal nanostructures can be precisely controlled by this method, the relationship between enhancement and distance was revealed. The thickness of SiO2 shell was also optimized and the optimum distance of about 21 nm was obtained. The highest fluorescence enhancement of 4.8-fold accompanied by a minimum fluorescence lifetime of 2.3 ns were achieved. This strong enhancement comes from the hot spots distributed at the sharp tip of our constructed nanostructure. Through the finite element method, we calculated the field distribution on the surface of NS and found that gold NS with the sharpest apexes exhibited the highest field enhancement, which matches well with our experiment result. This complex shows tremendous potential applications for liquid-dependent biometric imaging systems.

  5. Thirteen million years of silicic magma production in Iceland: Links between petrogenesis and tectonic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2010-04-01

    The origin of the Quaternary silicic rocks in Iceland is thought to be linked to the thermal state of the crust, which in turn depends on the regional tectonic settings. This simple model is tested here on rocks from the Miocene to present, both to suggest an internally consistent model for silicic magma formation in Iceland and to constrain the link between tectonic settings and silicic magma petrogenesis. New major and trace-element compositions together with O-, Sr- and Nd-isotope ratios have been obtained on silicic rocks from 19 volcanic systems ranging in age from 13 Ma to present. This allows us to trace the spatial and temporal evolution of both magma generation and the corresponding sources. Low δ18O (geothermal gradient. But later than 5.5 Ma they were produced in a flank zone environment by fractional crystallisation alone, probably due to decreasing geothermal gradient, of basalts derived from a mantle source with lower 143Nd/ 144Nd. This is in agreement with an eastwards rift-jump, from Snæfellsnes towards the present Reykjanes Rift Zone, between 7 and 5.5 Ma. In the South Iceland Volcanic Zone (SIVZ), the intermediate Nd-signature observed in silicic rocks from the Torfajökull central volcano reflects the transitional character of the basalts erupted at this propagating rift segment. Therefore, the abundant evolved rocks at this major silicic complex result from partial melting of the transitional alkaline basaltic crust (Iceland can, therefore, be used for deciphering past geodynamic settings characterized by rift- and off-rift zones resulting from interaction of a mantle plume and divergent plate boundaries.

  6. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...... of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C)....

  7. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  8. Macroeconomic conditions and population health in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Helga Birgisdóttir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Results from recent research on the impact of economic cycles and population health have been mixed, with results appearing to be context-sensitive. Objective: We examine the long-term relationship between economic conditions and population health in Iceland, which has experienced some economically turbulent times in the last years and decades. Methods: We use aggregate annual data for 1981‒2014. We use three aggregate indicators of economic activity to proxy the economic cycle: unemployment rate, real GDP per capita, and real GDP. Life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and total mortality as well as four cause-specific mortality rates were used as outcome measures. Results: Our results do not suggest a statistically significant relationship between economic conditions and total mortality, infant mortality, or life expectancy. Different responses between causes of death are found, and in some instances between genders, although statistical significance is low. We do, however, find a consistent and statistically significant relationship for females aged 45‒64, where economic downturns are associated with lower all-cause mortality. Conclusions: For the time period studied we do not find a significant relationship between economic cycles and population health, where health is proxied by mortality rates, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality. Further studies using less extreme health outcomes, such as morbidity rates, are warranted. Contribution: This type of study has not been performed using Icelandic data before and provides a comparison to research from other countries where the relationship has been explored more. Additionally, one of the contributions of this paper is to use a variety of economic indicators as proxies for economic cycles in a study examining their relationship with population health.

  9. Multigenerational information: the example of the Icelandic Genealogy Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulinius, Hrafn

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the chapter describes the Icelandic Genealogical Database, how it was created, what it contains, and how it operates. In the second part, an overview of research accomplished with material from the database is given.

  10. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new set...

  11. Icelandic Inland Wetlands: Characteristics and Extent of Draining

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsson, Jon; Brink, Sigmundur H.; Arnalds, Olafur; Gisladottir, Fanney O.; Oskarsson, Hlynur

    2016-01-01

    Iceland has inland wetland areas with soils exhibiting both Andosol and Histosol properties which are uncommon elsewhere on Earth. They are generally fertile, with higher bird-nest densities than in similar wetlands in the neighboring countries, with nutrients released by rapid weathering of aeolian materials of basaltic nature. Icelandic inland wetlands cover about 9000 km2 constituting 19.4 % of the vegetated surfaces of the island. The wetland soils are often 1–3 m thick and store 33 to >1...

  12. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson, ggudmund@landspitali.is.

  13. Underemployment of Immigrant Women in Iceland – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Burdikova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of immigrants living in Iceland has been steadily on the rise for the last decade; between 2007 and 2017, the percentage of immigrants living in Iceland has increased from 7.6 % to 11.9%. Akureyri, the largest town in the North of Iceland with considerable industry and service, has seen its immigrant population double in the last decade, and is now home to 931 immigrants for a total of 18 488 inhabitants. New research from the University of Akureyri[1]shows that immigrant women are the most vulnerable people in the labour market in Iceland. Many occupy positions that do not fit with their level of education; despite having received higher education than men. For example, in the survey conducted 30% of immigrant women in Akureyri answered that they are in employment that does not suit their background, compared to the same answer by only 8% of Icelandic women. This difference has a direct impact on the income: just 11% of immigrant women answered that they earn 300 000 ISK or more per month, compared to 37% for Icelandic women and 22% for immigrant men.

  14. Chalcogenidobis(ene-1,2-dithiolate)molybdenum(IV) complexes (chalcogenide E = O, S, Se): probing Mo≡E and ene-1,2-dithiolate substituent effects on geometric and electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Tano, Hiroyuki; Suyama, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Tomoya; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Shinobu; Mtei, Regina P; Kirk, Martin L

    2011-02-07

    New square-pyramidal bis(ene-1,2-dithiolate)MoSe complexes, [Mo(IV)Se(L)(2)](2-), have been synthesised along with their terminal sulfido analogues, [Mo(IV)S(L)(2)](2-), using alkyl (L(C(4)H(8))), phenyl (L(Ph)) and methyl carboxylate (L(COOMe)) substituted dithiolene ligands (L). These complexes now complete three sets of Mo(IV)O, Mo(IV)S and Mo(IV)Se species that are coordinated with identical ene-1,2-dithiolate ligands. The [alkyl substituted Mo(S/Se)(L(C(4)H(8)))(2)](2-) complexes were reported in prior investigations (H. Sugimoto, T. Sakurai, H. Miyake, K. Tanaka and H. Tsukube, Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44, 6927, H. Tano, R. Tajima, H. Miyake, S. Itoh and H. Sugimoto, Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 7465). The new series of complexes enable a systematic investigation of terminal chalcogenido and supporting ene-1,2-dithiolate ligand effects on geometric structure, electronic structure, and spectroscopic properties. X-ray crystallographic analysis of these (Et(4)N)(2)[MoEL(2)] (E = terminal chalocogenide) complexes reveals an isostructural Mo centre that adopts a distorted square pyramidal geometry. The M≡E bond distances observed in the crystal structures and the ν(M≡E) vibrational frequencies indicate that these bonds are weakened with an increase in L→Mo electron donation (L(COOMe) < L(Ph) < L(C(4)H(8))), and this order is confirmed by an electrochemical study of the complexes. The (77)Se NMR resonances in MoSeL complexes appear at lower magnetic fields as the selenido ion became less basic from MoSeL(C(4)H(8)), MoSeL(Ph) and MoSeL(COOMe). Electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopies have been used to assign key ligand-field, MLCT, LMCT and intraligand CT bands in complexes that possess the L(COOMe) ligand. The presence of low-energy intraligand CT transition in these MoEL(COOMe) compounds directly probes the electron withdrawing nature of the -COOMe substituents, and this underscores the complex electronic structure of square pyramidal bis(ene-1

  15. A review on the role of nutraceuticals as simple as se(2+) to complex organic molecules such as glycyrrhizin that prevent as well as cure diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Regi; Sajitha, G R; Augusti, K T

    2014-04-01

    Nutraceuticals are nutritional medicines which are present in edible food items. Most of them are antioxidants with various other biological properties viz, anti inflammatory, anti atherogenic, anticancer, anti viral, anti aging properties etc. They are as simple as minerals like Se(2+) to complex organic molecules such as glycyrrhizin (Ca(2+), K(+) salts of glycyrrhizic acid). They can prevent as well as cure various diseases. Most of the medical people are not aware of the importance of the nutraceuticals as such matters are not part of their text books. Many still think that vitamins are the major nutritional medicines. Actually other dietary principles like terpenes, carotenes, phytosterols, polyphenols, flavanoids, di and poly sulphides, their sulfoxides and their precursor amino acids are necessary to scavenge free radicals in the body which are reactive oxygen species to protect and maintain the vitamin levels in the body. They down regulate the activities of those enzymes which are increased in diseases and they increase those that remove oxidants and detoxify carcinogens. They are immune boosters too. Recently glucosinolates, non toxic alkaloids, certain proteins and even fiber are included in the list of nutraceuticals.

  16. The Difference Se Makes: A Bio-Inspired Dppf-Supported Nickel Selenolate Complex Boosts Dihydrogen Evolution with High Oxygen Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhong-Hua; Tao, Yun-Wen; He, Quan-Feng; Wu, Qiao-Yu; Cheng, Li-Ping; Wei, Zhan-Hua; Wu, Ji-Huai; Lin, Jin-Qing; Sun, Di; Zhang, Qi-Chun; Tian, Dan; Luo, Geng-Geng

    2018-06-12

    Inspired by the metal active sites of [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases, a dppf-supported nickel(II) selenolate complex (dppf=1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) shows high catalytic activity for electrochemical proton reduction with a remarkable enzyme-like H 2 evolution turnover frequency (TOF) of 7838 s -1 under an Ar atmosphere, which markedly surpasses the activity of a dppf-supported nickel(II) thiolate analogue with a low TOF of 600 s -1 . A combined study of electrochemical experiments and DFT calculations shed light on the catalytic process, suggesting that selenium atom as a bio-inspired proton relay plays a key role in proton exchange and enhancing catalytic activity of H 2 production. For the first time, this type of Ni selenolate-containing electrocatalyst displays a high degree of O 2 and H 2 tolerance. Our results should encourage the development of the design of highly efficient oxygen-tolerant Ni selenolate molecular catalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. SE PREVENINDO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Débora Assis Moura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar el comportamiento de las prostitutas en relación a la prevención de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y del Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida-SIDA, así como investigar cómo se previenen de esas enfermedades. Se trata de una investigación exploratoria, con enfoque cualitativo, llevada a cabo en la Asociación de las Prostitutas en Ceará, Brazil, en septiembre de 2008, a través de una encuesta con 25 prostitutas. El análisis de los datos se hizo según el análisis de contenido, después de ser agrupados en cuatro categorías: conocimiento sobre las enfermedades de transmisión sexual/SIDA; convivencia con la(s enfermedad(es; prevención de la enfermedad de transmisión sexual/SIDA; y el uso de drogas. Se concluyó que las prostitutas no usan preservativos en todas las relaciones sexuales, por lo tanto, las enfermedades de transmisión sexual representan una realidad; la desinformación sobre la(s enfermedad(es es notable; el consumo de drogas lícitas e ilícitas es frecuente entre ellas, factor que las expone a situaciones más vulnerables con relación al VIH/SIDA.

  18. Magma-Hydrothermal Transition: Basalt Alteration at Supercritical Conditions in Drill Core from Reykjanes, Iceland, Iceland Deep Drilling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R. A.; Fowler, A. P.; Schiffman, P.; Fridleifsson, G. Ó.; Elders, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project well IDDP-2, drilled to 4,659 m in the Reykjanes geothermal system, the on-land extension of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, SW Iceland. Drill core was recovered, for the first time, from a seawater-recharged, basalt-hosted hydrothermal system at supercritical conditions. The well has not yet been allowed to heat to in situ conditions, but temperature and pressure of 426º C and 340 bar was measured at 4500 m depth prior to the final coring runs. Spot drill cores were recovered between drilling depths of 3648.00 m and 4657.58 m. Analysis of the core is on-going, but we present the following initial observations. The cored material comes from a basaltic sheeted dike complex in the brittle-ductile transition zone. Felsic (plagiogranite) segregation veins are present in minor amounts in dikes recovered below 4300 m. Most core is pervasively altered to hornblende + plagioclase, but shows only minor changes in major and minor element composition. The deepest samples record the transition from the magmatic regime to the presently active hydrothermal system. Diabase near dike margins has been locally recrystallized to granoblastic-textured orthopyroxene-clinopyroxe-plagioclase hornfels. High temperature hydrothermal alteration includes calcic plagioclase (up to An100) and aluminous hornblende (up to 11 Wt. % Al2O3) locally intergrown with hydrothermal biotite, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene and/or olivine. Hydrothermal olivine is iron-rich (Mg # 59-64) compared to expected values for igneous olivine. Biotite phenocrysts in felsic segregation veins have higher Cl and Fe compared to hydrothermal biotites. Orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene pairs in partially altered quench dike margins give temperature of 955° to 1067° C. Orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene pairs from hornfels and hydrothermal veins and replacements give temperature ranging from 774° to 888° C. Downhole fluid sampling is planned following thermal equilibration of the drill hole. Previous work

  19. Iceland and Cyber-threats: Is it more than fear of fear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jón Kristinn Ragnarsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of cyber-threats is a modern reality from which no state, including Iceland, can hope to escape. Cyber-attacks can cause major damage remotely, at minimal cost and while concealing the culprits. Groups and individuals can carry them out as effectively as states, reversing traditional power calculations and making deterrence especially difficult. Individuals can use the Net both for mischief and to escape from authoritarian controls; groups such as terrorists and criminals can target states, commerce and individuals; and states can attack other states both directly and by proxy. The complexity of possible online conflicts was seen clearly in the events triggered by Wikileaks disclosures against the USA in 2010 and 2011. Among other recent developments, an attack on the Pentagon and the ‘Stuxnet’ virus used against Iranian nuclear plants have shown how even the smallest devices can penetrate high-security systems, and that computer-driven infrastructures are no longer immune. Iceland, for its part, acknowledged the relevance of cyber-threats in its 2009 risk assessment, and recently decided to set up a coordinating team for protection; but it has lagged behind its Nordic neighbours in this field and should take full advantage of cooperation with them now. Vulnerable states also have an interest in international regulation and restraint on the use of cyber-weapons, but the context for this is complex and viable proposals are slow to emerge. Iceland can and should contribute to new thinking, and perhaps also assist poorer states: but it needs to put its own house in order first.

  20. Geothermal electric power generation in Iceland for the proposed Iceland/United Kingdom HVDC power link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Palmason, G.; Thorhallsson, S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews geothermal electric power potential in Iceland which could economically be developed to supplement hydro power for the proposed HVDC Power Link to the United Kingdom, and power intensive industries in Iceland, which are envisaged for development at this time. Technically harnessable energy for electricity generation taking account of geothermal resources down to an assumed base depth, temperature distribution in the crust, probable geothermal recovery factor, and accessibility of the field, has been assessed. Nineteen known high-temperature fields and 9 probable fields have been identified. Technically harnessable geo-heat for various areas is indicated. Data on high temperature fields suitable for geothermal electric power generation, and on harnessable energy for electric power generation within volcanic zones, is stated, and overall assessments are made. The paper then reviews how the potential might be developed, discussing preference of possible sites, and cost of the developments at todays prices. Cost of geothermal electric power generation with comparative costs for hydro generation are given. Possible transmission system developments to feed the power to the proposed HVDC Link converter stations are also discussed

  1. Erosive and Mechanical Tooth Wear in Viking Age Icelanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Svend; Eliasson, Sigfus Thor

    2017-08-29

    (1) Background: The importance of the Icelandic Sagas as a source of information about diet habits in medieval Iceland, and possibly other Nordic countries, is obvious. Extensive tooth wear in archaeological material worldwide has revealed that the main cause of this wear is believed to have been a coarse diet. Near the volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated, and 49 skulls could be evaluated for tooth wear. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in light of diet and beverage consumption described in the Sagas; (2) Materials and methods: Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation; (3) Results: Extensive tooth wear was seen in all of the groups, increasing with age. The first molars had the highest score, with no difference between sexes. These had all the similarities seen in wear from a coarse diet, but also presented with characteristics that are seen in erosion in modern Icelanders, through consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and was used for the preservation of food in Iceland, until fairly recently; (4) Conclusions: It is postulated that the consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear seen in ancient Icelanders.

  2. Magmatic densities control erupted volumes in Icelandic volcanic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Margaret; Maclennan, John

    2018-04-01

    Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallisation under Iceland.

  3. Magmatic Densities Control Erupted Volumes in Icelandic Volcanic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Hartley

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ. By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallization under Iceland.

  4. The development of the suffix –erni in Icelandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Ellert Þór

    This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood’. By tak......This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood...... stages to establish a clear derivational pattern that is productively used in the language to form new words. Having access to continuous written material in Icelandic from ca. 1200 to 2011 gives us the possibility to track this process through time and follow each step in the development....

  5. Additional Workload or a Part of the Job? Icelandic Teachers' Discourse on Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnþórsdóttir, Hermína; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the discourse of Icelandic compulsory school teachers on inclusive education. From 1974 and onwards, the education policy in Iceland has been towards inclusion, and Iceland is considered to be an example of a highly inclusive education system with few segregated resources for students with special educational…

  6. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Frank; Johannesdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2011-01-01

    The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher engagement with online and open delivery methods of higher…

  7. Isotope heterogeneity of Pre-Holocene groundwater in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E.; Arnorsson, S.; Heinemeier, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that groundwater with a Pre-Holocene component is more common in the Icelandic bedrock than previously thought. Some of the Pre-Holocene water samples are more depleted in delta H-2 and delta O-18 than any mean annual precipitation in Iceland today due to the cold...... climate at that time. However, most often Pre-Holocene water components cannot be detected based on the water isotopes alone due to mixing with younger and isotopically heavier water. The Cl concentration in relation to the water isotopes in specific areas has proved to be a good indicator of a Pre......-Holocene component in the groundwater. The deuterium excess value may also help to identify water from a different climate regime, if no oxygen shift has occurred. The relative abundance of a Pre-Holocene water component of the Icelandic groundwater has led to the understanding that combined interpretation of water...

  8. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  9. Porosity evolution in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, B.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced hydrothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems, grant number CRSII2_141843/1) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. These are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. These shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. Field observations suggest that active and fossil Icelandic hydrothermal systems are built from a superposition of completely altered and completely unaltered layers. With help of 1D and 2D reactive transport models (OpenGeoSys-GEM code), we investigate the reasons for this finding, by studying the mineralogical evolution of protoliths with different initial porosities at different temperatures and pressures, different leaching water composition and gas content, and different porosity geometries (i.e. porous medium versus fractured medium). From this study, we believe that the initial porosity of protoliths and volume changes due to their transformation into secondary minerals are key factors to explain the different alteration extents observed in field studies. We also discuss how precipitation and dissolution kinetics can influence the alteration time scales.

  10. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  11. Superhot Drilling in Iceland, the Experience of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Fowler, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project aims to improve geothermal economics by producing supercritical fluids (www.iddp.is). Supercritical wells could yield an order of magnitude more usable energy than that from conventional geothermal wells because of higher enthalpy and enhanced flow properties. In 2009, the IDDP-1 well failed to reach supercritical conditions in the Krafla caldera in NE Iceland, after encountering rhyolite magma at only 2.1 km depth. The completed geothermal well became the world's hottest and produced superheated steam with a wellhead temperature of 452°C and flow sufficient to generate 35 MWe. The IDDP next moved SW to the Reykjanes Peninsula, the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where it is possible to study an analog of the roots of a black smoker. Reykjanes is unique among Icelandic geothermal systems in being recharged by seawater, which has a critical point of 406°C at 298 bars. Drilling began by deepening an existing 2.5 km deep production well to 3 km depth, and then angling it towards the main upflow zone of the system, for a total slant depth of 4,659 m. Total circulation losses were encountered below 3 km that could not be cured by lost circulation materials or by multiple cement jobs. Accordingly, drilling continued to total depth without return of drill cuttings. We attempted 13 core runs below 3 km depth, only half of which recovered core. The cores are basalts and dolerites with alteration ranging from lower greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies, suggesting formation temperatures >450°C. After the end of drilling in January 2017, following only six days of heating, supercritical conditions (426°C at 340 bars) were measured in the well at a depth of 4.5 km. The well has not yet been allowed to equilibrate to full in situ temperature. A perforated liner was inserted to 4,570 m, depth to facilitate temperature cycling to enhance permeability at depth through thermal cracking. In 2018 this will be followed by a

  12. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún

    2017-10-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007-2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (PANGAEA.876206" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206).

  13. High resolution modelling of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The northward inflow of Atlantic Water through Denmark Strait – the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC – is simulated with a numerical model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. The model uses the technique of adaptive grid refinement which allows a high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal, 10 m vertical around Iceland. The model is used to assess time and space variability of volume and heat fluxes for the years 1997–2003. Passive tracers are applied to study origin and composition of NIIC water masses. The NIIC originates from two sources: the Irminger Current, flowing as part of the sub-polar gyre in 100–500 m depth along the Reykjanes Ridge and the shallow Icelandic coastal current, flowing north-westward on the south-west Icelandic shelf. The ratio of volume flux between the deep and shallow branch is around 2:1. The NIIC continues as a warm and saline branch northward through Denmark Strait where it entrains large amounts of polar water due to the collision with the southward flowing East Greenland Current. After passing Denmark Strait, the NIIC follows the coast line eastward being an important heat source for north Icelandic waters. At least 60% of the temporal temperature variability of north Icelandic waters is caused by the NIIC. The NIIC volume and heat transport is highly variable and depends strongly on the wind field north-east of Denmark Strait. Daily means can change from 1 Sv eastward to 2 Sv westward within a few days. Highest monthly mean transport rates occur in summer when winds from north are weak, whereas the volume flux is reduced by around 50% in winter. Summer heat flux rates can be even three times higher than in winter. The simulation also shows variability on the interannual scale. In particular weak winds from north during winter 2002/2003 combined with mild weather conditions south of Iceland led to anomalous high NIIC volume (+40% and heat flux (+60% rates. In this period, simulated north Icelandic

  14. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  15. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  16. Calculations of resonances parameters for the ((2s2) 1Se, (2s2p) 1,3P0) and ((3s2) 1Se, (3s3p) 1,3P0) doubly excited states of helium-like ions with Z≤10 using a complex rotation method implemented in Scilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gning, Youssou; Sow, Malick; Traoré, Alassane; Dieng, Matabara; Diakhate, Babacar; Biaye, Mamadi; Wagué, Ahmadou

    2015-01-01

    In the present work a special computational program Scilab (Scientific Laboratory) in the complex rotation method has been used to calculate resonance parameters of ((2s2) 1Se, (2s2p) 1,3P0) and ((3s2) 1Se, (3s3p) 1,3P0) states of helium-like ions with Z≤10. The purpose of this study required a mathematical development of the Hamiltonian applied to Hylleraas wave function for intrashell states, leading to analytical expressions which are carried out under Scilab computational program. Results are in compliance with recent theoretical calculations.

  17. [Accidents on Iceland's most dangerous roads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thóroddur; Arnarsson, Sveinn

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify the most dangerous segments of the Icelandic road system in terms of the number of accidents pr km and the rate of accidents pr million km travelled. First to identify the segments where the number of accidents is highest and where the risk of the individual traveller is the greatest. Second to evaluate if the association between the number and the rate of accidents is positive or negative. Third to identify the road segments that are the most dangerous in the sense of many accidents and great risk to individual travellers. Main roads outside urban centers were divided into 45 segments that were on average 78 km in length. Infrequently travelled roads and roads within urban centers were omitted. Information on the length of roads, traffic density and number of accidents was used to calculate the number of accidents per km and the rate of accidents per million km travelled. The correlation between the number and rate of accidents was calculated and the most dangerous road segments were identified by the average rank order on both dimensions. Most accidents pr km occurred on the main roads to and from the capital region, but also east towards Hvolsvöllur, north towards Akureyri and in the Mideast region of the country. The rate of accidents pr million km travelled was highest in the northeast region, in northern Snæfellsnes and in the Westfjords. The most dangerous roads on both dimensions were in Mideast, northern Westfjords, in the north between Blönduós and Akureyri and in northern Snæfellsnes. Most accidents pr km occurred on roads with a low accident rate pr million km travelled. It is therefore possible to reduce accidents the most by increasing road safety where it is already the greatest but that would however increase inequalities in road safety. Policy development in transportation is therefore in part a question of priorities in healthcare. Individual equality in safety and health are not always fully

  18. Thermodynamics and kinetics insight into reaction mechanism of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} nanoink based on binary metal-amine complexes in polyetheramine-synthesized process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chi-Jie [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shei, Shih-Chang, E-mail: scshei@mail.nutn.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National University of Tainan, 700, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Shoou-Jinn [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the reaction mechanism of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) nanoink via a solvent-thermal reflux method using copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and selenium (Se) powders as precursors and polyetheramine as a reaction solvent. The formation of CZTSe nanoparticles in polyetheramine began with the formation of binary phase CuSe and CuSe{sub 2} due to the strong catalysis provided by polyetheramine. Finally, ternary crystals of Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} transformed into well-dispersed nanocrystals of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4}. The size of the crystals was shown to decrease with reaction time due to the emulsification effect of the polyetheramine epoxy group. The PH value-reaction time curves for single Cu, Zn elements and CZTSe from all participants elements reacted together have a relationship just reversed each other and both multistage feature were observed, which indicates that the CZTSe reaction was dominated by copper and zinc elements. The PH-temperature mechanism demonstrates that the reaction was controlled by the formation of metal-amine complexes, especially, after heating the PH-time variation manner is the same for pure element and all four elements reacted together. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the mechanism underlying CZTSe formation based on the reactivity and stability of reaction species. - Highlights: • Reaction mechanism of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) nanoink via a solvent-thermal reflux method using polyetheramine was developed. • PH effect on thermal dynamics and characteristics of reagents and solvents in the CZTSe nanoink has been realized. • PH-temperature mechanism demonstrates that the reaction controlled by the formation of metal-amine complexes.

  19. [Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2013-04-01

    Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.

  20. Injury Pattern in Icelandic Elite Male Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, Elis Thor; Valdimarsson, Örnólfur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Árnason, Árni

    2017-10-10

    To examine the incidence, type, location, and severity of injuries in Icelandic elite male handball players and compare across factors like physical characteristics and playing position. Prospective cohort study. The latter part of the preseason and the competitive season of Icelandic male handball. Eleven handball teams (185 players) from the 2 highest divisions in Iceland participated in the study. Six teams (109 players) completed the study. Injuries were recorded by the players under supervision from their team physiotherapists or coaches. Coaches recorded training exposure, and match exposure was obtained from the Icelandic and European Handball Federations. The players directly recorded potential risk factors, such as age, height, weight, previous injuries, and player position. Injury incidence and injury location and number of injury days. Recorded time-loss injuries were 86, of which 53 (62%) were acute and 33 (38%) were due to overuse. The incidence of acute injuries was 15.0 injuries/1000 hours during games and 1.1 injuries/1000 hours during training sessions. No significant difference was found in injury incidence between teams, but number of injury days did differ between teams (P = 0.0006). Acute injuries were most common in knees (26%), ankles (19%), and feet/toes (17%), but overuse injuries occurred in low back/pelvic region (39%), shoulders (21%), and knees (21%). Previous knee injuries were the only potential risk factor found for knee injury. The results indicate a higher rate of overuse injuries in low back/pelvic region and shoulders than in comparable studies.

  1. Broadcasting in Iceland: Cultural Protectionism and U.S. Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Tim

    Icelanders are a highly literate people, their culture tied together by perhaps the most complete written tradition of any modern nation. No wonder, then, that the tiny island country seemed in no rush to develop a television broadcasting system. Indeed, it is questionable whether television would have been in demand at all if not for outside…

  2. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  3. Primitive off-rift basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debaille, Vinciane; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Brandon, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    to a hybrid mixture between the depleted-MORB mantle and the enriched Iceland mantle plume, itself resulting from mixing between recycled oceanic crust and depleted lower mantle. This hybrid accounts for the high 3He/4He (28 Ra), high 143Nd/144Nd (0.5132), high 187Os/188Os (0.14) and low 87Sr/86Sr (0...

  4. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  5. Pressure Algometry in Icelandic Horses : Interexaminer and Intraexaminer Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Eveline S.; Blom, Guy; van Loon, Johannes P A M; Back, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Reliability of pressure algometry as an outcome measure in equine research and therapy needs to be studied. The aim of the present study was to establish interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability of pressure algometry in Icelandic horses and to determine reference mechanical nociceptive threshold

  6. The thirteenth-century runic revival in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Tarrin Jon

    2016-01-01

    alphabet. This paper examines a number of runic phenomenon from the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries in Denmark and Iceland to argue that they belong to a cultural revival movement rather than forming part of a continuous runic tradition stretching back into the early Middle Ages. Some...

  7. Island connections: Icelandic spatiality in the wake of worldly linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bjarnason

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The notions and materiality of connections, through electronic networks as well as modes of mobility, play an ever-increasing role in how we define, understand, engage and experience the world we live in and the islands we live on. This article presents an account of Icelandic encounters with technologies of telecommunication and explores how electronic connections have participated in formulating a particularly connected, island spatiality. It is argued that an island can be regarded as a kind of connected laboratory suitable for studying how associations form around technologies of connections, which can be traced through various actors. For this purpose, the historical genealogy of connections and telecommunication in Iceland is analyzed, as well as more contemporary ideas and representations of mobile phone usage and network connectivity. It is maintained that connections have fundamentally altered the spatiality as well as representations of Iceland. While still an island in a geographical sense, and in that manner remote and isolated, the social space of the island now denies such connotations in many respects, valorizing the connectivity of Iceland and its people.

  8. Iceland and European Union accession - the whaling issue

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Peter G.G.

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to assess one of the important questions regarding Iceland’s potential accession to the EU, namely, whether Iceland could legitimately continue its whaling operations under current EU environmental law if it becomes a member of the regional economic integration organization

  9. Curriculum Analysis and Education for Sustainable Development in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Norodahl, Kristin; Oskarsdottir, Gunnhildur; Palsdottir, Auour; Petursdottir, Bjorg

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how the Icelandic public school curriculum for early childhood, compulsory and upper secondary school deals with education for sustainable development. As the curriculum does not often mention the term sustainability, a key with which to investigate signs of education for sustainable development in the three curricula was…

  10. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar

    2000-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. Methods: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru...

  11. The effect of silica in washing with geothermal water, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindal, B.

    1992-01-01

    Industrial washing operation using geothermal water in Iceland are reported and testing designed to explain the beneficial effect of geothermal water for washing described. The findings indicate, that the silica content of the water may be the principal component for a superior washing quality

  12. An endemic ichnoassemblage from a late Miocene paleolake in SE Iceland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, R.; Krmíček, Lukáš; Sudo, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 485, 1 November 2017 (2017), s. 761-773 ISSN 0031-0182 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Turbidite * Mermia ichnofacies * Thorichnus-Vatnaspor ichnoassemblage Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 2.578, year: 2016

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Chalcogen Triangular Complexes with New Mo-3(mu(3)-S)(mu(2)-Se-2)(3)(4+) and M-3(mu(3)-S)mu(2)-Se)(3)(4+) (M = Mo, W) Cluster Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gushchin, Artem; Ooi, Bee Lean; Harris, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    In our pursuit of mixed chalcogen-bridged cluster complexes, solids of the compositions Mo3SSe6Br4 and W3SSe6Br4 were prepared using high-temperature synthesis from the elements. Treatment of Mo3SSe6Br4 with Bu4NBr in a vibration mill yielded (Bu4N)(3)([Mo-3(mu(3)-S)(mu(2)-Se-2)(3)Br-6]Br} (I). Its......), was isolated and its structure determined using X-ray crystallography. W3SSe6Br4 upon reaction with H3PO2 gave a mixture of all of the [W3SxSe4-x(H2O)(9)](4+) species. After repeated chromatography, crystals of {[W-3(mu(3)-S)(mu(2)-Se)(3)(H2O)(7)Cl--(2)](2)CB[6]}Cl-4 center dot 12H(2)O (IV) were crystallized...

  14. Long-term variability of dust events in Iceland (1949-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Arnalds, O.; Olafsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term frequency of atmospheric dust observations was investigated for the southern part of Iceland and interpreted together with earlier results obtained from northeastern (NE) Iceland (Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al., 2013). In total, over 34 dust days per year on average occurred in Iceland based on conventionally used synoptic codes for dust observations. However, frequent volcanic eruptions, with the re-suspension of volcanic materials and dust haze, increased the number of dust events fourfold (135 dust days annually). The position of the Icelandic Low determined whether dust events occurred in the NE (16.4 dust days annually) or in the southern (S) part of Iceland (about 18 dust days annually). The decade with the most frequent dust days in S Iceland was the 1960s, but the 2000s in NE Iceland. A total of 32 severe dust storms (visibility typically warm, occurring during summer/autumn (May-September) and during mild southwesterly winds, while the subarctic dust events (S Iceland) were mainly cold, occurring during winter/spring (March-May) and during strong northeasterly winds. About half of the dust events in S Iceland occurred in winter or at sub-zero temperatures. A good correlation was found between particulate matter (PM10) concentrations and visibility during dust observations at the stations Vík and Stórhöfði. This study shows that Iceland is among the dustiest areas of the world and that dust is emitted year-round.

  15. The Icelandic volcanological data node and data service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjord, Kristin; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Futurevolc Team

    2013-04-01

    Through funding from the European FP7 programme, the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), as well as the local Icelandic government and RANNÍS research fund, the establishment of the Icelandic volcano observatory (VO) as a cross-disciplinary, international volcanological data node and data service is starting to materialize. At the core of this entity is the close collaboration between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), a natural hazard monitoring and research institution, and researchers at the Earth Science Institute of the University of Iceland, ensuring long-term sustainable access to research quality data and products. Existing Icelandic Earth science monitoring and research infrastructures are being prepared for integration with the European EPOS infrastructure. Because the VO is located at a Met Office, this infrastructure also includes meteorological infrastructures relevant to volcanology. Furthermore, the FP7 supersite project, FUTUREVOLC cuts across disciplines to bring together European researchers from Earth science, atmospheric science, remote sensing and space science focussed on combined processing of the different data sources and results to generate a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. Integration with atmospheric and space science is to meet the need for better estimates of the volcanic eruption source term and dispersion, which depend not only on the magma flow rate and composition, but also on atmosphere-plume interaction and dispersion. This should lead to better estimates of distribution of ash in the atmosphere. FUTUREVOLC will significantly expand the existing Icelandic EPOS infrastructure to an even more multidisciplinary volcanological infrastructure. A central and sustainable part of the project is the establishment of a research-quality data centre at the VO. This data centre will be able to serve as a volcanological data node within EPOS, making multidisciplinary data accessible to

  16. Contenha-se, se for capaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Feitoza Pereira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Em O Instinto da Linguagem, Steven Pinker discorre sobre sua célebre tese: a linguagem não é a mais prodigiosa invenção cultural humana. Ela é uma peça da constituição biológica do cérebro. A linguagem é uma habilidade complexa e especializada, que se desenvolve espontaneamente na criança, sem qualquer esforço consciente ou instrução formal, que se manifesta sem que se perceba sua lógica subjacente, que é qualitativamente a mesma em todo indiví­duo, e que difere de capacidades mais gerais de processamento de informações ou de comportamento inteligente. Para Pinker, a concepção de linguagem como um tipo de instinto transmite a idéia de que as pessoas sabem falar mais ou menos da mesma maneira que as aranhas sabem tecer suas teias. Ele apóia suas idéias em Darwin e Chomsky. Palavras-chave linguagem, gramática universal, evolução Abstract In Language Instinct, Steven Pinker argues about his famous thesis: language is not the most prodigious human cultural invention. It is a distinct piece of the biological constitution of the brain. Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops spontaneously in the child, without conscious effort or formal instruction. It reveals itself without awareness of its underlying logic, which is qualitatively the same in every individual, and which is distinct from more general abilities of information processing of intelligent behavior. According to Pinker, the conception of language as a kind of instinct conveys the idea that people know how to talk in more or less the same way as spiders know how to spin webs. His thesis is founded in Darwin and Chomsky-s theories. Keywords language, universal grammar, evolution

  17. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2017-02-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution. Long-term records of meteorological dust observations from Northeast Iceland indicate the frequency of dust events from Icelandic deserts. The research involves a 60-year period and

  18. Silver(I), Copper(I) and Copper(II) Complex of the New N,Se-Chelate Ligand 2-Phenylselenomethyl-1H-benzimidazole: Electrochemistry and Structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leboschka, M.; Sieger, M.; Sarkar, B.; Niemeyer, M.; Schurr, T.; Fiedler, Jan; Záliš, Stanislav; Kaim, W.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 635, 6-7 (2009), s. 1001-1007 ISSN 0044-2313 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100400702; GA MŠk OC 139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : copper compounds * solid-state structures * electrochemistry * selenother ligand * silver complex Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2009

  19. New geothermal heat flux map of Greenland and the Iceland hotspot track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Y. M.; Jordan, T. A.; Catalan, M.; Jordan, T. M.; Bamber, J. L.; Vaughan, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Greenland is the second largest reservoir of water on Earth and about 80% of its surface is covered by ice. It is mainly composed of Archean blocks that collided during the Early Proterozoic. Indirect methods have been used to study its subglacial thermal conditions, geology and lithospheric structure. Numerous regions of basal melting are identified in the central and north Greenland but their relationship with geothermal heat flux is not yet clear. Crustal thickness derived by seismology and gravity data are consistent, showing no significant lateral variations, and providing average values of about 40 and 36 km respectively. Even though Greenland is considered a craton its crust has been affected by the presume passage of the Iceland hotspot since at least 100 Ma. Here we present the newest and highest resolution Curie Depth and geothermal heat flux maps for Greenland as well as their associated uncertainties. For estimating the Curie Depths we applied spectral methods to aeromagnetic data from the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map WDMAM2.0. Calculated Curie Depths vary from 25 to 50 km with shallower values located to the east. A thermal model is built based on the 1D heat conduction equation and considering steady state conditions. The thermal parameters are then optimized using local values derived from direct measurements, temperature profiles and more indirect methods such as radar imaging. The heat flux distribution shows higher spatial variability and a very different pattern than previously proposed and with values of 50-80 mW/m2. We identify a NW-SE high heat flux feature crossing Greenland which we correlate with the Iceland hotspot track. Additionally, to evaluate the lithospheric structure we calculate the Bouguer anomaly from GOCO5s satellite free air data and construct several gravity models across the proposed hotspot track. We show that a dense lower crust body in the same location the high heat flux trend is permissible from a gravimetric

  20. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Petersen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007–2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206.

  1. Application of subsurface temperature measurements in geothermal prospecting in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flóvenz, Ólafur G.

    1985-12-01

    In geothermal areas in Iceland aquifers are in most cases found to occur in highly permeable near-vertical fractures in the low permeability basaltic crust. Therefore heat transfer in the rocks surrounding the aquifers is mainly conductive. Temperature profiles in shallow non-flowing boreholes are used to construct a two dimensional model of the temperature distribution in the vicinity of near vertical aquifers. This is done by finite element solution of the equation of heat transfer which requires knowledge of the regional temperature gradient outside the area of geothermal activity and some constraints on the temperature within the aquifers. The model is helpful in estimating dip and location of near-vertical water bearing fractures and thus in siting production wells. An example of successful use to the method and of soil temperature measurements from a geothermal field in North-Iceland is demonstrated.

  2. Icelandic Public Pensions: Why time is running out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the Icelandic public sector pension system enjoying a third party guarantee. Defined benefit funds fundamentally differ from defined contribution pension funds without a third party guarantee as is the case with the Icelandic general labour market pension funds. We probe the special nature of the public sector pension funds and make a comparison to the defined contribution pension funds of the general labour market. We explore the financial and economic effects of the third party guarantee of the funds, their investment performance and other relevant factors. We seek an answer to the question why time is running out for the country’s largest pension fund that currently faces the prospect of becoming empty by the year 2022.

  3. 230Th-238U disequilibria in historical lavas from Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condomines, M.; Morand, P.; Alleegre, C.J.; Sigvaldason, G.

    1981-01-01

    The 230 Th- 238 U disequilibrium studies on historical lavas from Iceland show a relative homogeneity for Th/U ratios and also a variation for ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) activity ratios at the scale of the island. The ( 230 Th/ 238 U) disequilibrium ratio is always greater than 1 which indicates that partial melting produces magmas with Th/U ratios greater than those of the mantle source. Furthermore, there seems to be a correlation between the variations of ( 230 Th/ 232 Th) (and delta 18 O) ratios and the geographical location of the samples along the active zones of Iceland. We develop and discuss several models in order to explain these variations. (orig.)

  4. The assent of a nation: genethics and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, M G

    1999-04-01

    The Icelandic parliament passed legislation authorizing the establishment of a national health sector database which will be sponsored financially by private enterprises through DeCode Genetics Inc. Health related data will be gathered from patients, without their informed consent, from all points of contact with Icelandic public and private health care providers. A centralized data curator will 'non-personalize' the identity of the subjects in a one-way coding system which the government and DeCode Genetics argue overrides the need for informed consent. This legislation is in conflict with the European Data Protection Act, which requires informed consent for the collection of personal data. The law raises many ethical questions regarding the central tenets of informed consent, the power of government, the rights of the human subject, and finally, the responsibility of the clinician balancing commitments of the patient and research.

  5. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Kristinsson, Sigurður

    2017-01-01

    Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abr...

  6. Long-term variability of dust events in Iceland (1949-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2014-01-01

    The long-term frequency of atmospheric dust observations was investigated for the southern part of Iceland and interpreted together with earlier results obtained from northeastern (NE) Iceland (Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al., 2013). In total, over 34 dust days per year on average occurred in Iceland based on conventionally used synoptic codes for dust observations. However, frequent volcanic eruptions, with the re-suspension of volcanic materials and dust haze, increased the n...

  7. Icelandic boom and bust - Immigration and the housing market

    OpenAIRE

    Lúðvík Elíasson

    2014-01-01

    Possible explanations for the rapid increase in house prices and housing investment in Iceland between 2004 and 2007 and the subsequent market crash are studied. The boom was driven in part by banking liberalisation, international financial conditions, and domestic policies. A simple demand and supply model, based on the study by Elíasson and Pétursson (2009), is fitted to data through the recent boom-bust period. The model is remarkably robust through the cycle despite its unprecedented ampl...

  8. Alcohol and labor supply: the case of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; McGeary, Kerry Anne

    2009-10-01

    At a time when the government of Iceland is considering privatization of alcohol sales and a reduction of its governmental fees, it is timely to estimate the potential effects of this policy change. Given that the privatization of sales coupled with a tax reduction should lead to a decrease in the unit price of alcohol, one would expect the quantity consumed to increase. While it is of interest to project the impact of the proposed bill on the market for alcohol, another important consideration is the impact that increased alcohol consumption and, more specifically, probable alcohol misuse would have on other markets in Iceland. The only available study on this subject using Icelandic data yields surprising results. Tómasson et al. (Scand J Public Health 32:47-52, 2004) unexpectedly found no effect of probable alcohol abuse on sick leave. A logical next step would be to examine the effect of probable alcohol abuse on other important labor-market outcomes. Nationally representative survey data from 2002 allow for an analysis of probable misuse of alcohol and labor-supply choices. Labor-supply choices are considered with reference to possible effects of policies already in force, as well as proposed changes to current policies. Contrary to intuition, but in agreement with the previously mentioned Icelandic study, the adverse effects of probable misuse of alcohol on employment status or hours worked are not confirmed within this sample. The reasons for the results are unclear, although some suggestions are hypothesized. Currently, data to test those theories convincingly are not available.

  9. Servant leadership and job satisfaction in the University of Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Guðjón Ingi Guðjónsson; Sigrún Gunnarsdóttir

    2014-01-01

    Servant leadership is a philosophy of communication and leadership whith focus on decentralization, autonomy, mutual respect and commitment to society. In light of universities’ important societal role and importance of equality of academic staff it is presumed that servant leadership suits a university. Prior research indicates the value of servant leadership for universities’ performance. The purpose of the study was to assess servant leadership in the University of Iceland and its correlat...

  10. Servant leadership and job satisfaction in the University of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðjón Ingi Guðjónsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Servant leadership is a philosophy of communication and leadership whith focus on decentralization, autonomy, mutual respect and commitment to society. In light of universities’ important societal role and importance of equality of academic staff it is presumed that servant leadership suits a university. Prior research indicates the value of servant leadership for universities’ performance. The purpose of the study was to assess servant leadership in the University of Iceland and its correlation with staff job satisfaction using a new Dutch instrument (SLS measuring participants’ attitudes to their next superior. A single item job satisfaction question was included. Results showed considerable practice of servant leadership or 4,19 (scale: 1-6 and the strongest servant leadership characteristic was stewardship, followed by forgiveness and empowerment. 82,6% of participants reported job satisfaction with significant positive correlation with servant leadership. The relatively high degree of servant leadership supports previous study of the uiniversity’s working environment but not recent American studies indicating universities’ a low degree of servant leadership. The degree of servant leadership in the University of Iceland was lower compared to grammar schools (6,46 and general hospital wards (4,33 but identical to hospital emergency care units (4,19. Significant positive correlation of servant leadership with job satisfaction, confirms similar relationships in US universities and in various institutions in Iceland. Results indicate the importance of servant leadership for employees’ job satisfaction, not least empowerment and courage, and this has the potential to support peer management, employee independence and social responsibility of the University of Iceland.

  11. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  12. The involvement of family in child protection cases in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Haugen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of families in child protection cases in Iceland, as well as to shed light on the attitudes of child protection workers on the importance of including families while working on child protection cases. The study is part of an international comparative analysis called: Social Work with Families: Social Workers’ Constructions of Family in Professional Practice. This article only addresses the Icelandic segment of the research. In the study, qualitative methods were used and three focus groups were conducted, in which the same three-step vignette about a child protection case was presented. The findings highlighted how difficult child protection workers found it to define the family. The main element is that family are those individuals closest to the child and connected to them through emotional ties, as Icelandic child protection workers seem to strive to involve family in child protection cases. However, there are signs which show that when working with more complicated cases the definition of a family becomes narrower, and involvement is restricted mostly to parents and grandparents. The findings also show that attitudes toward fathers differ from those toward mothers. The mother is expected to support and create security for the child, while the father is judged mostly on his violent behaviour and is not automatically regarded as providing support or actively taking responsibility for his child.

  13. [Organising Pneumonia - a review and results from Icelandic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur A; Isaksson, Helgi J; Gudmundsson, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Organising pneumonia (OP) is a relatively rare interstitial lung disease. It s definition is based on a characteristic histological pattern in the presence of certain clinical and radiological features. Organising pneumonia represents also what has been called Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia (BOOP). Recently it has been recommended to call OP cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) when no definite cause or characteristic clinical context is found and secondary organising pneumonia (SOP) when causes can be identified such as infection or it occurs in a characteristic clinical context such as connective tissue disorder. The most common clinical symptoms are dyspnea, cough, fever and general malaise. It is common that symptoms have been present for some weeks before the diagnosis is made. Patients commonly have lowered PO2 and a mildly restrictive spirometry. Radiographic features are most often patchy bilateral airspace opacities but an interstitial pattern or focal opacities can also be seen. Most of patients respond well to steroids but relapses are quite common. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the disease and the main results from studies on OP in Iceland. The mean annual incidence for OP in Iceland was 1.97/100,000 inhabitants. Annual incidence for COP was 1.10/100,000 and 0.87/100,000 for SOP. This is higher than in most other studies. In Iceland patients with OP had a higher standardized mortality ratio than the general population despite good clinical responses. No clinical symptoms could separate between SOP and COP.

  14. Gudmundur Finnbogason, "sympathetic understanding," and early Icelandic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2008-05-01

    Gudmundur Finnbogason (1873-1944) was a pioneer of Icelandic psychology. He was educated at the University of Copenhagen where he finished his M.A. in 1901 in philosophy, specializing in psychology. During the years 1901-1905, Finnbogason played a major role in establishing and shaping the future of primary education in Iceland. He defended his doctoral thesis on "sympathetic understanding" at the University of Copenhagen in 1911. This work deals with the psychology of imitation. In it Finnbogason defends the view that imitation is basically perception so that there is a direct link from perception to motor behavior. Through imitation people tend to assume the countenance and demeanor of other people, thus showing, in Finnbogason's terminology, "sympathetic understanding." Finnbogason's theory of imitation in many respects anticipates contemporary approaches to the psychology of imitation. In 1918 Finnbogason became professor of applied psychology at the recently founded University of Iceland. Here he attempted to establish psychology as an independent discipline. In this he was unsuccessful; his chair was abolished in 1924.

  15. Midwifery in Iceland: From vocational training to university education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Olof A; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Gottfredsdottir, Helga

    2018-04-03

    Midwifery education is a foundation for health professionals' competence in providing quality healthcare for the benefit of women, their families and society. This paper describes midwifery and the development of midwifery education in Iceland. It examines policy and extensive reforms, from hospital-based vocational training in midwifery to an academic university education, and the impact on the scope of midwifery practice in Iceland. The university-based programme, with its emphasis on autonomy of the midwife, seems to have affected the context of home birth and strengthened midwives' role in primary healthcare. Education reform with a focus on evidence-based practice and midwife-led continuity of care has had limited influence within the hospital system, where the structure of care is fragmented and childbirth is under threat of increasing interventions. Research is needed on the role of education in supporting evidence-based practice, normal childbirth and reproductive health in the Icelandic context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 2D parallel interpenetration of [M2(bpp)4X4] [M, Fe(II)/Co(II); bpp, 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine; X, SCN-, SeCN- and N3-] complexes: Pseudohalide-dependent conformation of bpp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, Subal Chandra; Jana, Atish Dipankar; Rosair, Georgina M.; Drew, Michael G.B.; Mostafa, Golam; Ray Chaudhuri, Nirmalendu

    2008-01-01

    Three coordination complexes of Co(II)/Fe(II) with 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine (bpp) and pseudohalides (SCN - , SeCN - and N 3 - ) have been synthesized. The complexes have been characterized by X-ray single crystal structure determination. They are isomorphous having 2D layers in which two independent wavy nets display parallel interwoven structures. Pseudohalide binds metal centers through N terminal and occupies the trans axial positions of the octahedral metal coordination environment. Pseudohalide remains pendant on both sides of the polymeric layer and help the stacking through hydrogen bonding. The conformation of bpp in the interpenetrated nets is observed to be dependent on the choice of pseudohalide. - Graphical abstract: Complexes of [M 2 (bpp) 4 X 4 ] [M, Fe(II)/Co(II); bpp, 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine; X, SCN - , SeCN - and N3 - ] have been synthesized. The structural analysis reveals undulated 2D network with (4,4) net topology adopting two different conformations of bpp alternately. Two such networks undergo parallel interpenetration. Pseudohalides are observed to help in stacking the interpenetrated nets through hydrogen bonding

  17. Early Cretaceous wedge extrusion in the Indo-Burma Range accretionary complex: implications for the Mesozoic subduction of Neotethys in SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Cai, Fulong; Sein, Kyaing; Naing, Soe

    2017-06-01

    The Indo-Burma Range (IBR) of Myanmar, the eastern extension of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Neotethyan belt of Tibet in China, contains mélanges with serpentinite, greenschist facies basalt, chert, sericite schist, silty slate and unmetamorphosed Triassic sandstone, mudstone and siltstone interbedded with chert in the east, and farther north high-pressure blueschist and eclogite blocks in the Naga Hills mélange. Our detailed mapping of the Mindat and Magwe sections in the middle IBR revealed a major 18 km antiformal isocline in a mélange in which greenschist facies rocks in the core decrease in grade eastwards and westwards symmetrically `outwards' to lower grade sericite schist and silty slate, and at the margins to unmetamorphosed sediments, and these metamorphic rocks are structurally repeated in small-scale imbricated thrust stacks. In the Mindat section the lower western boundary of the isoclinal mélange is a thrust on which the metamorphic rocks have been transported over unmetamorphosed sediments of the Triassic Pane Chaung Group, and the upper eastern boundary is a normal fault. These relations demonstrate that the IBR metamorphic rocks were exhumed by wedge extrusion in a subduction-generated accretionary complex. Along strike to the north in the Naga Hills is a comparable isoclinal mélange in which central eclogite lenses are succeeded `outwards' by layers of glaucophane schist and glaucophanite, and to lower grade greenschist facies sericite schist and slate towards the margins. In the Natchaung area (from west to east) unmetamorphosed Triassic sediments overlie quartzites, sericite schists, actinolite schists and meta-volcanic amphibolites derived from MORB-type basalt, which are in fault contact with peridotite. Olivine in the peridotite has undulatory extinction suggesting deformation at 600-700 °C, similar to the peak temperature of the amphibolite; these relations suggest generation in a metamorphic sole. The amphibolites have U/Pb zircon ages of 119

  18. The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant and breast cancer risk in Iceland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N Stacey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Most, if not all, of the cellular functions of the BRCA1 protein are mediated through heterodimeric complexes composed of BRCA1 and a related protein, BARD1. Some breast-cancer-associated BRCA1 missense mutations disrupt the function of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex. It is therefore pertinent to determine whether variants of BARD1 confer susceptibility to breast cancer. Recently, a missense BARD1 variant, Cys557Ser, was reported to be at increased frequencies in breast cancer families. We investigated the role of the BARD1 Cys557Ser variant in a population-based cohort of 1,090 Icelandic patients with invasive breast cancer and 703 controls. We then used a computerized genealogy of the Icelandic population to study the relationships between the Cys557Ser variant and familial clustering of breast cancer.The Cys557Ser allele was present at a frequency of 0.028 in patients with invasive breast cancer and 0.016 in controls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-3.01, p = 0.014. The alleleic frequency was 0.037 in a high-predisposition group of cases defined by having a family history of breast cancer, early onset of breast cancer, or multiple primary breast cancers (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.22-4.75, p = 0.015. Carriers of the common Icelandic BRCA2 999del5 mutation were found to have their risk of breast cancer further increased if they also carried the BARD1 variant: the frequency of the BARD1 variant allele was 0.047 (OR = 3.11, 95% CI 1.16-8.40, p = 0.046 in 999del5 carriers with breast cancer. This suggests that the lifetime probability of a BARD1 Cys557Ser/BRCA2 999del5 double carrier developing breast cancer could approach certainty. Cys557Ser carriers, with or without the BRCA2 mutation, had an increased risk of subsequent primary breast tumors after the first breast cancer diagnosis compared to non-carriers. Lobular and medullary breast carcinomas were overrepresented amongst Cys557Ser carriers. We found that an excess of ancestors

  19. Icelandic National Culture compared to National Cultures of 25 OECD member states using VSM94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svala Guðmundsdóttir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers such as Hofstede (2002 and House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman and Gupta, (2004 have defined well-known cultural clusters such as, Anglo, Germanic, and Nordic cultural clusters. However, Iceland was not incorporated in these studies and therefore the research question of this paper is: In relation to Hofstede´s five cultural dimensions where does Iceland differ in relation to 25 of the OECD member states using VSM94? A questionnaire was sent to students at the University of Iceland, School of Social Sciences by e-mail in October 2013. The five dimensions of national culture were measured using scales developed by Hofstede called VSM 94. The results indicated that Iceland differs considerably from nations such as Slovakia, Japan, India, Thailand and China, which were found high in PDI and the MAS dimension while Iceland was found to be high in IDV and low in PDI. When considering the 25 OECD countries, Iceland is more similar to the Anglo cluster, C3, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdon, Australia and United States than the Nordic cluster, C1 i.e. Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Iceland is similar to those countries in relation to high IDV, low PDI but differs in the dimensions MAS and UAI where Iceland scores higher.

  20. Holland in Iceland Revisited: An Emic Approach to Evaluating U.S. Vocational Interest Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong

    2010-01-01

    An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdottir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data…

  1. Development of Indigenous Basic Interest Scales: Re-Structuring the Icelandic Interest Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Eyjolfsdottir, Katrin Osk; Rounds, James

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation used an emic approach to develop a set of Icelandic indigenous basic interest scales. An indigenous item pool that is representative of the Icelandic labor market was administered to three samples (N = 1043, 1368, and 2218) of upper secondary and higher education students in two studies. A series of item level cluster and…

  2. Spring production of Calanus finmarchicus at the Iceland-Scotland Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Richardson, K.; Heath, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution and reproduction activity of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus were studied in the waters between Scotland and Iceland in April 1997 during the expected time of the animals' ascent to surface waters following diapause. Ascent was taking place on both sides of the Iceland-Scot...

  3. Report on a Survey Project in Iceland on the Use of Radiation Pasteurization of Various Seafoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannesson, G.; Dagbjartsson, B. [Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    1970-11-15

    A survey project on the irradiation preservation of seafoods, sponsored by the Government of Iceland, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Atomic Energy Commission has been carried out at the Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories. A summary of results obtained on Norway lobster tails, deep-sea shrimp and cod fish is given in this paper. (author)

  4. Iceland as a demonstrator for a transition to low carbon economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsson, Einar Jon; Stefansson, Hlynur; Finger, David Christian

    2017-04-01

    The energy supply in Iceland is quite unique, about 85% of the total primary energy is coming from renewable resources. Nevertheless, the ecological footprint of an average Icelander is with 6.5 worlds, one of the highest worldwide and the energy consumption per capita is about 7 times higher than the European average. Recent developments have shown that there is a great potential to reduce the footprint and develop towards low carbon economy. With its small population, well educated and governed society and clear system boundaries to the outside world, Iceland is a good research laboratory and an ideal demonstrator for a transition towards a low carbon economy. This presentation will outline how several innovative research projects at Reykjavik University could lead Iceland towards a sustainable and low carbon economy. The presentations will conclude with a visionary outlook how Iceland can become a demonstration nation towards a prosperous, low carbon and sustainable economy, helping stabilize global warming at an acceptable level.

  5. Strategic Complexity and Global Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oladottir, Asta Dis; Hobdari, Bersant; Papanastassiou, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of global expansion strategies of newcomer Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by focusing on Iceland, Israel and Ireland. We argue that newcomer MNCs from small open economies pursue complex global expansion strategies (CGES). We distinguish....... The empirical evidence suggests that newcomer MNCs move away from simplistic dualities in the formulation of their strategic choices towards more complex options as a means of maintaining and enhancing their global competitiveness....

  6. Is earthquake rate in south Iceland modified by seasonal loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, S.; Aoki, Y.; Drouin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Several temporarily varying processes have the potential of modifying the rate of earthquakes in the south Iceland seismic zone, one of the two most active seismic zones in Iceland. These include solid earth tides, seasonal meteorological effects and influence from passing weather systems, and variations in snow and glacier loads. In this study we investigate the influence these processes may have on crustal stresses and stressing rates in the seismic zone and assess whether they appear to be influencing the earthquake rate. While historical earthquakes in the south Iceland have preferentially occurred in early summer, this tendency is less clear for small earthquakes. The local earthquake catalogue (going back to 1991, magnitude of completeness M6+ earthquakes, which occurred in June 2000 and May 2008. Standard Reasenberg earthquake declustering or more involved model independent stochastic declustering algorithms are not capable of fully eliminating the aftershocks from the catalogue. We therefore inspected the catalogue for the time period before 2000 and it shows limited seasonal tendency in earthquake occurrence. Our preliminary results show no clear correlation between earthquake rates and short-term stressing variations induced from solid earth tides or passing storms. Seasonal meteorological effects also appear to be too small to influence the earthquake activity. Snow and glacier load variations induce significant vertical motions in the area with peak loading occurring in Spring (April-May) and maximum unloading in Fall (Sept.-Oct.). Early summer occurrence of historical earthquakes therefore correlates with early unloading rather than with the peak unloading or unloading rate, which appears to indicate limited influence of this seasonal process on the earthquake activity.

  7. The Last Glacial in Northern Iceland: geothermal and permafrost controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, A.; van Vliet-Lanoë, B.; Bourgeois, O.; Dauteuil, O.; Embry, J. C.; Guillou, H.; Schneider, J. L.

    2003-04-01

    This paper provides arguments for a multi-advance model of Weichselian glaciation-deglaciation of Northern Iceland considering the influence of the geothermal gradient and of the ice sheds on the different ice-stream outlets. This paper is based on morphological mapping , SPOT images analysis high resolution stratigraphy, palaeopedology, tephra petrography and Ar/K dating. The Last Glaciation Maximum has a limited extend in Northern Iceland, with cold-based characteristics, except in sectors of high thermal gradient which supported low profile ice streams, a main difference with MIS6. Ice sheet building started from MIS 5d with a limited extent. At MIS 5b the thickness of the ice is enough to enable the activity of the eastern hyalocastite ridge in the NVZ. The maximal extent is reached abruptly at the boundary stage 3/2, probably in relation with increased precipitation, with development of H3, followed by a drastic retreat, controlled by very low precipitation rate and cold-based glaciers. This period is responsible for long periglacial morphogenesis inland, on the nunataks and ice free areas, and for starved sedimentation on the shelf and in the fjords. From 17 ka or H2, precipitation rose again and a second maximal extent, the Fnjoskadalur Stadial, the so-called "Old Dryas", in retreat from the former one. The main deglaciation took place at the onset of the Bölling. A late glacial pulse of minimal intensity occurred with the Younger Dryas. The Pre-Boreal stadial is extremely limited in the North of Iceland in relation with the lower and colder conditions compared to the south coast inflenced by the Irminger current.

  8. Variation in the crustal structure across central Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhijun; Foulger, G. R.

    2001-04-01

    We determine the crustal structures beneath 12 broad-band seismic stations deployed in a swath across central Iceland along and around the ICEMELT explosion seismic profile by combining teleseismic receiver functions, surface wave dispersion curves and the waveforms of a large, local event in Iceland. By using teleseisms that approach from different backazimuths, we study lateral structural variability out of the line of the ICEMELT profile. Beneath Tertiary areas, the thickness of the upper crust, as defined by the 6.5kms-1 velocity horizon, is ~8km and the depth to the base of the lower crust, as defined by the 7.2kms-1 velocity horizon, is ~29-32km. Beneath the currently active rift zone the upper crust thins to ~6.0km and the depth to the base of the lower crust increases to ~35-40km. A substantial low-velocity zone underlies the Middle Volcanic Zone in the lower crust, which may indicate anomalously high geothermal gradients there. This suggests that the large-scale thermal centre of the hotspot may be more westerly than northwest Vatnajokull, where it is generally assumed to lie. Simplified description of the results notwithstanding, there is substantial variability in the overall style of crustal structure throughout Iceland, and a clear, tripartite division into upper and lower crusts and a sharp Moho is poorly supported by many of our results. The nature, distinctiveness and continuity of the Moho is variable and in many areas the crust-mantle transition is a zone with enhanced velocity gradients several kilometres thick.

  9. [Fluctuations in unemployment and disability in Iceland 1992-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, Sigurdur; Olafsson, Stefán

    2008-03-01

    To examine and explain the effect of unemployment on the number of disability pensioners in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2006. Information on gender and place of residence of new recipients of disability pension in Iceland and corresponding information on unemployment for each year in the period 1992 to 2006. The variables were correlated and disaggregated by gender and regions within Iceland. Two big fluctuations occurred in the rate of new disability pension receivers during the study period, with significant increases in disability from 1993 to 1995 and again from 2003 onwards. Both of these fluctuations are associated with considerable increases in the unemployment rate. The extent of new disability pensioners declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same relative extent. In the upswing from 2003 a delay of about a year in the increase of disability pensioners' numbers, following the rise in unemployment rate, became more prominent and the overall rate of new disability pensioners reached new highs. The relationship applies equally to the capital area as well as the provincial areas as a whole. There is though a small deviation in three of the seven provincial areas, with less decline of the disability rate on the downswing. Health and capability condition determine the overall disability rate, but fluctuations over time are related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The features of the welfare system, especially the benefit and rehabilitation system, as well as the extent and character of activation measures in the labour market also influence the number of disability pensioners. A new method of disability assessment from late 1999 may have had some influence on the relationship during the latter part of the period and increasing applications from people with mental and psychiatric deficiencies seems to have had a significant influence on

  10. Money Talks: Gender Budgeting in the University of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnborg S. Jónasdóttir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the financial framework, decision-making and budgeting processes of the University of Iceland from a gender perspective. The newly appointed rector of the University of Iceland (elected 2015 together with the university council is currently revising the UI system of the distribution formula of budget allocation. This provides an opportunity to examine the system which is inspired by New Public Management, with emphasis on global competition and performance based indicators. The aim of the article is to scrutinize the current system of budget allocation and distribution and its significance when it comes to gender. We ask how the, allegedly gender neutral, system plays out for different schools and disciplines and for academics in different ranks, when the gender dimension is taken into account. We draw on empirical data collected as part of the GARCIA research project, Gendering the Academy and Research combating Career Instability and Asymmetries, which is supported by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union. To shed a light on the process we focus on the male-dominated School of Engineering and Natural Sciences (SENS and the more feminised School of Social Sciences (SSS. The exploration shows that the financial framework, decision-making and budgeting processes at the University of Iceland are rather non-transparent, and biased in favour of the natural sciences. This applies to funding from the state; third party funding; the allocation of funding in the teaching part of the budgeting, as well as the research part. From the article it can be concluded that the current system contains an internal, though unintended, gender bias that needs to be corrected.

  11. Volcanic systems of Iceland and their magma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir

    2017-04-01

    Several active hot-spot volcanoes produce magma from mantle sources which composition varies on decadal time scale. This is probably best demonstrated by the recent work of Pietruszka and collaborators on Kilauea, Hawaii. In marked contrast, basalt lavas from volcanic system in Iceland located above the presumed centre of the Iceland mantle plume have uniform isotope composition over the last 10 thousand years. Volcanic systems are composed of a central volcano and a fissure swarm, or a combination of both and they represent a fundamental component of the neovolcanic zones in Iceland. Four such systems, those of Askja, Bárðarbunga, Kverkfjöll and Grímsvötn in central Iceland were chosen for investigation. The last three have central volcanoes covered by the Vatnajökull ice-sheet whereas part of their fissure swarms is ice-free. Tephra produced during subglacial eruptions together with lavas from the fissure swarms of Holocene age have been collected and analysed for Sr, Nd and Th isotope ratios. Those volcanic formations that can be univocally correlated to a given volcanic system display uniform isotope ratio but different from one volcanic system to another. An exception to this regularity is that Askja products have isotope ratios indistinguishable from those of Gímsvötn, but since these volcanic systems lies far apart their lava fields do not overlap. A practical aspect of these findings was demonstrated during the rifting event of Bárðarbunga and fissure eruption forming the Holuhraun lava field. Relatively low, O isotope ratios in these basalts and heterogeneous macrocrystal composition have been ascribed to important metabasaltic crustal contamination with or without crystal mush recycling. In that case a surprisingly efficient magma mixing and melt homogenization must have occurred in the past beneath the volcanic systems. One possibility is that during the rapid deglaciation much mantle melting occurred and melts accumulated at the mantle

  12. Semi-supervised morphosyntactic classification of Old Icelandic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Kryztof; Tangherlini, Timothy R; Vijūnas, Aurelijus; Broadwell, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    We present IceMorph, a semi-supervised morphosyntactic analyzer of Old Icelandic. In addition to machine-read corpora and dictionaries, it applies a small set of declension prototypes to map corpus words to dictionary entries. A web-based GUI allows expert users to modify and augment data through an online process. A machine learning module incorporates prototype data, edit-distance metrics, and expert feedback to continuously update part-of-speech and morphosyntactic classification. An advantage of the analyzer is its ability to achieve competitive classification accuracy with minimum training data.

  13. Family counts: deciding when to murder among the Icelandic Vikings

    OpenAIRE

    Palmstierna, Markel; Frangou, Anna; Wallette, Anna; Dunbar, Robin

    2017-01-01

    In small scale societies, lethal attacks on another individual usually invite revenge by the victim's family. We might expect those who perpetrate such attacks to do so only when their own support network (mainly family) is larger than that of the potential victim so as to minimise the risk of retaliation. Using data from Icelandic family sagas, we show that this prediction holds whether we consider biological kin or affinal kin (in-laws): on average, killers had twice as many relatives as th...

  14. New voices in Iceland young adults with disabilities in Iceland: The importance of relationships and natural supports

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason, Dóra S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with young adults’ perspectives and experiences of growing up with a variety of impairments in Iceland, and how they impact the young disabled adults’ approach to the status of adulthood. The paper is based on a qualitative study that explored perspectives and experiences of 36 young disabled adults (16–24 years old), their parents, friends and teachers. The purpose of this paper is to share themes related to the way that choices made by and for disabled children and young pe...

  15. Food appearances in children's television programmes in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Berg, Christina

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to advertisements cannot fully explain the associations between young children's dietary intake and the time they spend in front of the television. It is therefore of importance to study television content other than advertisements in this aspect. The present study aimed to examine the nature and extent of verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages in children's television programmes on Icelandic public service television. A total of 27 h of children's programmes (domestic and internationally produced) were watched. All verbal and visual appearances of foods and beverages were coded, as well as the context in which the foods/beverages were discussed or appeared. Children's programmes on Icelandic public service television. Two food groups were of special interest for their importance from a public health perspective: high-calorie and low-nutrient (HCLN) foods and fruits and vegetables (F&V). The χ 2 test and logistic regression were performed to analyse if the occurrence of the two groups was associated with the context where foods/beverages appeared. Of the 125 different programmes, a food or beverage appeared in 86 %. Of the total food appearances (n 599), HCLN foods accounted for 26 % and F&V for 23 %. HCLN foods were presented as desirable by appearing more frequently with child characters (Pfood and eating is presented in children's programmes, as young childhood is a critical period for founding healthy habits for later life.

  16. Changes in groundwater chemistry before two consecutive earthquakes in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Skelton, Alasdair

    2014-09-21

    Groundwater chemistry has been observed to change before earthquakes and is proposed as a precursor signal. Such changes include variations in radon count rates1, 2, concentrations of dissolved elements3, 4, 5 and stable isotope ratios4, 5. Changes in seismic wave velocities6, water levels in boreholes7, micro-seismicity8 and shear wave splitting9 are also thought to precede earthquakes. Precursor activity has been attributed to expansion of rock volume7, 10, 11. However, most studies of precursory phenomena lack sufficient data to rule out other explanations unrelated to earthquakes12. For example, reproducibility of a precursor signal has seldom been shown and few precursors have been evaluated statistically. Here we analyse the stable isotope ratios and dissolved element concentrations of groundwater taken from a borehole in northern Iceland between 2008 and 2013. We find that the chemistry of the groundwater changed four to six months before two greater than magnitude 5 earthquakes that occurred in October 2012 and April 2013. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in groundwater chemistry were associated with the earthquakes. We suggest that the changes were caused by crustal dilation associated with stress build-up before each earthquake, which caused different groundwater components to mix. Although the changes we detect are specific for the site in Iceland, we infer that similar processes may be active elsewhere, and that groundwater chemistry is a promising target for future studies on the predictability of earthquakes.

  17. Icelandic media firms viewed from the perspective of agency theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guðbjörg Hildur Kolbeins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been proposed that agency theory (principal-agent approach might be applied to media organizations to understand how media owners make sure that their companies are managed according to their wishes. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate: a whether agency theory is applicable to three Icelandic media companies, and b how the theory manifests itself in the management practices of these companies. The media companies that were examined were: the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RÚV ohf., 365 miðlar ehf. and Árvakur hf. Qualitative interviews were conducted with three editors-in-chief, two CEOs/publishers, the director general of RÚV and the news director of RÚV in May of 2012. Two of the interviewees were also part- owners of the media companies. The results indicated that it is, indeed, possible to analyze management practices of media organizations from the perspective of agency theory. However, it varies how much the companies are driven by profit maximization, for instance – on which agency theory places an optimum emphasis. The media house 365 miðlar ehf. turned out to be the best example of how the underlying constructs of agency theory are incorporated into the management practices of a media organization.

  18. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru......BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using...... an interrupted time series design that contrasts the monthly sales data for over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine before and after the legislation took effect. RESULTS: The total use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine as well as those containing paracetamol and codeine has risen...... leads to irrational use of over-the-counter medicines is not substantiated in the case of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  19. Changes in groundwater chemistry before two consecutive earthquakes in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Skelton, Alasdair; André n, Margareta; Kristmannsdó ttir, Hrefna; Stockmann, Gabrielle; Mö rth, Carl-Magnus; Sveinbjö rnsdó ttir, Á rny; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Sturkell, Erik; Guð rú nardó ttir, Helga Rakel; Hjartarson, Hreinn; Siegmund, Heike; Kockum, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater chemistry has been observed to change before earthquakes and is proposed as a precursor signal. Such changes include variations in radon count rates1, 2, concentrations of dissolved elements3, 4, 5 and stable isotope ratios4, 5. Changes in seismic wave velocities6, water levels in boreholes7, micro-seismicity8 and shear wave splitting9 are also thought to precede earthquakes. Precursor activity has been attributed to expansion of rock volume7, 10, 11. However, most studies of precursory phenomena lack sufficient data to rule out other explanations unrelated to earthquakes12. For example, reproducibility of a precursor signal has seldom been shown and few precursors have been evaluated statistically. Here we analyse the stable isotope ratios and dissolved element concentrations of groundwater taken from a borehole in northern Iceland between 2008 and 2013. We find that the chemistry of the groundwater changed four to six months before two greater than magnitude 5 earthquakes that occurred in October 2012 and April 2013. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in groundwater chemistry were associated with the earthquakes. We suggest that the changes were caused by crustal dilation associated with stress build-up before each earthquake, which caused different groundwater components to mix. Although the changes we detect are specific for the site in Iceland, we infer that similar processes may be active elsewhere, and that groundwater chemistry is a promising target for future studies on the predictability of earthquakes.

  20. Resource Use in Small Island States: Material Flows in Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago, 1961-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Richter, Regina; Eisenmenger, Nina

    2014-04-01

    Iceland and Trinidad and Tobago are small open, high-income island economies with very specific resource-use patterns. This article presents a material flow analysis (MFA) for the two countries covering a time period of nearly five decades. Both countries have a narrow domestic resource base, their economy being largely based on the exploitation of one or two key resources for export production. In the case of Trinidad and Tobago, the physical economy is dominated by oil and natural gas extraction and petrochemical industries, whereas Iceland's economy for centuries has been based on fisheries. More recently, abundant hydropower and geothermal heat were the basis for the establishment of large export-oriented metal processing industries, which fully depend on imported raw materials and make use of domestic renewable electricity. Both countries are highly dependent on these natural resources and vulnerable to overexploitation and price developments. We show how the export-oriented industries lead to high and growing levels of per capita material and energy use and carbon dioxide emissions resulting from large amounts of processing wastes and energy consumption in production processes. The example of small open economies with an industrial production system focused on few, but abundant, key resources and of comparatively low complexity provides interesting insights of how resource endowment paired with availability or absence of infrastructure and specific institutional arrangements drives domestic resource-use patterns. This also contributes to a better understanding and interpretation of MFA indicators, such as domestic material consumption.

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  2. Biosonar, diving and movements of two tagged white-beaked dolphin in Icelandic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne H.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    For the first time bio-logging tags were attached to free-ranging white-beaked dolphins, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. A satellite tag was attached to one animal while an acoustic A-tag, a time-depth recorder and a VHF transmitter complex was attached to a second dolphin with a suction cup....... The satellite tag transmitted for 201 days, during which time the dolphin stayed in the coastal waters of western Iceland. The acoustic tag complex was on the second animal for 13 hours and 40 minutes and provided the first insight in echolocation behaviour of a free-ranging white-beaked dolphin. The tag...... registered 162 dives. The dolphin dove to a maximum depth of 45 m, which is about the depth of the bay in which the dolphin was swimming. Two basic types of dives were identified; U-shaped and V-shaped dives. The dolphin used more time in U-shaped dives, more clicks and sonar signals with shorter click...

  3. Geophysical Observations Supporting Research of Magmatic Processes at Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín. S.; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Roberts, Matthew J.

    2010-05-01

    Magmatic processes at volcanoes on the boundary between the European and North American plates in Iceland are observed with in-situ multidisciplinary geophysical networks owned by different national, European or American universities and research institutions, but through collaboration mostly operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. The terrestrial observations are augmented by space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images of the volcanoes and their surrounding surface. Together this infrastructure can monitor magma movements in several volcanoes from the base of the crust up to the surface. The national seismic network is sensitive enough to detect small scale seismicity deep in the crust under some of the voclanoes. High resolution mapping of this seismicity and its temporal progression has been used to delineate the track of the magma as it migrates upwards in the crust, either to form an intrusion at shallow levels or to reach the surface in an eruption. Broadband recording has also enabled capturing low frequency signals emanating from magmatic movements. In two volcanoes, Eyjafjallajökull and Katla, just east of the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), seismicity just above the crust-mantle boundary has revealed magma intruding into the crust from the mantle below. As the magma moves to shallower levels, the deformation of the Earth‘s surface is captured by geodetic systems, such as continuous GPS networks, (InSAR) images of the surface and -- even more sensitive to the deformation -- strain meters placed in boreholes around 200 m below the Earth‘s surface. Analysis of these signals can reveal the size and shape of the magma as well as the temporal evolution. At near-by Hekla volcano flanking the SISZ to the north, where only 50% of events are of M>1 compared to 86% of earthquakes in Eyjafjallajökull, the sensitivity of the seismic network is insufficient to detect the smallest seismicity and so the volcano appears less

  4. Investigations of Very High Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2012-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal reservoirs. Earlier modeling indicates that the power output of a geothermal well producing from a supercritical reservoir could potentially be an order of magnitude greater than that from a conventional hot geothermal reservoir, at the same volumetric flow rate. However, even in areas with an unusually high geothermal gradient, for normal hydrostatic pressure gradients reaching supercritical temperatures and pressures will require drilling to depths >4 km. In 2009 the IDDP attempted to drill the first deep supercritical well, IDDP-01, in the caldera of the Krafla volcano, in NE Iceland. However drilling had to be terminated at only 2.1 km depth when ~900°C rhyolite magma flowed into the well. Our studies indicate that this magma formed by partial melting of hydrothermally altered basalts within the Krafla caldera. Although this well was too shallow to reach supercritical pressures, it is highly productive, and is estimated to be capable of generating up to 36 MWe from the high-pressure, superheated steam produced from the upper contact zone of the intrusion. With a well-head temperature of ~440°C, it is at present apparently the hottest producing geothermal well in the world. A pilot plant is investigating the optimal utilization of this magmatically heated resource. A special issue of the journal Geothermics with 16 papers reporting on the IDDP-01 is in preparation. However, in order to continue the search for supercritical geothermal resources, planning is underway to drill a 4.5 km deep well at Reykjanes in SW Iceland in 2013-14. Although drilling deeper towards the heat source of this already developed high-temperature geothermal field will be more expensive, if a supercritical resource is found, this cost increase should be offset by the considerable increase in the power output and lifetime of the Reykjanes geothermal

  5. The Role of Business Schools in Ethics Education in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Vaiman, Vlad; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    2014-01-01

    should not be held responsible for employees’ unethical behavior. Nevertheless, managers believe that business schools should assist future employees in understanding ethics by including business ethics in teaching curricula. Second, managers believe that the workplace is not where ethics are learned......This article explores managers’ views on various ways in which business schools can contribute to providing solid ethics education to their students, who will ultimately become the next generation of business leaders. One thousand top level managers of Icelandic firms were approached and asked......, while also insisting that former students should already have strong ethical standards when entering the workplace. Third, managers call for business schools not only to contribute more to influencing students’ ethical standards, but also to reshape the knowledge and capabilities of practicing managers...

  6. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...... to a standardised handling procedure whereas controls (n = 12) remained untrained. Behavioural and heart rate responses in a novel object test and 2 handling fear tests (HFTs) were measured. The HFTs were conducted with both an unknown (HFT-unknown) and a known handler (HFT-known). Results There was no effect...... correlated significantly between tests. Conclusions Previous handling may affect the behavioural fear response of horses when handled by their usual handler, whereas this effect did not apply to an unknown handler. Heart rates appeared unaffected by handling and may be a more reliable indicator...

  7. Inflection of modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives and adverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a list of Modern Icelandic nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, analysed into their respective stems and endings; the declension of the suffixed definite article is also included. Under each item it is stated which rules, if any, apply in the derivation of its grammatical forms. The following items of the list should be consulted for new phonological rules: (3, (11, (12, and (133. A grammatical innovation has been implemented in the list, namely the so-called REPLACING ENDINGS. These are not added after the last segment of the stem, as endings usually are, but replace the last segment(s of the stem. More is said on replacing endings in the Introduction.

  8. Fractionation of boron isotopes in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive δ 1 1B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive δ 1 1B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to absorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  9. A Saga for Dinner: Landscape and Nationality in Icelandic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Hennig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iceland’s attempted industrialisation through an expansion of hydropower andaluminium smelters can lead to a significant reshaping of the country’slandscapes. There has been considerable resistance against such plans since the1970s, culminating in the debate about the Kárahnjúkar project between 2001and 2006. The book Draumalandið. Sjálfshjálparbók handa hræddri þjóð[Dreamland. A Self-Help Manual for a Frightened Nation] by the writer AndriSnær Magnason has been particularly influential. It combines ecologicalconsciousness with an appreciation of Iceland‘s literary tradition and history.Thus it displays a view of landscape which connects nature preservation closelyto cultural achievements and to national sovereignty. This perception oflandscape originates from the assumption that Iceland experienced a golden agefrom the beginning of colonisation in the Viking age until the subordinationunder the Norwegian and later Danish kings in the 13th century, which led to anall-embracing degeneration. Nationalist poets such as Jónas Hallgrímsson inthe 19th century based their demands for independence on Iceland‘s medievalsaga literature and the country‘s landscapes. These seemed to provide evidencefor a high culture in unity with nature during the time of the Commonwealth.Although the historical reliability of the sagas is doubtful, they are still used asan important argument in Draumalandið. Now the narratives as such are put inthe foreground, as they can give value and meaning to the landscapes and placesthey describe. Thus a turn from a realistic to a more constructivist perception oflandscape can be observed in contemporary Icelandic environmental literature.

  10. Climate-driven vertical acceleration of Icelandic crust measured by continuous GPS geodesy

    KAUST Repository

    Compton, Kathleen; Bennett, Richard A.; Hreinsdó ttir, Sigrú n

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Earth's present-day response to enhanced glacial melting resulting from climate change can be measured using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. We present data from 62 continuously operating GPS instruments in Iceland. Statistically significant upward velocity and accelerations are recorded at 27 GPS stations, predominantly located in the Central Highlands region of Iceland, where present-day thinning of the Iceland ice caps results in velocities of more than 30mm/yr and uplift accelerations of 1-2mm/yr2. We use our acceleration estimates to back calculate to a time of zero velocity, which coincides with the initiation of ice loss in Iceland from ice mass balance calculations and Arctic warming trends. We show, through a simple inversion, a direct relationship between ice mass balance measurements and vertical position and show that accelerated unloading is required to reproduce uplift observations for a simple elastic layer over viscoelastic half-space model.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M...

  12. Guðrún Johnsen: Bringing Down the Banking System: Lessons from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Conrad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the myths that have been spun not only on the causes of the crisis, but maybe more importantly on the democratic awakening in Icelandic society in the aftermath, it is evident that a much broader audience – especially outside Iceland – should have a keen interest in understanding the political and societal climate that facilitated the emergence of the phenomenon that has also been termed "Viking Capitalism".

  13. The association between lifting an administrative restriction on antidepressant dispensing and treatment patterns in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thengilsdottir, G; Gardarsdottir, H; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2013-01-01

    On March 1st 2009, restrictions on the dispensing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in Iceland were lifted. Incident rates and changes in early discontinuation and switching before and after the change were investigated.......On March 1st 2009, restrictions on the dispensing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) in Iceland were lifted. Incident rates and changes in early discontinuation and switching before and after the change were investigated....

  14. Weathering The Storm – Icelandic Municipalities’ Handling of an Unprecedented Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnús Árni Skjöld MAGNÚSSON

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within a few days in October 2008, following serious turmoil on financial markets worldwide, some 85% of the Icelandic banking sector collapsed, together with the Icelandic currency, the króna. Almost all the rest followed early in 2009. The Icelandic stock market took a nosedive. The Republic of Iceland had entered the worst economic crisis of its history. Icelandic municipalities, which had taken on an increasing burden of running the welfare state, were hard hit financially, without the ability of the state to help out. In fact, some of the post-crisis actions of the state, under IMF direction, were difficult for the municipalities. It did not make things easier that the crisis had been precluded by an unprecedented period of growth, encouraging the municipalities to borrow in international markets and invest in infrastructure that turned out to be superfluous in the post-crisis period. This paper will look at the reactions of the Icelandic municipalities to the crisis, the political implications of it, where they are now and if there are lessons that can be learned from the difficult years in the last decade.

  15. Fingerprinting North Atlantic water masses near Iceland using Nd-isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Norbert [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, INF229, Heidelberg (Germany); Waldner, Astrid [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Montagna, Paolo [CNR - ISMAR, Bologna (Italy); Colin, Christophe [IDES, Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Wu, Qiong [State Key Laboratory, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-07-01

    The radiogenic {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio of seawater is a valuable tracer of north Atlantic circulation pathways, driven by continental runoff (freshwater and Aeolian dust), boundary exchange and advection and thus mixing patterns. A region of particular interest in the North Atlantic is the overflow across the Iceland-Scotland Ridge injecting water from the Arctic Ocean into the Iceland basin (Iceland Scotland Overflow Water). However, Iceland itself constitutes a local source for Nd due to possible leaching of young volcanic basalts adding radiogenic {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd to seawater. We have conducted an intense survey of physical properties and Nd-isotope composition between Iceland and the Azores that allows to fingerprint different water masses of the North Atlantic through the {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratio and that demonstrates the very local influence of volcanic material to the seawater Nd cycle. A first local transect is achieved from the open ocean to the outflow of the Vatnajoekull glacier. Runoff influences seawater Nd in close vicinity (< 40 km near the outflow). A along shelf transect provide a similar observation. From Iceland to the Azores, however, water masses of the sub-tropical and sub-polar gyre are clearly distinguishable.

  16. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preferences, power and policy outcomes in public policy in Iceland: The Icelandic Housing Fund fiasco 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurbjörg Sigurgeirsdóttir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the interplay of politics, bureaucracies and markets in Iceland. It aims to explain theoretically how politics and bureaucracies operate when a coalition government makes and implements decisions in a policy environment in which decisions and their effects intersect public bureaucracies’ and markets’ boundaries. The decision to raise the limits of Housing Fund mortgages in 2003 is a case examined by agenda-setting theories in public policy. The research is based on the data from parliamentary Special Investigation reports on the collapse of the Icelandic banks and the Housing Fund as well as the author’s interviews home and abroad. The research shows that, when made, the decision ignited competition between the Housing Fund and the recently privatized banks and that between the banks themselves. The Independence Party’s attempts to delay implementation of the decision involved system change backed by an instrument designed to stem a run on the Fund. The impact of this instrument (a tax on pre-payments was incompatible with the Progressive Party’s political interests. In a hasty attempt to implement its election promises, the Progressive Party ignored the fact that the Fund was operating within a transformed financial system. The conclusions indicate that those who think long-term in politics make policies by changing system dynamics, those who think short-term change programmes. System dynamics, however, change the balance of power and influence between actors, leaving legacies which curb the government’s attempt at change, unless consolidated and sustained political authority and will are established to see changes through.

  18. Understanding the fate of iron in a modern temperate estuary: Leirarvogur, Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Gemma M.; Worden, Richard H.; Hodgson, David M.; Polya, David A.; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Barrie, Craig D.; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fluvial Fe (aq) and Fe (total) concentrations drop upon mixing with seawater in estuaries. → The majority of Fe in estuaries is lost in the bay-head delta. → Our results suggest that the bay-head delta is a key location in Fe-mineral formation. → Isotopic variation in estuarine waters may play a role in the formation of Fe-minerals. - Abstract: Fluvial dissolved Fe concentrations decrease upon mixing with seawater, resulting in the formation of Fe-floccules. However, a clear understanding of the fate of these floccules has yet to be established. Assessing how tidal processes affect the formation of Fe-colloids in the Leirarvogur estuary, SW Iceland, is an important step in understanding the formation and potential deposition of estuarine Fe-rich minerals within this estuarine system. The Leirarvogur estuary drains predominately Fe-rich basalt, increasing the likelihood of detecting changes in Fe-phases. Fluvial waters and local lake waters that drain into the estuary were compared and the effects of seasonal changes were considered, in an attempt to understand how varying end-members and external factors play a role in Fe-rich mineral formation. Aqueous and colloidal Fe concentrations were found to be greater towards the head of the Leirarvogur estuary, suggesting that potential Fe-rich minerals and complexes are forming at sites of fluvial input. Increasing suspended colloidal Fe towards the estuary mouth suggests that Fe-colloids are readily transported seaward.

  19. The Political Economy of Joining the European Union : Iceland's Position at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Iceland can consider its participation in the European Economic Area (EEA) as an associate membership of the European Union (EU). Under the EEA agreement, Iceland participates in the EU free movement of capital, persons, services and industrial goods, along with cooperation in social policy and related fields. However, Iceland does not participate in the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), or in the EU Cust...

  20. Stream hydraulics and temperature determine the metabolism of geothermal Icelandic streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demars B. O.L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystem metabolism plays a critical role in planetary biogeochemical cycling. Stream benthic habitat complexity and the available surface area for microbes relative to the free-flowing water volume are thought to be important determinants of ecosystem metabolism. Unfortunately, the engineered deepening and straightening of streams for drainage purposes could compromise stream natural services. Stream channel complexity may be quantitatively expressed with hydraulic parameters such as water transient storage, storage residence time, and water spiralling length. The temperature dependence of whole stream ecosystem respiration (ER, gross primary productivity (GPP and net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP − ER has recently been evaluated with a “natural experiment” in Icelandic geothermal streams along a 5–25 °C temperature gradient. There remained, however, a substantial amount of unexplained variability in the statistical models, which may be explained by hydraulic parameters found to be unrelated to temperature. We also specifically tested the additional and predicted synergistic effects of water transient storage and temperature on ER, using novel, more accurate, methods. Both ER and GPP were highly related to water transient storage (or water spiralling length but not to the storage residence time. While there was an additional effect of water transient storage and temperature on ER (r2 = 0.57; P = 0.015, GPP was more related to water transient storage than temperature. The predicted synergistic effect could not be confirmed, most likely due to data limitation. Our interpretation, based on causal statistical modelling, is that the metabolic balance of streams (NEP was primarily determined by the temperature dependence of respiration. Further field and experimental work is required to test the predicted synergistic effect on ER. Meanwhile, since higher metabolic activities allow for higher pollutant degradation or uptake

  1. Human induced impacts on soil organic carbon in southwest Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Erlendsson, Egill; Lal, Rattan

    2013-04-01

    The Icelandic environment has been strongly influenced by natural processes during the Holocene. Since settlement in AD 874, the introduction of grazing animals and other land use has drastically affected the natural environment. This includes the diminishing of vegetative cover, which has led to soil exposure and accelerated erosion over large areas, especially when in conjunction with harsh climate. This has specifically impacted processes and properties of volcanic soils (Andosols), which are subject to accelerated erosion by wind and water. While approximately 46% of the land surface in Iceland has sustained continuous vegetation cover, large areas have lost some or all of their soil cover formed during the postglacial era. Elsewhere, remaining soils have sparse or no vegetation cover, thus impairing soil carbon (C) sequestration. Among their multifunctional roles, soils support plant growth, increase soil biotic activity, enhance nutrient storage and strengthen the cycling of water and nutrients. In contrast, soil degradation by accelerated erosion and other processes impairs soil quality, reduces soil structure and depletes the soil organic matter (SOM) pool. Depletion of the SOM pool has also global implications because the terrestrial C pool is the third largest pool and strongly impacts the global C cycle. Erosional-depositional processes may deplete soil organic C (SOC) by erosion and increase by deposition. Some SOC-enriched sediments are redistributed over the landscape, while others are deposited in depression sites and transported into aquatic ecosystems. SOC decomposition processes are severely constrained in some environmental settings and any SOC buried under anaerobic conditions is protected against decomposition. Yet, the impact of the SOC transported by erosional processes and redistributed over the landscape is not fully understood because the variability in its turnover characteristics has not been widely studied. Thus, the fate of C

  2. COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii

    2014-05-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the

  3. Palaeogene to Early Miocene sedimentary history of the Sierra Espuña (Malaguide complex, internal zone of the Betic cordilleras, SE Spain. Evidence for extra-Malaguide (Sardinian? provenance of oligocene conglomerates: Palaeogeographic implications

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    Geel, T.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra Espuña is situated at the northern edge of the Internal Zone in the eastern Betic Cordilleras and is part of the unmetamorphosed Malaguide Complex. Palaeontological and sedimentological analysis of the Eocene to Aquitanian sediments on the northwest side of the Espuña yielded unexpected new information of importance for the reconstruction of the history of the Espuña itself and the Malaguides in general. The socalled Upper Eocene (Auversian rocks are of Early Oligocene (P20 age and contain supermature detritus derived from outside the Malaguide realm. The hundreds of meters thick limestone conglomerate formation of the Espuña is of Middle Oligocene (P21 age and represents a backstepping fan delta complex at the margin of a carbonate platform situated to the northeast of the Espuña. Analysis of the clasts suggests that this platform was a part of the north Sardinian block given the majority of fragments of Upper Jurassic sheltered inner platform (Clypeina-Trocholina limestones and dolomites. Contrary to former views (Paquet, 1966; Lonergan, 1993, the conglomerates cannot be considered to be the erosional products of Malaguide imbricated units. Therefore, one of the main arguments for early (Late Eocene to Oligocene thrusting and nappe emplacement in the Espuña area is not valido Other arguments for early kinematics are discussed, among others the allegedly continuous sedimentation from the Late Eocene until the Langhian northwest of the Espuña. Our data indicate the existence of a stratigraphic gap, comprising the middle Aquitanian to middle Burdigalian. A new model for the development of the Espuña within the Malaguide realm during the Palaeogene to Early Miocene is presented. Main thrusting and nappe emplacement is thought to have been taken place during the late Aquitanian. Finally, the recently proposed 2000 clockwise rotation of the Espuña as a coherent block during the Early to Middle Miocene (AlIerton el al., 1993 is

  4. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

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    G. V. Ingimundardóttir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963–1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis. Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum. Some species (especially Bryum spp. benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments

  5. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingimundardóttir, G. V.; Weibull, H.; Cronberg, N.

    2014-08-01

    The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963-1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis). Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata) while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum). Some species (especially Bryum spp.) benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments or dispersal agents

  6. Floating like a cork: The importance of glacial isostasy in the deglaciation progress in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norddahl, H.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2016-12-01

    Being positioned on top of a hotspot and between two spreading ocean plates explains rheological structure of Iceland and the properties of a 30-35 km thick lithosphere, possibly with high proportion of partial melt, on top of a low viscous asthenosphere below Iceland, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. Rapid variations in glacier loading on the Iceland crust have been proved to generate more or less an instantaneous depression or uplift of the crust and, thus, uphold both temporal and spacial glacio-isostatic equilibrium. Formation of a shoreline requires at least temporal equilibrium between glacial isostasy and eustasy. Eminent raised shorelines - found throughout Iceland - were formed during two separate but consecutive culmination of climatically induced glacier re-advance and consequent transgression of relative sea-level in Younger Dryas and Preboreal times (12.0 and 11.3 kcal BP). A Marine Limit shoreline in W Iceland was formed at 14.7 kcal BP, subsequent to a collapse-like retreat of the marine based part of the Icelandic Ice Sheet (IIS) and just prior to the onset of the Bølling warming, i.e. during a period of anticipated rapid isostatic uplift. A temporary glacio-isostatic equilibrium at that time is best explained by changes in the mode of deglaciation generating dynamic changes within the Ice Sheet itself, changes that resulted in reduced rates of mass-loss and glacio-isostatic uplift to such a degree that a temporal quasi-equilibrium between eustatic rise and isostatic uplift was established. Formation of well-developed raised shoreline is generally regarded as a deglaciation proxy signaling large ice volume changes. Formation of the ML shoreline in W Iceland during the rapid climatic improvement at the beginning of the Bølling/Allerød Interstadial underlines the importance of, beside the geological data, also to take into consideration physical properties of both the lithosphere and asthenosphere in each location.

  7. Iceland as the largest source of natural air pollution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Meinander, Outi; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur

    2017-04-01

    Arctic aerosols are often attributed to the Arctic Haze and long-range transport tracers. There is, however, an important dust source in the Arctic/Sub-arctic region which should receive more attention. The largest desert in the Arctic as well as in the Europe is Iceland with > 40,000 km2 of desert areas. The mean dust suspension frequency was 135 dust days annually in 1949-2012 with decreasing numbers in 2013-2015. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31-40 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling > 1000 km at times. The physical properties of Icelandic dust showed differences in mineralogy, geochemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and colour, compared to the crustal mineral dust. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin, dark in colour with sharp-tipped shards and large bubbles. About 80% of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals, such as iron and titanium. Suspended dust measured at the glacial dust source consisted of such high number of close-to-ultrafine particles as concentrations during active eruptions. Generally, about 50% of the suspended PM10 are submicron particles in Iceland. Contrarily, suspended grains > 2 mm were captured during severe dust storm after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption when the aeolian transport exceeded 11 t m-1 of materials and placed this storms among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Our reflectance measurements showed that Icelandic dust deposited on snow lowers the snow albedo and reduces the snow density as much as Black Carbon. Icelandic volcanic dust tends to act as a positive climate forcing agent, both directly and indirectly, which is different to what generally concluded for crustal dust in the 2013 IPCC report. The high frequency, severity and year-round activity of volcanic dust emissions suggest that Icelandic dust may contribute to Arctic warming.

  8. [Lung volume reduction surgery for severe pulmonary emphysema in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir I; Johannsson, Kristinn B; Guðjónsdóttir, Marta; Jónsson, Steinn; Beck, Hans J; Magnusson, Bjorn; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) can benefit patients with severe emphysema. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of LVRS performed in Iceland. A prospective study of 16 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral LVRS through median sternotomy between January 1996 and December 2008. All patients had disabling dyspnea, lung hyperinflation, and emphysema with upper lobe predominance. Preoperatively all patients underwent pulmonary rehabilitation. Spirometry, lung volumes, arterial blood gases and exercise capacity were measured before and after surgery. Mean follow-up time was 8.7 years. Mean age was 59.2 ± 5.9 years. All patients had a history of heavy smoking. There was no perioperative mortality and survival was 100%, 93%, and 63% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the forced vital capacity (FVC) improved significantly after surgery by 35% (plung capacity, residual volume and partial pressure of CO2 also showed statistically significant improvements but exercise capacity, O2 consumption and diffusing capacity of the lung for CO did not change. Prolonged air leak (≥ 7 days) was the most common complication (n=7). Five patients required reoperation, most commonly for sternal dehiscence (n=4). In this small prospective study, FEV1 and FVC increased and lung volumes and PaCO2 improved after LVRS. Long term survival was satisfactory although complications such as reoperations for sternal dehiscence were common and hospital stay therefore often prolonged.

  9. Cultivating Communication: Participatory Approaches in Land Restoration in Iceland

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    Brita Berglund

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Staff of environmental agencies, however, often lack training in communication and in conducting participatory processes. Their interpretation of "participation" is of interest because interpretation affects how participation is practiced. We explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland and how the interpretation affected how participation was carried out in two land restoration projects. Our methods included semi-structured interviews with agency staff and involved stakeholders, participant observations, and document review. The findings showed that participation was seen as a method to accomplish the agency's tasks, and the focus was primarily on the outputs, or products, of the participatory processes. This interpretation worked well and created positive outcomes as long as process factors, such as interaction with other stakeholders and shared influence, were adequately attended to and joint gains were assured, but other stakeholders expressed dissatisfaction when they were not. We conclude that, although tangible outcomes are necessary for environmental agencies, maintaining a balance between product and process focus in participatory projects is important for optimal results. To increase their ability to deal with process factors, environmental agencies, and ultimately environmental management, would benefit from enhancing their personnel's understanding of participation, and capacity to conduct participatory processes. To facilitate participation, this understanding should also be integrated in the institutional framework the agencies work within.

  10. Xylanases of thermophilic bacteria from Icelandic hot springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertulla, M; Raettoe, M; Viikari, L [VTT, Biotechnical Lab., Espoo (Finland); Kondradsdottir, M [Dept. of Biotechnology, Technological Inst. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Kristjansson, J K [Dept. of Biotechnology, Technological Inst. of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland) Inst. of Biotechnology, Iceland Univ., Reykjavik (Iceland)

    1993-02-01

    Thermophilic, aerobic bacteria isolated from Icelandic hot springs were screened for xylanase activity. Of 97 strains tested, 14 were found to be xylanase positive. Xylanase activities up to 12 nkat/ml were produced by these strains in shake flasks on xylan medium. The xylanases of the two strains producing the highest activities (ITI 36 and ITI 283) were similar with respect to temperature and pH optima (80deg C and pH 8.0). Xylanase production of strain ITI 36 was found to be induced by xylan and xylose. Xylanase activity of 24 nkat/ml was obtained with this strain in a laboratory-scale-fermentor cultivation on xylose medium. [beta]-Xylosidase activity was also detected in the culture filtrate. The thermal half-life of ITI 36 xylanase was 24 h at 70deg C. The highest production of sugars from hydrolysis of beech xylan was obtained at 70deg C, although xylan depolymerization was detected even up to 90deg C. (orig.).

  11. Political control and perceptions of corruption in Icelandic local government

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    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Political control is an important value of democratic governance and without it democratic accountability can hardly mean much. This is why a number of authors have seen politicization of public service appointments and greater control by the centre as a potential counterweight against trends in recent decades towards more networked and less hierarchical organizational forms of directing public policy. It may help to reassert democratic control. The option of strengthening political control, however, has not been much studied with regard to its likely effects on corruption. Power has the potential to corrupt unless adequately controlled and strengthening political power in a networked environment may create a structure of temptation which conventional deterrents to corruption are unable to curb. The impact of strong political leadership on corruption is here studied in the context of Icelandic local government, making use of institutional variations in the office of Mayor, which provide a unique opportunity for testing the effects of strong political control on corruption. The analysis indicates that municipalities with strong political mayors are likely to be associated with perceptions of corruption even when other factors, such as the structure of temptation and deterrents, are accounted for.

  12. The Impact of Amalgamations on Services in Icelandic Municipalities

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    Grétar Thór Eythórsson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with answering the question whether municipal amalgamations can meet the wishes at the root of the most common motives behind them: to gain cost-efficiency and more quality in the municipal services. The analysis is partly based on a survey among Icelandic local leaders in 2015 and partly on survey among citizens in 8 recently amalgamated municipalities collected with a snowball method through Facebook in the spring and summer 2013. The main results are that the impact of amalgamations on municipal services seems to depend on whether we look at the central or peripheral parts of the municipality. Both leaders and citizens seem to perceive developments of services differently depending on the position in the municipality. In the peripheries, they have significantly more negative view than in the service centres. This has to do with both their evaluation of specific services and their general evaluation of service development. However, in the general evaluation the difference is significantly larger.

  13. Comparison of grass haylage digestibility and metabolic plasma profile in Icelandic and Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, S; Jansson, A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare digestibility and metabolic response in Icelandic and Standardbred horses fed two grass haylages harvested at different stages of maturity. Six horses of each breed were used in a 24-day change-over design. A total collection of faeces was made on days 15-17 and 22-24. Blood samples were collected on day 24 of each period and analysed for total plasma protein (TPP), plasma urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cortisol and insulin concentration. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre or energy between breeds but organic matter digestibility was higher in the Standardbred horses. On both haylages, the Icelandic horses gained weight whereas the Standardbred horses lost weight. The Icelandic horses had higher TPP, plasma insulin and lower plasma urea concentrations. Our results indicate that the Icelandic horse may be more prone to maintain positive energy balance in relation to the Standardbred horse, but there were no indication of a better digestive capacity in the Icelandic horses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal

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    Sigurður Kristinsson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abroad, but also to confront difficult moral issues concerning surrogacy, global justice, human rights and exploitation. In March 2015, a legislative proposal permitting altruistic surrogacy, subject to strict regulation and oversight, and prohibiting the solicitation of commercial surrogacy abroad, was presented in the Icelandic Parliament. The proposal aims to protect the interest of the child first, respect the autonomy of the surrogate second, and accommodate the intended parents’ wishes third. After a brief overview of the development of the surrogacy issue in Iceland, this article describes the main features of this legislative proposal and evaluates it from an ethical and global justice perspective. It concludes that the proposed legislation is a response to problems generated by cross-border surrogacy in the context of evolving public attitudes toward the issue, and constitutes a valid attempt to reduce the moral hazards of surrogacy consistent with insights from current bioethical literature. Although the proposed legislation arguably represents an improvement over the current ban, however, difficult problems concerning evasive travel and global injustice are likely to persist until effective international coordination is achieved.

  15. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Sigurður

    2016-12-01

    Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abroad, but also to confront difficult moral issues concerning surrogacy, global justice, human rights and exploitation. In March 2015, a legislative proposal permitting altruistic surrogacy, subject to strict regulation and oversight, and prohibiting the solicitation of commercial surrogacy abroad, was presented in the Icelandic Parliament. The proposal aims to protect the interest of the child first, respect the autonomy of the surrogate second, and accommodate the intended parents' wishes third. After a brief overview of the development of the surrogacy issue in Iceland, this article describes the main features of this legislative proposal and evaluates it from an ethical and global justice perspective. It concludes that the proposed legislation is a response to problems generated by cross-border surrogacy in the context of evolving public attitudes toward the issue, and constitutes a valid attempt to reduce the moral hazards of surrogacy consistent with insights from current bioethical literature. Although the proposed legislation arguably represents an improvement over the current ban, however, difficult problems concerning evasive travel and global injustice are likely to persist until effective international coordination is achieved.

  16. Icelandic basaltic geothermal field: A natural analog for nuclear waste isolation in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, G.C.; Grandstaff, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Analog studies of Icelandic geothermal fields have shown that the design of nuclear waste repositories in basalt can benefit by comparison to the data base already available from the development of these geothermal fields. A high degree of similarity exists between these two systems: their petrology, groundwater geochemistry, mineral solubilities, hydrologic parameters, temperature ranges, water-rock redox equilibria, hydrothermal pH values, and secondary mineralogies all show considerable overlap in the range of values. The experimentally-simulated hydrothermal studies of the basaltic nuclear waste repository rocks have, at this time, produced a data base that receives a strong confirmation from the Icelandic analog. Furthermore, the Icelandic analog should eventually be employed to extrapolate into higher and lower temperatures, into longer time-base chemical comparisons, and into more realistic mineral deposition studies, than have been possible in the laboratory evaluations of the nuclear waste repository designs. This eventual use of the Icelandic analog will require cooperative work with the Icelandic Geological Survey. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Iceland as a western country. How to classify medieval church law in the vernacular

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    Lára Magnúsardóttir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iceland’s subjection to the king of Norway in 1262-64 was followed by a legislation in which a law book for Church and spiritual matters was composed in the vernacular for each country. Such law was implemented in Iceland in 1275 along with a separate secular law book in 1281. Both books remained in force until the middle of the 16th century. A church law that was separate, both from the secular law and that of Roman Church appears to set Iceland apart from other Western European countries where spiritual matters were governed according to the Latin law of the Roman Church. This has been viewed as an indication of constant rivalry between the religious and secular authorities, usually presenting the Church as an overreaching and even oppressive institution against which laity struggled. But a comparison of Icelandic Church law with the Latin Canon law shows that the Church in Iceland submitted entirely to the authority of the Roman Church and thus shows that the Icelandic Church law was, despite its obscure language, a specific representation of the law of the Roman Church. A Norwegian concordat from 1277 shows the king’s recognition of separate spiritual and temporal jurisdictions. This cooperation is readily apparent in later court cases.

  18. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

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    Frank Rennie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher enegagement with online and open delivery methods of higher education. The Net-University Project was an EU Leonardo-funded initiative to compare approaches to open and distance education in Iceland, Sweden, and Scotland, with additional lessons from Atlantic Canada. In particular, it sought to focus on the transfer of innovation in continuing university education, with particular emphasis on the development and delivery of online higher education courses throughout rural Iceland (i.e., outside of Reykjavik. The partners concentrated on how knowledge and experience about distributed and distance learning models could be transferred between the partner countries and how such models can be integrated into the education system to better support higher education and lifelong learning. There was a particular interest in the practical use of open educational resources (OER for course design and in the sharing of these course modules among university partners. Some good practice and lessons from OER use in course creation are listed.

  19. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  20. Economic conditions, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: analysis of the Icelandic economic collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdóttir, Kristín Helga; Jónsson, Stefán Hrafn; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has found a positive short-term relationship between the 2008 collapse and hypertension in Icelandic males. With Iceland's economy experiencing a phase of economic recovery, an opportunity to pursue a longer-term analysis of the collapse has emerged. Using data from a nationally representative sample, fixed-effect estimations and mediation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between the Icelandic economic collapse in 2008 and the longer-term impact on hypertension and cardiovascular health. A sensitivity analysis was carried out with pooled logit models estimated as well as an alternative dependent variable. Our attrition analysis revealed that results for cardiovascular diseases were affected by attrition, but not results from estimations on the relationship between the economic crisis and hypertension. When compared to the boom year 2007, our results point to an increased probability of Icelandic women having hypertension in the year 2012, when the Icelandic economy had recovered substantially from the economic collapse in 2008. This represents a deviation from pre-crisis trends, thus suggesting a true economic-recovery impact on hypertension.

  1. The impact of divergence time on the nature of population structure: an example from Iceland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkes L Price

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic population has been sampled in many disease association studies, providing a strong motivation to understand the structure of this population and its ramifications for disease gene mapping. Previous work using 40 microsatellites showed that the Icelandic population is relatively homogeneous, but exhibits subtle population structure that can bias disease association statistics. Here, we show that regional geographic ancestries of individuals from Iceland can be distinguished using 292,289 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. We further show that subpopulation differences are due to genetic drift since the settlement of Iceland 1100 years ago, and not to varying contributions from different ancestral populations. A consequence of the recent origin of Icelandic population structure is that allele frequency differences follow a null distribution devoid of outliers, so that the risk of false positive associations due to stratification is minimal. Our results highlight an important distinction between population differences attributable to recent drift and those arising from more ancient divergence, which has implications both for association studies and for efforts to detect natural selection using population differentiation.

  2. The Spatial Variation of Dust Particulate Matter Concentrations during Two Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

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    Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 10 to 1600 µg·m−3 (PM10 = 7 to 583 µg·m−3. The mean PM1 concentrations were 97–241 µg·m−3 with a maximum of 261 µg·m−3 for the first storm. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios of >0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34–0.63 show that suspension of volcanic materials in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations, similar to polluted urban areas in Europe or Asia. Icelandic volcanic dust consists of a higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. Both dust storms occurred in relatively densely inhabited areas of Iceland. First results on size partitioning of Icelandic dust presented here should challenge health authorities to enhance research in relation to dust and shows the need for public dust warning systems.

  3. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Future strategy of SE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcelli, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this presentation author (General Director of Slovenske elektrarne, a. s.) presents structure and investment plans of SE. The feasibility study of construction of the blocks 3 and 4 of the Mochovce NPP is presented

  5. Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and The Influence of Special Interest Groups: Taxation in Iceland from 1930 to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on tax evasion and tax avoidance in Iceland, and on how special interest groups have shaped the taxation system to serve their own ends. The period covered is from 1930, when the present Icelandic system of power was established, to the present.

  6. Imaging of bone spavin. A radiographic and scintigraphic study of degenerative joint disease in the distal tarsus in Icelandic horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eksell, P.

    2000-01-01

    Radiography and scintigraphy are commonly used for the diagnosis of skeletal disorders in horses. Icelandic Horses have a high prevalence of degenerative joint disease of the distal tarsus, generally known as bone spavin (BS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and develop the use of radiography and scintigraphy for the detection of BS in Icelandic Horses

  7. SE-VYZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    On this CD compact disc 6 video-films (A-1 NPP; Bituminization; Cementation; Pressing; The Interim spent fuel storage facility; Transport into the National radioactive waste repository Mochovce; Ignition; and Vitrification). In these films process of radioactive waste treatment in the Bohunice Radioactive Waste Processing Center (SE-VYZ) is presented. 2 presentations about radioactive wastes treatment in the SE-VYZ are included

  8. Soot on snow in Iceland: First results on black carbon and organic carbon in Iceland 2016 snow and ice samples, including the glacier Solheimajökull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Gritsevich, Maria; Aurela, Minna; Arnalds, Olafur; Dragosics, Monika; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Kontu, Anna; Kivekäs, Niku; Leppäranta, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Laaksonen, Ari; Lihavainen, Heikki; Arslan, Ali N.; Paatero, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    New results on black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) on snow and ice in Iceland in 2016 will be presented in connection to our earlier results on BC and OC on Arctic seasonal snow surface, and in connection to our 2013 and 2016 experiments on effects of light absorbing impurities, including Icelandic dust, on snow albedo, melt and density. Our sampling included the glacier Solheimajökull in Iceland. The mass balance of this glacier is negative and it has been shrinking during the last 20 years by 900 meters from its southwestern corner. Icelandic snow and ice samples were not expected to contain high concentrations of BC, as power generation with domestic renewable water and geothermal power energy sources cover 80 % of the total energy consumption in Iceland. Our BC results on filters analyzed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC) confirm this assumption. Other potential soot sources in Iceland include agricultural burning, industry (aluminum and ferroalloy production and fishing industry), open burning, residential heating and transport (shipping, road traffic, aviation). On the contrary to low BC, we have found high concentrations of organic carbon in our Iceland 2016 samples. Some of the possible reasons for those will be discussed in this presentation. Earlier, we have measured and reported unexpectedly low snow albedo values of Arctic seasonally melting snow in Sodankylä, north of Arctic Circle. Our low albedo results of melting snow have been confirmed by three independent data sets. We have explained these low values to be due to: (i) large snow grain sizes up to 3 mm in diameter (seasonally melting snow); (ii) meltwater surrounding the grains and increasing the effective grain size; (iii) absorption caused by impurities in the snow, with concentration of elemental carbon (black carbon) in snow of 87 ppb, and organic carbon 2894 ppb. The high concentrations of carbon were due to air masses originating from the Kola Peninsula, Russia

  9. Antibacterial use in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark 1999-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gudnason, Thorolfur; Jensen, Ulrich Stab

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark are neighbouring Nordic countries with great ethnic, cultural, and political similarities and are relatively homogeneous. Important information about prescribing practices can be obtained by comparing the antibacterial use in these countries...... in the Faroe Islands and Iceland, whereas in Denmark it increased gradually from 13.5 DID in 1999 to 19.5 DID in 2011. The higher use in Iceland can be explained by much higher consumption of tetracyclines. There was also considerable variation in the use of individual penicillins and macrolides between...... the countries. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the great ethnic and cultural similarities of these 3 countries, we found marked differences in total antibacterial use and important differences in the use of individual antibacterials....

  10. Network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur - the Sagas of Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Carron, P.; Kenna, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Íslendinga sögur - or Sagas of Icelanders - constitute a collection of medieval literature set in Iceland around the late 9th to early 11th centuries, the so-called Saga Age. They purport to describe events during the period around the settlement of Iceland and the generations immediately following and constitute an important element of world literature thanks to their unique narrative style. Although their historicity is a matter of scholarly debate, the narratives contain interwoven and overlapping plots involving thousands of characters and interactions between them. Here we perform a network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur in an attempt to gather quantitative information on interrelationships between characters and to compare saga society to other social networks.

  11. Alteration in the IRDP drill hole compared with other drill holes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna

    1982-08-01

    The overall alteration pattern in the drill hole at Reydarfjördur is very similar to alteration patterns observed in Icelandic geothermal areas and in low-grade metamorphosed basalts in deep crustal sections elsewhere in Iceland. However more detail is obtained by the study of the IRDP drill core than by study of drill cuttings sampled in previous drill holes in Iceland. A comparatively high fossil thermal gradient is obtained at Reydarfjördur by a combination of mineral stability data and the observed occurence of secondary minerals. This high gradient is consistent with the measured dike dilation at the drill site and the location of the drill site adjacent to a central volcano.

  12. Pb isotope evidence for contributions from different Iceland mantle components to Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David; Stecher, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present new Pb isotope data on 21 samples of break-up-related flood basalts (56–54 Ma) from the Blosseville Kyst region of East Greenland. These samples show a considerable range in isotopic composition (206Pb/204Pb 17.6 to 19.3) that broadly correlates with compositional type. The ‘low-Ti’ type...... in the selected samples. Uncontaminated Palaeogene East Greenland flood basalts appear to have sampled the same broad range in mantle compositions seen in Recent Iceland basalts. In contrast to the peripheral lava suites from the British Isles and Southeast Greenland, where the inferred uncontaminated magmas have...... to the most radiogenic values found in recent Icelandic basalts. Furthermore, the main volume of lavas in East Greenland is displaced away from the NAEM towards this radiogenic Pb component. Thus, this ‘Iceland radiogenic Pb end-member’ component was a significant contributor to the break-up-related magmatism...

  13. Iceland and the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy: Challenge or Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iceland had initial misgivings about the EU’s capacity created in 1999 for military crisis management. In the current debate over Iceland’s EU application, questions have been raised about the possible impact of CSDP on the nation’s non-military status. In fact the CSDP is designed to respect national choices in defence; requires unanimity on new actions; and allows case-by-case decisions on participation. Preliminary study of six other small states in the EU suggests that none of them has been obliged by membership to abandon national preferences in this field, though all have made special efforts to support EU police and civilian operations - an area where Iceland is also well qualified to contribute. The more significant effects of EU membership for Icelandic security might in fact come in other, ‘softer’ areas including EU obligations for mutual assistance in civil emergencies.

  14. Geographical, and seasonal variation in the diet of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in Icelandic coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gísli A Víkingsson

    2003-07-01

    Overall capelin (Mallotus villosus comprised the predominant prey, followed by sandeel (Ammodytidae sp., then gadids, cephalopods and redfish (Sebastes marinus, while other taxa were of less importance. Differences were detected in diet composition among 5 areas around Iceland with redfish and gadids more prominent in the northern areas. Off SW Iceland there was considerable seasonal variation in the porpoise diet, where capelin appeared to be dominant in late winter and spring and sandeel in the summer through early winter. Predominance of capelin in the diet coincided with the spawning migration of capelin from northern waters along the east, south and west coasts of Iceland. Mature females appeared to have a more diverse diet than other reproductive classes. The length distributions of fish consumed by the porpoises ranged from 1 to 51 cm although most fish prey were less than 30 cm.

  15. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: vicmartin6@ig.com.br, e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U

  16. Post-partum reproductive performance of the Icelandic dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldon, J.; Olafsson, T.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to monitor the reproductive performance of Icelandic dairy cow herds with and without histories of fertility problems under normal farming conditions. Artificial inseminations and calvings were recorded, pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation, and progesterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in sequential samples of milk. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals and the concentrations of glucose, urea, calcium and magnesium were determined. Clinical ketosis and low glucose were found in one third of the cows on problem farms. The mean time of first post-partum ovulation was 49 days for cows with ketosis, compared with 34 days for cows free of ketosis. Cows in the normal herds ovulated considerably later than is reported for many other breeds of dairy cows; however, the time of first post-partum AI, the time of conception and the conception rate were similar to those reported for other breeds. The effects of season and herd were statistically significant for the time of first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception; the effect of area was highly significant for the time of ovulation. Progesterone profiles showed that over 50% of the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short and had low progesterone concentrations. Season had significant effects on the length of the interval from calving to first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception, on the conception rate to first AI and consequently on the number of AIs per conception, and on the blood levels of glucose, urea and calcium. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion in the subarctic environment of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilja Jóhannesdóttir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensified agricultural practices have driven biodiversity loss throughout the world, and although many actions aimed at halting and reversing these declines have been developed, their effectiveness depends greatly on the willingness of stakeholders to take part in conservation management. Knowledge of the willingness and capacity of landowners to engage with conservation can therefore be key to designing successful management strategies in agricultural land. In Iceland, agriculture is currently at a relatively low intensity but is very likely to expand in the near future. At the same time, Iceland supports internationally important breeding populations of many ground-nesting birds that could be seriously impacted by further expansion of agricultural activities. To understand the views of Icelandic farmers toward bird conservation, given the current potential for agricultural expansion, 62 farms across Iceland were visited and farmers were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire survey in which respondents indicated of a series of future actions. Most farmers intend to increase the area of cultivated land in the near future, and despite considering having rich birdlife on their land to be very important, most also report they are unlikely to specifically consider bird conservation in their management, even if financial compensation were available. However, as no agri-environment schemes are currently in place in Iceland, this concept is highly unfamiliar to Icelandic farmers. Nearly all respondents were unwilling, and thought it would be impossible, to delay harvest, but many were willing to consider sparing important patches of land and/or maintaining existing pools within fields (a key habitat feature for breeding waders. Farmers' views on the importance of having rich birdlife on their land and their willingness to participate in bird conservation provide a potential platform for the codesign of conservation management with landowners

  18. 87Sr/86Sr isotope fingerprinting of Scottish and Icelandic migratory shorebirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jane; Bullman, Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Biosphere Sr isotope composition data from Iceland and Scotland suggest that terrestrially feeding birds from these two countries will have significantly different 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotope composition in their tissues. The aim of this study is to test if these differences can be measured within the bone and feather of migratory wading birds, who feed terrestrially as juveniles, thus providing a provenance tool for these birds. The study shows that birds can be distinguished on the basis of the Sr isotope composition of their bone. The field for Icelandic birds is defined by data from juvenile common redshank (Tringa totanus) and whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) which give 0.7056 ± 0.0012, (2σ, n = 7). The majority of Scottish birds in this study are from coastal regions and have a signature close to that of seawater of 0.7095 ± 0.0006 (2σ, n = 9). The Sr ratios in the body tissue of these two populations of all Icelandic and Scottish adult and juvenile birds analysed are significantly different (p 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values as high as 0.7194 which reflect their non-marine diet. Icelandic redshank (Tringa totanus robusta) that have flown to Scotland and returned to Iceland show the effect of the Scottish contribution to their diet with elevated values of 0.7086 ± 0.0004, (2σ, n = 6). Redshank found in Scotland that cannot be classified on the basis biometric analysis are shown to be of Icelandic origin and analysis of the primary feathers from two birds demonstrates that isotope variation between feathers could be used to track changes in diet related to the timing of individual feather growth.

  19. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1 How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2 Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3 Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4 Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5 Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive. Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas.

  20. Radiographic closure time of appendicular growth plates in the Icelandic horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huse-Olsen Lisel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of the "primitive" Icelandic horse relative to that reported for large horse breeds developed over the recent centuries. This information would provide practical guidance to owners and veterinarians as to when the skeleton is mature enough to commence training, and would be potentially interesting to those scientists investigating the pathogenesis of osteochondrosis. Interestingly, osteochondrosis has not been documented in the Icelandic horse. Methods The radiographic closure time of the appendicular growth plates was studied in 64 young Icelandic horses. The results were compared with previously published closure times reported for other, larger horse breeds. The radiographs were also examined for any signs of developmental orthopaedic diseases. In order to describe further the growth pattern of the Icelandic horse, the total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was determined and the height at the withers was measured. Results Most of the examined growth plates were fully closed at the age of approximately three years. The horses reached adult height at this age; however ALP activity was still mildly increased over baseline values. The growth plates in the digits were the first to close at 8.1 to 8.5 months of age, and those in the regions of the distal radius (27.4 to 32.0 months, tuber olecrani (31.5 to 32.2 months, and the stifle (27.0 to 40.1 months were the last to close. No horse was found to have osteochondrosis type lesions in the neighbouring joints of the evaluated growth plates. Conclusion The Icelandic horse appears to have similar radiographic closure times for most of the growth plates of its limbs as reported for large new breeds of

  1. To pace or not to pace: a pilot study of four- and five-gaited Icelandic horses homozygous for the DMRT3 'Gait Keeper' mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderkvist Fegraeus, K; Hirschberg, I; Árnason, T; Andersson, L; Velie, B D; Andersson, L S; Lindgren, G

    2017-12-01

    The Icelandic horse is a breed known mainly for its ability to perform the ambling four-beat gait 'tölt' and the lateral two-beat gait pace. The natural ability of the breed to perform these alternative gaits is highly desired by breeders. Therefore, the discovery that a nonsense mutation (C>A) in the DMRT3 gene was the main genetic factor for horses' ability to perform gaits in addition to walk, trot and canter was of great interest. Although several studies have demonstrated that homozygosity for the DMRT3 mutation is important for the ability to pace, only about 70% of the homozygous mutant (AA) Icelandic horses are reported to pace. The aim of the study was to genetically compare four- and five-gaited (i.e. horses with and without the ability to pace) AA Icelandic horses by performing a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. All horses (n = 55) were genotyped on the 670K Axiom Equine Genotyping Array, and a GWA analysis was performed using the genabel package in r. No SNP demonstrated genome-wide significance, implying that the ability to pace goes beyond the presence of a single gene variant. Despite its limitations, the current study provides additional information regarding the genetic complexity of pacing ability in horses. However, to fully understand the genetic differences between four- and five-gaited AA horses, additional studies with larger sample materials and consistent phenotyping are needed. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Water temperature, not fish morph, determines parasite infections of sympatric Icelandic threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anssi; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Skúlason, Skúli; Lanki, Maiju; Rellstab, Christian; Jokela, Jukka

    2013-06-01

    Parasite communities of fishes are known to respond directly to the abiotic environment of the host, for example, to water quality and water temperature. Biotic factors are also important as they affect the exposure profile through heterogeneities in parasite distribution in the environment. Parasites in a particular environment may pose a strong selection on fish. For example, ecological differences in selection by parasites have been hypothesized to facilitate evolutionary differentiation of freshwater fish morphs specializing on different food types. However, as parasites may also respond directly to abiotic environment the parasite risk does not depend only on biotic features of the host environment. It is possible that different morphs experience specific selection gradients by parasites but it is not clear how consistent the selection is when abiotic factors change. We examined parasite pressure in sympatric morphs of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) across a temperature gradient in two large Icelandic lakes, Myvatn and Thingvallavatn. Habitat-specific temperature gradients in these lakes are opposite. Myvatn lava rock morph lives in a warm environment, while the mud morph lives in the cold. In Thingvallavatn, the lava rock morph lives in a cold environment and the mud morph in a warm habitat. We found more parasites in fish living in higher temperature in both lakes, independent of the fish morph, and this pattern was similar for the two dominating parasite taxa, trematodes and cestodes. However, at the same time, we also found higher parasite abundance in a third morph living in deep cold-water habitat in Thingvallavatn compared to the cold-water lava morph, indicating strong effect of habitat-specific biotic factors. Our results suggest complex interactions between water temperature and biotic factors in determining the parasite community structure, a pattern that may have implications for differentiation of stickleback morphs.

  3. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Grabowski

    Full Text Available The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009. We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON, as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV. A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1-5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20-0.25 m s(-1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0-1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  4. Characterization of Atlantic cod spawning habitat and behavior in Icelandic coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Boswell, Kevin M.; McAdam, Bruce J.; Wells, R. J. David; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2012-01-01

    The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15–16 April 2009). We simultaneously operated two different active hydroacoustic gear types, a split beam echosounder and a dual frequency imaging sonar (DIDSON), as well as a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV). A total of five fish species were identified through ROV surveys: including cusk Brosme brosme, Atlantic cod, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, lemon sole Microstomus kitt, and Atlantic redfish Sebastes spp. Of the three habitats identified in the acoustic surveys, the transitional habitat between boulder/lava field and sand habitats was characterized by greater fish density and acoustic target strength compared to that of sand or boulder/lava field habitats independently. Atlantic cod were observed behaving in a manner consistent with published descriptions of spawning. Individuals were observed ascending 1–5 m into the water column from the bottom at an average vertical swimming speed of 0.20–0.25 m s−1 and maintained an average spacing of 1.0–1.4 m between individuals. Our results suggest that cod do not choose spawning locations indiscriminately despite the fact that it is a broadcast spawning fish with planktonic eggs that are released well above the seafloor.

  5. SE debt restructuring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) plans to restructure one's own debts in 2003-2005. Debt restructuring plan is following: 2003: Collection of pre-payment on electricity - 60 million Euro (2.5 billion Slovak crowns), consumer unknown. Own promissory notes in total value of 100 million US$ (3.5 billion Slovak crowns) - in process. Sale of claims worth 2.4 billion Slovak crowns (57.21 million Euro) - negotiations in process. 2003/2004: Restructuring of loans payable IV. quarter 2003 and at the beginning of 2004 in value of 200 million Euro (8.3 billion Slovak crowns). Aim of SE is a new credit payable within 7 years, with instalments payable in the last two to three without any state subsidies. 2005: Loans worth 460 million Euro (189 billion Slovak crowns) will still remain. SE want to negotiate them with banks without state support

  6. Autismos que se 'curan'

    OpenAIRE

    Artigas, Josep, 1948-; Paula Pérez, Isabel, 1970-

    2016-01-01

    Introducción. La investigación sobre el autismo, basada principalmente en el modelo categórico del Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales, se ha centrado de forma preferente en la epidemiología, las manifestaciones clínicas, los mecanismos cognitivos y los determinantes biológicos y ambientales; sin embargo, se ha prestado escaso interés a las trayectorias evolutivas, las cuales son decisivas de cara al pronóstico a medio y largo plazo. Objetivo. Revisar el curso evolutiv...

  7. Synthesis and X-ray structures of dilithium complexes of the phosphonate anions [PhP(E)(N(t)Bu)(2)](2-) (E = O, S, Se, Te) and dimethylaluminum derivatives of [PhP(E)(N(t)Bu)(NH(t)Bu)](-) (E = S, Se).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Glen G; Chivers, Tristram; Krahn, Mark; Parvez, Masood

    2002-12-16

    The dilithium salts of the phosphonate dianions [PhP(E)(N(t)Bu)(2)](2-) (E = O, S, Se) are generated by the lithiation of [PhP(E)(NH(t)Bu)(2)] with n-butyllithium. The formation of the corresponding telluride (E = Te) is achieved by oxidation of [Li(2)[PhP(N(t)Bu)(2)

  8. Childbearing trends in Iceland, 1982-2013: Fertility timing, quantum, and gender preferences for children in a Nordic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Klængur Jónsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iceland is one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, but one that does not seem to have experienced the same fertility fluctuations as most other countries, following the enhanced role of women in society. Objective: In this study we examine the childbearing trends in Iceland during 1982-2013 by analysing the progressions to parities one, two, and three. We also investigate whether there is evidence of gender preferences for children among Icelandic parents. Methods: Official individual longitudinal register data is used, covering the total female population born in Iceland between 1941 and 1997. The data is analysed by means of event history analysis. Results: We find evidence of tendencies to postpone motherhood during the period, with increases in fertility for women in their 30s and 40s. The propensity to have a second and a third child has not declined; on the contrary, these birth intensities have increased since the mid-1980s. Estimates suggest that Icelandic parents prefer to have daughters. Conclusions: During a period of increased educational attainment and postponed family formation, the resilience of Icelandic fertility is intriguing. Contribution: The study provides the first comprehensive overview of fertility trends in Iceland.

  9. Climate-driven vertical acceleration of Icelandic crust measured by continuous GPS geodesy

    KAUST Repository

    Compton, Kathleen

    2015-02-06

    © 2015 The Authors. Earth\\'s present-day response to enhanced glacial melting resulting from climate change can be measured using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. We present data from 62 continuously operating GPS instruments in Iceland. Statistically significant upward velocity and accelerations are recorded at 27 GPS stations, predominantly located in the Central Highlands region of Iceland, where present-day thinning of the Iceland ice caps results in velocities of more than 30mm/yr and uplift accelerations of 1-2mm/yr2. We use our acceleration estimates to back calculate to a time of zero velocity, which coincides with the initiation of ice loss in Iceland from ice mass balance calculations and Arctic warming trends. We show, through a simple inversion, a direct relationship between ice mass balance measurements and vertical position and show that accelerated unloading is required to reproduce uplift observations for a simple elastic layer over viscoelastic half-space model.

  10. Early Behavioral Self-Regulation, Academic Achievement, and Gender: Longitudinal Findings from France, Germany, and Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; von Suchodoletz, Antje; Wanless, Shannon B.; Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Birgisdottir, Freyja; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; McClelland, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, but few studies have explored such links among young children in Europe. This study examined the contribution of early self-regulation to academic achievement gains among children in France, Germany, and Iceland. Gender differences in behavioral…

  11. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  12. The Role of Choral Singing in the Lives of Amateur Choral Singers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja; Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what motivates people to sing in choirs as a leisure activity. Subjects were retrieved from members of 10 amateur choirs of various types in Iceland through a paper-based survey. Results indicated that participants gain both personal and social benefits from singing in a choir. Findings revealed…

  13. Interaction of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow with Iceland Basin intermediate waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullgren, Jenny E.; Fer, Ilker; Darelius, Elin; Beaird, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The narrow and deep Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) is an important pathway for cold, dense waters from the Nordic Seas to flow across the Iceland-Scotland ridge into the North Atlantic. The swift, turbulent FBC overflow is associated with strong vertical mixing. Hydrographic profiles from a shipboard survey and two Slocum electric gliders deployed during a cruise in May-June 2012 show an intermediate water mass characterized by low salinity and low oxygen concentration between the upper waters of Atlantic origin and the dense overflow water. A weak low-salinity signal originating north-east of Iceland is discernible at the exit of the FBC, but smeared out by intense mixing. Further west (downstream) marked salinity and oxygen minima are found, which we hypothesize are indicators of a mixture of Labrador Sea Water and Intermediate Water from the Iceland Basin. Water mass characteristics vary strongly on short time scales. Low-salinity, low-oxygen water in the stratified interface above the overflow plume is shown to move along isopycnals toward the Iceland-Faroe Front as a result of eddy stirring and a secondary, transverse circulation in the plume interface. The interaction of low-salinity, low-oxygen intermediate waters with the overflow plume already at a short distance downstream of the sill, here reported for the first time, affects the final properties of the overflow waters through entrainment and mixing.

  14. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...

  15. Environmental Education. University Level. 10 Years Development; Recommendations. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    The Nordic countries have worked together over the last decade to enhance the efforts of environmental educators. This document details: (1) the history and activities of the group responsible for the coordination of efforts at the university level; (2) the types of environmental education occurring in Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, and…

  16. Was it for walrus? Viking Age settlement and medieval walrus ivory trade in Iceland and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Karin M.; Coutu, Ashley N.; Smiarowski, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Walrus-tusk ivory and walrus-hide rope were highly desired goods in Viking Age north-west Europe. New finds of walrus bone and ivory in early Viking Age contexts in Iceland are concentrated in the south-west, and suggest extensive exploitation of nearby walrus for meat, hide and ivory during the ...

  17. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  18. Glacio-meteorological investigations on Vatnajökull, Iceland, summer 1996: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Björnsson, H.; Kuhn, M.; Obleitner, F.; Palsson, F.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.; Vugts, H.F.; Wolde, J. de

    1999-01-01

    We give an overview of a glacio-meteorological experiment carried out in the summer (melt season) of 1996 on the largest European ice cap, Vatnajökull, Iceland (area 8000 km2; altitude range: from sea level to about 2000 m). The main goal was to understand how the energy used in the melting of snow

  19. Design and Craft Education in Iceland, Pedagogical Background and Development: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Brynjar; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2009-01-01

    Sloyd pedagogy was introduced towards the close of the 18th century to Icelandic educators. Subsequently craft was established as a specific subject aimed at general education. In the beginning craft was called "school industry," to distinguish it from "home industry" whose aim was to help homes to be self-sufficient for…

  20. An Action Research Study in an Icelandic Preschool: Developing Consensus about Values and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Ingibjorg; Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Values education is embedded in the curricula of all the Nordic countries. However, values education remains a neglected area for research and practice in early childhood education and care. This article reports on the aspects of an action research project conducted in a preschool in Iceland, across a period of 18 months. The study focused on the…

  1. Learning Icelandic Language and Culture in Virtual Reykjavik: Starting to Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédi, Branislav; Arnbjörnsdóttir, Birna; Vilhjálmsson, Hannes Högni; Helgadóttir, Hafdís Erla; Ólafsson, Stefán; Björgvinsson, Elías

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes how beginners of Icelandic as a foreign and second language responded to playing the first scene in Virtual Reykjavik, a video game-like environment where learners interact with virtual characters--Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). This game enables learners to practice speaking and listening skills, to learn about the…

  2. How to deal with the collapse of a banking system the Icelandic way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solnes, Valgerdur

    2016-01-01

    In the fall of 2008, a crisis materialized in the global financial markets, creating the imminent risk of collapse in Icelandic's largest financial institutions and the banking system as a whole. The perilous situation originated in similar conditions that formed overseas in the US and around...

  3. Paleomagnetism and geochronology of the Pliocene-Pleistocene lavas in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, Ian; Wensink, H.

    Potassium-argon dates are reported on five basalt samples from the Pliocene-Pleistocene sequence of lavas in the Jökuldalur area, northeastern Iceland. These dates confirm the correlations previously made with the geological time scale by means of paleomagnetic stratigraphy. The R1 and N2 polarity

  4. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi...

  5. Manifestations of Heterosexism in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools and the Responses of LGBT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2013-01-01

    How does institutionalized heterosexism manifest itself in Icelandic upper secondary schools and how do lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students respond to these manifestations? In addressing these questions, interviews were conducted with six current and former LGBT upper secondary school students, using queer theory and thematic…

  6. Schooling Sexualities and Gendered Bodies. Experiences of LGBT Students in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón Ingvar; Kristinsdóttir, Guðrún

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study how Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people (LGBT) students in Icelandic upper secondary schools interpret their experience of heteronormative environment and how they respond to it. The aim is to explore how sexualities and gendered bodies are constructed through "schooling". The article draws on interview…

  7. Leading the Small Rural School in Iceland and Australia: Building Leadership Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Siguräardóttir, Sigríäur Margrét; Faulkner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on a set of Australian case studies exploring the impact of Place on the work of principals and of the importance of Place in the preparation and development of principals. The project compares the ways that principals in Iceland and Australia build leadership capacity in small rural schools. Leaders of small schools in both…

  8. CITY, COUNTRYSIDE AND NATURE AS DISCURSIVE DEVICES USED TO STRENGTHEN THE NATIONAL IDENTITY IN ICELANDIC CINEMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Sebastian Konefał

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception the Icelandic film industry has used the strategy of combining telluric elements with national- istic narratives. In many films one may also find visual structures that can be linked with the ‘tourist gaze’ – the term as we know it from the texts of John Urry. Despite a focus on some unique qualities of Icelandic nature and its cultural heritage (that can be attractive to foreign viewers the specificity of cinematic production processes on the island belong to the structure of local, national cinema. Moreover, the 1980s, considered as the time of the rebirth of the Icelandic film industry and its rapid modernization, are full of films containing conservative or leftist telluric topics which are difficult for foreign audiences to understand. A new, transnational quality of Icelandic film features began with the film debut of Friðrik Þór Friðriksson in 1987. His fusion of modernist and postmodernist plots has encouraged other filmmakers to start the process of re-interpretation of the classic narrative structures, and to render the ironic demystification of some nationalistic themes.

  9. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic-Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    strategies and possible failure with corresponding downtime have been taken into account, as well as actual market prices (in Iceland and Norway) for rack material and construction. Calculations show that low stability numbers for the largest rock armour layer give the optimal safety level....

  10. Kernel based pattern analysis methods using eigen-decompositions for reading Icelandic sagas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    We want to test the applicability of kernel based eigen-decomposition methods, compared to the traditional eigen-decomposition methods. We have implemented and tested three kernel based methods methods, namely PCA, MAF and MNF, all using a Gaussian kernel. We tested the methods on a multispectral...... image of a page in the book 'hauksbok', which contains Icelandic sagas....

  11. Development of Bioavailable Pools of Base Cations and P after Afforestation of Volcanic Soils in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Few long-term studies have been conducted on changes in soil nutrients after afforestation in Iceland, a country with a young history of forest management. While fertilization was shown to improve survival of seedlings in the first years after planting on the nutrient limited soils, knowledge about...

  12. [Scientific articles in the Icelandic Medical Journal 2004-2008: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudbjartsson, Tómas; Sigurdsson, Engilbert

    2009-10-01

    In the past 5 years the Icelandic Medical Journal has undergone many changes during a period of flourishing research in Iceland. The process of reviewing and editing scientific articles has been revised since the Journal joined the Medline database in 2005 and the proportion of rejected articles has risen. New columns have been launched covering medical history, professionalism, ethics and hobbies of the medical profession. We categorized all scientific articles from the period 2004-2008, that is research articles, review articles, case reports and clinical guidelines, according to types of articles and to which medical speciality or subspeciality the publication should belong. The number of scientific articles rose during the period but the number of research articles remained around 20 most years during the period. The relative proportion of research articles therefore fell whereas the number and proportion of review articles and case reports increased. Clinical guidelines ceased to appear in the Journal. The contribution of individual specialities to the Journal varied widely. Researchers amongst doctors and related professions need be encouraged to submit scientific articles to the Journal. The publication of scientific articles in English in the web-based form of the Journal may prove to be stimulating in this regard for Icelandic doctors abroad as well as for some researchers in Iceland.

  13. A chironomid-based reconstruction of summer temperatures in NW Iceland since AD 1650

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, P. G.; Caseldine, C. J.; Croudace, I. W.; Jarvis, S.; Wastegård, S.; Crowford, T. C.

    2011-05-01

    Few studies currently exist that aim to validate a proxy chironomid-temperature reconstruction with instrumental temperature measurements. We used a reconstruction from a chironomid percentage abundance data set to produce quantitative summer temperature estimates since AD 1650 for NW Iceland through a transfer function approach, and validated the record against instrumental temperature measurements from Stykkishólmur in western Iceland. The core was dated through Pb-210, Cs-137 and tephra analyses (Hekla 1693) which produced a well-constrained dating model across the whole study period. Little catchment disturbance, as shown through geochemical (Itrax) and loss-on-ignition data, throughout the period further reinforce the premise that the chironomids were responding to temperature and not other catchment or within-lake variables. Particularly cold phases were identified between AD 1683-1710, AD 1765-1780 and AD 1890-1917, with relative drops in summer temperatures in the order of 1.5-2°C. The timing of these cold phases agree well with other evidence of cooler temperatures, notably increased extent of Little Ice Age (LIA) glaciers. Our evidence suggests that the magnitude of summer temperature cooling (1.5-2°C) was enough to force LIA Icelandic glaciers into their maximum Holocene extent, which is in accordance with previous modelling experiments for an Icelandic ice cap (Langjökull).

  14. Seasonal rural residence of Icelandic children Sendur í sveit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research that focuses on children who migrate without a parent or legal guardian is most often carried out in low-income countries. Such migration is increasingly associated with child trafficking. In this article the Icelandic custom to send children to the country during the summer months in the last century will be examined. It is based on secondary documents such as journals, magazines, documents and reports from child protection authorities. The Icelandic population shared the opinion that seasonal rural residence for urban children was beneficial for the nation, the family and the child. In the country, the children would enjoy unspoiled nature, clean mountain air and nutritious food. In addition, they would learn to attend animals and proper work. Individuals, associations, charities and child protection authorities collaborated in an effort to organise rural residence for children during the summer months, either at farms or particular summer camps. Rural residence was considered to be particularly important for delinquent children, but also those who suffered from poverty, irresponsible parental behaviour and poor health. Data is lacking on the number of children sent to the country and their experiences however it is known to have varied greatly. Likewise, little is known about the considerations of the farmers who hosted the children and the children’s parents. This custom is typically per definition child migration without a parent or legal guardian. Care should be taken not to classify such customs routinely as child trafficking wherever they are practiced.Rannsóknir á búferlaflutningi barna til lengri eða skemmri tíma án samfylgdar foreldris eða löggilds forráðamanns beinast oftast að börnum sem flytja úr einum stað í annan innan eða milli lágtekjulanda. Slíkur flutningur er oft bendlaður við mansal. Hér er skoðaður siðurinn að senda íslensk börn í sveit þar sem þau dvöldu að sumri til hjá venslaf

  15. High Proportions of Sub-micron Particulate Matter in Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Magnusdottir, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Iceland is extremely active dust region and desert areas of over 44,000 km2 acknowledge Iceland as the largest Arctic and European desert. Frequent dust events, up to 135 dust days annually, transport dust particles far distances towards the Arctic and Europe. Satellite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes exceeding 1,000 km. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 40.1 million tons yr-1. Two dust storms were measured in transverse horizontal profile about 90 km far from different dust sources in southwestern Iceland in the summer of 2015. Aerosol monitor DustTrak DRX 8533EP was used to measure PM mass concentrations corresponding to PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10 and the total PM15 at several places within the dust plume. Images from camera network operated by the Icelandic Road and Coastal Administration were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. A numerical simulation of surface winds was carried out with the numerical model HIRLAM with horizontal resolution of 5 km and used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources. The in situ measurements inside the dust plumes showed that aeolian dust can be very fine. The study highlights that suspended volcanic dust in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations comparable to the polluted urban stations in Europe or Asia rather than reported dust event observations from around the world. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios are generally low during dust storms outside of Iceland, much lower than > 0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34-0.63 found in our study. It shows that Icelandic volcanic dust consists of higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. The submicron particles are predicted to travel long distances. Moreover, such submicron particles pose considerable health risk because of high potential for entering the lungs. Icelandic volcanic glass has often fine pipe-vesicular structures known from asbestos and high content of heavy metals. Previous

  16. Se comunican los investigadores

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Roncagliolo

    2015-01-01

    En Brasil se reunieron los investigadores de la comunicación de América Latina y del mundo (1992) El encuentro Latinoamericano fue en Embú-Guacú, poblado de la periferia de Sao Paulo, y el encuentro Mundial en Guarujá, balneario cercano al Puerto de Santos. La amplitud de la participación y la diversidad de temas y enfoques son indicios del desarrollo y dinamismo de la profesión.

  17. Se comunican los investigadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Roncagliolo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En Brasil se reunieron los investigadores de la comunicación de América Latina y del mundo (1992 El encuentro Latinoamericano fue en Embú-Guacú, poblado de la periferia de Sao Paulo, y el encuentro Mundial en Guarujá, balneario cercano al Puerto de Santos. La amplitud de la participación y la diversidad de temas y enfoques son indicios del desarrollo y dinamismo de la profesión.

  18. Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegrante John P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that between 80 and 90 percent of adult smokers report having started smoking before 18 years of age. Several studies have revealed that multiple social factors influence the likelihood of smoking during adolescence, the period during which the onset of smoking usually occurs. To better understand the social mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking, we analyzed the relationship and relative importance of a broad spectrum of social variables in adolescent smoking in Iceland, a Nordic country with high per-capita income. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 7,430 14- to 16 year-old students (approximately 81% of all Icelanders in these age cohorts in the 2006 Youth in Iceland study. The Youth in Iceland studies are designed to investigate the role of several cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in the lives of adolescents, and the data collected are used to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs that are being developed by Icelandic social scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Results Our analysis revealed that friends' smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking were strongly associated with adolescent smoking and other tobacco use, as well as alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days. Main protective factors were parent's perceived attitude toward smoking, the quantity of time spent with parents, absence of serious verbal conflict between parents and adolescents, and participation in physical activity. Family structure was related to adolescent smoking to a small extent, but other background factors were not. Conclusion We conclude that multiple social factors are related to adolescent smoking. Parents and other primary preventive agents need to be informed about the complicated nature of the adolescent social world in order to maximize their impact.

  19. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-11-01

    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  20. The Tephra Layer From the Plinian Eruption in ™r‘faj”kull 1362, Southeast Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbekk, R. S.

    2002-12-01

    Pyroclastic fallout from the 1362 eruption of ™r‘faj”kull forms one of the volcanic marker horizons of the North Atlantic. This contribution reports the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the ™r‘faj”kull 1362 fallout and its grain-size distribution. A non-rifting 120 km long volcanic lineament some 50 km east of the Eastern Rift-Zone of Iceland is defined by transitional and alkalic volcanic rocks resting unconformably on late Tertiary strata. ™r‘faj”kull which forms the southern termination of this off-rift liniment is an ice-covered stratovolcano (2200 masl) composed mostly of subglacially formed hyaloclastite ranging from basalts to rhyolites. The two historical (1100 yrs) eruptions of ™r‘faj”kull include a small explosive eruption in 1727 and a large devastating Plinian eruption associated with major lahars and a caldera collapse in 1362. Between 1 and 2 km3 dense rock equivalent or 5-10 km3 of rhyolitic pumice was erupted and the fallout was mainly towards ESE. Tentative modelling of the PT-conditions of the magma formation, based on glass/mineral equilibria, indicates that the source was a near-eutectic melt in equilibrium with fayalite, hedenbergite, oligoclase and hematite at some 0.2 GPa pressure. A profile through the fallout was sampled at elevation of about 1100 masl on the SE flank of the volcano. A deposit of 1.8 m thickness was collected in 14 units for examination of composition, mineralogy and grain-size distribution during the eruption. In the profile the fallout is fine grained vesicular glass (1-3% minerals, 3% lithic fragments) with bubble wall thickness in the low micron range. The high and even vesiculation of the glass indicates fast magma ascent and explains the extreme mechanical fragmentation within the eruptive column, yielding between 50 and 80 wt% of less than 0.25 mm grain size. A reconstruction of the Plinian phase, based on grain-size analysis and abundance of lithic fragments, reveals that the

  1. Shallow conduit processes of the 1991 Hekla eruption, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudnason, J.; Thordarson, T.; Houghton, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    ., et al., The 1991 eruption of Hekla, Iceland. Bulletin of Volcanology, 1992. 54(3): p. 238-246. 2. Höskuldsson, Á., Óskarsson, N., Pedersen, R., Grönvold, K., Vogfjörd, K. & Ólafsdóttir, R. 2007. The millennium eruption of Hekla in February 2000. Bull Volcanol, 70:169-182. 3. Larsen, G., E.G. Vilmundardóttir, and B. Thorkelsson, Heklugosid 1991: Gjóskufall og gjóskulagid frá fyrsta degi gossins. Náttúrufrædingurinn, 1992. 61(3-4): p. 159-176.

  2. Selenium Se and tellurium Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for determining selenium and tellurium in various objects are presented. The bichromatometric determination of Te in cadmium, zinc and mercury tellurides is based on oxidation of Te(4) to (6) in H 2 SO 4 with potassium bichromate. In steels, Te is determined photometrically with the aid of KI. The determination is hindered by Fe(3), Cu(2), Bi(3) and Se(4) ions, which must be separated. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in native sulfur is carried out with the aid of 5-mercapto-3-(naphthyl-2)-1,3,4-thiadiazolthione-2 (pH=4.8-5.0). The dyed complex is readily extracted with chloroform and benzene. The spectrophotometric determination of Te in selenium is performed with the aid of 3,5-diphenylpyrazoline-1-dithiocarbamate of sodium. Te is determined in commercial indium, arsenic and their semiconductor compounds photometrically with the aid of copper diethyldithiocarbamate. The method permits determining 5x10 -5 % Te in a weighed amount of 0.5 g. The chloride complex of Te(4) with diantipyriodolpropylmethane is quantitatively extracted with dichloroethane from hydrochloric acid solutions. Thus, any amounts of Te can be separated from Se and determined photometrically. The extraction-photometric determination of Te in commercial lead and bismuth is carried out with the aid of pyrazolone derivatives, in commercial copper with the aid of diantipyridolpropylmethane, and in ores (more than 0.01% Te) with the aid of bismuthol 2. Also described is the extraction-polarographic determination of Te in sulfide ores

  3. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young SJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100 substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.

  4. The effect of signal leakage and glacial isostatic rebound on GRACE-derived ice mass changes in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Adalgeirsdottir, Gudfinna

    2017-01-01

    Monthly gravity field models from the GRACE satellite mission are widely used to determine ice mass changes of large ice sheets as well as smaller glaciers and ice caps. Here, we investigate in detail the ice mass changes of the Icelandic ice caps as derived from GRACE data. The small size...... of the Icelandic ice caps, their location close to other rapidly changing ice covered areas and the low viscosity of the mantle below Iceland make this especially challenging. The mass balance of the ice caps is well constrained by field mass balance measurements, making this area ideal for such investigations. We...... the Little Ice Age (∼ 1890 AD). To minimize the signal that leaks towards Iceland from Greenland, we employ an independent mass change estimate of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from satellite laser altimetry. We also estimate the effect of post Little Ice Age glacial isostatic adjustment, from knowledge...

  5. Transport properties and giant Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the first organic conductor with metal complex anion containing selenocyanate ligand, (ET)2TlHg(SeCN)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laukhin, V.N.; Audouard, A.; Rakoto, H.; Broto, J.M.; Goze, F.; Coffe, G.; Brossard, L.; Redoules, J.P.; Kartsovnik, M.V.; Kushch, N.D.; Buravov, L.I.; Khomenko, A.G.; Yagubskii, E.B.; Askenazy, S.; Pari, P.

    1995-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the resistivity in various crystallographic directions and high pulsed field magnetoresistance of organic metal α-(ET) 2 TlHg(SeCN) 4 have been studied at temperatures down to 80 mK. Giant Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, which are attributed to the two-dimensional nature of the cylindrical Fermi surface with a very small warping along the direction of the lowest conductivity have been observed. Four harmonics of the fast oscillations with fundamental frequency F 0 =653±3 T and slow frequency oscillations with F s =38±5 T have been revealed. (orig.)

  6. Transport properties and giant Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the first organic conductor with metal complex anion containing selenocyanate ligand, (ET){sub 2}TlHg(SeCN){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukhin, V.N. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France)]|[Institute of Chemical Physics in Chernogolovka, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, MD 142432 (Russian Federation); Audouard, A. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Rakoto, H. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Broto, J.M. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Goze, F. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Coffe, G. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Brossard, L. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Redoules, J.P. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Kartsovnik, M.V. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, MD 142432 (Russian Federation); Kushch, N.D. [Institute of Chemical Physics in Chernogolovka, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, MD 142432 (Russian Federation); Buravov, L.I.

    1995-05-01

    Temperature dependence of the resistivity in various crystallographic directions and high pulsed field magnetoresistance of organic metal {alpha}-(ET){sub 2}TlHg(SeCN){sub 4} have been studied at temperatures down to 80 mK. Giant Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, which are attributed to the two-dimensional nature of the cylindrical Fermi surface with a very small warping along the direction of the lowest conductivity have been observed. Four harmonics of the fast oscillations with fundamental frequency F{sub 0}=653{+-}3 T and slow frequency oscillations with F{sub s}=38{+-}5 T have been revealed. (orig.).

  7. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland: Early introductions, transmission dynamics and recent outbreaks among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Malik; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Baldvinsdóttir, Guðrún; Indriðason, Hlynur; Björnsdóttir, Thora Björg; Widell, Anders; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Löve, Arthur; Medstrand, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland has not been described so far. Detailed analyses of the dynamics of HIV-1 can give insights for prevention of virus spread. The objective of the current study was to characterize the genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of HIV-1 in Iceland. Partial HIV-1 pol (1020bp) sequences were generated from 230 Icelandic samples, representing 77% of all HIV-1 infected individuals reported in the country 1985-2012. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were reconstructed for subtype/CRF assignment and determination of transmission clusters. Timing and demographic growth patterns were determined in BEAST. HIV-1 infection in Iceland was dominated by subtype B (63%, n=145) followed by subtype C (10%, n=23), CRF01_AE (10%, n=22), sub-subtype A1 (7%, n=15) and CRF02_AG (7%, n=15). Trend analysis showed an increase in non-B subtypes/CRFs in Iceland over the study period (p=0.003). The highest proportion of phylogenetic clustering was found among injection drug users (IDUs; 89%), followed by heterosexuals (70%) and men who have sex with men (35%). The time to the most recent common ancestor of the oldest subtype B cluster dated back to 1978 (median estimate, 95% highest posterior density interval: 1974-1981) suggesting an early introduction of HIV-1 into Iceland. A previously reported increase in HIV-1 incidence among IDUs 2009-2011 was revealed to be due to two separate outbreaks. Our study showed that a variety of HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs were prevalent in Iceland 1985-2012, with subtype B being the dominant form both in terms of prevalence and domestic spread. The rapid increase of HIV-1 infections among IDUs following a major economic crisis in Iceland raises questions about casual associations between economic factors, drug use and public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Iceland from 2000 to 2008: a challenge to current guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, B.J.; Hardardottir, H.; Haraldsson, Gustav Helgi

    2010-01-01

    and microbiological data of all MRSA patients from the years 2000 to 2008 were collected prospectively. Isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), sequencing of the repeat region of the Staphylococcus protein A gene (spa typing), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing...... setting. However, MRSA in Iceland is now shifting into the community, challenging the current Icelandic guidelines, which are tailored to the health care system....

  9. Iceland Scotland Overflow Water flow through the Bight Fracture Zone in June-July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Herle; Petit, Tillys; Thierry, Virginie

    2017-04-01

    ISOW (Iceland Scotland Overflow Water) is the densest water in the northern Iceland Basin and a main constituent of the lower limb of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). ISOW is the product of mixing of dense water originating from the Nordic Seas with Atlantic Water and Labrador Sea Water during its crossing of the Iceland-Faroe-Scotland Ridge and downstream acceleration. In the northern Iceland Basin, ISOW is characterized by potential density σ0 > 27.8 and salinity > 34.94. Downstream of the Iceland-Scotland Ridge, ISOW flows southwestward in a Deep Western Boundary Current along the eastern flank of the Reykjanes Ridge. Models and float trajectories previously suggested that part of the ISOW flow could cross the Reykjanes Ridge through the Bight Fracture Zone. However, no direct observations of the ISOW flow through the Bight Fracture Zone are available that would allow us to quantify its transport and water mass transformation. This lack of direct observations also prevents understanding the dynamics of the throughflow. In this study, we analyzed a set of CTDO2 and LADCP stations acquired in June-July 2015 during the Reykjanes Ridge Experiment cruise and provide new insights on the ISOW flow through the Bight Fracture Zone. The evolution of the properties as well as the velocity measurements confirm an ISOW flow from the Iceland Basin to the Irminger Sea. A main constrain to the throughflow is the presence of two sills of about 2150 m depth and two narrows. With potential densities between 27.8-27.87 kg m-3 and near bottom potential temperature of 3.02°C and salinity of 34.98, only the lightest variety of ISOW is found at the entrance of the BFZ east of the sills. In the central part of the Bight Fracture Zone, the evolution of ISOW is characterized by a decrease of 0.015 kg m-3 in the near bottom density, ascribed to the blocking of the densest ISOW variety by the sills and/or diapycnal mixing. To the West, at the exit of the BFZ, ISOW overlays

  10. Insights into Earth's Accretion and Mantle Structure from Neon and Xenon in Icelandic Basalt (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2010-12-01

    The noble gases provide important constraints for planet accretion models and understanding mantle structure and dynamics. Recent work based on continental well gases indicate that the MORB source 20Ne/22Ne ratio is similar to the Ne-B component in chondrites [1,2]. However, ratios higher than Ne-B have been reported in plume-derived Devonian rocks form the Kola Peninsula [3]. Here I report high-precision noble gas data in an Icelandic basaltic glass that demonstrate plumes have a different 20Ne/22Ne ratio than the MORB source. The highest measured 20Ne/22Ne ratio from Iceland is ~12.9, very similar to values in the Kola plume, but quite distinct from the convecting upper mantle as constrained from the well gases [1,2]. Hence, the Icelandic and Kola plume data indicate that OIBs and MORBs have different 20Ne/22Ne ratios. Since 20Ne/22Ne ratios in the mantle cannot change, Earth must have accreted volatiles from at least two separate reservoirs. The differences in 20Ne/22Ne ratios between OIBs and MORBs further indicate that early heterogeneities in the Earth’s mantle have not been wiped away by 4.5 Gyrs of mantle convection, placing strong constraints on mixing and mass flow in the mantle. The requirement of limited direct mixing between plumes and MORB source is supported by 129Xe, formed through radioactive decay of now extinct 129I. Combined He, Ne, and Xe measurements demonstrate that the Iceland plume has a lower 129Xe/130Xe ratio than MORBs because it evolved with a I/Xe ratio distinct from the MORB source and not because of recycled atmosphere (which has low 129/130Xe) in the plume source. Since 129I became extinct 80 Myrs after solar system formation, limited mixing between plume and MORB source is a stringent requirement. Additionally, the high-precision Xe measurements reveal for the first time that the Iceland plume source has significantly higher proportion of plutonium derived fission xenon than MORBs, requiring the plume source to be less degassed

  11. Earthquake Prediction Research In Iceland, Applications For Hazard Assessments and Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, R.

    Earthquake prediction research in Iceland, applications for hazard assessments and warnings. The first multinational earthquake prediction research project in Iceland was the Eu- ropean Council encouraged SIL project of the Nordic countries, 1988-1995. The path selected for this research was to study the physics of crustal processes leading to earth- quakes. It was considered that small earthquakes, down to magnitude zero, were the most significant for this purpose, because of the detailed information which they pro- vide both in time and space. The test area for the project was the earthquake prone region of the South Iceland seismic zone (SISZ). The PRENLAB and PRENLAB-2 projects, 1996-2000 supported by the European Union were a direct continuation of the SIL project, but with a more multidisciplinary approach. PRENLAB stands for "Earthquake prediction research in a natural labo- ratory". The basic objective was to advance our understanding in general on where, when and how dangerous NH10earthquake motion might strike. Methods were devel- oped to study crustal processes and conditions, by microearthquake information, by continuous GPS, InSAR, theoretical modelling, fault mapping and paleoseismology. New algorithms were developed for short term warnings. A very useful short term warning was issued twice in the year 2000, one for a sudden start of an eruption in Volcano Hekla February 26, and the other 25 hours before a second (in a sequence of two) magnitude 6.6 (Ms) earthquake in the South Iceland seismic zone in June 21, with the correct location and approximate size. A formal short term warning, although not going to the public, was also issued before a magnitude 5 earthquake in November 1998. In the presentation it will be shortly described what these warnings were based on. A general hazard assessmnets was presented in scientific journals 10-15 years ago assessing within a few kilometers the location of the faults of the two 2000 earthquakes and suggesting

  12. Geodetic Measurements and Numerical Models of Rifting in Northern Iceland for 1993-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T.; Feigl, K.; Masterlark, T.; Carr, B. B.; Sigmundsson, F.; Thurber, C. H.

    2009-12-01

    Rifting occurs as episodes of active deformation in individual rift segments of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland. To measure the deformation, we use interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 1993 and 1999. Preliminary results suggest that a complex interplay of multiple inflating and deflating sources at depth is required to account for the observed deformation. In an effort to integrate heterogeneous constraining information (kinematic plate spreading, seismic tomography and anisotropy, and thermal and rheologic structures), we develop finite element models that simulate the underlying sources and processes associated with rifting events to quantitatively understand the magmatic plumbing system beneath Krafla central volcano and rift segment, the site of the most recent rifting episode in the NVZ. Calibration parameters include the positions, geometries, and flux rates for elements of the plumbing system, as well as material properties. The General Inversion for Phase Technique (GIPhT) [Feigl and Thurber, Geophys. J. Int., 2009] is used to model the InSAR phase data directly, without unwrapping parameters. It operates on wrapped phase values ranging from -1/2 to +1/2 cycles. By defining a cost function that quantifies the misfit between observed and modeled values in terms of wrapped phase, GIPhT can estimate parameters in a geophysical model by minimizing the cost function. Since this approach can handle noisy, wrapped phase data, it avoids the pitfalls of phase-unwrapping approaches. Consequently, GIPhT allows the analysis, interpretation and modeling of more interferometric pairs than approaches that require unwrapping. GIPhT also allows statistical testing of hypotheses because the wrapped phase residuals follow a Von Mises distribution. As a result, the model parameters estimated by GIPhT include formal uncertainties. We test the hypothesis that deformation in the rift zone occurred at a constant (secular

  13. Radial viscous fingering of hot asthenosphere within the Icelandic plume beneath the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonman, C. M.; White, N. J.; Pritchard, D.

    2017-06-01

    The Icelandic mantle plume has had a significant influence on the geologic and oceanographic evolution of the North Atlantic Ocean during Cenozoic times. Full-waveform tomographic imaging of this region shows that the planform of this plume has a complex irregular shape with significant shear wave velocity anomalies lying beneath the lithospheric plates at a depth of 100-200 km. The distribution of these anomalies suggests that about five horizontal fingers extend radially beneath the fringing continental margins. The best-imaged fingers lie beneath the British Isles and beneath western Norway where significant departures from crustal isostatic equilibrium have been measured. Here, we propose that these radial fingers are generated by a phenomenon known as the Saffman-Taylor instability. Experimental and theoretical analyses show that fingering occurs when a less viscous fluid is injected into a more viscous fluid. In radial, miscible fingering, the wavelength and number of fingers are controlled by the mobility ratio (i.e. the ratio of viscosities), by the Péclet number (i.e. the ratio of advective and diffusive transport rates), and by the thickness of the horizontal layer into which fluid is injected. We combine shear wave velocity estimates with residual depth measurements around the Atlantic margins to estimate the planform distribution of temperature and viscosity within a horizontal asthenospheric layer beneath the lithospheric plate. Our estimates suggest that the mobility ratio is at least 20-50, that the Péclet number is O (104), and that the asthenospheric channel is 100 ± 20 km thick. The existence and planform of fingering is consistent with experimental observations and with theoretical arguments. A useful rule of thumb is that the wavelength of fingering is 5 ± 1 times the thickness of the horizontal layer. Our proposal has been further tested by examining plumes of different vigor and planform (e.g. Hawaii, Cape Verde, Yellowstone). Our results

  14. Interaction of Se and GaSe with Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Shuang; Schroeder, B. R.; Olmstead, Marjorie A.

    2000-01-01

    Deposition of Se and GaSe on Si(111)7x7 surfaces was studied with low-energy electron diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron diffraction to probe initial nucleation and interface structure for GaSe/Si(111) heteroepitaxy. Room-temperature deposition of Se on Si(111)7x7 results in an amorphous film. Subsequent annealing leads to Se evaporation without ordering or interdiffusion. Se deposition at 450 degree sign C saturates at submonolayer coverage with no diffusion of Se into the substrate. There is no clear evidence of ordered sites for the Se. Growth of GaSe on Si(111)7x7 above 500 degree sign C results in a pseudomorphic bilayer, with Si-Ga-Se bonding. Additional GaSe does not stick to the bilayer above 525 degree sign C. The resulting Se lone pair at the surface leads to an ideally passivated surface similar to As/Si(111). This stable surface is similar to the layer termination in bulk GaSe. The single domain bilayer is oriented with the Ga-Se bond parallel to the substrate Si-Si bond. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  15. Effects of Accelerated Deglaciation on Chemical Characteristics of Sub-arctic Lakes and Rivers in South and West Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, M.; Strock, K.; Edwards, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    Glaciers and their associated paraglacial landscapes have changed rapidly over the past century, and may see increased rates of melt as temperatures increase in high latitude environments. As glaciers recede, glacial meltwater subsidies increase to inland freshwater systems, influencing their structure and function. Evidence suggests melting ice influences the chemical characteristics of systems by providing nutrient subsidies, while inputs of glacial flour influence their physical structure by affecting temperature, reducing water clarity and increasing turbidity. Together, changes in physical and chemical structure of these systems have subsequent effects on biota, with the potential to lower taxonomic richness. This study characterized the chemistry of rivers and lakes fed by glacial meltwater in sub-arctic environments of Iceland, where there is limited limnological data. The survey characterized nutrient chemistry, dissolved organic carbon, and ion chemistry. We surveyed glacial meltwater from six glaciers in south and west Iceland, using the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier along the southern coast as a detailed study area to examine the interactions between groundwater and surface runoff. The southern systems, within the Eastern Volcanic Zone, have minimal soil development and active volcanoes produce ash input to lakes. Lakes in the Western Volcanic Zone were more diverse, located in older bedrock with more extensively weathered soil. Key differences were observed between aquatic environments subsidized with glacial meltwater and those without. This included physical effects, such as lower temperatures and chemical effects such as lower conductivity and higher pH in glacially fed systems. In the drainage basin of Gigjökull glacier, lakes formed after the former lagoon was emptied and then partly refilled with debris from jokulhlaups during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. These newly formed lakes resembled non-glacial melt systems despite receiving

  16. Rhyolitic glasses as natural analogues of nuclear waste glasses: behaviour of an Icelandic glass upon natural aqueous corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magonthier, M.-C.; Petit, J.-C.; Dran, J.-C.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed study of the altered rims present in narrow fissures of a 52 ka-old Icelandic obsidian reveals the behaviour of transition and heavy elements, as well as the mechanism and kinetics of alteration, during glass/solution interaction. These complex altered rims are alkali depleted and consist of alternating layers of Fe-rich aluminosilicate and aluminium thihydroxide. The elemental partitioning observed on this naturally corroded obsidian is supported by laboratory experiments performed on the same glass, the elemental accumulation being explained by the formation of a hydrosilicate. A good correlation exists between the thickness of the altered rims and that calculated from the amounts of Fe and Ti accumulated locally. Thus, immobile elements can be used reliably as indices of the extent of alteration because only near-equilibrium conditions occur. The good agreement between the experimental hydration rate of obsidians and the progress of natural corrosion, leads to the assumption that ion diffusion is the long-term controlling mechanism of corrosion. Such an assumption is supported by the particular distribution of the immobile elements which is due to ion diffusion and coprecipitation processes (self-organization genesis). These observations have implications for nuclear waste disposal topics and support the validity of obsidians as analogues of nuclear waste glasses with respect to some local environmental constraints induced by waste packaging and disposal. (author)

  17. Hydrothermal fluid flow within a tectonically active rift-ridge transform junction: Tjörnes Fracture Zone, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, M.; Geiger, S.; Graham, C. M.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the regional fluid flow dynamics in a highly faulted transform area, the Tjörnes Fracture Zone in northern Iceland which is characterized by steep geothermal gradients, hydrothermal activity, and strong seismicity. We simulate fluid flow within the Tjörnes Fracture Zone using a high-resolution model that was based on the available geological and geophysical data and has the aim to represent the complex geological structures and the thermodynamical processes that drive the regional fluid flow in a physically realistic way. Our results show that convective heat flow and mixing of cold and saline seawater with deep hydrothermal fluids controls the large-scale fluid flow. The distribution of faults has a strong influence on the local hydrodynamics by focusing flow around clusters of faults. This explains the nature of isolated upflow zones of hot hydrothermal fluids which are observed in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone. An important emergent characteristic of the regional fluid flow in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone are two separate flow systems: one in the sedimentary basins, comprising more vigorous convection, and one in the crystalline basement, which is dominated by conduction. These two flow systems yield fundamental insight into the connection between regional hydrothermal fluid flow and seismicity because they form the basis of a toggle switch mechanism that is thought to have caused the hydrogeochemical anomalies recorded at Húsavik before and after the 5.8 M earthquake in September 2002.

  18. Deep crustal melt plumbing of Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T. S.; White, R. S.; Greenfield, T.; Ágústsdóttir, T.; Brisbourne, A.; Green, R. G.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding magmatic plumbing within the Earth's crust is important for understanding volcanic systems and improving eruption forecasting. We discuss magma plumbing under Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland, over a 4 year period encompassing the largest Icelandic eruption in 230 years. Microseismicity extends through the usually ductile region of the Earth's crust, from 7 to 22 km depth in a subvertical column. Moment tensor solutions for an example earthquake exhibits opening tensile crack behavior. This is consistent with the deep (>7 km) seismicity being caused by the movement of melt in the normally aseismic crust. The seismically inferred melt path from the mantle source is offset laterally from the center of the Bárðarbunga caldera by 12 km, rather than lying directly beneath it. It is likely that an aseismic melt feed also exists directly beneath the caldera and is aseismic due to elevated temperatures and pervasive partial melt under the caldera.

  19. Ideological Cooperation versus Cold War Realpolitik - The SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valur Ingimundarson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relationship between the East German Socialist Unity Party (SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party (SEI during the Cold War. It details the structural limitations of ideological cooperation between the two parties – Iceland’s NATO membership and the U.S. military presence – as well as its possibilities, especially in the 1950s, through the governmental participation of the SEI. Special attention is devoted to the role played by Einar Olgeirsson, the chairman of the SEI 1939–1968, who was instrumental in forging and developing political, economic, and cultural ties with the SED and the German Democratic Republic. The article argues that this experiment in transnational solidarity between socialist parties from two radically different political systems failed in the end due to several factors, including ideological differences and the political and economic development in Iceland.

  20. Spatiotemporal evolution of the completeness magnitude of the Icelandic earthquake catalogue from 1991 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Francesco; Mignan, Arnaud; Vogfjörð, Kristin S.

    2017-07-01

    In 1991, a digital seismic monitoring network was installed in Iceland with a digital seismic system and automatic operation. After 20 years of operation, we explore for the first time its nationwide performance by analysing the spatiotemporal variations of the completeness magnitude. We use the Bayesian magnitude of completeness (BMC) method that combines local completeness magnitude observations with prior information based on the density of seismic stations. Additionally, we test the impact of earthquake location uncertainties on the BMC results, by filtering the catalogue using a multivariate analysis that identifies outliers in the hypocentre error distribution. We find that the entire North-to-South active rift zone shows a relatively low magnitude of completeness Mc in the range 0.5-1.0, highlighting the ability of the Icelandic network to detect small earthquakes. This work also demonstrates the influence of earthquake location uncertainties on the spatiotemporal magnitude of completeness analysis.

  1. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  2. Environmental Uncertainty, Performance Measure Variety and Perceived Performance in Icelandic Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    and the perceived performance of the company. The sample was the 300 largest companies in Iceland and the response rate was 27%. Compared to other studies the majority of the respondents use a surprisingly high number of different measures – both financial and non-financial. This made testing of the three......The use of performance measures and performance measurement frameworks has increased significantly in recent years. The type and variety of performance measures in use has been researched in various countries and linked to different variables such as the external environment, performance...... measurement frameworks, and management characteristics. This paper reports the results of a study carried out at year end 2013 of the use of performance measures by Icelandic companies and the links to perceived environmental uncertainty, management satisfaction with the performance measurement system...

  3. Provenance variation in subalpine fir grown as an exotic tree species in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skúlason, Brynjar

    Neonectria neomacrospora in Denmark. In Iceland the corkbark fir showed superior results, especially for survival rate and Christmas tree quality. The White River provenance from British Columbia is recommended for use in Denmark. The Mount Taylor provenance from the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico...... fir (A. lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) and corkbark fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica (Merriam) Lemmon) was established at three sites in Denmark and at one site in Iceland in 1999. Adaptability, Christmas tree quality, growth rhythm and susceptibility to pests and pathogens were measured and assessed...... and the most spring frost damage on buds. The westernmost subalpine fir provenances from Washington state and British Columbia showed the overall best results in Denmark, with the highest survival (after 15 years), fastest height growth and highest Christmas tree quality and profitability, as well as both good...

  4. Survivel, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings fertilized at planting on Andisol soils in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Hreinn; Sigurgeirsson, Adalsteinn; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    seedlings, compared to control seedlings. It is concluded that fertilization during afforestation in Iceland and other areas in the world with similar climatic and soil properties could make the difference between plantation success or failure. Growth; Survival; Foliar nutrient concentration; Frost heaving......A field trial was carried out in 1995 to study the effect of fertilization at planting on the survival, growth, and nutrition of tree seedlings planted on Andisol soils at two sites in South Iceland. Nine fertilizer treatments were tested on three tree species Betula pubescens Ehrh., Larix sibirica...... survival and growth. Larger amounts of N increased mortality during the first year. Fertilized trees were less subject to frost heaving than untreated trees. In the year following application of NPK fertilizer the effect was insignificant on the foliar concentration of macronutrients of the fertilized...

  5. Helium isotopes in geothermal systems: Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.

    1982-01-01

    Helium isotope ratios have been measured in geothermal fluids from Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River, Steamboat Springs and Hawaii. These ratios have been interpreted in terms of the processes which supply He in distinct isotopic ratios and in terms of the processes which can alter the isotopic ratio. Using this interpretational scheme, Iceland is found to be an area of hot-spot magmatic He implying an active volcanic source although the data are suggestive of high-temperature weathering release of crustal He incorporated in the geothermal fluids. By comparison to fumarolic gases from Hawaii and Juan De Fuca and Cayman Trench basaltic glass samples, The Geysers contains MOR type magmatic He again implying an active volcanic source possibly a 'leaky' transform related to the San Andreas Fault System. Raft River contains only crustal He indicating no active volcanic sources. Steamboat Springs He isotope ratios are distinctly less than typical plate margin volcanics but must still have a magmatic source. (author)

  6. Effect of year of birth on the breast cancer age-incidence curve in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnason, O [Univ. of Iceland, Reykjavik; Day, N; Snaedal, G; Tulinius, H

    1974-01-01

    Among different populations, the shape of the age-incidence curve for breast cancer is strongly related to the overall incidence of breast cancer in the respective population. Data are available from Iceland for the period 1911--1972. These data show that breast cancer has increased very markedly in Iceland during this period, and that as the overall incidence has risen, so the age-incidence curve has changed in shape, the relation between the shape and the overall incidence being the same as that now observed in other countries. The change in shape is shown to be explicable entirely as a cohort phenomenon, each decade of birth cohort having an age-incidence curve of similar shape, but with different overall incidence. Data from some other regions of the world indicate that many of the present differences in the shape of the age-incidence curve may be the reflection of cohort phenomena.

  7. Effective Project Risk management in Micro Companies : Case study for Persona Optima Iceland ehf.

    OpenAIRE

    Bražinskaitė, Justina

    2011-01-01

    This study is meant to be a guide for micro companies regarding effective project risk management. The main purpose of this thesis is to introduce project risk management and build a user-friendly managerial model toward effective project risk management in micro companies. The research is based on a case company Persona Optima Iceland ehf. analysis. The study investigates risk management, uncertainties and risks in projects, project risk management, its models and particularities in orde...

  8. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2007-01-01

    Guidance on selection of breakwater types and related design safety levels for breakwaters are almost non-existent, which is the reason that PIANC has initiated working group 47 on this subject. This paper presents ongoing work particulary on the Icelandic type berm breakwater within the PIANC...... working group. It will concentrate on design guidance and on the optimum safety levels for this type of structure....

  9. Impact of soil warming on the plant metabolome of Icelandic grasslands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gargallo-Garriga, A.; Ayala-Roque, M.; Sardans, J.; Bartrons, M.; Granda, V.; Sigurdsson, B. D.; Leblans, N. I.W.; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Janssens, I. A.; Peñuelas, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 44. E-ISSN 2218-1989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Climate change * Geothermal bedrock channels * Grassland * Iceland * Metabolome * Warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  10. Multiple ways of producing intermediate and silicic rocks within Thingmúli and other Icelandic volcanoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charreteur, Gilles; Tegner, Christian; Haase, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Major and trace element compositions of rocks and coexisting phenocrysts of the ThingmA(0)li volcano suggest a revision of the existing models for the formation of intermediate and silicic melts in Iceland. The new data define two compositional tholeiitic trends with a significant gap between the...... between the compositions of intermediate and silicic rocks and plate tectonic setting, therefore, should be avoided....

  11. Social Media Used by Government Institutions in Iceland: Application, Role and Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Einarsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the use and role of social media hosted by government institutions in Iceland. The research was conducted using quantitative and qualitative research methods. A survey was sent electronically to all government institutions in Iceland and semi-structured interviews were conducted with specialists working for institutions. No research has been conducted on this subject in Iceland before. It was therefore considered timely that a research was conducted on the use of social media in public institutions, with the intention of adding new knowledge to the field. No similar research from outside of Iceland was found, but this research was based on related studies and sources from abroad. A little less than half of government institutions used social media as part of their activities and Facebook and YouTube were most widely used. Popularity, circulation, usefulness and convenience were the most important factors when choosing social media. The majority of institutions had neither defined social media goals nor the role and responsibility of employees when using social media. The institutions placed strong emphasis on publishing adverts and news items on the institutions’ activities via social media pages and there were a considerable number of references to material on other web pages. Among other things the interviewees said that the purpose of using social media was information dissemination, reception of information, more visibility, the opening of institutions to the public and increased transparency. They talked about the importance of being informal on social media, but they also pointed out that there had been some fear among institutions of using them, in particular fear of employees showing a human side via social media. There was minimal use of original material on institutions’ social media pages, while institutions were quite systematic in posting material from their website through social media

  12. The Icelandic economic collapse, smoking, and the role of labor-market changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Thorhildur; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2015-05-01

    Smoking is related to health deterioration through increased risk of various diseases. Changes in this health behavior could contribute to the documented health improvements during economic downturns. Furthermore, the reasons for changes in behavior are not well understood. We explore smoking behavior in Iceland before and after the sudden and unexpected economic crisis in 2008. Furthermore, to explore the mechanisms through which smoking could be affected we focus on the role of labor-market changes. Both real income and working hours fell significantly and economic theory suggests that such changes can affect health behaviors which in turn affect health. We use individual longitudinal data from 2007 to 2009, incidentally before and after the crisis hit. The data originates from a postal survey, collected by The Public Health Institute in Iceland. Two outcomes are explored: smoking participation and smoking intensity, using pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) and linear probability models. The detected reduction in both outcomes is not explained by the changes in labor-market variables. Other factors in the demand function for tobacco play a more important role. The most notable are real prices which increased in particular for imported goods because of the devaluation of the Icelandic currency as a result of the economic collapse.

  13. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of a Wind Power Generation System at Búrfell in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Freyr Ragnarsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy harnessing is a new energy production alternative in Iceland. Current installed wind power in Iceland sums to 1.8 MW, which in contrast is 0.1% of the country’s total electricity production. This article is dedicated to the exploration of the potential cost of wind energy production at Búrfell in the south of Iceland. A levelized cost of energy (LCOE approach was applied to the estimation of the potential cost. Weibull simulation is used to simulate wind data for calculations. A confirmation of the power law is done by comparing real data to calculated values. A modified Weibull simulation is verified by comparing results with actual on-site test wind turbines. A wind farm of 99MWis suggested for the site. Key results were the capacity factor (CF at Búrfell being 38.15% on average and that the LCOE for wind energy was estimated as 0.087–0.088 USD/kWh (assuming 10% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, which classifies Búrfell among the lowest LCOE sites for wind energy in Europe.

  14. Drivers of Ecological Restoration: Lessons from a Century of Restoration in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ása L. Aradóttir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the main drivers for ecological restoration in Iceland from 1907 to 2010 and assessed whether the drivers have changed over time and what factors might explain the changes, if any. Our study was based on a catalogue of 100 restoration projects, programs, and areas, representing 75% to 85% of all restoration activities in Iceland. Catastrophic erosion was an early driver for soil conservation and restoration efforts that still ranked high in the 2000s, reflecting the immense scale of soil erosion and desertification in Iceland. Socioeconomic drivers such as farming and the provision of wood products were strong motivators of ecological restoration over most of the 20th century, although their relative importance decreased with time as the number and diversity of drivers increased. In the 1960s and 1970s, the construction of hard infrastructure, and moral values such as improving the aesthetics of the countryside and "repaying the debt to the land" emerged as motivations for restoration actions. In the late 1990s, the United Nations Climate Change Convention became a driver for restoration, and the importance of nature conservation and recreation increased. Technological development and financial incentives did not show up as drivers of ecological restoration in our study, although there are some indications of their influence. Furthermore, policy was a minor driver, which might reflect weak policy instruments for ecological restoration and some counteractive policies.

  15. Calculations of resonances parameters for the ((2s2) 1Se, (2s2p) 1,3P0) and ((3s2) 1Se, (3s3p) 1,3P0) doubly excited states of helium-like ions with Z≤10 using a complex rotation method implemented in Scilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gning, Youssou; Sow, Malick; Traoré, Alassane; Dieng, Matabara; Diakhate, Babacar; Biaye, Mamadi; Wagué, Ahmadou

    2015-01-01

    In the present work a special computational program Scilab (Scientific Laboratory) in the complex rotation method has been used to calculate resonance parameters of ((2s 2 ) 1 S e , (2s2p) 1,3 P 0 ) and ((3s 2 ) 1 S e , (3s3p) 1,3 P 0 ) states of helium-like ions with Z≤10. The purpose of this study required a mathematical development of the Hamiltonian applied to Hylleraas wave function for intrashell states, leading to analytical expressions which are carried out under Scilab computational program. Results are in compliance with recent theoretical calculations. - Highlights: • Resonance energy and widths computed for doubly excited states of helium-like ions. • Well-comparable results to the theoretical literature values up to Z=10. • Satisfactory agreements with theoretical calculations for widths

  16. The impact of economic factors on migration considerations among Icelandic specialist doctors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Ingunn Bjarnadóttir; Tómasson, Kristinn; Aasland, Olaf; Tyssen, Reidar

    2013-12-18

    Globalization has facilitated the employability of doctors almost anywhere in the world. In recent years, the migration of doctors seems to have increased. However, we lack studies on doctors' migration from developed countries. Because the economic recession experienced by many countries might have affected the migration of doctors, research on this topic is important for the retention of doctors. Iceland was hit hard by the economic recession in 2008. Therefore, we want to explore how many specialist doctors in Iceland have considered migrating and whether economic factors at work and in private life, such as extensive cost-containment initiatives at work and worries about personal finances, are related to doctors' migration considerations. In 2010, all doctors in Iceland registered with the Icelandic Medical Association were sent an electronic cross-sectional survey by email. The 467 specialists who participated in this study represent 55% of all specialist doctors working in Iceland. Information on doctors' contemplation of migration was available from responses to the question: "Have you considered moving and working abroad?" The predictor variables in our logistic regression model are perceived cost-containment initiatives at work, stress related to personal finances, experience of working abroad during vacations, job dissatisfaction, job position, age, and gender. Sixty-three per cent of Iceland's specialist doctors had considered relocation abroad, 4% were moving in the next year or two, and 33% had not considered relocating. Logistic regression analysis shows that, controlling for age, gender, job position, job satisfaction, and experience of working abroad during vacations, doctors' migration considerations were significantly affected by their experiences of cost-containment initiatives at work (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, p Economic factors affect whether specialist doctors in Iceland consider migration. More studies on the effect of economic recession

  17. Mantle Convection beneath the Aegir Ridge, a Shadow in the Iceland Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S. M.; Ito, G.; Breivik, A. J.; Hanan, B. B.; Mjelde, R.; Sayit, K.; Vogt, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Iceland Hotspot has produced extensive volcanism spanning much of the ocean basin between Greenland and Norway, forming one of the world's largest igneous provinces. However, an apparent igneous "shadow" in hotspot activity is located at the fossil Aegir Ridge, which formed anomalously thin crust, despite this ridge being near the Iceland hotspot when it was active. The Aegir Ridge accommodated seafloor spreading northeast of present-day Iceland from the time of continental breakup at ~55 Ma until ~25 Ma, at which point spreading shifted west to the Kolbeinsey Ridge. To address the cause of the anomalously thin crust produced by the Aegir Ridge, we use three-dimensional numerical models to simulate the interaction between a mantle plume beneath the Iceland hotspot, rifting continental lithosphere, and the time-evolving North Atlantic ridge system. Two end-member hypotheses were investigated: (1) Material emanating from the Iceland mantle plume was blocked from reaching the Aegir Ridge by the thick lithosphere of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent as the Kolbeinsey Ridge began rifting it from Greenland at ~30 Ma, just east of the plume center; (2) Plume material was not blocked and did reach the Aegir Ridge, but had already experienced partial melting closer to the hotspot. This material was then unable to produce melt volumes at the Aegir Ridge comparable to those of pristine mantle. To test these hypotheses, we vary the volume flux and viscosity of the plume, and identify which conditions do and do not lead to the Aegir Ridge forming anomalously thin crust. Results show that the combination of plume material being drawn into the lithospheric channels beneath the Reykjanes Ridge and Kolbeinsey Ridge after their respective openings, and the impedance of plume flow by the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (hypothesis 1), can deprive the Aegir Ridge of plume influence. This leads to low crustal thicknesses that are comparable to those observed. We have yet to produce a model

  18. InSAR Observations and Finite Element Modeling of Crustal Deformation Around a Surging Glacier, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, K.; Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Icelandic ice caps, covering ~11% of the country, are known to be surging glaciers. Such process implies an important local crustal subsidence due to the large ice mass being transported to the ice edge during the surge in a few months only. In 1993-1995, a glacial surge occurred at four neighboring outlet glaciers in the southwestern part of Vatnajökull ice cap, the largest ice cap in Iceland. We estimated that ~16±1 km3 of ice have been moved during this event while the fronts of some of the outlet glaciers advanced by ~1 km.Surface deformation associated with this surge has been surveyed using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) acquisitions from 1992-2002, providing high resolution ground observations of the study area. The data show about 75 mm subsidence at the ice edge of the outlet glaciers following the transport of the large volume of ice during the surge (Fig. 1). The long time span covered by the InSAR images enabled us to remove ~12 mm/yr of uplift occurring in this area due to glacial isostatic adjustment from the retreat of Vatnajökull ice cap since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland. We then used finite element modeling to investigate the elastic Earth response to the surge, as well as confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. A statistical approach based on Bayes' rule was used to compare the models to the observations and obtain an estimate of the Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (v) in Iceland. The best-fitting models are those using a one-kilometer thick top layer with v=0.17 and E between 12.9-15.3 GPa underlain by a layer with v=0.25 and E from 67.3 to 81.9 GPa. Results demonstrate that InSAR data and finite element models can be used successfully to reproduce crustal deformation induced by ice mass variations at Icelandic ice caps.Fig. 1: Interferograms spanning 1993 July 31 to 1995 June 19, showing the surge at Tungnaárjökull (Tu.), Skaftárjökull (Sk.) and S

  19. Age estimation by dental developmental stages in children and adolescents in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with

  20. The FUTUREVOLC Supersite's e-Infrastructure - A multidisciplinary data hub and data service for Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sverrisson, Sverrir Th.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur F.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Arnarsson, Ólafur S.; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna Ýr; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi Th.; Hjartansson, Kristján R.

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC volanological supersite will establish a data hub and dataservice, where researchers, hazard managers and other stake holders can freely obtain access to multidisciplinary data and products on activity, unrest and eruptions at Icelandic volcanoes. The supersite is firmly founded on close interaction between the main Icelandic volcanological research and monitoring institutions, in coordination with expertise from European researchers participating in FUTUREVOLC. The hub is located at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), an institution responsible for monitoring and archiving data on all natural hazards in Iceland and, which also has a mandate as the state volcano observatory. This association will ensure a long-term sustainable data service. The data accessible at the hub include in-situ and space-based observations, products and models from all the relevant disciplines contributing to volcanological research and local as well as cross-border hazard management, i.e. Earth sciences, atmospheric science, hydrology, remote sensing and space science. Access to the data will be in compliance with the access policy of the GEO (Group on Earth Observations), providing registered users with easy and timely access to data and products of documented quality. This commitment has already led to the acceptance of FUTUREVOLC as a permanent geohazard supersite by CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), which will ensure access to additional satellite data and products on Icelandic volcanoes. To facilitate services to seismological data at the supersite hub, the IMO is reconstructing its existing data base and utilizing the SeisComp3 software to manage waveform and parameter data. The accompanying ArcLink component will be used to provide access to event data and waveforms. Access to GPS data will be provided by the GSAC web service which has been installed at the IMO through collaboration with UNAVCO. If appropriate, the format and data base

  1. Dynamic rupture scenarios from Sumatra to Iceland - High-resolution earthquake source physics on natural fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Wollherr, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Capturing the observed complexity of earthquake sources in dynamic rupture simulations may require: non-linear fault friction, thermal and fluid effects, heterogeneous fault stress and fault strength initial conditions, fault curvature and roughness, on- and off-fault non-elastic failure. All of these factors have been independently shown to alter dynamic rupture behavior and thus possibly influence the degree of realism attainable via simulated ground motions. In this presentation we will show examples of high-resolution earthquake scenarios, e.g. based on the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake, the 1994 Northridge earthquake and a potential rupture of the Husavik-Flatey fault system in Northern Iceland. The simulations combine a multitude of representations of source complexity at the necessary spatio-temporal resolution enabled by excellent scalability on modern HPC systems. Such simulations allow an analysis of the dominant factors impacting earthquake source physics and ground motions given distinct tectonic settings or distinct focuses of seismic hazard assessment. Across all simulations, we find that fault geometry concurrently with the regional background stress state provide a first order influence on source dynamics and the emanated seismic wave field. The dynamic rupture models are performed with SeisSol, a software package based on an ADER-Discontinuous Galerkin scheme for solving the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time. Use of unstructured tetrahedral meshes allows for a realistic representation of the non-planar fault geometry, subsurface structure and bathymetry. The results presented highlight the fact that modern numerical methods are essential to further our understanding of earthquake source physics and complement both physic-based ground motion research and empirical approaches in seismic hazard analysis.

  2. "The Fact that I'm a Woman May Have Been the Defining Factor": The Moral Dilemmas of an Icelandic Headteacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larusdottir, Steinunn Helga

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the values and moral dilemmas of one Icelandic headteacher. The article draws on doctoral research currently being conducted with educational leaders in Icelandic basic schools. The research explores the values underpinning the work of female and male educational leaders and how values impact upon their actions, in…

  3. Herman Salton, Arctic Host, Icy Visit: China and Falun Gong Face Off in Iceland (Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníta Einarsdóttir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the controversial nature of the book reviewed, Nordicum-Mediterraneum is taking the unusual step of seeking two reviews from contrasting perspectives. The first is a review by an Icelandic citizen and the second by a Chinese citizen who is resident in Iceland.

  4. Ambitious Icelanders: The Background and Beginning of Icelandic International Development Stórhuga Íslendingar: Forsaga og upphaf íslenskrar þróunarsamvinnu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Loftsdóttir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of development gained hegemonic status in the middle of the 20th century as a way of understanding the relationship between different parts of the world. Even though debated how development would best be achieved, the idea as such was generally not critically assessed. Development institutions were seen as objective institutions with the technological knowledge necessary to move one society to the next level of development.The collection of data of these institutions in the so-called underdeveloped parts of the world involved the most intimate aspects of societies,and gave the idea of development content and meaning. The article looks at the origin of Icelandic development aid and aims at contextualizing it within international ideas of aid. The discussion starts with overview of historical appearance of international development globally and its hegemonic position. It focuses then on how the idea of development takes shape in an Icelandic context at a particular period and how it was shaped by international discourses, as is for example reflected in increased pressure on the Icelandic government to initiate an aid institution. The establishment of Iceland’s first governmental institutions focusing on aid in 1971 reflects still little interest by the Icelandic government at that time in international development. The article also shows how these international discourses become entangled with Icelandic nationalism, and thus the emphasis that the Icelandic nation-state would be engaged in international development.Hugmyndin um þróunarhjálp til handa fátækari hlutum heimsins fékk hugmyndafræðilegt forræði um miðja 20. öld og þá sem leið til að skilja stöðu ólíkra hluta heimsins. Þrátt fyrir að deilt hafi verið um leiðir eða útfærslu að þróun, var sú hugmynd, að sumar þjóðir væru vanþróaðar og aðrar þróaðar, ekki gagnrýnd sem slík. Litið var á þróunarsamvinnustofnanir sem hlutlaus fyrirb

  5. The source and longevity of sulfur in an Icelandic flood basalt eruption plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Edmonds, Marie; Mather, Tamsin; Schmidt, Anja; Hartley, Margaret; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pope, Francis; Donovan, Amy; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Maclennan, John; Shorttle, Oliver; Francis, Peter; Bergsson, Baldur; Barsotti, Sara; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Bali, Eniko; Keller, Nicole; Stefansson, Andri

    2015-04-01

    The Holuhraun fissure eruption (Bárðarbunga volcanic system, central Iceland) has been ongoing since 31 August 2014 and is now the largest in Europe since the 1783-84 Laki event. For the first time in the modern age we have the opportunity to study at first hand the environmental impact of a flood basalt fissure eruption (>1 km3 lava). Flood basalt eruptions are one of the most hazardous volcanic scenarios in Iceland and have had enormous societal and economic consequences across the northern hemisphere in the past. The Laki eruption caused the deaths of >20% of the Icelandic population by environmental pollution and famine and potentially also increased European levels of mortality through air pollution by sulphur-bearing gas and aerosol. A flood basalt eruption was included in the UK National Risk Register in 2012 as one of the highest priority risks. The gas emissions from Holuhraun have been sustained since its beginning, repeatedly causing severe air pollution in populated areas in Iceland. During 18-22 September, SO2 fluxes reached 45 kt/day, a rate of outgassing rarely observed during sustained eruptions, suggesting that the sulfur loading per kg of erupted magma exceeds both that of other recent eruptions in Iceland and perhaps also other historic basaltic eruptions globally. This raises key questions regarding the origin of these prodigious quantities of sulphur. A lack of understanding of the source of this sulfur, the conversion rates of SO2 gas into aerosol, the residence times of aerosol in the plume and the dependence of these on meteorological factors is limiting our confidence in the ability of atmospheric models to forecast gas and aerosol concentrations in the near- and far-field from Icelandic flood basalt eruptions. In 2015 our group is undertaking a project funded by UK NERC urgency scheme to investigate several aspects of the sulfur budget at Holuhraun using a novel and powerful approach involving simultaneous tracking of sulfur and

  6. Research Drilling on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: IDDP Wells of Opportunity at Reykjanes, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridleifsson, G. O.; Franzson, H.; Thorhallsson, S.; Elders, W. A.

    2005-12-01

    There are some 10 new geothermal wells at Reykjanes, in SW-Iceland, being considered by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) as potential candidate wells of opportunity to explore for deep (4-5 km) supercritical fluids. The drill field is located where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge emerges from the Atlantic ocean at the tip of the Reykjanes Peninsula. The site is an ideal locality for a combined study on the evolution of a rifted oceanic crust and an active black smoker-type geothermal system. However, the oceanic pillow basaltic crust at Reykjanes is some 2-3 times thicker than normal ocean floor crust, which undoubtedly relates to it being part of the Icelandic Large Igneous Province. The deepest of the geothermal wells at Reykjanes is Drillhole RN-17, that was completed to 3082 m depth in February 2005. It is currently the prime candidate for deepening by the IDDP. The plan is to deepen it to 4 km in 2006, and to 5 km depth in 2007, with funding coming from Icelandic energy companies (Hitaveita Sudurnesja, Landsvirkjun and Orkuveita Reykjavikur), the Government of Iceland, the International Scientific Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF). The well RN-17 was drilled as a conventional production well with a 12 ¼ inch drillbit to 3082 m depth, and left barefoot, with a 13 3/8 inch production casing cemented down to 900 m. It will be flow tested this autumn. If the RN-17 well is selected by the IDDP for deepening, a 9 5/8 inch in casing will be cemented to 3081 m and drilling will be continued with an 8 ½ inch tricone bit to 4 km in the autumn of 2006. The ICDP and NSF will fund spot coring for scientific studies in this depth interval and a second flow test would be performed in winter 2007. The following autumn, a 7 inch casing would be cemented to 4 km depth and then a 5 inch retrievable liner would be inserted to support a hybrid coring system to continuously core down to 5 km depth, retrieving HQ sized core. A third

  7. New insights into the biodiversity and generic relationships of foliose Bangiales (Rhodophyta) in Iceland and the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Neefus, Christopher D.; Nielsen, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Foliose species of the Bangiales (Porphyra sensu lato) have a long history of study in the N Atlantic, but there are still regions, especially in the northern parts of the N Atlantic that need more attention. A molecular study using rbcL and cox1 sequences was undertaken to assess the diversity...... of foliose Bangiales species in Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Herbarium collections from the intertidal and subtidal of Iceland (summer and winter) and the Faroe Islands (all seasons) revealed a total of 13 species (11 common to both areas), which were referred to four of the genera recognized in a recent...... two-gene global phylogeny. Boreophyllum birdiae, Porphyra dioica, P. linearis, P. purpurea, P. umbilicalis, Pyropia ?leucosticta? A, Pyropia njordii Mols-Mortensen, J. Brodie Porphyra sp. FO and Pyropia elongata were reported from the Faroe Islands but not from Iceland. Boreophyllum birdiae...

  8. Long-term changes of euphausiids in shelf and oceanic habitats southwest, south and southeast of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Teresa; Gislason, A.; Licandro, P.

    2014-01-01

    by the Marine Research Institute (MRI) on a transect south of Iceland during spring (1990–2011) and the other by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey (1958–2007) in the oceanic waters south of Iceland covering all months. Due to limitations of the sampling gears used, the results mainly reflect...... of euphausiid abundance in the west, whereas in the east temperature appears to be most important. In addition, the onset of the spring bloom also affected the long-term changes in euphausiid abundance. For the oceanic areas, it is concluded that a weakened temporal synchrony between the development of young...... in numbers of larvae during spring 1990–2011 for the shelf south of Iceland. Single variable-based GAMs indicated that phytoplankton biomass was generally the main environmental factor regulating euphausiid abundance. Multiple variable-based GAMs showed that phytoplankton biomass was the strongest predictor...

  9. Variational approach to 68 Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, A.; Schmid, K.W.; Faessler, A.; Baktash, C.; Shashi, P.

    1999-01-01

    For a unified description of the structure of medium mass proton-rich nuclei at low as well as high angular momenta we used the complex version of the Excited Vampir approach. We employed chains of variational calculations based on symmetry-projected essentially complex Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) vacua which include neutron-proton pairing and unnatural-parity correlations. Since the Vampir approaches allow the use of rather large model spaces and of general two-body interactions, large-scale nuclear structure studies going far beyond the abilities of the conventional shell-model configuration-mixing approach are possible. Furthermore, since these approaches provide detailed spectroscopic information for the lowest few states for each spin and parity, they also have considerable advantages with respect to the shell-model Monte Carlo method in which only expectation values of operators in the thermodynamic ensembles or the ground state can be calculated. Our previous investigations on microscopic aspects of shape coexistence in N∼Z nuclei in the A∼70 mass region indicated the presence of a strong competition between particular configurations based on large and small oblate and prolate quadrupole deformations. Furthermore, since in N = Z nuclei neutrons and protons fill the same single particle orbits, the isovector neutron-proton and the like-nucleon pairing correlations were found to be strongly competitive in even-even systems. In addition, the neutron and proton alignments with increasing angular momentum occur simultaneously in these nuclei. On the other hand the theoretical results suggest that certain properties of these nuclei are extremely sensitive to small variations of particular parts of the effective Hamiltonian. Thus, our results indicate that the oblate-prolate coexistence and mixing at low spins depend on the strengths of the neutron-proton T = 0 matrix elements involving nucleons occupying f 5/2 (f 7/2 ) and g 9/2 single particle orbits

  10. Present day geodynamics in Iceland monitored by a permanent network of continuous GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völksen, Christof; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Geirsson, Halldór; Valsson, Guðmundur

    2009-12-01

    Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and thereby offers a rare opportunity to study crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary. Iceland is not only characterized by the divergence of the Eurasian and North American Plates, as several active volcanoes are located on the island. Moderate size earthquakes occur in the transform zones, causing measurable crustal deformation. In 1999 the installation of a permanent network of continuous GPS stations (ISGPS) was initiated in order to observe deformation due to unrest in the Hengill volcanic system and at the Katla volcano. The ISGPS network has been enlarged over the years and consists today of more than 25 CGPS stations. Most of the stations are located along the plate boundary, where most of the active deformation takes place. Uplift due to post-glacial rebound due to the melting of the largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull, is also detected by the ISGPS network. This study presents results from analysis of 9 years of data from the ISGPS network, in the global reference frame PDR05, which has been evaluated by the Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing group with reprocessed GPS data only. We thus determine subsidence or land uplift in a global frame. The horizontal station velocities clearly show spreading across the plate boundary of about 20 mm/a. Stations in the vicinity of the glacier Vatnajökull indicate uplift in the range of 12 mm/a, while a station in the central part of Iceland shows uplift rates of about 25 mm/a. Tide gauge readings in Reykjavik and current subsidence rates observed with CGPS agree also quite well.

  11. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Ruch, Joël; Acocella, Valerio; Thordarson, Thor; Urbani, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja's calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  12. Interaction between central volcanoes and regional tectonics along divergent plate boundaries: Askja, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, Daniele

    2017-12-04

    Activity within magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB) focuses along both regional fissure swarms and central volcanoes. An ideal place to investigate their mutual relationship is the Askja central volcano in Iceland. Askja consists of three nested calderas (namely Kollur, Askja and Öskjuvatn) located within a hyaloclastite massif along the NNE-SSW trending Icelandic MDPB. We performed an extensive field-based structural analysis supported by a remote sensing study of tectonic and volcanic features of Askja’s calderas and of the eastern flank of the hyaloclastite massif. In the massif, volcano-tectonic structures trend N 10° E to N 40° E, but they vary around the Askja caldera being both parallel to the caldera rim and cross-cutting on the Western side. Structural trends around the Öskjuvatn caldera are typically rim parallel. Volcanic vents and dikes are preferentially distributed along the caldera ring faults; however, they follow the NNE-SSW regional structures when located outside the calderas. Our results highlight that the Askja volcano displays a balanced amount of regional (fissure-swarm related) and local (shallow-magma-chamber related) tectonic structures along with a mutual interaction among these. This is different from Krafla volcano (to the north of Askja) dominated by regional structures and Grímsvötn (to the South) dominated by local structures. Therefore, Askja represents an intermediate tectono-magmatic setting for volcanoes located in a slow divergent plate boundary. This is also likely in accordance with a northward increase in the spreading rate along the Icelandic MDPB.

  13. Bookshelf faulting and transform motion between rift segments of the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. G.; White, R. S.; Greenfield, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Plate spreading is segmented on length scales from 10 - 1,000 kilometres. Where spreading segments are offset, extensional motion has to transfer from one segment to another. In classical plate tectonics, mid-ocean ridge spreading centres are offset by transform faults, but smaller 'non-transform' offsets exist between slightly overlapping spreading centres which accommodate shear by a variety of geometries. In Iceland the mid-Atlantic Ridge is raised above sea level by the Iceland mantle plume, and is divided into a series of segments 20-150 km long. Using microseismicity recorded by a temporary array of 26 three-component seismometers during 2009-2012 we map bookshelf faulting between the offset Askja and Kverkfjöll rift segments in north Iceland. The micro-earthquakes delineate a series of sub-parallel strike-slip faults. Well constrained fault plane solutions show consistent left-lateral motion on fault planes aligned closely with epicentral trends. The shear couple across the transform zone causes left-lateral slip on the series of strike-slip faults sub-parallel to the rift fabric, causing clockwise rotations about a vertical axis of the intervening rigid crustal blocks. This accommodates the overall right-lateral transform motion in the relay zone between the two overlapping volcanic rift segments. The faults probably reactivated crustal weaknesses along the dyke intrusion fabric (parallel to the rift axis) and have since rotated ˜15° clockwise into their present orientation. The reactivation of pre-existing rift-parallel weaknesses is in contrast with mid-ocean ridge transform faults, and is an important illustration of a 'non-transform' offset accommodating shear between overlapping spreading segments.

  14. A Tale of Two Lakes: Catchment-Specific Responses to Late Holocene Cooling in Northwest Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, S. E.; Florian, C. R.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.; Zalzal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Lake sediments are frequently utilized for reconstructing paleoclimate in the Arctic, particularly in Iceland, where high sedimentation rates and abundant tephra layers allow for the development high-resolution, well-dated records. However, when developing climate records using biological proxies, catchment-specific processes must be understood and separated from the primary climate signal in order to develop accurate reconstructions. In this study, we compare proxy records (biogenic silica [BSi], C:N, ∂13C, and algal pigments) of the last 2 ka from two nearby lakes in northwest Iceland in order to elucidate how different catchments respond to similar climate history. Torfdalsvatn and Bæjarvötn are two coastal lakes located 60 km apart; mean summer temperatures are highly correlated between the two sites over the instrumental record, and likely for the past 2 ka as well. Consistent with other Icelandic records, both lakes record cooling as decreasing aquatic productivity (BSi) over the last 2 ka. Both sediment cores also record the onset of landscape destabilization, reflected by increased terrestrial input (C:N and ∂13C), which suggests an intensification of cooling. However, the timing and magnitude of this shift differ markedly between lakes. Biological proxies indicate gradual landscape destabilization beginning ~900 AD at Torfdalsvatn in contrast to a sharper, more intense landscape destabilization at ~1400 AD at Bæjarvötn. Because temperatures at the two lakes are well correlated, contrasting proxy responses are likely the result of catchment-specific thresholds and processes. Specifically, a steeper catchment at Bæjarvötn may allow for a more pronounced influx of terrestrial material as the critical shear stress for soil erosion is surpassed more readily. The impact of human colonization on erosion rates is also critical to assess, and recent developments in lipid biomarkers will allow for more precise reconstructions of human activity in each

  15. Warming, Sheep and Volcanoes: Land Cover Changes in Iceland Evident in Satellite NDVI Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Raynolds

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a greening Arctic, Iceland stands out as an area with very high increases in the AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1982–2010. We investigated the possible sources of this anomalous greening in Iceland’s dynamic landscape, analyzing changes due to volcanism and warming temperatures, and the effects of agricultural and industrial land use changes. The analysis showed the increases were likely due to reductions in grazing in erosion-prone rangelands, extensive reclamation and afforestation efforts, as well as a response to warming climate, including glacial retreat. Like Scandinavia and much of the rest of the Arctic, Iceland has shown a recent reduction in NDVI since 2002, but still above pre-2000 levels. Theil-Sen robust regression analysis of MODIS NDVI trends from 2002 to 2013 showed Iceland had a slightly negative NDVI trend of 0.003 NDVI units/year (p < 0.05, with significant decreases in an area three times greater (29,809 km2 than that with increases (9419 km2. Specific areas with large decreases in NDVI during the last decade were due to the formation of a large reservoir as a part of a hydroelectric power project (Kárahnjúkar, 2002–2009, and due to ashfall from two volcanic eruptions (Eyjafjallajökull, 2010; Grímsvötn, 2011. Increases in NDVI in the last decade were found in erosion control areas, around retreating glaciers, and in other areas of plant colonization following natural disturbance. Our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of MODIS NDVI for identifying the causes of changes in land cover, and confirms the reduction in NDVI in the last decade using both the AVHRR and MODIS satellite data.

  16. Potential impact of transition to a low-carbon transport system in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, Ehsan; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur; Leaver, Jonathan; Stefansson, Hlynur; Asgeirsson, Eyjolfur Ingi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a system dynamics model of Iceland's energy sector (UniSyD I S) that is based on the UniSyD N Z model of New Zealand's energy economy. The model focuses on the energy supply sector with endogenous representation of road transport energy demand. Equilibrium interactions are performed across electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and road transport sectors. Possible transition paths toward a low-carbon transport in Iceland are explored with implications for fuel demand, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated costs. The consumer sector simulates the long-term evolution of light and heavy-duty vehicles through a vehicle choice algorithm that accounts for social influences and consumer preferences. Through different scenarios, the influences of four fundamental driving factors are examined. The factors are oil price, carbon tax, fuel supply-push, and government incentives. The results show that changes in travel demand, vehicle technologies, fuel types, and efficiency improvements can support feasible transition paths to achieve sufficient reduction in GHG for both 4 °C and 2 °C climate scenarios of the Nordic Energy Technology Perspectives study. Initial investment in supply infrastructure for alternative fuels will not only mitigate GHG emissions, but also could provide long-term economic benefits through fuel cost saving for consumers and reduced fuel import costs for government. - Highlights: • UniSyD I S is an energy system model with endogenous road transport energy demand. • Possible transition paths to low-carbon road transport system in Iceland are explored. • Vehicle choice sector accounts for social influences and consumers’ preferences. • Supply-push costs can be offset by mitigation benefits and fuel cost savings

  17. Observed and modeled pathways of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water in the eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sijia; Lozier, Susan; Zenk, Walter; Bower, Amy; Johns, William

    2017-12-01

    The spreading of Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) in the eastern North Atlantic has largely been studied in an Eulerian frame using numerical models or with observations limited to a few locations. No study to date has provided a comprehensive description of the ISOW spreading pathways from both Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives. In this paper, we use a combination of previously unreported current meter data, hydrographic data, RAFOS float data, and a high resolution (1/12°) numerical ocean model to study the spreading pathways of ISOW from both of these perspectives. We identify three ISOW transport cores in the central Iceland Basin (∼59°N), with the major core along the eastern boundary of the Reykjanes Ridge (RR) and the other two in the basin interior. Based on trajectories of observed and/or numerical floats seeded along 59°N, we also describe the ISOW spreading pathways and quantify their relative importance. Within 10 years, 7-11% of ISOW from 59°N escapes into the Irminger Sea via gaps in the RR north of the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ); the water that moves through these gaps principally originates from the shallower ISOW layer along the RR eastern boundary. 10-13% travels further southward until the CGFZ, where it crosses westward into the western subpolar gyre. 18-21% of ISOW spreads southward along the eastern flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge into the Western European Basin (WEB). Most of the remaining water stays in the Iceland Basin over the 10-year period. A model-based investigation provides a first look at the temporal variability of these ISOW pathways. We find that the fraction of southward water exported into the WEB is anti-correlated with the export through the CGFZ, a result assumed to reflect these pathways' interactions with the North Atlantic Current in magnitude and/or position shift.

  18. FUTUREVOLC: A European volcanological supersite in Iceland, a monitoring system and network for the future (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmundsson, F.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Kristinsson, I.; Loughlin, S. C.; Ilyinskaya, E.; Hooper, A. J.; Kylling, A.; Witham, C. S.; Bean, C. J.; Braiden, A.; Ripepe, M.; Prata, F.; Jordan, C. J.; Team, F.

    2013-12-01

    FUTURVOLC is a collaborative project funded through a FP7 Environment 'supersite' call of the European Union, with 26 partners in 10 countries. The main objectives of FUTUREVOLC are to establish an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure, develop new methods to evaluate volcanic crises, increase scientific understanding of magmatic processes and improve delivery of relevant information to civil protection and authorities. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise in seismology, volcano deformation, volcanic gas and geochemistry, infrasound, eruption monitoring, physical volcanology, satellite studies of plumes, meteorology, ash dispersal forecasting, and civil protection. The consortium members together with a more extensive group of collaborators, has applied to CEOS for making the Iceland volcanoes a permanent geohazard supersite. In summer 2013 FUTUREVOLC partners improved volcano monitoring in Iceland by installing new equipment, including seismometers, GPS receivers, an infrasound array, and electrical sensors. A key element of the project is to combine Icelandic ground based monitoring data with satellite observations in an improved manner. This applies to different disciplines, including e.g. deformation from ground observations and InSAR, and quantification of volcanic ash clouds during eruptions by combining measurements from ground based infrared (IR) cameras and satellite microwave and IR detectors. The FUTUREVOLC project has open data policy for real-time data streams, near real-time data and science products. Implementation of a data hub will begin in 2013 with making available data for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access of monitoring data through one common interface will allow timely information on magma movements from combined interpretation of relocated earthquake sources, magma sources inferred from ground and space geodetic data, and measurements of volcanic volatiles. For better response during eruptions, the

  19. Review on utilization and research on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlingur Hauksson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina have been harvested in Iceland since the first settlers arrived in the 9th century. Pups were generally netted, clubbed and harpooned until 1875 when general use of guns for hunting began. Seal-hunting has been traditional amongst the farms legal rights. Seal hunting was an important supplement to other economic resources. Harbour seal skins, salted ordried, were exported and large dataset of catch statistics is available from trading logbooks since the late 19th century. In the early 20th century catch was about 6,000. In the ‘bounty’ period 1982 – 1989, maximum catches were of 4,000 animals with about 350 hunters participated; in 2006 catches were only about 100 animals with 18 hunters. After 1989 the population continued to decline even though catches decreased markedly. Unreported by-catch in fishing gear, hunt for local consumption and shooting of seals swimming in salmon rivers estuaries may have kept the total removal from the stock above sustainable levels. A considerable Icelandic knowledge base had been compiled about the biology of the harbour seal since the late 16th century, with the first written reference in 1588-1589. In the last decades, research on various aspects of its biology and monitoring have been intensified, with focus on abundance, distribution, diet and nematode infestation. The main results show that the Icelandic harbour seal population - has declined annually about 5% in the period 1980-2006, - was most abundant on the NW-coast, - feeds mainly on sand-eels and gadoids, - and was less infected with anisakid nematodes than grey seals. Seal watching, as a low-consumptive indirect utilization, may represent a new economical opportunity if properly regulated.

  20. A Computational Study of Chalcogen-containing H2 X…YF and (CH3 )2 X…YF (X=O, S, Se; Y=F, Cl, H) and Pnicogen-containing H3 X'…YF and (CH3 )3 X'…YF (X'=N, P, As) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Sean A C; Buckingham, A David

    2018-04-20

    A computational study was undertaken for the model complexes H 2 X…YF and (CH 3 ) 2 X…YF (X=O, S, Se; Y=F, Cl, H), and H 3 X'…YF and (CH 3 ) 3 X'…YF (X'=N, P, As), at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. For H 2 X…YF and H 3 X'…YF, noncovalent interactions dominate the binding in order of increasing YF dipole moment, except for H 3 As…F 2 , and possibly H 3 As…ClF. However, for the methyl-substituted complexes (CH 3 ) 2 X…YF and (CH 3 ) 3 X'…YF the binding is especially strong for the complexes containing F 2 , implying significant chemical bonding between the interacting molecules. The relative stability of these complexes can be rationalized by the difference in the electronegativity of the X or X' and Y atoms. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Energy projects in Iceland – Advancing the case for the use of economic valuation techniques to evaluate environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, David; Davíðsdóttir, Brynhildur; Kristófersson, Daði Már

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making in Iceland has occurred without reference to economic valuations of the environmental impacts of energy projects. Environmental Impact Assessments, a legal requirement for nearly all energy projects in Iceland since 1994, have played an important role in identifying the environmental impacts of energy projects, and proposing mitigation measures. However, a purely qualitative description of environmental impacts is insufficient to ensure that they are accounted for equivalently with all of the other costs and benefits of a proposed project. Instead, as monetary information concerning the welfare gains or losses of proposed projects is not currently required to be provided to the licensing body, Orkustofnun, there is the potential for sub-optimal decision-making to occur. As this paper sets out, a broad variety of non-market valuation techniques already exist and could be applied to estimate the value of environmental benefits sacrificed to accommodate such developments. These methods and their outcomes could be incorporated within mandatory cost-benefit assessments for proposed Icelandic energy projects, communicating an estimate of the full welfare implications of approvals to decision-makers and the public alike, and fulfilling an OECD demand for the country to commence such processes. - Highlights: •Current risk of sub-optimal decision-making by licensing body, Orkustofnun. •OECD call for monetary valuations of environmental impacts linked to Icelandic energy projects. •Lessons to be learned from US regulatory approach to advance cost-benefit assessment practice in Iceland. •Practice of conducting non-market valuation techniques limited in Iceland, but now growing.

  2. The Predictive Value of Preschool Language Assessments on Academic Achievement: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Icelandic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna T; Björnsdóttir, Amalía; Símonardóttir, Ingibjörg

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between language knowledge at 5 years of age and later academic achievement throughout compulsory school in Iceland. Between 1997 and 1998, 267 Icelandic preschool children aged from 5;4 (years;months) to 5;10 were tested with the HLJÓM-2 (an Icelandic test of phonological awareness; Símonardóttir, Einarsdóttir, & Björnsdóttir, 2002) and the Icelandic version of the Test of Language Development-Primary: Second Edition (TOLD-2P; oral comprehension tasks; Símonardóttir, Guðmundsson, Skúlason, & Pétursdóttir, 1995). In 2011 these individuals, now aged 18-19 years, were contacted again. Of the original 267 participants, 221 (83%) gave permission to link their results from the preschool language assessments with their performance on national tests in 4th, 7th, and 10th grades. The results showed strong correlation between phonological awareness (as measured by the HLJÓM-2) and academic achievement (Icelandic and mathematics) in 4th, 7th, and 10th grades. There was also a significant but lower correlation with oral comprehension skills, as measured with the TOLD-2P. Regression analysis showed that the preschool oral-language assessments in phonological awareness and oral comprehension explained between 35% and 43% of variability in scores on national tests in Icelandic and between 20% and 39% of variability in scores in mathematics. Preschool language knowledge is a reliable predictor of later academic achievement.

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Iceland 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Iceland carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  4. Deglacial and Holocene sea-ice variability north of Iceland and response to ocean circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaotong; Zhao, Meixun; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Sha, Longbin; Eiríksson, Jón; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-08-01

    Sea-ice conditions on the North Icelandic shelf constitute a key component for the study of the climatic gradients between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans at the Polar Front between the cold East Icelandic Current delivering Polar surface water and the relatively warm Irminger Current derived from the North Atlantic Current. The variability of sea ice contributes to heat reduction (albedo) and gas exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and further affects the deep-water formation. However, lack of long-term and high-resolution sea-ice records in the region hinders the understanding of palaeoceanographic change mechanisms during the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Here, we present a sea-ice record back to 15 ka (cal. ka BP) based on the sea-ice biomarker IP25, phytoplankton biomarker brassicasterol and terrestrial biomarker long-chain n-alkanols in piston core MD99-2272 from the North Icelandic shelf. During the Bølling/Allerød (14.7-12.9 ka), the North Icelandic shelf was characterized by extensive spring sea-ice cover linked to reduced flow of warm Atlantic Water and dominant Polar water influence, as well as strong meltwater input in the area. This pattern showed an anti-phase relationship with the ice-free/less ice conditions in marginal areas of the eastern Nordic Seas, where the Atlantic Water inflow was strong, and contributed to an enhanced deep-water formation. Prolonged sea-ice cover with occasional occurrence of seasonal sea ice prevailed during the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka) interrupted by a brief interval of enhanced Irminger Current and deposition of the Vedde Ash, as opposed to abruptly increased sea-ice conditions in the eastern Nordic Seas. The seasonal sea ice decreased gradually from the Younger Dryas to the onset of the Holocene corresponding to increasing insolation. Ice-free conditions and sea surface warming were observed for the Early Holocene, followed by expansion of sea ice during the Mid-Holocene.

  5. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, A; Witham, CS; Theys, N; Richards, NAD; Thordarson, T; Szpek, K; Feng, W; Hort, MC; Woolley, AM; Jones, AR; Redington, AL; Johnson, BT; Hayward, CL; Carslaw, KS

    2014-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We h...

  6. Frequency, triggering factors and possible consequences of mass movements on outlet glaciers in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Margeirsson, Guðbjörn

    2016-04-01

    During the last 15 years several mass movements of various size and origin, e.g. rock avalanches, rock slides and debris slides have been observed to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland. This should not come as a surprise in this type of glacial environment, but in a way it does. When looking at the history only few mass movements are recorded to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland, during the decades before the year 2000 or since 1960. This "lack of mass movements" can be explained by the fact that fewer observations and monitoring were done in the past, but is it so or are we seeing increasing activity? Looking at the distribution of the known mass movements, two activity periods cam be identified. The former one around 1970 and the second one starting around 2000 and is still ongoing. Both of these periods are characterized by warmer climate leading to retreating phases of glaciers. Two larger mass movements are known from these two retreating periods. The former one occurred in January 1967. Then a large rockslide fell on the snout and into the glacial lake of the Steinholtsjökull outlet glacier in the northern side of the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. The rockslide broke up the snout of the glacier and caused large floodwave bursting down the Steinholtsdalur valley transporting large volume of sediments down its path. The later one occurred in 2007, when a large rockavalanche fell on the Morsárjökull outlet glacier, in the southern side of the Vatnajökull ice cap. The avalanche debris covered around 1/5 of the glacier surface. Today the retreat and thinning of glaciers in Iceland are extremely rapid. The consequences of such a rapid retreat are e.g. unstable valley slopes surrounding the outlet glaciers, both in loose sediments and bedrock, thawing of mountain permafrost and not least formation of glacial lakes in front of the rapid retreating ice margins. Such conditions can become extremely hazardous, as seen by the above mentioned examples, both

  7. Iceland's meltdown: the rise and fall of international banking in the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Wade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how rapid privatization and liberalization of Iceland's small local banks around 2000, combined with well-developed crony relations among the elite, enabled a small group of financiers to leverage government-guaranteed deposits into a vast wave of mergers and acquisitions abroad, and redistribute enough of the profits back home to make the economy boom. Negative policy feedback loops were systematically undermined. The incoming left-wing government, with IMF support, has managed to protect the bulk of the population from the worst of the effects.

  8. Study of the alteration of the Vatnajokull volcanic glasses (Iceland). Mechanisms and situation at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gal, X.

    1999-01-01

    Volcanic glasses have been considered for several years to be good analogues of nuclear glasses. The main objective of this study is to look at the long term behaviour of natural glasses subjected to meteoric alteration. Basaltic hyalo-clasts, essentially from Hengill, Husafell and Vatnajokull, in Iceland, were studied. These glasses, ranging from 0.09 to 4 My in age, and altered by meteoric water, are surrounded by alteration layers. In the youngest samples ( 18 O measurements indicate, major modification of the initial glass structure during gel formation. Chemical budgets show that elements are not completely retained by alteration products in such geological environments. (author)

  9. Cellular processing of the amyloidogenic cystatin C variant of hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Icelandic type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Merz, G S; Schwenk, V

    1999-01-01

    of an amyloidogenic mutation on the intracellular processing of its protein product. The protein, a mutant of the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C, is the amyloid precursor protein in Hereditary Cerebral Hemorrhage with Amyloidosis--Icelandic type (HCHWA-I). The amyloid fibers are composed of mutant cystatin C...... (L68Q) that lacks the first 10 amino acids. We have previously shown that processing of wild-type cystatin C entails formation of a transient intracellular dimer that dissociates prior to secretion, such that extracellular cystatin C is monomeric. We report here that the cystatin C mutation engenders...

  10. Alteration of basaltic glass in Iceland as a natural analogue for nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovisier, J.L.; Advocat, T.; Fritz, B.; Petit, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the longer term geochemical consequences of basaltic glass dissolution in fresh water at 0 0 C calculated with the computer code DISSOL. The clay minerals were represented by an ideal solid solution model (CISSFIT) able to describe variations in chemical composition of a clay phase in response to variations of the solution chemistry. The predicted mineral phases were iron hydroxides followed by kaolinite, TOT clays, chabazite and clinoptilolite. These results are in reasonably good agreement with experimental results and observations of altered subglacial hyaloclastites from Iceland. The formation of secondary products are mainly controlled by thermodynamic constraints. Kinetic effects, such as diffusion in the near glass surface are not important

  11. QMM – A Quarterly Macroeconomic Model of the Icelandic Economy. Version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper documents and describes Version 2.0 of the Quarterly Macroeconomic Model of the Central Bank of Iceland (QMM). QMM and the underlying quarterly database have been under construction since 2001 at the Research and Forecasting Division of the Economics Department at the Bank and was first...... implemented in the forecasting round for the Monetary Bulletin 2006/1 in March 2006. QMM is used by the Bank for forecasting and various policy simulations and therefore plays a key role as an organisational framework for viewing the medium-term future when formulating monetary policy at the Bank. This paper...

  12. Quantitative risk analysis for landslides ‒ Examples from Bíldudalur, NW-Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bell

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although various methods to carry out quantitative landslide risk analyses are available, applications are still rare and mostly dependent on the occurrence of disasters. In Iceland, two catastrophic snow avalanches killed 34 people in 1995. As a consequence the Ministry of the Environment issued a new regulation on hazard zoning due to snow avalanches and landslides in 2000, which aims to prevent people living or working within the areas most at risk until 2010. The regulation requires to carry out landslide and snow avalanche risk analyses, however, a method to calculate landslide risk adopted to Icelandic conditions is still missing. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this study is to develop such a method for landslides, focussing on debris flows and rock falls and to test it in Bíldudalur, NW-Iceland. Risk analysis, beside risk evaluation and risk management, is part of the holistic concept of risk assessment. Within this study, risk analysis is considered only, focussing on the risks to life. To calculate landslide risk, the spatial and temporal probability of occurrence of potential damaging events, as well as the distribution of the elements at risk in space and time, considering also changing vulnerabilities, must be determined. Within this study, a new raster-based approach is developed. Thus, all existent vector data are transferred into raster data using a resolution of 1m x 1m. The specific attribute data are attributed to the grid cells, resulting in specific raster data layers for each input parameter. The calculation of the landslide risk follows a function of the input parameters hazard, damage potential of the elements at risk, vulnerability, probability of the spatial impact, probability of the temporal impact and probability of the seasonal occurrence. Finally, results are upscaled to a resolution of 20m x 20m and are presented as individual risk to life and object risk to life for each process. Within the quantitative

  13. Modelling the effects of ice-sheet activity on CO2 outgassing by Icelandic volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, J. J.; Ferguson, D.; Petersen, K. D.; Creyts, T. T.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial cycles may play a significant role in mediating the flux of magmatic CO2 between the Earth's mantle and atmosphere. In Iceland, it is thought that late-Pleistocene deglaciation led to a significant volcanic pulse, evidenced by increased post-glacial lava volumes and changes in melt chemistry consistent with depressurization. Investigating the extent to which glacial activity may have affected volcanic CO2 emissions from Iceland, and crucially over what timescale, requires detailed knowledge of how the magma system responded to the growth and collapse of the ice-sheet before and after the LGM. To investigate this, we coupled a model of magma generation and transport with a history of ice-sheet activity. Our results show that the emplacement and removal of the LGM ice-sheet likely led to two significant pulses of magmatic CO2. The first, and most significant of these, is associated with ice-sheet growth and occurs as the magma system recovers from glacial loading. This recovery happens from the base of the melting region upwards, producing a pulse of CO2 rich magma that is predicted to reach the surface around 20 ka after the loading event, close in time to the LGM. The second peak in CO2 output occurs abruptly following deglaciation as a consequence of increased rates of melt generation and transport in the shallow mantle. Although these post-glacial melts are relatively depleted in CO2, the increase in magma flux leads to a short-lived period of elevated CO2 emissions. Our results therefore suggest a negative feedback, whereby ice-sheet growth produces a delayed pulse of magmatic CO2, which, in addition to increased geothermal heat flux, may contribute towards driving deglaciation, which itself then causes further magmatism and CO2 outgassing. This model is consistent with the seismic structure of the asthenosphere below Iceland, and the established compositional and volumetric trends for sub- and post-glacial volcanism in Iceland. These trends show that

  14. "We are like the Poles": On the ambiguous labour market position of young Icelanders

    OpenAIRE

    Margrét Einarsdóttir; Jónína Einarsdóttir; Guðbjörg Linda Rafnsdóttir

    2015-01-01

    Paid work is quite common amongst young people under the age of 18 in the Western world, although most undertake flexible part-time work. Nevertheless, studies on their labour market position are rare. The aim of this article is to examine the labour market position of young people in Iceland, a high-income Nordic country. We ask about: (i) young people’s general labour market rights regarding payslips and formal work contracts; (ii) their special labour market rights, safeguarded by child la...

  15. Iron and silicon isotope behaviour accompanying weathering in Icelandic soils, and the implications for iron export from peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfergelt, S.; Williams, H. M.; Cornelis, J. T.; Guicharnaud, R. A.; Georg, R. B.; Siebert, C.; Gislason, S. R.; Halliday, A. N.; Burton, K. W.

    2017-11-01

    Incipient warming of peatlands at high latitudes is expected to modify soil drainage and hence the redox conditions, which has implications for Fe export from soils. This study uses Fe isotopes to assess the processes controlling Fe export in a range of Icelandic soils including peat soils derived from the same parent basalt, where Fe isotope variations principally reflect differences in weathering and drainage. In poorly weathered, well-drained soils (non-peat soils), the limited Fe isotope fractionation in soil solutions relative to the bulk soil (Δ57Fesolution-soil = -0.11 ± 0.12‰) is attributed to proton-promoted mineral dissolution. In the more weathered poorly drained soils (peat soils), the soil solutions are usually lighter than the bulk soil (Δ57Fesolution-soil = -0.41 ± 0.32‰), which indicates that Fe has been mobilised by reductive mineral dissolution and/or ligand-controlled dissolution. The results highlight the presence of Fe-organic complexes in solution in anoxic conditions. An additional constraint on soil weathering is provided by Si isotopes. The Si isotope composition of the soil solutions relative to the soil (Δ30Sisolution-soil = 0.92 ± 0.26‰) generally reflects the incorporation of light Si isotopes in secondary aluminosilicates. Under anoxic conditions in peat soils, the largest Si isotope fractionation in soil solutions relative to the bulk soil is observed (Δ30Sisolution-soil = 1.63 ± 0.40‰) and attributed to the cumulative contribution of secondary clay minerals and amorphous silica precipitation. Si supersaturation in solution with respect to amorphous silica is reached upon freezing when Al availability to form aluminosilicates is limited by the affinity of Al for metal-organic complexes. Therefore, the precipitation of amorphous silica in peat soils indirectly supports the formation of metal-organic complexes in poorly drained soils. These observations highlight that in a scenario of decreasing soil drainage with

  16. Extended analyses of Se VII and Se VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankleef, Th.A.M.; Joshi, Y.N.

    1984-01-01

    Joshi et al. (1984) have conducted an analysis of the 3d8 4s-3d8 4p transitions in As VII. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of similar transitions in Se VIII. The selenium spectrum was photographed in the 400-1200-A wavelength region on a variety of normal-incidence spectrographs. Attention is given to least-squares-fit (LSF) and Hartree-Fock (HF) parameter values for the 3d9 4d configuration of Se VII, LSF and HF parameter values for the 3d8 4s and 3d8 4p configurations of Se VIII, the energy and composition of the levels of the 3d9 4d configuration of Se VII, classified lines in Se VII, energy levels and composition of the 3d8 4s configuration and the revised and newly determined levels of the 3d8 4p configuration of Se VIII, and newly classified lines of Se VIII. 15 references

  17. Characterization of MHC class I in a long distance migratory wader, the Icelandic black-tailed godwit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardal, Sara; Drews, Anna; Alves, José A; Ramos, Jaime A; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes proteins that are central for antigen presentation and pathogen elimination. MHC class I (MHC-I) genes have attracted a great deal of interest among researchers in ecology and evolution and have been partly characterized in a wide range of bird species. So far, the main focus has been on species within the bird orders Galliformes and Passeriformes, while Charadriiformes remain vastly underrepresented with only two species studied to date. These two Charadriiformes species exhibit striking differences in MHC-I characteristics and MHC-I diversity. We therefore set out to study a third species within Charadriiformes, the Icelandic subspecies of black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa islandica). This subspecies is normally confined to parasite-poor environments, and we hence expected low MHC diversity. MHC-I was partially characterized first using Sanger sequencing and then using high-throughput sequencing (MiSeq) in 84 individuals. We verified 47 nucleotide alleles in open reading frame with classical MHC-I characteristics, and each individual godwit had two to seven putatively classical MHC alleles. However, in contrast to previous MHC-I data within Charadriiformes, we did not find any evidence of alleles with low sequence diversity, believed to represent non-classical MHC genes. The diversity and divergence of the godwits MHC-I genes to a large extent fell between the previous estimates within Charadriiformes. However, the MHC genes of the migratory godwits had few sites subject to positive selection, and one possible explanation could be a low exposure to pathogens.

  18. PHEIFFER SE TAALPOLITIEK JC Steyn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sigself maak tog nie Chomsky se teorie oor n aangebore taalaanleg en die konsekwensie daarvan nl. dat elke taal opgebou moet wees volgens dieselfde grondprinsipes, ongeldig nie? Taalpolitieke oortuigingskrag het hierdie argument nog minder. Sal jy in alle erns vir mense kan se: "Ons moet aanhou om die taal te praat ...

  19. Sample Set (SE): SE10 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE10 Effect of phosphorus nutrition for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassi...ca oleracea var. capitata Hatukoi leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (high, low and no phosphorus nutrition

  20. Sample Set (SE): SE30 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE30 Comparison of seed metabolites among soybean varieties Investigation of Glycine max. green seed metabol...ites. 3 varieties (Kamogawashichiri, Koitozairai, Tanbakuro) data are examined. Tak

  1. Sample Set (SE): SE13 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE13 Comparison of leaf metabolites among spinach varieties Investigation of Spinacia oleracea leaf metaboli...tes. 4 cultivers (Nihon, Kanaji, Kurohaminstarland and Wasesaradaakari) and 3 repli

  2. Sample Set (SE): SE31 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE31 Comparison of seed metabolites among eggplant fruit tissues Investigation of S...olanum melongena Senryounigou metabolites. 3 tissues (flesh, fruit, peel) data are examined. Takeshi Ara 1,

  3. Sample Set (SE): SE28 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE28 Comparison of leaf metabolites among developmental stages of Hevea brasiliensi...s Investigation of Hevea brasiliensis leaf metabolites. 4 developmental stages and 6 replicates data are exa

  4. Sample Set (SE): SE53 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE53 Covering chemical diversity of genetically-modified tomatoes using metabolomics...signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and

  5. Sample Set (SE): SE26 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26 Effect of compost for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassica oleracea v...ar. capitata YR Seisyun leaf metabolites. 2 growth conditions (with or without 6t compost treatment) and 3 r

  6. Sample Set (SE): SE20 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE20 Arabidopsis thaliana leaf metabolite analysis for a software test Investigatio...es that were investigated to optimize the parameters of PowerGet software for better metabolite annotation i

  7. Sample Set (SE): SE16 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE16 Effect of agricultural films for spinach leaf metabolites 2 Investigation of S...pinacia oleracea leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultural film or no agricultura

  8. Sample Set (SE): SE14 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE14 Effect of agricultural films for tomato fruit metabolites Investigation of Sol...anum lycopersicum fruit metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultural film or no agricultura

  9. Sample Set (SE): SE18 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in by Orbitrap MS and automated search engine Lipid Search A comprehensive and precise identification of pho...SE18 Global identification of phospholipid molecular species in mouse liver and bra

  10. Impact of feeding level on digestibility of a haylage-only diet in Icelandic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, S; Lindberg, J E

    2010-10-01

    Eight mature Icelandic geldings were used in an experiment arranged as a change-over design to evaluate the effect of feeding level on the digestibility of a high-energy haylage-only diet. The horses were fed a low feeding level 10.7 g dry matter (DM)/kg body weight (BW) (maintenance) and a high feeding level 18.1 g DM/kg BW (1.5 × maintenance) during two 23 days experimental periods. Total collection of faeces was performed for 6 days at the end of each period to determine the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD). The CTTAD for DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and energy was higher in horses fed at the low level of feed intake, while feeding level did not affect the CTTAD of crude protein. The largest difference in CTTAD between feeding levels was found for NDF. The content (/kg DM) of digestible energy in the haylage was 11.3 MJ at the low level of feed intake and 10.6 MJ at the high level of feed intake. It can be concluded that feeding level has a large impact on the digestibility and energy value of early cut haylage in Icelandic horses. © 2009 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. [Views of Icelandic women towards genetic counseling - and testing of BRCA2 mutations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Thordis; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Lund, Sigrun Helga; Thordardottir, Marianna; Magnusson, Magnus Karl; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of Icelandic women towards existing genetic information, genetic counseling and genetic testing for BRCA mutations which dramatically increase risk for aggressive cancers. Materials and methods Women attending the cancer prevention clinic in Reykjavik, capital of Iceland, from October 12th until November 20th 2015 received an invitation to participate. Participation involved answering a short online questionnaire about background, family history of cancer as well as attitudes towards genetic counseling, BRCA testing and preventive use of such information. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used to describe differences in attitudes towards those questions between subgroups of women. Results 1129 women (69% response rate) answered the questionnaire. Mean age was 47 years (span 21-76 years). Around half (47%) had heard fairly much about the mutations. Independent of family history of cancer, the majority of women were positive towards receiving genetic counseling (79%) and to undergo genetic testing (83%) for BRCA mutation with younger women being more interested than older women. On the other hand, only 4% of the women had already received genetic counseling and 7% undergone genetic testing. Women with family history of cancer were more knowledgeable about BRCA mutations (pcounseling and testing for BRCA mutations although half of them worry that a positive result might affect their health insurance. Nevertheless, almost all women believe that existing genetic information should be used to inform carriers for preventive purposes.

  12. Observed and Modeled Pathways of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water in the eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Sijia; Lozier, Susan; Zenk, Walter; Bower, Amy; Johns, William

    2017-04-01

    The Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW), one of the major components of the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), is formed in the Nordic Seas and enters the eastern North Atlantic subpolar gyre via the Iceland-Scotland sill. After entraining the ambient waters, the relatively homogeneous ISOW spreads southward into the North Atlantic. An understanding of the distribution and variability of the spreading pathways of the ISOW is fundamental to our understanding of AMOC structure and variability. Three major ISOW pathways have been identified in the eastern North Atlantic by previous studies: 1) across the Reykjanes Ridge via deep gaps, 2) through the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone, and 3) southward along the eastern flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). However, most of these studies were conducted using an Eulerian frame with limited observations, especially for the third pathway along the eastern flank of the MAR. In this work, we give a comprehensive description of ISOW pathways in the Eulerian and Lagrangian frames, quantify the relative importance of each pathway and examine the temporal variability of these pathways. Our study distinguishes itself from past studies by using both Eulerian (current meter data) and Lagrangian (eddy-resolving RAFOS float data) observations in combination with modeling output (1/12° FLAME) to describe ISOW spreading pathways and their variability.

  13. Potential and limitation of combining terrestrial and marine growth records from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, A.; Urbinati, C.; Tonelli, E.; Eggertsson, Ó.; Levanič, T.; Kaczka, R. J.; Andrew, C.; Schöne, B. R.; Büntgen, U.

    2017-08-01

    Seasonally formed, perennial growth increments of various organisms may possibly contain information about past environmental changes, well before instrumental measurements occurred. Such annually resolved proxy records have been mainly obtained from terrestrial archives, with a paucity of similar data originating from marine habitats. Iceland represents ideal conditions to develop both, tree ring (dendro) and bivalve shell (sclero) chronologies from adjacent sites. Here we introduce the first network of Icelandic birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) dendrochronologies, as well as ocean quahog (Arctica islandica L.) sclerochronologies. In order to identify the dominant external drivers of tree and shell growth, we assess the common growth trends and growth extremes within and between the terrestrial and marine records, as well as relationships of both archives with instrumental-based meteorological indices. Capturing a strong signal of June-August mean air temperature, the dendrochronologies are significantly positively correlated to each other. The sclerochronologies, however, reveal much lower growth coherency, which likely results from different sampling strategies and growth habitats. Disagreement between the dendro- and sclerochronologies possibly originates from unequal sample size, offset in the seasonal timing and rate of the growth, as well as varying sensitivities to different environmental factors. Our results emphasize the importance of considering a wide range of species and taxa to reconstruct a more complete picture of terrestrial and marine ecosystem functioning and productivity across various spatiotemporal scales.

  14. Dissolution of subglacial volcanic glasses from Iceland: laboratory study and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovisier, J.-L.; Honnorez, J.; Fritz, B.; Petit, J.-C.

    1992-01-01

    Subglacial hyaloclastites from Iceland with ages ranging from 2 ka to 2.2 Ma have been studied from a mineralogical and geochemical standpoint. The chemical composition of palagonite (alteration crust formed on the surface of the glass) is almost identical with that of the clayey material filling the intergranular spaces of the rock. The clayey material is made up of two particle populations: the first is Si-, Mg-and Ca-rich with a smectite structure, while the second is amorphous, Fe-, Ti- and Al-rich, and has a smectite-like morphology. It is suggested that these two types of particles can be formed simultaneously, in the same solution, such that it is not necessary to explain their existence by local or temporary equilibria. The mineralogical sequences observed in natural samples were reproduced using the geochemical computer code DISSOL. The geochemical mass balances calculated with DISSOL also fit quite well with those calculated from Icelandic samples, illustrating the predictive capability of such a calculation code and give us confidence in applying a similar approach to nuclear waste-form glass problems. (author)

  15. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  16. Is Culture a Moderator of Entrepreneurship Motivation? A Comparative Study of Romania and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Brancu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to identify the linkage between national culture and the entrepreneurial intent for a specific demographic group. Thus, we set out to identify the differences induced by cultural context on the entrepreneurial intent of business administration bachelor students, from Romania and Iceland. The study is focused on underlining the motivations that can determine students to start their own businesses and analysing the extent to which the entrepreneurial motivations have cultural determinations (the classic model Hofstede dimensions. The method employed was a questionnaire-based survey, carried-out in both targeted countries. The independent sample t-test was used to identify the significant differences between the two groups of students. Based on the Hofstede`s societal culture model (1980, the research calculates an indicator called cultural distance for four cultural dimensions: individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity/femininity, in order to highlight national cultural influence on the entrepreneurial process. The results indicate that there are significant differences between Romanian and Icelandic students; however, these differences are not explained by the cultural distance calculated for the two groups.

  17. Changing compositions in the Iceland plume; Isotopic and elemental constraints from the Paleogene Faroe flood basalts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2011-01-01

    Elemental and Sr, Nd, Hf and high precision Pb isotopic data are presented from 59 low-Ti and high-Ti lavas from the syn-break up part of the Faroe Flood Basalt Province. The depleted MORB-like low-Ti lavas erupted in the rift zone between the Faroe Islands and central East Greenland around......-type component similar in geochemistry to the Icelandic Öræfajökull lavas. This component is believed to be recycled pelagic sediments in the plume but it can alternatively be a local crustal or lithospheric mantle component. The enriched Faroe high-Ti lavas erupted inland from the rift have isotopic...... compositions very similar to the enriched Icelandic neo-volcanics and these lava suites apparently share the two enriched plume end-members IE1 and IE2 (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68, 2, 2004). The lack of mixing between high and low-Ti melts at the time of break up, is explained by a zoned plume where only low...

  18. Spiritual well-being and quality of life among Icelanders receiving palliative care: data from Icelandic pilot-testing of a provisional measure of spiritual well-being from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, G H; Sigurdardottir, V; Gunnarsdottir, S; Sigurbjörnsson, E; Traustadottir, R; Kelly, E; Young, T; Vivat, B

    2017-03-01

    Palliative care focuses on improving quality of life (QoL). This study examined the feasibility of the Icelandic version of a provisional European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) measure of spiritual well-being (SWB), and explored the relationship between SWB and QoL for palliative care patients in Iceland. Instruments from the EORTC were used: the provisional measure of SWB, which was undergoing pilot-testing in Iceland, and the EORTC QLQ C15-PAL. The correlation between scores was examined and descriptive statistics were used. Structured interviews explored feasibility. Thirty persons participated with average age 72 years. Belief in God or a higher power had the mean 3.33 on a 1-4 scale and the mean for overall SWB was 5.73 on a 1-7 scale. The mean score for global health/QoL was 59.4, physical functioning 48.5 and emotional functioning 78.9 on a 0-100 scale. Overall QoL was positively correlated with SWB showing r(30) = 0.386, P = 0.035. The participants found that answering the provisional EORTC QLQ-SWB prompted an emotional response and took the opportunity to discuss the subject. The provisional SWB measure was found relevant for the Icelandic context, and the study indicates that SWB and QoL are closely connected. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Status and Future Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.; Reed, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    The IDDP represents a challenging step forward in the worldwide development of geothermal energy by assessing the potential of power production from natural supercritical fluids. A feasibility study in 2003 concluded that in order to reach fluids at temperatures of >400°C drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km is necessary, but the resultant superheated steam should have a power output ten times that of conventional subcritical steam with the same volumetric flow rate. A consortium of leading Icelandic energy companies together with a government agency, the Icelandic Energy Authority, is carrying out the IDDP. In late 2003 a member of the consortium offered a planned exploratory well to the IDDP for deepening. This is in a geothermal system that produces hydrothermally modified seawater on the Reykjanes peninsula, in southern Iceland, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge comes on land. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be similar to those responsible for black smokers on ocean spreading centers. This well reached 3.1 km in February 2005, and research on the downhole samples began. Unfortunately the well became plugged during a flow test and was abandoned in February 2006 after attempts to recondition it failed. This led to the IDDP deciding to move the site for the first deep borehole to Krafla, near the northern end of the central rift zone of Iceland, within a volcanic caldera that has had recent volcanic activity. The Krafla geothermal system has higher temperature gradients than at Reykjanes but produces hydrothermally modified meteoric water with magmatic gases. The drill site chosen is near an existing well that encountered 340°C at only 2.5 km depth. It will be rotary drilled with spot coring to 3.5 km depth, and then deepened to ~4.5 km, using continuous wireline coring for scientific purposes. However, given the competition for drilling rigs internationally, and the year-long lead times in obtaining specialized well casings, it will be a year before IDDP begins

  20. Making Earth's earliest continental crust - an analogue from voluminous Neogene silicic volcanism in NE-Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Riishuus, Morten S.; Deegan, Frances M.; Harris, Chris; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2014-05-01

    Borgarfjörður Eystri in NE-Iceland represents the second-most voluminous exposure of silicic eruptive rocks in Iceland and is a superb example of bimodal volcanism (Bunsen-Daly gap), which represents a long-standing controversy that touches on the problem of crustal growth in early Earth. The silicic rocks in NE-Iceland approach 25 % of the exposed rock mass in the region (Gústafsson et al., 1989), thus they significantly exceed the usual ≤ 12 % in Iceland as a whole (e.g. Walker, 1966; Jonasson, 2007). The origin, significance, and duration of the voluminous (> 300 km3) and dominantly explosive silicic activity in Borgarfjörður Eystri is not yet constrained (c.f. Gústafsson, 1992), leaving us unclear as to what causes silicic volcanism in otherwise basaltic provinces. Here we report SIMS zircon U-Pb ages and δ18O values from the region, which record the commencement of silicic igneous activity with rhyolite lavas at 13.5 to 12.8 Ma, closely followed by large caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions from the Breiðavik and Dyrfjöll central volcanoes (12.4 Ma). Silicic activity ended abruptly with dacite lava at 12.1 Ma, defining a ≤ 1 Myr long window of silicic volcanism. Magma δ18O values estimated from zircon range from 3.1 to 5.5 (± 0.3; n = 170) and indicate up to 45 % assimilation of a low-δ18O component (e.g. typically δ18O = 0 ‰, Bindeman et al., 2012). A Neogene rift relocation (Martin et al., 2011) or the birth of an off-rift zone to the east of the mature rift associated with a thermal/chemical pulse in the Iceland plume (Óskarsson & Riishuus, 2013), likely brought mantle-derived magma into contact with fertile hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. The resulting interaction triggered large-scale crustal melting and generated mixed-origin silicic melts. Such rapid formation of silicic magmas from sustained basaltic volcanism may serve as an analogue for generating continental crust in a subduction-free early Earth (e.g. ≥ 3 Ga, Kamber et

  1. Señas Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. García Mejía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra un sistema que permite el estudio y práctica del Lenguaje de Señas Mexicano (LMS, el cual es el método de comunicación de las personas que padecen un trastorno de procesamiento auditivo. El sistema propuesto en este artículo consta de un guante de tela instrumentado con sensores de flexión, una etapa de acondicionamiento de señales y una tarjeta de adquisición de datos; que en su conjunto constituyen el Hardware. El software esta formado por un programa de adquisición de datos y una interfaz de usuario, ambos codificados en Visual Basic Net. El sistema propuesto se modela por medio del lenguaje de modelado unificado (UML, ya que Visual Basic es un lenguaje orientado a eventos.

  2. Porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2000-01-01

    Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM).......Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM)....

  3. A Nationwide Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Drug Use among Adults in Iceland 2003-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geirs, D. P.; Pottegård, Anton; Halldorsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we leveraged on complete nationwide prescription data for the total adult population in Iceland (N=227,000) to examine how attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drugs have been used over the past decade. In particular, we aimed to describe the prevalence, incidence and du...

  4. Immunomodulatory N-acyl Dopamine Glycosides from the Icelandic Marine Sponge Myxilla incrustans Collected at a Hydrothermal Vent Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Eydis; Liu, Hong Bing; Freysdottir, Jona

    2016-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the sponge (Porifera) Myxilla incrustans collected from the unique submarine hydrothermal vent site Strytan, North of Iceland, revealed a novel family of closely related N-acyl dopamine glycosides. Three new compounds, myxillin A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated...

  5. Genome Analyses of Icelandic Strains of Sulfolobus islandicus, Model Organisms for Genetic and Virus-Host Interaction Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Li; Brügger, Kim; Liu, Chao

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of two Sulfolobus islandicus strains obtained from Icelandic solfataras were sequenced and analyzed. Strain REY15A is a host for a versatile genetic toolbox. It exhibits a genome of minimal size, is stable genetically, and is easy to grow and manipulate. Strain HVE10/4 shows a broad h...

  6. Thermoanaerobacter mathranii sp. nov., an ethanol-producing, extremely thermophilic anaerobic bacterium from a hot spring in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.; Nielsen, P.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The extremely thermophilic ethanol-producing strain A3 was isolated from a hot spring in Iceland, The cells were rod-shaped, motile, and had terminal spores: cells from the mid-to-late exponential growth phase stained gram-variable but had a gram-positive cell wall structure when viewed...

  7. Will you still need me, will you still feed me? Old-age pensions in Iceland from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinunn Rögnvaldsdóttir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Icelandic women have through the years earned less occupational and supplemental pensions and depended more than men do on the basic pension of social security. Although women’s labour market participation has increased, the gender pay gap, unpaid labour in homes, and women’s fewer working hours in paid labour results in the extension of the labour market gender discrimination into old age. The structure of Icelandic pension funds is fundamentally male biased because of its tight connection to employment, despite the absence of direct discrimination factors. The article provides an overview of implications for a more women friendly pension system; based on multi-national research; the analysis of the Icelandic pension system, and statistical information on older women and men’s economic situation in Iceland. Adequate basic pension, elimination of labour market gender discrimination, and males taking greater responsibility for care- and housework, are some of the key issues in creating a more gender equal pension system. Sharing of pensions between spouses, the responsibility of pension-funds and companies, and possibilities of care credit systems to promote gender equality are also discussed.

  8. Evaluation of Seafood Product Concepts by Young Adults and Families with Young Children from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low

  9. The effective size of the Icelandic population and the prospects for LD mapping: inference from unphased microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Mailund, Thomas; Thorlacius, Steinunn

    2006-01-01

    on scaled recombination rates from patterns of LD. Patterns of LD in Iceland suggest a genome-wide scaled recombination rate of ρ* = 200 [130–330] per cM which is equivalent to a long term effective population size of ~5000 in the range of estimates recently reported in three populations using extensive...

  10. Diet composition and quality for Calanus finmarchicus egg production and hatching success off south-west Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Gudfinnsson, H.G.; Gislason, A.

    2002-01-01

    Egg production and hatching success of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was measured during spring and summer in the waters south-west of Iceland. Egg-production rates varied greatly, both temporally and spatially, with highest average rates found at a station with low chlorophyll-a concentrations...

  11. Evidence for solar forcing of sea-surface temperature on the North Icelandic shelf during the late Holocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hui; Eiríksson, Jón; Schultz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    would seem to imply a common forcing factor. A positive and significant correlation between our SST record from the North Icelandic Shelf and reconstructed solar irradiance, together with modeling results, supports the hypothesis that solar forcing is an important constituent of natural climate...

  12. Queering the Environment and Caring for the Self: Icelandic LGBT Students' Experience of the Upper Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaran, Jón; Kristinsdóttir, Guðrún

    2015-01-01

    Heteronormative culture and heterosexism is experienced by many LGBT students and queer individuals in their daily interactions with their environment. Icelandic upper secondary schools are no exception in this respect. This article draws on interview data with five LGBT students supported by semi-participatory observations at two upper secondary…

  13. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  14. Short-term variations of Icelandic ice cap mass inferred from cGPS coordinate time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compton, Kathleen; Bennett, Richard A.; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún

    2017-01-01

    As the global climate changes, understanding short-term variations in water storage is increasingly important. Continuously operating Global Positioning System (cGPS) stations in Iceland record annual periodic motion—the elastic response to winter accumulation and spring melt seasons—with peak-to...

  15. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Anna G. Jónasdóttir

    2016-01-01

    On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first...

  16. Indexation of Consumer and Mortgage Credit in Iceland in 2014: A Critical Battle between Legality, Fairness and Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elvira Mendez Pinedo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Six years after the financial crisis that led to the collapse of the banking system in 2008, the over-indebtedness of households is one of the most important problems in Iceland. This study aims to cast light on a specific feature of the Icelandic credit system in connection with the problem of over-indebtedness. The main research question is whether the end of indexation of credit is close or not. The author argues, in the first place, that indexation of credit ex-post to the consumer price index (CPI in negative amortization schemes is responsible for over-indebtedness. In the second place, the author describes the challenges ahead in the field of consumer and mortgage credit in Iceland in the light of European law (European Union EU and European Economic Area EEA. The incorporation of Directive 2008/48 on credit agreement for consumers to the Icelandic domestic order through the EEA Agreement allowed a preliminary legal review of the practice in light of EU/EEA consumer credit law, both at national and European level without a final conclusion. It has nevertheless led to the judicial review on the legality of some indexation alleged malpractices before national courts and to the EFTA Court for interpretation (mostly on Directives 93/13/EEC on unfair terms 87/102/EEC on consumer credit. A ruling from the Supreme Court is expected on several cases. A critical battle between the legality, the fairness and the legitimacy of indexation of credit is taking place in Iceland under the influence of European law.

  17. SE-72/AS-72 generator system based on Se extraction/ As reextraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Michael Ernst; Ballard, Beau D

    2013-09-10

    The preparation of a .sup.72Se/.sup.72As radioisotope generator involves forming an acidic aqueous solution of an irradiated alkali bromide target such as a NaBr target, oxidizing soluble bromide in the solution to elemental bromine, removing the elemental bromine, evaporating the resulting solution to a residue, removing hydrogen chloride from the residue, forming an acidic aqueous solution of the residue, adding a chelator that selectively forms a chelation complex with selenium, and extracting the chelation complex from the acidic aqueous solution into an organic phase. As the .sup.72Se generates .sup.72As in the organic phase, the .sup.72As may be extracted repeatedly from the organic phase with an aqueous acid solution.

  18. Insights from Askja sand sheet, Iceland, as a depositional analogue for the Bagnold Dune Field, Gale Crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukstins, I.; Sara, M.; Riishuus, M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Yingst, R. A.; Berger, J.

    2017-12-01

    Examining the compositional effect of aeolian transport and sorting processes on basaltic sands is significant for understanding the evolution of the Bagnold dune field, as well as other martian soils and sedimentary units. We use the Askja sand sheet, Iceland, as a testbed to quantify the nature of soil production and aeolian transport processes in a mafic system. Basalts from Askja and surrounding volcanic units, which can have high MgO (5-18 wt %) and high Fe2O3 (5-18 wt %), have been weathered to form mafic volcaniclastic deposits which are incorporated into a 40-km long sand sheet to the E-SE of the caldera, ranging from 10 cm to 10 m thick, and covering 240 km2. Ash and lava from the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption were emplaced onto the southeastern part of the sand sheet. The SW section is deflationary and defined by very fine to medium grained basaltic sand with ventifact cobbles and boulders. The central part is inflating and dominated by very fine-grained sand, relict lava fields, and small to large sand ripples (1 to 30 cm). The NE portion is also inflating but accumulation is limited to topographic depressions. Bulk chemistry of >200 sand samples are similar to Martian crust (SiO2: 48-52 wt %, MgO: 5-8 wt %, Fe2O3: 13-15 wt %). MgO concentrations vary with distance along the sand sheet, increasing by 1.5% over 10 km in the downwind direction (E, NE), then maintaining a relatively consistent concentration of 6.75 wt % over 18 km. Mean equancy of grains decreases 15 % to the E over 10 km followed by a plateau at 65 to 75 %. Material at depth tends to be of higher sphericity than material on or near the surface. Notably, MgO increases while the sphericity decreases and both data sets level off at 10 km, which suggests these two variables are related. These indicate input of material with prismoidal morphology around 10 km, and may be due to the Holuhraun eruption.

  19. 187Os-186Os and He Isotope Systematics of Iceland Picrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Brandon, A. D.; Graham, D.; Gautason, B.

    2001-12-01

    Iceland is one of the longest-lived modern plumes, and seismic imaging supports a model where the roots of this plume are at the base of the lower mantle. Hence, Os isotopic data for lavas from this plume are ideal for further testing the role of core-mantle chemical exchange at the site of plume generation in the lower mantle, and for addressing the origin of Os-He isotopic variation in plumes. Recent work has shown that lavas from some plume systems (Hawaii, Noril'sk-Siberia, Gorgona) show coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, not observed in upper mantle materials including abyssal peridotites. Picrites from Hawaii display a positive correlation between 186Os/188Os and He isotopes (R/Ra), where range in 186Os/188Os of 0.119834+/-28 to 0.1198475+/-29 and corresponding R/Ra from +7 to +25. These systematics are consistent with a lower mantle source for the radiogenic 186Os signal in the Hawaiian plume. The coupled Os enrichments in these plumes has been attributed to core-mantle chemical exchange, consistent with generation of the Hawaiian plume at the base of the lower mantle in D". Other potentially viable models await additional scrutiny. New He isotope and high precision 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os measurements for Iceland picrites show unique systematics compared to Hawaii. These picrites have 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.1297 to 0.1381 and R/Ra of +9 to +18, with generally higher R/Ra correlating with higher 187Os/188Os. Unlike the Hawaiian picrites from Hualalai and Loihi, which have coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, the Iceland picrites show no enrichment 186Os/188Os - 0.1198363+/-28 (2s, n=14). Such Os-He isotopic variations require one end-member source that has high R/Ra, coupled with a long term elevated Re/Os and Pt/Os similar to that of the upper mantle. These systematics are inconsistent with either known upper mantle materials or those purported for ancient recycled slabs and may be a previously unidentified component

  20. Structural Evolution of Transform Fault Zones in Thick Oceanic Crust of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karson, J. A.; Brandsdottir, B.; Horst, A. J.; Farrell, J.

    2017-12-01

    Spreading centers in Iceland are offset from the regional trend of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) in the north and the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) in the south. Rift propagation away from the center of the Iceland hotspot, has resulted in migration of these transform faults to the N and S, respectively. As they migrate, new transform faults develop in older crust between offset spreading centers. Active transform faults, and abandoned transform structures left in their wakes, show features that reflect different amounts (and durations) of slip that can be viewed as a series of snapshots of different stages of transform fault evolution in thick, oceanic crust. This crust has a highly anisotropic, spreading fabric with pervasive zones of weakness created by spreading-related normal faults, fissures and dike margins oriented parallel to the spreading centers where they formed. These structures have a strong influence on the mechanical properties of the crust. By integrating available data, we suggest a series of stages of transform development: 1) Formation of an oblique rift (or leaky transform) with magmatic centers, linked by bookshelf fault zones (antithetic strike-slip faults at a high angle to the spreading direction) (Grimsey Fault Zone, youngest part of the TFZ); 2) broad zone of conjugate faulting (tens of km) (Hreppar Block N of the SISZ); 3) narrower ( 20 km) zone of bookshelf faulting aligned with the spreading direction (SISZ); 4) mature, narrow ( 1 km) through-going transform fault zone bounded by deformation (bookshelf faulting and block rotations) distributed over 10 km to either side (Húsavík-Flatey Fault Zone in the TFZ). With progressive slip, the transform zone becomes progressively narrower and more closely aligned with the spreading direction. The transform and non-transform (beyond spreading centers) domains may be truncated by renewed propagation and separated by subsequent spreading. This perspective

  1. The refractive state of the eye in Icelandic horses with the Silver mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria K; Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Kim; Lindgren, Gabriella; Ekesten, Björn

    2017-06-02

    The syndrome Multiple Congenital Ocular Anomalies (MCOA) is a congenital eye disorder in horses. Both the MCOA syndrome and the Silver coat colour in horses are caused by the same missense mutation in the premelanosome protein (PMEL) gene. Horses homozygous for the Silver mutation (TT) are affected by multiple ocular defects causing visual impairment or blindness. Horses heterozygous for the Silver mutation (CT) have less severe clinical signs, usually cysts arising from the ciliary body iris or retina temporally. It is still unknown if the vision is impaired in horses heterozygous for the Silver mutation. A recent study reported that Comtois horses carrying the Silver mutation had significantly deeper anterior chambers of the eye compared to wild-type horses. This could potentially cause refractive errors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if Icelandic horses with the Silver mutation have refractive errors compared to wild-type horses. One hundred and fifty-two Icelandic horses were included in the study, 71 CT horses and five TT horses. All horses were genotyped for the missense mutation in PMEL. Each CT and TT horse was matched by a wild-type (CC) horse of the same age ± 1 year. Skiascopy and a brief ophthalmic examination were performed in all horses. Association between refraction and age, eye, genotype and sex was tested by linear mixed-effect model analysis. TT horses with controls were not included in the statistical analyses as they were too few. The interaction between age and genotype had a significant impact on the refractive state (P = 0.0001). CT horses older than 16 years were on average more myopic than wild-type horses of the same age. No difference in the refractive state could be observed between genotypes (CT and CC) in horses younger than 16 years. TT horses were myopic (-2 D or more) in one or both eyes regardless of age. Our results indicate that an elderly Icelandic horse (older than 16 years) carrying the Silver

  2. Thickness, Composition and Physical Properties of Crust in Iceland's Neovolcanic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Barton, M.

    2005-12-01

    We report the results of an ongoing effort to use petrologic data to estimate the thickness, composition and physical properties of crust in the neovolcanic zone of Iceland. The objectives are to constrain the depths of magma chambers, calculate geothermal gradients, and resolve discrepancies in the interpretation of geophysical data (primarily gravity and seismic). 1788 whole rock analyses and 170 glass analyses of erupted Icelandic lavas from the neovolcanic zone have been compiled from published papers. Variation diagrams indicate that Icelandic magmas evolved primarily by crystallization of Ol-Cpx-Plag, whereas the most primitive magmas evolved by crystallization of Ol alone. Phase equilibrium constraints were used to quantitatively estimate the pressure of crystallization along the Ol-Cpx-Plag cotectic and hence the depths of the magma chambers. The latter occur at 20±6.2 km, and the average temperature of magma in the chambers is 1207±26°C (also estimated from phase equilibrium constraints). The results suggest magma chambers located at the base of the crust indicating that the latter is ~20 km thick along the neovolcanic zone in agreement with estimates based on geophysical studies. It is argued that the average composition of erupted lavas provides an accurate estimate of crustal composition because magma evolution occurs in sub-crustal chambers. A representative geothermal gradient was calculated using the average crust composition and surface heat flow measurements. The calculated gradient is consistent with the periodic presence of shallow intracrustal magma chambers at ~5 km depth that have been detected seismically, with hydrothermal circulation in the uppermost 3 km of the crust, and with temperatures of ~1200°C at the base of the crust. The geotherm was used to calculate a density-depth profile for average crust. Densities decrease with depth if a low-pressure mineralogy is used for the crust. This density inversion can be avoided by assuming

  3. Sample Set (SE): SE50 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oids We report that flavonoids with radical scavenging activity mitigate against ox...ress. These data confirm the usefulness of flavonoids for enhancing both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance...SE50 Enhancement of oxidative and drought tolerance in arabidopsis by overaccumulation of antioxidant flavon

  4. Sample Set (SE): SE59 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available idopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). However, the behavior of flavonoids during drough...t stress is still not well documented. Herein we investigated the time-series alternation of flavonoids in t...vonoids, a class of specialized metabolites, including flavonols and anthocyanins w...SE59 Alternation of flavonoid accumulation under drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana We reported that fla

  5. Sample Set (SE): SE27 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27 Effect of agricultural films for cabbage leaf metabolites Investigation of Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultura...l film or no agricultural film), 3 replicates data are examined. Takeshi Ara 1, Naoki Yamamoto 1,

  6. Sample Set (SE): SE52 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE52 Mass spectra-based framework for automated structural elucidation of metabolom...e data to explore phytochemical diversity A novel framework for automated elucidation of metabolite structur...te ontology system was also introduced to attain putative characterization of the metabolite signals.The automate

  7. Ud at se med Erasmus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    Få lidt luft under vingerne, kom ud at møde udenlandske kolleger og se, hvordan man også kan lave uddannelsesbibliotek. Med begejstring fortæller tre bibliotekarer om deres oplevelser i det store udland – alt sammen finansieret af Erasmus.......Få lidt luft under vingerne, kom ud at møde udenlandske kolleger og se, hvordan man også kan lave uddannelsesbibliotek. Med begejstring fortæller tre bibliotekarer om deres oplevelser i det store udland – alt sammen finansieret af Erasmus....

  8. Oblique rift opening revealed by reoccurring magma injection in central Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Ruch, Joel

    2016-08-05

    Extension deficit builds up over centuries at divergent plate boundaries and is recurrently removed during rifting events, accompanied by magma intrusions and transient metre-scale deformation. However, information on transient near-field deformation has rarely been captured, hindering progress in understanding rifting mechanisms and evolution. Here we show new evidence of oblique rift opening during a rifting event influenced by pre-existing fractures and two centuries of extension deficit accumulation. This event originated from the Bárðarbunga caldera and led to the largest basaltic eruption in Iceland in >200 years. The results show that the opening was initially accompanied by left-lateral shear that ceased with increasing opening. Our results imply that pre-existing fractures play a key role in controlling oblique rift opening at divergent plate boundaries.

  9. Oil and Gas Development in The Faroese Islands, Iceland and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smits, Coco C.A.; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2015-01-01

    for oil companies to exercise these efforts. These efforts could thus be seen as obligatory while they do not necessarily only cost money, but also increases local resilience which could lead to support for a company's operations. However, these longer term positive externalities are often hard to measure...... the local societies are aiming to maximise their benefits and use a number of policy instruments to ensure this will happen. This manuscript will examine the measures that are incorporated into the Faroese, Greenlandic and Icelandic policies to stimulate local competence development via higher...... and vocational education. Furthermore it will try to illustrate how supporting and funding local competence development could contribute to increasing the resilience of local societies in the Arctic and obtaining a social license to operate....

  10. Immigrants’ Experiences of Happiness and Well-being in Northern Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Barillé

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our analysis reveals that well-being is higher among immigrants in northern Iceland with strong social capital and with some connections to local networks. Individuals often resort to individual rationale to explain their circumstances, their choices and their subsequent well-being. We begin the discussion by very briefly reviewing the literature on well-being and by introducing the context in which the study was realised. In the following section, we examine the relationship between feelings of well-being and the urban environment; then we explore the belief that opportunities are plentiful in this northern town, and finally look at the relationship between the social support of immigrants and their well-being.

  11. Risk taking business Vikings: Gendered dynamics in Icelandic banks and financial companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Loftsdóttir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feminist scholars have long emphasized the masculine culture of the financial sector, where a certain gendered structure is created and sustained. The capitalistic economy and the culture of multinational corporations play a leading role in creating and promoting new patterns of masculinity - the transnational business masculinity - on both global and local levels. It is thus important to analyze how this takes place in a local context. Following the economic collapse in Iceland, a strong emphasis formed in the public discussion on a changed gender dynamic in financial firms and in general. This article focuses on the experience of those working within the financial sector in relation to the position of men and women, contextualized within a scholarly discourse. It is based upon interviews with employees of financial institutions, where they reflect on their experience and views masculinity, essentialism and equality.

  12. Imaging the Iceland Hotspot Track Beneath Greenland with Seismic Noise Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordret, A.

    2017-12-01

    During the past 65 million years, the Greenland craton drifted over the Iceland hotspot; however, uncertainties in geodynamic modeling and a lack of geophysical evidence prevent an accurate reconstruction of the hotspot track. I image the Greenland lithosphere down to 300 km depth with seismic noise tomography. The hotspot track is observed as a linear high-velocity anomaly in the middle crust associated with magmatic intrusions. In the upper mantle, the remnant thermal signature of the hotspot manifests as low velocity and low viscosity bodies. This new detailed picture of the Greenland lithosphere will drive more accurate geodynamic reconstructions of tectonic plate motions and prediction of Greenland heat flow, which in turn will enable more precise estimations of the Greenland ice-sheet mass balance.

  13. Strategy Archetypes Adopted by Icelandic Companies, Their Fit with Performance Measures and Effects on Financial Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall; Sigurjonsson, Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    Past research seems to suggest that companies adopting certain strategies favor certain sets of performance measures. That is to say companies using entrepreneurial focused strategies favor non-financial measures or a balanced mix of financial and non-financial measures. Companies adopting reactive...... or operational strategies seem to favor financial measures and are less likely to use non-financial measures. We take this research further by focusing not only on the link between strategy types and performance measures but also on what specific performance measures are used in connection to which strategies....... Furthermore, we examine the link between the strategies adopted, the performance measures favored and the financial performance of the companies. The empirical data collection was carried out in winter 2013 with a population of the 300 largest companies in Iceland. The survey was sent to the CFO...

  14. Estimates of the abundance of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata from Faroese and Icelandic NASS shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Pike

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys for cetaceans were carried out Northeast and Central Atlantic in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. Here we provide estimates of density and abundance for minke whales from the Faroese and Icelandic ship surveys. The estimates are not corrected for availability or perception biases. Double platform data collected in 2001 indicates that perception bias is likely considerable for this species. However comparison of corrected estimates of densityfrom aerial surveys with a ship survey estimate from the same area suggests that ship surveys can be nearly unbiased under optimal survey conditions with high searching effort. There were some regional changes in density over the period but no overall changes in density and abundance. Given the recent catch history for minke whales in this area, we would not expect to see changes in abundance due to exploitation that would be detectable with these surveys.

  15. Narrative ethics and the ecology of culture: notes on new Italian-Icelandic sagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Rocha, Antonio Casado

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The following are a few loose notes about a tough subject: the relationship between ethics, storytelling and the legal-cum-social framework that makes human creativity thrive or decay. Rather than a tight argument, what I propose here is a few, unoriginal hints, in the hope that they may help others to pursue a fuller answer to the question, On what depends the preservation of transmission of a culture? Using some thoughts by A. MacIntyre and some examples taken from the history of Icelandic literature, I emphasize the role of alternative ways of understanding intellectual property, as well as some contemporary experiments in mythopoiesis, such as the one by the Italian collective of writers-activists known as Wu Ming.

  16. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations; 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Nuclear security; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister of Health and Social Security; Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute)

  17. Faroese long-distance reflexives face off against Icelandic long-distance reflexives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania E. Strahan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance reflexives (LDRs in Faroese are often compared to those in Icelandic, and are even considered to have the same distribution (Thráinsson et al., 2004. In this paper I evaluate the extent to which this is true. The results from recent fieldwork show that there are clear differences between the LDR in the two closely related languages, in particular that Faroese speakers often reject LDR sentences that contain a non-third person, and that Faroese LDR is often completely acceptable out of a non-complement clause. In addition, initial findings suggest that there may be dialectal variation with respect to at least these two aspects of LDR in Faroese.

  18. A Seismological Portrait of the Anomalous 1996 Bardarbunga Volcano, Iceland, Earthquake (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalcic, H.; Dreger, D. S.; Foulger, G. R.; Julian, B. R.; Fichtner, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Bardarbunga volcano lies beneath the 500-m-thick Vatnajokull icecap, the largest glacier in Europe. Earthquakes with atypical seismic radiation have occurred beneath the Bardarbunga caldera and have been routinely reported in the Global CMT catalog. An earthquake with Mw 5.6 and a strong non-double-couple (NDC) radiation pattern occurred beneath the caldera on 29 September, 1996. A peculiarity of that earthquake was that it was the first in a sequence of seismic and magmatic events and that it was followed, not preceded or accompanied, by a major eruption which ultimately led to a breakout flood from the subglacial caldera lake. The earthquake was recorded well by the regional-scale Iceland Hotspot Project seismic experiment. One of the proposed hypotheses to explain the observed displacements and the sequence of events was the inflation of a shallow magma chamber that might have caused rupture on ring faults below the chamber. Iceland has a heterogeneous crust, with variable thickness, and thus a 1D structural model is not ideal for waveform modeling. We investigated the earthquake with a point-source complete moment-tensor (MT) inversion method using regional long-period seismic waveforms and a composite structural model of Iceland based on joint modeling of teleseismic receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. When such a model is used, the waveform modeling yields a NDC solution with a strong, vertically oriented compensated linear vector dipole component and a statistically insignificant volumetric contraction. The absence of a volumetric component is surprising in the case of a large volcanic earthquake that cannot be explained by shear slip on a planar fault. A possible mechanism that can produce an earthquake without a volumetric component involves two offset sources with similar but opposite volume changes. We show that although such a model cannot be ruled out, it is unlikely. In order to investigate the hypothesis of a rupture occurring on a

  19. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie

    2010-07-01

    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Plate boundary deformation and man-made subsidence around geothermal fields on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Keiding, Marie; Á rnadó ttir, Thó ra; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Decriem, Judicaë l; Hooper, Andrew John

    2010-01-01

    We present Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from 1992-1999 and 2003-2008 as well as GPS data from 2000-2009 for the active plate boundary on the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland. The geodetic data reveal deformation mainly due to plate spreading, anthropogenic subsidence caused by geothermal fluid extraction and, possibly, increasing pressure in a geothermal system. Subsidence of around 10. cm is observed during the first 2. years of production at the Reykjanes geothermal power plant, which started operating in May 2006. We model the surface subsidence around the new power plant using point and ellipsoidal pressure sources in an elastic halfspace. Short-lived swarms of micro-earthquakes as well as aseismic fault movement are observed near the geothermal field following the start of production, possibly triggered by the stresses induced by geothermal fluid extraction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hepatitis B immunisation programmes in European Union, Norway and Iceland: where we were in 2009?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereckiene, Jolita; Cotter, Suzanne; Lopalco, Pierluigi; D'Ancona, Fortunato; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Giambi, Cristina; Johansen, Kari; Dematte, Luca; Salmaso, Stefania; Stefanoff, Pawel; O'Flanagan, Darina

    2010-06-17

    In January 2009 25 European Union (EU) Member States (MSs), Norway and Iceland, participated in a survey seeking information on national hepatitis B vaccination programmes. Details of vaccination policy, schedule, population groups targeted for vaccination, programme funding, vaccine coverage and methods of monitoring of vaccine coverage were obtained. Twenty (74%) countries reported that they have a universal hepatitis B vaccination programme, in addition to immunisation of at risk groups; seven (26%) countries recommend HBV for high risk groups only (with some inter-country variation on groups considered at high risk). Among countries without universal hepatitis B vaccination programmes, the major factor for non-introduction is low disease endemicity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacists in a liberalised system - Results from a profession-wide survey in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn; Traulsen, Janine Morgall

    2002-01-01

    satisfaction was correlated with respondents' perception of the job's importance and responsibility, more so for community pharmacists than others. Overall job satisfaction was quite high and community pharmacists felt that their contact with customers was satisfactory. However, they were more dissatisfied...... with their work hours, importance of their work, and responsibility than other pharmacists. Conclusion - Community pharmacists have been affected more adversely by the legislative change than their colleagues in other work settings.......Background - The study reported here was part of a multi-study evaluation of new drug distribution legislation in Iceland. Objective - The objective of this sub-study was to compare the satisfaction of community pharmacists and pharmacists in other settings with regard to their job in general...

  3. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, Edda Y; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorlacius, Arngrimur; Reykdal, Olafur; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Thorsdottir, Inga; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-01-01

    Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16-20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90-208); nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P=0.002 and r=0.22; P=0.04, respectively) while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  4. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  5. [Experience of Icelandic adults of corporal punishment and abuse in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Einarsdottir, Jonina

    2013-05-01

    Corporal punishment and abuse of children can have a negative impact on their health and well-being. The aim is to examine on Icelandic adults, experience of corporal punishment as children, its prevalence, justification as victims, and its impact on the assessment of their upbringing. From the national population register, out of 1500 randomly selected adults 18 years and older, 977 (65%) participated. In a telephone interview, they appraised their upbringing, followed by questions regarding 5 specific forms of corporal punishment in addition to an open-ended question about other forms experienced. Out of 968 respondents, 810 (84%) regarded their upbringing as good. In total, 465 (48%) reported at least one form of corporal punishment in childhood, with spanking being the most prevalent one (29%). Respondents 30 years and older were 1.9 times more likely to have experienced corporal punishment compared to those who were younger (95% CI 1.4-2.6) and males were 1.6 times more likely to report it compared to females (95% CI 1.2-2.0). Those who had frequently been punished were significantly more likely to hold of the opinion that it had never been justified (OR=6.5; 95% CI 1.8-22.9) and were more likely to judge their upbringing to have been reasonable or bad (OR=10.2; 95% CI 4.7-21.9) compared to those who had no such experience. The practice of corporal punishment of Icelandic children was significantly less prevalent among respondents born about 1980 and later compared to those born earlier. Increased public debate and awareness of children's rights and changed ideas about their upbringing has facilitated such development.

  6. [Work injuries of 13-17-year-old Icelanders: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Margret; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda; Einarsdottir, Jonina

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the research is to investigate work injuries among 13-17-year-old teenagers in Iceland, their causes and seriousness. Firstly, the prevalence of work injuries among the age-group is examined, as is the length of their absence from work, as well as the gender and age differences of both factors. Secondly, the type and the cause of the injuries are investigated. Thirdly, the most serious injuries and their causes are studied further. A survey was carried out amongst 2000 teenagers, aged 13-17, randomly selected from the Registers Iceland. The response rate was 48.4%. The teenagers were asked in a closed question about whether they had had an accident at work, and in an open one about the type and cause of the injury. A Chi-square test was used to test statistical significance: 95% confidence interval (CI). A fifth of the young people had had an accident at work, one quarter of the injured workers were absent from work because of the injury of which 5.9% for more than a week. The percentage of injured workers increases with age and has reached 30,7% among the 17-year-olds. Cuts and sprains were the most common injuries, whereas back injuries and bone fractures caused the longest absences. Sharp instruments were the most common cause of an injury, but lifting/carrying a (heavy) object as well as a fall of an object caused the longest absences. The prevalence of young workers' injuries and the seriousness of some of these injuries are of concern. In addition to education on occupational health and safety (OHS) and OHS training, future research must analyse if their labour market position threaten the young people's safety, and if it is the case, how to prevent it.

  7. History of the incipient Icelandic plume: Observations from ancient buried landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky de Quay, Gaia; Roberts, Gareth G.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2017-04-01

    Ancient buried terrestrial landscapes contain records of vertical motions which can be used to probe histories of geodynamical processes. In the North Atlantic Ocean, sedimentary basins contain excellent evidence that the continental shelf experienced staged subaerial exposure. For example, now buried landscapes were uplifted, rapidly eroded, and drowned close to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. We use commercial wells and three-dimensional seismic data to reconstruct a 57-55 Ma landscape now buried 1.5 km beneath the seabed in the Bressay area of the northern North Sea. Geochemical analyses of organic matter from core samples intersecting the erosional landscape indicate the presence of angiosperm (flowering plant) debris. Combined with the presence of coarse clastic material, mapped beach ridges, and dendritic drainage patterns, these observations indicate that this landscape was of terrestrial origin. Longitudinal profiles of ancient rivers were extracted and inverted for an uplift rate history. The best-fitting uplift rate history has three phases and total cumulative uplift of 350 m. Biostratigraphic data from surrounding marine stratigraphy indicate that this landscape formed within 1-1.5 Ma. This uplift history is similar to that of a slightly older buried landscape in the Faeroe-Shetland basin 400 km to the west. These records of vertical motion can explained by pulses of anomalously hot asthenosphere spreading out from the incipient Icelandic plume. Using simple isostatic calculations we estimate that the maximum thermal anomaly beneath Bressay was 50˚. Our observations suggest that a thermal anomaly departed the Icelandic plume as early as 58.5 Ma and had highest average temperatures at 55.6 Ma.

  8. Geologic mapping of the Hekla volcano (Iceland) using integrated data sets from optic and radar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Tobias; Loercher, Gerhard

    1994-12-01

    During the MAC-Europe campaign in June/July 1991 different airborne data sets (AIRSAR, TMS and AVIRIS) were collected over Iceland. One test site is situated around the Hekla-volcano in South Iceland. This area is characterised by a sequence of lava flows of different ages together with tuffs and ashes. This case study shall contribute to demonstrate the potential of MAC-Europe data for geological mapping. The optical- and the SAR data was analysed separately to elaborate the preferences of the different sensors. An approach was carried out to process an image representing the advantages of the respective sensors in only one presentation. The synergetic approach improves the separation of geological units clearly by combination of two completely different data sets due to the utilisation of spectral bands in the visible and infrared region on one side and on the other side in the microwave region. Beside the petrographical information extracted from optical data using spectral signatures the combination includes physical information like roughness and dielectricity of a target. The geologic setting of the test area is characterised by a very uniform petrography hence the spectral signatures are showing only little variations. Due to this fact, the differentiation of geological units using optical data is limited. The additional use of SAR data establishes the new dimension of the surface roughness which improves the discrimination clearly. This additional parameter presents a new information tool about the state of weathering, age and sequence of the different lava flows. The NASA/JPL AIRSAR system is very suitable for this kind of investigation due to its multifrequency and polarimetric capabilities. The three SAR frequencies (C-, L- and P-Band) enable the detection of a broad range of roughness differences. These results can be enhanced by comprising the full scattering matrix of the polarimetric AIRSAR data.

  9. Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  10. Reprint of 'Association of helminth infections and food consumption in common eiders Somateria mollissima in Iceland'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    Common eider Somateria mollissima L. 1758, subsp. borealis, is widely distributed along the coasts of Iceland. In this study association of parasite infections and food composition was studied among 40 females and 38 males (66 adults, 12 subadults), shot under license on four occasions within the same year (February; before egg-laying in May; after the breeding period in late June; and in November) in Skerjafjörður, SW Iceland. Parasitological examinations revealed 31 helminth species (11 digeneans, ten cestodes, seven nematodes, and three acanthocephalans). Distinct digenean species parasitized the gallbladder, kidney and bursa of Fabricius, whereas other helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract. Thirty-six invertebrate prey species were identified as food; waste and bread fed by humans, were also consumed by some birds. Amidostomum acutum was the only parasite found with a direct life cycle, whereas other species were food transmitted and ingested with different invertebrate prey. Opposite to females male birds rarely utilized periwinkles and gammarids as a food source. As a result, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities were low except in February, when subadult males were responsible for an infection peak. Females caring for young increased their consumption of periwinkles close to the littoral zone in June; during pre-breeding, females also increased their gammarid intake. As a consequence, Microphallus and Microsomacanthus infection intensities temporarily peaked. Increased food intake (including Mytilus edulis) of females before the egg-laying period resulted in twofold higher Gymnophallus bursicola infection intensity than observed for males. Profilicollis botulus infection reflected seasonal changes in decapod consumption in both genders. Different life history strategies of males and females, especially before and during the breeding season and caring of young, and during molting in distinct feeding areas in summer, promote

  11. A comparative review of fisheries management experiences in the European Union and in other countries worldwide: Iceland, Australia, and New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Paul; Andersen, Jesper Levring; Aranda, Martin

    2016-01-01

    in the EU, Iceland, Australia, and New Zealand has developed following different paths, despite being based on similar instruments and principles. Iceland, Australia, and New Zealand have been at the forefront of developing management practices such as stakeholder involvement, legally binding management...... is gradually being implemented from 2015 onward. The management of domestic fisheries resources in Australia, New Zealand, and Iceland has, overall, performed better than in the EU, in terms of conservation and economic efficiency. It should, however, be stressed that, compared to Australia, New Zealand......This study compares the details and performance of fisheries management between the EU and a selection of other countries worldwide: Iceland, New Zealand, and Australia, which are considered in many respects to be among the most advanced in the world in fisheries management. Fisheries management...

  12. Detailed site effect estimation in the presence of strong velocity reversals within a small-aperture strong-motion array in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Rahpeyma, Sahar; Halldorsson, Benedikt; Olivera, Christian; Green, Russell A.; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2016-01-01

    The rock site characterization for earthquake engineering applications in Iceland is common due to the easily exposed older bedrock and more recent volcanic lava rock. The corresponding site amplification is generally assumed to be low but has

  13. Ud & se - med Claude Monet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Udstillingen 'Claude Monet - Lost in Translation - på ARoS stiller ind på Claud Monet og hans samtidige malerkolleger. Udstillingen forsøger at "genlæse" Monet fra et samtidskunstnerisk perspektiv - og vurderer hans indsats, inden hans værker er blevet reproduceret ihjel....

  14. X = S, Se, Te) heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic properties of the two-dimensional GaX/MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) heterostructures. Orbital hybridization between GaX and MX2 is found to result in Rashba splitting at the valence

  15. Sample Set (SE): SE47 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE47 Metabolomic correlation-network modules in Arabidopsis based on a graph-cluste...as a system. Typical metabolomics data show a few but significant correlations among metabolite levels when ...itions. Although several studies have assessed topologies in metabolomic correlation networks, it remains un... (mto1), and transparent testa4 (tt4) to compare systematically the metabolomic correlation...s in samples of roots and aerial parts. We then applied graph clustering to the constructed correlation

  16. Determination of K shell fluorescence cross-section and Kβ/Kα intensity ratios for Fe, Se, Te, FeSe, FeTe and TeSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saydam, M.; Aksoy, C.; Cengiz, E.; Alaşalvar, C.; Tıraşoğlu, E.; Apaydın, G.

    2012-01-01

    The fluorescence cross-sections (σ Ki ) and the intensity ratios K β /K α for pure Fe, Se, Te elements and FeSe, FeTe, TeSe complexes have been investigated. The samples were excited by 59.5 keV γ-rays from 241 Am annular radioactive source and emitted X-rays. They were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. For pure elements results have been compared with the theoretical calculated values. According to our results band length and mutual interaction of atoms affected the results. We claimed that these effects would help researchers who study on superconductors, especially determining which compound can be show the superconductor properties. - Highlights: ► TeSe, FeSe and FeTe complexes have affected each other in terms of charge transfer. ► Fe excitement and enhancement have been made by Se and Te. ► Attractive interactions between electrons can help to becoming superconductivity.

  17. Landscape change and human response during a thousand years of climatic fluctuation and volcanism: Skaftafell, Southeast Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available climatic fluctuation and volcanism: Skaftafell, Southeast Iceland ABSTRACT- The ancient farm of Skaftafell, dating from the Saga Period in Icelandic history is taken as the center-piece for depiction of climatic and landscape change from the earliest settlement in the ninth century AD to the present. The study of landscape evolution is divided into four main periods: 1 the Saga Period, AD 874-1350; 2 the beginning of glacier advance and volcanic activity, AD 1350-1500; 3 the Little Ice Age, AD 1500-1900; and 4 the Modern Period, AD 1900-1990. Is/laps have been produced to represent each period; they show the positions of farms which have survived far more than a thousand years, and churches that have been overwhelmed by catastrophic geomorphic processes, the positions of the glacier termini, melt water rivers, and main pasture lands. These reconstructions are based upon a mixture of physical evidence and folklore and historical documentation. Landscape evaluation is also described through the eyes of historic personalities who lived at Skaftafell. Survival of a rich culture in this region is remarkable in face of a series of almost overwhelming disasters. Today the biggest threat, or challenge and opportunity for sustainable development, is the vast influx of tourists to this region, one of the most isolated in the world. They are drawn to Skaftafell through the establishment of a National Park in one of the most scenically dramatic and beautiful landscapes in the world.

    [es] La antigua granja de Skaftafell, que data del período de Sagas de la Historia islandesa se ha tomado como el eje en torno al cual gira la explicación de los cambios climáticos y paisajísticos que han tenido lugar desde el primitivo asentamiento del siglo IX hasta el presente. El estudio de la evolución del paisaje se divide en cuatro períodos principales: 1 El Período de Sagas, 874-1350; 2 El principio del avance glaciar y la actividad volcánica, 1350

  18. Constraints on Pressure-Driven Flow Beneath Askja Volcano, Iceland, from Microgravity and InSAR Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giniaux, J. M.; Hooper, A. J.; Dumont, S.; Bagnardi, M.; Drouin, V.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2017-12-01

    Askja is an active volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland, lying within a spreading segment of the mid-Atlantic ridge. There have been at least 40 eruptions in the last 1100 years, including the 1875 VEI-5 caldera-forming Plinian event. However the current state of the complex magmatic system and the probability of an eruption in the near future are not well understood. Steadily decaying subsidence within the main caldera has been recorded with a variety of geodetic measurements since at least 1983. It has been postulated that rifting extension and shallow magmatic processes, e.g. outflow and/or crystallisation, could be responsible for this subsidence. All models using surface deformation data agree that there is at least one shallow source at 2-2.5 km b.s.l. (3-3.5 km below the surface), shrinking at a rate of approximately -1.4 to -2.1x106 km3yr-1. This depth is consistent with results from seismic tomography, which also reveal the presence of two melt storage regions at about 5-7 and 9-11 km b.s.l. The subsidence has been accompanied by a gravity decrease (mass loss) since at least 1988, except for a measured increase between 2007 and 2008. These gravity signals have been interpreted as the result of magma drainage and magma intrusion, respectively. Here, we present new gravity results from 2015-2017, measured over an extended network within the caldera, together with new InSAR time series results. We use these data to model the location, depth, volume and mass changes beneath Askja from 2002-2017. Our results show a gravity decrease over a larger area than previously recognised, implying greater mass loss than previously thought. The InSAR results show a gradually decreasing rate of subsidence, consistent with earlier results from levelling and GPS, but the spatial pattern is more complicated than a simple spherical source would imply. Taken together the volume and mass decreases can be explained by magmatic drainage from shallow to deeper reservoirs

  19. Volcanic risk and tourism in southern Iceland: Implications for hazard, risk and emergency response education and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Deanne K.; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between volcanic risk and the tourism sector in southern Iceland and the complex challenge emergency management officials face in developing effective volcanic risk mitigation strategies. An early warning system and emergency response procedures were developed for communities surrounding Katla, the volcano underlying the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. However, prior to and during the 2007 tourist season these mitigation efforts were not effectively communicated to stakeholders located in the tourist destination of Þórsmörk despite its location within the hazard zone of Katla. The hazard zone represents the potential extent of a catastrophic jökulhlaup (glacial outburst flood). Furthermore, volcanic risk mitigation efforts in Þórsmörk were based solely on information derived from physical investigations of volcanic hazards. They did not consider the human dimension of risk. In order to address this gap and provide support to current risk mitigation efforts, questionnaire surveys were used to investigate tourists' and tourism employees' hazard knowledge, risk perception, adoption of personal preparedness measures, predicted behaviour if faced with a Katla eruption and views on education. Results indicate that tourists lack hazard knowledge and they do not adopt preparedness measures to deal with the consequences of an eruption. Despite a high level of risk perception, tourism employees lack knowledge about the early warning system and emergency response procedures. Results show that tourists are positive about receiving information concerning Katla and its hazards and therefore, the reticence of tourism employees with respect to disseminating hazard information is unjustified. In order to improve the tourism sector's collective capacity to positively respond during a future eruption, recommendations are made to ensure adequate dissemination of hazard, risk and emergency response information. Most importantly education campaigns

  20. Hablando se entiende la gente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Crespo Picó

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Habiendo observado que muchos cursos centrados en el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa oral se limitan a ofrecer actividades inconexas que suponen un gran esfuerzo por parte de los participantes para situarse ante cada actividad y dificultan el establecimiento de relaciones profundas entre los exponentes nociofuncionales, los objetivos comunicativos y los recursos lingüísticos necesarios para realizarlas por contar con un tiempo limitado en el aula para ello, se presentó, bajo el mismo título que esta comunicación, una propuesta didáctica para un curso de conversación que pretende paliar estos aspectos en el I Foro de Profesores de E/LE en la Universitat de València.

  1. Locking depth and slip-rate of the Húsavík Flatey fault, North Iceland, derived from continuous GPS data 2006-2010

    KAUST Repository

    Metzger, Sabrina

    2011-11-01

    Located at the northern shore of Iceland, the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) is a 120 km offset in the mid-Atlantic Ridge that connects the offshore Kolbeinsey Ridge to the on-land Northern Volcanic Zone. This transform zone is seismically one of the most active areas in Iceland, exposing the population to a significant risk. However, the kinematics of the mostly offshore area with its complex tectonics have not been adequately resolved and the seismic potential of the two main transform structures within the TFZ, the Grímsey Oblique Rift (GOR) and the Húsavík Flatey Fault (HFF) in particular, is not well known. In summer 2006, we expanded the number of continuous GPS (CGPS) stations in the area from 4 to 14. The resulting GPS velocities after four years of data collection show that the TFZ accommodates the full plate motion as it is predicted by the MORVEL plate motion model. In addition, ENVISAT interferograms reveal a transient uplift signal at the nearby Theistareykir central volcano with a maximum line-of-sight uplift of 3 cm between summers of 2007 and 2008. We use a combination of an interseismic backslip and a Mogi model in a homogeneous, elastic half-space to describe the kinematics within the TFZ. With a non-linear optimization approach we fit the GPS observations and estimate the key model parameters and their uncertainties, which are (among others) the locking depth, the partition of the transform motion between the two transform structures within the TFZ and the slip rate on the HFF. We find a shallow locking depth of 6.3+1.7- 1.2 km and transform motion that is accommodated 34 ± 3 per cent by the HFF and 66 ± 3 per cent by the GOR, resulting in a slip velocity of 6.6 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 for the HFF. Assuming steady accumulation since the last two large M6.5 earthquakes in 1872 the seismic potential of the fault is equivalent to a Mw6.8 ± 0.1 event.

  2. Die verpleegster se terapeutiese funksie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Harrington

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Ons sou hierdie praatjie graag wou inlei met Virginia Henderson se definisie van verpleging: “ The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary will, strength or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.”

  3. A first Event-tree for the Bárðarbunga volcanic system (Iceland): from the volcanic crisis in 2014 towards a tool for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Sara; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Jónsdottir, Kristín; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Larsen, Gudrun; Oddsson, Björn

    2015-04-01

    Bárdarbunga volcano is part of a large volcanic system that had its last confirmed eruption before the present unrest in 1910. This system is partially covered by ice within the Vatnajökull glacier and it extends further to the NNE as well as to SW. Based on historical data, its eruptive activity has been predominantly characterized by explosive eruptions, originating beneath the glacier, and important effusive eruptions in the ice-free part of the system itself. The largest explosive eruptions took place on the southern side of the fissure system in AD 1477 producing about 10 km3 of tephra. Due to the extension and location of this volcanic system, the range of potential eruptive scenarios and associated hazards is quite wide. Indeed, it includes: inundation, due to glacial outburst; tephra fallout, due to ash-rich plume generated by magma-water interaction; abundant volcanic gas release; and lava flows. Most importantly these phenomena are not mutually exclusive and might happen simultaneously, creating the premise for a wide spatial and temporal impact. During the ongoing volcanic crisis at Bárdarbunga, which started on 16 August, 2014, the Icelandic Meteorological Office, together with the University of Iceland and Icelandic Civil Protection started a common effort of drawing, day-by-day, the potential evolution of the ongoing rifting event and, based on the newest data from the monitoring networks, updated and more refined scenarios have been identified. Indeed, this volcanic crisis created the occasion for pushing forward the creation of the first Event-tree for the Bárðarbunga volcanic system. We adopted the approach suggested by Newhall and Pallister (2014) and a preliminary ET made of nine nodes has been constructed. After the two initial nodes (restless and genesis) the ET continues with the identification of the location of aperture of future eruptive vents. Due to the complex structure of the system and historical eruptions, this third node

  4. Applying 3D Dynamic Visualisation to (Palaeo) Geomorphic Reconstruction: Modelling a Tenth Century Jökulhlaup at Sólheimajökull Glacier, South Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laura; Isaacs, John

    2014-05-01

    Jökulhlaup (glacial outburst floods) are caused by subglacial geothermal activity melting overlying ice, or by draining of ice-dammed lakes. They pose a recurring hazard along Iceland's south coast where volcano-glacial interactions create often unpredictable, high-magnitude floods. Gathering information about past floods is crucial for projecting findings to present day scenarios and developing future predictions for contemporary flood routes. Understanding the physical setting or surrounding environment is essential in palaeo-flood reconstruction as drainage routes are ultimately defined by local topography and changing ice cover. At Sólheimajökull glacier, which drains the southern portion of Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, field evidence has been collected of a Tenth Century flood, recorded in the Icelander's Landnámabók (Book of Settlements). It was an exceptional event in terms of generation, magnitude and geomorphic impact. Although now fragmented and piecemeal, many of its direct (and indirect) geomorphological and sedimentary markers are still relatively well preserved and have been identified, mapped and dated to unravel the sequence of events played out during this significant episode in the glacial history and complex regional flood chronology. VolcVis, an innovative, bespoke visualisation platform, is developed and applied for the first time in visualising volcanic jökulhlaup. The platform is created using the Microsoft XNA game development framework, which facilitates rapid game engine production by providing a set of tools utilising a managed runtime environment. VolcVis can render large amounts of data efficiently and still provide an extremely high level of interaction with the data being presented, including full freedom of motion. This enables synthesis and presentation of field results from Sólheimajökull in a novel way, creating an interactive, multi-perspective, three-dimensional (3D) prototype model. The platform combines Digital Elevation

  5. Timing and Duration of Volcanism in the North Atlantic Igneous Province: Implications for Geodynamics and Links to the Iceland Hotspot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, M.; Duncan, R. A.; Tegner, Christian

    2007-01-01

    estimates of erupted magmas and their cumulates to calculate melt production rates for the early Tertiary flood basalts of East Greenland and the Faeroes Islands. The lavas lie at opposite ends of the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroes Ridge, the postulated Iceland hotspot track, and record volcanic activity leading...... of plate separation. The upper part of this crust comprises seismically imaged, seaward-dipping, subaerially erupted lavas. By  50 Ma, eruption rates had diminished drastically and volcanic activity had narrowed to a much restricted portion of the East Greenland margin, at the western end of the Greenland......We combine new and published 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from incremental heating experiments on whole rocks and mineral separates to assess the timing, duration and distribution of volcanic activity during construction of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. We use these ages together with volume...

  6. Distribution of Alexandrium fundyense (Dinophyceae) cysts in Greenland and Iceland, with an emphasis on viability and growth in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richlen, Mindy L; Zielinski, Oliver; Holinde, Lars; Tillmann, Urban; Cembella, Allan; Lyu, Yihua; Anderson, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense has been extensively studied due its toxin-producing capabilities and consequent impacts to human health and economies. This study investigated the prevalence of resting cysts of A. fundyense in western Greenland and Iceland to assess the historical presence and magnitude of bloom populations in the region, and to characterize environmental conditions during summer, when bloom development may occur. Analysis of sediments collected from these locations showed that Alexandrium cysts were present at low to moderate densities in most areas surveyed, with highest densities observed in western Iceland. Additionally, laboratory experiments were conducted on clonal cultures established from isolated cysts or vegetative cells from Greenland, Iceland, and the Chukchi Sea (near Alaska) to examine the effects of photoperiod interval and irradiance levels on growth. Growth rates in response to the experimental treatments varied among isolates, but were generally highest under conditions that included both the shortest photoperiod interval (16h:8h light:dark) and higher irradiance levels (~146-366 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ), followed by growth under an extended photoperiod interval and low irradiance level (~37 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ). Based on field and laboratory data, we hypothesize that blooms in Greenland are primarily derived from advected Alexandrium populations, as low bottom temperatures and limited light availability would likely preclude in situ bloom development. In contrast, the bays and fjords in Iceland may provide more favorable habitat for germling cell survival and growth, and therefore may support indigenous, self-seeding blooms.

  7. Punctuated Holocene climate of Vestfirðir, Iceland, linked to internal/external variables and oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harning, David J.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.

    2018-06-01

    Emerging Holocene paleoclimate datasets point to a non-linear response of Icelandic climate against a background of steady orbital cooling. The Vestfirðir peninsula (NW Iceland) is an ideal target for continued climate reconstructions due to the presence of a small ice cap (Drangajökull) and numerous lakes, which provide two independent means to evaluate existing Icelandic climate records and to constrain the forcing mechanisms behind centennial-scale cold anomalies. Here, we present new evidence for Holocene expansions of Drangajökull based on 14C dates from entombed dead vegetation as well as two continuous Holocene lake sediment records. Lake sediments were analyzed for both bulk physical (MS) and biological (%TOC, δ13C, C/N, and BSi) parameters. Composite BSi and C/N records from the two lakes yield a sub-centennial qualitative perspective on algal (diatom) productivity and terrestrial landscape stability, respectively. The Vestfirðir lake proxies suggest initiation of the Holocene Thermal Maximum by ∼8.8 ka with subsequent and pronounced cooling not apparent until ∼3 ka. Synchronous periods of reduced algal productivity and accelerated landscape instability point to cold anomalies centered at ∼8.2, 6.6, 4.2, 3.3, 2.3, 1.8, 1, and 0.25 ka. Triggers for cold anomalies are linked to variable combinations of freshwater pulses, low total solar irradiance, explosive and effusive volcanism, and internal modes of climate variability, with cooling likely sustained by ocean/sea-ice feedbacks. The climate evolution reflected by our glacial and organic proxy records corresponds closely to marine records from the North Iceland Shelf.

  8. The study of the European Union from outside: European integration studies in Norway and Iceland 1990-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Eliassen, Kjell; Marino, Marit Sjøvaag; Bergmann, Eirikur

    2012-01-01

    This is a working paper version of a paper written for SENT - The Network of European Studies. The aim of this chapter is to map the research on European integration carried out by Norwegian and Icelandic researchers and research institutions in the period 1990–2010. This study covers research of central aspects of the European Union itself: institutions, decision-making processes, policies, actors and the relationship to other countries, global and regional institutions and local and regiona...

  9. Short-term variations of Icelandic ice cap mass inferred from cGPS coordinate time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compton, Kathleen; Bennett, Richard A.; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún

    2017-01-01

    As the global climate changes, understanding short-term variations in water storage is increasingly important. Continuously operating Global Positioning System (cGPS) stations in Iceland record annual periodic motion—the elastic response to winter accumulation and spring melt seasons—with peak-to...... insulation in response to tephra deposition following volcanic eruptions, processes that are not resolved with once or twice-yearly stake measurements....

  10. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Alves, José A; Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna; Hersteinsson, Páll; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas.

  11. Experience on country brand website and the formation of tourist des-tination image: a study in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Dirceu Tornavoi de Carvalho; Luciana Brandão Ferreira; Flávio Notomi Kanazawa; Priscilla Mendes Machado; Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi

    2016-01-01

    The research aims to verify if the experience with country brands website influences the image and attractiveness of a touristic destination in the consumers’ minds as also in their intention to visit the destination. A pre-test/post-test pre-experimental study with a 30 undergraduate students sample in a university of São Paulo was conducted. The treatment consisted of exposing the subjects to the Iceland official touristic site. The dependent variables were the touristic attractiveness perc...

  12. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland: association with disease severity and risk markers in cardiac patients

    OpenAIRE

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D.; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Olason, Daniel T.; Thorgilsson, Hordur; Sigtryggsdottir, Unnur; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    textabstractType D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. Th...

  13. Sample Set (SE): SE51 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c MS/MS data resource and database will enable complex phytochemical structures t...o be narrowed down to candidate structures. Therefore, a web-based database of MS/MS data pertaining to phyt...re successfully narrowed down to putative structures in the website. Yuji Sawada,

  14. Cancer as a complex phenotype: pattern of cancer distribution within and beyond the nuclear family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufey T Amundadottir

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The contribution of low-penetrant susceptibility variants to cancer is not clear. With the aim of searching for genetic factors that contribute to cancer at one or more sites in the body, we have analyzed familial aggregation of cancer in extended families based on all cancer cases diagnosed in Iceland over almost half a century. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have estimated risk ratios (RRs of cancer for first- and up to fifth-degree relatives both within and between all types of cancers diagnosed in Iceland from 1955 to 2002 by linking patient information from the Icelandic Cancer Registry to an extensive genealogical database, containing all living Icelanders and most of their ancestors since the settlement of Iceland. We evaluated the significance of the familial clustering for each relationship separately, all relationships combined (first- to fifth-degree relatives and for close (first- and second-degree and distant (third- to fifth-degree relatives. Most cancer sites demonstrate a significantly increased RR for the same cancer, beyond the nuclear family. Significantly increased familial clustering between different cancer sites is also documented in both close and distant relatives. Some of these associations have been suggested previously but others not. CONCLUSION: We conclude that genetic factors are involved in the etiology of many cancers and that these factors are in some cases shared by different cancer sites. However, a significantly increased RR conferred upon mates of patients with cancer at some sites indicates that shared environment or nonrandom mating for certain risk factors also play a role in the familial clustering of cancer. Our results indicate that cancer is a complex, often non-site-specific disease for which increased risk extends beyond the nuclear family.

  15. Geodynamics of rift-plume interaction in Iceland as constrained by new 40Ar/ 39Ar and in situ U-Pb zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Paquette, J. L.; Bosse, V.; Ruffet, G.; Tiepolo, M.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2011-11-01

    The interaction between a rift zone and a mantle plume leads to exceptional situations in Iceland where the island is 1.5 wider than expected, given the North-Atlantic spreading rate. In order to give a better idea of the timeframe of this evolution, we present 32 new 40Ar/ 39Ar and in-situ U-Pb dating on zircon from 16 volcanic systems located from the west to east coasts of Iceland. The North Iceland Rift Zone (NIRZ) was initiated at least 12 Ma ago. Furthermore, during these last 12 Ma, the NIRZ half spreading rate was between 0.7 and 1.2 cm/yr and it propagated to the south at a rate of 1.0-1.2 cm/yr. The excess width of Iceland can thus not be explained by faster spreading rate in the past. Here we discuss a model that explains the ~ 200 km 'excess' of crust, taking into account the eastward relocation of the rift zone and corresponding older crustal capture over the course of Iceland's geological history. The most recent rift relocation is dated at approximately 6 Ma at Snæfellsnes Peninsula in the west, whereas the oldest volcanic systems (15-13 Ma) from the extreme north east of Iceland were most likely generated at the Kolbeinsey ridge north of Iceland rather than in the NIRZ itself. The need for rift relocations and crustal capture to explain the width of Iceland strongly suggests that during rift-plume interaction the mantle plume plays an active role. It forces the active rift zone to be frequently relocated by rift jumps above its center leaving inactive rift zones as older synclines in the geological record. This result in an eastward position of the rift zone in Iceland relative to the North Atlantic ridge, and it can be predicted that in a few tens of millions of years the Mid-Atlantic ridge and the Icelandic plume may become decoupled.

  16. Sea Ice Retreat and its Impact on the Intensity of Open-Ocean Convection in the Greenland and Iceland Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K.; Våge, K.; Pickart, R. S.; Renfrew, I.

    2016-12-01

    The air-sea transfer of heat and freshwater plays a critical role in the global climate system. This is particularly true for the Greenland and Iceland Seas, where these fluxes drive ocean convection that contributes to Denmark Strait Overflow Water, the densest component of the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). This buoyancy transfer is most pronounced during the winter downstream of the ice edge, where the cold and dry Arctic air first comes in contact with the relatively warm ocean surface. Here we show that the wintertime retreat of sea ice in the region, combined with different rates of warming for the atmosphere and sea surface of the Greenland and Iceland Seas, has resulted in statistically significant reductions of approximately 20% in the magnitude of the winter air-sea heat fluxes since 1979. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that modes of climate variability other than the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are required to fully characterize the regional air-sea interaction in this region. Mixed-layer model simulations imply that a continued decrease in atmospheric forcing will exceed a threshold for the Greenland Sea whereby convection will become depth limited, reducing the ventilation of mid-depth waters in the Nordic Seas. In the Iceland Sea, further reductions have the potential to decrease the supply of the densest overflow waters to the AMOC.

  17. The puzzle of the 1996 Bárdarbunga, Iceland, earthquake: no volumetric component in the source mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Dreger, Douglas S.; Foulger, Gillian R.; Julian, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    A volcanic earthquake with Mw 5.6 occurred beneath the Bárdarbunga caldera in Iceland on 29 September 1996. This earthquake is one of a decade-long sequence of  events at Bárdarbunga with non-double-couple mechanisms in the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog. Fortunately, it was recorded well by the regional-scale Iceland Hotspot Project seismic experiment. We investigated the event with a complete moment tensor inversion method using regional long-period seismic waveforms and a composite structural model. The moment tensor inversion using data from stations of the Iceland Hotspot Project yields a non-double-couple solution with a 67% vertically oriented compensated linear vector dipole component, a 32% double-couple component, and a statistically insignificant (2%) volumetric (isotropic) contraction. This indicates the absence of a net volumetric component, which is puzzling in the case of a large volcanic earthquake that apparently is not explained by shear slip on a planar fault. A possible volcanic mechanism that can produce an earthquake without a volumetric component involves two offset sources with similar but opposite volume changes. We show that although such a model cannot be ruled out, the circumstances under which it could happen are rare.

  18. Environment - Geothermal, the energy to wake up - Stimulation rather than fracturing - Iceland, the Texas of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandes, Camille; Moragues, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A first article comments the current efforts for the development of geothermal in France after a period during which it has been given up. It evokes the project of a geothermal plant near Paris (to supply Arcueil and Gentilly with energy), the increasing number of projects in different countries. It outlines the French delay in this sector, and that geothermal energy is as difficult to find as oil. It evokes the new actors of the sector and outlines the fierce competition in front of Icelander, Italian, US and Japanese actors, and the opportunities for the French ones. A second article comments the use of the hydraulic stimulation in geothermal energy exploration rather than hydraulic fracturing as in shale gas exploration, and outlines that according to geothermal energy actors this technique avoids the risk of micro-earthquake. A last article describes the activity of the geothermal sector in Iceland: geothermal energy supplies two thirds of primary energy consumption in this country. It exploits the Icelander volcanism. This development has been particularly noticeable since 2000, but some questions are raised regarding the production potential

  19. Secular trends in overweight and obesity among Icelandic adolescents: do parental education levels and family structure play a part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsdóttir, Sigridur Þ; Kristjánsson, Álfgeir l; Sigfúsdóttir, Inga D; Garber, Carol E; Allegrante, John P

    2013-06-01

    To investigate whether the secular trend in the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among 16- to 20-year-old adolescents in Iceland varied by levels of parental education and family structure. Odds ratios were calculated from repeated population-based, cross-sectional surveys comprising cohorts of 16- to 20-year-old Icelandic adolescents attending junior colleges in 1992 (n=4,922), 2004 (n=11,031), 2007 (n=11,229), and 2010 (n=11,388). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported weight and height and categorised as normal weight or overweight and obese, and examined in relation to parental education level and family structure. The odds of being overweight increased by 2.62 and 1.71 for boys and girls respectively over each of the survey time points. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased across all three subgroups (low, medium, and high) of parental education level. The probability of overweight across all years were consistently the highest for youths with parents in the low-education category followed by middle-educated and high-educated parental background (peducation backgrounds increased over time and was generally explained more by the fathers' education than by the mothers' education (pFamily structure was not associated with the prevalence of overweight and obesity in our data. Differences in parental levels of education are associated with accelerating trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity among 16- to 20-year-old adolescents in Iceland.

  20. Habitat mapping using hyperspectral images in the vicinity of Hekla volcano in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Falco, Nicola; Rustowicz, Rose; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Benediktsson, Jón A.

    2016-04-01

    Hekla, one of the most active volcanoes in Iceland, has created a diverse volcanic landscape with lava flows, hyaloclastite and tephra fields. The variety of geological formations and different times of formation create diverse vegetation within Hekla's vicinity. The region is subjected to extensive loss of vegetation cover and soil erosion due to human utilization of woodlands and ongoing sheep grazing. The eolian activity and frequent tephra deposition has created vast areas of sparse vegetation cover. Over the 20th century, many activities have centered on preventing further loss of vegetated land and restoring ecosystems. The benefit of these activities is now noticeable in the increased vegetation and woodland cover although erosion is still active within the area. For mapping and monitoring this highly dynamic environment remote sensing techniques are extremely useful. One of the principal goals of the project 'Environmental Mapping and Monitoring of Iceland with Remote Sensing' (EMMIRS) is to use hyperspectral images and LiDAR data to classify and map the vegetation within the Hekla area. The data was collected in an aerial survey in summer 2015 by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), UK. The habitat type classification, currently being developed at the Icelandic Institute of Natural History and follows the structure of the EUNIS classification system, will be used for classifying the vegetation. The habitat map created by this new technique's outcome will be compared to the existent vegetation maps made by the conventional vegetation mapping method and the multispectral image classification techniques. In the field, vegetation cover, soil properties and spectral reflectance were measured within different habitat types. Special emphasis was on collecting data on vegetation and soil in the historical lavas from Hekla for assessing habitats forming over the millennia. A lava-chronosequence was established by measuring vegetation and soil in lavas

  1. Optical studies of CdSe/HgSe and CdSe/Ag2Se core/shell nanoparticles embedded in gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhniuk, Yu M; Dzhagan, V M; Valakh, M Ya; Raevskaya, A E; Stroyuk, A L; Kuchmiy, S Ya; Zahn, D R T

    2008-01-01

    CdSe/HgSe and CdSe/Ag 2 Se core-shell nanoparticles are obtained by colloidal synthesis from aqueous solutions in the presence of gelatin. Optical absorption, luminescence, and Raman spectra of the nanoparticles obtained are measured. The variation of the optical spectra of CdSe/HgSe and CdSe/Ag 2 Se core-shell nanoparticles with the shell thickness is discussed. Sharp non-monotonous variation of the photoluminescence spectra at low shell coverage is observed.

  2. Under the glacier, the groundwater - the case of Skálafell area, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Aude; Hart, Jane

    2017-04-01

    The research addressing glaciers evolution under climate change is well developed, and is now looking not only at their mass balance, but also at the associated subsurface hydrology and downstream hydrology. However, the groundwater component is rarely considered, even though it will be required to forecast the evolution of water resources and of water linked hazards under climate change. The few available studies demonstrate the existence of sub-or pro-glacial aquifers. Some of them suggest strong coupling between rivers and the aquifer, observe the flooding due to water table rising following enhanced glacier melting, or expect stronger recharge in the future due to glacier melting. The present study is the first step of a wider project, GlacAq, aiming at filling this knowledge gap, by characterizing the particular hydrogeology encountered under and downstream of glaciers of alpine type, i.e. sub-, pro- and periglacial hydrogeology, and its sensibility to climate change, in order to provide operational management directions. Skálafell glacier area (Iceland) has been chosen as it has already been followed for climatic, glaciological, and surface hydrology data (Hart et al. (2015), Young et al. (2015)). The present work will use those data, as well as topographic and surface data from the National Land Survey of Iceland, and geological data, to run a comprehensive numerical modelling. The work conducted on the Skálafell site will lead both to the achievement of an operational understanding of a poorly known underground system, and to the anticipation of its hydrodynamic response to climate change. The foreseen mechanisms include an enhanced sub-glacial aquifer recharge, intense surface water bodies-aquifer exchanges, and the aquifer discharge either through springs, or to an offshore system. Those offshore stocks are being increasingly recognised, but their origins are still only guessed at. Skálafell site allows the exploration of the potential role of the

  3. Health-income inequality: the effects of the Icelandic economic collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Ragnarsdóttir, Dagný Osk

    2014-07-25

    Health-income inequality has been the focus of many studies. The relationship between economic conditions and health has also been widely studied. However, not much is known about how changes in aggregate economic conditions relate to health-income inequality. Nevertheless, such knowledge would have both scientific and practical value as substantial public expenditures are used to decrease such inequalities and opportunities to do so may differ over the business cycle. For this reason we examine the effect of the Icelandic economic collapse in 2008 on health-income inequality. The data used come from a health and lifestyle survey carried out by the Public Health Institute of Iceland in 2007 and 2009. A stratified random sample of 9,807 individuals 18-79 years old received questionnaires and a total of 42.1% answered in both years. As measures of health-income inequality, health-income concentration indices are calculated and decomposed into individual-level determinants. Self-assessed health is used as the health measure in the analyses, but three different measures of income are used: individual income, household income, and equivalized household income. In both years there is evidence of health-income inequality favoring the better off. However, changes are apparent between years. For males health-income inequality increases after the crisis while it remains fairly stable for females or slightly decreases. The decomposition analyses show that income itself and disability constitute the most substantial determinants of inequality. The largest increases in contributions between years for males come from being a student, having low education and being obese, as well as age and income but those changes are sensitive to the income measure used. Changes in health and income over the business cycle can differ across socioeconomic strata, resulting in cyclicality of income-related health distributions. As substantial fiscal expenditures go to limiting the relationship

  4. Health-income inequality: the effects of the Icelandic economic collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health-income inequality has been the focus of many studies. The relationship between economic conditions and health has also been widely studied. However, not much is known about how changes in aggregate economic conditions relate to health-income inequality. Nevertheless, such knowledge would have both scientific and practical value as substantial public expenditures are used to decrease such inequalities and opportunities to do so may differ over the business cycle. For this reason we examine the effect of the Icelandic economic collapse in 2008 on health-income inequality. Methods The data used come from a health and lifestyle survey carried out by the Public Health Institute of Iceland in 2007 and 2009. A stratified random sample of 9,807 individuals 18–79 years old received questionnaires and a total of 42.1% answered in both years. As measures of health-income inequality, health-income concentration indices are calculated and decomposed into individual-level determinants. Self-assessed health is used as the health measure in the analyses, but three different measures of income are used: individual income, household income, and equivalized household income. Results In both years there is evidence of health-income inequality favoring the better off. However, changes are apparent between years. For males health-income inequality increases after the crisis while it remains fairly stable for females or slightly decreases. The decomposition analyses show that income itself and disability constitute the most substantial determinants of inequality. The largest increases in contributions between years for males come from being a student, having low education and being obese, as well as age and income but those changes are sensitive to the income measure used. Conclusions Changes in health and income over the business cycle can differ across socioeconomic strata, resulting in cyclicality of income-related health distributions. As substantial fiscal

  5. The impact of parental investment on lifetime reproductive success in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert F; Lynch, Emily C

    2017-01-01

    Demonstrating the impact that parents have on the fitness of their children is a crucial step towards understanding how parental investment has affected human evolution. Parents not only transfer genes to their children, they also influence their environments. By analyzing reproductive patterns within and between different categories of close relatives, this study provides insight into the genetic and environmental effects that parents have on the fitness of their offspring. We use data spanning over two centuries from an exceptionally accurate Icelandic genealogy, Íslendingabók, to analyze the relationship between the fertility rates of close relatives. Also, using genetic data, we determine narrow sense heritability estimates ( h 2 ) to further explore the genetic impact on lifetime reproductive success. Finally, we construct four simulations to model the expected contribution of genes and resources on reproductive success. The relationship between the reproduction of all full sibling pairs was significant and positive across all birth decades ( r  = 0.19) while the reproductive relationship between parents and offspring was often negative across many decades and undetectable overall ( r  = 0.00) (Fig. 1 and Table 1). Meanwhile, genetic data among 8,456 pairs of full siblings revealed a narrow sense heritability estimate ( h 2 ) of 0.00 for lifetime reproductive success. A resources model (following the rule that resources are transmitted from parents to children, distributed equally among siblings, and are the only factor affecting reproductive success) revealed a similar trend: a negative relationship between parent and offspring reproduction ( r  =  - 0.35) but a positive relationship among full siblings ( r  = 0.28). The relationship between parent and offspring lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and full sibling LRS was strongly and positively correlated across time ( r  = 0.799, p  investment has had an important impact on fitness. Overall

  6. Volcanic ash and daily mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic volcano eruption of May 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-12-10

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn's eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24-31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study effects

  7. Strain Anomalies during an Earthquake Sequence in the South Iceland Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnadottir, T.; Haines, A. J.; Geirsson, H.; Hreinsdottir, S.

    2017-12-01

    The South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) accommodates E-W translation due to oblique spreading between the North American/Hreppar microplate and Eurasian plate, in South Iceland. Strain is released in the SISZ during earthquake sequences that last days to years, at average intervals of 80-100 years. The SISZ is currently in the midst of an earthquake sequence that started with two M6.5 earthquakes in June 2000, and continued with two M6 earthquakes in May 2008. Estimates of geometric strain accumulation, and seismic strain release in these events indicate that they released at most only half of the strain accumulated since the last earthquake cycle in 1896-1912. Annual GPS campaigns and continuous measurements during 2001-2015 were used to calculate station velocities and strain rates from a new method using the vertical derivatives of horizontal stress (VDoHS). This new method allows higher resolution of strain rates than other (older) approaches, as the strain rates are estimated by integrating VDoHS rates obtained by inversion rather than differentiating interpolated GPS velocities. Estimating the strain rates for eight 1-2 year intervals indicates temporal and spatial variation of strain rates in the SISZ. In addition to earthquake faulting, the strain rates in the SISZ are influenced by anthropogenic signals due to geothermal exploitation, and magma movements in neighboring volcanoes - Hekla and Eyjafjallajökull. Subtle signals of post-seismic strain rate changes are seen following the June 2000 M6.5 main shocks, but interestingly, much larger strain rate variations are observed after the two May 2008 M6 main shocks. A prominent strain anomaly is evident in the epicentral area prior to the May 2008 earthquake sequence. The strain signal persists over at least 4 years in the epicentral area, leading up to the M6 main shocks. The strain is primarily extension in ESE-WNW direction (sub-parallel to the direction of plate spreading), but overall shear across the N

  8. Inside the volcano: The how and why of Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFemina, Peter; Hudak, Michael; Feineman, Maureen; Geirsson, Halldor; Normandeau, Jim; Furman, Tanya

    2015-04-01

    The Thrihnukagigur volcano, located in the Brennisteinsfjöll fissure swarm on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, offers a unique exposure of the upper magmatic plumbing system of a monogenetic volcano. The volcano formed during a dike-fed strombolian eruption ~3500 BP with flow-back leaving an evacuated conduit, elongated parallel to the regional maximum horizontal stress. At least two vents were formed above the dike, as well as several small hornitos south-southwest of the main vent. In addition to the evacuated conduit, a cave exists 120 m below the vent. The cave exposes stacked lava flows and a buried cinder cone. The unconsolidated tephra of the cone is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to the vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~3500 BP fissure eruption. We present geochemical, petrologic and geologic observations, including a high-resolution three-dimensional scan of the system that indicate the dike intersected, eroded and assimilated unconsolidated tephra from the buried cinder cone, thus excavating a region along the dike, allowing for future slumping and cave formation. Two petrographically distinct populations of plagioclase phenocrysts are present in the system: a population of smaller (maximum length 1 mm) acicular phenocrysts and a population of larger (maximum length 10 mm) tabular phenocrysts that is commonly broken and displays disequilibrium sieve textures. The acicular plagioclase crystals are present in the dike and lavas while the tabular crystals are in these units and the buried tephra. An intrusion that appears not to have interacted with the tephra has only acicular plagioclase. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single acicular population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the tabular population of phenocrysts from the cone. Petrographic thin-sections of lavas sampled near the vent show undigested fragments of tephra from

  9. Volcanic Ash and Daily Mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic Volcano Eruption of May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K.; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn’s eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24–31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study

  10. Erosion during extreme flood events dominates Holocene canyon evolution in northeast Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Edwin R C; Attal, Mikaël; Niedermann, Samuel; Kirstein, Linda A; Dugmore, Andrew J; Naylor, Mark

    2015-02-24

    Extreme flood events have the potential to cause catastrophic landscape change in short periods of time (10(0) to 10(3) h). However, their impacts are rarely considered in studies of long-term landscape evolution (>10(3) y), because the mechanisms of erosion during such floods are poorly constrained. Here we use topographic analysis and cosmogenic (3)He surface exposure dating of fluvially sculpted surfaces to determine the impact of extreme flood events within the Jökulsárgljúfur canyon (northeast Iceland) and to constrain the mechanisms of bedrock erosion during these events. Surface exposure ages allow identification of three periods of intense canyon cutting about 9 ka ago, 5 ka ago, and 2 ka ago during which multiple large knickpoints retreated large distances (>2 km). During these events, a threshold flow depth was exceeded, leading to the toppling and transportation of basalt lava columns. Despite continuing and comparatively large-scale (500 m(3)/s) discharge of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, there is no evidence for a transition to an abrasion-dominated erosion regime since the last erosive event because the vertical knickpoints have not diffused over time. We provide a model for the evolution of the Jökulsárgljúfur canyon through the reconstruction of the river profile and canyon morphology at different stages over the last 9 ka and highlight the dominant role played by extreme flood events in the shaping of this landscape during the Holocene.

  11. Volcanogenic Fluvial-Lacustrine Environments in Iceland and Their Utility for Identifying Past Habitability on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cousins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The search for once-habitable locations on Mars is increasingly focused on environments dominated by fluvial and lacustrine processes, such as those investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. The availability of liquid water coupled with the potential longevity of such systems renders these localities prime targets for the future exploration of Martian biosignatures. Fluvial-lacustrine environments associated with basaltic volcanism are highly relevant to Mars, but their terrestrial counterparts have been largely overlooked as a field analogue. Such environments are common in Iceland, where basaltic volcanism interacts with glacial ice and surface snow to produce large volumes of meltwater within an otherwise cold and dry environment. This meltwater can be stored to create subglacial, englacial, and proglacial lakes, or be released as catastrophic floods and proglacial fluvial systems. Sedimentary deposits produced by the resulting fluvial-lacustrine activity are extensive, with lithologies dominated by basaltic minerals, low-temperature alteration assemblages (e.g., smectite clays, calcite, and amorphous, poorly crystalline phases (basaltic glass, palagonite, nanophase iron oxides. This paper reviews examples of these environments, including their sedimentary deposits and microbiology, within the context of utilising these localities for future Mars analogue studies and instrument testing.

  12. Volcanogenic fluvial-lacustrine environments in iceland and their utility for identifying past habitability on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Claire

    2015-02-16

    The search for once-habitable locations on Mars is increasingly focused on environments dominated by fluvial and lacustrine processes, such as those investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. The availability of liquid water coupled with the potential longevity of such systems renders these localities prime targets for the future exploration of Martian biosignatures. Fluvial-lacustrine environments associated with basaltic volcanism are highly relevant to Mars, but their terrestrial counterparts have been largely overlooked as a field analogue. Such environments are common in Iceland, where basaltic volcanism interacts with glacial ice and surface snow to produce large volumes of meltwater within an otherwise cold and dry environment. This meltwater can be stored to create subglacial, englacial, and proglacial lakes, or be released as catastrophic floods and proglacial fluvial systems. Sedimentary deposits produced by the resulting fluvial-lacustrine activity are extensive, with lithologies dominated by basaltic minerals, low-temperature alteration assemblages (e.g., smectite clays, calcite), and amorphous, poorly crystalline phases (basaltic glass, palagonite, nanophase iron oxides). This paper reviews examples of these environments, including their sedimentary deposits and microbiology, within the context of utilising these localities for future Mars analogue studies and instrument testing.

  13. Environment and energy in Iceland: A comparative analysis of values and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhallsdottir, Thora Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Within an Icelandic framework plan for energy, environmental values and impacts were estimated in multicriteria analyses for 19 hydroelectric and 22 geothermal developments. Four natural environment classes were defined (geology + hydrology, species, ecosystems + soils, landscape + wilderness) with cultural heritage as the fifth class. Values and impacts were assessed through 6 agglomerated attributes: richness/diversity, rarity, size/continuity/pristineness, information/symbolic value, international responsibility and visual value. The project offers a unique opportunity for comparing environmental values and impacts within a large sample of sites and energy alternatives treated within a common methodological framework. Total values were higher in hydroelectric than in geothermal areas. Hydroelectric areas scored high for cultural heritage (particularly in rarity and information value), landscape and wilderness. Geothermal areas had high bedrock and hydrological diversity and information values, and a high landscape visual value but little cultural heritage. High values were correlated among some classes of the natural environment, all of which are likely to reflect functional relationships. In contrast, cultural heritage values were not related to natural environment values. Overall, landscape and wilderness had the highest mean value and were also most affected by energy development. Over 40% of the hydroelectric development had a predicted mean impact value of > 4 (out of a maximum of 10), compared with 10% of the geothermal projects. Excluding two outsized hydropower options, there was a significant correlation between plant capacity and impact on geology and hydrology but not with other environmental variables

  14. Althingi´s Keeper: Changes in the Constitutional Powers of the President of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björg Thorarensen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the constitutional role of the president of Iceland when the republic was established in 1944, and the evolution of this role during the time Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson has been in office. The study shows that the creation of a republic involved hardly any changes in the constitutional role of the head of state neither in regard to executive nor legislative powers. Thus the authors reject the theory that the creation of a republic introduced a dual authority structure, consisting of Althingi and a powerful president, which characterizes semi-presidentialim. However, despite the fact that the text of the constitution, regarding the presidency, has not been changed since 1944, the political importance of the president has increased in recent years. This is mainly the result of Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson´s interpretation of the constitutional role of the president, as well as changes in public attitudes regarding democracy and the role of the president. According to this interpretation, the president acts as Althingi´s keeper who acts as a check on the majority rule of Althingi contrary to what was decided in 1944. The authors maintain that in the absence of formal constitutional changes, were the role of the presidency is better defined; the power of the president vis-à-vis the cabinet and parliament may continue to grow.

  15. Geodetic measurements and models of rifting in Northern Iceland for 1993-1998 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T.; Feigl, K.; Thurber, C. H.; Masterlark, T.; Carr, B.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2010-12-01

    Rifting occurs as episodes of active deformation in individual rift segments of the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) in Iceland. Here we simulate deformation around the Krafla central volcano and rift system in NVZ in order to explain InSAR data acquired between 1993 and 1998. The General Inversion for Phase Technique (GIPhT) is used to model the InSAR phase data directly, without unwrapping [Feigl and Thurber, Geophys. J. Int., 2009]. Using a parallel simulated annealing algorithm, GIPhT minimizes the non-linear cost function that quantifies the misfit between observed and modeled values of the phase. We test the hypothesis that the observed deformation can be explained by a combination of at least three processes including: (i) secular plate spreading, (ii) post rifting relaxation following the Krafla rifting episode (1975-1984), and (iii) deflation of a shallow magma chamber beneath the central volcano. The calibration parameters include material properties of upper/lower crust and mantle as well as flux rates for the elements of the plumbing system. The best fitting Maxwell model favors a stronger lower crust (~1.0E+20 Pa.s) and a mantle viscosity of ~1.0E+18 Pa.s as well as a shallow deflating magma chamber. The deformation appears to be linear in time over the observed interval.

  16. Lava Eruption and Emplacement: Using Clues from Hawaii and Iceland to Probe the Lunar Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Debra Hurwitz; Hamilton, C. W.; Bleacher, J. E.; Whelley, P. L.; Young, K. E.; Scheidt, S. P.; Richardson, J. A.; Sutton, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Investigating recent eruptions on Earth is crucial to improving understanding of relationships between eruption dynamics and final lava flow morphologies. In this study, we investigated eruptions in Holuhraun, Iceland, and Kilauea, Hawaii to gain insight into the lava dynamics near the source vent, the initiation of lava channels, and the origin of down-channel features. Insights are applied to Rima Bode on the lunar nearside to deduce the sequence of events that formed this lunar sinuous rille system. These insights are crucial to correctly interpreting whether the volcanic features associated with Rima Bode directly relate to eruption conditions at the vent and, thus, can help us understand those eruption dynamics, or, alternatively, whether the features formed as a result of more localized influences on lava flow dynamics. For example, if the lava channel developed early in the eruption and was linked to pulses in vent activity, its morphology can be analyzed to interpret the flux and duration of the eruption. Conversely, if the lava channel initiated late in the eruption as the result of a catastrophic breaching of lava that had previously pooled within the vent [e.g., 1], then the final channel morphology will not indicate eruption dynamics but rather local dynamics associated with that breach event. Distinguishing between these two scenarios is crucial for correctly interpreting the intensity and duration of volcanic history on the Moon.

  17. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L.

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  18. The role of occupational participation and environment among Icelandic women with breast cancer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmadottir, Gudrun

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer diagnosis generally causes a disruption of occupational life. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of occupational participation and environment in the perception of health and well-being of Icelandic women with breast cancer. Eighteen women were interviewed using the main areas from the Occupational Performance History Interview as a guideline. An inductive analysis revealed seven categories that were organized under two main headings: occupational participation and environment. The categories were labelled "maintaining control and stability", "experiencing sense of self-worth", "enhancing self development", "access to information", "support and care", "refuge in community", and "rehabilitative opportunities". Through occupational participation the women were able to regain control of life and a sense of competence and development. Information, emotional support, safety, and stimulating environments were crucial in alleviating distress and facilitate satisfactory coping with the cancer experience. The results support that occupational participation in a safe and supportive environment has powerful restorative properties. Rehabilitative and supportive services should be based on a holistic perspective and emphasize the healthy aspects of a women's life. Furthermore, occupational therapists need to widen their approach when working with women with breast cancer and focus on their needs as occupational beings.

  19. Magma buoyancy and volatile ascent driving autocyclic eruptivity at Hekla Volcano (Iceland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautmann, Stefanie; Sacks, I. Selwyn; Linde, Alan T.; Roberts, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    Volcanic eruptions are typically accompanied by ground deflation due to the withdrawal of magma from depth and its effusion at the surface. Here, based on continuous high-resolution borehole strain data, we show that ground deformation was absent during the major effusion phases of the 1991 and 2000 eruptions of Hekla Volcano, Iceland. This lack of surface deformation challenges the classic model of magma intrusion/withdrawal as source for volcanic ground uplift/subsidence. We incorporate geodetic and geochemical observables into theoretical models of magma chamber dynamics in order to constrain quantitatively alternative co- and intereruptive physical mechanisms that govern magma propagation and system pressurization. We find the lack of surface deformation during lava effusion to be linked to chamber replenishment from below whilst magma migrates as a buoyancy-driven flow from the magma chamber towards the surface. We further demonstrate that intereruptive pressure build-up is likely to be generated by volatile ascent within the chamber rather than magma injection. Our model explains the persistent periodic eruptivity at Hekla throughout historic times with self-initiating cycles and is conceptually relevant to other volcanic systems.

  20. Motion in the north Iceland volcanic rift zone accommodated by bookshelf faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert G.; White, Robert S.; Greenfield, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Along mid-ocean ridges the extending crust is segmented on length scales of 10-1,000km. Where rift segments are offset from one another, motion between segments is accommodated by transform faults that are oriented orthogonally to the main rift axis. Where segments overlap, non-transform offsets with a variety of geometries accommodate shear motions. Here we use micro-seismic data to analyse the geometries of faults at two overlapping rift segments exposed on land in north Iceland. Between the rift segments, we identify a series of faults that are aligned sub-parallel to the orientation of the main rift. These faults slip through left-lateral strike-slip motion. Yet, movement between the overlapping rift segments is through right-lateral motion. Together, these motions induce a clockwise rotation of the faults and intervening crustal blocks in a motion that is consistent with a bookshelf-faulting mechanism, named after its resemblance to a tilting row of books on a shelf. The faults probably reactivated existing crustal weaknesses, such as dyke intrusions, that were originally oriented parallel to the main rift and have since rotated about 15° clockwise. Reactivation of pre-existing, rift-parallel weaknesses contrasts with typical mid-ocean ridge transform faults and is an important illustration of a non-transform offset accommodating shear motion between overlapping rift segments.