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Sample records for complex saskatchewan canada

  1. The opaque minerals and economic geology of the nemeiben ultramafic complex, saskatchewan, canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, N. D.; Mossman, D. J.

    1981-10-01

    The main rock types of the Nemeiben ultramafic complex form grossly concentric layers of clinopyroxenite, websterite, wehrlite and dunite. These rocks were partially amphibolitized late in the Hudsonian orogeny; consequently numerous relict primary textural and mineralogical features are preserved. Disseminated primary magmatic nickeliferous pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, magnetite and chromite occur throughout this complex and local concentrations of sulfides occur. Textures, mineralogy and chemistry of these phases are indicative of a high temperature magmatic origin. Unmixing phenomena in pyrrhotite are attributable to post crystallization dissociation of a high temperature Fe-Ni-Cu-Co monosulfide solid solution. A secondary assemblage of fine-grained iron oxides, sulfides and native metals developed in altered ultramafic rocks. Magnetite and hematite, bravoite, violarite and millerite are among the minerals formed during serpentinization. Trace amounts of nickeliferous copper, native gold and silver occur in hematite veinlets and at the center of hematized former sulfide grains. Supergene alteration has affected most of the sulfides. Thus the most plausible explanation of the opaque minerals is that they represent a metamorphosed primary magmatic assemblage modified by supergene alteration.

  2. Mining operations of Cluff Lake, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slama, J.P.; Michel, B.M.; Laine, R.

    1986-07-01

    Mining of an uranium deposit in the Canadian North raises a certain number of problems even now. Their solution is made still more complex, when the grade of the ore is exceptionally high. Amok, a Canadian company and a joint branch of three large French groups, has faced this situation and has applied solutions which have turned out to be satisfactory. It mines since 1980 a series of deposits situated at Cluff Lake in the North of Saskatchewan. 11 figs.

  3. Building Regional Capacity for Sustainable Development through an ESD Project Inventory in RCE Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peta; Petry, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The Regional Centre of Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development in Saskatchewan (RCE Saskatchewan, Canada) is part of the United Nations University RCE Initiative in support of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-14). With funding from the Government of Saskatchewan's Go Green Fund, RCE Saskatchewan carried out…

  4. Geological setting of vertebrate microfossil localities across the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redman, Cory M; Scott, Craig S; Gardner, James D; Braman, Dennis R

    2015-01-01

    The Frenchman and Ravenscrag formations of southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, record an apparently continuous sequence of nonmarine clastic sediments across the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary...

  5. Hydrogeology of the Judith River Formation in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, David; Lypka, Morgan; Ferguson, Grant

    2017-06-01

    The Judith River Formation forms an important regional aquifer in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. This aquifer is used for domestic and agricultural purposes in some areas and supports oil and gas production in other areas. As a result, the available data come from a range of sources and integration is required to provide an overview of aquifer characteristics. Here, data from oil and gas databases are combined with data from groundwater resource assessments. Analysis of cores, drill-stem tests and pumping tests provide a good overview of the physical hydrogeology of the Judith River Aquifer. Water chemistry data from oil and gas databases were less helpful in understanding the chemical hydrogeology due contamination of samples and unreliable laboratory analyses. Analytical modeling of past pumping in the aquifer indicates that decreases in hydraulic head exceeding 2 m are possible over distances of 10s of kilometers. Similar decreases in head should be expected for additional large withdrawals of groundwater from the Judith River Aquifer. Long-term groundwater abstraction should be limited by low pumping rates. Higher pumping rates appear to be possible for short-term uses, such as those required by the oil and gas industry.

  6. Hydrogeology of the Judith River Formation in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, David; Lypka, Morgan; Ferguson, Grant

    2017-11-01

    The Judith River Formation forms an important regional aquifer in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. This aquifer is used for domestic and agricultural purposes in some areas and supports oil and gas production in other areas. As a result, the available data come from a range of sources and integration is required to provide an overview of aquifer characteristics. Here, data from oil and gas databases are combined with data from groundwater resource assessments. Analysis of cores, drill-stem tests and pumping tests provide a good overview of the physical hydrogeology of the Judith River Aquifer. Water chemistry data from oil and gas databases were less helpful in understanding the chemical hydrogeology due contamination of samples and unreliable laboratory analyses. Analytical modeling of past pumping in the aquifer indicates that decreases in hydraulic head exceeding 2 m are possible over distances of 10s of kilometers. Similar decreases in head should be expected for additional large withdrawals of groundwater from the Judith River Aquifer. Long-term groundwater abstraction should be limited by low pumping rates. Higher pumping rates appear to be possible for short-term uses, such as those required by the oil and gas industry.

  7. Serological Survey of West Nile Virus in Pet Dogs from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, M Casey; Waldner, Cheryl; Taylor, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Serum samples collected from 143 dogs from Saskatchewan, Canada, between 2008 and 2010 were evaluated for seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV). WNV antibodies were identified in 40/143 dogs (28%). Dogs that were primarily housed in the yard were 6.2 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-14.5) more likely to have antibodies than dogs housed in the house or garage. Dogs were more likely to be positive with increasing time spent outside. The results of this study document WNV seroprevalence in dogs from Saskatchewan and suggest that pet dogs might be useful as a sentinel species for WNV surveillance.

  8. Blood Parasite Infection Data from Blue-winged Teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the...

  9. Effects of Lakes on Wildfire Activity in the Boreal Forests of Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Nielsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large lakes can act as firebreaks resulting in distinct patterns in the forest mosaic. Although this is well acknowledged, much less is known about how wildfire is affected by different landscape measures of water and their interactions. Here we examine how these factors relate to historic patterns of wildfire over a 35-year period (1980–2014 for the boreal forest of Saskatchewan, Canada. This includes the amount of water in different-sized neighborhoods, the presence of islands, and the direction, distance, and shape of nearest lake of different sizes. All individual factors affected wildfire presence, with lake sizes ≥5000 ha and amount of water within a 1000-ha surrounding area the most supported spatial scales. Overall, wildfires were two-times less likely on islands, more likely further from lakes that were circular in shape, and in areas with less surrounding water. Interactive effects were common, including the effect of direction to lake as a function of distance from lakeshore and amount of surrounding water. Our results point to a strong, but complex, bottom-up control of local wildfire activity based on the configuration of natural firebreaks. In fact, fire rotation periods predicted for one area varied more than 15-fold (<47 to >700 years depending on local patterns in lakes. Old-growth forests within this fire-prone ecosystem are therefore likely to depend on the surrounding configuration of larger lakes.

  10. Exploring and revitalizing Indigenous food networks in Saskatchewan, Canada, as a way to improve food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Fidji; Hancherow, Anna; Norton, Ashley

    2017-10-01

    The project discussed in this paper was designed to expand research and instigate revitalization of Indigenous food networks in Saskatchewan, Canada, by exploring the current state of local Indigenous food networks, creating a Facebook page, organizing volunteer opportunities and surveying workshop participants regarding their knowledge and interest in Indigenous foods. The survey included Likert scale questions and qualitative questions. Project activities and survey results are discussed using statistical and qualitative analysis of the themes. Results indicate that participants are very interested in learning more about, and having greater access to, traditional foods and suggest that supporting Indigenous food networks may be an appropriate response to food insecurity in communities. Elders and community members are vital players in Indigenous foods exploration and revitalization in Saskatchewan by passing on traditional education. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal, Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and USA (Texas, Louisiana), 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John

    2017-01-01

    This data set includes age, sex, location, and blood parasite infection data from Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) captured in Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan) and the USA (Texas, Louisiana) in 2012-2013. Infection data for three different genera of blood parasites are given as are GenBank accession numbers for genetic sequences obtained from positive infections.

  12. The effect on emergency department visits of raised alcohol minimum prices in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, Adam; Stockwell, Tim; Callaghan, Russell C

    2018-02-12

    The province of Saskatchewan, Canada introduced minimum prices graded by alcohol strength in April 2010. As previous research found this intervention significantly decreased alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable morbidity, we aim to test the association between the intervention and the rate of emergency department (ED) visits in four alcohol-related injury categories [motor vehicle collisions (MVC), assaults, falls and total alcohol-related injuries]. Data on ED visits in the city of Regina were obtained from the Saskatchewan Ministry of Health. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time series models were used to test the immediate and lagged effects of the pricing intervention on rates of alcohol-related nighttime. ED visits and controlled for daytime rates of ED visits, economic variables, linear and seasonal trends, and auto-regressive and moving average effects. The implementation of an alcohol minimum pricing strategy in Saskatchewan was associated with decreased MVC-related ED visits for women aged 26 and over after a 6 month lag period (-39.4%, P age categories; however, rates of ED visits among young males for MVCs and assaults decreased substantially during this study. The minimum pricing policy change led to a lagged decrease in motor vehicle-collision-related ED visits for women older than 25. Of note, there did not appear to be an instantaneous effect on the rate of alcohol-related injury ED visits immediately after the policy implementation nor lagged effects for other gender-age groups. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Strategies to support recruitment and retention of First Nations youth in baccalaureate nursing programs in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonson, June M; Desjarlais, Joyce; Nixon, Jackie; Whiteman, Lori; Bird, Alteta

    2008-07-01

    Aboriginal youth is one of the fastest growing of all populations in Saskatchewan today. This is a prime group to target for training in the health care professions. The need for strategies to support recruitment and retention in these programs is critical for maintaining our present standard and increasing demands of quality health care. Program initiatives and supports need to be implemented to encourage this population to enroll in and complete health care programs. Although only 5 years old, the University of Saskatchewan, First Nations University of Canada, and Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) have created a viable northern nursing program with a retention rate of Aboriginal postsecondary students 13% greater than the provincial norm. They graduated their first class of nursing students from and for the North, May 2006.

  14. Introduced and Native Haplotypes of Echinococcus multilocularis in Wildlife in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesy, Karen M; Jenkins, Emily J

    2015-07-01

    Recent detection of a European-type haplotype of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in a newly enzootic region in British Columbia prompted efforts to determine if this haplotype was present elsewhere in wildlife in western Canada. In coyote (Canis latrans) definitive hosts in an urban region in central Saskatchewan (SK), we found a single haplotype of E. multilocularis that was most similar to a haplotype currently established in the core of this parasite's distribution in Europe and to the European-type haplotype found in coyotes and a dog (Canis lupus familiaris) in British Columbia. We found six haplotypes of E. multilocularis from deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) intermediate hosts in southwestern SK that were closely related to, and one haplotype indistinguishable from, a haplotype previously reported in the adjacent north-central US. This is a higher level of diversity than has previously been recognized for this parasite, which suggests that the population native to central North America is well established, rather than a recent introduction from the Arctic. These findings, in combination with recent cases of alveolar hydatid cysts in dogs in Canada, raise concerns that European haplotypes of E. multilocularis may be increasing in distribution within wildlife in Canada. European haplotypes may pose greater risks to veterinary and human health than native haplotypes long established in central North America.

  15. Canada's deadly secret : Saskatchewan uranium and the global nuclear system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, J.

    2007-07-01

    Although Canada has a reputation for its support of multilateralism and international peacekeeping, it has provided fuel for American and British nuclear weapons, and continues to provide uranium fuel for nuclear reactors and power plants throughout the world. This book provided a detailed outline of Canada's involvement in uranium mining in Saskatchewan, the largest uranium-producing region in the world. The ways in which Canada has been complicit in the expansion of the global nuclear system were examined. A history of the province's role in the first nuclear arms race between the Soviet Union and the United States was provided, and details of provincial public inquiries conducted to legitimize the expansion of uranium mining were revealed. Issues related to the exploitation of ancestral lands belonging to Aboriginal peoples were discussed along with the impact of uranium mining on communities in the province. It was concluded that the province is now being targeted as a storage site for nuclear waste. refs.

  16. Components of population growth rate for White-winged Scoters in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisauskas, R. T.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding range and abundance of White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi have declined in northwestern North America. Hypotheses proposed to account for this trend are that survival and/or recruitment of females had declined. Thus, we used a reverse-time capture-recapture approach to directly estimate survival, seniority and capture probabilities for females of breeding age at Redberry Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada for 1975-1980 and 2000-2003. We also estimated population size of breeding females for 1975-1985 and 2000-2003 using capture-recapture data. Initially, this local population was in serious decline [95%CL(landa75-80 = 0.89 ± 0.09], but has since stabilized and may be slowly increasing [95%CL(landa00-03=1.07±0.11]. This reversal in trajectory apparently resulted from increased recruitment rather than increased apparent survival. Importantly, recent recruitment of adult females appeared to be driven solely by immigration of adult females with no detectable in situ recruitment, suggesting a hypothesis that the local population is being rescued by females produced elsewhere.

  17. Community Response and Engagement During Extreme Water Events in Saskatchewan, Canada and Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Dena W.; Sammel, Alison J.; Arbuthnott, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Technology alone cannot address the challenges of how societies, communities, and individuals understand water accessibility, water management, and water consumption, particularly under extreme conditions like floods and droughts. At the community level, people are increasingly aware challenges related to responses to and impacts of extreme water events. This research begins with an assessment of social and political capacities of communities in two Commonwealth jurisdictions, Queensland, Australia and Saskatchewan, Canada, in response to major flooding events. The research further reviews how such capacities impact community engagement to address and mitigate risks associated with extreme water events and provides evidence of key gaps in skills, understanding, and agency for addressing impacts at the community level. Secondary data were collected using template analysis to elucidate challenges associated with education (formal and informal), social and political capacity, community ability to respond appropriately, and formal government responses to extreme water events in these two jurisdictions. The results indicate that enhanced community engagement alongside elements of an empowerment model can provide avenues for identifying and addressing community vulnerability to negative impacts of flood and drought.

  18. Hybrid eolian dunes of William River Dune field, northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, M.A.; MacLean, P.A.

    1985-02-01

    A series of northwest-southeast aligned, large-scale (up to 30 m high) eolian dunes, occurring in a confined (600 km/sup 2/) desert area in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, was examined in the field. Observations were made of dune morphology and internal structure, and patterns of sand movement on the dunes were analyzed in relation to wind events during the summer of 1981. Present cross-sectional profiles exhibit steeper northeast slopes, the lower segment of which are intermittently covered by psammophilous grasses. Dune structure is dominated by northeast-dipping accretion laminae. Three /sup 14/C dates from organic material cropping out on the lower southwest slopes reveal that the dunes have migrated as transverse bed forms at rates of roughly 0.5 m/yr during the last few hundred years. However, a progressive increase in height, bulk, and symmetry along the dune axis from northwest to southeast, suggests an along-dune component of sand transport. This view is supported by (1) field measurements of airflow and along-dune sand transport patterns on 2 dunes, and (2) the present-day wind regime (1963-78). Dominated by north-northeast to northeast winds from January to June and by west-southwest winds from July to December, the resultant potential sand transport vector is toward the southeast, virtually identical to the dune axis.

  19. Decommissioning of a former uranium mine and mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, D.; Pollock, R.; Bennett, P.; Drake, N. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Cluff Lake Project is a former uranium mine and mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Over 60 million pounds of uranium concentrate were produced in just over twenty years of operation, ending in 2002. The Project is owned and operated by AREVA Resources Canada Inc., part of the AREVA Group, the world leader in nuclear energy development, and increasingly, a provider of other forms of electricity generation systems with low CO{sub 2} emissions. During operation, the facilities at the Cluff Lake Project included open-pit and underground mines, a mill, a tailings management area (TMA) with a two-stage liquid effluent treatment system, a residential camp area and various other support and site infrastructure facilities. Decommissioning when operations have concluded is both an AREVA Group corporate commitment and a regulatory requirement. The purpose is to conduct all necessary activities including the removal or stabilization of all constructed structures and the reclamation of disturbed areas to meet the following objectives: Environment is safe for non-human biota and human use; Long-term adverse effects are minimized; Reclaimed landscape is self-sustaining; and, Restrictions on future land use are minimized. In addition, any restrictions on land use should not prevent traditional land use including casual access for trapping, hunting, and fishing as the primary site activities. The Cluff Lake decommissioning project has four major stages which include planning, physical decommissioning activities, post-decommissioning and follow-up monitoring, and transfer of the site to the Provincial Institutional Control Program (ICP). (author)

  20. Uranium mining: Saskatchewan status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    This paper gives the status of uranium mining by Areva in Saskatchewan. Uranium production now meets 85% of world demand for power generation. 80% of world production of uranium comes from top 5 countries: Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia, Niger and Namibia. Saskatchewan is currently the only Canadian province with active uranium mines and mills and the largest exploration programs. Several mine projects are going through the environmental assessment process. Public opinion is in favour of mining activities in Saskatchewan.

  1. Nitrogen controls on ecosystem carbon sequestration: a model implementation and application to Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Price, D.T.; Chen, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A plant–soil nitrogen (N) cycling model was developed and incorporated into the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) of Foley et al. [Foley, J.A., Prentice, I.C., Ramankutty, N., Levis, S., Pollard, D., Sitch, S., Haxeltine, A., 1996. An integrated biosphere model of land surface process, terrestrial carbon balance and vegetation dynamics. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10, 603–628]. In the N-model, soil mineral N regulates ecosystem carbon (C) fluxes and ecosystem C:N ratios. Net primary productivity (NPP) is controlled by feedbacks from both leaf C:N and soil mineral N. Leaf C:N determines the foliar and canopy photosynthesis rates, while soil mineral N determines the N availability for plant growth and the efficiency of biomass construction. Nitrogen controls on the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) are implemented through N immobilization and mineralization separately. The model allows greater SOM mineralization at lower mineral N, and conversely, allows greater N immobilization at higher mineral N. The model's seasonal and inter-annual behaviours are demonstrated. A regional simulation for Saskatchewan, Canada, was performed for the period 1851–2000 at a 10 km × 10 km resolution. Simulated NPP was compared with high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) NPP estimated from remote sensing data using the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) [Liu, J., Chen, J.M., Cihlar, J., Park, W.M., 1997. A process-based boreal ecosystem productivity simulator using remote sensing inputs. Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 81–87]. The agreement between IBIS and BEPS, particularly in NPP spatial variation, was considerably improved when the N controls were introduced into IBIS.

  2. Recently surveyed lakes in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada: characteristics and critical loads of acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac WONG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on minimal information, lakes in the western Canadian provinces of Manitoba (MB and Saskatchewan (SK have long been considered unaffected by acid rain. However, emissions of acidifying pollutants from MB smelters and oil sand processing in Alberta (AB may pose a developing threat. Surveys of 347 lakes located on geologically sensitive terrain in northern MB and SK were conducted to assess their acidification sensitivity and status. The survey domain (~193,000 km2 contained 81,494 lakes ≥1 ha in area. Small lakes dominated the inventory in terms of numbers, and large lakes dominated in terms of area. Survey lakes were selected using a stratified-random sampling design in 10 sampling blocks within the overall survey domain. Few lakes had pH <6, and only three (all in SK were acidic, i.e., Gran Alkalinity (Alk <0 μeq L–1. A broad range in lake sensitivity was apparent, and very sensitive lakes (low specific conductance, base cations and Alk were present in all sampling blocks. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC was an important constituent of many lakes. Critical loads (CL of acidity calculated using the Steady-State Water Chemistry model (SSWC revealed extremely low 5th percentile values for every block (range 1.9 to 52.7 eq ha–1 y–1. Block CL exceedances calculated using estimated S and N deposition for 2002 ranged from 54.5 to 909 eq ha–1 y–1. The largest exceedances were for sampling blocks located near smelter sources or downwind of the oil sands. Lake chemistry revealed by our surveys was compared to others conducted both nearby and outside Canada.

  3. Leakage Risk Assessment for a Potential CO2 Storage Project in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Mazzoldi, A.; Gupta, A.K.; Nicot, J.-P.; Bryant, S.L.

    2011-05-01

    A CO{sub 2} sequestration project is being considered to (1) capture CO{sub 2} emissions from the Consumers Cooperative Refineries Limited at Regina, Saskatchewan and (2) geologically sequester the captured CO{sub 2} locally in a deep saline aquifer. This project is a collaboration of several industrial and governmental organizations, including the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC), Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC), SaskEnvironment Go Green Fund, SaskPower, CCRL, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Enbridge. The project objective is to sequester 600 tonnes CO{sub 2}/day. Injection is planned to start in 2012 or 2013 for a period of 25 years for a total storage of approximately 5.5 million tonnes CO{sub 2}. This report presents an assessment of the leakage risk of the proposed project using a methodology known as the Certification Framework (CF). The CF is used for evaluating CO{sub 2} leakage risk associated with geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), as well as brine leakage risk owing to displacement and pressurization of brine by the injected CO{sub 2}. We follow the CF methodology by defining the entities (so-called Compartments) that could be impacted by CO{sub 2} leakage, the CO{sub 2} storage region, the potential for leakage along well and fault pathways, and the consequences of such leakage. An understanding of the likelihood and consequences of leakage forms the basis for understanding CO{sub 2} leakage risk, and forms the basis for recommendations of additional data collection and analysis to increase confidence in the risk assessment.

  4. Geological and geotechnical characteristics of two prospective wind turbine development sites in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, L. [J.D. Mollard and Associates Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada); Adelman, T. [GE Ground Engineering Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    SaskPower International's Centennial Wind Power Project is located 25 km southeast of Swift Current, Saskatchewan and harnesses 150 megawatts of power from 83 Vestas V80 wind turbines. This paper presented the results of an evaluation of geological and geotechnical site characteristics at two potential wind turbine development sites in southwestern Saskatchewan prior to selecting the final development site. Bearing strength of sediments, variability in stratigraphy and groundwater conditions are important factors affecting the ideal foundation design configuration and design parameters. Potential sites were selected based primarily on wind energy potential and proximity to existing electrical transmission infrastructure. The paper discussed various components of the study including an office airphoto and geological assessment; test hole drilling, sampling and geotechnical testing; piezometer installation and monitoring; and, an assessment of foundation conditions. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. The Raising of Minimum Alcohol Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: Impacts on Consumption and Implications for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinhui; Giesbrecht, Norman; Macdonald, Scott; Thomas, Gerald; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. Results. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Conclusions. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types. PMID:23078488

  6. The raising of minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: impacts on consumption and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Giesbrecht, Norman; Macdonald, Scott; Thomas, Gerald; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2012-12-01

    We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types.

  7. Bilateral cataracts in a coyote (Canis latrans) pup from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granson, Hilary; Grahn, Bruce; Parker, Dennilyn; Himsworth, Chelsea

    2010-06-01

    A free-ranging coyote (Canis latrans) pup was found in rural Saskatchewan and was subsequently presented to a veterinary teaching hospital by a wildlife rehabilitator. On physical examination, the pup was found to be blind as a result of bilateral, mature cataracts, which were confirmed on postmortem examination. No other significant intraocular or extraocular disease was detected, resulting in a presumptive diagnosis of congenital cataract. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of congenital cataract in any wild canid species.

  8. Integrating strategic environmental assessment with industry planning: a case study of the Pasquai-Porcupine forest management plan, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram F

    2004-03-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is gaining widespread recognition as a tool for integrating environmental considerations in policy, plan, and program development and decision-making. Notwithstanding the potential of SEA to improve higher-order decision processes, there has been very little attention given to integrating SEA with industry planning practices. As a result, the benefits of SEA have yet to be fully realized among industrial proponents. That said, SEA practice is ongoing, albeit informally and often under a different label, and is proving to be a valuable tool for industry planning and decision-making. Based on a case study of the Pasquai-Porcupine forest management plan in Saskatchewan, Canada, this paper illustrates how an integrated approach to SEA can contribute to industry environmental decision-making and can enhance the quality and deliverability of industry plans.

  9. How early can the seeding dates of spring wheat be under current and future climate in Saskatchewan, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Wang, Hong; Qian, Budong; McConkey, Brian; DePauw, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Shorter growing season and water stress near wheat maturity are the main factors that presumably limit the yield potential of spring wheat due to late seeding in Saskatchewan, Canada. Advancing seeding dates can be a strategy to help producers mitigate the impact of climate change on spring wheat. It is unknown, however, how early farmers can seed while minimizing the risk of spring frost damage and the soil and machinery constraints. This paper explores early seeding dates of spring wheat on the Canadian Prairies under current and projected future climate. To achieve this, (i) weather records from 1961 to 1990 were gathered at three sites with different soil and climate conditions in Saskatchewan, Canada; (ii) four climate databases that included a baseline (treated as historic weather climate during the period of 1961-1990) and three climate change scenarios (2040-2069) developed by the Canadian global climate model (GCM) with the forcing of three greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1); (iii) seeding dates of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under baseline and projected future climate were predicted. Compared with the historical record of seeding dates, the predicted seeding dates were advanced under baseline climate for all sites using our seeding date model. Driven by the predicted temperature increase of the scenarios compared with baseline climate, all climate change scenarios projected significantly earlier seeding dates than those currently used. Compared to the baseline conditions, there is no reduction in grain yield because precipitation increases during sensitive growth stages of wheat, suggesting that there is potential to shift seeding to an earlier date. The average advancement of seeding dates varied among sites and chosen scenarios. The Swift Current (south-west) site has the highest potential for earlier seeding (7 to 11 days) whereas such advancement was small in the Melfort (north-east, 2 to 4 days) region. The extent of

  10. Rural and remote dementia care challenges and needs: perspectives of formal and informal care providers residing in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina P M; Cammer, Allison; Morgan, Debra; Stewart, Norma; Kosteniuk, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Rural and remote settings pose particular healthcare and service delivery challenges. Providing appropriate care and support for individuals with dementia and their families living in these communities is especially difficult, and can only be accomplished when the needs of care providers and the context and complexity of care provision are understood. This paper describes formal and informal caregivers' perceptions of the challenges and needs in providing care and support for individuals with dementia living in rural and remote areas of Saskatchewan, Canada. A mixed-methods exploratory approach was used to examine caregivers' needs. This research was a component of a broader process evaluation designed to inform the initial and ongoing development of a community-based participatory research program in rural dementia care, which included the development of the Rural and Remote Memory Clinic (RRMC). Four approaches were used for data collection and analyses: (1) thematic analysis of consultation meetings with rural healthcare providers: documented discussions from consultation meetings that occurred in 2003-2004 with rural physicians and healthcare providers regarding plans for a new RRMC were analysed thematically; (2) telephone and mail questionnaires: consultation meeting participants completed a subsequent telephone or mail questionnaire (2003-2004) that was analysed descriptively; (3) thematic analysis of referral letters to the Rural and Remote Memory Clinic: physician referral letters over a five-year period (2003-2008) were analysed descriptively and thematically; and (4) examination of family caregiver satisfaction: four specific baseline questionnaire questions completed by family caregivers (2007-2010) were analysed descriptively and thematically. Both physician and non-physician healthcare providers identified increased facilities and care programs as needs. Physicians were much more likely than other providers to report available support services for

  11. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  12. A modified approach for estimating the aquatic critical load of acid deposition in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Colin J.; Mowat, Aidan C.; Scott, Kenneth A.; Watmough, Shaun A.

    2016-12-01

    Acid-sensitive ecosystems are found in northern Saskatchewan, which lies downwind of major sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions sources associated with the oil sands extraction industry. In order to protect these ecosystems against acidification, tolerance to acid deposition must be quantified. The suitability of the central empirical relationship used in the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC) model to predict historical sulphate (SO4) concentrations was investigated, and an alternate approach for determining aquatic critical loads of acidity (CL(A)) was employed for the study lakes (n = 260). Critical loads of acidity were often low, with median values of 12-16 mmolc m-2 yr-1, with the lower value reflecting a region-specific limit for acid-neutralizing capacity identified in this study. Uncertain levels of atmospheric deposition in the region, however, are problematic for characterizing acidification risk. Accurate S and chloride (Cl) deposition are needed to identify catchment sources (and sinks) of these elements in the new approach for CL(A) calculation. Likewise, accurate depiction of atmospheric deposition levels can prove useful for evaluation of lake runoff estimates on which estimates of CL(A) are contingent. While CL(A) are low and exceedance may occur according to projected increases in S deposition in the near-term, S retention appears to be an important feature in many catchments and risk of acidification may be overstated should long-term S retention be occurring in peatlands.

  13. Bioassays with caged hyalella azteca to determine in situ toxicity downstream of two Saskatchewan, Canada, uranium operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Erin L; Liber, Karsten

    2007-11-01

    The main objectives of this in situ study were to evaluate the usefulness of an in situ bioassay to determine if downstream water bodies at the Key Lake and Rabbit Lake uranium operations (Saskatchewan, Canada) were toxic to Hyalella azteca and, if toxicity was observed, to differentiate between the contribution of surface water and sediment contamination to in situ toxicity. These objectives were achieved by performing 4-d in situ bioassays with laboratory-reared H. azteca confined in specially designed, paired, surface water and sediment exposure chambers. Results from the in situ bioassays revealed significant mortality, relative to the respective reference site, at the exposure sites at both Key Lake (p azteca at both operations, although this relationship was stronger at Key Lake. At Key Lake, the primary cause of aquatic toxicity to H. azteca did not appear to be correlated with the variables measured in this study, but most likely with a pulse of organic mill-process chemicals released during the time of the in situ study-a transient event that was caused by a problem with the mill's solvent extraction process. The suspected cause of in situ toxicity to H. azteca at Rabbit Lake was high levels of uranium in surface water, sediment, and pore water.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Saskatchewan, Canada: utility of NG-MAST in predicting antimicrobial susceptibility regionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Sidharath D; Levett, Paul N; Horsman, Gregory B; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the molecular epidemiology of isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Saskatchewan, Canada, using Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST), and to assess associations between antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS) and specific strain types (STs). 320 consecutive gonococcal isolates, collected between 2003 and 2008, were typed by NG-MAST. STs were grouped if one of their alleles was common and the other differed by ≤1% in DNA sequence. AMS was determined by agar dilution (CLSI) to seven antibiotics. N gonorrhoeae isolates were resolved into 82 individual NG-MAST STs and 18 NG-MAST ST groups with groups 25, 3655, 921, 3654, 3657 and 3656 comprising 53.4% (171/320) of the isolates. N gonorrhoeae isolates susceptible to all the tested antimicrobials were significantly (pgonorrhoeae AMS and NG-MAST STs were identified and may be useful in predicting AMS regionally. Because STs in different countries vary considerably, the use of NG-MAST for the prediction of AMS globally requires further study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Increasing the Number of Canadian Indigenous Students in STEM at the University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jacques, J. M.; McGee, S.; Janze, R.; Longman, M.; Pete, S.; Starblanket, N.

    2016-12-01

    Canadian Indigenous people are an extremely poorly represented group in STEM today due to major barriers in obtaining a high school and then a university education. Approximately 10% of the undergraduate student population out of a total 12,600 students at the University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, is First Nations, Métis or Inuit. The university is located in a catchment region where 30% of the population is First Nations or Métis. Approximately 100 students majoring in the sciences, mathematics and engineering have self-declared themselves to be Indigenous. For the past two years, we have been running a pilot project, the Initiative to Support and Increase the Number of Indigenous Students in the Sciences, Mathematics and Engineering at the Aboriginal Student Centre, with financial support from the Deans of Science and Engineering. We provide student networking lunches, Indigenous scientist and engineer speakers and mentors and supplemental tutoring. Our program is actively supported and guided by Elder Noel Starblanket, former president of the National Indian Brotherhood (now the Assembly of First Nations). Our students are greatly interested in the health and environmental sciences (particularly water quality), with a sprinkling of physics, mathematics and engineering majors. Our students have gone on to graduate work with prestigious scholarships and a paid internship in engineering. We report here on various lessons learned: the involvement of elders is key, as is the acceptance of non-traditional academic paths, and any STEM support program must respect Indigenous culture. There is great interest in science and engineering on the part of these students, if scientists and engineers are willing to listen and learn to talk with these students on their own terms.

  16. A 5-year study of the incidence and economic impact of variant infectious bursal disease viruses on broiler production in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Goodhope, Bob; Knezacek, Tennille; Ojkic, Davor; Willson, Philip; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-01-01

    While the prevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on chicken farms in some provinces of Canada has been documented, the economic impact of variant IBDV infection on the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan has not. The objectives of this study were to identify the variant strains of IBDV circulating on Saskatchewan chicken farms and evaluate their economic impact on broiler production. Infection due to IBDV was detected in 43% of Saskatchewan chicken farms, with variant strains detected in infected birds closely related predominantly to NC171, 586, and Delaware-E. Infected flocks showed an IBDV antibody titer of 4236 geometric mean (GM), whereas an antibody titer of 157 GM was measured in uninfected flocks. Infected flocks had very low (0.06) bursa-to-body-weight (BBW) ratio (an indicator of immunity) compared to high BBW ratio (0.17) in uninfected flocks, which suggests a significant immunosuppression in the former. Flocks positive for IBDV had mean mortality of 8.6% and mean condemnation of 1.5%. In contrast, mean mortality in uninfected flocks was 6.1% and mean condemnation was 1.1%. The live market weight per grow area at 37 d of age was 29.3 kg/m2 in infected flocks and 34.0 kg/m2 in flocks without IBDV infection. Flock mortality and condemnation rate were positively correlated with IBDV infection, whereas low BBW ratio was inversely correlated, as expected. Overall, IBDV-infected flocks had higher mortality, bursal atrophy, poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR), and decreased meat production. Our data suggest that the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan loses 3.9 million kilograms of meat production per year due to variant IBDV strains. PMID:27733779

  17. A 5-year study of the incidence and economic impact of variant infectious bursal disease viruses on broiler production in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Goodhope, Bob; Knezacek, Tennille; Ojkic, Davor; Willson, Philip; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-10-01

    While the prevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on chicken farms in some provinces of Canada has been documented, the economic impact of variant IBDV infection on the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan has not. The objectives of this study were to identify the variant strains of IBDV circulating on Saskatchewan chicken farms and evaluate their economic impact on broiler production. Infection due to IBDV was detected in 43% of Saskatchewan chicken farms, with variant strains detected in infected birds closely related predominantly to NC171, 586, and Delaware-E. Infected flocks showed an IBDV antibody titer of 4236 geometric mean (GM), whereas an antibody titer of 157 GM was measured in uninfected flocks. Infected flocks had very low (0.06) bursa-to-body-weight (BBW) ratio (an indicator of immunity) compared to high BBW ratio (0.17) in uninfected flocks, which suggests a significant immunosuppression in the former. Flocks positive for IBDV had mean mortality of 8.6% and mean condemnation of 1.5%. In contrast, mean mortality in uninfected flocks was 6.1% and mean condemnation was 1.1%. The live market weight per grow area at 37 d of age was 29.3 kg/m 2 in infected flocks and 34.0 kg/m 2 in flocks without IBDV infection. Flock mortality and condemnation rate were positively correlated with IBDV infection, whereas low BBW ratio was inversely correlated, as expected. Overall, IBDV-infected flocks had higher mortality, bursal atrophy, poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR), and decreased meat production. Our data suggest that the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan loses 3.9 million kilograms of meat production per year due to variant IBDV strains.

  18. Regulatory Oversight of the Legacy Gunner Uranium Mine and Mill Site in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada - 13434

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenson, Ron; Howard, Don [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, P.O. Box 1046, Station B, 280 Slater Street, Ottawa ON K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    As Canada's nuclear regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is responsible for licensing all aspects of uranium mining, including remediation activities at legacy sites. Since these sites already existed when the current legislation came into force in 2000, and the previous legislation did not apply, they present a special case. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), was written with cradle-to- grave oversight in mind. Applying the NSCA at the end of a 'facilities' life-cycle poses some challenges to both the regulator and the proponent. When the proponent is the public sector, even more challenges can present themselves. Although the licensing process for legacy sites is no different than for any other CNSC license, assuring regulatory compliance can be more complicated. To demonstrate how the CNSC has approached the oversight of legacy sites the history of the Commission's involvement with the Gunnar uranium mine and mill site provides a good case study. The lessons learned from the CNSC's experience regulating the Gunnar site will benefit those in the future who will need to regulate legacy sites under existing or new legislation. (authors)

  19. Magnetotelluric and Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Pre-Injection Study of Aquistore CO2 Sequestration Site, Near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, J.; McLeod, J.; Ferguson, I. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Aquistore project is a large-scale CO2 sequestration operation at Estevan, southeast Saskatchewan, Canada. CO2 is being captured from the Boundary Dam power station, and injected to the base of the Phanerozoic Williston Basin, to be stored in a saline aquifer at 3.4 km depth. In this study, magnetotelluric (MT) and surface controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods are tested in a pre-injection setting at Aquistore for their applicability to sequestration monitoring goals. The MT and CSEM methods are complimentary in their ability to resolve structures at different scales using different current systems. Pre-injection MT soundings were conducted in 2013, 2014 and 2015 over a 2.5 km × 8.5 km area surrounding the Aquistore injection well. The Phanerozoic MT response is spatially uniform across the survey area. The resistivity structure of the Phanerozoic is one-dimensional from 0.001 to 10 s: the apparent resistivity decreases from 8 Ωm to 2 Ωm in this period range. Spectral and polarization analyses indicate that broadband noise in period bands of 0.05 to 1 s and 0.0077 to 0.0125 s recorded in 2014 is associated with a CO2 pipeline. At frequencies outside these bands, the MT responses define small differences between surveys (response from these datasets and constraints from a resistivity well-log, a representative 18-layer 1D resistivity model for the Williston Basin sedimentary sequence has been recovered. CSEM surveys in 2013 and 2015 used a 1 km, 30 A electric horizontal dipole source. Recordings of the radial electric field component were made along an inline receiver profile from 3.5 to 9.5 km offsets. Preliminary characterization of these recordings indicates that the transmitted signals are observable at each of the profile locations. Fréchet derivatives of the CSEM response indicate that response sensitivity to changes in the Williston Basin electrical properties is attainable at the level of the reservoir. Low induction number soundings

  20. Souris River Basin Project. Saskatchewan, Canada - North Dakota, U.S.A. General Plan Report and Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    water as it enters the United States. Appendix 9 contains North Dakota water quality standards for the Souris River and an analysis of ambient water...conducted ueadr the amebe tty of the Meritage Nesesrees legislacion of Saskatchewan. 4rcbeolotical work directly associated with the flood control

  1. Evaluation of sediment quality guidelines derived using the screening-level concentration approach for application at uranium operations in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Liber, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) can be derived using different approaches and are commonly used in environmental management, reclamation, and risk assessment. The screening-level concentration (SLC) approach has been used in Ontario, Canada, to derive lowest effect levels (LELs) and severe effect levels for use as SQGs. This approach was adopted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) to set guidelines for metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Se, U, and V) and radionuclides (Ra-226, Pb-210, and Po-210) in sediment at northern Saskatchewan uranium mining and milling operations. The SLC approach is based on total metal and radionuclide concentrations in sediment, and corresponding benthic community composition data for a specific sampling site. In this study, sediment chemistry (total metals and radionuclides) and benthic community data from northern Saskatchewan uranium operations were compiled and examined. Results indicate that the CNSC-derived SQGs had limited relationships to observed effects, or lack thereof, on benthic invertebrate communities near uranium operations in Saskatchewan. The LELs were found to correctly align with effects at 95% of the sites that had effects, on a general basis, but on an element-specific basis many of the elements had concentrations at effect sites below their LELs. Furthermore, concentrations of the evaluated elements exceeded at least one LEL at 60% of the no-effect sites. The high number of exceedences of LELs at reference and no-effect sites (false-positives) calls to question the appropriateness of the CNSC-derived SQGs. It is suggested that alternatives to the SLC approach be explored.

  2. Dietary analysis of randomly selected meals from the Child Hunger and Education Program School Nutrition Program in Saskatchewan, Canada, suggests that nutrient target levels are being provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougeon, Laura A R; Henry, Carol J; Ramdath, Dan; Whiting, Susan J

    2011-03-01

    In Canada, school meals are regarded as important for social, educational, and nutritional reasons and have been provided for several years because of concerns about the health and welfare of children, especially those from low-income households. They are generally offered as local community organization and individual schools, are not regulated by law, and have no set national nutrition standards. The Canadian scientific literature lacks quantitative information on the nutritional adequacy of school meals. Better and more evaluation of such programs would encourage and guide administrators to assess other local programs in a similar fashion. Here, we describe the dietary assessment process of 1 school meal program in Canada and the nutritional adequacy of the meals. Throughout 10 years (1997-2007), the contents of 159 lunches and 90 breakfasts were collected mainly from elementary schools participating in the Child Hunger and Education Program Good Food, Inc's school nutrition program initiative in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. We collected, weighed, and analyzed food samples from meals served to children at participating schools. We then compared their nutrient content against standards based on the Dietary Recommended Intakes for children aged 4 to 8 and 9 to 13 years using one third of the recommendations as the standard for lunches and one fourth for breakfasts. Overall, both meals had a good nutrient profile and met the standards for most analyzed macronutrients and micronutrients throughout the years. Although energy was persistently low, vitamin and mineral contents were often above the standards, reflecting a tendency to offer nutrient-dense foods in lieu of energy-dense foods. The rigorous methodology described in this manuscript can be followed to assess other small local programs. Furthermore, the dietary assessment presented can encourage not only the implementation of school meal programs in other locations but also the assessment of already

  3. Relationship between water quality parameters and bacterial indicators in a large prairie reservoir: Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, R L; Khan, N H; Ahsan, M; Prestie, C; Korber, D R; Lawrence, J R; Hudson, J J

    2014-04-01

    Lake Diefenbaker (LD) is a large reservoir on the South Saskatchewan River used for agricultural irrigation, drinking water, and recreation. Our objectives were to determine the distribution and abundance of bacterial indicators in embayments and the main channel of LD and to relate these to environmental factors. Total coliforms (TCs), fecal coliforms (FCs), and fecal indicator bacteria (i.e., Escherichia coli) were measured concurrently with water quality parameters. Although TCs, FCs, and E. coli were present in LD, they rarely exceeded the TC and FC Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) water quality standards for agricultural use (1000 colony-forming units (CFU) per 100 mL and 100 CFU per 100 mL, respectively). The correlation between the bacterial indicators in the sediments and the water column indicates that higher embayment abundances may be related to sediment loading and (or) resuspension events in these frequently mixed embayments. With higher water temperatures and water levels, as well as higher microbial activity, CCME bacterial limits may be exceeded. The greatest contributor to bacterial indicator abundance was water temperature. We predict that water quality standards will be exceeded more frequently with climate warming.

  4. Variations in Sense of Place Across Immigrant Status and Gender in Hamilton, Ontario; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Melissa; Williams, Allison

    Past research in Hamilton, Ontario has found that age and longevity of residence are positively associated with evaluations of sense of place (SoP); further, evaluations of SoP between immigrants and Canadian-born individuals have shown no clear pattern (Williams et al. 2010; Williams and Kitchen 2012). This paper builds on this work by further examining evaluations of SoP among both immigrants and Canadian-born residents and across gender in Hamilton, while expanding the study to two other small-to-medium sized cities: Saskatoon, Saskatchewan and, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. This paper has two objectives: (1) to establish measures of SoP across immigrant status and gender in Hamilton, Saskatoon, and Charlottetown; and, (2) to determine how SoP varies according to immigrant status, length of residence in Canada, age, income, and neighbourhood length of residence across the three city sites. Telephone survey data (n = 1,132) was used to compare evaluations of SoP across various groups and to construct an ordered logistic regression model for SoP. Results suggest that immigrants tended to rate their SoP lower than their Canadian-born counterparts. Hamilton residents were found to rate their SoP lowest, followed by Saskatoon residents and, finally, Charlottetown residents. Younger individuals, those with lower income levels, and those with shorter neighbourhood residency in the cities concerned were more likely to have lower evaluations of SoP. This research suggests that greater attention is needed to nurture immigrants' connection with their new home.

  5. The effects of household income distribution on stroke prevalence and its risk factors of high blood pressure and smoking: a cross-sectional study in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is a major chronic disease and a common cause of adult disability and mortality. Although there are many known risk factors for stroke, lower income is not one that is often discussed. To determine the unadjusted and adjusted association of income distribution on the prevalence of stroke in Saskatchewan, Canada. Information was collected from the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada for 2000-2008. In total, 178 variables were analysed for their association with stroke. Prior to statistical adjustment, stroke was seven times more common for lower income residents than higher income residents. After statistical adjustment, only four covariates were independently associated with stroke prevalence, including having high blood pressure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-3.24), having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.88-3.29), being a daily smoker (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.16-1.58) and being physically inactive (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.13-1.43). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.41-1.63). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with daily smoking prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.25-1.33). Knowledge of disparities in the prevalence, severity, disability and mortality of stroke is critically important to medical and public health professionals. Our study found that income distribution was strongly associated with stroke, its main disease intermediary - high blood pressure - and its main risk factor - smoking. As such, income is an important variable worthy of public debate as a modifiable risk factor for stroke.

  6. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  7. Hydrometric, Chemical, and Multi-Isotope Approaches to Assess the Water Balance and the Sources and Fate of Nitrate and Sulfate in the South Saskatchewan River Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Ferguson, P. R.; Rock, L.; McCallum, J. E.; Veizer, J.

    2006-12-01

    River water, seasonally sampled at 25 stations along the South Saskatchewan River and its tributaries between the headwaters in Alberta and mouth near Prince Albert (Saskatchewan), was analyzed for its chemical and isotopic composition (δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC, δ15Nnitrate, δ18Onitrate, δ34Ssulfate, δ18Osulfate). Using a water-isotope mass balance approach we estimated that circa 7% (35 mm) of the annual precipitation (490 mm) in the watershed is subject to evaporation, while circa 51% (247 mm) is returned to the atmosphere via transpiration. In order to identify the sources and the fate of sulfate and nitrate along the river, riverine sulfate and nitrate fluxes were calculated by combining hydrometric data with concentration measurements. Sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope measurements were used to determine the causes of marked changes in sulfate and nitrate fluxes with increasing flow distance. Geologic (evaporite) sulfate was the predominant sulfate source in the headwaters, while sulfate from anthropogenic sources in urban areas and from pyrite oxidation in the tills of agricultural regions caused markedly elevated sulfate fluxes with increasing distance. Nitrate fluxes in the headwater section were low and N and O stable isotope data indicated that the nitrate was mainly derived from nitrification in forest soils. With increasing flow distance, there was clear evidence of nitrate loading from municipal waste water sources. Downstream of major urban centers, nitrate flux data indicated active nitrogen assimilation particularly during the summer months. There was also evidence for influx of manure-derived nitrate with agricultural return flows in some areas of the South Saskatchewan River basin. Additional tracer techniques (e.g. B isotopes) would have been desirable to better differentiate nitrate loading from urban and agricultural sources. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that stable isotope techniques are an effective tool for constraining water

  8. Influences of vegetation structure and elevation on CO{sub 2} uptake in a mature jack pine forest in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasmer, L.; McCaughey, H.; Treitz, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Kljun, N. [Swansea Univ., Swansea (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography; Barr, A. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Climate Research Branch; Black, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Faculty of Land and Food Systems; Hopkinson, C. [Applied Geomatics Research Group, Lawrencetown, NS (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    Eddy covariance (EC) is often used to measure the movement and direction of energy and trace gas concentrations in ecosystems. Data from EC networks are often combined with remote sensing data and ecosystem models in order to assess the spatial and temporal variability of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) exchanges within specific areas of interest. This study presented a new method of determining changes in the structural characteristics of biomass and elevation. Lidar was used within the contours of half-hourly flux footprint areas to characterize vegetation structure and elevation. The influences of vegetation structure and elevation on CO{sub 2} concentrations were measured by EC and Lidar measurements for 3 mature growing periods at a mature jack pine site in Saskatchewan. Mensuration data were collected over 2 periods. Meteorological, CO{sub 2}, and H2O flux measurements were collected for 30 minute periods each day. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the influence of meteorological variables on vegetation structure. Footprint contour lines were then layered onto the canopy height models derived by the lidar data. Multiple regression equations were used to determine net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) using meteorological variables, canopy fractional cover; and elevation, as well as the results obtained from a Landsberg equation. The study showed that differences in NEP variability were influenced by differences in canopy and ground surface characteristics within the site. EC measurements underestimated gross CO{sub 2} fluxes by 5 per cent as the biomass was lower within the immediate vicinity of the EC network. It was concluded that canopy structures and elevation are important factors for determining annual carbon balances. 36 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. Community-based educational intervention to limit the dissemination of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golding George R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance examining the incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA was conducted over 8 years beginning in 2001 in three health regions covering the northern half of Saskatchewan. The annual rate of individuals reported with CA-MRSA infection in these regions dramatically increased from 8.2 per 10,000 population in 2001 (range to 4.4-10.1 per 10,000 to 168.1 per 10,000 in 2006 (range 43.4-230.9 per 10,000. To address this issue, a team of community members, healthcare professionals, educators and research scientists formed a team called "the Northern Antibiotic Resistance Partnership" (NARP to develop physician, patient, community, and school based educational materials in an attempt to limit the spread of CA-MRSA. Methods Posters, radio broadcasts, community slide presentations, physician treatment algorithms, patient pamphlets, and school educational programs Do Bugs Need Drugs http://www.dobugsneeddrugs.org and Germs Away http://www.germsaway.ca were provided to targeted northern communities experiencing high rates of infections. Results Following implementation of this program, the rates of MRSA infections in the targeted communities have decreased nearly two-fold (242.8 to 129.3 infections/10,000 population from 2006 to 2008. Through pre-and post-educational intervention surveys, this decrease in MRSA infections coincided with an increase in knowledge related to appropriate antimicrobial usage and hand washing in these communities. Conclusion These educational materials are all freely available http://www.narp.ca and will hopefully aid in increasing awareness of the importance of proper antimicrobial usage and hygiene in diminishing the spread of S. aureus and other infectious diseases in other communities.

  10. One size does not fit all: a qualitative content analysis of the importance of existing quality improvement capacity in the implementation of Releasing Time to Care: the Productive Ward™ in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica; Verrall, Tanya; Maben, Jill; Griffiths, Peter; Avis, Kyla; Baker, G Ross; Teare, Gary

    2014-12-19

    Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward™ (RTC) is a method for conducting continuous quality improvement (QI). The Saskatchewan Ministry of Health mandated its implementation in Saskatchewan, Canada between 2008 and 2012. Subsequently, a research team was developed to evaluate its impact on the nursing unit environment. We sought to explore the influence of the unit's existing QI capacity on their ability to engage with RTC as a program for continuous QI. We conducted interviews with staff from 8 nursing units and asked them to speak about their experience doing RTC. Using qualitative content analysis, and guided by the Organizing for Quality framework, we describe the existing QI capacity and impact of RTC on the unit environment. The results focus on 2 units chosen to highlight extreme variation in existing QI capacity. Unit B was characterized by a strong existing environment. RTC was implemented in an environment with a motivated manager and collaborative culture. Aided by the structural support provided by the organization, the QI capacity on this unit was strengthened through RTC. Staff recognized the potential of using the RTC processes to support QI work. Staff on unit E did not have the same experience with RTC. Like unit B, they had similar structural supports provided by their organization but they did not have the same existing cultural or political environment to facilitate the implementation of RTC. They did not have internal motivation and felt they were only doing RTC because they had to. Though they had some success with RTC activities, the staff did not have the same understanding of the methods that RTC could provide for continuous QI work. RTC has the potential to be a strong tool for engaging units to do QI. This occurs best when RTC is implemented in a supporting environment. One size does not fit all and administrative bodies must consider the unique context of each environment prior to implementing large-scale QI projects. Use of an

  11. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Duncan, Charles Randy; DesRoches, Andrea; Bendig, Melissa; Steeves, Megan; Turner, Holly; Quaife, Terra; McCann, Chuck; Enns, Brett

    2013-10-22

    Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory' outcomes of our team's program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services' Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk' student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program's goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS's work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. With improved understanding of the OWS's goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program's universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS's definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk' student population. It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of

  12. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2016-12-01

    The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among those employed as sex trade workers (STW) is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people). Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians), with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a) describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b) identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c) determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public health

  13. Third-world realities in a first-world setting: A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex trade workers in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Bird

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission and prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV among those employed as sex trade workers (STW is a major public health concern. The present study describes the self-reported responses of 340 STW, at-risk for contracting HIV. The participants were recruited by selective targeting between 2009 and 2010 from within the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR, Saskatchewan, Canada. As of 2012, the SHR has the highest incidence rate of positive test reports for HIV in Canada, at more than three times the national average (17.0 vs. 5.9 per 100,000 people. Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the SHR is different from that seen elsewhere in Canada (still mostly men having sex with men and Caucasians, with its new HIV cases predominantly associated with injection drug use and Aboriginal cultural status. The purpose of this study was to (a describe the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the STW in the SHR, (b identify their significant life events, self-reported problems, knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, self-efficacy, and barriers regarding HIV, and (c determine the significant independent risk indicators for STW self-reporting a chance of greater than 50% of becoming infected with HIV/AIDS. The majority of the study participants were females, who were never married, of Aboriginal descent, without a high school diploma, and had an annual income of less than $10,000. Using multivariate regression analysis, four significant independent risk indicators were associated with STW reporting a greater that 50% chance of acquiring HIV/AIDS, including experiencing sexual assault as a child, injecting drugs in the past four weeks, being homeless, and a previous Chlamydia diagnosis. These findings provide important evidence of the essential sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities associated with the risk of HIV infection among STW and offer insight into the design and implementation of effective and culturally sensitive public

  14. Synchronous egress and ingress fluid flow related to compressional reactivation of basement faults: the Phoenix and Gryphon uranium deposits, southeastern Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zenghua; Chi, Guoxiang; Bethune, Kathryn M.; Eldursi, Khalifa; Thomas, David; Quirt, David; Ledru, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies on unconformity-related uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin (Canada) suggest that egress flow and ingress flow can develop along single fault systems at different stages of compressional deformation. This research aims to examine whether or not both ingress and egress flow can develop at the same time within an area under a common compressional stress field, as suggested by the reverse displacement of the unconformity surface by the basement faults. The study considers the Phoenix and Gryphon uranium deposits in the Wheeler River area in the southeastern part of the Athabasca Basin. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of fluid flow, coupled with compressional deformation and thermal effects, was carried out to examine the fluid flow pattern. The results show that local variations in the basement geology under a common compressional stress field can result in both egress and ingress flow at the same time. The fault zone at Phoenix underwent a relatively low degree of deformation, as reflected by minor reverse displacement of the unconformity, and egress flow developed, whereas the fault zone at Gryphon experienced a relatively high degree of deformation, as demonstrated by significant reverse displacement of the unconformity, and ingress flow was dominant. The correlation between strain development and location of uranium mineralization, as exemplified by Gryphon and Phoenix uranium deposits, suggests that the localization of dilation predicted by numerical modeling may represent favourable sites for uranium mineralization in the Athabasca Basin.

  15. Southern Saskatchewan Ticagrelor Registry experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani P

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Payam Dehghani,1 Varun Chopra,1 Ali Bell,2 Sheila Kelly,1 Lori Zulyniak,2 Jeff Booker,1 Rodney Zimmermann,1 William Semchuk,2 Asim N Cheema,3 Andrea J Lavoie1 1Prairie Vascular Research Network, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK, 2Regina Qu’Appelle Health Region, Regina, SK, 3St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: As ticagrelor enters into clinical use for acute coronary syndrome, it is ­important to understand patient/physician behavior in terms of appropriate use, adherence, and event rates. Methods: The Saskatchewan Registry is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study that identifies consecutive patients started on ticagrelor. We aimed to evaluate both on- and off-label use, identify characteristics of patients who prematurely stop ticagrelor, and describe patient/physician behavior contributing to inappropriate stoppage of this medication. Results: From April 2012 to September 2013, 227 patients were initiated on ticagrelor, with a mean age of 62.2±12.1 years. The participants were 66% men and had a mean follow up of 157.4±111.7 days. Seventy-four patients (32.4% had off-label indications. Forty-seven patients (20.7% prematurely stopped ticagrelor and were more likely to be older, women, nonwhite, present with shock, and complain of dyspnea. Twenty-six of the 47 patients stopped ticagrelor inappropriately because of patient nonadherence (18 patients and physician advice (eight patients. A composite outcome event of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 8.8% of the entire cohort and was more likely to occur in those older then 65 years, those presenting with cardiogenic shock, and those who prematurely stopped ticagrelor. Conclusion: In this real-world registry of patients started on ticagrelor, a third have off-label indications and a fifth prematurely stop the medication. Premature discontinuation was an independent predictor of major

  16. Depositional environments of the Hart coal zone (Paleocene), Willow Bunch Coalfield, southern Saskatchewan, Canada from petrographic, palynological, paleobotanical, mineral and trace element studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Beaton, A.P.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Vigrass, L.W. (University of Regina, SK (Canada). Energy Research Unit)

    1991-12-01

    Coal petrology, palynology, paleobotany and mineralogy of the Hart coal indicate deposition under wet, warm-temperate to subtropical climatic conditions in low-lying backswamps with fluvial channels and locally ponded areas. The coal is dominated by mixed xylitic/attrital lithotypes and by huminite macerals with secondary inertinite macerals and minor liptinite macerals. Good correlation exists between lithotypes and maceral composition. Local and vertical variations in proportions of huminites and inertinites reflect frequent fluctuations in water levels, periodic flooding, desiccation and burning of the peat. Swamps were dominated by {ital Glyptostrobus-Taxodium} forest with {ital Betula-Myrica-Alnus} communities and, locally {ital Laevigatosporites}, which are the dominant contributors to the xylite-rich lithotypes. Attrital lithotypes with abundant {ital Pandanus}, {ital Typha} and {ital Azolla} are consistent with wetter areas of a fluvial environment, including ponds and channels. Trace elements Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Si, Ti, U, Se, V, W, K and Th, typically associated with syngenetic minerals kaolinite, calcite and quartz, may have a volcanic source. High concentrations of Na, Ba and Ca found in organic complexes are of secondary origin and probably originate in deep source brines rather than marine surface waters. 55 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Libraries in Saskatchewan: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/saskatchewan.html Libraries in Saskatchewan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Prince Albert PAPHR Library Library, Victoria Hospital 1200 - 24th Street West Prince ...

  18. Regulatory harmonization of the Saskatchewan uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, R. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Moulding, T. [Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatchewan (Canada); Alderman, G. [Saskatchewan Labour, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan produces approximately 30% of the world's production of uranium. The industry is regulated by federal and provincial regulators. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is the principal federal regulator. The principal Saskatchewan provincial regulators are Saskatchewan Environment for provincial environmental regulations and Saskatchewan Labour for occupational health and safety regulations. In the past, mine and mill operators have requested harmonization in areas such as inspections and reporting requirements from the regulators. On February 14, 2003, Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatchewan Labour and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission signed a historical agreement for federal/provincial co-operation called the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - Saskatchewan Administrative Agreement for the Regulation of Health, Safety and the Environment at Saskatchewan Uranium Mines and Mills. This initiative responds to a recommendation made by the Joint Federal-Provincial Panel on Uranium Mining Developments in Northern Saskatchewan in 1997 and lays the groundwork to co-ordinate and harmonize their respective regulatory regimes. The implementation of the Agreement has been very successful. This paper will address the content of the Agreement including the commitments, the deliverables and the expectations for a harmonized compliance program, harmonized reporting, and the review of harmonized assessment and licensing processes as well as possible referencing of Saskatchewan Environment and Saskatchewan Labour regulations in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The management and implementation process will also be discussed including the schedule, stakeholder communication, the results to date and the lessons learned. (author)

  19. Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the cleanup of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  20. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl production survey: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1997. The...

  1. The Intersection of Modernity, Globalization, Indigeneity, and Postcolonialism: Theorizing Contemporary Saskatchewan Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Michael; Preston, Jane P.; Pearce, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Viewing education as a contested site in the intersection of modernity, indigeneity, globalization, and postcolonialism, we explore relations between Aboriginal peoples and public schools in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Posing a profound challenge to provincial policy underpinned by global educational culture, indigeneity constitutes a…

  2. CANADA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hakan Mustafa

    . AAAA. Numéro du fournisseur. Protégé B*. (une fois rempli). RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX, FISCAUX ET BANCAIRES DU FOURNISSEUR – CANADA. Section 1 : RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX. Nom du particulier (nom, prénom) ou ...

  3. Socio-hydrology and the science-policy interface: a case study of the Saskatchewan River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gober, P.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-04-01

    While there is a popular perception that Canada is a water-rich country, the Saskatchewan River basin (SRB) in Western Canada exemplifies the multiple threats to water security seen worldwide. It is Canada's major food-producing region and home to globally significant natural resource development. The SRB faces current water challenges stemming from (1) a series of extreme events, including major flood and drought events since the turn of the 21st century, (2) full allocation of existing water resources in parts of the basin, (3) rapid population growth and economic development, (4) increasing pollution, and (5) fragmented and overlapping governance that includes the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, various Federal and First Nations responsibilities, and international boundaries. The interplay of these factors has increased competition for water across economic sectors and among provinces, between upstream and downstream users, between environmental flows and human needs, and among people who hold different values about the meaning, ownership, and use of water. These current challenges are set in a context of significant environmental and societal change, including widespread land modification, rapid urbanization, resource exploitation, climate warming, and deep uncertainties about future water supplies. We use Sivapalan et al.'s (2012) framework of socio-hydrology to argue that the SRB's water security challenges are symptoms of dynamic and complex water systems approaching critical thresholds and tipping points. To Sivapalan et al.'s (2012) emphasis on water cycle dynamics, we add the need for governance mechanisms to manage emergent systems and translational science to link science and policy to the socio-hydrology agenda.

  4. Access to Specialist Care in Rural Saskatchewan: The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandima P. Karunanayake

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of place has emerged as an important factor in determining people’s health experiences. Rural populations experience an excess in mortality and morbidity compared to those in urban settings. One of the factors thought to contribute to this rural-urban health disparity is access to healthcare. The objective of this analysis was to examine access to specialized medical care services and several possible determinants of access to services in a distinctly rural population in Canada. In winter 2010, we conducted a baseline mail survey of 11,982 households located in rural Saskatchewan, Canada. We obtained 4620 completed household surveys. A key informant for each household responded to questions about access to medical specialists and the exact distance traveled to these services. Correlates of interest included the location of the residence within the province and within each household, socioeconomic status, household smoking status, median age of household residents, number of non-respiratory chronic conditions and number of current respiratory conditions. Analyses were conducted using log binomial regression for the outcome of interest. The overall response rate was 52%. Of households who required a visit to a medical specialist in the past 12 months, 23% reported having difficulty accessing specialist care. The magnitude of risk for encountering difficulty accessing medical specialist care services increased with the greatest distance categories. Accessing specialist care professionals by rural residents was particularly difficult for persons with current respiratory conditions.

  5. W.B. Lewis Lecture: Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, L.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  6. Experimental late brood surveys: Southern Saskatchewan: 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the late brood surveys for southern Saskatchewan during 1991. Survey methods, weather and habitat conditions, production indices, and tables...

  7. Through the Looking Glass: A Comparative Analysis of the Career Patterns of Rural Female Administrators in Saskatchewan and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.

    2005-01-01

    This article stems from research that examined the effect of the rural context on the career patterns of female administrators in rural public school divisions in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, and in the state of Texas, United States. These two studies examined (a) the nature of rural communities and its relationship to women's career…

  8. Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation Rural Roads Partnership Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbrandt, R.; Warrener, S. [Saskatchewan Dept. of Highways and Transportation, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    While the province of Saskatchewan has the most public roads per capita in Canada, most (80 per cent) are low volume roads servicing the agricultural industry and rural municipalities. New agreements have been reached to maximize the level of service on several low volume, thin membrane surface highways and municipal grid roads. The objective is to optimize weight management and user safety while reducing general preservation and maintenance costs. Thin membrane surface highways consist of soft asphalt treated aggregates laid on top of an existing compacted below grade material. They are a cost-effective way to provide dust, mud and stone free roads to rural residents where truck traffic is very low. These roads were not designed for heavily loaded commercial trucks. However, with grain transportation rationalization, economic diversification and value-added initiatives in the province, there will be increased commercial truck traffic is causing accelerated damage to these road networks. Rural municipalities and Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation are looking to collaborate on the preservation of low volume thin membrane surface highways by applying weight restrictions on vulnerable roads and designating haul routes on municipal roads. Several examples were presented to demonstrate the partnership components of the management agreement. The advantages and disadvantages of implement these types of agreements were also described. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Cohort profile: the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study-adult component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Punam; Rana, Masud; Pickett, William; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Amin, Khalid; Rennie, Donna; Lawson, Josh; Kirychuk, Shelley; Janzen, Bonnie; Koehncke, Niels; Dosman, James

    2017-12-11

    Less is known about the respiratory health of general farming and non-framing populations. A longitudinal Saskatchewan Rural Health Study (SRHS) was conducted to explore the association between individual and contextual factors with respiratory health outcomes in these populations. Hence, the objectives are to: (i) describe the updated methodology of longitudinal SRHS-an extension of baseline survey methodology published earlier; (ii) compare baseline characteristics and the prevalences of respiratory health outcomes between drops-outs and completers; and (iii) summarize key findings based on baseline survey data. The SRHS was a prospective cohort study conducted in two phases: baseline survey in 2010 and a follow-up in 2014. Each survey consisted of two components, self-administered questionnaire and clinical assessments. At baseline, 8261 participants (≥ 18 years) (4624 households) and at follow-up, 4867 participants (2797 households) completed the questionnaires. Clinical assessments on lung functions and/or allergies were conducted among a sub-group of participants from both the surveys. To date, we published 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts and 40 abstracts in conference proceedings. Findings from the study will improve the knowledge of respiratory disease etiology and assist in the development and targeting of prevention programs for rural populations in Saskatchewan, Canada.

  10. Canada: expanding nuclear fuel exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paehlke, R.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium is soon to be a very big business in Canada and most of the expansion is bound for export markets. The expansions that are planned are both in uranium mining and in fuel processing. Almost all environmental problems associated with the nuclear fuel cycle thus far in Canada have been associated with these two phases of the cycle: mining and processing. The water in Elliot Lake has been found to have high concentrations of radium and the drinking water of Serpent River, Ontario--downwater from Elliot Lake--has been found to be contaminated by excess radioactivity. Buildings in both Port Hope, Ontario, and Uranium City, Saskatchewan (near Eldorado's Saskatchewan minesite), have excess radiation counts attributable to radon and radon daughter gases. Several aspects of the expansion are currently undergoing environmental impact assessment. Far and away the most careful and balanced inquiry is the Saskatchewan government-appointed inquiry under Mr. Justice E. D. Bayda of the Saskatchewan Appeals Court. This inquiry is, in the first instance, examining a proposal by Amok Ltee., a consortium of a French multinational and the French government, to develop a $135 million uranium mine and mill at Cluff Lake in the northern portion of Saskatchewan. But the inquiry is considering all aspects and implications of the full nuclear fuel cycle. The second stage of the uranium boom in Canada centers on processing. Here two major new plants are proposed by Eldorado Nuclear: one at Port Granby, Ontario; the second at Varman, Saskatchewan. Several massive nuclear power stations are planned east of Toronto, but nuclear opposition is growing in Canada. (MCW)

  11. BOREAS SERM Forest Cover Data of Saskatchewan in Vector Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A condensed forest cover type digital map of Saskatchewan and is a product of the Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management, Forestry Branch-Inventory Unit...

  12. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 9 - June 9, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  13. Saskatchewan Residents’ Use of The Cochrane Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Anne Forbes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cochrane Library is a source of reliable information on the effects of healthcare interventions for health care practitioners and consumers. In July 2004, Saskatchewan became the first province in Canada to provide all residents with access to The Cochrane Library. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of The Cochrane Library. Training sessions were offered to promote the use of The Cochrane Library. Attendees were informed of the evaluation study and invited to participate. Those who consented to participate were telephoned and audio-taped interviews were conducted at three (n=94, six (n=71, nine (n=79, and 12 months (n=72 following the sessions. Usage of The Cochrane Library was also tracked using data available from Wiley-Blackwell. Most participants were librarians (n=31.5%, between 40 to 65 years of age (71.6% and female (92.4%. Data from Wiley-Blackwell revealed that from October 2004 to September 2007, the component of The Cochrane Library most frequently accessed was The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (abstracts=26,016; full texts =15,934. Telephone interviews with participants revealed that the majority (65.2% used The Cochrane Library at the three month interview, however this proportion fell to 27.4% at the twelve month interview even though most (83.6%-88.2% reported that The Cochrane Library was somewhat to very helpful.Most respondents claimed to have learned something from The Cochrane Library; others reported that the knowledge gained helped in their decision-making or confirmed their beliefs. Respondents accessed The Cochrane Library in response to patron requests for information on a variety of health care topics. Information was used to support changes in health care practice and policy and for the preparation of educational papers and presentations. The reported reasons for not using The Cochrane Library were lack of time, limited access to an internet ready computer in the work setting, reliance on

  14. First description of a Lophelia pertusa reef complex in Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl-Mortensen, Pål; Gordon, Don C.; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Kulka, Dave W.

    2017-08-01

    For the first time, we describe a cold-water coral reef complex in Atlantic Canada, discovered at the shelf break, in the mouth of the Laurentian Channel. The study is based on underwater video and sidescan sonar. The reef complex covered an area of approximately 490×1300 m, at 280-400 m depth. It consisted of several small mounds (damage by bottom-fishing gear were observed: broken and tilted coral colonies, over-turned boulders and lost fishing gear. Fisheries observer data indicated that the reef complex was subjected to heavy otter trawling annually between 1980 and 2000. In June 2004, a 15 km2 conservation area excluding all bottom-fishing was established. Current bottom fisheries outside the closure include otter trawling for redfish and anchored longlines for halibut. Vessel monitoring system data indicate that the closure is generally respected by the fishing industry.

  15. Saskatchewan Residents’ Use of The Cochrane Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Anne Forbes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence of failure to translate research findings into the health care decision-making process of consumers, practitioners and policy makers (Grimshaw, 2007. Recognizing that The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews contained in The Cochrane Library (the Library are the “gold standard” of systematic reviews, Saskatchewan’s Health Quality Council provided funding for a provincial license and an evaluation study. In July 2004, Saskatchewan became the first province in Canada to provide all residents with access to the Library. The primary aim of the study was to enhance and evaluate the use of the Library over three years. Since September 2004, over 46 training sessions have been conducted on searching the Library online databases. Attendees at the workshops were informed of the evaluation study and invited to participate. Those who consented to participate were telephoned following the workshops and audio-taped interviews were conducted. Usage of the Library was also tracked using data available from Wiley InterScience. Three month (n=94, six month (n=71, nine month (n=79, and 12 month (n=72 telephone interviews were conducted. Most participants were librarians (n=31.5%, followed by nurses (16.3%, therapists (7.6%, library support staff (5.4%, pharmacists (4.3%, physicians (3.3%, and others (30.5. Most were between 40 to 65 years of age (71.6% and female (92.4%. Most respondents had accessed the Library at the three-month (65.2% and six-month (64.2% follow-up interviews. However, this percent fell to 45.2% at the nine-month and 27.4% at the twelve-month interview. MeSH searches were more frequent than standard keyword searches and HTML full text retrievals were more common than PDF versions. It is assumed that HTML versions were scanned for particular information whereas PDF versions were selected when the person wished to save and read the whole review. Librarians, practitioners and consumers are more likely to be

  16. Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Retail Chicken, Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, David; Avery, Brent P.; Parmley, E. Jane; Deckert, Anne; Carson, Carolee A.; Dutil, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    During 2005–2010, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance identified increased prevalence of ciprofloxacin (a fluororquinolone) resistance among Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken in British Columbia (4%–17%) and Saskatchewan (6%–11%), Canada. Fluoroquinolones are critically important to human medicine and are not labeled for use in poultry in Canada. PMID:23764141

  17. Culture and Community in Canada's Isolated Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John; Anderson, Kirk; Jamal, Samina

    This paper presents highlights from surveys of some of Canada's most isolated schools, located in northern Labrador, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, and northern and interior British Columbia. Most served Inuit or other First Nations communities. Although all schools had contact by phone and most had e-mail, few were accessible by road. Five Inuit…

  18. Latino Farmworkers in Saskatchewan: Language Barriers and Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros-Guzmán, Arcadio; Gertler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As part of a study focused on the experiences of Latino migrant farmworkers in Saskatchewan, Canada, we have attempted to understand how language barriers (LBs) broadly understood may affect farmworkers and their employers, workplace communications, and occupational health and safety (OHS). Drawing on critical ethnography and intercultural communication theory, qualitative interviews were conducted with 39 Latino migrant farmworkers, 11 farmer-employers, two OHS civil servants, and two former Canadian farmworkers. Our findings suggest that LBs interfere with the establishment of effective communications between Latino farmworkers, other farm enterprise personnel, civil servants, and health services providers. LBs impede establishment of the kinds of sustained two-way communications needed for maintaining safe and healthy working environments. All of the stakeholders involved were found to contribute in some manner to the propagation of LBs. The risks for the physical and psychological well-being of migrant farmworkers are substantial, but despite the fact that LBs are generally recognized as a challenge and as a source of risk, they are not widely seen as warranting any systematic response. It is critical that Latino migrant workers learn more English and that their Canadian employers and supervisors learn more Spanish. Beyond that, there is an urgent need for a multistakeholder coalition that moves to address LBs by training certified interpreters and liaison personnel who can facilitate better communications between migrant workers, their employers, and other stakeholders.

  19. Examining the Potential Role of a Supervised Injection Facility in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, to Avert HIV among People Who Inject Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Jozaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Research predicting the public health and fiscal impact of Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs, across different cities in Canada, has reported positive results on the reduction of HIV cases among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID. Most of the existing studies have focused on the outcomes of Insite, located in the Vancouver Downtown Eastside (DTES. Previous attention has not been afforded to other affected areas of Canada. The current study seeks to address this deficiency by assessing the cost-effectiveness of opening a SIF in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Methods We used two different mathematical models commonly used in the literature, including sensitivity analyses, to estimate the number of HIV infections averted due to the establishment of a SIF in the city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Results Based on cumulative cost-effectiveness results, SIF establishment is cost-effective. The benefit to cost ratio was conservatively estimated to be 1.35 for the first two potential facilities. The study relied on 34% and 14% needle sharing rates for sensitivity analyses. The result for both sensitivity analyses and the base line estimates indicated positive prospects for the establishment of a SIF in Saskatoon. Conclusion The opening of a SIF in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan is financially prudent in the reduction of tax payers’ expenses and averting HIV infection rates among PWID.

  20. Implementing Lean Health Reforms in Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Marchildon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Saskatchewan has gone further than any other Canadian province in implementing health system process improvements using Lean, a production line discipline that originated with the automobile industry. The goal of the Lean reform is to reduce waste and improve quality and overall health system performance by long-term changes in behaviour. Lean enjoys a privileged position on the provincial government’s agenda because of the policy’s championing by the Deputy Minister of Health and the policy’s fit with the government’s patient-centred care agenda. The implementation of reform depends on a major investment of time in the training and Lean-certification of key leaders and managers in the provincial health system. The Saskatchewan Union of Nurses, the union representing the single largest group of health workers in the province, has agreed to co-operate with the provincial government in implementing Lean-type reforms. Thus far, the government has had limited independent evaluation of Lean while internal evaluations claim some successes.

  1. Understanding the determinants of health: key decision makers in Saskatchewan Health districts and Saskatchewan Health, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, B R; Goodstadt, M S

    1999-01-01

    This research inquiry used qualitative and quantitative methods to examine how key decision makers from Saskatchewan health districts and Saskatchewan Health understand the determinants of health. The inquiry was based on the premise that key decision makers' understanding of the determinants of health, and the consensus regarding these understandings, hinder or facilitate dialogue, choice of effective strategies, and achievement of health promotion goals. Interviews indicated variation in perspective and emphasis regarding how key decision makers understand the determinants of health. A survey of key decision makers found: 1) inconsistencies in respondents' understanding of the determinants of health, particularly between stated beliefs and priorities for actions; and 2) that the degree of consensus among decision makers was higher for stated beliefs and lower for choices of action. Results indicate a need for clarification and consensus-building processes concerning the determinants of health, as well as for clear policies that foster consistency between beliefs and actions and minimize inappropriate or undesirable differences in interpretations.

  2. Impacts of climate and land use changes on regional nutrient export in the South Saskatchewan River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Marin, L. A.; Wheater, H. S.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Climate and land use changes modify the physical functioning of river catchments and, in particular, influence the transport of nutrients from land to water. In large-scale catchments, where a variety of climates, topographies, soil types and land uses co-exist to form a highly heterogeneous environment, a more complex nutrient dynamic is imposed by climate and land use changes. This is the case of the South Saskatchewan River (SSR) that, along with the North Saskatchewan River, forms the largest river system in western Canada. In the past years changes in the land use and new industrial developments in the SSR area have heightened serious concerns about the future of water quality in the catchment and downstream waters. Agricultural activities have increased the supply of manure and fertilizer for cropping. Oil and gas exploitation has also increased the risk of surface water and groundwater contamination. The rapid population growth not only leads to increments in water consumption and wastewater, but in the construction of roads, railways and the expansion of new urban developments that impose hydraulic controls on the catchment hydrology and therefore the sediment and nutrient transport. Consequences of the actual anthropogenic changes have been notorious in reservoirs where algal blooms and signs of eutrophication have become common during certain times of the year. Although environmental agencies are constantly improving the mechanisms to reduce nutrient export into the river and ensure safe water quality standards, further research is needed in order to identify major nutrient sources and quantify nutrient export and also, to assess how nutrients are going to vary as a result of future climate and land use change scenarios. The SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed (SPARROW) model is therefore implemented to assess water quality regionally, in order to describe spatial and temporal patterns to identify those factors and processes that affect water

  3. Longitudinal Decline in Lung Function Measurements among Saskatchewan Grain Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punam Pahwa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the long term effects of grain dust and decline in lung function among grain elevator workers in Saskatchewan, studied over a 15-year period.

  4. Structural architecture and glacitectonic evolution of the Mud Buttes cupola hill complex, southern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Emrys; Evans, David J. A.; Atkinson, Nigel; Kendall, Allison

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed multidisciplinary study of the deformed bedrock and overlying Quaternary sediments exposed at the Mud Buttes in southern Alberta, Canada. This large, arcuate cupola hill is composed of intensely folded and thrust sandstones, siltstones and mudstones of the Cretaceous Belly River Group. Glacitectonism responsible for the development of this internally complex landform occurred at the margin of the newly defined Prospect Valley lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Analysis of the deformation structures reveals that construction of this landform occurred in response to at least two phases of south-directed ice sheet advance separated by a period of retreat. The first phase led to the formation of a forward propagating imbricate thrust stack leading to polyphase deformation of the Belly River Group. D1 thrusting led to the detachment of thrust-bound slices of bedrock which were accreted to the base of the developing imbricate stack. This process resulted in the structurally higher and older thrust-slices being progressively ;back-rotated; (tilted), accompanied by D2 thrusting and folding. Further thrusting during D3 was restricted to the core of the Mud Buttes as the deforming sequence accommodated further compression imposed by the advancing ice. Minor oscillations of the ice margin led to localised brittle-ductile shearing (D4) of the bedrock immediately adjacent to the ice contact part of the thrust stack. The second phase of ice advance led to the accretion of a relatively simple thrust and folded sequence seen the northern side of Mud Buttes. The resulting composite thrust moraine was subsequently overridden by ice advancing from the NNW to form a dome-like cupola-hill. This readvance of the Prospect Valley lobe led to the formation of a thin carapace of Quaternary sediments mantling the Mud Buttes which include glacitectonite, till and an organic-rich clay-silt (?palaeosol).

  5. Food deserts in Winnipeg, Canada: a novel method for measuring a complex and contested construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Slater

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: "Food deserts" have emerged over the past 20 years as spaces of concern for communities, public health authorities and researchers because of their potential negative impact on dietary quality and subsequent health outcomes. Food deserts are residential geographic spaces, typically in urban settings, where low-income residents have limited or no access to retail food establishments with sufficient variety at affordable cost. Research on food deserts presents methodological challenges including retail food store identification and classification, identification of low-income populations, and transportation and proximity metrics. Furthermore, the complex methods often used in food desert research can be difficult to reproduce and communicate to key stakeholders. To address these challenges, this study sought to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a simple and reproducible method of identifying food deserts using data easily available in the Canadian context. Methods: This study was conducted in Winnipeg, Canada in 2014. Food retail establishments were identified from Yellow Pages and verified by public health dietitians. We calculated two scenarios of food deserts based on location of the lowest-income quintile population: (a living ≥ 500 m from a national chain grocery store, or (b living ≥ 500 m from a national chain grocery store or a full-service grocery store. Results: The number of low-income residents living in a food desert ranged from 64 574 to 104 335, depending on the scenario used. Conclusion: This study shows that food deserts affect a significant proportion of the Winnipeg population, and while concentrated in the urban core, exist in suburban neighbourhoods also. The methods utilized represent an accessible and transparent, reproducible process for identifying food deserts. These methods can be used for costeffective, periodic surveillance and meaningful engagement with communities, retailers and policy

  6. Food deserts in Winnipeg, Canada: a novel method for measuring a complex and contested construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce; Epp-Koop, Stefan; Jakilazek, Megan; Green, Chris

    2017-10-01

    "Food deserts" have emerged over the past 20 years as spaces of concern for communities, public health authorities and researchers because of their potential negative impact on dietary quality and subsequent health outcomes. Food deserts are residential geographic spaces, typically in urban settings, where low-income residents have limited or no access to retail food establishments with sufficient variety at affordable cost. Research on food deserts presents methodological challenges including retail food store identification and classification, identification of low-income populations, and transportation and proximity metrics. Furthermore, the complex methods often used in food desert research can be difficult to reproduce and communicate to key stakeholders. To address these challenges, this study sought to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a simple and reproducible method of identifying food deserts using data easily available in the Canadian context. This study was conducted in Winnipeg, Canada in 2014. Food retail establishments were identified from Yellow Pages and verified by public health dietitians. We calculated two scenarios of food deserts based on location of the lowest-income quintile population: (a) living ≥ 500 m from a national chain grocery store, or (b) living ≥ 500 m from a national chain grocery store or a full-service grocery store. The number of low-income residents living in a food desert ranged from 64 574 to 104 335, depending on the scenario used. This study shows that food deserts affect a significant proportion of the Winnipeg population, and while concentrated in the urban core, exist in suburban neighbourhoods also. The methods utilized represent an accessible and transparent, reproducible process for identifying food deserts. These methods can be used for costeffective, periodic surveillance and meaningful engagement with communities, retailers and policy makers.

  7. Status of woodland caribou in Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Rettie

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that woodland caribou in Saskatchewan exist as relatively separate populations within a metapopulation. Preliminary analyses show that individuals within all populations are selecting peatland habitat types (i.e., fens and bogs throughout the year. Despite an absence of hunting, populations south of the Precambrian shield appear to be declining slowly, while those on the southern margin of the shield may be declining more rapidly. The apparent population decline is likely due to high rates of predation, especially on neonates. To maintain viable caribou populations in the region, forestry operations must be managed to maintain adequate amounts of preferred habitat types and connections among populations. At a coarse scale, preferred habitat is that which acts as a refuge from predators. Additional information is required to categorize specific peatland types, as data in the existing provincial forest inventory are inadequate for both selection analysis and management purposes. Ongoing research into revisions to the forest inventory and analyses of bog and fen types selected by caribou are needed to focus future management strategies.

  8. Chemical form of selenium in naturally selenium-rich lentils (Lens culinaris L.) from Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Dil; Vandenberg, Albert; George, Graham N; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2007-09-05

    Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) are a source of many essential dietary components and trace elements for human health. In this study we show that lentils grown in the Canadian prairies are additionally enriched in selenium, an essential micronutrient needed for general well-being, including a healthy immune system and protection against cancer. Selenium K near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the selenium biochemistry of two lentil cultivars grown in various locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. We observe significant variations in total selenium concentration with geographic location and cultivar; however, almost all the selenium (86-95%) in these field-grown lentils is present as organic selenium modeled as selenomethionine with a small component (5-14%) as selenate. As the toxicities of certain forms of arsenic and selenium are antagonistic, selenium-rich lentils may have a pivotal role to play in alleviating the chronic arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

  9. Chemical Form of Selenium in Naturally Selenium-Rich Lentils (Lens Culinaris L.) From Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thavarajah, D.; Vandenberg, A.; George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-06-04

    Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) are a source of many essential dietary components and trace elements for human health. In this study we show that lentils grown in the Canadian prairies are additionally enriched in selenium, an essential micronutrient needed for general well-being, including a healthy immune system and protection against cancer. Selenium K near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the selenium biochemistry of two lentil cultivars grown in various locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. We observe significant variations in total selenium concentration with geographic location and cultivar; however, almost all the selenium (86--95%) in these field-grown lentils is present as organic selenium modeled as selenomethionine with a small component (5--14%) as selenate. As the toxicities of certain forms of arsenic and selenium are antagonistic, selenium-rich lentils may have a pivotal role to play in alleviating the chronic arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

  10. A melt inclusion study of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (Ontario, Canada): preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathleen; Hanley, Jacob; Kontak, Daniel; Ames, Doreen

    2013-04-01

    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC), Ontario, Canada, is an intrusive complex representing the crystallized melt sheet that formed within a large impact crater. The SIC has been extensively studied due to its rich endowment in magmatic sulfide ores (Ni-Cu-PGEs). The nature and origin of the SIC melt sheet and its subsequent evolution still remain controversial. In this study, analyses of primary melt inclusions hosted in cumulus apatite within three mafic units of the SIC (gabbro, norite and sublayer quartz diorite) are used to decipher the thermometric and chemical characteristics of the evolving melt sheet as it crystallized. Apatite-hosted melt inclusions commonly display a negative crystal shape, occur parallel to the c-axis, and often occur within a central growth zone, which suggest a primary origin. The compositions of coeval (co-entrapped) melt inclusions are distinct and may represent either the products of immiscibility (low or high temperature field; c.f. the Skaergaard Intrusion: Jakobsen et al., Geology, 2005), or a product of early, high-temperature, impact-generated emulsification (prior to and independent of crystallization of the melt sheet). The compositions of homogenized (1100-1200oC for 3 hrs) melt inclusions, determined by SEM-EDS and EMP analyses of opened, homogenized melt inclusions, equate to two distinct compositions: (1) Type-I are SiO2-rich, ranging from tonalitic to granodioritic in composition (60-70 wt% SiO2, up to 11 wt% FeO); and (2) Type-II are Fe-rich with syenogabbroic to essexitic to alkali gabbroic compositions (27-49 wt% SiO2, 16-44 wt% FeO). Trace element data, obtained by LA-ICPMS analyses of single inclusions and surrounding host apatite, are used to infer D values between apatite and the two melt types, and between the coexisting melt types. Apparent Dap-melt values for both Type-I and Type-II inclusions show that the REE, Sr, and Y are compatible in apatite, and As is weakly compatible or incompatible in apatite

  11. Pellet production from sawmill residue : a Saskatchewan perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwandy, J. [Forintek Canada Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-03-31

    This paper reported on the results of a project that evaluated the viability of producing pellets in Saskatchewan in order to capture some of this rapid market growth. The objective was to define the supply potential for wood pellets. The production process was described along with technical barriers to producing wood pellets in Saskatchewan. It was shown that Saskatchewan's forest sector generates about 1,188,050 oven dried tonnes of residual material annually. However, not all the residuals are preferred by pellet manufacturers. It is unlikely that the entire amount of raw material would be used at one facility since the cost of transporting the raw materials is very prohibitive. It was concluded that the limits on the type and volume of raw material available in Saskatchewan are significant barriers to the commercial scale production of wood pellets. There is not enough sawdust and shavings to support a world class pelleting facility in the province. It was cautioned that although it is feasible to produce pellets in Saskatchewan, the scale of production would be significantly limited by feedstock availability. 24 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs., 2 appendices.

  12. Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre Surface Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Funk, Barry; Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre (SFFCC) provided surface meteorological data to BOREAS from its archive. This data set contains hourly surface meteorological data from 18 of the Meteorological stations located across Saskatchewan. Included in these data are parameters of date, time, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation. Temporally, the data cover the period of May through September of 1994 and 1995. The data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  13. Mapping Fugitive Gas Emission Sources and Severity Across Southeastern Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, J.; Risk, D. A.; Lavoie, M.; Williams, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada contains a 10,000 km2 region heavily developed by oil and gas activity that has been struggling with air quality issues, arising from hundreds or thousands of oil and gas leak points. The region is also very diverse in terms of oilfield operators, who use extraction techniques including conventional, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and fracking. As regulators and operators need more knowledge about emission patterns locally, we undertook comprehensive mapping and characterization of leak sources at the regional scale using vehicle-based data collection, together with computational techniques. We measured the presence and source of fugitive emissions from infrastructure and oilfield activities in eight 100 km2 survey domains. These included two controls with no oil and gas activity, and otherwise the domains were selected to capture the diversity of development; targeting primarily conventional and EOR activities in the Weyburn-Midale beds, and unconventional activities in the Bakken play. A total of 25 unique operators fell within the survey domains. Each domain was surveyed multiple times for CO2, CH4, and H2S, allowing us to identify persistent leaks and to screen out one-time events. The multiple gas targets also provided opportunities for discriminating one type of fugitive emission from another (i.e. flares from storage tanks) using ratios of excess (above ambient) concentrations, after correcting for natural background variability with a signal-processing routine. Fugitive emissions were commonly observed in all study domains. Most emissions were associated with oil and gas infrastructure, as opposed to drilling and other short-term activities. There were obvious emissions at many well pads, storage tanks, and flares. We also observed high geochemical variability around flares, with some being very effective in combusting toxic gases, and others less so. Almost all observed concentrations fell below regulatory limits, but have a

  14. Saskatchewan Court of Appeal: marriage commissioners cannot discriminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Cynthia; Davies, Christine

    2011-04-01

    The Saskatchewan Court of Appeal has ruled that proposed legislation allowing marriage commissioners to refuse to solemnize same-sex marriages based on religious objections would violate the equality rights of gays and lesbians under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Charter). The Court expressed its opinion in a Reference involving proposed amendments to the Marriage Act.

  15. Saskatchewan's Trek School and the Greenall Outdoor School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenboom, Rob; Moore, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Trek School is an outdoor school program for any Grade 11 students in Regina, Saskatchewan. During the program, students engage in a series of classroom, outdoor, and experiential activities. The various courses are taught through these experiences. The program is designed to help students develop in the areas of independent learning, critical and…

  16. Passive surveillance for ticks on horses in Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Armstrong, James S.; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species. PMID:25969582

  17. Global Partners : University of Saskatchewan Small Grant Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global Partners is a University of Saskatchewan program that supports the development of mutually beneficial relationships between the University and institutions of higher education in developing countries. Initial support for ... AUCC-IDRC Partnership Grant 2011-2013: New Models of Partnership for Internationalization.

  18. Habitat fragmentation and the Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia) in Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Warnock; Paul C. James

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between landscape (125,664 ha circular plots) fragmentation patterns and the spatial distribution of Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia) was investigated in the heavily fragmented grasslands of Saskatchewan. Data were collected from 152 Burrowing Owl sites and 250 random sites located on 1990 LANDSAT-TM satellite images and 1:250,...

  19. Addressing complexity and uncertainty: conceptual models and expert judgments applied to migratory birds in the oil sands of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Nelitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Complexity and uncertainty are inherent in social-ecological systems. Although they can create challenges for scientists and decision makers, they cannot be a reason for delaying decision making. Two strategies have matured in recent decades to address these challenges. Systems thinking, as embodied by conceptual modeling, is a holistic approach in which a system can be better understood by examining it as a whole. Expert elicitation represents a second strategy that enables a greater diversity of inputs to understand complex systems. We explored the use of conceptual models and expert judgments to inform expansion of monitoring around oil sands development in northern Alberta, Canada, particularly related to migratory forest birds. This study area is a complex social-ecological system for which there is an abundance of specific information, but a relatively weak understanding about system behavior. Multiple conceptual models were developed to represent complexity and provide a more fulsome view of influences across the landscape. A hierarchical approach proved useful, and a mechanistic structure of the models clarified the cumulative and interactive nature of factors within and outside the study area. To address gaps in understanding, expert judgments were integrated using a series of structured exercises to derive "weightings" of importance of different components in the conceptual models, specifically pairwise comparisons, Likert scaling, and a maximum difference conjoint approach. These exercises were helpful for discriminating the importance of different influences and illuminating the competing beliefs of experts. Various supporting tools helped us engage a group of experts from across North America, which included a virtual meeting, online polling, desktop sharing, web survey, and financial incentive. This combination of techniques was innovative and proved useful for addressing complexity and uncertainty in a specific natural resource

  20. Recrystallized Impact Glasses of the Onaping Formation and the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Sudbury Structure, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, B. O.; Weiser, T.; Brockmeyer, P.

    1996-01-01

    The origin of the Sudbury Structure and of the associated heterolithic breccias of the Onaping Formation and the Sudbury Igneous Complex have been controversial. While an impact origin of the structure has gained wide acceptance over the last 15 years, the origin of the recrystallized Onaping Formation glasses and of the igneous complex is still being debated. Recently the interpretation of the breccias of the Onaping Formation as suevitic fall-back impact breccias has been challenged. The igneous complex is interpreted either as a differentiated impact melt sheet or as a combination of an upper impact melt represented by the granophyre, and a lower, impact-triggered magmatic body consisting of the norite-sublayer formations. The Onaping Formation contains glasses as fluidal and nonfluidal fragments of various shapes and sizes. They are recrystallized, and our research indicates that they are petrographically heterogeneous and span a wide range of chemical compositions. These characteristics are not known from glasses of volcanic deposits. This suggests an origin by shock vitrification, an interpretation consistent with their association with numerous and varied country rock clasts that exhibit microscopic shock metamorphic features. The recrystallized glass fragments represent individual solid-state and liquid-state vitrified rocks or relatively small melt pods. The basal member lies beneath the Gray and Black members of the Onaping Formation and, where not metamorphic, has an igneous matrix. Igneous-textured melt bodies occur in the upper two members and above the Basal Member. A comparison of the chemical compositions of recrystallized glasses and of the matrices of the Basal Member and the melt bodies with the components and the bulk composition of the igneous complex is inconclusive as to the origin of the igneous complex. Basal Member matrix and Melt Bodies, on average, are chemically similar to the granophyre of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, suggesting that

  1. Dietetic Scope of Practice in Saskatchewan: Dietitian Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Martina; Berenbaum, Shawna

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the concept of scope of practice for dietetics in Saskatchewan. Using interpretative description methodology, data were collected through 4 phases. This article reports on phases II and III. In phase II, 92 Saskatchewan Registered Dietitians (RDs) participated in an online survey on scope of practice. In phase III, 8 Saskatchewan RDs participated in a 3-week online focus group. Results from phases II and III indicate that participants saw numerous opportunities in defining, understanding, and working with a scope of practice. Without a scope of practice, participants were interpreting their role from a combination of documents (e.g., ethics, research) and stakeholders (e.g., employers and colleagues). Current confusion amongst employers, other health professions, and RDs themselves regarding the role of dietitians was identified. Most participants believed a scope of practice would provide guidance to employers, other health professions, the public, regulatory bodies, and RDs themselves about the role of a dietitian. Dietetic regulators should continue to provide clear guidelines to their members and employers on safe dietetic practice. Dietitians need to be certain they are safely practicing within provincial policies and their own professional knowledge and skill at all times.

  2. Unravelling the complexities of a high-grade Paleoarchean terrane: Saglek Block, Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salacinska, Anna; Kusiak, Monika; Dunkley, Daniel; Whitehouse, Martin; Wilde, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Nain Province of Labrador is on the western edge of the Archean North Atlantic Craton, and includes the Saglek Block, where >3.6 Ga Uivak orthogneisses were intercalated with a variety of supracrustals during Neoarchean granulite-grade metamorphism. In order to unravel the complex magmatic and metamorphic history of this terrane, samples of grey orthogneiss mapped as Uivak Gneiss were taken from Tigigakyuk Inlet, where previous studies have suggested the preservation of >3.9 Ga zircons [1]. Samples vary from fine, equigranular felsic-intermediate gneiss, through slightly porphyroblastic metagranitoids to metagabbros. Felsic orthogneises are mostly composed of oligoclase, quartz, biotite and K-feldspar, whereas more mafic samples contain hornblende and augite, with the latter being largely altered to pargasite during post-granulite hydration and lower-grade metamorphism. Geochemically, all samples follow a calc-alkaline differentiation trend, and are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Based on the normative albite-anorthite-orthoclase diagram, samples plot within the tonalite and trondhjemite fields; however, according to the normative QAPF classification, they are granodioritic to quartz-monzodioritic. Following the criteria of Moyen and Martin (2012), only one granodioritic sample represents typical Archean TTG gneiss, while the other samples are slightly more K-rich. Although bulk compositions may have been affected by K-enrichment during granulite-facies metamorphism, these samples mostly belong to the "TTG-like" suite. Concordant SIMS U-Pb age data obtained from the zircon cores with characteristic igneous growth textures from TTG-like and quartz monzodioritic gneiss fall within the interval 3.70-3.75 Ga, consistent with previous age estimates for the protoliths of Uivak I gneisses [3,4]. Some quartz monzodioritic gneisses are significantly younger (3.55 Ga), showing that the gneisses at Tigigakyuk Inlet are not of a simple magmatic suite, but are

  3. Access to Specialist Care in Rural Saskatchewan: The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Karunanayake, Chandima; Rennie, Donna; Hagel, Louise; Lawson, Joshua; Janzen, Bonnie; Pickett, William; Dosman, James; Pahwa, Punam; Group, The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study

    2015-01-01

    The role of place has emerged as an important factor in determining people’s health experiences. Rural populations experience an excess in mortality and morbidity compared to those in urban settings. One of the factors thought to contribute to this rural-urban health disparity is access to healthcare. The objective of this analysis was to examine access to specialized medical care services and several possible determinants of access to services in a distinctly rural population in Canada. In w...

  4. Shallow sub-surface structure of the central volcanic complex of Tenerife, Canary Islands: implications for the evolution and the recent reactivation of the Las Canadas caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottsmann, J [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Camacho, A G; Fernandez, J [Instituto de Astronomia y Geodesia (CSIC-UCM), Ciudad Universitaria, Pza. de Ciencias, 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); MartI, J [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, Lluis Sole SabarIs s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Wooller, L; Rymer, H [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); GarcIa, A [Department of Volcanology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: j.gottsmann@bristol.ac.uk

    2008-10-01

    We present a new local Bouguer anomaly map of the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Spain. The high-density core of the CVC and the pronounced gravity low centred in the Las Canadas caldera (LCC) in greater detail than previously available. Mathematical construction of a subsurface model from the local anomaly data, employing a 3-D inversion enables mapping of the shallow structure beneath the complex, giving unprecedented insights into the sub-surface architecture of the complex, and shedding light on its evolution.

  5. Development and implementation of the Saskatchewan Leadership Program: Leading for healthcare transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutwiri, Betty; Witt, Christine; Denysek, Christina; Halferdahl, Susan; McLeod, Katherine M

    2016-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Leadership Program (SLP) was developed based on the LEADS framework and aligned with Lean management to build leadership renewal and sustainability conducive to transformational change in the Saskatchewan health system. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of the SLP, including experiences and lessons learned. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  6. Farm Exposure and Atopy in Men and Women: The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Donna C; Lawson, Joshua A; Karunanayake, Chandima P; Pahwa, Punam; Chen, Yue; Chu, Luan; Dosman, James A

    2015-01-01

    Associations between farming exposures and atopy can vary by timing of exposure and sex. We examined associations between adult atopy, sex, and farm living in a rural Canadian population. In 2010, we conducted a baseline survey of 11,982 households located in four agricultural regions of Saskatchewan, Canada. Of the 7225 adults aged 18-75, 1658 underwent clinical assessments including skin testing. Of these, 1599 participants underwent skin prick testing to four common allergens. We defined atopy as >3 mm reaction to any of four allergens compared with saline control. Farming exposures were farm living in the first year of life and current farm living. All analyses were stratified by sex. The prevalence of atopy was 17.8% and was higher in men than women (P farm exposure (P = .08) and who were female (P = .03). After adjusting for education, age, and smoking status, both current and early farm exposures were associated with decreased sensitization to cat atopy in women that was stronger with current exposure (P farm exposure and increased atopic sensitization to HDM with a current farm exposure. In this rural population, the protective effect of an early farm exposure for any atopy was weak overall. The impact of farming exposures on atopy was allergen dependent and varied by sex.

  7. Track etch orientation survey in the Cluff Lake area, northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L.S. (Saskatchewan Geological Survey, Regina); Gingrich, J.E.

    1976-05-01

    Track Etch is a recently designed method of uranium exploration that uses small pieces of special plastic film to detect the presence of radon gas emitted by buried uranium deposits. By using a sampling time of at least 25 days, the track etch technique eliminates the problems of sensitivity and fluctuations in background values normally present with other radon detection methods. During the summer of 1974, an orientation survey was carried out over the 'N' zone of Amok (Canada) Limited in the Cluff Lake area of northwestern Saskatchewan. This was the first test of the method in an area of glacial overburden and the results have been encouraging. The 'N' zone consists of several pitchblende-bearing lenses associated with gently dipping fracture zones in paragneisses and granites of Archean or Aphebian age. The mineralized zones have been outlined by drilling and occur at depths ranging from 10 to 100 meters. The mineralized area is covered by sandy till and outwash ranging from a few meters to 20 meters in thickness. Approximately 160 track etch sample cups were placed in shallow holes at the surface at roughly 70-meter centers. Sampling extended well beyond the boundaries of the known ore zone. High track etch values were obtained over the deposit, with a peak anomaly of more than 50 times the background value measured for the surrounding area. (auth)

  8. Closing rural hospitals in Saskatchewan: on the road to wellness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A M

    1999-10-01

    Rising health care costs at a time of economic stagnation, federal cutbacks to Medicare, and an obsession with budget deficits at all levels of government have contributed to a sense of urgency to reform the Canadian health care system. Accompanying these economic and political motivations for reform, has been a shift in our understanding of health and well-being that lays less emphasis on the institutionalization and medicalization of health care. As part of its wellness approach to health, the Saskatchewan government in 1992 announced the closure and conversion of 52 small rural hospitals to wellness centres as part of a shift from institutional care to community based care. While the health costs and benefits of this shift are contested, the paradox is that closing rural hospitals may have unrealized health and social costs because of the psychological and community importance of hospitals to the meaning of place. This paper begins with a review of the meaning and importance of local institutions for communities. It is clear from this starting point that the debate about the economic and health benefits and costs of rural hospital closures is a limited basis for understanding hospital closures. Finally, the history of Saskatchewan hospitals and a narrative of the recent closures of rural hospitals drawn from a sampling of provincial newspapers and oral discussions highlights the need to understand the hospital closure in terms of its impact on health irrespective of the medical impacts.

  9. Extending Mental Health Diagnostic Privileges to Social Workers in Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Austin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bill 78, An Act to amend The Social Workers Act, was passed in 2013 in Saskatchewan, allowing social workers to diagnose mental health disorders. Social workers previously had diagnostic privileges until the Psychologists Act was passed in 2002. The goal of the reform is to reduce wait times to access mental health services and diagnoses. The reform was introduced following extensive lobbying by the Saskatchewan Association of Social Workers (SASW and during a time of increased recognition of mental health issues both provincially and nationally. The reform will be implemented using regulatory instruments through the SASW and its by-laws, however the by-laws – updated to include provisions for Authorized Practice Endorsement, or in other words diagnosis of mental health disorders – have not, to date, been implemented. Accordingly, an evaluation of the reform has also not yet been conducted. Overall this reform is expected to improve access to mental health services, however concerns remain about availability of government funding and programs for treatment and services following diagnosis.

  10. Impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of transportation sectors (road vehicles and marine vessels, industry (e.g., oil and gas and urban centres in western Canada has triggered a growth in research, monitoring and modelling activities investigating the impacts of sulphur and nitrogen deposition on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This special issue presents an overview of related research in British Columbia (Georgia Basin, Alberta (Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The research provides a valuable benchmark for future studies across the region and points the way forward for 'acid rain' policies in western Canada.

  11. BOREAS Follow-On DSP-09 Saskatchewan Raster Forest Fire Chronology, 1945-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a pair of raster images and a spreadsheet chronicling the most recent fire history of Saskatchewan from 1945 to 1996. This data set was...

  12. Relationships between Duck and Grassland Bird Relative Abundance and Species Richness in Southern Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P. Skinner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital map products that integrate long-term duck population and land-use data are currently being used to guide conservation program delivery on the Canadian Prairies. However, understanding the inter-relationships between ducks and other grassland bird species would greatly enhance program planning and delivery. We hypothesized that ducks, and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta in particular, may function as an umbrella guild for the overall breeding habitat quality for other grassland bird species. We compared grassland bird species richness and relative abundance among areas of low, moderate, and high predicted waterfowl breeding densities (i.e., duck density strata in the southern Missouri Coteau, Saskatchewan. We conducted roadside point counts and delineated habitats within a 400 m radius of each point. The duck high-density stratum supported greater avian species richness and abundance than did the duck low-density stratum. Overall, duck and other grassland bird species richness and abundance were moderately correlated, with all r between 0.37 and 0.69 (all P < 0.05. Although the habitat requirements of Northern Pintail may overlap with those of other grassland endemics, priority grassland bird species richness was only moderately correlated with total pintail abundance in both years, and the abundances of pintail and grassland songbirds listed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada were not correlated. No differences in the mean number of priority grassland species were detected among the strata. Adequate critical habitat for several priority species may not be protected if conservation is focused only in areas of moderate to high wetland density because large tracts of contiguous, dry grassland habitat (e.g., pasture occur infrequently in high-quality duck habitat.

  13. Indoor mold levels and current asthma among school-aged children in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, O; Kirychuk, S P; Lawson, J A; Karunanayake, C; Cockcroft, D W; Willson, P J; Senthilselvan, A; Rennie, D C

    2017-03-01

    Current knowledge regarding the association between indoor mold exposures and asthma is still limited. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured indoor mold levels and current asthma among school-aged children. Parents completed a questionnaire survey of health history and home environmental conditions. Asthma cases had a history of doctor-diagnosed asthma or current wheeze without a cold in the past 12 months. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Vacuumed dust samples were collected from the child's indoor play area and mattress. Samples were assessed for mold levels and quantified in colony-forming units (CFU). Sensitization to mold allergens was also determined by skin testing. Being a case was associated with family history of asthma, pet ownership, and mold allergy. Mold levels (CFU/m2 ) in the dust samples of children's mattress and play area floors were moderately correlated (r = 0.56; P mold levels (≥30 000 CFU/m2 ) in dust samples from play [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.03-6.43] and mattress (aOR) = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.11-8.00) areas were significantly associated with current asthma. In this study high levels of mold are a risk factor for asthma in children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. First Report of Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum (Echinostomatidae) in a Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) from Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a new host record for Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum. These small trematode parasites were found in a debilitated, immature, male sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) during Autumn migration from the Canadian prairies. Necropsy examination identified fibrinonecrotizing and ulcerative jejuni...

  15. Decreasing Rates of Neomycin Sensitization in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John F; Abbas, Mariam; Hull, Peter; de Gannes, Gillian; Toussi, Reza; Milani, Azita

    2016-09-01

    Neomycin contact sensitization rates in North America range from 7% to 13%, whereas in Europe they average approximately 1.9%. Given that topical neomycin products are no longer readily available in Canada, the aim of this study was to examine what influence this may have had on neomycin sensitization rates in the 3 western provinces. On the basis of an observation originally communicated by L. M. Parsons and C. Zhang of the University of Calgary, which suggested significantly reduced rates of neomycin sensitization in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, a multicenter study of patch test results from 5690 patient charts was undertaken. Data from 3 other western Canadian Universities (the University of Saskatchewan, the University of Alberta, and the University of British Colombia) were analyzed. Data were available from 2001 to 2013 for the University of Saskatchewan (except 2006), whereas the University of Alberta and the University of British Columbia had data from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive statistics, trend analysis, and risk estimates were determined using SPSS version 20. Sensitization rates for neomycin have decreased in western Canada and are now similar to those of Europe. This trend is likely influenced by the reduced availability of over-the-counter and prescription neomycin products in Canada. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Ground-Penetrating Radar Evaluation of Moisture and Frost across Typical Saskatchewan Road Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Berthelot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of soil type, moisture content, and the presence of frost on road substructure permittivity. Permittivity sensitivity of typical road soils was characterized in the laboratory to provide baseline dielectric constant values which were compared to field ground penetrating radar (GPR survey results. Both laboratory devices, the complex dielectric network analyzer and the Adek Percometer, as well as the field GPR system were used in this study to measure the dielectric constant of soils. All three systems differentiated between coarse-grained and fine grained soils. In addition, at temperatures below freezing, all three systems identified an increase in water content in soils; however, when frozen, the sensitivity of dielectric constant across soil type and moisture content was significantly reduced. Based on the findings of this study, GPR technology has the ability to characterize in situ substructure soil type and moisture content of typical Saskatchewan road substructure soils. Given the influence of road soil type and moisture content on in-service road performance, this ability could provide road engineers with accurate estimates of in situ structural condition of road structures for preservation and rehabilitation planning and optimization purposes.

  17. Towards a new paradigm of Socio-Hydrology; insights from the Saskatchewan River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.; Gober, P.

    2011-12-01

    , such as when governance systems are incapable of dealing with climate-induced changes in water supply. Socio-hydrology also incorporates research into the processes by translating traditional scientific information into tools for water decision making. These processes are inherently social and value-based. They depend upon the way various water stakeholders (e.g. municipalities, farmers, mining companies, environmental groups, Aboriginal Peoples) define the problem of water security and the values they place on different aspects of it. Socio-hydrology is at the forefront of efforts to establish and study participatory processes for decision making in the water sector. We illustrate these issues by reference to the inter-provincial Saskatchewan River Basin in western Canada. The University of Saskatchewan has established socio-hydrology as a priority research area. Our goal is to integrate hydro-ecological research with social science to study societal responses to water stresses like flooding, drought and nutrient pollution and investigate the potential of existing and new economic and other policy instruments to help communities make sound decisions under uncertainty.

  18. Partitioning of mercury in the north Saskatchewan River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Mercury levels in fish, water and sediments were determined during 1982 along a 600 km stretch of the North Saskatchewan River (NSR) in the province of Alberta. Migratory fish species such as goldeye, walleye, and sauger in the NSR were found to contain total mercury levels ranging from 0.104 to 1.553 mg/kg (mean greater than or equal to 0 5 mg/kg). Northern pike, white sucker, longnose sucker and northern redhorse sucker had total mercury levels ranging from 0.003 to 1.003 mg/kg. Regression analysis of the data revealed that neither the sex of the fish nor the location of the sampling site contributed significantly to the mercury burden in fish in the entire study section of the river. Sediment analysis showed a low and more or less uniform concentration of mercury in Alberta. The total mercury in NSR water averaged 0.09 ..mu..g/L in upstream Edmonton and was found to elevate in downstream NSR (0.22 ..mu..g/L) near industrial discharge sites and agriculture runoff areas. Calculated partition coefficients seem to group the fish into two categories, (i) goldeye, walleye, and sauger (bioconcentration factor (BCF) = 3-3.7x10/sup 3/) and (ii) northern pike, longnose sucker, white sucker and northern redhorse sucker (BCF=1.2-1.8x10/sup 3/).

  19. Parasitic zoonoses: one health surveillance in northern Saskatchewan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna M Schurer

    Full Text Available We report the results of a joint human-animal health investigation in a Dene community in northern Saskatchewan, where residents harvest wildlife (including moose, bear, elk, and fish, live in close contact with free roaming dogs, and lack access to permanent veterinary services. Fecal analysis of owned and free-roaming dogs over two consecutive years (N = 92, 103 identified several parasites of public health concern, including Toxocara canis, Diphyllobothrium spp., Echinococcus/Taenia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. Administration of pyrantel pamoate to a subset of dogs (N = 122 in the community in the first year was followed by reduced shedding of T. canis and other roundworms in the second year, demonstrating the potential utility of canine de-worming as a public health intervention. Using direct agglutination tests with confirmatory indirect fluorescent antibody test, 21% of 47 dogs were sero-positive for exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA sero-prevalence rates in 201 human volunteers were as follows: Toxoplasma gondii (14%, Echinococcus granulosus (48%, Toxocara canis (13% and Trichinella spp. (16%. Overall 65% of participants were sero-positive for at least one parasite. A survey administered to volunteers indicated few associations between widely accepted risk factors for parasite exposure and serological status, emphasizing the importance of environmental transmission of these parasites through soil, food, and waterborne routes.

  20. Activities of the University of Saskatchewan, Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, G. D.; Hirose, A.; Jain, K. K.; Mark, K.; McColl, D.; Mitarai, O.; Ratzdaff, J.; Schott, L.; Skarsgard, H. M.; Xiao, C.

    Detailed summaries of research projects conducted at the University of Saskatchewan's Plasma Physics Laboratory during 1991-92 are presented in the fields of tokamak experiments and reactor studies, basic plasma physics, and theories of instabilities and anomalous transport in tokamaks. The tokamak projects include discharge conditions and plasma diagnostics in the STOR-M tokamak, plasma modes and oscillations, edge density and magnetic fluctuations, diamagnetic measurements, and alternating current tokamak operation. Basic plasma physics projects include studies of radio frequency ion heating, parametric excitation of nonlinear asymmetric sheath oscillations, and dispersion function for a half-Maxwellian velocity distribution. Progress is also reported on developing the compact toroid fueller, intended for accelerating a compact toroid plasmoid to a velocity sufficient for central penetration into the Tokamak de Varennes, and on the compact torus injector project. The injector will be installed on the STOR-M tokamak to study compact torus injection into tokamak discharges. Abstracts of publications during 1991/92 are also included.

  1. Prioritizing health leadership capabilities in Canada: Testing LEADS in a Caring Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory P; Fletcher, Amber J

    2016-01-01

    This article is the first major empirical test of LEADS in a Caring Environment, the principal leadership capability framework in Canada. The results rank the perceived salience of leadership attributes, given time and budget constraints, while implementing a major organization reform in the Saskatchewan health system. The results also indicate important differences between self-assessed leadership behaviours versus observed behaviours in other leaders that may reflect participants' expectations of managers with designated authority. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  2. Uranium association with iron-bearing phases in mill tailings from Gunnar, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmane, Guillaume; Allard, Thierry; Morin, Guillaume; Sélo, Madeleine; Brest, Jessica; Llorens, Isabelle; Chen, Ning; Bargar, John R; Fayek, Mostafa; Calas, Georges

    2013-11-19

    The speciation of uranium was studied in the mill tailings of the Gunnar uranium mine (Saskatchewan, Canada), which operated in the 1950s and 1960s. The nature, quantification, and spatial distribution of uranium-bearing phases were investigated by chemical and mineralogical analyses, fission track mapping, electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies at the U LIII-edge and Fe K-edge. In addition to uranium-containing phases from the ore, uranium is mostly associated with iron-bearing minerals in all tailing sites. XANES and EXAFS data and transmission electron microscopy analyses of the samples with the highest uranium concentrations (∼400-700 mg kg(-1) of U) demonstrate that uranium primarily occurs as monomeric uranyl ions (UO2(2+)), forming inner-sphere surface complexes bound to ferrihydrite (50-70% of the total U) and to a lesser extent to chlorite (30-40% of the total U). Thus, the stability and mobility of uranium at the Gunnar site are mainly influenced by sorption/desorption processes. In this context, acidic pH or alkaline pH with the presence of UO2(2+)- and/or Fe(3+)-complexing agents (e.g., carbonate) could potentially solubilize U in the tailings pore waters.

  3. Transient peat properties in two pond-peatland complexes in the sub-humid Western Boreal Plain, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Petrone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Canadian Western Boreal Plain (WBP, wetlands (ponds and peatlands comprise up to 50% of the landscape and represent unique habitat where summer precipitation is often outpaced by evapotranspiration and hillslope groundwater position does not follow topography. In this sub-humid location, groundwater fluxes and stores in riparian peatlands influence pond water levels and root zone moisture sources for forested uplands. To accurately describe the transport and retention of water in peat, it is important to consider peat subsidence. This paper quantifies the amount and effect of seasonal subsidence in a riparian peatland in the Utikuma Lake region in north-central Alberta, Canada. Results demonstrate that the deep and poorly decomposed peat deposits are resistant to compression, and that thick (and persistent ground frost hinders pore collapse (shrinkage above the water table until late summer when the ground has thawed. Even then, subsidence is still limited to the top 50 cm and is not closely related to changes in peatland water table or pond water level. Thus the water balance of these ponds and riparian areas appears to be less sensitive to peat volume changes than it is to the persistence of a substantial frost layer well into the snow-free period.

  4. Modeling Carbon Dioxide Storage in the Basal Aquifer of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Rebscher, D.; Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere is a key challenge for society. Geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions to decrease carbon emissions. One such deep saline aquifer targeted for industrial-scale CO2 injection is the Basal Aquifer of Prairie Region in Canada and Northern Plains in the US. The aquifer stretches across three provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) and three states (Montana, North and South Dakota), and covers approximately 1,320,000 km2 (Figure 1). A large number of stationary CO2 sources lie within the foot print of the aquifer, and several CO2 injection projects are in the planning stage. In order for CO2 sequestration to be successful, the injected CO2 needs to stay isolated from the atmosphere for many centuries. Mathematical models are useful tools to assess the fate of both the injected CO2 and the resident brine. These models vary in complexity from fully three-dimensional multi-phase numerical reservoir simulators to simple semi-analytical solutions. In this presentation we compare a cascade of models ranging from single-phase semi-analytic solutions to multi-phase numerical simulators to determine the ability of each of these approaches to predict the pressure response in the injection formation. The majority of the models in this study are based on vertically-integrated governing equations; such models are computationally efficient, allow for reduced data input, and are broadly consistent with the flow physics. The petro-physical parameters and geometries used in this study are based on the geology of the Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer. Approximately ten injection sites are included in the model, with locations and injection rates based on planned injection operations. The predicted areas of review of the injection operations are used as a comparison metric among the different simulation approaches. Areal extent of the Basal Aquifer (*Source

  5. Trends in high-dose opioid prescribing in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Paterson, J Michael; Dhalla, Irfan A; Juurlink, David N

    2014-09-01

    To describe trends in rates of prescribing of high-dose opioid formulations and variations in opioid product selection across Canada. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Canada. Retail pharmacies dispensing opioids between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Opioid dispensing rates, reported as the number of units dispensed per 1000 population, stratified by province and opioid type. The rate of dispensing high-dose opioid formulations increased 23.0%, from 781 units per 1000 population in 2006 to 961 units per 1000 population in 2011. Although these rates remained relatively stable in Alberta (6.3% increase) and British Columbia (8.4% increase), rates in Newfoundland and Labrador (84.7% increase) and Saskatchewan (54.0% increase) rose substantially. Ontario exhibited the highest annual rate of high-dose oxycodone and fentanyl dispensing (756 tablets and 112 patches per 1000 population, respectively), while Alberta's rate of high-dose morphine dispensing was the highest in Canada (347 units per 1000 population). Two of the highest rates of high-dose hydromorphone dispensing were found in Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia (258 and 369 units per 1000 population, respectively). Conversely, Quebec had the lowest rate of high-dose oxycodone and morphine dispensing (98 and 53 units per 1000 population, respectively). We found marked interprovincial variation in the dispensing of high-dose opioid formulations in Canada, emphasizing the need to understand the reasons for these differences, and to consider developing a national strategy to address opioid prescribing. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  6. Petrogenetic and geodynamic origin of the Neoarchean Doré Lake Complex, Abitibi subprovince, Superior Province, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, Ali; Frei, Robert; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2017-01-01

    Group, which is composed of two cycles of tholeiitic-to-calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, siliciclastic and chemical sedimentary rocks, and layered mafic-to-ultramafic sills. In this study, we report major and trace element results, and Nd, Sr, Pb and O isotope data for anorthosites......, leucogabbros, gabbros and mafic dykes from the Doré Lake Complex and spatially associated basalts and gabbros of the Obatogamau Formation to assess their petrogenetic origin and geodynamic setting. Field and petrographic observations indicate that the Doré Lake Complex and associated volcanic rocks underwent...... to the mobilization of many elements (e.g., LILE and transition metals) and to significant disturbance of the Rb–Sr and U–Pb isotope systems, resulting in 1935 ± 150 and 3326 ± 270 Ma errorchron ages, respectively. The Sm–Nd isotope system was less disturbed, yielding an errorchron age of 2624 ± 160 Ma. On many...

  7. Small modular reactors (SMRs) - the way forward for the nuclear industry in Canada?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam-Aggrey, H. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are being touted as safer, more cost effective and more flexible than traditional nuclear power plants (NPPs). Consequently, it has been argued that SMR technology is pivotal to the revitalization of the nuclear industry at the national and global levels. Drawing mainly on previously published literature, this paper explores the suitability of SMRs for various niche market applications in Canada. The paper examines the potential role of SMRs in providing an opportunity for remote mines and communities in northern Canada to reduce their vulnerability and dependence on costly, high-carbon diesel fuel. Other niche market applications of SMRs explored include: SMRs deployment in Saskatchewan for grid augmentation and as replacement options for Saskatchewan's ageing coal plants; the use of SMRs for bitumen extraction in the Oil Sands, and the potential use of SMRs in Canadian-owned foreign based mines. The socio-economic benefits of SMR deployments are also discussed. Building an SMR industry in Canada could complement the country's extensive expertise in uranium mining, reactor technology, plant operation, nuclear research, and environmental and safety standards, thereby enhancing Canada's ability to offer services throughout the entire nuclear life cycle. The paper also outlines some of the technical, economic and social barriers that could impede the successful introduction of SMRs in Canada. (author)

  8. Leading Professional Learning to Develop Professional Capital: The Saskatchewan Professional Development Unit's Facilitator Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmond-Johnson, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on data from a mixed methods study of the Saskatchewan Professional Development Unit's (SPDU) Facilitator Community, this paper highlights the potential of teacher-led professional learning in developing professional capital through engagement in teacher leadership. Analysis of survey, interview, and observational data revealed the…

  9. Information Systems in the University of Saskatchewan Libraries: A Vision for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon. Libraries.

    This report describes the vision of the Information Systems Advisory Committee (ISAC) of an Information Systems Model for the 1990s. It includes an evaluation of the present automation environment at the university, a vision of library automation at the University of Saskatchewan between 1994 and 1999, and specific recommendations on such issues…

  10. Research Related to Native Peoples at the University of Saskatchewan, 1912-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Don C.; Dyer, Aldrich J.

    The volume on University of Saskatchewan graduate theses related to Canadian native peoples (Indian, Inuit, Metis) contains a brief introduction, followed by abstracts of 62 thesis projects (1912-1982), and a final section of statistics, charts, summaries, and discussions related to the abstracted research. Each research abstract consists of three…

  11. Prevalence, risk factors and co-morbidities of diabetes among adults in rural Saskatchewan: the influence of farm residence and agriculture-related exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyck Roland

    2013-01-01

    hypertension. Conclusions While known diabetes risk factors are important determinants of diabetes in the agricultural zones of Saskatchewan, on-farm residence is protective and appears related to increased outdoor activities. In contrast, we have now shown for the first time that exposure to insecticides is an independent risk factor for diabetes among men in rural Canada.

  12. Canada and the green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuszewski, Judy; Crowther, Yasmin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has a complex relationship with the global efforts to move to a green economy. Its policymakers and business leaders need to balance the country’s vast natural resources and the economic growth that they can foster, with the need to develop in a low-carbon, resource-efficient and socially inclusive manner. This report explores what the green economy means to Canada, with a particular focus on Canadian companies and the accountancy profession. Publisher PDF

  13. Evaluating the potential and opportunities for agroforestry in the Province of Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mak, K.; Lavoie, A.; Grundberg, B. [KPMG Consulting, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-05-01

    Results of a recent evaluative study of the current agroforestry industry, its potential and market opportunities in Saskatchewan are discussed. Results show that in the absence of incentive programs like those established in Ontario, Quebec, the Atlantic provinces, British Columbia and especially in the United States, the practice of woodlot management in Saskatchewan is on a small scale and on an experimental basis; agroforestry activities have been limited primarily to the establishment of shelter-belts on farmland and grazing cattle in woodlots. Under the current situation, most of the agroforestry scenarios tested in this study appear to be of marginal profitability, although high value crops such as sea buckthorn, incorporated into shelter-belts can provide substantial returns and sustainable grazing practices could be used to produce slight increases in revenues. The main factors responsible for the marginal profitability are the oversupply of public timber in Saskatchewan, and the pricing structures under the current timber tenure system which leave little room for private land owners to compete. In the long run, the key to successful agroforestry industry in Saskatchewan is contingent upon a growing demand for timber, especially hardwood supply, and limited availability of public timber. To encourage the development of the industry it is recommended to review pricing structures of crown timber and create a more favorable pricing structure for private land owners; changing the income tax structure to make it more favorable to agroforestry; improving the economies of scale for woodlot producers by allowing them to integrate woodlots with crown land; providing extension services specialized in agroforestry to support woodlot owners; and establishing alternative funding mechanisms that would encourage landowners to invest in silviculture on their private forest land. 32 refs.

  14. Countering school bullying: An analysis of policy content in Ontario and Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginette Diane Roberge

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of extreme school violence as a direct consequence of bullying among peers, exacerbated by vast media attention, has caused educational institutions worldwide to put bullying intervention and prevention strategies into operation. This study focused on an overview of two provincewide antibullying incentives in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Saskatchewan, and an analysis of the quality of their respective antibullying policies. An itemized list of beneficial practices for bullying intervention and prevention originated from Smith, Smith, Osborn and Samara (2008’s scoring scheme. The scoring scheme was adapted to the current study by linking research-based program elements that have been found to be effective in reducing school bullying to a content analysis of both provincial frameworks. The final scoring scheme comprised a total of 39 criterions, divided into five categories: Defining Bullying Behaviors, Establishing a Positive School Climate, Disseminating, Monitoring and Reviewing Policy, Reporting and Responding to Bullying, and Involving the Broader Community. Results showed that policies contained a total average of 60% of the criterions in Ontario, and 59% in Saskatchewan. The conclusion of this study observes from policy lenses key essentials of bullying intervention and prevention initiatives in elementary and secondary educational settings. Recommendations are proposed to bridge the gap between areas that have received extensive attention and areas that have received less treatment in bullying intervention and prevention endeavors, using the content of Ontario and Saskatchewan policies as a basis for discussion.

  15. Origin and composition of mineralizing fluids in the Athabasca Basin, Canada; Origine et composition des fluides mineralisateurs dans le Bassin de l'Athabasca, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, A.; Cathelineau, M.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J. [G2R, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, CREGU, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Milesi, J.P. [AREVA, BU Mines, Tour Areva, 92 - Paris La Defense (France)

    2009-07-01

    The authors report studies aimed at understanding mechanisms of concentration of uranium in the geological environment of the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada). They describe how two brines, a sodic one and a calcic one, circulated and mixed together while carrying uranium with exceptional and very heterogeneous concentrations. They show that these brines have a common origin and are formed by sea water evaporation, that the calcic brine formed itself by interaction between the sodic brine and platform rocks, and that the interactions of brines with platform rocks and minerals, water radiolysis, and bitumen synthesis have controlled the isotopic content in oxygen, hydrogen and carbon of these brines

  16. The 2002 voluntary climate change action plan update of Shell Canada : performance to the end of 2001 and projections to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    In this eighth annual report in support of the Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program, Shell Canada Ltd. has continued to improve on its overall environmental performance. The construction of the Athabasca Oil Sands Project, including the Muskeg River mine located north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, as well as and upgrader adjacent to Shell's Scotford refinery near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, continued in 2001. In September 2001, Shell's climate change strategy was approved. It led to the development of several management practices to provide leadership for greenhouse gas management and emission control. The target of successfully have all major facilities registered to the international environmental management system standard (ISO) 14001 was achieved. Also registered were the corporate health, safety and sustainable development (HSSD) and Resources business unit HSSD management systems. Adjustments were made to the 1990 baseline, due to the divestment of businesses in the 1990s. In 2001, the emissions of greenhouse gases were 76,000 tonnes lower than those recorded for the year 2002. The Resources business unit reduced its energy consumption by 2 per cent in 2001, as planned. Other initiatives concerning energy consumption are currently being implemented, notably at the Peace River complex and the Waterton gas complex. 6 figs.

  17. Casting a New Light on a Long Shadow: Saskatchewan Aboriginal High School Students Talk about What Helps and Hinders Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Bonnie; Kovach, Margaret; Steeves, Larry

    2017-01-01

    What do teachers do (or not do) that makes you want to go to school? A team of Saskatchewan researchers asked Saskatchewan Aboriginal high school students this question about the aspects of instructional practice that helps and hinders their learning. While responses pointed to several aspects, teacher relational instincts and capacities were the…

  18. Tree-ring-based estimates of long-term seasonal precipitation in the Souris River Region of Saskatchewan, North Dakota and Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Vecchia, Skip V.; Akyüz, F. Adnan; Lin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Historically unprecedented flooding occurred in the Souris River Basin of Saskatchewan, North Dakota and Manitoba in 2011, during a longer term period of wet conditions in the basin. In order to develop a model of future flows, there is a need to evaluate effects of past multidecadal climate variability and/or possible climate change on precipitation. In this study, tree-ring chronologies and historical precipitation data in a four-degree buffer around the Souris River Basin were analyzed to develop regression models that can be used for predicting long-term variations of precipitation. To focus on longer term variability, 12-year moving average precipitation was modeled in five subregions (determined through cluster analysis of measures of precipitation) of the study area over three seasons (November–February, March–June and July–October). The models used multiresolution decomposition (an additive decomposition based on powers of two using a discrete wavelet transform) of tree-ring chronologies from Canada and the US and seasonal 12-year moving average precipitation based on Adjusted and Homogenized Canadian Climate Data and US Historical Climatology Network data. Results show that precipitation varies on long-term (multidecadal) time scales of 16, 32 and 64 years. Past extended pluvial and drought events, which can vary greatly with season and subregion, were highlighted by the models. Results suggest that the recent wet period may be a part of natural variability on a very long time scale.

  19. An economic analysis of a system wide Lean approach: cost estimations for the implementation of Lean in the Saskatchewan healthcare system for 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Nazmi; Rotter, Thomas; Goodridge, Donna; Harrison, Liz; Kinsman, Leigh

    2017-08-03

    The costs of investing in health care reform initiatives to improve quality and safety have been underreported and are often underestimated. This paper reports direct and indirect cost estimates for the initial phase of the province-wide implementation of Lean activities in Saskatchewan, Canada. In order to obtain detailed information about each type of Lean event, as well as the total number of corresponding Lean events, we used the Provincial Kaizen Promotion Office (PKPO) Kaizen database. While the indirect cost of Lean implementation has been estimated using the corresponding wage rate for the event participants, the direct cost has been estimated using the fees paid to the consultant and other relevant expenses. The total cost for implementation of Lean over two years (2012-2014), including consultants and new hires, ranged from $44 million CAD to $49.6 million CAD, depending upon the assumptions used. Consultant costs accounted for close to 50% of the total. The estimated cost of Lean events alone ranged from $16 million CAD to $19.5 million CAD, with Rapid Process Improvement Workshops requiring the highest input of resources. Recognizing the substantial financial and human investments required to undertake reforms designed to improve quality and contain cost, policy makers must carefully consider whether and how these efforts result in the desired transformations. Evaluation of the outcomes of these investments must be part of the accountability framework, even prior to implementation.

  20. The Saskatchewan River Basin - a large scale observatory for transdisciplinary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources are under pressure world-wide and face unprecedented challenges - from population growth, economic development, pollution and environmental change. Further, effective water management is becoming increasingly complex, requiring deep understanding of aquatic and terrestrial environments, their vulnerabilities to environmental change, and water management and protection challenges. Important science challenges arise in understanding and managing environmental change. However, with increasing pressures on the environment, it is necessary to recognise the effects of human interventions; flows in many major rivers are strongly affected by operational water management, and large-scale agricultural land management change can affect hydrology, land-atmosphere feedbacks, water quality and habitats. There is a need to represent effects on river flows and groundwater of management decisions, and more generally to understand impacts of policy, governance and societal values on water futures. This research agenda poses important challenges to the science community. Observational data are necessary, across multiple scales, to understand environmental change. This requires focussed research at intensively monitored sites and small watersheds to improve process understanding and fine-scale models. To understand large-scale effects on river flows and quality, land-atmosphere feedbacks, and regional climate, integrated monitoring, modelling and analysis is needed at large basin scale. And to support water management, new tools are needed for operational management and scenario-based planning that can be implemented across multiple scales and multiple jurisdictions. The 340,000 km2 Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) is being developed as a large scale observatory to support a new level of integration of interdisciplinary science. In one of the most extreme and variable climates in the world, we are developing state-of-the-art hydro-ecological experimental sites in the

  1. Eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.G.; Roliff, W.A.; Sealey, R.; Palonen, P.A.

    1981-10-01

    Uncertainty of increased taxation of petroleum revenues proposed under the Canadian national energy program effected a minor slowdown of the rapid exploration in 1980. Total numbers of wells drilled in eastern Canada were: Ontario, 224; Quebec, 3; Nova Scotia, 1; and the Atlantic offshore, 13. Much of the Ontario drilling, 123 wells, was for development purposes. The success ratio on exploratory drilling in Ontario was 34.7, while all Quebec and Nova Scotia wells were dry. Production of oil and gas declined by 16.8% and 18.5% in New Brunswick. Oil production in Ontario increased by 1.2%. The increase in gas production of 14.3% to almost 443,535.5 x 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/ was due almost entirely to development of known fields underlying Lake Erie. The exploration of offshore eastern Canada continued at a stable rate, with 12 wells completed. Of these, 2 were in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 3 on the Grand Banks, 6 on the Labrador Shelf, and 1 in Davis Strait. All wells were abandoned or suspended at year end, although discoveries of hydrocarbon were made in Davis Strait and the Grand Banks. The early exploration stage, combined with record water depths, prevented any of these wells from being put into production, although testing will be continued on the most promising shows. Seismic exploration increased to approximately 30,000 km in the Atlantic offshore areas. In addition, 1,420.94 km was shot in Lake Erie. Onshore seismic exploration accounted for 1,078.67 km in Ontario, 350 km in Nova Scotia and 242.76 km in Quebec. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Colour Subject between Canada Saskatchewan State and Visual Arts Education Curriculum in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabancal, Meral Per

    2015-01-01

    A deeper analysis of the art education curriculums applied in developed countries and treating specific subjects within these curriculums holds vital importance in allowing the production of alternative solution methods by providing the educators multiple perspectives in the face of problems concerning art education. In present paper colour…

  3. Plus C'est La Meme Chose? Questioning Crop Diversification as a Response to Agricultural Deregulation in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Ben

    2004-01-01

    In the context of declining government subsidization of agriculture, many analysts have predicted reversals in certain characteristic trends of post-1945 Western agriculture with positive implications for agroecosystem well-being. One example, investigated herein, is the suggestion that, in the absence of government safety nets, farmers will seek…

  4. Progress, public health, and power: Foucault and the Homemakers' Clubs of Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott; Rollwagen, Heather

    2008-08-01

    From 1911 to 1979, the Homemakers' Clubs of Saskatchewan mobilized and monitored extensive study and action in the field of public health. This article explores how these clubs exhorted women to strive for progress, and encouraged women to internalize such striving as fundamental to their own identities. The techniques used included encouraging commitment to shared goals, making such goals personal, structuring action, requiring women to report their thoughts and actions, rewarding certain behaviors, and linking those behaviors with emotionally compelling causes. Rooted in a Foucauldian conceptual framework, this article contributes to the sociological understanding of subject formation and governance.

  5. Déserts alimentaires à Winnipeg (Canada : une nouvelle méthodologie de mesure d'un concept complexe et controversé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Slater

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Les « déserts alimentaires » ont vu le jour dans les 20 dernières années et forment des secteurs préoccupants pour les collectivités, les autorités en santé publique et les chercheurs en raison de leur effet négatif possible sur la qualité de l’alimentation et en raison de leurs conséquences sur la santé. Ce sont des espaces résidentiels, habituellement en milieu urbain, où les résidents à faible revenu n’ont que peu ou pas accès à des établissements de vente au détail d'aliments qui offrent suffisamment de variété à un prix abordable. La recherche sur les déserts alimentaires présente des défis méthodologiques, notamment la façon de repérer et de classer les magasins d’alimentation au détail, la définition de la population à faible revenu ainsi que les paramètres concernant le transport et la proximité. De plus, les méthodes complexes qui sont souvent employées dans la recherche sur les déserts alimentaires peuvent être difficiles à reproduire et à communiquer aux principaux intervenants. Pour surmonter ces difficultés, nous avons voulu montrer qu’on pouvait concevoir une méthode simple et reproductible pour repérer les déserts alimentaires, à l’aide de données facilement accessibles en contexte canadien. Méthodologie : Cette étude a été menée à Winnipeg (Canada en 2014. Les établissements de vente au détail des aliments ont été trouvés à l’aide des Pages Jaunes et vérifiés par des diététistes en santé publique. Nous avons créé deux scénarios sur les déserts alimentaires en fonction de l’emplacement de la population à quintile de revenu le plus faible : a celle qui habitait à 500 m ou plus d’une épicerie appartenant à une chaîne nationale et b celle qui habitait à 500 m ou plus d’une épicerie appartenant à une chaîne nationale ou d’une épicerie à service complet. Résultats : En fonction du scénario utilisé, 64 574 ou 104 335 r

  6. Mercury risk to avian piscivores across western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allyson K.; Evers, David C.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Willacker, James J.; Elliott, John E.; Lepak, Jesse M; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    The widespread distribution of mercury (Hg) threatens wildlife health, particularly piscivorous birds. Western North America is a diverse region that provides critical habitat to many piscivorous bird species, and also has a well-documented history of mercury contamination from legacy mining and atmospheric deposition. The diversity of landscapes in the west limits the distribution of avian piscivore species, complicating broad comparisons across the region. Mercury risk to avian piscivores was evaluated across the western United States and Canada using a suite of avian piscivore species representing a variety of foraging strategies that together occur broadly across the region. Prey fish Hg concentrations were size-adjusted to the preferred size class of the diet for each avian piscivore (Bald Eagle = 36 cm, Osprey = 30 cm, Common and Yellow-billed Loon = 15 cm, Western and Clark's Grebe = 6 cm, and Belted Kingfisher = 5 cm) across each species breeding range. Using a combination of field and lab-based studies on Hg effect in a variety of species, wet weight blood estimates were grouped into five relative risk categories including: background ( 3 μg/g). These risk categories were used to estimate potential mercury risk to avian piscivores across the west at a 1 degree-by-1 degree grid cell resolution. Avian piscivores foraging on larger-sized fish generally were at a higher relative risk to Hg. Habitats with a relatively high risk included wetland complexes (e.g., prairie pothole in Saskatchewan), river deltas (e.g., San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound, Columbia River), and arid lands (Great Basin and central Arizona). These results indicate that more intensive avian piscivore sampling is needed across Western North America to generate a more robust assessment of exposure risk.

  7. High-resolution multicomponent seismic imaging for VMS deposits within the Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon Belt, Trans-Hudson Orogen, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, M.; White, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Flin Flon-Glennie complex (Trans-Hudson Orogen) hosts the largest Paleoproterozoic volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) district in the world. The main deposits of the Flin Flon camp have mineral compositions of predominantly pyrite, pyrrhotite, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. All of these minerals are characterised by high acoustic impedances relative to typical host rocks, thus making them excellent candidates for seismic exploration. In a concerted effort to support exploration for new ore deposits in the vicinity of Flin Flon and surrounding region, a program of seismic investigations has been implemented as part of the Targetted Geoscience Initiative-3 (TGI-3) Saskatchewan-Manitoba project. This project is a joint Federal-Provincial effort led by the Geological Survey of Canada with active participation by Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Ltd. Rock property measurements, downhole geophysical logging and vertical seismic profiles acquired in advance of the main seismic survey demonstrated the expected reflectivity of the mining camp geology. The principle seismic survey was conducted during May-September, 2007 and comprised a total of 75 km of high- resolution 2D seismic profiles and a 3D survey covering approximately 10 km2. Seismic imaging in the Flin Flon area poses significant challenges due to the complex crystalline geology, the location of the imaging targets beneath an active town and operational mine site, and the highly variable terrain. Data were recoreded using IO System IV digital vector (3-component) accelerometers, spaced at 5 m intervals (for 2D survey) with recording times of 4 s. Seismic sources spaced at 20 m intervals included Vibroseis and dynamite sources on land, and an airgun for lake areas. The results of processing the vertical-component data for P-wave reflections reveal subhorizontal reflectivity associated mainly with the Missi metasedimentary complex and steeply dipping reflectivity associated with the polydeformed volcanic rocks

  8. Thoughts of Quitting General Surgery Residency: Factors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, David Nathan; Dattani, Sheev; Miller, Sarah; Hayes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates in general surgery training are higher than other surgical disciplines. We sought to determine the prevalence with which Canadian general surgery residents consider leaving their training and the contributing factors. An anonymous survey was administered to all general surgery residents in Canada. Responses from residents who considered leaving their training were assessed for importance of contributing factors. The study was conducted at the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, a tertiary academic center. The response rate was approximately 34.0%. A minority (32.0%) reported very seriously or somewhat seriously considering leaving their training, whereas 35.2% casually considered doing so. Poor work-life balance in residency (38.9%) was the single-most important factor, whereas concern about future unemployment (16.7%) and poor future quality of life (15.7%) were next. Enjoyment of work (41.7%) was the most frequent mitigating factor. Harassment and intimidation were reported factors in 16.7%. On analysis, only intention to practice in a nonacademic setting approached significant association with thoughts of leaving (odds ratio = 1.92, CI = 0.99-3.74, p = 0.052). There was no association with sex, program, postgraduate year, relationship status, or subspecialty interest. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more thoughts of leaving with older age. Canadian general surgery residents appear less likely to seriously consider quitting than their American counterparts. Poor work-life balance in residency, fear of future unemployment, and anticipated poor future quality of life are significant contributors to thoughts of quitting. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle, and to assist residents in securing employment, may improve completion rates. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Health care utilization and costs in Saskatchewan's registered Indian population with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Jeffrey A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes in North American is recognized to be higher in Aboriginal populations. The relative magnitude of health care utilization and expenditures between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations is uncertain, however. Our objective was to compare health care utilization and per capita expenditures according to Registered Indian and diabetes status in the province of Saskatchewan. Methods Administrative databases from Saskatchewan Health were used to identify registered Indians and the general population diabetes cases and two controls for each diabetes case. Health care resource utilization (physician visits, hospitalizations, day surgeries and dialysis and costs for these individuals in the 2001 calendar year were determined. The odds of having used each resource category, adjusted for age and location of residence, was assessed according to Registered Indian and diabetes status. The average number of encounters for each resource category and per capita healthcare expenditures were also determined. Results Registered Indian diabetes cases were younger than general population cases (45.7 ± 14.5 versus 58.4 ± 16.4 years, p Conclusion Relative to individuals without the disease, both registered Indians and the general population with diabetes had substantially higher health care utilization and costs. Excess hospitalization and dialysis suggested that registered Indians with and without diabetes experienced greater morbidity than the general population.

  10. Insect succession and decomposition patterns on shaded and sunlit carrion in Saskatchewan in three different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharanowski, Barbara J; Walker, Ernest G; Anderson, Gail S

    2008-08-06

    A study was conducted on decomposition and insect succession in the Prairie Ecozone of Saskatchewan in the year 2000. Eighteen domestic pig carcasses (42-79 kg) were employed as human models for applications to future homicide investigations in this region. Two major variables were considered including the effect of season and habitat (sun versus shade). Research was conducted over 25 weeks, spanning three seasons: spring, summer and fall. Ambient temperature, internal carcass temperature, faunistic succession over time, and the rate of decay were all compared for each experimental variable. Results indicated that habitat was only a factor in the decompositional rate of carrion in the spring season. The ambient temperature was the chief factor determining the seasonal variations in decay rate. Maximum internal carcass temperatures always coincided with the presence of 3rd instar larvae. Patterns of insect succession occurred in a predictable sequence that varied across different habitats and seasons and was unique compared to previously published studies. Carcasses placed in spring and fall attracted a more diverse assemblage of insects than summer-placed carrion. Sun-exposed carrion also had greater variation in fauna than shaded carrion in spring and fall. Members of Silphidae were the first coleopteran colonizers in all habitats and seasons. This paper also marks the first record for Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) in Saskatchewan.

  11. Use of low-value radiotherapy practices in Canada: an analysis of provincial cancer registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, K; Rahal, R; Brundage, M; Fung, S; Louzado, C; Milosevic, M; Xu, J; Bryant, H

    2016-10-01

    As part of Choosing Wisely Canada (a national campaign to encourage patient-provider conversations about unnecessary medical tests, treatments, and procedures), a list of ten oncology practices that could be low-value in some instances was developed. Of those practices, two were specific to radiation therapy (rt): conventional fractionation as part of breast-conserving therapy (bct) for women with early-stage breast cancer, and multifraction radiation for palliation of uncomplicated painful bone metastases. Here, we report baseline findings for the current utilization rates of those two rt practices in Canada. The use of conventional fractionation as part of bct varied substantially from province to province. Of women 50 years of age and older, between 8.8% (Alberta) and 36.5% (Saskatchewan) received radiation in 25 fractions (excluding boost irradiation) as part of bct. The use of hypofractionated rt (that is, 16 fractions excluding boost irradiation)-a preferred approach for many patients-was more common in all 6 reporting provinces, ranging from 43.2% in Saskatchewan to 94.7% in Prince Edward Island. The use of multifraction rt for palliation of bone metastases also varied from province to province, ranging from 40.3% in British Columbia to 69.0% in Saskatchewan. The most common number of fractions delivered to bone metastases was 1, at 50.2%; the second most common numbers were 2-5 fractions, at 41.7%. Understanding variation in the use of potentially low-value rt practices can help to inform future strategies to promote higher-value care, which balances high-quality care with the efficient use of limited system resources. Further work is needed to understand the factors contributing to the interprovincial variation observed and to develop benchmarks for the appropriate rate of use of these rt practices.

  12. The Registry and Follow-Up of Complex Pediatric Therapies Program of Western Canada: A Mechanism for Service, Audit, and Research after Life-Saving Therapies for Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene M. T. Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly emerging health technologies are being developed to care for children with complex cardiac defects. Neurodevelopmental and childhood school-related outcomes are of great interest to parents of children receiving this care, care providers, and healthcare administrators. Since the 1970s, neonatal follow-up clinics have provided service, audit, and research for preterm infants as care for these at-risk children evolved. We have chosen to present for this issue the mechanism for longitudinal follow-up of survivors that we have developed for western Canada patterned after neonatal follow-up. Our program provides registration for young children receiving complex cardiac surgery, heart transplantation, ventricular assist device support, and extracorporeal life support among others. The program includes multidisciplinary assessments with appropriate neurodevelopmental intervention, active quality improvement evaluations, and outcomes research. Through this mechanism, consistently high (96% follow-up over two years is maintained.

  13. Retarding field energy analyzer for the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified plasma boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval, M.; Rohraff, D.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.

    2009-10-01

    The retarding field energy analyzer (RFA) is a simple and reliable diagnostic technique to measure the ion temperature in the scrape-off layer and edge of magnetic fusion devices. Design and operation features of a single-sided (facing the ion flow) RFA for ion temperature measurements in the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak are described. Its compact size (21×15×20 mm3) allows RFA measurements without perturbing plasma significantly. Both ion and electron temperature have been measured by RFA in the STOR-M tokamak. A method is proposed to correct the effects of ion flow on the ion temperature using the simultaneously measured Mach number. The measured electron temperature is consistent with the previously reported Langmuir probe data. Abnormal behavior of the RFA has been observed in both ion and electron modes when RFA is inserted deep into the plasma.

  14. Trend analysis of nutrient loadings in the South Saskatchewan River catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Marin, L. A.; Chun, K. P.; Wheater, H. S.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient loadings in river catchments have increased in the past years as a consequence of rapid expansion of agricultural areas, new urban developments and industries, and population growth. Nutrient enrichment of water bodies has intensified eutrophication conditions that degrade water quality and ecosystem health. In large-scale catchments, the assessment of temporal and spatial variability of nutrient loads imply challenges due to climate, land use and geology heterogeneity, and to anthropogenic changes. In this study we carried out a trend analysis of total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads in the South Saskatchewan River (SSR) catchment. This catchment is located in the Canadian Prairie Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The eastern and central areas of the catchment consist mostly of croplands, pasture lands and livestock farms, whereas the western parts are located on the Rocky Mountains that are the source of most of the catchment's streamflows. The trend analysis was performed applying a novel approach to analyse nutrient time series recorded at long-term water quality stations along the main stems of the SSR river network. Since water quality is taken infrequently, in the proposed approach the time series were complemented using regression analysis methods based on streamflow data recorded at the nearest gauge stations. The time series were subsequently pre-whitened in order to remove the autocorrelation, and then subjected to non-parametric statistical test to detect trends. Seasonal analysis of trends at each of the water quality stations were performed in order to determine the relationships between annual flow regimes and nutrient loads in the catchment, in particular, the influence of the high spring runoff on nutrient export. Decadal analysis was also performed to determine the long-tern relationships of nutrients with anthropogenic changes in the catchment. In particular, the capacity of reservoirs to trap nutrients and the effects of the

  15. Study Canada: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    The document presents the first of five units on Canada developed for classroom use in American secondary schools. This unit, an overview of Canada, offers a sequence of information sheets for students and class activity suggestions for teachers which use a comparative approach stressing an understanding of Canada from the viewpoints of both…

  16. Governance and decision making in complex socio-hydrological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia; Hassanzadeh, Elmira

    2017-04-01

    The transboundary Saskatchewan River, originating in the Canadian Rockies in Alberta, flows through Saskatchewan and Manitoba and discharges its water into Lake Winnipeg. It supports irrigated agriculture, hydropower generation, flood protection, municipal water supplies, mining, recreation, and environmental services across a large area and in multiple administrative jurisdictions. Managing the region's water-based economic activities and environmental services, requires decisions at a variety of scales to incorporate competing values and priorities about water use. Current inter-provincial allocations are based on the 1969 Master Agreement of Water Apportionment whereby upstream Alberta must release one-half of the annual natural flows of the Saskatchewan River to Saskatchewan, which in turn must pass one-half of the residual natural flow to the Province of Manitoba. This analysis uses a hydro-economic simulation model, SWAMP, to examine risk-based tradeoffs in Saskatchewan for various types of water use including, agriculture, energy, and flood protection under various scenarios of water availability. The eco-hydrological effects of the scenarios on the largest inland delta in North America - the Saskatchewan River Delta - are also shown. Results enable decision makers to weigh the costs and benefits of implementing particular sector-based future development strategies. Assuming net provincial benefit as a single monetary indicator of economic value, the effects of various scenarios of environmental and policy changes are quantified Results show that improving irrigation technology and expanding irrigated lands in Alberta will positively affect the province's economic development and have compound effects downstream on hydropower generation, environmental flows and the economies of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The implementation of similar policies in Saskatchewan will have different downstream impacts because of the large hydro-power capacity downstream in

  17. Lightning-produced NO2 observed by two ground-based UV-visible spectrometers at Vanscoy, Saskatchewan in August 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based measurements of ozone and NO2 differential slant columns by the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales and UT-GBS (University of Toronto Ground-Based Spectrometer instruments during the MANTRA 2004 field campaign are presented herein. During the afternoon of 28 August, a thunderstorm passed over the instruments, which were installed at Vanscoy, Saskatchewan (52° N, 107° W. Enhanced differential slant columns of ozone and NO2 were observed by both instruments during the storm, with maximum values of two and 25 times the expected clear sky columns, respectively. The enhanced ozone differential slant columns are primarily due to the longer path traversed by the solar radiation caused by multiple scattering inside the thick cloud layer associated with the thunderstorm. The enhanced NO2 columns are partly attributed to NOx production by lightning. Two new methods are used to separate the NO2 enhancements into contributions from the longer path length and production by lightning. Combining the observed excess NO2 with lightning flash data from the Canadian Lightning Detection Network and Environment Canada Doppler radar measurements, the production of NO2 molecules per lightning flash is determined. Using these two methods, the best estimate of the production rate is found to be (7.88±2.52×1026 molecules NO2/flash from the UT-GBS and (6.81±2.17×1026 molecules NO2/flash from SAOZ. These results are consistent with the range of previous estimates reported in the literature.

  18. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  19. The influence of complex intra- and extra-vent processes on facies characteristics of the Koala Kimberlite, NWT, Canada: volcanology, sedimentology and intrusive processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porritt, Lucy A.; Cas, Ray A. F.

    2011-08-01

    The Koala kimberlite, Northwest Territories, Canada, is a small pipe-like body that was emplaced into the Archean Koala granodiorite batholith and the overlying Cretaceous to Tertiary sediments at ~53 Ma. Koala is predominantly in-filled by a series of six distinct clastic deposits, the lowermost of which has been intruded by a late stage coherent kimberlite body. The clastic facies are easily distinguished from each other by variations in texture, and in the abundance and distribution of the dominant components. From facies analysis, we infer that the pipe was initially partially filled by a massive, poorly sorted, matrix-supported, olivine-rich lapilli tuff formed from a collapsing eruption column during the waning stage of the pipe-forming eruption. This unit is overlain by a granodiorite cobble-boulder breccia and a massive, poorly sorted, mud-rich pebbly-sandstone. These deposits represent post-eruptive gravitational collapse of the unstable pipe walls and mass wasting of tephra forming the crater rim. The crater then filled with water within which ~20 m of non-kimberlitic, wood-rich, silty sand accumulated, representing up to 47,000 years of quiescence. The upper two units in the Koala pipe are both olivine rich and show distinct grain-size grading. These units are interpreted to have been deposited sub-aqueously, from pyroclastic flows sourced from one or more other kimberlite volcanoes. The uppermost units in the Koala pipe highlight the likelihood that some kimberlite pipes may be only partially filled by their own eruptive products at the cessation of volcanic activity, enabling them to act as depocentres for pyroclastic and sedimentary deposits from the surrounding volcanic landscape. Recognition of these exotic kimberlite deposits has implications for kimberlite eruption and emplacement processes.

  20. Improved confinement induced by tangential injection of compact torus into the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.; Sen, S.

    2004-08-01

    Compact torus injection into the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified [Phys. Fluids B 4, 3277 (1992)] tokamak discharges has triggered improved confinement characterized by an increase in the electron density by more than twofold, 30% reduction in the Hα radiation level, significant suppression of floating potential fluctuations and m=2 Mirnov oscillations. In this paper, we present detailed experimental setup and results, as well as an extended theory explaining the mechanism for triggering improved confinement in a tokamak by compact torus injection.

  1. Use of Principal Components Analysis and Kriging to Predict Groundwater-Sourced Rural Drinking Water Quality in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl L

    2017-09-15

    Groundwater drinking water supply surveillance data were accessed to summarize water quality delivered as public and private water supplies in southern Saskatchewan as part of an exposure assessment for epidemiologic analyses of associations between water quality and type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Arsenic in drinking water has been linked to a variety of chronic diseases and previous studies have identified multiple wells with arsenic above the drinking water standard of 0.01 mg/L; therefore, arsenic concentrations were of specific interest. Principal components analysis was applied to obtain principal component (PC) scores to summarize mixtures of correlated parameters identified as health standards and those identified as aesthetic objectives in the Saskatchewan Drinking Water Quality Standards and Objective. Ordinary, universal, and empirical Bayesian kriging were used to interpolate arsenic concentrations and PC scores in southern Saskatchewan, and the results were compared. Empirical Bayesian kriging performed best across all analyses, based on having the greatest number of variables for which the root mean square error was lowest. While all of the kriging methods appeared to underestimate high values of arsenic and PC scores, empirical Bayesian kriging was chosen to summarize large scale geographic trends in groundwater-sourced drinking water quality and assess exposure to mixtures of trace metals and ions.

  2. Drinking Water Management: Health Risk Perceptions and Choices in First Nations and Non-First Nations Communities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Diane; Waldner, Cheryl; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Plummer, Ryan; Carter, Blair; Cave, Kate; Zagozewski, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between tap water and health has been a topic of public concern and calls for better management in Canada since well-publicized contamination events in two provinces (Ontario and Saskatchewan) in 2000–2001. This study reports the perspectives on health risks from tap water and corresponding use of, and spending on, bottled water in a number of different communities in Canada. In 2009–2010, four First Nations communities (three from Ontario and one from Saskatchewan) and a geographically diverse sample of non-First Nations Canadians were surveyed about their beliefs concerning health risks from tap water and their spending practices for bottled water as a substitute. Responses to five identical questions were examined, revealing that survey respondents from Ontario First Nations communities were more likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe bottled water is safer than tap water (OR 1.6); more likely to report someone became ill from tap water (OR 3.6); more likely to express water and health concerns related to tap water consumption (OR 2.4); and more likely to spend more on bottled water (OR 4.9). On the other hand, participants from one Saskatchewan First Nations community were less likely than non-First Nations Canadians to believe that someone had become ill from drinking tap water (OR 3.8), less likely to believe bottled water is safer than tap (OR 2.0), and less likely to have health concerns with tap water (OR 1.5). These differences, however, did not translate into differences in the likelihood of high bottled water expenditures or being a 100% bottled water consumer. The paper discusses how the differences observed may be related to water supply and regulation, trust, perceived control, cultural background, location, and past experience. PMID:24886757

  3. eHealth advances in support of people with complex care needs: Case examples from Canada, Scotland and the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Carolyn Steele; Mercer, Stewart; Palen, Ted; McKinstry, Brian; Hendry, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Information technology in health care, also referred to as eHealth technology, may offer a promising solution to the provision of better care and support for people who have multiple conditions and complex care needs and their caregivers. In particular eHealth technologies such as electronic medical records, telemonitoring systems, web-based portals and mobile health (mHealth) can enable information sharing between providers, clients and their families to improve integration of ...

  4. A first report on making Saskatchewan a Canadian leader in energy conservation and renewable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prebble, P. [Government of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    This report proposed policy changes for energy conservation and renewable energy in Saskatchewan related to the electricity and buildings sectors. Recommendations were presented for 4 core areas, notably (1) transition to renewable energy in the electrical sector, (2) incentives to promote conservation and renewable energy, (3) the continuation of conservation and renewable energy programs within the buildings sector, and (4) the creation of new policies to encourage renewable energy use and energy conservation. The report recommended legislation for a renewable energy and conservation portfolio standard for electricity production, as well as increased investment in demand side management programs. The use of large-scale wind power in future electrical generation upgrades was also recommended, as well as net metering and financial incentives for small-scale producers of electricity. Tax credit schemes were presented, as well as various energy efficiency grant programs for homeowners, and the implementation of new energy efficiency building codes, and solar energy legislation. Policy measures to promote conservation and renewable energy development included the expansion of the office of energy conservation, and the establishment of a fund to ensure a stable public funding base for conservation and renewable energy initiatives. refs.

  5. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  6. Air issues scoping study for the Alberta South Saskatchewan land-use planning region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This report deals with an air quality study undertaken in the South Saskatchewan Region (SSR). Some of the work is applicable to the local region only but other parts are applicable at the provincial level. The shift to management at the regional level requires a resolution/understanding of the responsibility and authority of the management entity. In this study is stated that the air quality in the province had deteriorated according to Alberta Environment. In order to have an effective and efficient management of air quality in the SSR, the functionalities of both government and non-government organizations should be integrated and harmonized jointly. Once the objectives of air quality management in the SSR have been set, the relevancy of the broad information gaps reported in this study can be reviewed and can either be adopted as is or modified according to updated stakeholder input. Although this assessment only deals with air quality, the overall management of a Land-use Framework region should also take other environmental factors into consideration to ensure a set of harmonized and integrated methods can be applied.

  7. Chemical characteristics and acid sensitivity of boreal headwater lakes in northwest Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean S. BIRKS

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Boreal ecosystems in northwest Saskatchewan may be threatened by acidification as this area is downwind of atmospheric emissions sources from regional oil sands mining operations. To evaluate the status of lakes in this region, a survey of 259 headwater lakes was conducted during 2007–2008 within ~300 km of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Acid sensitivity by ecoregion increased from Mid-Boreal Upland to Churchill River Upland to Athabasca Plain, with 60% of lakes classified as sensitive (50–200 μeq L–1 acid neutralizing capacity (ANC, and 8% as very sensitive (<50 μeq L–1 ANC to acid deposition. Organic anions dominated the acidity balance in most lakes, but non-marine sulphate varied positively with lake elevation and % upland cover (r2 = 0.24. Base cation concentrations (Ca, Mg, K, Na were correlated with % deciduous forest in the catchment area (r2 = 0.33, while dissolved organic carbon (DOC was related most strongly to % bog and lake flushing variables (r2 = 0.53. Variation in runoff coefficients derived by isotope mass balance corresponded with catchment area attributes that proxy controls on evaporation, infiltration and storage, and showed some ecoregional differences. The findings have implications for assignment of runoff values required to calculate critical loads of acidity. Although acidification appears not to be significantly advanced, many dilute oligotrophic lakes with pH 6.0 to pH 6.5 are vulnerable to acid deposition.

  8. The Transition From Effusive to Explosive Volcanism, Crustal Recycling and Granitic Plutonism in the Paleocene Sifton Range Complex, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovic, A.; Francis, D.

    2004-05-01

    The uplifted plutons of the eastern Coast Plutonic Complex (CPC) of the northern Canadian Cordillera are in contact with coeval volcanic suites of the early Tertiary Sloko-Skukum Group, and offer a unique opportunity for addressing the relationship between continental calc-alkaline volcanic sequences and subduction-related granitoid suites. The Sifton Range complex (SRC) is the Yukon's largest Paleogene erosional remnant (240 km2), comprising 900 m of volcanic stratigraphy, and is intruded by the CPC granites dated at 57.2 Ma. It displays a classic subduction-related geochemical signature with depletions in HFSE relative to LILE. The volcanic rocks range between medium and high-K orogenic suites, and display a transitional calc-alkaline to tholeiitic fractionation trend. The epizonal two-feldspar granites are chemically indistinguishable from the evolved SRC lavas and are characterized by highly elevated LREE (La/Sm N ch = 5-11), and Th (12-18 ppm) concentrations. Furthermore, the complex exhibits a striking relationship between rock compositions and styles of eruption, such that a reduction in abundance of lavas with increasing SiO2 is correlated with the appearance of evolved pyroclastic rocks and granitic plutonism. Crystal fractionation models of the compositional interval between basaltic andesite and andesite (52-62 wt.% SiO2) using the thermodynamic algorithms Melts of Ghiorso and Sack (1995), and Xstaln (Francis) are consistent with evolution at moderately wet (1.5 wt.% H2O), upper crustal (1.5 kb) conditions with fO2 close to the QFM buffer. Two-step, assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) models are required to explain the anomalous Th concentrations of the evolved rocks, and involve contamination by the enriched SRC rhyolite of up to 33 % by mass over the dacite range, followed by assimilation of over 150 % by mass beyond rhyodacite compositions (> 67 wt.% SiO2). The unrealistically high contamination parameter (r > 2.5, De Paolo, 1981) of the

  9. Influência da temperatura no diâmetro e na estabilidade de agregados em Chernossolo, Saskatchewan, Canadá Temperature effect on aggregate diameter and stability in a Chernozem from Saskatchewan, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Lopes Thomaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O papel do fogo nos processos ambientais é amplamente reportado nos diversos ecossistemas da Terra. O fogo influencia diversos processos ambientais no solo (e.g. infiltração, erodibilidade, dinâmica de matéria orgânica etc.. Os objetivos deste ensaio realizado em laboratório foram: 1 verificar o efeito da temperatura na estabilidade de agregados em Chernossolo de ambiente temperado; 2 avaliar dois procedimentos para se detectar tal efeito nos agregados do solo (i.e. peneiramento seco e peneiramento submerso em água; 3 aplicar diferentes índices para mensurar possíveis mudanças na distribuição e na estabilidade de agregados (diâmetro médio, diâmetro médio geométrico e estabilidade de agregados em porcentagem. As amostras foram aquecidas em Forno Mufla, sendo submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: controle (temperatura ambiente, 200 oC e 300 oC por 20 minutos e 580 oC durante 10 minutos. O solo foi afetado pelas diferentes temperaturas aplicadas. Na temperatura de 200 oC, verificou-se diminuição no diâmetro médio, no diâmetro médio geométrico e na estabilidade de agregados do solo. Os agregados de 2,8 mm foram os mais influenciados por esta temperatura. De modo contrário, a temperatura de 580 oC causou aumento nos referidos índices. A temperatura de 300 oC causou resposta intermediária em comparação as demais temperaturas. O peneiramento submerso em água foi a técnica mais eficiente na detecção do efeito da temperatura no solo.The role of fire on environmental processes is widely reported in several Earth ecosystems. Fire affects environmental processes (e.g. infiltration, erodibility, organic matter dynamic etc.. The objectives of this laboratory study were: 1 to establish the effect of temperature on aggregate stability in a Chernozem soil from a temperate environment; 2 to evaluate two procedures to detect such effects on soil aggregates (i.e. dry and wet sieving; 3 to use different indexes to measure possible changes in aggregate distribution and stability (mean weight diameter, geometric mean diameter and aggregate stability. The samples were heated in a muffle furnace, and subjected to the following treatments: control (room temperature, 200 oC and 300 oC for 20 minutes and 580 oC for 10 minutes. The Chernozem soil was affected by the different temperatures. At 200 ºC, there was a decrease in the geometric mean diameter, mean weight diameter and the soil aggregate stability. Aggregates of 2.8 mm were most influenced by this temperature. On the other hand, the 580 °C temperature caused an increase in these indexes. The 300 °C temperature caused intermediate response compared to other temperatures. The wet sieving was the most efficient technique to detect the temperature effects on soil.

  10. 24/7 Registered Nurse Staffing Coverage in Saskatchewan Nursing Homes and Acute Hospital Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Margaret J; Murphy, Janice M; Poss, Jeffrey W; McGrail, Kimberlyn M; Kuramoto, Lisa; Huang, Huei-Chung; Bryan, Stirling

    2015-12-01

    RÉSUMÉ La législation, dans de nombreuses juridictions, nécessite les établissements des soins de longue durée (SLD) d'avoir une infirmière en service 24 heures par jour, 7 jours par semaine. Bien que la recherche considérable existe sur l'intensité SLD de la dotation en personnel infirmier, il n'existe pas de la recherche empirique relative à cette exigence. Notre étude rétrospectif d'observation a comparé des installations en Saskatchewan avec 24/7 RN couverture aux établissements offrant moins de couverture, complétées par divers modèles de dotation des postes de nuit. Les ratios de risque associés à moins de 24/7 couverture RN complété de la dotation infirmière autorisé de nuit, ajusté pour l'intensité de dotation en personnel infirmier et d'autres facteurs de confusion potentiels, étaient de 1,17, IC 95% [0,91, 1,50] et 1.00, IC à 95% [0,72, 1,39], et avec moins de couverture 24/7 RN complété avec soin par aides personnels de nuit, les ratios de risque étaient de 1,46, IC 95% [1,11, 1,91] et 1,11, IC 95% [0,78, 1,58], pour les patients hospitalisés et de visites aux services d'urgence, respectivement. Ces résultats suggèrent que l'utilisation des soins de courte durée peut être influencée négativement par l'absence de la couverture 24/7 RN.

  11. The use of alternative therapies in the Saskatchewan stroke rehabilitation population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefromova Ludmilla

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients use alternative therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of stroke rehabilitation patients in Saskatchewan using alternative therapies, whether patients found these therapies effective in alleviating stroke-related symptoms, how often those patients who used alternative therapies discuss this fact with their primary care doctor and the main reason why patients might not do so. Methods Telephone questionnaire surveys were conducted with 117 patients who had suffered a stroke and undergone inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation at Saskatoon City Hospital. Results The study revealed that 26.5% of 117 stroke rehabilitation patients visited alternative practitioners at least once or used some form of unconventional therapy. Only 16.1% of patients found that alternative therapy made them feel much better. Of those who used alternative therapy, 61.3% did not discuss this fact with their primary physician. Many of the respondents (47.3% who did not inform their physician stated that they did not see the necessity of talking about these treatments and 21.1% did not discuss the issue with their physician because they felt that he or she might disapprove of alternative therapies. Conclusion A relatively small percentage of stroke patients found alternative therapies beneficial. Doctors should be aware that a significant number of patients will try alternative treatment without discussion with their primary care physician or specialist. The current study suggests that after completing routine questioning, doctors should also ask their patients about their use of alternative therapies and, when appropriate, review issues of safety and efficacy.

  12. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in Saskatchewan's Five Hills Health Region, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Tara L; Anderson, Maureen E; Drebot, Michael A; Vooght, Mark T R; Findlater, A Ross; Curry, Phillip S; Campbell, C Alexia; Osei, William D

    2006-01-01

    The Five Hills Health Region of Saskatchewan reported the highest West Nile virus (WNV) case rates in the 2003 outbreak. A serologic and telephone survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence of the virus and the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of the residents. Respondents had to be at least 18 years of age, and residents of the Five Hills Health Region between July 1st and September 15th, 2003. Blood samples of respondents were tested at the National Microbiology Laboratory for flavivirus immunoglobulin using a WNV IgG ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization test. Descriptive analyses performed related to respondents' demographics, knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and seropositivity. WNV infection risk was assessed using odds ratio. There were 619 questionnaire respondents, of whom 501 donated a blood sample. The seroprevalence of WNV in the Five Hills Health Region was 9.98% (95% CI 7.37-12.59%). Seropositivity of rural areas was 16.8% and urban was 3.2%. Most (97%) of participants thought WNV was an important health issue. Forty-eight percent of the participants used insect repellents containing DEET most of the time. There was good knowledge regarding WNV transmission and prevention of the spread of WNV. Rural compared to urban residents were six times more likely to be positive for WNV (OR=6.13, 95% CI 2.82-13.34). This is the highest seroprevalence rate of West Nile virus recorded in North America thus far. Many factors could have influenced this outbreak, such as eco-region, early prolonged hot weather, level of mosquito control programs, urban and rural community differences, and personal protective behaviours.

  13. Petrophysical and geotechnical properties of Lea Park Formation shale from Weyburn, Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Environmental Engineering; Hawkes, C.D. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The petrophysical and geotechnical properties of the shale rock found within the Leak Park Formation were characterized by testing preserved core samples from a well in a mature oil field in Weyburn Saskatchewan. EnCana Corporation has been using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection at the well site since 2000 for enhanced oil recovery. The site is also the focus of a major international research project on carbon storage and monitoring. The objective of the testing program was to determine the potential for this formation to act as a barrier to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) leakage, in the event that CO{sub 2} injected into the Midale unit was to leak through the primary caprock that overlies the injection zone. The core samples had water contents of approximately 17 per cent by weight and a porosity of 22 per cent. Plastic and liquid limits were measured to be 22.5 and 94.7 per cent respectively. The shale consists mainly of quartz, mixed-layer illite-montmorillonite, and illite. Results indicate that the Lea Park Formation is a relatively uniform, ultra low-permeability aquitard that should be effective for mitigating upwards migration of CO{sub 2}. The results of this testing program will also be useful in hydrogeological investigations of field-scale flow patterns in the Weyburn region, the design of drilling programs and drilling fluids for wells that penetrate the Lea Park Formation, and for geotechnical engineering projects that might use the Lea Park Formation as a construction material. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Control of the floating potential fluctuations via limiter biasing in the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Xiao, C.; Zhang, L.; Hirose, A.

    1994-11-01

    Limiter biasing experiments have been performed in the STOR-M tokamak (Saskatchewan Torus-Modified) [Phys. Fluids B 4, 3277 (1992)]. It is found that the floating potential fluctuation amplitudes in the scrape-off layer (SOL) depend mainly on the limiter potential and this potential determines the current flowing toward the limiter. The dependence of the fluctuation amplitude on the potential gradient in the SOL is rather weak. For positive limiter bias, a strong suppression of the floating potential fluctuation is observed, while for negative limiter biasing the floating potential fluctuations are significantly enhanced. The observed phenomena are consistent with recent theoretical studies [Phys. Fluids B 5, 3191 (1993)].

  15. Measurement of plasma rotation velocities with electrode biasing in the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Jain, K. K.; Zhang, W.; Hirose, A.

    1994-07-01

    In the Saskatchewan Torus-Modified (STOR-M) tokamak [Phys. Fluids B 4, 3277 (1992)], application of a negative bias results in large negative radial electric field, Er, at the plasma edge, reduced plasma toroidal rotation velocity, and a large poloidal rotation in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. Conversely, a positive bias leads to a relatively small negative Er at the plasma edge, a positive Er in the scrape-off layer, increased toroidal rotation, and an increased poloidal rotation speed in the ion diamagnetic drift direction. Increases in edge plasma density and steepening of its radial profile have also been observed for both polarities.

  16. Access to linked administrative healthcare utilization data for pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacoeconomics research in Canada: anti-viral drugs as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Nigel S B

    2009-11-01

    Administrative healthcare utilization data from Canadian provinces have been used for pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacoeconomics research, but limited transparency exists about opportunities for data access, who can access them, and processes to obtain data. An attempt was made to obtain data from all 10 provinces to evaluate access and its complexity. An initial enquiry about the process and requirements to obtain data on individual, anonymized patients dispensed any of four anti-viral drugs in the ambulatory setting, linked with data from hospital and physician service claims, was sent to each province. Where a response was encouraging, a technical description of the data of interest was submitted. Data were unavailable from the provinces of New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island, and inaccessible from British Columbia, Manitoba and Ontario due to policies that prohibit collaborative work with pharmaceutical industry researchers. In Nova Scotia, patient-level data were available but only on site. Data were accessible in Alberta, Quebec and Saskatchewan, although variation exists in the currency of the data, time to obtain data, approval requirements and insurance coverage eligibility. As Canada moves towards a life-cycle management approach to drug regulation, more post-marketing studies will be required, potentially using administrative data. Linked patient-level drug and healthcare data are presently accessible to pharmaceutical industry researchers in four provinces, although only logistically realistic in three and limited to seniors and low-income individuals in two. Collaborative endeavours to improve access to provincial data and to create other data resources should be encouraged. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Decommissioning costs and financial assurances for uranium mines and mills in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, R. [AREVA/COGEMA Resources Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    'Full text:' The Athabasca Basin region of northern Saskatchewan is now the location of all uranium production in Canada. About one-third of world primary production originates from the region with seven projects, as follows, currently licensed by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) and by Saskatchewan Environment (SE): Rabbit Lake - underground and (formerly) open pit mining, mill, tailings management facilities - operating. Cluff Lake - underground and open pit mining, mill, tailings management facility - decommissioning (operations ceased in 2002). Key Lake - (formerly) open pit mining, mill, tailings management facilities - operating (ore from McArthur River). McClean Lake - open pit mining, mill, tailings management facility - operating. McArthur River - underground mine (ore to Key Lake) - operating. Cigar lake - underground mine - construction - Midwest - future mine development - site preparation licence. Preliminary decommissioning plans, and financial guarantees for future decommissioning, are a requirement of each licence. The Elliot Lake area of Canada has also had extensive uranium mining and milling activities, with the last operating mine closing in 1996. Decommissioning has been completed by the licensees, however monitoring, care and maintenance of the sites is ongoing. This leads to a reduced, but ongoing, requirement for financial guarantees. Decommissioning objectives for a uranium mine and mill site must consider that the waste rock and tailings resulting from the operation, as well as the majority of the waste materials resulting from removing the physical facilities, will be managed on site for the long term. This is a fundamental difference from many other types of nuclear facilities, where all of the physical facilities, and the wastes which have been produced during operations, are removed and disposed elsewhere. Other factors which differ from many other nuclear facilities are the remote location, and the need for an

  18. Canada Enacts Significant Changes to its Foreign Investment Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Pawluch; Kevin Wright; Jonathan Gilhen

    2010-01-01

    A foreigner considering an investment in Canada might understandably be overwhelmed (and potentially deterred) by the complex regulatory framework governing the potential investment. Catherine A. Pawluch, Kevin Wright, & Jonathan Gilhen (Davis LLP)

  19. Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis in wolves from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M; Elkin, Brett T; Jenkins, Emily J

    2014-02-01

    Echinococcus species are important parasites of wildlife, domestic animals and people worldwide; however, little is known about the prevalence, intensity and genetic diversity of Echinococcus tapeworms in Canadian wildlife. Echinococcus tapeworms were harvested from the intestines of 42% of 93 wolves (Canis lupus) from five sampling regions in the Northwest Territories, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and visually identified to genus level by microscopic examination. Genetic characterization was successful for tapeworms from 30 wolves, and identified both Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus multilocularis in all sampling locations. Mixed infections of E. canadensis/E. multilocularis, as well as the G8/G10 genotypes of E. canadensis were observed. These findings suggest that wolves may be an important definitive host for both parasite species in western Canada. This represents the first report of wolves naturally infected with E. multilocularis in North America, and of wolves harbouring mixed infections with multiple species and genotypes of Echinococcus. These observations provide important information regarding the distribution and diversity of zoonotic species of Echinococcus in western North America, and may be of interest from public health and wildlife conservation perspectives.

  20. Modelling carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Wang, Junye

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural soils are a leading source of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and are major contributors to global climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) makes up 20% of the total GHG emitted from agricultural soil. Therefore, an evaluation of CO2 emissions from agricultural soil is necessary in order to make mitigation strategies for environmental efficiency and economic planning possible. However, quantification of CO2 emissions through experimental methods is constrained due to the large time and labour requirements for analysis. Therefore, a modelling approach is needed to achieve this objective. In this paper, the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), a process-based model, was modified to predict CO2 emissions for Canada from regional conditions. The modified DNDC model was applied at three experimental sites in the province of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the simulations of the modified DNDC model are in good agreement with observations. The agricultural management of fertilization and irrigation were evaluated using scenario analysis. The simulated total annual CO2 flux changed on average by ±13% and ±1% following a ±50% variance of the total amount of N applied by fertilising and the total amount of water through irrigation applications, respectively. Therefore, careful management of irrigation and applications of fertiliser can help to reduce CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of various herbicides effect on two Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eskandar zand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of two varieties of Canada thistle (Horridum, and Integrifolium to 14 herbicides was examined under controlled environment conditions in 2000, at Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Each herbicide constituted a separate experiment. Each experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications (one pot per replicate. Each herbicide was applied at 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 times the recommended rate (in g a.i. ha-1: metsulfuron, 4.44; 2,4-D, 876; 2,4-DB, 1400; clopyralid, 152; dicamba, 128; MCPA, 876; MCPB, 1700; MCPB+MCPA (15:1, respectively, by volume, 1700; mecoprop, 926; hexazinone, 1008; bentazon, 840; bromoxynil, 336; glyphosate, 880; glufosinate, 500. Twenty-one days after treatment, shoots were cut at soil level, and dry matter was determined. For statistical analysis of the dose-response data were fitted to a log-logistic model. Shoot dry matter responses of the Canada thistle varieties to the herbicides were described well by log-logistsic model. Results indicated that bromoxynil, and hexazinone had maximum effect, and metsulfuron minimum effect on Canada thistle (based on control effect index. Varieties horridum and integrifolium responsed differently to increasing rates of hexazinone only. Variety integrifolium was 40% less sensitive to the herbicide than variety horridum. If can not attribute the lack of control to soil properties or environment, it should ascertain the varietal type.

  2. "I'm On Home Ground Now. I'm Safe" Saskatchewan Aboriginal Veterans in the Immediate Postwar Years, 1945-1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Robert Alexander

    2004-01-01

    In 1945 the Saskatchewan Aboriginal veterans from World War II returned to a rapidly changing world. The economy was improving dramatically as expanding industries encouraged unprecedented consumerism. In addition, new social values reflected an optimism for the elimination of the social inequality epitomized by Nazi Germany. The new social…

  3. The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Charles N; Wajda, Andre; Svenson, Lawrence W; MacKenzie, Adrian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Jackson, Maureen; Fedorak, Richard; Israel, David; Blanchard, James F

    2006-07-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated a high incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Canadian province of Manitoba. However, the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in other regions of Canada has not been defined. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of CD and UC in diverse regions of Canada and the overall burden of IBD in Canada. We applied a common case identification algorithm, previously validated in Manitoba to the provincial health databases in British Columbia (BC), Alberta (AB), Saskatchewan (SK), Manitoba (MB), and Nova Scotia (NS) to determine the age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 person-years for 1998-2000 and prevalence per 100,000 for mid 2000 and to estimate the IBD burden in Canada. Poisson regression was used to assess differences in incidence rates and prevalence by gender, age, and province. The incidence rate for CD ranged from 8.8 (BC) to 20.2 (NS), and for UC ranged from 9.9 (BC) to 19.5 (NS). The prevalence of CD was approximately 15- to 20-fold higher than the incidence rate, ranging from 161 (BC) to 319 (NS). This was similar for the prevalence of UC, which ranged from 162 (BC) to 249 (MB). Adjusting for age and province, the female:male ratio for incidence ratio was 1.31 (p < 0.0001) for CD and 1.02 (n.s.) for UC and was mostly stable across the five provinces. Approximately 0.5% of the Canadian population has IBD. Canada has the highest incidence and prevalence of CD yet reported.

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Y

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yelena Bird, John Moraros, Razi Mahmood, Sarvenaz Esmaeelzadeh, Nway Mon Kyaw Soe School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Background: COPD among Aboriginal peoples in Canada is a major public health concern. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and association between certain risk factors and COPD among the 35-year-old or older Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It uses data from Statistics Canada’s Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS, 2012. It consists of 8,117 self-identified Aboriginal peoples, aged 35 years old or older from all Canadian provinces and territories. The study outcomes centered on evaluating the prevalence and associated factors of COPD. Results: This study found that 6.80% of the participants self-reported having COPD. Results of the logistic regression analysis show that COPD was significantly higher among daily smokers (odds ratio [OR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.65–3.14, aged 55 years or older (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.14–4.30, who earned $5,000–$9,999 per annum (OR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.39–7.41 and needed health care over the past 12 months and did not receive it (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.27–2.65. Conclusion: The findings of our study show that COPD is strongly associated with Aboriginal peoples, who are older, smoke, have a low socioeconomic status (SES and do not have access to health care when needed. Clinicians, health care professionals, medical/public health organizations, researchers and patients will greatly benefit from additional research in this common, serious and often overlooked disease among Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Keywords: COPD, smoking, socioeconomic status, Aboriginal peoples, Canada

  5. The next big thing : unconventional gas explorers lay technical foundations for shale gas development across Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2007-12-15

    Canadian exploration companies have successfully developed strategies for economically extracting gas from coal seams and unconventional tight reservoirs. According to Talisman Energy Inc., the next step is to tap into Canada's shale gas resource. In contrast to conventional gas targets, shale gas acts both as a source rock and reservoir rock with the natural gas contained within shale sequences. The gas is stored as adsorbed gas attached to kerogen in the shale, or exists as free gas in pores and fractures. The 2 main types of shale reservoirs include those where the gas was produced thermogenically through high temperatures and those where the gas was produced biogenically through bacterial breakdown. Innovative drilling and stimulation technologies are needed to extract sufficient volumes of gas and to commercially produce either type of shale play. Western Canada is the primary focus for shale gas exploration, mostly in deeper thermogenic shales in northern Alberta and British Columbia. Industry experts are comparing a play in the Fort Nelson area to the prolific Barnett Shale in Texas. Directional drilling and measurement while drilling technology has allowed shale developers in the United States to more accurately hit target prospects and to intersect more of the prospective pay zone. Improved fracturing technology has also allowed developers to improve the permeability of shale reservoirs. This experience will be helpful in Canada, although much experimenting is still required, including microseismic mapping that provides images of the fractures created by hydraulic fracturing. The area for biogenic shale exploration in Canada is in the Colorado Cretaceous Group of shales stretching across central Alberta and Saskatchewan. Stealth Ventures Ltd. and PanTerra Resource Corp. have been testing several technologies to make the shale play economic. Developing the plays will require the appropriate drilling and completion technologies to assess the plays. It

  6. A critical cost benefit analysis of oilseed biodiesel in Canada : a BIOCAP research integration program synthesis paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaney, M.J.T.; Hartley Furtan, W. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada); Loutas, P. [Northstar Engineering, Chico, CA (United States)

    2006-03-15

    This paper investigated resources in Canada with the potential for conversion to biodiesel and analyzed strategies for the development of a biodiesel economy in Saskatchewan. Costs and benefits of biodiesel production were investigated. Producer margins for growing biodiesel crops were examined. Grain transportation and storage methods for various feed materials were discussed, as well as oil extraction and refining strategies that influence non-oil co-products. Biodiesel production technologies were also evaluated, and various distribution methods were discussed. The study determined that the costs and benefits of a biodiesel economy would accrue to many different sectors and sub-sectors, including seed production; farming; agricultural chemicals; fertilizers; grain storage and transportation; biodiesel manufacture and distribution; and petroleum manufacture and distribution. Outlines of impacts on each sector were examined under various scenarios. Results of the study demonstrated that the quantity of low-priced canola that is available in a given year has a significant impact on the profitability of a biodiesel industry in Saskatchewan. 16 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  8. Cooperative Development Gap in Québec and Saskatchewan 1980 to 2010: A Tale of Two Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitch Diamantopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses Gramscian hegemony theory and the social movement approach to cooperative development to investigate the cooperative development gap that opened up between the provinces of Québec and Saskatchewan from 1980 to 2010. First, provincial sector growth is compared across several indices to establish this gap’s empirical scope and scale. Second, historical research and fieldwork findings are used to illuminate the gap’s origins and its historical significance. The article concludes that the development gap has been largely driven by bloc formation and dissolution—the historic erosion of Saskatchewan’s traditional, agrarian-cooperative bloc and the renewal and expansion of Québec’s social economy bloc. / Cette étude utilise la théorie de l’hégémonie de Gramsci et la méthode par le mouvement social pour le développement des coopératives afin d’enquêter sur l’écart qui s’est creusé entre les provinces du Québec et de la Saskatchewan de 1980 à 2010 en ce qui a trait au développement des coopératives. Tout d’abord, pour établir la portée et l’échelle empiriques de cet écart, cette étude compare la croissance de ce secteur entre les deux provinces. Ensuite, l’origine de l’écart et sa signification historique sont mis en lumière grâce aux recherches historiques et aux conclusions tirées de l’étude sur le terrain. Finalement, il est conclut dans cet article que l’écart de développement a été majoritairement créé par la formation et la dissolution de blocs – l’érosion par le temps du bloc coopératif agraire traditionnel de la Saskatchewan ainsi que le renouveau et l’expansion du bloc d’économie sociale du Québec.

  9. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... ​This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system. Published by the Centre for International Governance Innovation, Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

  10. Historypin for Library Image Collections: New Modes of Access for Unique Materials at the University of Saskatchewan Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Harkema

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A combination of user needs and an evolving information landscape make it imperative for libraries to plan for and initiate digital projects with interface in mind. To meet the needs of a wide range of digital library users, supplementary interfaces should be considered from the beginning of a project rather than simply adding an out-of-the-box interface with basic search functionality. This paper discusses the theoretical and practical considerations of selecting or implementing interfaces for the exploration of library content. It uses the University Library, University of Saskatchewan as a case study, drawing on, in particular, the use of Historypin as a way to geolocate and interact with the Library's Postcard Collection.

  11. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  12. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  13. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  14. Acid precipitation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. W. Summers; D. M. Whelpdale

    1976-01-01

    The total annual emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in Canada are estimated to be 7.2 x 106 tons and 1.4 x 106 tons, respectively. These figures represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the estimated worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Nearly two-thirds of the Canadian SO2 emissions come from...

  15. University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC): an assessment of its utility for teaching diagnostic imaging in the medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Brent; Kalra, Neil; Malin, Greg; Trinder, Krista; Pinelle, David

    2015-01-01

    We have found it very challenging to integrate images from our radiology digital imaging repository into the curriculum of our local medical school. Thus, it has been difficult to convey important knowledge related to viewing and interpreting diagnostic radiology images. We sought to determine if we could create a solution for this problem and evaluate whether students exposed to this solution were able to learn imaging concepts pertinent to medical practice. We developed University of Saskatchewan Radiology Courseware (USRC), a novel interactive web application that enables preclinical medical students to acquire image interpretation skills fundamental to clinical practice. This web application reformats content stored in Medical Imaging Resource Center teaching cases for BlackBoard Learn™, a popular learning management system. We have deployed this solution for 2 successive years in a 1st-year basic sciences medical school course at the College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan. The "courseware" content covers both normal anatomy and common clinical pathologies in five distinct modules. We created two cohorts of learners consisting of an intervention cohort of students who had used USRC for their 1st academic year, whereas the nonintervention cohort was students who had not been exposed to this learning opportunity. To assess the learning experience of the users we designed an online questionnaire and image review quiz delivered to both of the student groups. Comparisons between the groups revealed statistically significant differences in both confidence with image interpretation and the ability to answer knowledge-based questions. Students were satisfied with the overall usability, functions, and capabilities of USRC. USRC is an innovative technology that provides integration between Medical Imaging Resource Center, a teaching solution used in radiology, and a Learning Management System.

  16. Derivation of no-effect and reference-level sediment quality values for application at Saskatchewan uranium operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Liber, Karsten

    2013-11-01

    To date, the majority of empirical approaches used to derive sediment quality values (SQVs) have focused on metal concentrations in sediment associated with adverse effects on benthic invertebrate communities. Here, we propose the no-effect (NE) approach. This SQV derivation methodology uses metal concentrations in sediment associated with unaffected benthic communities (i.e., from reference sites and lightly contaminated no-effect sites) and accounts for local benthic invertebrate tolerance and potential chemical interactions at no-effect exposure sites. This NE approach was used to propose alternative regional SQVs for uranium operations in northern Saskatchewan. Three different sets of NE values were derived using different combinations of benthic invertebrate community effects criteria (abundance, richness, evenness, Bray-Curtis index). Additionally, reference values were derived based solely on sediment metal concentrations from reference sites. In general, NE values derived using abundance, richness, and evenness (NE1 and NE2 values) were found to be higher than the NE values derived using all four metrics (NE3 values). Derived NE values for Cr, Cu, Pb, and V did not change with the incorporation of additional effects criteria due to a lack of influence from the uranium operations on the concentrations of these metals in sediment. However, a gradient of exposure concentrations was apparent for As, Mo, Ni, Se, and U in sediment which allowed for tolerable exposure levels of these metals in sediment to be defined. The findings from this assessment have suggested a range of new, alternate metal SQVs for use at uranium operations in northern Saskatchewan.

  17. The role of farm operational and rural environments as potential risk factors for pediatric asthma in rural Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Rebecca J; Pickett, William; Rennie, Donna C; Dosman, James A; Pahwa, Punam; Hagel, Louise; Karunanayake, Chandima; Lawson, Joshua A

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have historically reported that farm children have a lower prevalence of asthma compared to more urban children. Potential explanations include theories surrounding differences in personal factors, access to health care, engagement in health risk behaviors, and differences in the environment. The aims of this study were to: (1) confirm whether the prevalence of asthma varies between farm and small town status among children living in Saskatchewan; (2) identify risk and protective factors for asthma, and use this information to infer which of the above theories is most explanatory for any observed geographic variations in pediatric asthma. Rural students (N = 2383, 42% participation rate) from the province of Saskatchewan participated in a 2011 cross-sectional study. Parents completed a survey that included questions about location of residence, respiratory symptoms, potential risk factors for respiratory disease, and exposures to farm activities. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine relations between respiratory outcomes (asthma, wheeze) with farm type and farm activities, while accounting for factors that may underlie such relations. Asthma and wheeze prevalence did not differ by residential status. Living on a grain farm (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.43-0.96), cleaning or playing in pens (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.46-1.02), filling grain bins (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.32-0.96), and riding horses (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.40-1.05) were protective factors for ever diagnosis with asthma. We identified a number of risk and protective factors for asthma and associated wheeze. This suggests the need to focus on specific environmental explanations to better understand previously observed associations between farm residential status and asthma. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entry to Manitoba/Saskatchewan residential schools—1919 to 1953

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Paul Hackett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: First Nations people are experiencing increasing rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes but no anthropometric information exists from before the 1950s to provide context to these epidemics. Objective: To compare anthropometric indices of First Nations children and youth on first entering residential schools with historical and contemporary reference groups. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study used archival records from the Department of Indian Affairs to calculate body mass index (BMI, height for age (HA and weight for age (WA of all known children and youth undergoing physical examinations on first entering residential schools in Saskatchewan and Manitoba from 1919 to 1953. Proportions of children and youth in each BMI category were determined by age, sex, time period and residential school. Z-scores for HA and WA were determined by age group and sex. Finally, median heights and weights were compared with a non-Indigenous cohort from the 1953 Canadian survey. Results: On admission to residential schools, 1,767 First Nations children and youth (847 boys, 920 girls were more likely to have normal BMIs (79.8% than Canadian children and youth today (66.5%, but lower rates of overweight/obesity (10.9% vs. 32.0% and higher rates of underweight (9.3% vs. −2, age-specific median heights tended to be higher than Canadian children and youth in 1953. Under 3% of children and youth had WA Z-scores of >−2. Conclusions: A large majority of First Nations children and youth exhibited normal anthropometric indices on first entering residential schools in Manitoba and Saskatchewan from 1919 to 1953. These historical findings provide an important context to the current epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes and suggest that the nutritional conditions in these First Nations children's communities were satisfactory during the residential school era.

  19. Conductivity gradients as inferred by electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings within a salt-affected wetland in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Schroeder, William

    2018-01-01

    The change from deep-rooted grass and shrub vegetation to annual-cropping dryland farming has contributed to serious soil salinization challenges on the semi-arid North American Great Plains. In some cases, cultivation of the Great Plains has increased the availability of water, causing dominant sulfate salts to travel from the uphill areas to depressions where it will surface when water evaporates at the soil surface. A potential solution could include the replanting of the native deep-rooted vegetation, which requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of soil salinity. This study tested the soil factors influencing electromagnetic-induction meter (EM38) readings of soil salinity distribution around wetlands. The objectives were to: (1) predict growth and survival of Salix dasyclados Wimm. (cv. `India') along a salinity gradient in a small wetland, and (2) investigate whether newly established willows affected water-table fluctuations, which would indicate their phreatophytic nature or their ability to obtain their water supply from the zone of saturation. Results indicated significantly lower salinity values for sampling points with EM38 readings above 175 and 250 mS m-1 for height and survival, respectively. In addition, diurnal fluxes of the water table in areas of good willow growth and lower salinity indicated that cultivar `India' was phreatophytic in these areas and therefore has great potential for being used to combat saline seeps.

  20. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1994 Annual Meeting (Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, June 3-7, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers from the 1994 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are divided into the following sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; (4) ad hoc groups; and (5) reports on ICMI (International Committee on Mathematical Instruction) studies. Papers include: (1)…

  1. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Duncan, Charles Randy; DesRoches, Andrea; Bendig, Melissa; Steeves, Megan; Turner, Holly; Quaife, Terra; McCann, Chuck; Enns, Brett

    2013-01-01

    ... of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory' outcomes of our team's program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services' Outreach Worker Service (OWS...

  2. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gushulak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC in newcomer children living in Saskatchewan. Results: In the sample of newcomer children in Saskatchewan, the prevalence of inadequacy in calcium and vitamin D intakes was 76% and 89.4%, respectively. Vitamin D intake from food/supplement was significantly higher in immigrants compared to refugees, which accords with the significant difference in serum status. Circulating vitamin D status indicated that 29% of participants were deficient and another 44% had inadequate levels of serum 25(OHD for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake, sex, region of origin, and length of stay in Canada were significant predictors of serum vitamin D status. Results for TBBMC revealed that 38.6% were found to have low TBBMC compared to estimated values for age, sex, and ethnicity. In the regression model, after controlling for possible confounders, children who were taller and had greater circulating vitamin D also had greater TBBMC. Nationally, immigrant children, particularly girls, have significantly lower plasma 25(OHD than non-immigrant children. Interpretation: Newcomer immigrant and refugee children are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, which may have serious negative consequences for their health.

  3. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  4. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  5. Evolving Perspectives on Lyme Borreliosis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, JLH; Middelveen, MJ; Klein, D; Sperling, FAH

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23091570

  6. Midwifery education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M; Hutton, Eileen K; McNiven, Patricia S

    2016-02-01

    This article is part of a special series on midwifery education and describes the approach to midwifery education in Canada We begin with an overview of the model of midwifery practice introduced in Canada in the 1990s. We describe the model of midwifery education developed and report how it is implemented, with particular attention to the two longest established programs. Midwifery education programs in Ontario and British Columbia. Midwifery education programs in Canada are offered at the undergraduate baccalaureate level at universities and are typically four years in length. Programs are competence-based and follow a spiral curriculum. The first semesters focus on on core sciences, social sciences and introduction to midwifery concepts. Students spend fifty percent of the program in clinical practices with community-based midwives. Innovative education models enable students to be placed in distant placements and help to align theoretical and practice components. Clinically active faculty adds to the credibility of teaching but bring its own challenges for midwifery educators. The Canadian model of midwifery education has been very effective with low attrition rates and high demand for the number of places available. Further program expansion is warranted but is contingent on the growth of clinical placements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Site-specific estimates of water yield applied in regional acid sensitivity surveys across western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff or water yield is an important input to the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC model for estimating critical loads of acidity. Herein, we present site-specific water yield estimates for a large number of lakes (779 across three provinces of western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia using an isotope mass balance (IMB approach. We explore the impact of applying site-specific hydrology as compared to use of regional runoff estimates derived from gridded datasets in assessing critical loads of acidity to these lakes. In general, the average water yield derived from IMB is similar to the long-term average runoff; however, IMB results suggest a much larger range in hydrological settings of the lakes, attributed to spatial heterogeneity in watershed characteristics and landcover. The comparison of critical loads estimates from the two methods suggests that use of average regional runoff data in the SSWC model may overestimate critical loads for the majority of lakes due to systematic skewness in the actual runoff distributions. Implications for use of site-specific hydrology in regional critical loads assessments across western Canada are discussed.

  8. Canada Among Nations 2013, Canada-Africa Relations: Looking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    19 août 2013 ... Depuis 1984, la collection Canada Among Nations invite d'éminents chercheurs et praticiens du Canada et de l'étranger à évaluer ensemble la politique étrangère du Canada. Préparé par la Norman Paterson School of International Affairs (NPSIA) de l'Université Carleton, le numéro de 2013 est le premier ...

  9. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Canada's population is aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jennifer; Samis, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Canada's population is aging, and the authors of this issue's lead article, Neena Chappell and Marcus Hollander, present a policy prescription for how to design a healthcare system that better responds to needs of older Canadians. The timing of this issue of Healthcare Papers is important: the first of the baby boomers turned 65 in January 2011. There is a pressing need to develop policies and implement sustainable reforms that will allow older adults to stay healthier and maintain their independence longer in their place of choice, while also creating efficiencies and quality improvements in our overall healthcare system that will benefit Canadians of all ages.

  11. Radiation Protection in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, P. M.

    1964-01-01

    The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout. PMID:14143681

  12. Application of Lacustrine Biomarkers to Reconstruct Late Holocene Temperature Change in the Saskatchewan Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzin, B.; Toney, J. L.; Pearson, E. J.; Schouten, S.; Leavitt, P.; Haig, H.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme hydrological events such as prolonged droughts are among Canada's costliest natural calamities resulting in disastrous impacts on agriculture, forestry, industry, and ecosystems. Investigations into climate variations prior to significant anthropogenic modification are essential to build effective projection models and adaptation strategies needed to reduce economic, social and environmental vulnerability within the prairies eco-region. In this study we use organic geochemical analysis of lipids produced by bacteria, archaea and algae in lake and catchment sediments. These organic compounds are highly resistant to degradation and accumulate in the sediments as geochemical fossils or biomarkers. In particular we focus on Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers (GDGT) biomarkers which are ubiquitous in soils and lacustrine environments and can be applied as quantitative temperature proxies in regions of the world where other proxies cannot be used. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between GDGT distribution and temperature and assess the potential for establishing a GDGT-based paleothermometer for the Canadian prairies lakes. Our training set includes GDGT data from core-top sediments from 105 lakes across spanning a 5° latitudinal gradient and spring surface water temperature gradient of about 9°C. We identified 30 known bacterial and archaeal GDGTs, including the novel archaeal tetraether lipids with a cyclohexyl ring. These compounds are present in varying proportions in all the lakes investigated, suggesting a broad range of GDGT inputs and also potential in-situ production. We analysed the relationships between individual GDGT compounds against temperature, pH, conductivity, water depth and other environmental variables. We also examined previously published GDGT-environment indices in order to test the applicability of previously developed GDGT-based paleotemperature calibrations to the prairies lakes and assess whether a new

  13. Acute posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression after exposure to the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show disaster: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Carleton, R Nicholas; Brundin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute distress-that is, clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression-and to identify predictors of each in a sample of people who witnessed a fatal aircraft collision at the 2005 Saskatchewan Centennial Air Show. Air Show attendees (N = 157) were recruited by advertisements in the local media and completed an Internet-administered battery of questionnaires. Based on previously established cut-offs, 22 percent respondents had clinically significant PTSS and 24 percent had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Clinically significant symptoms were associated with posttrauma impairment in social and occupational functioning. Acute distress was associated with several variables, including aspects of Air Show trauma exposure, severity of prior trauma exposure, low posttrauma social support (ie, negative responses by others), indices of poor coping (eg, intolerance of uncertainty, rumination about the trauma), and elevated scores on anxiety sensitivity, the personality trait of absorption, and dissociative tendencies. Results suggest that clinically significant acute distress is common in the aftermath of witnessed trauma. The statistical predictors (correlates) of acute distress were generally consistent with the results of studies of other forms of trauma. People with elevated scores on theoretical vulnerability factors (eg, elevated anxiety sensitivity) were particularly likely to develop acute distress.

  14. Tracking Dietary Patterns over 20 Years from Childhood through Adolescence into Young Adulthood: The Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Elham Z; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Kontulainen, Saija; Whiting, Susan J; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2017-09-08

    Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (aged 8-15 years, at baseline) were included. Multiple 24-h recalls were collected annually from 1991 to 1997, 2002 to 2005, and 2010 and 2011. Using principal component analysis, "Vegetarian-style", "Western-like", "High-fat, high-protein", "Mixed", and "Snack" DPs were derived at baseline. Applied DP scores for all annual measurements were calculated using factor loading of baseline DPs and energy-adjusted food group intakes. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations. The tracking coefficient represents correlation between baseline dietary pattern scores and all other follow-up dietary pattern scores. We found a moderate tracking for the "Vegetarian-style" (β = 0.44, p adulthood showed an increasing trend in adherence to "Vegetarian-style" DP and decreasing trend in adherence to "High-fat, high-protein" DP by age in both sexes (p adulthood.

  15. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  16. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    61 Access to Medicines ...and Mexico . Canada claims the rule is a non-tariff barrier that has led to a steep drop in beef and hog shipments to U.S. processors...concern about trade in pirated and counterfeit goods in Canada, as well as weak enforcement and relatively lax penalties

  17. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Hume; Bouchard, Patrice; Anderson, Robert S; de Tonnancour, Pierre; Vigneault, Robert; Webster, Reginald P

    2013-01-01

    The following species of Curculionoidea are recorded from Canada for the first time, in ten cases also representing new records at the generic level: Ischnopterapion (Ischnopterapion) loti (Kirby, 1808); Stenopterapion meliloti (Kirby, 1808) (both Brentidae); Atrichonotus taeniatulus (Berg, 1881); Barinus cribricollis (LeConte, 1876); Caulophilus dubius (Horn, 1873); Cionus scrophulariae (Linnaeus, 1758); Cryptorhynchus tristis LeConte, 1876; Cylindrocopturus furnissi Buchanan, 1940; Cylindrocopturus quercus (Say, 1832); Desmoglyptus crenatus (LeConte, 1876); Pnigodes setosus LeConte, 1876; Pseudopentarthrum parvicollis (Casey, 1892); Sibariops confinis (LeConte, 1876); Sibariops confusus (Boheman, 1836); Smicronyx griseus LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx lineolatus Casey, 1892; Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff, 1875); Hylocurus rudis (LeConte, 1876); Lymantor alaskanus Wood, 1978; Phloeotribus scabricollis (Hopkins, 1916); Scolytus oregoni Blackman, 1934; Xyleborus celsus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801); Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky, 1866) (all Curculionidae). In addition the following species were recorded for the first time from these provinces and territories: Yukon - Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868; Phloetribus piceae Swaine, 1911 (both Curculionidae); Northwest Territories - Loborhynchapion cyanitinctum (Fall, 1927) (Brentidae); Nunavut - Dendroctonus simplex LeConte, 1868 (Curculionidae); Alberta - Anthonomus tectus LeConte, 1876; Promecotarsus densus Casey, 1892; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902; Hylastes macer LeConte, 1868; Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Saskatchewan - Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris, 1852); Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher, 1940); Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov Tjan-Shansky, 1902 (all Curculionidae); Manitoba - Cosmobaris scolopacea Germar, 1819; Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby, 1837); Listronotus punctiger LeConte, 1876; Scolytus schevyrewi

  18. Comprehensive school health in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugelers, Paul J; Schwartz, Margaret E

    2010-01-01

    The Canadian education system is among the best in the world academically. In contrast, students' (children and youth) eating and activity levels are so poor that they have led to prevalence rates of overweight that are among the highest in the world. Given the enormous public health burden associated with poor nutrition and physical inactivity, Canada needs to address this health risk. Comprehensive school health (CSH) is a promising approach to promoting healthy eating and active living (HEAL). This article provides a review of CSH and discusses its four essential elements: 1) teaching and learning; 2) social and physical environments; 3) healthy school policy; and 4) partnerships and services. It also provides a common understanding of the implementation and broader benefits of CSH, which, in addition to health, include student learning and self-esteem. The article further discusses some complexities of a rigorous evaluation of CSH, which comprises proof of implementation, impact and positive outcome. Though such an evaluation has yet to be conducted, some studies did confirm successful implementation, and another study observed positive outcomes. Rigorous evaluation is urgently needed to provide a stronger evidence base of the benefits of CSH for learning, self-esteem and disease prevention. This evidence is essential to justify devoting more school time to promote HEAL and more resources to implement and support CSH to the benefit of both learning and health.

  19. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  20. The Future of Postgraduate Medical Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busing, Nick; Harris, Ken; MacLellan, Anne-Marie; Moineau, Geneviève; Oandasan, Ivy; Rourke, James; Saxena, Anurag

    2015-09-01

    The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Project was launched in 2010 by a consortium of four organizations: the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, the Collège des Médecins du Québec, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. The FMEC PG study set out to review the state of the Canadian postgraduate medical education (PGME) system and make recommendations for improvements and changes. The extensive process included literature reviews, commissioned papers, stakeholder interviews, international consultations, and dialogue with the public and learners. The resulting key findings and 10 recommendations, published in a report in 2012, represent the collective vision of the consortium partner organizations for PGME in Canada. Implementation of the recommendations began in 2013 and will continue beyond 2016.In this article, the authors describe the complex process of developing the recommendations, highlight several recommendations, consider implementation processes and issues, and share lessons learned to date. They reflect on the ways in which the transformation of a very complex and complicated PGME system has required many stakeholders to work together on multiple interventions simultaneously. Notwithstanding the challenges for the participating organizations, changes have been introduced and sustainability is being forged. Throughout this process, the consortium partners and other stakeholders have continued to address the social accountability role of all physicians with respect to the public they serve.

  1. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    stopped, in traversing the two countries’ 5,500- mile border. About 70% of U.S.-Canada merchandise trade crosses the border by truck; many of these...concern about trade in pirated and counterfeit goods in Canada, as well as weak enforcement and relatively lax penalties...pirated and counterfeit goods by customs agents without a court order. The government introduced a new Copyright Modernization Act (C-32) in June 2010

  2. A harvest management strategy for Canada geese in the western Mississippi Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) harvest in the Mississippi Flyway became increasingly complex during the 1980s. A strategy for managing harvest was...

  3. The effects of predator exclusion and food supplementation on Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) population change in Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy I. Wellicome; Geoffrey L. Holroyd; Karyn Scalise; Earl R. Wiltse

    1997-01-01

    If low reproductive output plays an important role in the population decline of the Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia,) in Canada, we predicted the decline would slow or stop in our study population after consecutive years of productivity enhancement via food supplementation and predator exclusion. In the portion of our study site for which...

  4. Reasons for reoperation after epilepsy surgery: a review based on a complex clinical case with three operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Téllez-Zenteno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available José F Téllez-Zenteno1, Farzad Moien-Afshari1, Lizbeth Hernández-Ronquillo1, Robert Griebel2, Venkat Sadanand21Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, CanadaAbstract: The results of surgical treatment of epileptic seizures have gradually improved in the past decade, approaching 60% to 90% seizure-free outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy and 45% to 66% in extratemporal lobe epilepsy. Unfortunately some patients continue with seizures after epilepsy surgery and the studies have shown that approximately the 3% to 15% of patients with a previous failed surgical procedure are reoperated. Selected patients may be candidates for further surgery, potentially leading to a significant decrease in the frequency and severity of seizures. In patients with intractable partial epilepsy there are many possible factors, alone or in combination, that could be related to the failure of resection. Some of the factors could be genetic or acquired predisposition to epileptogenicity. In this article we report a case with intractable epilepsy that required three interventions to render seizure free. We analyzed our specific case in the light of previous reports on reoperation and enumerate the potential reasons or reoperation that could apply to all patients with failure of an initial procedure.Keywords: intractable epilepsy, reoperation, epilepsy surgery, surgical failure

  5. Educational Selectivity of Out-migration in Canada: 1976-1981 to 1996-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Ram

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is to show that migrants are positively selected whether they are driven by economic factors or by non-economic factors, and whether they are motivated by pull factors or push factors. Using “five-year migration data” from the 1981 to 2001 censuses of Canada, we find that the education gradient of out-migration is apparent in every region, with the highly educated being more mobile than the less educated. However, the pattern is most pronounced in the Atlantic region, Quebec, and Manitoba/Saskatchewan, the regions experiencing poorer economic conditions and persistent net losses through migration. The three high-income provinces, Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia not only experience lower overall net losses, but are also less likely to lose their better educated persons—even during bad economic times. Quebec emerges as a special case where economic as well as linguistic-political factors play an important role in governing the out-migration patterns of the better educated, particularly those belonging to the non-Francophone group.

  6. Variations in the Life Cycle of Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in Wild Populations of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kricsfalusy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a study of a perennial herb Anemone patens L. (Ranunculaceae in a variety of natural habitats in Saskatchewan, Canada, eight life stages (seed, seedling, juvenile, immature, vegetative, generative, subsenile, and senile are distinguished and characterized in detail. The species ontogenetic growth patterns are investigated. A. patens has a long life cycle that may last for several decades which leads to the formation of compact clumps. The distribution and age of clumps vary substantially in different environments with different levels of disturbance. The plant ontogeny includes the regular cycle with reproduction occurring through seeds. There is an optional subsenile vegetative disintegration at the end of the life span. The following variations in the life cycle of A. patens are identified: with slower development in young age, with an accelerated development, with omission of the generative stage, with retrogression to previous life stages in mature age, and with vegetative dormancy. The range of variations in the life cycle of A. patens may play an important role in maintaining population stability in different environmental conditions and management regimes.

  7. Sedimentation and erosion in Lake Diefenbaker, Canada: solutions for shoreline retreat monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Amir; de Boer, Dirk; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-09-15

    This study looks into sedimentation and erosion rates in Lake Diefenbaker, a prairie reservoir, in Saskatchewan, Canada, which has been in operation since 1968. First, we looked at the historical data in all different formats over the last 70 years, which includes data from more than 20 years before the formation of the lake. The field observations indicate high rates of shoreline erosion, especially in the upstream portion as a potential region for shoreline retreat. Because of the great importance of this waterbody to the province, monitoring sedimentation and erosion rates is necessary for maintaining the quality of water especially after severe floods which are more common due to climate change effects. Second, we used Google Maps Elevation API, a new tool from Google that provides elevation data for cross sections drawn between two points, by drawing 24 cross sections in the upstream area extending 250 m from each bank. This feature from Google can be used as an easy and fast monitoring tool, is free of charge, and provides excellent control capabilities for monitoring changes in cross-sectional profiles.

  8. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV.

  9. A study of the HIV/AIDS-related conditions and risk behaviors of sex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-11

    Sep 11, 2016 ... bDrPH, PhD, is an Adjunct Professor at the School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, Canada. cBA, MPA, is a Researcher at the College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatchewan, Canada. dMD, PhD, MPH, is an Associate Professor at the School of Public Health, ...

  10. Canada Among Nations 2013, Canada-Africa Relations : Looking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    expansion la plus rapide dans le monde et un virage vers une bonne ... Le CRDI, l'Israel Science Foundation, la Fondation Azrieli et les Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada annoncent l'appel de propositions pour la ...

  11. Bringing home the right to food in Canada: challenges and possibilities for achieving food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Karen; Riches, Graham; Ostry, Aleck; Buckingham, Don; MacRae, Rod

    2007-06-01

    We offer a critique of Canada's approach to domestic food security with respect to international agreements, justiciability and case law, the breakdown of the public safety net, the institutionalisation of charitable approaches to food insecurity, and the need for 'joined-up' food and nutrition policies. We examined Canada's commitments to the right to food, as well as Canadian policies, case law and social trends, in order to assess Canada's performance with respect to the human right to food. We found that while Canada has been a leader in signing international human rights agreements, including those relating to the right to food, domestic action has lagged and food insecurity increased. We provide recommendations for policy changes that could deal with complex issues of state accountability, social safety nets and vulnerable populations, and joined-up policy frameworks that could help realise the right to adequate food in Canada and other developed nations.

  12. Acid Deposition Simulations for Alberta, Saskatchewan, and the Canadian Oil Sands, using the Global Environmental Multiscale - Modelling Air-quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, Paul; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Moran, Michael; Wong, Isaac; Aherne, Julian; Hayden, Katherine; Li, Shao-Meng; Zhang, Junhua; Baratzedah, Pegha; Pabla, Balbir; Cheung, Philip; Cole, Amanda; Kirk, Jane; Scott, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The Global Environmental Multiscale - Modelling Air-quality and CHemistry (GEM-MACH) system (version 2) was used to carry out simulations of acid deposition for the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. These model predictions include the hourly deposition of four sulphur and eleven nitrogen containing species (SO2(g), HSO3(-)(aq) , SO4(2-)(aq), particulate sulphate, and NH3(g), NO2(g), HNO3(g), NH4(+)(aq), NO3(-)(aq), HONO(g), PAN(g), HNO4(g), particulate nitrate, particulate ammonium, and gaseous organic nitrate, respectively). A two-bin aerosol size distribution configuration of GEM-MACH was used to estimate the annual deposition of these chemicals, for the period August 1, 2013 through July 31, 2014, at two resolutions—a 10km resolution North American domain and a 2.5km resolution Alberta and Saskatchewan domain. The model estimates of acid deposition from both resolutions (version 2), were used to determine the relative contributions of the different species towards total sulphur and nitrogen deposition, and to evaluate the effect of model resolution on estimates of acid deposition. The potential ecosystem impacts of acid deposition were examined via comparison of model-predicted total deposition to different sources of sulphur and nitrogen critical load data, for forest and lake ecosystems in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. The deposition estimates were compared to observations of snowpack sulphur and nitrogen ions, collected during the winter of 2013. The processes underlying acidifying deposition in the vicinity of the Canadian oil sands were examined in more detail using the 12-bin aerosol size distribution configuration of GEM-MACH (version 2), for a period from mid-August to mid-September 2013. This time period corresponds to an aircraft measurement intensive campaign designed to examine emissions, transportation, and deposition associated with air pollution sources in the Canadian oil sands. Multiple model simulation scenarios were

  13. Survey of recreational fishing in Canada, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The 2005 Survey of Recreational Fishing in Canada collected information about recreational fishing activities to assess the economic and social importance of recreational fisheries to Canada's provinces and territories...

  14. A National Palliative Care Strategy for Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, R. Sean

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify barrier to achieving universal access to high quality palliative care in Canada, review published national strategies and frameworks to promote palliative care, examine key aspects that have been linked to successful outcomes, and make recommendations for Canada.

  15. Building better health care leadership for Canada: implementing evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund for our publishing activities. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Building better health care leadership for Canada: imple...

  16. canada's “thousand talent program”i: how canada research chair ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-24

    Oct 24, 2013 ... richer explanation of brain circulation, using the case study of Chinese holders of Canada Research Chairs. (CRC). Canada suffered brain drain in the 1990s, in particular to the United States. The Canada. Research Chair Program (CRCP), launched in 2000 by the Government of Canada, signalled the ...

  17. Comparing pyloromyotomy outcomes across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednie, Alexander C; Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2017-05-01

    Changing patterns of referral and management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) in North America have recently been described. Comfort with perioperative management, anesthesia, and corrective surgery have been cited as reasons for these changes. Our primary objective was to assess pyloromyotomy outcomes between different hospital types across Canada. The secondary objective was to geospatially map all pyloromyotomies to identify regions of higher HPS incidence across Canada. Data of all pyloromyotomies done between 2011 and 2013 were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Complication rates and length of hospital stay (LOS) were analyzed. Postal codes for each patient were used to geospatially map regions of higher HPS incidence. A total of 1261 pyloromyotomies were assessed. There was no difference in LOS or complication rates between different hospital types or surgeon group. Open pyloromyotomies were done in 75% of the cases. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified across Canada. This study found no difference in complication rate or LOS stay between hospital type and surgeon type across Canada. This may reflect a previously identified referral trend in the United States towards pediatric centers. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified, and may aid in identifying genetic elements causing HPS. 2c. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Computerized Library Networking in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Roderick M.; Islam, Mazharul

    1979-01-01

    Reviews a study which examined computerized bibliographic centers in Canada identifying three types: (1) library processing facility; (2) library network user group; and (3) information retrieval facility. The study also reported on ways to promote a computerized library network with emphasis on national location service. (CWM)

  19. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  20. Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan

    2012-02-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.

  1. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  2. Sturdy fungi : researchers at the University of Saskatchewan say inoculating plants with spores prior to reclamation planting will give them a more efficient future in tailings areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2010-09-15

    A cost-effective method of reclaiming oil sands mining sites may also hold the potential for growing crops on dry soils without the need for fertilizers or irrigation. The method is currently being researched by a University of Saskatchewan professor who initially noted species that had taken root at an oil sands tailings site. The professor has collected and analyzed dandelions and other plants from areas in the Arctic archipelago to study the characteristics that enable them to live in harsh conditions. The fungi colonizing the roots of plants taken from 3 oil sands tailings sites have been analyzed to determine their role in increasing the survival rates of plants at the disturbed sites. Planting of the primary successors with the appropriate fungi will help to establish an environment where diverse ecological successors can survive. The approach may also be used to grow plants in arid and unusable lands. 2 figs.

  3. Trends in prevalence, incidence and pharmacologic management of diabetes mellitus among seniors newly admitted to long-term care facilities in Saskatchewan between 2003 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabbagh, Mhd Wasem; Mansell, Kerry; Lix, Lisa M; Teare, Gary; Shevchuk, Yvonne; Lu, Xinya; Champagne, Anne; Blackburn, David F

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to describe trends in the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus and also report the overall use of diabetes medications among patients newly admitted to a long-term care facility (LTCF). A retrospective cohort study was done using health administrative databases in Saskatchewan. Eligible patients were newly admitted to LTCF in Saskatchewan between 2003 and 2011 and maintained LTCF residency for at least 6 months. Prevalence of diabetes was defined with physician or hospital claims in the 2 years preceding admission. Antihyperglycemic medication use was estimated from prescription claims data during the first 6 months after LTCF admission. All data were descriptively analyzed. The validated case definition for diabetes (≥2 diagnostic claims) in the 2 years before or 6 months after admission was met by 16.9% of patients (2471 of 14,624). An additional 965 patients (6.6%) had a single diabetes diagnostic claim or antihyperglycemic prescriptions only. Among patients receiving antihyperglycemic therapies, 64.9% (1518 of 2338) were exclusively managed with oral medications, and metformin was the most commonly used medication. Glyburide was commonly withdrawn after LTCF admission. Insulin use was observed in 23.9% of diabetes patients, with a mean daily average consumption of 54.7 units per day. Use of diabetes medications appear to generally align with Canadian practice recommendations as evidenced by declining use of glyburide and frequent use of metformin. Future studies should examine clinical benefits and safety of hypoglycemic agent use in LTCFs. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacy information systems in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jeff; Jennings, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Canada Health Infoway is to provide at least 50% of all Canadians with an electronic health record (EHR) by 2010. The goal of the Infoway Drug Information Systems Program is to develop an interoperable drug information system that will keep each patient's medication history: prescribed and dispensed drugs, allergies, ongoing drug treatment, etc. Drug and drug-interaction checks will be performed automatically and added to the patients' drug profiles. Physicians and pharmacists will be supplied with data to support appropriate and accurate prescribing and dispensing, thereby avoiding adverse drug interactions and drug-related deaths [1]. This paper describes Canadian developments in pharmacy eHealth. It presents the results of the Pharmacy Informatics Pharmacy Special Networks (PSN) survey about computer systems used in hospital pharmacies across Canada including information concerning Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems deployed; which may reduce the number of errors in orders.

  5. Adaptation, mise à l'épreuve et évaluation d'interventions complexes en santé publique : leçons tirées du Nurse-Family Partnership dans le secteur de la santé publique au Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Jack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Le Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP est un programme de visites à domicile destiné aux nouvelles jeunes mères défavorisées sur le plan socioéconomique. Les données issues de trois essais contrôlés randomisés (ECR américains ont solidement démontré l'efficacité des interventions quant à l'amélioration de l'issue de la grossesse, de la santé et du développement des enfants ainsi que de l'autonomie économique des mères. Cependant, l'efficacité du NFP dans le contexte canadien des services de santé et des services sociaux, qui diffère de celui des États-Unis, reste à déterminer. Cet article vise à décrire le processus complexe suivi pour adapter la recherche sur le NFP et mettre ainsi en œuvre ce programme au Canada. Méthodologie : L'évaluation menée au Canada se divise en trois étapes : 1 adaptation de l'intervention, 2 mise à l'épreuve de l'intervention dans des études de faisabilité et d'acceptabilité à petite échelle et 3 réalisation d'un ECR et d'une évaluation du processus dans le cadre de l'étude intitulée British Columbia Healthy Connections Project (BCHCP. Cette évaluation à grande échelle permettra d'enrichir la base de données probantes du NFP par la tenue d'une étude supplémentaire sur les mécanismes biologiques susceptibles de témoigner de la relation entre l'intervention et les effets sur le comportement des enfants. Résultats : L'adaptation de la documentation du NFP pour les visites à domicile est un processus continu. Un projet pilote a montré la faisabilité du recrutement des femmes admissibles au NFP. Il a aussi révélé qu'il était préférable au Canada que le NFP soit mis en œuvre par les organismes de santé publique et que les infirmières et infirmiers en santé publique (ISP s'occupent des interventions. Enfin, il a montré que ce programme intensif de visites à domicile a bénéficié d'une réception positive de la part des clientes, des membres de

  6. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    2008 budget seeks to ensure continuity through the Canada First Defence Strategy , which will provide for yearly increases of 2% beginning in 2011-12...Minister Harper of permitting Canada’s Afghanistan strategy “to be defined by Washington.” He stated that “once [Canada’s] military mission ends in...56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ http

  7. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    global market and the evolution of new fracking technology for the extraction of shale hydrocarbons, the development of the Canadian Arctic might not...Powers and Prospects in Canada’s North, ed. Abele Frances (Montréal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 2009), 378. 167Richard Spencer, “ Fracking ...Boom Frees the US from Old Oil Alliances,” The Telegraph, December 13, 2013, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/energy/oil/10476647/ Fracking -boom-frees

  8. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  9. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  10. Fostering Cultures of Sustainability through Community-Engaged Museums: The History and Re-Emergence of Ecomuseums in Canada and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn C. Sutter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, communities around the world have been reacting to the forces of globalization by re-focusing on the local, leading to the democratization of culture, heritage, and related concepts. By attempting to reconnect locals with their own sense of belonging, to reinvigorate a pride of place, and to foster wellbeing, communities have increasingly and successfully turned to features that make their local history, heritage, and environment unique or distinctive. In turn, democratization processes have led to sustainable forms of economic and community development through ecomuseums and other examples of community-engaged museums. This paper aims to deepen our understanding of relevant community-based culture and heritage initiatives by reflecting on the development of ecomuseums in Canada and the USA. As part of the larger museum community, ecomuseums tend to be accessible entities that are not affiliated with political or other convictions or viewpoints. This makes them uniquely positioned to foster creative change and adaptation aimed at sustainability, yet their evolution in North America has not been examined from this perspective. To address this gap, this paper will highlight the Haute-Beauce Ecomuseum in Québec and the Ak-Chin Him Dak Ecomuseum in Arizona, which have long histories as North American ecomuseums and represent two very different cultural and geographic contexts. We also reflect on the history of ecomuseums in Canada, and their recent emergence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.

  11. The incidence of fracture of the proximal femur in two million Canadians from 1972 to 1984. Projections for Canada in the year 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A D; Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Bernhardson, S; Wajda, A; Roos, L L

    1991-05-01

    Reported increases in the number of fractures of the proximal femur in Europe are greater than can be explained by demographic changes alone. This trend was assessed in Canada by examining hospital discharge records from the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba from 1972 to 1984. The annual number of first fractures of the proximal femur in persons older than 50 years of age increased 59.7% in women and 42.2% in men during this time period. In most of the five-year age groups the percentage of increase in the number of fractures exceeded the percentage of increase in population of that age group. Annual age-specific incidences (by five-year age groups) increased exponentially with age, doubling every six years, and reached a maximum value of 4% in women older than 90 years of age. Annual age-adjusted incidences increased significantly over the study period in men and women. For the whole of Canada in 1987, it is estimated that there were 13,193 first fractures of the proximal femur in women and 4610 in men, and that in the year 2006 these will rise to 22,922 and 7846, respectively. The actual increase will be considerably greater if the age-specific incidences continue to increase as they have from 1972 to 1984. The gradual decline in physical activity, which contributes to bone loss, may be one etiological factor of this trend during the last half century.

  12. A new U.S.-Canada Collaboration to build SWOT Calibration/Validation and Science Capacity for Northern Rivers and Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Gleason, C. J.; Pietroniro, A.; Fiset, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA/CNES/CSA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission holds strong promise to be a transformational mission for land surface hydrology in much the same way that conventional radar altimetry transformed physical oceanography following the launch of Seasat in 1978. However, to achieve this potential key pre-launch tasks remain, including 1) establishing benchmark monitoring sites, standardized measurement protocols, and international partnerships for quality calibration/validation of SWOT hydrology products; 2) demonstration that SWOT inundation area mapping for rivers, lakes, and wetlands is feasible; 3) demonstration that quality SWOT discharge retrievals for large rivers are feasible; and 4) demonstration of exciting new science from SWOT-like measurements. To these ends we present a new U.S.-Canada partnership to establish new SWOT calibration/validation sites, collect unique "SWOT-like" field and remote sensing datasets, conduct phenomenology studies of potentially important impacts (vegetation, sedimentary deposits, ice, and wind) on SWOT backscatter and water surface elevation (WSE) retrievals; and to gain scientific knowledge of the impact of permafrost on the form, hydraulics, and water surface elevations of northern rivers and lakes. This U.S-Canada partnership will establish scientifically interesting calibration/validation sites along three to four major Canadian rivers (current candidates: Saskatchewan, Athabasca, Arctic Red, Slave/Peace, or Ottawa Rivers). Field sites will be selected optimize scientific impact, logistics, and location inside the nominal planned orbits of the SWOT Fast Sampling Phase.

  13. Information Literacy Policy Development in Canada: Is It Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines policy issues related to information literacy in Canada. It provides some background on the information literacy concept, reflecting on popular definitions offered by American, British, and Australian library associations, before advocating for a broader definition that views information literacy as a human right. Information literacy is also considered in relationship to the proliferation of other “literacies,” such as digital, web, media, and information technology, that are the subject of increased advocacy and attention from interest groups and educators. The ongoing need for improved information literacy levels is analyzed not only in the context of inputs (the increasing complexity of the information environment but also in terms of potential personal, social, and economic outcomes that can be realized through widespread information literacy education efforts. The paper argues that information literacy must become a priority not only among academic librarians but also school, public, and special librarians, as well as others outside of the library sector, if significant improvements in information literacy levels are to be realized. Such a coordinated approach can only be achieved in the context of policies that require, and adequately support, widespread efforts at improving information literacy levels. After a review of the ad-hoc state of information literacy education in Canada today, this paper analyzes information literacy-related policy development efforts in Canada to date in the four arenas where one would expect to see such activity: the Government of Canada, provincial governments, library associations, and other stakeholder groups. This article aims to start a wide-reaching discussion about information literacy and associated policy issues in Canada.

  14. A critical public-health ethics analysis of Canada's international response to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Benatar, Solomon R

    2011-01-01

    As interconnections between health, ideology and politics become increasingly acknowledged, gaps in the literature also become visible in terms of analytic frameworks to engage these issues and empirical studies to understand the complexities. 'Critical public-health ethics' provides such an analytic lens. This article presents the results of a critical public-health ethics analysis of the government of Canada's international response to HIV. This qualitative study involved in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 experts on Canada's international response over time. Descriptive, thematic and theoretical analyses revealed an underlying dilemma between Canada's philanthropic desire to 'do the right thing' for the broader public good and Canada's commitment to its own economic growth and other forms of self-interest. Related to this tension were four conspicuous areas of silence in the data: (1) The relative absence of moral vocabulary for discussing Canada's duty to respond to the global HIV pandemic. (2) Scant reference to solutions based on poverty reduction. (3) Little awareness about the dominance of neoliberal economic rationality and its impact on HIV. (4) Limited understanding of Canada's function within the international economic order in terms of its role in poverty creation. Our study has implications for Canada and other rich nations through its empirical contribution to the chorus of calls challenging the legitimised, institutionalised and normative practice of considering the economic growth of wealthy countries as the primary objective of global economic policy.

  15. Educational Selectivity of Out-migration in Canada:1976-1981 to 1996-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram, Bali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe major objective of this paper is to show that migrants are positively selected whether they are driven by economic factors or by non-economic factors, and whether they are motivated by pull factors or push factors. Using "five-year migration data" from the 1981 to 2001 censuses of Canada, we find that the education gradient of out-migration is apparent in every region, with the highly educated being more mobile than the less educated. However, the pattern is most pronounced in the Atlantic region, Quebec, and Manitoba/Saskatchewan, the regions experiencing poorer economic conditions and persistent net losses through migration. The three high-income provinces, Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia not only experience lower overall net losses, but are also less likely to lose their better educated persons -- even during bad economic times.Quebec emerges as a special case where economic as well as linguistic-political factors play an important role in governing the out-migration patterns of the better educated, particularly those belonging to the non-Francophone group.FrenchL’objectif principal du présent document est de montrer que les migrants font l’objet d’une sélection positive, qu’ils soient motivés par des facteurs économiques ou non économiques, ou par des facteurs d’attirance oud’incitation. En utilisant les données quinquennales sur la migration tirées des recensements du Canada de 1981 à 2001, nous constatons que le gradient descolarité lié à l’émigration interne est apparent dans chaque région, les personnes très instruites étant plus mobiles que celles qui sont moins instruites.Toutefois, la tendance est plus prononcée dans la région de l’Atlantique, auQuébec et au Manitoba/Saskatchewan, soit les régions qui connaissent une conjoncture économique moins favorable et des pertes nettes persistantesrésultant de la migration. Les trois provinces prospères, l’Ontario, l’Alberta et la

  16. Advancing team-based primary health care: a comparative analysis of policies in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Misfeldt, Renee; Boakye, Omenaa; Nasmith, Louise; Wong, Sabrina T

    2017-07-17

    We analyzed and compared primary health care (PHC) policies in British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan to understand how they inform the design and implementation of team-based primary health care service delivery. The goal was to develop policy imperatives that can advance team-based PHC in Canada. We conducted comparative case studies (n = 3). The policy analysis included: Context review: We reviewed relevant information (2007 to 2014) from databases and websites. Policy review and comparative analysis: We compared and contrasted publically available PHC policies. Key informant interviews: Key informants (n = 30) validated narratives prepared from the comparative analysis by offering contextual information on potential policy imperatives. Advisory group and roundtable: An expert advisory group guided this work and a key stakeholder roundtable event guided prioritization of policy imperatives. The concept of team-based PHC varies widely across and within the three provinces. We noted policy gaps related to team configuration, leadership, scope of practice, role clarity and financing of team-based care; few policies speak explicitly to monitoring and evaluation of team-based PHC. We prioritized four policy imperatives: (1) alignment of goals and policies at different system levels; (2) investment of resources for system change; (3) compensation models for all members of the team; and (4) accountability through collaborative practice metrics. Policies supporting team-based PHC have been slow to emerge, lacking a systematic and coordinated approach. Greater alignment with specific consideration of financing, reimbursement, implementation mechanisms and performance monitoring could accelerate systemic transformation by removing some well-known barriers to team-based care.

  17. Widespread Use and Frequent Detection of Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Wetlands of Canada's Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson R.; Headley, John V.; Peru, Kerry M.; Michel, Nicole L.; Cessna, Allan J.; Morrissey, Christy A.

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoids currently dominate the insecticide market as seed treatments on Canada's major Prairie crops (e.g., canola). The potential impact to ecologically significant wetlands in this dominantly agro-environment has largely been overlooked while the distribution of use, incidence and level of contamination remains unreported. We modelled the spatial distribution of neonicotinoid use across the three Prairie Provinces in combination with temporal assessments of water and sediment concentrations in wetlands to measure four active ingredients (clothianidin, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid and acetamiprid). From 2009 to 2012, neonicotinoid use was increasing; by 2012, applications covered an estimated ∼11 million hectares (44% of Prairie cropland) with >216,000 kg of active ingredients. Thiamethoxam, followed by clothianidin, were the dominant seed treatments by mass and area. Areas of high neonicotinoid use were identified as high density canola or soybean production. Water sampled four times from 136 wetlands (spring, summer, fall 2012 and spring 2013) across four rural municipalities in Saskatchewan similarly revealed clothianidin and thiamethoxam in the majority of samples. In spring 2012 prior to seeding, 36% of wetlands contained at least one neonicotinoid. Detections increased to 62% in summer 2012, declined to 16% in fall, and increased to 91% the following spring 2013 after ice-off. Peak concentrations were recorded during summer 2012 for both thiamethoxam (range: neonicotinoid concentrations (which did not exceed 20 ng/L). Wetlands situated in barley, canola and oat fields consistently contained higher mean concentrations of neonicotinoids than in grasslands, but no individual crop singularly influenced overall detections or concentrations. Distribution maps indicate neonicotinoid use is increasing and becoming more widespread with concerns for environmental loading, while frequently detected neonicotinoid concentrations in Prairie wetlands suggest high

  18. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Canada CRS-8 20 “Spend More On Military, U.S. Envoy Urges Ottawa.” Toronto Star. Feb. 25, 2004. 21 “Canada’s Flying Coffins .” Peter Newman...introduction of alien species of aquatic life may disturb the ecological balance and endanger fishing in Lake Winnipeg, into which the Red River empties...have been under review. The two countries have continued the long-standing debate over the ecological impact of possible development in Alaska’s

  19. The geography of conflict between elk and agricultural values in the Cypress Hills, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Troy M; Gates, C Cormack; Eslinger, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Complex ecological issues like depredation and its management are determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale and are interlinked with complex human social and economic behaviour. Depredation by wild herbivores can be a major obstacle to agricultural community support for wildlife conservation. For three decades, crop and fence damage, competition with livestock for native rangeland and tame pasture, and depredation of stored feed by elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) have been the cause of conflict with agricultural producers in the Cypress Hills, Alberta and Saskatchewan. Tolerance of elk presence on private lands is low because few benefits accrue to private landowners; rather they largely perceive elk as a public resource produced at their expense. Government management actions have focused on abatement inputs (e.g., population reduction; fencing) and compensation, but incentives to alter land use patterns (crop choice and location) in response to damages have not been considered. Nor has there been information on spatial structure of the elk population that would allow targeted management actions instead of attempting to manage the entire population. In this study we analysed the spatial structure of the Cypress Hills elk population, the distribution of the elk harvest in relation to agricultural conflicts, developed models of the spatial patterns of conflict fields, and evaluated compensation patterns for damage by wild herbivores. We propose modifications to current abatement and compensation programs and discuss alternative approaches involving changes to agricultural land use patterns that may reduce the intensity of conflicts with elk, and increase the acceptance capacity of landowners.

  20. Analysis of the Mo speciation in the JEB tailings management facility at McClean Lake, Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R; Grosvenor, Andrew P; Rowson, John; Hughes, Kebbi; Frey, Ryan A; Reid, Joel

    2014-04-15

    The JEB Tailings Management Facility (TMF) is central to reducing the environmental impact of the uranium ore processing operation located at the McClean Lake facility and operated by AREVA Resources Canada (AREVA). The geochemical controls of this facility are largely designed around the idea that elements of concern, such as Mo, will be controlled in the very long term through equilibrium with supporting minerals. However, these systems are far from equilibrium when the tailings are first placed in the TMF, and it can take years, decades, or centuries to reach equilibrium. Therefore, it is necessary to understand how these reactions evolve toward an equilibrium state to understand the very long-term behavior of the TMF and to ensure that the elements of concern will be adequately contained. To this end, the Mo speciation in a series of samples taken from the JEB TMF during the 2008 sampling campaign has been analyzed. This analysis was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence mapping (μ-XRF), and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). These results show that only XANES was effective in speciating Mo in the tailings samples, because it was both element-specific and sensitive enough to detect the low concentrations of Mo present. These results show that the predominant Mo-bearing phases present in the TMF are powellite, ferrimolybdite, and molybdate adsorbed on ferrihydrite.

  1. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... State Canada, Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., United Refining Company v. Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on..., Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., and United Refining Company (Complainants) filed a formal complaint...

  2. Abridged Life Tables for Registered Indians in Canada, 1976-1980 to 1996-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalowski, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThis paper presents the analyses of the new estimates of abridged life tablescomprising life expectancy at birth, and their estimates of variance andconfidence limits by males and females for Registered Indians in Canada andtwo broad regions (East: Atlantic, Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba; and West:Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon and Northwest Territories forthe periods, 1976-80, 1981-1985, 1986-1990, 1991-1995 and 1996-2000. Thelife tables were constructed using the Chiang Method based on the adjusted dataon deaths and population by age and sex from the Indian Registry, maintainedby the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Government ofCanada. The data on the register are subjected to late reported and non reportedvital events. At the Canada level, life expectancy at birth for Registered Indianmales was 59.9 years in 1976-1980, rising to 68.3 years in 1996-2000. Forfemales, the life expectancy at birth was relatively higher, 66.6 years in 1976-80,and 74.5 years in 1996-2000. The recent life expectancies at birth forRegistered Indians are comparable to those observed for the total Canadian maleand female populations during the period 1960-1962 at 68.4 and 74.3 years. In1999, life expectancy at birth for the total Canadian population was reported to be 76.3 years formales and 81.7 years for females. The life expectancy at birthfor the Registered Indians in the Eastern region was higher than for those in theWestern region. The pattern of regional variation in life expectancy at birth forthis population seems to be the reverse of the regional variation for the totalCanadian population.FrenchCe document présente les analyses des nouvelles estimations des tables desurvie abrégées comprenant l’espérance de vie à la naissance, l’estimation deleur variance et la limite de confiance selon le sexe pour les Indiens inscrits auCanada et dans 2 grandes régions (Est : Atlantique, Québec, Ontario etManitoba; et

  3. Global Affairs Canada | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As a Government of Canada Crown Corporation, we are an important part of Canada's foreign affairs and development efforts. ... The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund is a CA$125 million initiative that aims to bring market-ready agriculture innovations to more people, improving lives and livelihoods.

  4. Canada's World : a Deliberative Dialogue | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Call for proposals for the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 competition. IDRC, the Israel Science Foundation, the Azrieli Foundation, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research announce the call for proposals for the fourth round of the Joint Canada-Israel Health... View moreCall for proposals for the ...

  5. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  6. Mexico-Canada Knowledge Translation Partnership | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  7. The OECD Reports on Canada's Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, P.

    1976-01-01

    Extracts from a 1975 study undertaken by the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on the state of education in Canada is presented. The extracts focus on the vocational technical field and call for a vigorous and creative rethinking in the practical and technical education of Canada's youth. (Author/EC)

  8. Paint removal activities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1993-03-01

    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  9. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Forest insect pests in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The papers presented in this book cover the range of forest insect pest management activities in Canada. The first section contains papers on the current status of insect pests by region, including data on insect populations and extent of defoliation caused by the insect. The next section covers pest management technology, including the use of insecticides, insect viruses, fungal pathogens, growth regulators, antifeedants, pheromones, natural predators, and aerial spraying. The third section contains papers on the application of technology and equipment for forest pest control, and includes papers on the impacts of insecticides on the forest environment. The fourth section describes operational control programs by province. The final paper presents future strategies for the management of forest pests. An author index is included.

  11. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.

  12. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  13. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  14. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support

  15. Comparing health system performance assessment and management approaches in the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Tawfik-Shukor (Ali); N.S. Klazinga (Niek); O.A. Arah (Onyebuchi)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Given the proliferation and the growing complexity of performance measurement initiatives in many health systems, the Netherlands and Ontario, Canada expressed interests in cross-national comparisons in an effort to promote knowledge transfer and best practise. To support

  16. An Online Synchronous e-Dialogue Series on Nuclear Waste Management in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ann; Newman, Lenore

    2006-01-01

    Online dialogues can meaningfully engage a diverse audience and provide a method to both educate and interest the public in complex environmental and social issues. This article discusses a series of e-dialogues conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Canada in which the public engaged in discussions concerning the risk and…

  17. Using Popular Music to Teach the Geography of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Sarah L.; Post, Chris W.

    2014-01-01

    The introductory level course Geography of the U.S. and Canada requires students to grasp large amounts of complex material, oftentimes using a lecture-based pedagogical approach. This article outlines two ways that popular music can be successfully used in the geography classroom. First, songs are used to review key concepts and characteristics…

  18. The influence of lead content in drinking water, household dust, soil, and paint on blood lead levels of children in Flin Flon, Manitoba and Creighton, Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safruk, Adam M; McGregor, Erin; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Cheung, Paul H; Pinsent, Celine; Jackson, Blair J; Hair, Alan T; Lee, Murray; Sigal, Elliot A

    2017-09-01

    Lead exposure continues to be an important health issue despite the general removal of lead sources in commercial and industrial applications. Low levels of lead exposure have been found to produce adverse neurodevelopmental effects in children with no evidence that a threshold exists for this critical endpoint. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured in children (n=118) under the age of 7years in the northern Canadian smelter community of Flin Flon, Manitoba and Creighton, Saskatchewan. An environmental sampling component was included to examine the relationship between lead content in outdoor soil, household dust, tap water, and paint within a given household and the corresponding BLLs in participating children. The geometric mean (GM) BLL for study participants was 1.41μg/dL. Blood lead levels varied slightly by age category with the lowest levels found among the children under age 2 (GM=1.11μg/dL) and the highest levels found among children between 2 and 3years of age (GM=1.98μg/dL). Results from the multivariate modeling indicated that BLLs had a significant positive association with the age of housing (ppaint were found to be significantly correlated (ppaint, respectively). Lead concentrations in flushed (GM=0.89μg/L) and stagnant (GM=2.07μg/L and 1.18μg/L) tap water samples were not significantly correlated (p>0.05) to BLLs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices: a community-based participatory research project in three Saskatchewan first nations communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-04-28

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities.

  20. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities. PMID:21573032

  1. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section... OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit Truck... Manifest, Customs Form 7512-B Canada 81/2. The driver shall present the manifest in four copies to U.S...

  2. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  3. Cost Effectiveness of Infant Vaccination for Rotavirus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Coyle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the main cause of gastroenteritis in Canadian children younger than five years of age, resulting in significant morbidity and cost. The present study provides evidence on the cost effectiveness of two alternative rotavirus vaccinations (RotaTeq [Merck Frosst Canada Ltd, Canada] and Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Canada] available in Canada.

  4. An assessment of antimicrobial resistant disease threats in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Michael J; Carson, Carolee; Lingohr, Erika J; Fazil, Aamir; Edge, Victoria L; Trumble Waddell, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of infectious agents is a growing concern for public health organizations. Given the complexity of this issue and how widespread the problem has become, resources are often insufficient to address all concerns, thus prioritization of AMR pathogens is essential for the optimal allocation of risk management attention. Since the epidemiology of AMR pathogens differs between countries, country-specific assessments are important for the determination of national priorities. To develop a systematic and transparent approach to AMR risk prioritization in Canada. Relevant AMR pathogens in Canada were selected through a transparent multi-step consensus process (n=32). Each pathogen was assessed using ten criteria: incidence, mortality, case-fatality, communicability, treatability, clinical impact, public/political attention, ten-year projection of incidence, economic impact, and preventability. For each pathogen, each criterion was assigned a numerical score of 0, 1, or 2, and multiplied by criteria-specific weighting determined through researcher consensus of importance. The scores for each AMR pathogen were summed and ranked by total score, where a higher score indicated greater importance. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effects of changing the criteria-specific weights. The AMR pathogen with the highest total weighted score was extended spectrum B-lactamase-producing (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae (score=77). When grouped by percentile, ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were in the 80-100th percentile. This assessment provides useful information for prioritising public health strategies regarding AMR resistance at the national level in Canada. As the AMR environment and challenges change over time and space, this systematic and transparent approach can be adapted for use by other stakeholders domestically and

  5. An assessment of antimicrobial resistant disease threats in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Garner

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR of infectious agents is a growing concern for public health organizations. Given the complexity of this issue and how widespread the problem has become, resources are often insufficient to address all concerns, thus prioritization of AMR pathogens is essential for the optimal allocation of risk management attention. Since the epidemiology of AMR pathogens differs between countries, country-specific assessments are important for the determination of national priorities.To develop a systematic and transparent approach to AMR risk prioritization in Canada.Relevant AMR pathogens in Canada were selected through a transparent multi-step consensus process (n=32. Each pathogen was assessed using ten criteria: incidence, mortality, case-fatality, communicability, treatability, clinical impact, public/political attention, ten-year projection of incidence, economic impact, and preventability. For each pathogen, each criterion was assigned a numerical score of 0, 1, or 2, and multiplied by criteria-specific weighting determined through researcher consensus of importance. The scores for each AMR pathogen were summed and ranked by total score, where a higher score indicated greater importance. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effects of changing the criteria-specific weights.The AMR pathogen with the highest total weighted score was extended spectrum B-lactamase-producing (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae (score=77. When grouped by percentile, ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were in the 80-100th percentile.This assessment provides useful information for prioritising public health strategies regarding AMR resistance at the national level in Canada. As the AMR environment and challenges change over time and space, this systematic and transparent approach can be adapted for use by other stakeholders domestically and

  6. Opportunities for manufactured housing in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bairstow, Dale

    1985-01-01

    In the fall of 1984, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation commissioned this study because it wanted to find out why manufactured housing appeared to be increasing in importance in certain foreign...

  7. 1982 Aleutian Canada goose nesting survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Investigation of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was conducted from 1974 to 1976, again in 1977 and in 1979 on Buldir. During...

  8. The future of Canada's radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensler, Bryan M.

    2017-11-01

    Through involvement in CHIME, ALMA, the Jansky VLA and the Murchison Widefield Array, Canada is well placed in current radio astronomy facilities and the future looks even brighter, with strategic interest in the SKA and the Next Generation VLA.

  9. Driver's Licences for the handicapped in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg; Clarke, Bryan R.

    1985-01-01

    The article reviews Canada's Guide for Physicians in Determining Fitness to Drive a Vehicle and then considers sections of provincial motor vehicle acts that regulate the issuance of licenses to the handicapped. (CL)

  10. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  11. Export opportunities for Czech companies in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Otta, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of the theses is to analyze economic cooperation of Czech republic and Canada. There is a particular information about Canadian economical and political setting as well as local business environment. The theses places emphasis on how to help Czech exporters trading with Canada, and gives complete overview of opportunities for export, entrance to the market and helps to understand local business customs.

  12. The Beginning Farmers’ Problem In Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about beginning farmers in Canada derive from trends in data that show that the population of farmers and the number of young farmers are declining. This paper discusses and analyses issues regarding the constraints and opportunities beginning farmers in Canada face. The discussion covers whether issues peculiar to beginning farmers are, from an economic policy point of view, a source of concern and whether there are motives for government intervention. The main conclusions are 1) th...

  13. Multicultural Media in a Post-Multicultural Canada? Rethinking Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augie Fleras

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the post-multicultural challenges that confront the integrative logic of Canada’s multicultural media. Multicultural (or ethnic media once complemented the integrative agenda of Canada’s official multiculturalism, but the drift toward a post-multicultural Canada points to the possibility of a post-multicultural media that capitalizes on the positive aspects of multicultural media. The argument is predicated on the following assumption: an evolving context that no longer is multicultural but increasingly transnational, multiversal, and post-ethnic exposes the shortcomings of a multicultural media when applied to the lived-realities of those who resent being boxed into ethnic silos that gloss over multiple connections and multidimensional crossings. According to this line of argument, both diversity governance and ethnic media must reinvent themselves along more post-multicultural lines to better engage the transnational challenges and multiversal demands of a post-multicultural turn. Time will tell if a post-multicultural media can incorporate the strengths of a multicultural media, yet move positively forward in capturing the nuances of complex diversities and diverse complexities. Evidence would suggest “yes”, and that a post-multicultural media may well represent an ideal that reflects and reinforces the new integrative realities of a post-ethnic Canada.

  14. A Strategic Analysis of Canada Post's Parcel Ecommerce Growth Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Canada Post is a market leader in the business to consumer residential delivery of parcels in Canada. There is an increasing demand for residential delivery due to the worldwide growth in ecommerce sales. This paper presents a strategic analysis of the opportunity for Canada Post to increase its breadth and depth in the parcel delivery industry in Canada. The analysis will review the parcel industry, the ecommerce opportunity, an internal review of Canada Post, develop and evaluate four strat...

  15. Croatian Language Maintenance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Petrović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the topic of language maintenance has received considerable attention from linguists around the world, there are still many aspects of this language-contact phenomenon that could be examined further. This paper aims to contribute to the existing body of knowledge by exploring the state of Croatian as a heritage language in Canada. The aim of the paper is two-fold. The first is to describe the demographic characteristics of the Croatian community by investigating the number of people of Croatian descent and the number of Croatian speakers in Canada. The second, and more specific, aim of the paper is to provide an account of the state of Croatian as a minority language and examine the extent of language maintenance in the community. To accomplish the first objective, Canadian census data (1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 was analyzed, with special focus on linguistic census data (number and age of Croatian speakers in Canada, mother tongue of people of Croatian descent, language most used at home, etc.. To accomplish the second objective, census data was supplemented with data from a questionnaire-based survey completed by members of the Croatian community in Toronto. The survey was completed by 220 participants; 110 first-generation Croatian Canadians and 110 second-generation Croatian Canadians. Two versions of the questionnaire were designed, one for first-generation participants and the other for second-generation participants. The great majority of items in the two versions were identical; each version contained questions about demographic characteristics, language use in everyday life, and self-perceived language proficiency in English and Croatian. The majority of questions were of a closed type (multiple-choice questions and rating scales, but there were also some open-ended questions, so as to give participants the opportunity to express their viewpoint or comment on certain issues. Questions were written in both Croatian and English

  16. An Analysis of Canadian Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing through the Junctures of History, Gender, Nursing Education, and Quality of Work Life in Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A society that values mental health and helps people live enjoyable and meaningful lives is a clear aspiration echoed throughout our Canadian health care system. The Mental Health Commission of Canada has put forth a framework for a mental health strategy with goals that reflect the virtue of optimal mental health for all Canadians (Mental Health Commission Canada, 2009). Canadian nurses, the largest group of health care workers, have a vital role in achieving these goals. In Canada, two-thirds of those who experience mental health problems do not receive mental health services (Statistics Canada, 2003). Through a gendered, critical, and sociological perspective the goal of this paper is to further understand how the past has shaped the present state of psychiatric mental health nursing (PMHN). This integrative literature review offers a depiction of Canadian PMHN in light of the intersections of history, gender, education, and quality of nursing work life. Fourteen articles were selected, which provide a partial reflection of contemporary Canadian PMHN. Findings include the association between gender and professional status, inconsistencies in psychiatric nursing education, and the limitations for Canadian nurse practitioners to advance the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner. PMID:23710367

  17. An Analysis of Canadian Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing through the Junctures of History, Gender, Nursing Education, and Quality of Work Life in Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary; Khanlou, Nazilla

    2013-01-01

    A society that values mental health and helps people live enjoyable and meaningful lives is a clear aspiration echoed throughout our Canadian health care system. The Mental Health Commission of Canada has put forth a framework for a mental health strategy with goals that reflect the virtue of optimal mental health for all Canadians (Mental Health Commission Canada, 2009). Canadian nurses, the largest group of health care workers, have a vital role in achieving these goals. In Canada, two-thirds of those who experience mental health problems do not receive mental health services (Statistics Canada, 2003). Through a gendered, critical, and sociological perspective the goal of this paper is to further understand how the past has shaped the present state of psychiatric mental health nursing (PMHN). This integrative literature review offers a depiction of Canadian PMHN in light of the intersections of history, gender, education, and quality of nursing work life. Fourteen articles were selected, which provide a partial reflection of contemporary Canadian PMHN. Findings include the association between gender and professional status, inconsistencies in psychiatric nursing education, and the limitations for Canadian nurse practitioners to advance the role of the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner.

  18. Reimagining Haj Khalil v. Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Bahdi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of cultural competence for tort law by analyzing the Federal Court’s decision in Haj Khalil v. Canada. Given that this symposium in honour of Rose Voyvodic’s life and work is entitled “Re-Imagining Access to Justice,” this paper asks “how do the principles of cultural competence allow us to think about the facts of the Haj Khalil differently. In particular, what would a cause in fact analysis look like if it were informed by the principles of cultural competence?” My analysis proceeds by “reading the silences” or focusing on the unstated assumptions and unexplored elements of Haj Khalil’s story to bring into focus factors relevant to factual causation which remain largely unexplored or undervalued by the Federal Court. An examination of the facts that framed Haj Khalil`s claim against immigration officials through a culturally competent lens would open the possibility of a different understanding of causation as it arises on the facts of the case. While Canadian courts have emphasized the importance of social context for fair judgment, they have not fully come to grips with the implications of social context for judicial decision-making. This is particularly the case within negligence law which remains vexed by the need to maintain an objective standard while simultaneously recognizing the importance of context and circumstance to particular claims. Cet article souligne l’importance de la compétence culturelle pour le droit de la responsabilité civile délictuelle en analysant le jugement Haj Khalil c. Canada de la Cour Fédérale. Vu que ce symposium en honneur de la vie et de l’oeuvre de Rose Voyvodic est intitulé « Re-Imagining Access to Justice», cet article pose la question «comment les principes de compétence culturelle nous permettent-ils de concevoir différemment les faits de Haj Khalil. En particulier, comment se présenterait la causalité si l’analyse des faits

  19. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six…

  20. Aging in a Multicultural Canada: A Graphic Overview = Le Vieillissement dans un Canada Multiculturel: Apercu Graphique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Secretary of State, Ottawa (Ontario). Multiculturalism Directorate.

    This document, in English and French, provides a graphic overview of statistical data on aging and ethnicity in Canada. Most of the information was drawn from 1981 and 1986 census figures and immigration statistics. Part 1, "Multicultural Canada," provides background information on the multicultural nature of the population. One map and…

  1. Canada Among Nations 2014 – le Canada et le système financier ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... Le 28e ouvrage de la collection Canada Among Nations revient sur la crise financière mondiale de 2008 et examine son impact au Canada ainsi que le rôle que le pays a joué et joue toujours au sein du système financier international.

  2. Geomorphology, facies architecture, and high-resolution, non-marine sequence stratigraphy in avulsion deposits, Cumberland Marshes, Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates field relationships between landforms, facies, and high-resolution sequences in avulsion deposits. It defines the building blocks of a prograding avulsion sequence from a high-resolution sequence stratigraphy perspective, proposes concepts in non-marine sequence stratigraphy and flood basin evolution, and defines the continental equivalent to a parasequence. The geomorphic features investigated include a distributary channel and its levee, the Stage I crevasse splay of Smith et al. (Sedimentology, vol. 36 (1989) 1), and the local backswamp. Levees and splays have been poorly studied in the past, and three-dimensional (3D) studies are rare. In this study, stratigraphy is defined from the finest scale upward and facies are mapped in 3D. Genetically related successions are identified by defining a hierarchy of bounding surfaces. The genesis, architecture, geometry, and connectivity of facies are explored in 3D. The approach used here reveals that avulsion deposits are comparable in process, landform, facies, bounding surfaces, and scale to interdistributary bayfill, i.e. delta lobe deposits. Even a simple Stage I splay is a complex landform, composed of several geomorphic components, several facies and many depositional events. As in bayfill, an alluvial ridge forms as the feeder crevasse and its levees advance basinward through their own distributary mouth bar deposits to form a Stage I splay. This produces a shoestring-shaped concentration of disconnected sandbodies that is flanked by wings of heterolithic strata, that join beneath the terminal mouth bar. The proposed results challenge current paradigms. Defining a crevasse splay as a discrete sandbody potentially ignores 70% of the landform's volume. An individual sandbody is likely only a small part of a crevasse splay complex. The thickest sandbody is a terminal, channel associated feature, not a sheet that thins in the direction of propagation. The three stage model of splay evolution

  3. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: case studies of Canada's Northern mining resource sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, B.F. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Geography, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)]. E-mail: b.noble@usask.ca; Bronson, J.E. [Stantec Consulting, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)]. E-mail: Jbronson@stantec.com

    2005-12-15

    This paper examines the integration of human health considerations into environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the Canadian North. Emphasis is placed on the northern mining sector, where more land has been staked in the past decade than in the previous 50 years combined. Using information from interviews with northern EIA and health practitioners and reviews of selected project documents, we examined three principal mining case studies, northern Saskatchewan uranium mining operations, the Ekati diamond project, and the Voisey's Bay mine/mill project, to determine whether and how health considerations in EIA have evolved and the current nature and scope of health integration. Results suggest that despite the recognized link between environment and health and the number of high-profile megaprojects in Canada's North, human health, particularly social health, has not been given adequate treatment in northern EIA. Health considerations in EIA have typically been limited to physical health impacts triggered directly by project-induced environmental change, while social and other health determinants have been either not considered at all, or limited to those aspects of health and well-being that the project proponent directly controlled, namely employment opportunities and worker health and safety. In recent years, we have been seeing improvements in the scope of health in EIA to reflect a broader range of health determinants, including traditional land use and culture. However, there is still a need to adopt impact mitigation and enhancement measures that are sensitive to northern society, to monitor and follow up actual health impacts after project approval, and to ensure that mitigation and enhancement measures are effective. (author)

  4. Cancer-related health behaviours and health service use among Inuit and other residents of Canada's north.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Ted; Trenholm, Ryan

    2010-05-01

    This article identifies the extent to which demographic, socio-economic and geographic factors account for differences between Inuit and other Northern Canadian residents in health-related behaviours and health service use related to cancer incidence and diagnosis. The study population includes Inuit, Métis, First Nation and non-Aboriginal residents aged 21-65 who live in Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Labrador, Nunavik and Jamésie in northern Quebec, and the northern regions of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Data are drawn from confidential versions of the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 Canadian Community Health Surveys and the 2001 Aboriginal People's Survey produced by Statistics Canada. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis is applied to a set of health-related behaviours including cigarette smoking, binge drinking and obesity, and a set of basic health service use measures including consultation with a physician, consultation with a nurse, Pap smear testing and mammography. We found that significantly higher smoking and binge drinking rates and lower rates of female cancer screening among Inuit are found not to be accounted for by differences in observable demographic and socio-economic characteristics, location of residence or distance from a hospital. As such we conclude that health-related behaviours leading to increased cancer risk and to a lower utilization of diagnostic cancer screening appear to be due to unobserved factors specific to Inuit and their unique social-cultural context. Policy interventions to address these problems may need to be targeted specifically to Inuit Canadians and should not be considered in isolation of their broader health, economic and social environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Community- and individual-level factors associated with smoking and heavy drinking among Aboriginal people in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Georgiades, Katholiki; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-02-03

    1) To examine the association between place of residence (i.e., on- versus off-communities and between provinces) and daily smoking and heavy drinking among Aboriginal people in Canada; and 2) to identify community- and individual-level factors that may account for these associations. Data were from the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (2001). The sample included 52,110 Aboriginal people (≥ 15 years of age). Community-level variables included: place of residence, community socio-economic status (SES) and perceived community social problems. Individual-level variables included: age, sex, education, income, employment status, marital status, Aboriginal heritage and social support. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the data. Living in First Nations communities (compared with living off-communities) was associated with daily smoking, and this association was accounted for by perceived community social problems. However, the association between Inuit communities and daily smoking remained after controlling for all covariates (odds ratio (OR) = 1.97, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.44-2.70). Residence in First Nations communities was associated with heavy drinking (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17-2.04), however this risk became evident only after controlling for community SES, which was also positively associated with heavy drinking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.26-1.69). Compared with Saskatchewan, Aboriginal people in Atlantic Provinces (OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 2.08-3.78) or Territories (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.01-1.92) were more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Studies are needed to better understand the increased risk for smoking in Inuit communities and heavy drinking in First Nations communities, Atlantic Provinces and Territories, and to identify possible reasons for the positive association between community SES and heavy drinking among Aboriginal people.

  6. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PACIFIC, ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMS FOR CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  7. Paleomagnetism of the Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada): New Data and New Insights. Ashley N. Kern1, E.V. Kulakov1, A.V. Smirnov1, J.F Diehl1, K. Chamberlain2 1 Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, Michigan, 49931, USA. 2Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Avenue, Dept 3006, Laramie, WY 82071

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, A. N.; Kulakov, E.; Smirnov, A. V.; Diehl, J. F.; Chamberlain, K.

    2012-12-01

    The ≈1.1 Ga alkaline intrusive Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada) is a part of the Mid-Continental Rift system (MCRS) and is thought to be emplaced in three distinct magmatic episodes (e.g., Currie, Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin, 287, 43pp, 1980). The complex is one of two MCRS rock suites that presumably record multiple geomagnetic reversals. In a prior paleomagnetic study, Lewchuk and Symons (Tectonophysics, 184, 73-86, 1990) reported that rocks representing episodes I (the earliest) and III are reversely (R) magnetized but their mean directions are significantly different. Rocks of the western side of the complex representing episode II yielded normal (N) magnetizations with the mean direction passing a reversal test with respect to both R directions. Here we report new paleomagnetic results from the Coldwell Complex based on a more extensive dataset and modern experimental techniques. We have collected core samples from 42 sites along the Trans-Canadian Highway 17 (six to ten cores per site), including all the sites previously studied by Lewchuk and Symons (1990). Additionally, we have sampled 11 sites off the highway, north of Marathon and near Middleton. Characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) have been isolated by thermal and alternating field demagnetization, and the site-mean paleomagnetic directions have been categorized according to the existing three episode model of magmatism. In contrast to Lewchuk and Symons (1990), we have found that the mean directions for episodes I (D=114.4°, I=-67.1°, α95=4.9°, K=65.7, N=13) and III (D=108.5°, I=-62.9°, α95=5.2°, K=51.4, N=16) are statistically indistinguishable at 95 percent confidence using the reversal test (classification B) of McFadden (GJI, 103, 725-729, 1990). The normal polarity mean direction of episode II (D=299.7°, I=61.8°, α95=3.8°, K=162.1, N=9) is antipodal to the directions of episodes I and III taken separately (classification B), as well as to the mean direction

  8. The Incidence of Hip Fractures in Long-Term Care Homes in Saskatchewan from 2008 to 2012: an Analysis of Provincial Administrative Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Lilian U; Whiting, Susan J; Li, Wenbin; Dust, William; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Teare, Gary

    2017-09-01

    Hip fractures (HFs) represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality among adults in long-term care (LTC), but lack of detailed epidemiological data poses challenges to intervention planning. We aimed to determine the incidence of HFs among permanent LTC residents in Saskatchewan between 2008 and 2012, using linked, provincial administrative health databases, exploring associations between outcomes and basic individual and institutional characteristics. We utilized the Ministry of Health databases to select HF cases based on ICD 10 diagnoses fracture of head and neck of femur, pertrochanteric fracture and subtrochanteric fracture of femur. HF incidence rates in LTC were compared to older adults in the general population. LTC residents were more likely to be female overall (65.5%), although this varied by age, with only 46.6% female in those under 65, but 77% female among those 90 years and older. Mean age of residents was highest in rural centres (85.2 yrs) and lowest in medium-large centres (81.0 yrs). Of 6,230 cases of HFs in the province during the study period, 2,743 (44%) were in the LTC cohort. Incidence rates per 1,000 person years increased with age and were higher in the LTC group (F = 68.6, M = 49.8) than the overall population (F = 1.62, M = 0.73). Rates of HFs in the province and in LTC were higher in females than males in all age groups, except for the youngest (< 65 years), where males had higher rates, and the oldest category (90+) where rates were similar. Women 90+ years in larger LTC had significantly higher (p = .035) HF rates than those in smaller LTC, and also had significantly (p = .001) higher rates in medium-large compared to smaller population centres. However, after age standardization to the overall SK population, it was apparent that the larger LTC facilities and the medium-large population centres had overall lower HF rates than the small and medium LTC facilities and the small urban and rural PCs, respectively. One health region

  9. The Hybridisation of Higher Education in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Shale

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada's postsecondary institutions are becoming increasingly involved with technology enhanced learning, generally under the rubric of distance education. Growth and activity in distance education stems from rapid developments in communication and information technologies such as videoconferencing and the Internet. This case study focuses on the use of new technologies, primarily within the context of higher education institutions operating in Canada's English speaking provinces. Capitalising on the interactive capabilities of "new" learning technologies, some distance education providers are starting to behave more like conventional educational institutions in terms of forming study groups and student cohorts. Conversely, new telecommunications technologies are having a reverse impact on traditional classroom settings, and as a result conventional universities are beginning to establish administrative structures reflective of those used by distance education providers. When viewed in tandem, these trends reflect growing convergence between conventional and distance learning modes, leading to the hybridisation of higher education in Canada.

  10. Volatile Organic Compound Observations near Oil Sands Mining, Upgrading and Refining Facilities in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Krogh, E.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The oil sands of Alberta are the world's third-largest proven oil reserve. Even though the expansion of the oil sands industry has led to concerns about its impact on air quality, water quality and human health, emissions from the oil sands industry are very poorly characterized in the literature. During 2008-2012 our group collected 398 whole air samples downwind of (1) oil sands surface mining and upgrading facilities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and (2) chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities in the "Industrial Heartland" region of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. These high-precision measurements were made primarily in July 2008, August 2010, and July 2012 using canister sampling followed by multi-column gas chromatography analysis for 80 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with ppt-level detection limits. Strong VOC enhancements were measured downwind of upgrading operations near Fort McMurray, especially alkanes, aromatics and solvents. For example, maximum concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane, p-xylene and n-octane were 800-2400× the local background value (LBV), and the industrial solvent trichloroethene was up to 260× the LBV. We measured only small VOC enhancements at sites of naturally exposed oil sands, confirming that degraded air quality results from industrial activity rather than emission from natural sources. Remarkably strong VOC enhancements were detected in the Industrial Heartland, which is the largest hydrocarbon processing region in Canada. Some of the largest VOC excesses were measured in samples designated as "no smell", showing that absence of odor is not necessarily an indicator of good air quality. The maximum concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethylbenzene were 6200× the LBV, and concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, were 2400× the LBV. Thirty VOCs were present at levels above 1 ppbv, and maximum propene and i-pentane levels exceeded 100 ppbv. Remarkably, the maximum propene

  11. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masaharu; Muta, Hiromi; Somada, Shinichi; Maeda, Toyoki; Mutoh, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Kanako; Suehiro, Yoko; Hisano, Terumasa; Kurita, Ryo; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Mori, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Tsunetomi, Nobuto; Uchida, Akihiro; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2007-01-01

    Here, we report a case of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome in a patient with schizophrenia. A 64-year-old man, who had been diagnosed as having a schizophrenic disorder at the age of 30, presented with alopecia, atrophic nail changes, hyperpigmentation of the skin, and inflammatory polyposis of the stomach and colon. Endoscopic ultrasonography of the stomach and colon revealed diffuse mucosal thickening with small hypoechoic areas, corresponding to edema of the lamina propria. After treatment with parenteral hyperalimentation and tranexamic acid, his physical findings and polyposis gradually improved. This is the first report of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome in a patient with schizophrenia.

  12. [Immigration and labor: Australia and Canada compared].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovetta, F; Quinlan, M

    1995-08-01

    "Australia and Canada share...a common colonial history and many similarities in geography, economy, demography, etc., as well as a substantial anti-non anglo-celtic immigrant tradition, in spite of their being immigration countries. Those similarities and differences are analyzed here, as far as labor migration and relationships between immigrant and local labor are concerned. The arrival of European labor first, Asian later, was perceived similarly by both Australia and Canada, combining racial prejudice and unions' hostility towards contract labor migration as well as towards assisted migration. The evolution of those difficult relations through the 19th and 20th centuries is analyzed here." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  13. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  14. All projects related to canada | Page 22 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    , VULNERABLE GROUPS, Climate change. Region: Malawi, Canada. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 566,860.00. Support for Communities affected by Mining in Canada and around the Globe. Project. Founded ...

  15. All projects related to Canada | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... an international platform committed to making governments more open, accountable, and responsive to citizens. Topic: INFORMATION DISSEMINATION, CANADA, Civil society, GOVERNMENT, PRIVATE SECTOR, INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. Region: Brazil, Nepal, Nigeria, Canada, United States, Netherlands.

  16. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  17. Industrial Relations in Canada: Contemporary Comparisons and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Paul; Goodman, John, Eds.

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Canadian Industrial Relations: An Introductory Overview" (Blyton, Goodman); "Overview of Canadian Labour Law" (Miller); "Industrial Conflict and Resolution in Canada and Britain" (Haiven); "Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector in Canada" (Calvert); "Canadian Automobile Industry: Work…

  18. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor - Canada Survey | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They will also allow detailed comparisons with developing countries. This comparative analysis will support dialogue on the following issues: -ways to improve entrepreneurship; -the private sector's role in fostering entrepreneurship; and, -how greater entrepreneurship can contribute to economic development in Canada ...

  19. French Immersion in Canada: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safty, Adel

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the theoretical foundations of French immersion programs in Canada, which are based on early exposure, creation of a natural imitative environment, cross-language interference and support, contextualized learning, and a communicative approach. Describes the practical applications of the theories, immersion program teachers and their roles,…

  20. STEM Education in Canada: A Knowledge Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoito, Isha

    2016-01-01

    Across Canada many initiatives have been initiated to generate more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; however, no single or comprehensive overview has been conducted that takes into account the impact of these STEM initiatives on teaching/learning outcomes in K-12 education. This knowledge synthesis of…

  1. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  2. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties…

  3. Canada thistle phenology in broadbean canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soine of the developmental stages of Canada thistle - Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (I. emergence and early growth, II. shooting, II. budding, IV. flowering, V. fructification, VI. shedding of fruits on the background of development stages of broad-bean, weeded by herbicides and without that weed-killing substances, were presented in the paper. Phenological observations were carried out on the plants growing on alluvial soil developed from light loam in Zakrz6w near Tarnobrzeg. It was proved that phenological development of Canada thistle, during broad-bean vegetation, depended on course of weather conditions and method of crop care. Emergence of the weed occurred earlier than broad-bean plants during warm and rather dry seasons. In every vegetation period, emergence and early vegetation stage (to 4 leaves seedling of Canada thistle lasted about 3 months, until broad-bean got full pod setting. During wet and cold season (in 2001 the weed emerged also early under herbicide (Afalon 1,5 kg ha-1 condition. Until to broad-bean harvest, Canada thistle attained the finish developmental stages, that means fruiting and fruit shedding. Herbicide treatment delayed the last two stages and limited fruit shedding by plants of Cirsium arvense.

  4. Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Liccioli, Stefano; Verocai, Guilherme G.; Gesy, Karen M.; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Fuentealba, Carmen; Duignan, Padraig J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic parasite in wild canids. We determined its frequency in urban coyotes (Canis latrans) in Alberta, Canada. We detected E. multilocularis in 23 of 91 coyotes in this region. This parasite is a public health concern throughout the Northern Hemisphere, partly because of increased urbanization of wild canids. PMID:23017505

  5. extérieur du canada

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hakan Mustafa

    RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX, FISCAUX ET BANCAIRES DU FOURNISSEUR –. EXTÉRIEUR DU CANADA. Veuillez lire attentivement les instructions figurant aux pages 2 et 3 avant de remplir le présent formulaire. Nouveau. Modification. Section 1 : RENSEIGNEMENTS GÉNÉRAUX. Nom du particulier (nom, prénom) ...

  6. Reconsidering the Right to Privacy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that post-September 11 political debates and legislation around security necessitates a reconsideration of a right to privacy in Canada. It looks at the proposal for a Canadian Charter of Privacy Rights promoted by Senator Sheila Finestone in the late 1990s and the current challenges of emergent material technologies…

  7. Alcohol use among immigrants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agic, Branka; Mann, Robert E; Tuck, Andrew; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Bondy, Susan; Simich, Laura; Ilie, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    This study examined prevalence of alcohol consumption among immigrants and the Canadian-born populations of Ontario by ethnic origin, and the association between ethnicity, country of birth, age at arrival, length of residence in Canada and drinking measures. Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a cross-sectional survey of Ontario adults, conducted between January 2005 and December 2010 (n = 13,557). The prevalence of alcohol consumption and risk drinking was generally lower among foreign-born than Canadian-born respondents, but significant variations across ethnic groups were found. In general, foreign-born respondents of European descent reported higher rates of alcohol use and risk drinking than foreign-born respondents from other ethnic groups. We also observed that ethnicity effects varied by whether or not respondents were born in Canada, and by the age at which they arrived in Canada. While previous studies generally found an increase in immigrants' alcohol consumption with years in Canada, our data suggest that longer duration of residence may have either positive or negative effects on immigrants' alcohol use, depending on the country of origin/traditional drinking pattern. More research is needed to explore determinants of alcohol use and risk drinking among immigrants and to identify those groups at highest risk. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Education of advanced practice nurses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Misener, Ruth; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Harbman, Patricia; Donald, Faith; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Carter, Nancy; Kilpatrick, Kelley; DiCenso, Alba

    2010-12-01

    In Canada, education programs for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and nurse practitioner (NP) roles began 40 years ago. NP programs are offered in almost all provinces. Education for the CNS role has occurred through graduate nursing programs generically defined as providing preparation for advanced nursing practice. For this paper, we drew on pertinent sections of a scoping review of the literature and key informant interviews conducted for a decision support synthesis on advanced practice nursing to describe the following: (1) history of advanced practice nursing education in Canada, (2) current status of advanced practice nursing education in Canada, (3) curriculum issues, (4) interprofessional education, (5) resources for education and (6) continuing education. Although national frameworks defining advanced nursing practice and NP competencies provide some direction for education programs, Canada does not have countrywide standards of education for either the NP or CNS role. Inconsistency in the educational requirements for primary healthcare NPs continues to cause significant problems and interferes with inter-jurisdictional licensing portability. For both CNSs and NPs, there can be a mismatch between a generalized education and specialized practice. The value of interprofessional education in facilitating effective teamwork is emphasized. Recommendations for future directions for advanced practice nursing education are offered.

  9. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  10. 77 FR 39624 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Turboprop Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... holidays. Fax: 202-493-2251. For service information identified in this AD, contact Pratt & Whitney Canada...-238-7176; fax: 781-238-7199. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion Transport Canada, which is the... information referenced above. We are issuing this AD because we evaluated all information provided by Canada...

  11. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  12. Delusions of power : vanity, folly and the uncertain future of Canada`s hydro giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skene, W.

    1997-12-31

    The current state of Canada`s power supply industry was reviewed. The author explained how Canada`s biggest electrical empires (Ontario Hydro, B.C. Hydro and Hydro-Quebec) were forged and how they have influenced not only Canada`s economic development but also how Canadians live their daily lives. He investigates how political and corporate decisions being made today will influence our future ability to have access to a reliable supply of low-cost electricity. The environmental and social costs of alternative power generation were also examined. He outlines the past behaviour of publicly owned utilities which was characterized by overspending and excessive generating capacity. These practices invited the current round of restructuring, deregulation, demonopolization and privatization. He feels that these forces are threatening to break up Canada`s publicly owned and regulated electric power system. Arguments for and against dismantling, selling off, or reorganizing the public utilities were dissected in an attempt to find answers as to how we got ourselves into the current mess. This unprecedented drive for restructuring may turn out to be an event more profound in terms of its implications for our future than the eighteenth century transition from agricultural society to an industrial society. The overall conclusion was that large public utilities, especially those relying on nuclear and fossil-fuel generation, will have to make way for renewable sources. It was predicted that new technologies will be developed that will inevitably lead to the dismantling of the large utilities over time. If we are wise enough to learn from our mistakes, publicly-owned and regulated utilities will continue to be allowed to co-exist with new entrants to provide the reliability and quality of service that competition and new competitive entrants into the field cannot provide. 112 refs.

  13. Some in Saskatchewan Find The Cochrane Library Useful after Promotion, Access and Training Efforts. A review of: Forbes, Dorothy, Christine Neilson, Janet Bangma, Jennifer Forbes, Daniel Fuller, and Shari Furniss. “Saskatchewan Residents’ Use of The Cochrane Library.” Partnership: the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research 2.2 (2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandra Protzko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To evaluate the use of The Cochrane Library by librarians, health care providers and consumers in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Design – Volunteer telephone interviews and surveys of training participants at multiple time points; usage statistics.Setting – Saskatchewan.Subjects – Ninety-four volunteers participated in the study. Participants were self-selected from approximately 300 health practitioners and 100 public library staff attending training sessions, located primarily in rural areas. The majority of public library staff who attended training sessions were not professional librarians, although 31.5% of the study participants were librarians. Nurses made up the next largest group (16.3%, followed by therapists (7.6%, library support staff (5.4%,pharmacists (4.3%, physicians (3.3%, other health care providers (20.7%, and other (9.8%. Most were 40-65 years of age (71.6%and female (92.4%.Methods – Forty-six training sessions were provided upon request between October 2004 and December 2006. Attendees wereinvited to participate in the study. Telephone interviews were conducted at three, six, nine, and twelve months following training sessions. Demographic information and data on the use of andsatisfaction with The Cochrane Library were collected. Additionally, monthly statistics were tracked by Wiley-Blackwell for user sessions, number of searches, and the number of full-text articles and abstracts visited.Main Results – Telephone interviews revealed that 65.2% of participants had accessed The Cochrane Library at three months; 64.2% had at six months. At nine months access dropped to 45.2%. At twelve months only 27.4% of participants reported using the resource. Of those who used The Cochrane Library, 16.4% reported at the three month interview that it was not helpful. This number decreased at six months (11.6%, nine months (7.7% and twelve months (11.8%. 57.5% of respondents claimed to have learned something

  14. Engaging civil society through deliberative dialogue to create the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvale, Gillian; Chodos, Howard; Bartram, Mary; MacKinnon, Mary Pat; Abud, Manon

    2014-12-01

    Citizen engagement through deliberative dialogue is increasingly being used to address 'wicked problems' in policy-making, such as the development of national mental health policy. In 2012, the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC), a national organization funded by and operating at arm's length from the federal government, released the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives (Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2012). Despite much-needed reform, Canada, unlike most other industrialized countries, had never previously developed a national Mental Health Strategy (the Strategy). This was due to a mix of policy factors, including a federalist system of government where primary responsibility for healthcare resides with provincial and territorial governments and a highly diverse set of stakeholder groups with diverging core ideas for mental health reform that were rooted in deeply held value differences. In this case study, we review the essential role that engagement of civil society played in the creation of the Strategy, beginning with the efforts to create a national body to shine the light on the need for mental health reform in Canada, followed by the development of a framework of specific goals based on core principles to guide the development of the Strategy, and ultimately, the creation of the Strategy itself. We discuss the various approaches to civil society engagement in each step of this process and focus in particular on how deliberative approaches helped build trust and common ground amongst stakeholders around complex, and often contentious, issues. The nature and outcomes of the deliberative processes including the key tensions between different stakeholder perspectives and values are described. We close by highlighting the lessons learned in a process that culminated with a Strategy that received strong endorsement from stakeholders across Canada. Mental Health Commission of Canada (2012). Changing Directions

  15. In Search of Work – the Life of Croatian Immigrant Men in Canada between the Two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Ružić

    2002-12-01

    cities and decide to remain in Canada. In this case, their families soon emigrate to Canada to rejoin their husbands and fathers. The author speculates thus that Croatian immigrant communities in Canada become more rooted and develop social and cultural organizations of a more complex nature.

  16. Effects of pesticides on Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes published and unpublished sources relating to exposure of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) to pesticides, emphasizing documented episodes of poisoning by organochlorine (OC), organophosphorus (OP), and carbamate compounds. Canada geese accumulate the lipid-soluble OC compounds, although they have a lower potential for biomagnification of these pesticides than animals at higher trophic levels in food webs. Low residues of p,p'-DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE were frequently found in tissues and eggs of Canada geese, but they had no apparent adverse effects on reproductive success or eggshell thickness. Likewise, in an orchard system in central Washington state, the OC rodenticide endrin accumulated in tissues and eggs of Canada geese without apparent adverse effect. In contrast, ingestion of seeds treated with the OC heptachlor caused mortality, lowered reproductive success, and caused a local population decline of geese in Oregon and Washington. In recent years, the most persistent OC's have been banned by law and replaced with less persistent carbamate and OP compounds that do not readily accumulate in animal tissues. However, many of these compounds are acutely toxic and have caused numerous die-offs of Canada geese. Among OP compounds, diazinon was responsible for most reported die-offs (41 incidents involving >535 geese), whereas parathion applied alone or jointly with methyl parathion accounted for most reported mortalities (8 incidents involving >3,000 geese). Three other OP's, a carbamate (carbofuran), zinc phosphide, and strychnine also caused goose die-offs. Mortality from anticholinesterase (antiChE) compounds occurs relatively soon after exposure and death can usually be diagnosed by evaluation of brain cholinesterase (thE) activity. Because geese are primarily grazers, the main route of exposure to antiChE's is apparently ingestion of contaminated grasses and forbs; dermal absorption and inhalation are other routes. Despite the

  17. Canada's early nuclear policy : fate, chance, and character

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, B

    2000-07-01

    The advent of nuclear weapons introduced a complex new factor into world politics, drawing a line through history and ensuring that international relations would never be the same. By both accident and design, Canada was a central player in the new nuclear era, as countries grappled with the implications of this revolutionary new development. Canada's decision, unique among pioneer atomic powers, not to acquire a nuclear arsenal has been used to buttress widely differing political agendas, while the factors that shaped the policy-making process have been largely ignored. In Canada's Early Nuclear Policy Brian Buckley weaves information from a number of disciplines to shed new light on Canada's early policies. Filling a longstanding gap in the national story, he explores the country's role in the early post-war period, cautioning against simplistic explanations and pointing to the continuing roles of contingency and personality in decision making. While the threat of nuclear war has receded in recent years, the number of states with nuclear weapons, the number of weapons, and their killing power are all far greater than they were five decades ago. Virtually all the issues that emerged fifty years ago remain on the international agenda and are as relevant today as ever.

  18. GEOID '88: A gravimetric geoid for Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Dezso

    1989-01-01

    Using Stokes' formula, a gravimetric geoid was calculated for Canada. The input data are as follows: 15 x 15' block averages were used for Canada and the USA and 1 x 1 deg block averages and satellite model (GEM-T1) provided values for the remaining part of the Earth. The geoid was calculated at 6398 points covering the area within the points rho(sub i)(phi sub i; lambda sub i) (lambda is + west): rho sub 1(40,125); rho sub 2(75,184); rho sub 3(75,10); and rho sub 4(40,60). The computed geoid refers to the GRS1980 and reaches a local minimum of -47.3 meters around the western part of Hudson Bay. A contour map of the geoid is shown.

  19. Lyme disease in Canada: Focus on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyett, Heather

    2014-08-01

    Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in Canada and much of the United States, is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. Peak incidence for Lyme disease is among children five to nine years of age and older adults (55 to 59 years of age). The bacteria are transmitted through the bite of infected black-legged ticks of the Ixodes species. The primary hosts of black-legged ticks are mice and other rodents, small mammals, birds (which are reservoirs for B burgdorferi) and white-tailed deer. Geographical distribution of Ixodes ticks is expanding in Canada and an increasing number of cases of Lyme disease are being reported. The present practice point reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and prevention of Lyme disease, with a focus on children.

  20. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    fundamental limits to the use of acoustic methods and signal processing imposed by ice and ocean processes in the new Arctic. The hope is that these...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...ocean structure. Changes in sea ice and the water column affect both acoustic propagation and ambient noise. This implies that what was learned

  1. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658

  2. U.S. - UK - Canada Trilateral Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-02

    Lockheed Martin Canada · Mr. George S. (Sam) Sevier , Senior Advisor, MK Technology FUTURE OF TRANSATLANTIC COOPERATION: GOVERNMENT AND... Sevier , Senior Advisor, MK Technology 15:00 – 15:15 NETWORKING COFFEE BREAK 15:15 – 16:15 FUTURE OF TRANSATLANTIC ARMAMENTS COOPERATION: GOVERNMENT...GEORGE S. (SAM) SEVIER SENIOR ADVISOR, MK TECHNOLOGY George S. “Sam” Sevier , Senior Executive Service 4, Department of Defense (ret.), Colonel, USAF (ret

  3. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome: case description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Da Porto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an 80-year old woman affected by the Cronkhite-Canada syndrome. This rare disease was described for the first time in 1955. It is characterized by the growth of multiple polyps in the gastroenteric tract, leading to diarrhea, alopecia, dystrophy of nails and hyper-pigmented skin. In this article, we describe the patient’s clinical picture and report the results of laboratory tests and imaging assessments.

  4. Sources of child maltreatment information in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, D A; Hovdestad, W E; Tonmyr, L

    2013-02-01

    Interest in understanding the problem of child maltreatment is widely shared by governments, organizations of physicians, and others. Our objective was to describe and discuss sources of information in Canada that could be used to help understand the nature and scope of the problem, either within any province or territory, or across all of Canada. A series of web searches and a focused literature review were conducted to identify sources of child maltreatment information. Government departments responsible for child welfare were also contacted on an as-needed basis in order to identify additional sources. Identified sources included: child welfare administrative provincial/territorial data and reports based on those data, other child welfare information, surveys of child protection workers and shelter workers, mortality/morbidity data, police data, direct surveys of children and their parents, and the 2011 Canadian census. Each type of source had strengths and limitations in terms of how it could describe the nature and scope of the problem of child maltreatment. Increased use of morbidity and mortality data, data linking, expanding existing databases, and increasing the use of general population surveys could expand understanding of child maltreatment in Canada.

  5. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch

    2001-07-01

    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  6. Canada: psychosis in the immigrant Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2011-09-01

    Many reports from European countries suggest that acute episodes of psychosis are more frequent among immigrants from the Caribbean than among their non-immigrant peers. The aim of this selective review is to examine how the social correlates of migration to Canada interact with biological mechanisms to contribute to psychosis in the Caribbean population. PubMed and JSTOR social science databases (between 1966 and 2010) were searched using the following search terms: psychiatric genetics; dopamine pathways; Caribbean family structure and child rearing; cannabis and psychosis; obstetric complications and schizophrenia; social defeat; social capital; racial discrimination; urbanicity; immigration; assimilation; and immigration. This was followed by the cross-checking of references pertinent to Canada. There was no information about the prevalence of psychosis in Afro-Caribbean immigrant groups to Canada. There was a suggestion that the form the acute episode takes may differ, depending perhaps on the island of origin. Ethnicity and migration influence susceptibility and response to psychotic illness in a number of distinct and interacting ways depending both on the host country and the country of origin. Understanding the pathways can help to protect the health of immigrants.

  7. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  8. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Langlois, Kellie A; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-01-01

    Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2-5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2-5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  9. Fertility Adaptation of Child Migrants to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the fertility behavior of immigrant women arriving to Canada before age 19 using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian Census from 1991 through 2006. Findings show that fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in their late teens. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin or whether the mother tongue of the migrant is an official language in Canada or not. We do not find a ‘critical age’ at which the behavior of migrants with and without official mother tongue start to diverge by more, even though the fertility of migrants without official mother tongue is always higher on average. Formal education matters as the fertility of immigrants who arrived to Canada before adulthood and graduated from college is similar to that of their native peers regardless of their age of arrival. However, the fertility of those with less than tertiary education increasingly diverges with age at migration from similarly educated Canadians. PMID:23800074

  10. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  11. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  12. Pharmaceutical health care and Inuit language communications in Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J. Romain

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requiring that all public and private sector essential services offer verbal and written communication in Inuit languages (Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun by 2012. Methods. While the legislation mandates compliance, policy implementation for pharmaceutical services is problematic. Not a single pharmacist in Nunavut is fluent in either of the Inuit languages. Pharmacists have indicated challenges in formally translating written documentation into Inuit languages based on concerns for patient safety. These challenges of negotiating the joint requirements of language legislation and patient safety have resulted in pharmacies using verbal on-site translation as a tenuous solution regardless of its many limitations. Results. The complex issues of pharmaceutical health care and communication among the Inuit of Nunavut are best examined through multimethod research to encompass a wide range of perspectives. This methodology combines the richness of ethnographic data, the targeted depth of interviews with key informants and the breadth of cross-Canada policy and financial analyses. Conclusions. The analysis of this information would provide valuable insights into the current relationships between health care providers, pharmacists and Inuit patients and suggest future directions for policy that will improve the efficacy of pharmaceuticals and health care spending for the Inuit in Canada.

  13. Pharmaceutical health care and Inuit language communications in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical communication is an essential component of pharmaceutical health care, optimally ensuring patients understand the proper administration and side effects of their medications. Communication can often be complicated by language and culture, but with pharmaceuticals, misunderstandings can prove particularly harmful. In Nunavut, to ensure the preservation and revitalization of Inuit languages, the Inuit Language Protection Act and Official Languages Act were passed requiring that all public and private sector essential services offer verbal and written communication in Inuit languages (Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun) by 2012. While the legislation mandates compliance, policy implementation for pharmaceutical services is problematic. Not a single pharmacist in Nunavut is fluent in either of the Inuit languages. Pharmacists have indicated challenges in formally translating written documentation into Inuit languages based on concerns for patient safety. These challenges of negotiating the joint requirements of language legislation and patient safety have resulted in pharmacies using verbal on-site translation as a tenuous solution regardless of its many limitations. The complex issues of pharmaceutical health care and communication among the Inuit of Nunavut are best examined through multimethod research to encompass a wide range of perspectives. This methodology combines the richness of ethnographic data, the targeted depth of interviews with key informants and the breadth of cross-Canada policy and financial analyses. The analysis of this information would provide valuable insights into the current relationships between health care providers, pharmacists and Inuit patients and suggest future directions for policy that will improve the efficacy of pharmaceuticals and health care spending for the Inuit in Canada.

  14. Preliminary rock physics analysis on Grosmont carbonate formation, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D.; Keehm, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Grosmont formation in Canada is a bitumen-saturated carbonate reservoir and draw increasing attention as a possible future unconventional oil field. However, the characterization of the formation is not easy due to high geological complexity. In this paper, we report our preliminary results of rock physics modeling effort using log data from seven wells in the T85R19W4 township, Alberta, Canada. Since the acoustic and shear velocity data are not very common, we use three logging properties: gamma ray; neutron-density porosity; and resistivity. The bitumen saturation is obtained from core measurement data. From the preliminary analysis, Grosmont formation can be divided into two groups by resistivity and porosity. The lower group matches with Grosmont A and B from previous studies and upper group with Grosmont C and D. The lower group mainly consists of limestone with different clay contents. The upper group was under dolomitization and karstification during Mesozoic, and is composed of fractured dolomite and karst breccia. The two groups can be divided by 15% porosity and 100 ohm-m resistivity values. The upper group has higher porosity and higher resistivity, which indicates high bitumen saturation and better reservoir quality. In porosity-resistivity domain, some wells shows typical trend; resistivity increases as porosity decrease; however, wells from the north-eastern part does not show any consistent trends. We believe that north-eastern part of our study area has more dolomitization and karstification, thus higher heterogeneity. We report basic trends for porosity vs. resistivity using Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for upper and lower group at each well. We also plan to obtain velocity data and perform quantitative analysis on porosity-velocity relations and velocity sensitivity to bitumen saturation. Acknowledgement: This research was funded by Energy Efficiency and Resources Program of KETEP (Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning), Grant No

  15. Practical examples of the use of statistics in horizontal well prospect analysis in the Frobisher-Alida, Saskatchewan and Suffield Upper Mannville, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kende, L.F.; Outtrim, C.P.; Christie, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    A practical method for statistically analyzing historic production data from horizontal wells was demonstrated. To date, more than 3,500 horizontal wells have been drilled in Western Canada with an estimated 900 more to be drilled in each of the next few years. The Statistical Technique to Analyze Production History (STAPH) is a new tool with which the petroleum industry can formulate strategy from a production or development engineering point of view. The technique was used to derive a set of production profiles with associated probabilities for producing horizontal wells grouped by lithology, or by lithology and geographic location. The production profile curves can be applied directly to production forecasting and budgeting for recently completed horizontal producers. 8 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Canada's e-health journey and HIMSS Analytics' Canada Information and Communications Technology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    In spring 2007, HIMSS Analytics began developing its first Canada Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Study. Less than one year later, 38 RHAs, DHAs and HAs are already on board, with some 20 more scheduled to participate by year's end. Why are so many Canadian provincial healthcare delivery organizations now participating in HIMSS Analytics' Canada ICT Study? The answer is tied to the character of the HIMSS study, the value offered to all participants and specific Canadian healthcare issues that are addressed by the study.

  17. Inequalities in Hypertension and Diabetes in Canada: Intersections between Racial Identity, Gender, and Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Thierry; Veenstra, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research from the United States informed by intersectionality theory indicates that racial identity, gender, and income are often entwined with one another as determinants of health in unexpectedly complex ways. Research of this kind from Canada is scarce, however. Using data pooled from ten cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey, we regressed hypertension (HT) and diabetes (DM) on income in subsamples of Black women (n = 3,506), White women (n = 336,341), Black men (n = 2,806) and White men (n = 271,260). An increase of one decile in income was associated with lower odds of hypertension and diabetes among White men (ORHT = .98, 95% CI (.97, .99); ORDM = .93, 95% CI (.92, .94)) and White women (ORHT = .95, 95% CI (.95, .96); ORDM = .90, 95% CI (.89, .91)). In contrast, an increase of one decile in income was not associated with either health outcome among Black men (ORHT = .99, 95% CI (.92, 1.06); ORDM = .99, 95% CI (.91, 1.08)) and strongly associated with both outcomes among Black women (ORHT = .86, 95% CI (.80, .92); ORDM = .83, 95% CI (.75, .92)). Our findings highlight the complexity of the unequal distribution of hypertension and diabetes, which includes inordinately high risks of both outcomes for poor Black women and an absence of associations between income and both outcomes for Black men in Canada. These results suggest that an intersectionality framework can contribute to uncovering health inequalities in Canada.

  18. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  19. Changes in Distribution of Canada Geese Nesting in Arkansas

    OpenAIRE

    Ronke, M. Eliese; Krementz, David G.

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduced Canada goose (Branta canadensis) population in Arkansas has grown in range and abundance in recent decades. We determined the geographic range of Arkansas resident Canada geese from 2004 to 2012 using volume contour maps from citizen science observations using eBird, a citizen science website, and hunter recovery locations from the U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory. Resulting maps indicate an increase in Canada goose encounters toward northwestern and southwester...

  20. Estimating the number of coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention procedures in Canada: a comparison of cardiac registry and Canadian Institute for Health Information data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Yana; McFarlane, Anne; Morris, Kathleen; Jokovic, Aleksandra; Peterson, Gail M; Webster, Gregory K

    2010-01-01

    Provincial cardiac registries and the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) pan-Canadian administrative databases are invaluable tools for understanding Canadian cardiovascular health and health care. Both sources are used to enumerate cardiovascular procedures performed in Canada. To examine the level of agreement between provincial cardiac registry data and CIHI data regarding procedural counts for coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). CIHI staff obtained CABG and PCI counts from seven provinces that, in 2004, performed these procedures and had a cardiac registry (ie, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador). Structured mail questionnaires, and e-mail and telephone follow-ups elicited information from a designated registry respondent. The CIHI derived its counts of CABG and PCI procedures by applying the geographical boundaries, procedural definitions and analytical case criteria used by the cardiac registries to CIHI inpatient and day procedure databases. Steps were taken to reduce double-counting procedures when combining results from the two CIHI databases. Two measures were calculated: the absolute difference between registry and CIHI estimates, and the per cent agreement between estimates from the two sources. All seven cardiac registries identified as eligible for the study participated. Agreement was high between the two sources for CABG (98.8%). For PCI, the level of agreement was high (97.9%) when CIHI sources were supplemented with day procedure data from Alberta. The high level of agreement between cardiac registry and CIHI administrative data should increase confidence in estimates of CABG and PCI counts derived from these sources.

  1. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  2. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  3. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  4. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies

    2010-07-01

    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  5. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Langlois, Kellie A.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (psweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada. PMID:23620871

  6. Modeling the cardiac surgery workforce in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderby, Sonia A; Carter, Michael W; Latham, Timothy; Ouzounian, Maral; Hassan, Ansar; Tang, Gilbert H; Teng, Carolyn J; Kingsbury, Kori; Feindel, Christopher M

    2010-08-01

    Limited employment opportunities for recently trained cardiac surgeons are deterring medical students from entering cardiac surgery residency programs. Given the lengthy training period and the aging of both the general population and currently practicing cardiac surgeons, this reduced enrollment raises concerns about the adequacy of the future cardiac surgery workforce. A workforce model was developed to explore the future need for cardiac surgeons in Canada. A novel system dynamics model was developed to simulate the supply and demand for cardiac surgery in Canada between 2008 and 2030 to identify whether an excess or shortage of surgeons would exist. Several different scenarios were examined, including varying surgeon productivity, revascularization rates, and residency enrollment rates. The simulation results of various scenarios are presented. In the base case, a surgeon shortage is expected to develop by 2025, although this depends on surgeons' response to demand-supply gap changes. An alternative scenario in which residency enrollment directly relates to the presence of unemployed surgeons also projects substantial shortages after 2021. The model results indicate that if residency enrollment rates remain at the 2009 level an alarming shortage may develop soon, possibly reaching almost 50% of the Canadian cardiac surgical workforce. These workforce model results project an eventual cardiac surgeon shortage in Canada. This study highlights the possibility of a crisis in cardiac surgery and emphasizes the urgency with which enrollment into cardiac surgery training programs and the employability of recently trained cardiac surgery graduates need to be addressed. Copyright 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Progress against major depression in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B

    2002-10-01

    Generally, public health strategies for major depression have focused on case-finding, public and professional education, and disease-management strategies. In principle, increased rates of treatment utilization and improved treatment outcomes should lead to improved mental health at the population level. Progress of this sort, however, has been difficult to confirm. The National Population Health Survey (NPHS) is a large-scale longitudinal study of a representative sample drawn from the Canadian population. To date, Statistics Canada has released data from 3 NPHS cycles: 1994-1995, 1996-1997, and 1998-1999. Treatment utilization and major depression measures were employed in the NPHS survey, providing a unique source of longitudinal Canadian data. In this study, major depression point prevalence (defined using a predictive instrument for annual major depressive episode [MDE] prevalence and responses from a distress scale) and associated treatment utilization were evaluated over time. Between 1994-1995 and 1995-1996, the proportion of persons with depression receiving antidepressant treatment increased dramatically, from 18.2% (12.3% to 22.1%) in 1994-1995 to 32.6% (23.0% to 42.2%) in 1998-1999. Point prevalence of major depression was 2.4%, 1.8%, and 1.9% in the 3 NPHS iterations. Data from the NPHS suggest public health progress against major depression in Canada. More people with major depression in Canada are receiving treatment, and these changes may have been associated with improved population health status. However, both random variation and extraneous societal factors could account for the observed trends in prevalence. It is impossible to relate changes in utilization directly to population health status using the NPHS data.

  8. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) RADIOSONDE GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Radiosonde GCPEx dataset provides measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds collected by Vaisala...

  9. GPM GROUND VALIDATION ENVIRONMENT CANADA (EC) RADIOMETER GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Environment Canada (EC) Radiometer GCPEx dataset contains retrievals of temperature, water vapor, relative humidity, liquid water profiles...

  10. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10 m winds, pressure and solar radiation...

  11. Social policy and practice in Canada: a history

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Finkel, Alvin

    2006-01-01

    ..., - Social policy and practice in Canada : a history / Alvin Finkel. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN : ---. ISBN : ---- . Canada- Social policy. . Public welfare- Canada- History. . Welfare state- Canada- History. I. Title. HV.F  .' C-- Cover and text design by Sa...

  12. ACCC's Response to Industry Canada's Consultation on Improving Canada's Digital Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the national and international voice representing over 150 publicly-funded colleges, institutes, polytechnics, cegeps, university colleges and universities with a college mandate, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) welcomes the opportunity to provide input to Industry Canada's consultation on a Digital Economy Strategy for…

  13. Response to Industry Canada's Consultation Paper "Seizing Canada's Moment: Moving Forward in Science, Technology and Innovation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wayne D.; Turk, James L.

    2014-01-01

    According to these authors, Canada is in need of a new science policy and strategy. The current direction of the federal government is threatening to impede scientific progress and compromise the integrity and independence of public science. This is reflected in the government's waning commitment to funding basic research; its attempts to steer…

  14. Active Canada 20/20: A physical activity plan for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-03-16

    Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens.

  15. Social Science Research in Canada and Government Information Policy: The Statistics Canada Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1998-01-01

    Identified the effects of government information policy on accessibility, use, and users by investigating policy effects on a government agency, Statistics Canada. Presents a case study and discusses bibliometric research on the use of statistics sources, examining Canadian social science journal articles in economics, education, geography,…

  16. The time course of subsequent hospitalizations and associated costs in survivors of an ischemic stroke in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Khajak J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Documentation of the hospitalizations rates following a stroke provides the inputs required for planning health services and to evaluate the economic efficiency of any new therapies. Methods Hospitalization rates by cause were examined using administrative data on 18,695 patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke (first or subsequent, excluding transient ischemic attack in Saskatchewan, Canada between 1990 and 1995. Medical history was available retrospectively to January 1980 and follow-up was complete to March 2000. Analyses evaluated the rate and timing of all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalizations within discrete periods in the five years following the index stroke. Cardiovascular hospitalizations included patients with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, stable or unstable angina, heart failure or peripheral arterial disease. Results One-third (36% of patients were identified by a hospitalized stroke. Mean age was 70.5 years, 48.0% were male, half had a history of stroke or a transient ischemic attack at the time of their index stroke. Three-quarters of the patients (72.7% were hospitalized at least once during a mean follow-up of 4.6 years, accruing CAD $24 million in the first year alone. Of all hospitalizations, 20.4% were related to cardiovascular disease and 1.6% to bleeds. In the month following index stroke, 12.5% were admitted, an average of 1.04 times per patient hospitalized. Strokes accounted for 33% of all hospitalizations in the first month. The rate diminished steadily throughout the year and stabilized in the second year when approximately one-third of patients required hospitalization, at a rate of about one hospitalization for every two patient-years. Mean lengths of stay ranged from nine days to nearly 40 days. Close-fitting Weibull functions allow highly specific probability estimates. Other cardiovascular risk factors significantly increased

  17. Recovery in Canada: toward social equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piat, Myra; Sabetti, Judith

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews evolution of the recovery paradigm in Canadian mental health. We first trace the origins and development of the recovery concept through the literature, followed by an examination of how the recovery concept has been implemented in national and provincial mental health policy since publication of the 2006 Kirby Commission Report. Based on consultations with Canadian policymakers, and an examination of available policy documents, we explore how the dual theme of 'recovery' and 'well-being', adopted by the Mental Health Commission of Canada in its 2009 strategy: Toward Recovery and Well-being - A Framework For a Mental Health Strategy has subsequently played out in mental health policymaking at the provincial level. Findings reveal mixed support for recovery as a guiding principle for mental health reform in Canada. While policies in some provinces reflect widespread support for recovery, and strong identification with the aspirations of the consumer movement; other provinces have shifted to population-based, wellness paradigms that privilege evidence-based services and professional expertise. The recognition of social equality for people who experience mental illness emerges as an important value in Canadian mental health policy, cutting across the conceptual divide between recovery and well-being.

  18. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  19. Canada Committee on Natural Resources Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-26

    The Canada Committee for Natural Resources (CCNR) met on 2 occasions during the reporting period. The first was to discuss recommendations regarding Canada's National Strategy for Agri-Food Research and Technology Transfer 1997-2002. This involved the development and application of a database on existing programs covering the sustainable use of natural resources. Another growing concern for Canadians, the impact of agricultural inputs on water quality, was also discussed. The second meeting focused on the issue of greenhouse gases and carbon sequestration and the progress in the Climate Change Funding Initiative in Agriculture program. This report includes a status report on soil resources, water resources and air quality. It includes sections on the activities of the CCNR and issues of national interest regarding agriculture research. Priorities for agriculture research include greenhouse gas mitigation, sinks and sources. The report referred to: (1) the impact of mitigation on nutrient cycle, (2) full-life cycle consideration in food and fiber production, (3) the use of classical and eco-technologies, (4) applications for whole farm systems and associated watersheds, and (5) the importance for landscape ecology. Research into processes and fluxes include studies of key soil processes and components, the effects of global change on processes and fluxes of greenhouse gases, and plant pests. Research into assessment methods include national accounting and verification, ecological models, measurement techniques, and monitoring carbon sources and sinks. The socio-economic considerations and adoptions examine impacts and adaptation, and economic analysis. 1 tab.

  20. The osteoporosis care gap in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulos P

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of a fragility fracture is a major risk factor for osteoporosis, and should be an indicator for osteoporosis diagnosis and therapy. However, the extent to which patients who fracture are assessed and treated for osteoporosis is not clear. Methods We performed a review of the literature to identify the practice patterns in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in adults over the age of 40 who experience a fragility fracture in Canada. Searches were performed in MEDLINE (1966 to January 2, 2003 and CINAHL (1982 to February 1, 2003 databases. Results There is evidence of a care gap between the occurrence of a fragility fracture and the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in Canada. The proportion of individuals with a fragility fracture who received an osteoporosis diagnostic test or physician diagnosis ranged from 1.7% to 50%. Therapies such as hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates or calcitonin were being prescribed to 5.2% to 37.5% of patients. Calcium and vitamin D supplement intake was variable, and ranged between 2.8% to 61.6% of patients. Conclusion Many Canadians who experience fragility fracture are not receiving osteoporosis management for the prevention of future fractures.

  1. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera records for Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre de Tonnancour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The following species of Curculionoidea are newly recorded from the Canadian province of Quebec: Coelocephalapion emaciipes (Fall, 1898; Ischnopterapion virens (Herbst, 1797; Omphalapion hookerorum (Kirby, 1808; Perapion punctinasum (J.B. Smith, 1884 (all Brentidae; Anthonomus robustulus LeConte, 1876; Pseudanthonomus helvolus (Boheman, 1843; Bagous magister LeConte, 1876; Bagous tanneri O’Brien, 1979; Buchananius striatus (LeConte, 1876; Ceutorhynchus bolteri Dietz, 1896; Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Marsham, 1802; Ceutorhynchus pauxillus Dietz, 1896; Conotrachelus buchanani Schoof, 1942; Conotrachelus pusillus LeConte, 1878; Conotrachelus recessus (Casey, 1910; Curculio rubidus (Gyllenhal, 1835; Cylindrocopturus longulus (LeConte, 1876; Hadroplontus litura (Fabricius, 1775; Hypera rumicis (Linnaeus, 1758; Lixus terminalis LeConte, 1876; Myosides seriehispidus Roelofs, 1873; Phloeotribus dentifrons (Blackman, 1921; Plocamus echidna (LeConte, 1876; Scolytus muticus Say, 1824; Sirocalodes sericans (LeConte, 1876; Smicronyx sculpticollis Casey, 1892 (all Curculionidae. Among these, Buchananius striatus, Conotrachelus buchanani, Conotrachelus pusillus, and Curculio rubidus (all Curculionidae are also recorded from Canada for the first time. The latter is also newly reported from Ontario. Collecting data are provided for Lixus punctinasus LeConte, 1876, previously reported to occur in Canada without any further information, and for Choragus sayi LeConte, 1876 (Anthribidae and Rhyssomatus aequalis Horn, 1873 (Curculionidae, both previously recorded from Quebec, also without further details.

  2. New Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) records for Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tonnancour, Pierre; Anderson, Robert S; Bouchard, Patrice; Chantal, Claude; Dumont, Stéphane; Vigneault, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The following species of Curculionoidea are newly recorded from the Canadian province of Quebec: Coelocephalapion emaciipes (Fall, 1898); Ischnopterapion virens (Herbst, 1797); Omphalapion hookerorum (Kirby, 1808); Perapion punctinasum (J.B. Smith, 1884) (all Brentidae); Anthonomus robustulus LeConte, 1876; Pseudanthonomus helvolus (Boheman, 1843); Bagous magister LeConte, 1876; Bagous tanneri O'Brien, 1979; Buchananius striatus (LeConte, 1876); Ceutorhynchus bolteri Dietz, 1896; Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Marsham, 1802); Ceutorhynchus pauxillus Dietz, 1896; Conotrachelus buchanani Schoof, 1942; Conotrachelus pusillus LeConte, 1878; Conotrachelus recessus (Casey, 1910); Curculio rubidus (Gyllenhal, 1835); Cylindrocopturus longulus (LeConte, 1876); Hadroplontus litura (Fabricius, 1775); Hypera rumicis (Linnaeus, 1758); Lixus terminalis LeConte, 1876; Myosides seriehispidus Roelofs, 1873; Phloeotribus dentifrons (Blackman, 1921); Plocamus echidna (LeConte, 1876); Scolytus muticus Say, 1824; Sirocalodes sericans (LeConte, 1876); Smicronyx sculpticollis Casey, 1892 (all Curculionidae). Among these, Buchananius striatus, Conotrachelus buchanani, Conotrachelus pusillus, and Curculio rubidus (all Curculionidae) are also recorded from Canada for the first time. The latter is also newly reported from Ontario. Collecting data are provided for Lixus punctinasus LeConte, 1876, previously reported to occur in Canada without any further information, and for Choragus sayi LeConte, 1876 (Anthribidae) and Rhyssomatus aequalis Horn, 1873 (Curculionidae), both previously recorded from Quebec, also without further details.

  3. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  4. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  5. Improving Canada's Marine Navigation System through e-Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Breton

    2016-06-01

    The conclusion proposed is that on-going work with key partners and stakeholders can be used as the primary mechanism to identify e-Navigation related innovation and needs, and to prioritize next steps. Moving forward in Canada, implementation of new e-navigation services will continue to be stakeholder driven, and used to drive improvements to Canada's marine navigation system.

  6. The Analysis of Adult Immigrants' Learning System in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nataliya; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In the article the problem of adult immigrants' learning in Canada has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as: analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; analysis of the adult immigrants' learning system in Canada; and the perspectives for creative…

  7. Supporting Democracy: The South Africa-Canada Program on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The South Africa-Canada Program on Governance (PoG) was born in anticipation of this historic transition. It was conceived during Nelson Mandela's 1992 visit to Canada, when he asked the Canadian government to assist the people of South Africa in their preparations for democracy. In 1993, the Canadian International ...

  8. Enige aspecten van de hedendaagse migratie van Nederlanders naar Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinman, A.S.

    1952-01-01

    After the Second World War most of the restrictions against entry to Canada as an immigrant were abolished, although the admission of farmers and farm workers has never been restricted. The ideas about Canada's immigrational capacity fluctuated with the economic situation; after 1950 the doors were

  9. Canada improving child nutrition in Vietnam | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 déc. 2015 ... IDRC and Global Affairs Canada, through the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), are contributing $1.16 million to support researchers from Vietnam's National Institute of Nutrition and Canada's Ryerson University to implement proven methods to improve children's health.

  10. Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  11. Inaugural recipients of the Hopper-Bhatia Canada Fund | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-31

    Jan 31, 2018 ... Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and ...

  12. Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Like the three earlier phases (002624, 004097 and 101783), this project will allow the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) to offer academics (graduate students, professors, researchers) from Canada and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) opportunities for face-to-face dialogue on ...

  13. All projects related to Canada | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the developing world, millions of children do not have access to basic quality education. Region: Kenya, Canada. Program: ... Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam, South Asia, Far East Asia, United States, Canada. Program: Employment and ...

  14. All projects related to Canada | Page 10 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Nigeria, Senegal, Canada, Burkina Faso. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 2,600,000.00. Scaling up development, production of CBPP vaccine for cattle in Kenya. Project. This project will allow researchers from Canada and Kenya to field trial a vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

  15. Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project: International Partnerships in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Alix

    The Canada-India Institutional Cooperation Project (CIICP) is a joint venture by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges and the governments of India and Canada designed to contribute to human resource development in India's polytechnic system. Specifically, the project seeks to develop replicable models of institutional development in 13…

  16. New South Africa–Canada Research Chairs Initiative | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-08

    Dec 8, 2016 ... They build on NRF's existing South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI), as well as on the Industrial Research Chairs program, funded in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Canada Research Chairs Program (CRCP). Funded jointly by ...

  17. Apprenticeship Programme Requirements and Apprenticeship Completion Rates in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have seen considerable growth in new apprenticeship registrations in Canada. However, this has not been matched by a corresponding increase in completions. Across provinces, trades and time, there is considerable variation in apprenticeship completion rates. In Canada, apprenticeship programmes are provincially regulated and…

  18. The Analysis Of Adult Immigrants’ Learning System In Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukan Nataliya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of adult immigrants’ learning in Canada has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as: analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; analysis of the adult immigrants’ learning system in Canada; and the perspectives for creative implementation of Canadian experience in Ukraine.

  19. Publication Canada Among Nations, de 2012 à 2014 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Université Carleton à Ottawa, à faire paraître trois volumes de Canada Among Nations (CAN), ouvrage dont on a dit qu'il s'agissait des meilleures annales publiées au pays sur les relations internationales du Canada. Chaque année, CAN ...

  20. CAUT Response to Industry Canada's 2014 S&T Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2015

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of December 2014, Canada's Prime Minister and Minister of State (Science and Technology) released their science, technology and innovation strategy and launched the Canada First Excellence Research Fund (CFERF). This brief looks at the implications of the proposed policy on academic research and on research and development…

  1. Changes in distribution of Canada geese nesting in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Ronke, M. Eliese

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduced Canada goose (Branta canadensis) population in Arkansas has grown in range and abundance in recent decades. We determined the geographic range of Arkansas resident Canada geese from 2004 to 2012 using volume contour maps from citizen science observations using eBird, a citizen science website, and hunter recovery locations from the U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory. Resulting maps indicate an increase in Canada goose encounters toward northwestern and southwestern Arkansas from the original relocations in the Arkansas River valley. We examined movement of Canada geese banded and recovered in Arkansas by determining the distance and angle of movement between initial and final encounter locations; 25% moved east, and 17% went west. The average distance moved from banding to recovery was 50 km (SE = 1 km). Recoveries of Canada geese banded in Arkansas were greatest in the Mississippi Flyway (58% of all geese) followed by the Central Flyway (37%) with some representation in both the Atlantic (4%) and Pacific flyways (0.9%). Movement from Arkansas to other states and Canada was influenced by goose age and sex. Older individuals traveled longer distances than younger ones, and females traveled longer distances than males. Our findings suggest that recently established Canada geese in Arkansas have slowly expanded within the state to the northwest and southwest with the expansion to the east being important now. Movement of Arkansas resident Canada geese on molt-migration can contribute to management issues in other states and provinces.

  2. Ecology of Canada lynx in southern boreal forests [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith B. Aubry; Gary M. Koehler; John R. Squires

    2000-01-01

    Canada lynx occur throughout boreal forests of North America, but ecological conditions in southern regions differ in many respects from those in Canada and Alaska. To evaluate the extent to which lynx ecology and population biology may differ between these regions, we review existing information from southern boreal forests and compare our findings to...

  3. Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada Partnership ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For almost 30 years, IDRC has enabled the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada to provide Canadian universities with liaison and information services on ... International Development Week, observed February 4-10 this year, is an opportunity to focus on Canada's contributions to global development.

  4. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network : Building African Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network : Building African Capacity for HIV/AIDS Prevention Trials. The Canada-Africa Prevention Trials Network (CAPT Network) was formed through a capacity building grant from the Global Health Research Initiative (GHRI). The Network comprises eight African centres (four in Uganda, ...

  6. All projects related to Canada | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-12-01

    Malignant brain tumours are the most common cause of death among children with cancer, but there is no known cure. This project will advance research in this important field. Start Date: December 1, 2015. Topic: BRAIN, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, CANCER, THERAPY, CANADA. Region: India, Canada, Israel.

  7. Health inequities in Canada: intersectional frameworks and practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hankivsky, Olena; De Leeuw, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    ... recycled) that is processed chlorineand acid-free. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Health inequities in Canada : intersectional frameworks and practices / edited by Olena Hankivsky. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7748-1975-6 (bound); ISBN 978-0-7748-1972-5 (pbk) 1. Health services accessibi...

  8. Tracing Sources Of Nitrate And Sulfate In The Bow River, Alberta Canada, Using Isotope Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J.; Mayer, B.; Ryan, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Bow River in Alberta is a major tributary to the South Saskatchewan River in western Canada. Urban development and agricultural activities including feedlot operations within the Bow River Basin can potentially impact the river water quality by elevating nitrate and sulfate concentrations. In this project, we applied hydrological, chemical and isotopic techniques to identify sources of nitrate and sulfate in the Bow River. The study area stretches approximately 570km along the Bow River from Lake Louise in the Rocky Mountain headwaters to near its confluence with the Oldman River in the prairies. Between June 2007 and July 2008, monthly samples were taken from the Bow River for major ion chemistry and stable isotope ratio measurements of H, O, C, N and S. Flow data from Alberta Environment were used in combination with chemical data to estimate fluxes of nitrate, sulfate and other ionic solutes along the river. Isotope results show that Bow River water near Lake Louise was characterized by δ15N-NO3 values between 0 and +4‰ and δ18O-NO3 values between +7 and +11‰ falling within the range typical for nitrate produced by nitrification in forest ecosystems. Between Canmore and Calgary, δ15N- NO3 increased to values between +3 and +8‰, and δ18O-NO3 ranged between -5 and +5‰. Nitrate discharged from the Bonnybrook wastewater treatment plant in Calgary has elevated δ15N-NO3 values of +8‰ and low δ18O-NO3 values of -10‰. Nitrate flux increased over an order of magnitude in the river as a result of wastewater effluent discharge at Calgary. In the agricultural irrigation districts downstream of Calgary, δ15N-NO3 values varied between +6 and +11‰, whereas δ18O-NO3 values ranged between -11 and +1‰. The elevated δ15N-NO3 and low δ18O-NO3 values indicate that sewage derived nitrate from the wastewater treatment plant is the major cause for increased nitrate fluxes in the Bow River downstream of Calgary. At Lake Louise, δ34S-SO4 values varied

  9. Flow dynamics over a foredune at Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Davidson-Arnott, Robin; Walker, Ian J.; Ollerhead, Jeff

    2005-02-01

    Time-averaged windspeed profiles at eight locations over a relatively high (8 m), vegetated, topographically simple foredune were measured using cup and ultrasonic anemometry during an onshore wind event in May 2002. The experiment was part of a larger study on the sedimentary dynamics of a beach-dune complex in the Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. The foredune is vegetated with Ammophila breviligulata, and vegetation density ranged from 0% on the foredune ramp to upward of 70% at the dune crest. Topographic forcing and resulting flow acceleration was observed distinctly in windspeed profiles, and linear speedup occurred for all elevations above the vegetation canopy. A distinct inflection point is evident in normalized windspeed profiles over the dune indicating a net momentum sink below the vegetation canopy top, and systematic speed-down within the vegetation was observed up the foredune stoss slope. Wind speed profile structure was consistent for the range of incident wind speeds measured. A comparison of normal and slightly oblique incident winds indicated that for similar approach winds, wind speeds are consistently higher during oblique flow conditions. The implications for foredune morphodynamics and sedimentation are discussed.

  10. 'Race' and HIV vulnerability in a transnational context: the case of Chinese immigrants to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanqiu Rachel

    2017-06-01

    Although immigrants' sustained connections with their homelands are well documented, so far we know little about how 'race' - in particular, conceptions of race back home - influences the HIV vulnerability of racialised immigrants to Western countries. Drawing on data from a multi-sited, qualitative study of Chinese immigrants to Canada, this paper presents a contextualised understanding of the impacts of race on HIV risk faced by these individuals in a transnational context. Data were collected from four study sites in Canada and China as part of a study investigating the relationship between HIV risk and transnationalism. Although race appears to have bearing on their risk perceptions and sexual practices, immigrants' understandings of race are not necessarily consistent with dominant discourses of race in Canada, but are also mediated by their racial habitus developed in China. Findings reveal the complex power dynamics - not just power asymmetries but also power fluidity - around race from a transnational perspective and thus challenge the assumed dichotomy of dominance and subordination underpinning traditional explanations of the relationship between race and HIV risk. In the context of transnationalism, researchers should go beyond a nation-bound concept of society (i.e. the host society) and take into account the simultaneous influence of both host and home countries on immigrant health.

  11. Participatory Water Management Strategies: Contributions for Canada from Brazil’s National Water Resources Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanderson Alberto Medeiros Leitao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian decision-makers are encountering escalating socio-ecological pressures to introduce a national water strategy. Canada lags behind other countries such as Brazil which has had a comprehensive, participatory, watershed-based national strategy for over a decade. Similar to Canada, Brazil is a complex, federal, resource-based economy. These two states are world leaders in terms of possessing the vast quantities of the world’s fresh water supplies and in hydro-electric power production. In both cases, however, water abundance is predominantly concentrated in their northern territories with low population density, whereas in other geographical regions, the water demand associated with high population density lead to drought, shortages and social and economic inequalities. Despite these similarities, there are a number of differences particularly with respect to socio-economic and political structures. An examination ofthe Brazilian national water strategy offers some explanations as to why that federation has been able to develop innovative legislation as an important first step towards water security – a step that Canadahas yet to take. It also offers some very useful examples and lessons about how a federal state such as Canada might introduce and implement its own integrative national water strategy.

  12. Open Source in Canada's Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Leibovitch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The story of the growth of open source use in Canada has been far more a matter of evolution than revolution, so quiet in its pace that its progress has been difficult to measure. This has posed many challenges to Canadian open source advocates in their efforts to ensure that their country does not lag behind the rest of the world in understanding the social and business benefits open source provides. Perhaps some of the leading soldiers in the trenches might be our civil servants who protect the public purse. In addition to managing and minimizing the costs of delivering necessary services, public sector projects should also advance the social good through the delicate balance of transparency and efficiency.

  13. Teaching Inquiry in Nigeria and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Inquiry is a teaching strategy in which student work mirrors authentic scientific research: students have ownership over their learning path, and learning scientific concepts (e.g., properties of light, motion in a gravitational field) is intertwined with learning scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning an investigation, constructing explanations). I will describe inquiry and education research showing its effectiveness; and I will present inquiry-based astronomy curricula and assessment strategies we have designed for undergraduate and graduate courses in Nigeria and Canada: an activity on the cosmic distance ladder (part of a short course in Abuja); a course on order-of-magnitude astronomy problem solving (Toronto); and new education research from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the University of British Columbia (where I am a new postdoc).

  14. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  15. ATLAS Canada lightpath data transfer trial

    CERN Document Server

    Kost, C J; Caron, B; Hong, W

    2003-01-01

    Emerging grids play a significant role in the computational, data, storage, and network requirements of high energy physics experiments coming online in the next few years. One such requirement, the bulk transfer of data over advanced high speed optical networks is necessary as such experiments are highly distributed with resources and participants from research laboratories and institutions spanning the globe. This trial at the iGrid 2002 conference attempts to stress the feasibility of high speed bulk data transfer over an end-to-end lightpath, a dedicated point-to-point optical link. Specifically, the objective was to transfer 1 TB of Monte Carlo data from TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, to CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. A rate equivalent to transferring a full CD of data every 8 s was achieved. (15 refs).

  16. Non-residential fatherhood in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Strohschein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to shed light on non-residential fatherhood in Canada. Data come from the 2012 LISA. Analysis was restricted to fathers who had children under the age of 19 (N=3,592. Approximately 17.4% were non-residential fathers. Logistic regression models indicated that being outside a marital union, low educational attainment and low income were associated with increased odds of being a non-residential father. Teen parenthood was not a statistically significant predictor. I discuss the implications of these findings as well as the need for measures that better capture variability in the living arrangements of fathers and their children. Le but de cette étude est d’éclairer le phénomène de paternité non résidentielle au Canada. Les données proviennent du sondage LISA 2012. L'analyse est limitée aux pères ayant des enfants de moins de 19 ans (N = 3 592. Environ 17,4% sont des pères non-résidentiels. Les modèles de régression logistique indiquent qu'étant hors d'une union maritale, d'avoir un faible niveau de scolarité, et de faible revenu est associé à une probabilité élevée d'être un père non-résidentiel. Être un parent adolescent n’est pas un prédicteur statistiquement significatif. Je discute des implications de ces résultats ainsi que de la nécessité de mesures qui permettent de mieux saisir la variabilité des modes de vie des pères et de leurs enfants.

  17. A National Palliative Care Strategy for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R Sean

    2018-01-01

    To identify barrier to achieving universal access to high quality palliative care in Canada, review published national strategies and frameworks to promote palliative care, examine key aspects that have been linked to successful outcomes, and make recommendations for Canada. In 2014, the World Health Organization called on members to develop and implement policies to ensure palliative care is integrated into national health services. Rapid review supplemented by the author's personal files, outreach to colleagues within the international palliative care community, review of European Association for Palliative Care publications, and a subsequent search of the table of contents of the major palliative care journals. Frameworks were found for 10 countries ranging from detailed and comprehensive multi-year strategies to more general approaches including laws guaranteeing access to palliative care services for "dying" patients or recommendations for the development of clinical infrastructure. Few formal evaluations were found minimal comparative data exist regarding the quality of care, access to palliative care services, timing of access in the disease trajectory, and patient and family satisfaction with care. Factors that appear to be associated with success include: 1) input and early involvement of senior policy makers; 2) comprehensive strategies that address major barriers to universal access and that involve the key constituents; 3) a focus on enhancing the evidence base and developing a national system of quality reporting; and 4) substantial and sustained government investment. Comprehensive national strategies appear to improve access to high quality palliative care for persons with serious illness and their families. Such strategies require sustained government funding and address barriers related to infrastructure, professional and public education, workforce shortages, and an inadequate evidence base.

  18. Canada 2050 : four long-term scenarios for Canada's energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Energy Sector of Natural Resources Canada initiated the Energy Technology Futures project in 1998 to develop a set of viable scenarios of what Canada's energy system could potentially look like in 30 to 50 years. The objective was to see what the effect of new technologies might have on our ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Three independent drivers were used for developing the scenarios. These included: environmental etiquette, markets and the pace of innovation. The first scenario looked at a world in which greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increased in all areas of the economy along with Canada's population and economic activity. The second scenario looked at a world where GHG emissions initially exhibited a downward trend to 2020. The third scenario looked at a world where GHG emissions decreased as new efficient technologies replaced GHG intensive processes. And finally, the last scenario looked at a world where GHG emissions were substantially reduced in all areas of the economy. The study clearly demonstrated that more work is needed to develop longer-term perspectives on the issue of climate change. In addition, there will be a need for long-term policy, program development and investment into science and technology. figs.

  19. Global designs, postcolonial critiques: rethinking Canada in dialogue with diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Brydon

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the comparative examination of Brazil and Canada in the context of engagements with postcolonial theory obliquely, rather than directly, through reframing the comparison within the contexts posed by Paul Gilroy in The Black Atlantic, and by contemporary globalization theories and indigenous global activism, when considered through a postcolonial lens. Accepting John Tomlinson’s idea (in Globalization and Culture that the “complex connectivities” of globalizing practices and discourses “confound” conventional social science practices, this paper suggests that literary texts that engage these issues may enjoy an advantage in negotiating such complexities. But it also argues that new configurations of diaspora and globalization offer writers and readers the chance to shift literature away from its conventional constructions as both autonomous and transcendent, on the one hand, and nation-affirming, on the other. Through a close comparative reading of Okanagan writer Jeannette Armstrong’s novel, Whispering in Shadows, and Caribbean-Canadian Nalo Hopkinson’s utopian science fiction, Brown Girl in the Ring, I seek to model a postcolonial reading practice attentive to cultural difference and global challenges. Each story addresses colonial legacies and global designs through the reconstruction of a relational autonomy that redefines humanity and community through re-energizing beliefs and practices abandoned under colonial modernity. Each text challenges mainstream models for mapping Canadian identity and its place within the Americas. They work to break the illusion of Western progress that fuels contemporary globalization and to redefine global connectivities from within the perspectives of formerly subjugated knowledge systems and a local ground.

  20. Ocean Networks Canada: Live Sensing of a Dynamic Ocean System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesemann, Martin; Juniper, Kim; Hoeberechts, Maia; Matabos, Marjolaine; Mihaly, Steven; Scherwath, Martin; Dewey, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two advanced cabled networks on the west coast of British Columbia. VENUS, the coastal network consisting of two cabled arrays with four Nodes reaching an isolated fjord (Saanich Inlet) and a busy shipping corridor near Vancouver (the Strait of Georgia) went into operation in February 2006. NEPTUNE Canada is the first operational deep-sea regional cabled ocean observatory worldwide. Since the first data began streaming to the public in 2009, instruments on the five active nodes along the 800 km cable loop have gathered a time-series documenting three years in the northeastern Pacific. Observations cover the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate from ridge to trench and the continental shelf and slope off Vancouver Island. The cabled systems provide power and high bandwidth communications to a wide range of oceanographic instrument systems which measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological conditions of the dynamic earth-ocean system. Over the years significant challenges have been overcome and currently we have more than 100 instruments with hundreds of sensors reporting data in real-time. Salient successes are the first open-ocean seafloor to sea-surface vertical profiling system, three years of operation of Wally—a seafloor crawler that explores a hydrate mound, and a proven resilient cable design that can recover from trawler hits and major equipment meltdown with minimal loss of data. A network wide array of bottom mounted pressure recorders and seismometers recorded the passage of three major tsunamis, numerous earthquakes and frequent whale calls. At the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca ridge high temperature and diffuse vent fluids were monitored and sampled using novel equipment, including high resolution active acoustics instrumentation to study plume dynamics at a massive sulfide hydrothermal vent. Also, four deep sea cabled moorings (300 m high) were placed in the precipitous bathymetry of the 2200 m

  1. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Choosing Wisely Canada Students and Trainees Advocating for Resource Stewardship (STARS) campaign: a descriptive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Franco; Cheung, Daphne; Han, Angela; Born, Karen B; Alexander, Lisa; Levinson, Wendy; Wong, Brian M

    2017-12-19

    Resource stewardship is being increasingly recognized as an essential competency for physicians, but medical schools are just beginning to integrate this into education. We describe the evaluation of Choosing Wisely Canada's Students and Trainees Advocating for Resource Stewardship (STARS) campaign, a student-led campaign to advance resource stewardship education in medical schools across Canada. We evaluated the campaign 6 months after its launch, in November 2015. STARS students were administered a telephone survey eliciting a description of the initiatives that they had implemented or planned to implement at their schools to promote resource stewardship, and exploring their perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to successful implementation of their initiatives. We used a mixed-methods approach to analyze and summarize the data. Twenty-seven (82%) of the 33 eligible students representing all 17 medical schools responded. In 14 schools (82%), students led various local activities (e.g., interest groups, campaign weeks) to raise awareness about resource stewardship among medical students and faculty. Students contributed to curriculum change (both planned and implemented) at 10 schools (59%). Thematic analysis revealed key program characteristics that facilitated success (e.g., pan-Canadian student network, local faculty champion) as well as barriers to implementing change (e.g., complex processes to change curriculum, hierarchical nature of medical school). This student-led campaign, with support from local faculty and Choosing Wisely Canada staff, led to awareness-building activities and early curricula change at medical schools across Canada. Future plans will build on the initial momentum created by the STARS campaign to sustain and spread local initiatives. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  3. A framework for discussion on how to improve prevention, management, and control of hypertension in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm; Young, Eric R; Drouin, Denis; Legowski, Barbara; Adams, Michael A; Farrell, Judi; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Lewanczuk, Richard; Moy Lum-Kwong, Margaret; Tobe, Sheldon

    2012-05-01

    Increased blood pressure is a leading risk for premature death and disability. The causes of increased blood pressure are intuitive and well known. However, the fundamental basis and means for improving blood pressure control are highly integrated into our complex societal structure both inside and outside our health system and hence require a comprehensive discussion of the pathway forward. A group of Canadian experts was appointed by Hypertension Canada with funding from Public Health Agency of Canada and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Institute for Health Research (HSFC-CIHR) Chair in Hypertension Prevention and Control to draft a discussion Framework for prevention and control of hypertension. The report includes an environmental scan of past and current activities, proposals for key indicators, and targets to be achieved by 2020, and what changes are likely to be required in Canada to achieve the proposed targets. The key targets are to reduce the prevalence of hypertension to 13% of adults and improve control to 78% of those with hypertension. Broad changes in government policy, research, and health services delivery are required for these changes to occur. The Hypertension Framework process is designed to have 3 phases. The first includes the experts' report which is summarized in this report. The second phase is to gather input and priorities for action from individuals and organizations for revision of the Framework. It is hoped the Framework will stimulate discussion and input for its full intended lifespan 2011-2020. The third phase is to work with individuals and organizations on the priorities set in phase 2. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Returning birth: the politics of midwifery implementation on First Nations reserves in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Rachel; Couchie, Carol

    2013-08-01

    to explore the role of midwives in the implementation of an elective birthing programme in one remote First Nation community in Canada, and to identify current barriers and challenges to the practice of midwifery in these settings the study is a multisited ethnography based on 15 months of fieldwork in Manitoba, Canada. Thirty-nine individual qualitative, semi-structured interviews were completed. The data from the interviews were coded into themes and presented in the paper. the study focuses on one First Nation community and their process of implementation of midwifery services. This case study is used to address broader themes of midwifery and policy at a national level. participants included Aboriginal midwives from across Canada, policy makers from provincial and federal jurisdictions, medical professionals involved in Aboriginal health care, Aboriginal political leadership, and Aboriginal women and their families. national policy and issues of jurisdiction among levels of government were shown to be a barrier to midwifery implementation. the current policy of evacuation in most Aboriginal communities does not effectively address the Millennium Development Goal of having a skilled birth attendant at every birth. The role of midwifery is central to the process of returning birth to Aboriginal communities, and steps must be taken at both the policy and clinical level to ensure that midwifery implementation and education can become an option for all Aboriginal communities in Canada. when considering midwifery implementation in communities, midwives must engage in both political and clinical negotiations to ensure their ability to practice effectively. Understanding the complexity of the policy discourse, along with the place of midwifery within the existing clinical guidelines is integral to the success of this process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. carbene complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Reaction of oligomeric Cu(I) complexes [Cu{µ-S-C(=NR)(O–Ar–CH3)}]n with Lewis acids gave Cu(I) carbene complexes, which were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Cu(I) car- bene complexes could be directly generated from RNCS, Cu(I)–OAr and Lewis acids; this method can be used to ...

  6. Teaching global engineering in Canada, learning informality of the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopakumar, Govind

    2014-07-01

    Globalisation has inspired a wide assortment of curricular initiatives within engineering education in the USA and Europe. This interest could be categorised in multiple directions - international exposure, service learning, or critical understanding and praxis. In Canada, however, there has been far less consideration for integrating globalisation within the engineering curriculum. The recent episode of reform initiated by the Canadian Board of Engineering Accreditation could usher in changes on this front. Situating the development of a course titled Development and Global Engineering within these broader conceptual and organisational impulses, this paper will illuminate a pathway towards understanding globalisation, especially within the Global South, through a comprehension of complexity and informality.

  7. Global designs, postcolonial critiques: rethinking Canada in dialogue with diaspora Global designs, postcolonial critiques: rethinking Canada in dialogue with diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Brydon

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the comparative examination of Brazil and Canada in the context of engagements with postcolonial theory obliquely, rather than directly, through reframing the comparison within the contexts posed by Paul Gilroy in The Black Atlantic, and by contemporary globalization theories and indigenous global activism, when considered through a postcolonial lens. Accepting John Tomlinson’s idea (in Globalization and Culture that the “complex connectivities” of globalizing practices and discourses “confound” conventional social science practices, this paper suggests that literary texts that engage these issues may enjoy an advantage in negotiating such complexities. But it also argues that new configurations of diaspora and globalization offer writers and readers the chance to shift literature away from its conventional constructions as both autonomous and transcendent, on the one hand, and nation-affirming, on the other. Through a close comparative reading of Okanagan writer Jeannette Armstrong’s novel, Whispering in Shadows, and Caribbean-Canadian Nalo Hopkinson’s utopian science fiction, Brown Girl in the Ring, I seek to model a postcolonial reading practice attentive to cultural difference and global challenges. Each story addresses colonial legacies and global designs through the reconstruction of a relational autonomy that redefines humanity and community through re-energizing beliefs and practices abandoned under colonial modernity. Each text challenges mainstream models for mapping Canadian identity and its place within the Americas. They work to break the illusion of Western progress that fuels contemporary globalization and to redefine global connectivities from within the perspectives of formerly subjugated knowledge systems and a local ground. This paper approaches the comparative examination of Brazil and Canada in the context of engagements with postcolonial theory obliquely, rather than directly, through

  8. An economic analysis of a system wide Lean approach: cost estimations for the implementation of Lean in the Saskatchewan healthcare system for 2012-2014

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazmi Sari; Thomas Rotter; Donna Goodridge; Liz Harrison; Leigh Kinsman

    2017-01-01

    ... over 50 years ago as the Toyota Production System, a method to improve production by eliminating waste [8]. In the field of operations management, the most frequently cited definition of Lean is offered by Shah and Ward, who define Lean as a complex intervention in the form of ‘an integrated socio-technical system to eliminate waste by concurrently red...

  9. Pain medicine--a new credential in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley-Forster, Patricia; Karpinski, Jolanta

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, Pain Medicine was formally recognized as a subspecialty in Canada by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, a national organization with oversight of the medical education of specialists in Canada. The first trainees began their training at the Western University, London, Canada in July, 2014. This article traces the process of Pain Medicine's development as a discipline in Canada and outlines its multiple entry routes, 2-year curriculum, and assessment procedures. The application for specialty status was initiated in 2007 with the understanding that while Anesthesiology would be the parent specialty, the curriculum would train clinicians in a multidisciplinary setting. To receive recognition as a Royal College subspecialty, Pain Medicine had to successfully pass through three phases, each stage requiring formal approval by the Committee on Specialties. The multiple entry routes to this 2-year subspecialty program are described in this article as are the objectives of training, the curriculum, assessment of competency and the practice-eligibility route to certification. The process of accreditation of new training programs across Canada is also discussed. The new Pain Medicine training program in Canada will train experts in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of the spectrum of acute pain, cancer pain and non-cancer pain problems. These physicians will become leaders in education, research, advocacy and administration of this emerging field. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Assessment of impacts to aquatic organisms from pesticide use on the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary habitat management objective for the three refuges of the Willamette Valley NWR Complex is to provide high quality forage for wintering Canada geese. To...

  11. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  12. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  13. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Strategy I. Alice x ∈ {0, 1}n. ⇒. ⇐. Bob y ∈ {0, 1}n. Naive strategy. Alice sends x to Bob. Bob tells Alice if x = y. Cost. Requires n + 1 bits of communication. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  14. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  15. Complex derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  16. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii): advice, policy and research in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Franco J; Farber, Jeffrey M

    2009-12-31

    Although the number of reported cases of Cronobacter infection in Canada is low, Health Canada has been actively studying this organism since 1991. After reviewing the situation at the national level and due to health concerns with powdered formulae and its international trade, in 2003, Health Canada raised this issue at the international level by proposing to revise the Code of Practice for Powdered Formulae for Infants and Young Children at the Codex Alimentarius Committee of Food Hygiene. Canada volunteered to chair the Working Group that would be developing the Code, and the Code was completed in four years. The Code contributed to an improvement in the hygienic conditions in plants manufacturing Powdered Infant Formula (PIF), resulting in a lower level of product contamination with Cronobacter species. Canada has produced a document detailing Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for Infant Formula in Canada. Health Canada uses the GMPs as a basis for assessing the manufacturing information received in pre-market notifications for new or changed infant formulas. Health Canada does not have microbiological criteria for Cronobacter spp. in PIF; however, we are currently working on developing these criteria. At present, there are no active or passive surveillance systems for Cronobacter spp. in Canada, although this has been discussed. Health Canada has recently adapted and condensed FAO/WHO guidelines to develop a draft guidance document for the hygienic preparation and handling of PIF in home and hospitals/care settings, which outline requirements for parents, caregivers, and staff in hospitals and day-care centres. Health Canada's Bureau of Microbial Hazards conducts research on the ecology, biology and pathogenesis of Cronobacter spp. Some of the research projects include specific aspects of molecular typing, virulence studies involving animal models, as well as in vitro tissue culture work to examine adhesion and invasion. Collaborative research is also being

  17. Canada's Supreme Court abolishes 'promise of the patent'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, John; Gloor, Alex

    2018-01-01

    The Supreme Court of Canada has done away with the 'promise of the patent' doctrine. This doctrine invalidated patents to numerous otherwise useful inventions from 2005 to 2016. The Supreme Court of Canada has clarified that the statutory utility requirement requires only a scintilla of utility related to the subject matter of the invention. This utility must have been demonstrated or soundly predicted as of the Canadian filing date. The decision brings increased certainty to Canada's patent system and more closely aligns it with international norms.

  18. Impact of Impairment on Children with Special Needs at School Entry: Comparison of School Readiness Outcomes in Canada, Australia, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Transition to school is particularly complex for children with special needs. A major difficulty faced by educational systems in trying to address these needs is the multitude of problems with which such children present. Based on population-level data collected with the Early Development Instrument in Canada, Australia, and Mexico,…

  19. Cultural Resources Survey for the Lake Darling-Souris River Project, North Dakota (1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-13

    finishings on pottery , the Saskatchewan Basin sequence known from the Morkin Site, and the Cluny Complex, a proto- historic manifestation identified at...the Cluny Site in Alberta. Pottery found on the Souris River may be related to the Late Woodland ceramic-making cultures of seuthern Canada (see... Pottery and Projectile Points (site lead) Schweigert, 1978 " (SW SE ) 32RV435 Servold Homestead House Schweigert, 1978 Sec. 17 (SW NWh) McCarroll Ranch

  20. Harnessing the potential - Atlantic Canada`s oil and gas industry : Newfoundland Ocean Industries special releases or publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    A comprehensive overview of Atlantic Canada`s oil and gas industry is presented, demonstrating the importance of oil and gas resources and their related industries to Atlantic Canada. The objective of the report is to provide a basis for a strategy to optimize opportunities within the region from the oil and gas sector. The report reviews the current status of the industry, including the region`s resource potential and the oil and gas developments currently underway. The evolution of the oil and gas industry is discussed in terms of value chain components. A broad assessment of the region`s supply, labour force, infrastructure, training, and research and development capabilities is presented, followed by a description of the industry`s potential, its regulatory framework and the barriers and constraints affecting industry development. Appendices contain a chronological history of major events in Atlantic Canada`s oil and gas industry (Appendix A); and overview of the Atlantic Accord and the Canada-Nova Scotia Accord`s equalization offset provisions (Appendix B); a value chain matrix, detailing some 60 categories of industry requirements and a capsule assessment of the region`s ability to meet them (Appendix C); and a listing of research and development institutions in Atlantic Canada, including their areas of specialization (Appendix D).

  1. 19 CFR 123.27 - Feeding and watering animals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feeding and watering animals in Canada. 123.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or... cannot be fed and watered in Canada without breaking customs seals, the seals shall be broken and the...

  2. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  3. Forest Connectivity Regions of Canada Using Circuit Theory and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David; Lapointe, Marc-Élie; Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Cardille, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological processes are increasingly well understood over smaller areas, yet information regarding interconnections and the hierarchical nature of ecosystems remains less studied and understood. Information on connectivity over large areas with high resolution source information provides for both local detail and regional context. The emerging capacity to apply circuit theory to create maps of omnidirectional connectivity provides an opportunity for improved and quantitative depictions of forest connectivity, supporting the formation and testing of hypotheses about the density of animal movement, ecosystem structure, and related links to natural and anthropogenic forces. In this research, our goal was to delineate regions where connectivity regimes are similar across the boreal region of Canada using new quantitative analyses for characterizing connectivity over large areas (e.g., millions of hectares). Utilizing the Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of forests (EOSD) circa 2000 Landsat-derived land-cover map, we created and analyzed a national-scale map of omnidirectional forest connectivity at 25m resolution over 10000 tiles of 625 km2 each, spanning the forested regions of Canada. Using image recognition software to detect corridors, pinch points, and barriers to movements at multiple spatial scales in each tile, we developed a simple measure of the structural complexity of connectivity patterns in omnidirectional connectivity maps. We then mapped the Circuitscape resistance distance measure and used it in conjunction with the complexity data to study connectivity characteristics in each forested ecozone. Ecozone boundaries masked substantial systematic patterns in connectivity characteristics that are uncovered using a new classification of connectivity patterns that revealed six clear groups of forest connectivity patterns found in Canada. The resulting maps allow exploration of omnidirectional forest connectivity patterns at full resolution while

  4. Forest Connectivity Regions of Canada Using Circuit Theory and Image Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pelletier

    Full Text Available Ecological processes are increasingly well understood over smaller areas, yet information regarding interconnections and the hierarchical nature of ecosystems remains less studied and understood. Information on connectivity over large areas with high resolution source information provides for both local detail and regional context. The emerging capacity to apply circuit theory to create maps of omnidirectional connectivity provides an opportunity for improved and quantitative depictions of forest connectivity, supporting the formation and testing of hypotheses about the density of animal movement, ecosystem structure, and related links to natural and anthropogenic forces. In this research, our goal was to delineate regions where connectivity regimes are similar across the boreal region of Canada using new quantitative analyses for characterizing connectivity over large areas (e.g., millions of hectares. Utilizing the Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of forests (EOSD circa 2000 Landsat-derived land-cover map, we created and analyzed a national-scale map of omnidirectional forest connectivity at 25m resolution over 10000 tiles of 625 km2 each, spanning the forested regions of Canada. Using image recognition software to detect corridors, pinch points, and barriers to movements at multiple spatial scales in each tile, we developed a simple measure of the structural complexity of connectivity patterns in omnidirectional connectivity maps. We then mapped the Circuitscape resistance distance measure and used it in conjunction with the complexity data to study connectivity characteristics in each forested ecozone. Ecozone boundaries masked substantial systematic patterns in connectivity characteristics that are uncovered using a new classification of connectivity patterns that revealed six clear groups of forest connectivity patterns found in Canada. The resulting maps allow exploration of omnidirectional forest connectivity patterns at

  5. All projects related to canada | Page 18 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: FOREIGN INVESTMENT, DIRECT INVESTMENT, INVESTMENT POLICY, INVESTMENT PROMOTION, INVESTMENT RETURNS, Poverty alleviation, Economic and social development, ECONOMIC EQUITY, SOCIAL EQUITY. Region: Canada, North and Central America, Far East Asia, Viet Nam, South Africa, North ...

  6. Snowfall and Snow Depth for Canada 1943-1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data include monthly snowfall and end-of-month snow depth for 140 stations across Canada. Stations that maintained at least 20 years of data were chosen. The...

  7. All projects related to Canada | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , Economics. Region: Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Canada, Japan. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 382,600.00. Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund: Strengthening of Research Capacity. Project. This project creates ...

  8. Permafrost Map for Northwestern Canada (Mackenzie Region), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Permafrost Map for Northwestern Canada (Mackenzie Region) is a digital version of the 1:1,000,000 map produced by Heginbottom and Radburn [Heginbottom, J.A. and...

  9. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  10. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  11. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-03

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence.

  12. The level of pension awareness in Canada: a report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the level of the public's awareness regarding the pension system in Canada, retirement planning and in particular, provisions and benefits available under the CPP...

  13. Canada's constitutional separation of (wind) power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Scott Victor [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-04-15

    This paper investigates the impact that a federal government structure has on strategic selection of renewable energy policy instruments. The context for this study centers on wind power development in Canada. Canada is a nation that is blessed by all the attributes necessary to catalyze global leadership in installed wind power capacity. Unfortunately, the constitutional separation of powers that underpins Canada's federal system impedes the creation of a national wind power development strategy because Canada's provinces have constitutional authority over electricity governance. The insights gleaned from the case study are used to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the impact that federal structure has on policy instrument selection and efficacy under areas of federal, regional and concurrent policy jurisdiction. Finally, this framework is re-applied to identify specific approaches the Canadian federal government could take to resolve what currently amounts to be a fragmented, ineffective approach to wind power development planning. (author)

  14. All projects related to canada | Page 12 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , North and Central America, South America. Program: Foundations for ... Region: Far East Asia, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Malaysia, Canada, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 100,000.00. Canadian ...

  15. Canada : tous les projets | Page 17 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: LABOUR MIGRATION, BRAIN DRAIN, RETURN MIGRATION, TOURISM, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, Economic and social development. Région: Canada, North and Central America, Europe, United Kingdom, United States, South America, West Indies, Jamaica, Barbados. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  16. All projects related to Canada | Page 13 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , South of Sahara, Canada. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 4,745,530.00. Facilitating Alcohol Control Law Development in Vietnam. Project. Alcohol abuse is a growing problem in Vietnam. Topic: ALCOHOL, RESEARCH, LAW, ...

  17. All projects related to Canada | Page 25 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: REFUGEES, DISPLACED PERSONS, IMMIGRATION, RESETTLEMENT, SOCIAL INTEGRATION, HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE. Region: North and Central America, South America, Colombia, Ecuador, Canada. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 218,745.00. Effective and Sustainable Health ...

  18. Ecology of Aleutian Canada geese at Buldir Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The only known breeding population of the endangered Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia) was studied from 1974 to 1977 at Buldir Island, Alaska....

  19. All projects related to Canada | Page 11 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-09

    Start Date: January 9, 2013. Topic: INFORMATION DISSEMINATION, VIOLENCE, SEXUAL ABUSE, WOMEN, GIRLS, METHODOLOGY, MEDIA, POLICY MAKING. Region: South Africa, Canada. Program: Foundations for Innovation. Total Funding: CA$ 2,400,000.00. Urban Climate Resilience in Southeast Asia Partnership.

  20. Pacific Flyway management plan for the dusky Canada goose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan for the dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) is a revision of earlier plans adopted by the Pacific Flyway Council (1973, 1985,...

  1. All projects related to canada | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: MEDICAL RESEARCH, VACCINES, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES, TRAINING, STUDENTS, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Canada. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 743,000.00. Scaling Research Results: Design and Evaluation. Project.

  2. Matters of life and death: public health issues in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, André

    2017-01-01

    .... Matters of Life and Death collects Picard's most compelling columns, covering a broad range of topics including Canada's right-to-die law, the true risks of the Zika virus, the financial challenges...

  3. Canada : tous les projets | Page 12 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 31 mars 2011. Sujet: International cooperation, VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS, VOLUNTARY SERVICES, VOLUNTEERS, RESEARCH NETWORKS, Economic and social development. Région: North and Central America, South America, Canada. Programme: Fondements pour l'innovation. Financement total ...

  4. Healthcare in Canada's North: Are We Getting Value for Money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T Kue; Chatwood, Susan; Marchildon, Gregory P

    2016-08-01

    To determine if Canadians are getting value for money in providing health services to our northern residents. Secondary analyses of data from Statistics Canada, the Canadian Institute of Health Information and territorial government agencies on health status, health expenditures and health system performance indicators. Per capita health expenditures in Canada's northern territories are double that of Canada as a whole and are among the highest in the world. The North lags behind the rest of the country in preventable mortality, hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and other performance indicators. The higher health expenditure in the North is to be expected from its unique geography and demography. If the North is not performing as well as Canada, it is not due to lack of money, and policy makers should be concerned about whether healthcare can be as good as it could be. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.

  5. Canada-BC data warehouse: information architecture strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the final needs assessment and results analysis components of the Canada/BC Data Warehouse - Phase 2 Business Requirements Project along with the recommended options and deployment strategy...

  6. PROGRAM EVALUATION IN THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA: PLUS CA CHANGE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RV Segsworth

    2005-01-01

      This article describes the evolution of evaluation policy and practice from 1977, when the first policy on program evaluation was issued by Treasury Board, to the current state of evaluation in the Government of Canada...

  7. Decolonizing employment: Aboriginal inclusion in Canada's labour market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacKinnon, Shauna

    2015-01-01

    ... is a critical source of future labour. Shauna MacKinnon's Decolonizing Employment: Aboriginal Inclusion in Canada's Labour Market is a case study with lessons applicable to communities throughout North America...

  8. All projects related to Canada | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    effective, double-fortified salt formulation has been successfully tested for efficacy and use in the field. Topic: DIET, FOOD TECHNOLOGY, CANADA, MODELS, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, PRIVATE SECTOR, PUBLIC SECTOR, INDIA.

  9. canada : tous les projets | Page 12 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING, RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS, RESEARCH NETWORKS, RESEARCH REPORTS, INFORMATION DISSEMINATION, FUTURE STUDIES, POLICY MAKING. Région: Myanmar, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Agriculture ...

  10. All projects related to Canada | Page 19 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    End Date: October 1, 2013. Topic: Evaluation, ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE, VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS. Region: Canada, North and Central America, South America. Program: Foundations for Innovation. Total Funding: CA$ 183,000.00. Research and Capacity Building for Communities affected by Mining (Global).

  11. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  12. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  13. All projects related to canada | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INFORMATION SYSTEMS, DATA COLLECTING, HEALTH STATISTICS, HEALTH PLANNING, PRIMARY HEALTH CARE, COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION. Region: Nigeria, South of Sahara, United States, Canada, Sweden, South Africa. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 17,397,789.00.

  14. Canada : tous les projets | Page 13 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INFORMAL SECTOR, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, MIGRANTS, DISCRIMINATION, UNEMPLOYMENT, ELDERLY, EMPLOYMENT POLICY. Région: South of Sahara, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Canada, South Africa. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 861,500.00. Penser mondialement, agir ...

  15. Access to internet in rural and remote Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Leanne M; Ronquillo, Charlene; Dick, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Canada is the second largest landmass country in the world, but has one of the lowest population densities. As of 2011, approximately 19% of the Canadian population lives in rural, or remote communities. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in rural and urban access to the Internet and device use in Canada, and to explore differences in access to broadband between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities in Canada. In general rural-dwellers had lower levels of Internet access and despite efforts to increase access to high speed Internet, Aboriginal communities in some regions have limited access. Future research should explore computer and health literacy in the context of rural and remote communities in Canada.

  16. canada : tous les projets | Page 17 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: LABOUR MIGRATION, BRAIN DRAIN, RETURN MIGRATION, TOURISM, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, Economic and social development. Région: Canada, North and Central America, Europe, United Kingdom, United States, South America, West Indies, Jamaica, Barbados. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  17. All projects related to Canada | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting the economic inclusion of youth and women through entrepreneurship in Madagascar. Project. The project aims to promote women and youth entrepreneurship in Madagascar by supporting local research capacities and relevant, useful analysis. Region: Madagascar, Canada. Program: Employment and Growth.

  18. Relationship between particle matter and meteorological data in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Azad; Memarian Fard, Mahsa; Bahrami, Ala

    2017-04-01

    The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has a strong influence on the hydrological cycle, cloud formation, visibility, global climate, and human health. The meteorological conditions have important effects on PM2.5 mass concentration. Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network measures air pollutants at urban, suburban and rural locations in Canada. In this study, the point monthly relationships between meteorological data provided by Environment of Canada and PM2.5 mass concentration from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2015 of fifteen speciation stations in Canada were analyzed. The correlation analysis results between PM2.5 concentrations and precipitation as well as surface pressure demonstrated a negative correlation. It should be noted that the correlation between temperature and special humidity with PM2.5 in cold seasons and warm seasons were negative and positive respectively. Moreover, the weak correlation between wind speed and PM2.5 were obtained.

  19. NPP Boreal Forest: Mississagi, Canada, 1969-1973, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two files (.txt format) for study sites in the Mississagi River area of Ontario, Canada (46.35 N -83.38 W elevation 860 m). One file...

  20. NPP Boreal Forest: Mississagi, Canada, 1970-1973, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two files (.txt format) for study sites in the Mississagi River area of Ontario, Canada (46.35 N -83.38 W elevation 860 m). One file...

  1. Canada's northern food subsidy Nutrition North Canada: a comprehensive program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition North Canada (NNC) is a retail subsidy program implemented in 2012 and designed to reduce the cost of nutritious food for residents living in Canada's remote, northern communities. The present study evaluates the extent to which NNC provides access to perishable, nutritious food for residents of remote northern communities. Program documents, including fiscal and food cost reports for the period 2011-2015, retailer compliance reports, audits of the program, and the program's performance measurement strategy are examined for evidence that the subsidy is meeting its objectives in a manner both comprehensive and equitable across regions and communities. NNC lacks price caps or other means of ensuring food is affordable and equitably priced in communities. Gaps in food cost reporting constrain the program's accountability. From 2011-15, no adjustments were made to community eligibility, subsidy rates, or the list of eligible foods in response to information provided by community members, critics, the Auditor General of Canada, and the program's own Advisory Board. Measures to increase program accountability, such as increasing subsidy information on point-of-sale receipts, make NNC more visible but do nothing to address underlying accountability issues Conclusions: The current structure and regulatory framework of NNC are insufficient to ensure the program meets its goal. Both the volume and cost of nutritious food delivered to communities is highly variable and dependent on factors such as retailers' pricing practices, over which the program has no control. It may be necessary to consider alternative forms of policy in order to produce sustainable improvements to food security in remote, northern communities.

  2. Writing requirements across nursing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Jo-Anne D; Graves, Roger

    2013-02-01

    The emphasis on scholarship in nursing, demands for evidence-based practice, and attention to writing have raised the profile of academic writing within nursing curricula. This article provides a comprehensive review of English and writing course requirements across 81 English-language baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada. The data were gathered from a review of nursing programs and curriculum information from university and college Web sites. Of the 81 programs, 39 (48.1%) require neither an English literature course nor a writing course, 15 (18.5%) require an English literature course, and 32 (39.5%) require a writing course, including five programs that require a discipline-specific writing course. Discipline-specific writing courses appear to be useful adjuncts to writing-across-the-curriculum initiatives in nursing and will help students to develop the research and writing skills needed to succeed both academically and in a career in which nursing scholarship and evidence-informed practice are increasingly valued and expected. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Streamflow input to Lake Athabasca, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, K.; Hernández-Henríquez, M. A.; Déry, S. J.

    2013-05-01

    The Lake Athabasca drainage area in northern Canada encompasses ecologically rich and sensitive ecosystems, vast forests, glacier-clad mountains, and abundant oil reserves in the form of oil sands. The basin includes the Peace-Athabasca Delta, recognized internationally by UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention as a biologically rich inland delta and wetland that are now under increasing pressure from multiple stressors. In this study, streamflow variability and trends for rivers feeding Lake Athabasca are investigated over the last half century. Hydrological regimes and trends are established using a robust regime shift detection method and the Mann-Kendall (MK) test, respectively. Results show that the Athabasca River, which is the main contributor to the total lake inflow, experienced marked declines in recent decades impacting lake levels and its ecosystem. From 1960 to 2010 there was a significant reduction in lake inflow and a significant recession in the Lake Athabasca level. Our trend analysis corroborates a previous study using proxy data obtained from nearby sediment cores suggesting that the lake level may drop 2 to 3 m by 2100. The lake recession may threaten the flora and fauna of the Athabasca Lake basin and negatively impact the ecological cycle of an inland freshwater delta and wetland of global importance.

  4. Developmental milestones among Aboriginal children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna; Miller, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Windows of achievement provide age ranges for the attainment of early developmental skills. Group-specific research is warranted given that development may be influenced by social or cultural factors. To examine developmental milestones for Inuit, Métis and off-reserve First Nation children in Canada, based on developmental domains collected from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey. Sociodemographic and health predictors of risk for developmental delay were also examined. The ranges in which children achieve certain developmental milestones are presented. Gross motor and self-help skills were found to be achieved earlier (across the three Aboriginal groups), whereas language skills were achieved slightly later than in Canadian children in general. Furthermore, health factors (eg, low birth weight, chronic health conditions) were associated with late achievement of developmental outcomes even when sociodemographic characteristics were considered. Findings suggest that the timing of milestone achievement may differ for Aboriginal children, highlighting the importance of establishing culturally specific norms and standards rather than relying on those derived from general populations. This information may be useful for practitioners and parents interested in identifying the age ranges for development, as well as age ranges indicating potential for developmental risk and opportunities for early intervention among Aboriginal children.

  5. Asbestos and drinking water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, P.; Wigle, D.; Meranger, J.C.; Mao, Y.

    1981-04-01

    Samples of raw, treated and distributed tap water were collected from 71 municipalities across Canada and analyzed for asbestos content by transmission electron microscopy. Chrysotile asbestos was identified as the major asbestos type present in drinking water with some 5% of public water supplies containing asbestos at concentrations greater than 10 million fibres per litre. Improvement factors of up to 300 were observed for the removal of chrysotile fibres from drinking water during treatment, indicating that coagulation/filtration treatment is efficient for this purpose. In certain cases there is evidence to suggest that erosion of asbestos from pipe material is taking place. Age-standardized mortality rates for gastro-intestinal cancers were calculated for each city for the period of 1966 to 1976. Rates for the 2 localities with the highest (congruent to 10(8)/L) concentrations of asbestos fibres in treated drinking water were compared with the weighted average of the rates for the 52 localities with asbestos concentrations not significantly greater than zero. Eleven localities had intermediate concentrations of asbestos and six were too small for meaningful statistical analysis. Relatively high mortality rates were apparent amongst males in city 1 for cancer of the large intestine except rectum, and in both sexes in city 1 and males in city 2 for stomach cancer. It is felt that these findings are probably related to occupational exposure to asbestos. Further statistical analyses are required, however, before the significance of these observations can be fully assessed.

  6. Ellesmere Island (Canada) and Northern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In late July, our planet.s northernmost land masses appear to finally be responding to the warmth of Northern Hemisphere summer. Ellesmere Island, Canada, (top left) and northern Greenland (right) have decided kick off their snowy winter garments in this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 3, 200. Bare brown soils are exposed along the coasts of the still frozen (but thawing!) Arctic waters. Several large, permanent ice caps and glaciers will remain on Ellesmere Island year-round, and Greenland does little more than remove her mittens, but thinning, blue ice is showing up in the many fjords and inlets in the rocky coastlines, showing that temperatures are on the rise. The Nares Strait, which separates the two land masses, still has a way to go before a passage opens up between Baffin Bay to the south and the Artic Ocean to the north. Although Ellesmere Island appears to be 'higher' or farther north than Greenland, that is simply a result of the way the high-latitude scene was projected into an image. To better picture the terrain, imagine that you took a printed copy of the rectangular image and rolled it into a cylinder along its northeast-southwest axis. If you held that cylinder straight up in front of you, you would find that Peary Land, Greenland (right of center), is actually the more northern terrain. In fact Peary Land is the northernmost point on land on the Earth.

  7. Streamflow input to Lake Athabasca, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rasouli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Athabasca drainage area in northern Canada encompasses ecologically rich and sensitive ecosystems, vast forests, glacier-clad mountains, and abundant oil reserves in the form of oil sands. The basin includes the Peace–Athabasca Delta, recognized internationally by UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention as a biologically rich inland delta and wetland that are now under increasing pressure from multiple stressors. In this study, streamflow variability and trends for rivers feeding Lake Athabasca are investigated over the last half century. Hydrological regimes and trends are established using a robust regime shift detection method and the Mann–Kendall (MK test, respectively. Results show that the Athabasca River, which is the main contributor to the total lake inflow, experienced marked declines in recent decades impacting lake levels and its ecosystem. From 1960 to 2010 there was a significant reduction in lake inflow and a significant recession in the Lake Athabasca level. Our trend analysis corroborates a previous study using proxy data obtained from nearby sediment cores suggesting that the lake level may drop 2 to 3 m by 2100. The lake recession may threaten the flora and fauna of the Athabasca Lake basin and negatively impact the ecological cycle of an inland freshwater delta and wetland of global importance.

  8. Kidney transplant tourism: cases from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L; Zaltzman, J S; Gill, J; Prasad, G V R

    2013-11-01

    Canada has a marked shortfall between the supply and demand for kidneys for transplantation. Median wait times for deceased donor kidney transplantation vary from 5.8 years in British Columbia, 5.2 years in Manitoba and 4.5 years in Ontario to a little over 2 years in Quebec and Nova Scotia. Living donation provides a viable option for some, but not all people. Consequently, a small number of people travel abroad to undergo kidney transplantation by commercial means. The extent to which they are aware of the potential risks to their health and the health of the kidney vendors is unclear. Travel abroad to obtain a kidney commercially i.e. transplant tourism (TT), raises ethical issues which include the exploitation of the poor, uncertainty of donor informed consent to nephrectomy, poor clinical care and lack of follow up for the donor, commodification of the body and inequity of access to medical care for donors. Also, TT widens socioeconomic disparities in access to transplantation, differing from the Canadian system of universal coverage for healthcare. The Canadian transplant community has discussed how to respond to patients who plan to travel abroad for TT or return with a purchased kidney. Unease rests in the tension between the duty to care for legitimate Canadian residents and the unwillingness to enable TT. This paper discusses three anonymized cases and the Canadian responses to TT as recorded in academic literature and a formal statement by relevant professional bodies.

  9. The Framework for US-Canada Defense and Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-15

    security trump card is played only sparingly. Finally, how US and Canada cooperation manifests itself affects US overall military strategy and force...solidified through a series of international and bilateral trade agreements culminating in the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) of 1994. NAFTA ...The 1989 Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and NAFTA were hotly-debated issues, a trend which continues today with initiatives towards further integration

  10. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  11. Insights into the physician assistant profession in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Danielle; Shrichand, Arun

    2016-07-01

    Physician assistants (PAs) have been used for decades in the Canadian military. Now, PAs are being introduced in various clinical settings to provide patient care for the general population. This article reviews major developments in the PA profession across Canada over the last decade. Nearly 541 PAs are employed in Canada or work for a Canadian agency. Growing evidence demonstrates the positive effect of PAs; however, key issues challenge the extent to which the PA movement will continue to build momentum.

  12. The provision of mobile satellite services in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, N. G.; Roscoe, O. S.

    1990-05-01

    Telesat Mobile Inc. (TMI) is a private company authorized to provide mobile satellite services in Canada. TMI will operate a dedicated MSAT satellite to provide mobile telephone, mobile radio and mobile data services to customers on the move in any part of Canada. The baseline TMI system is described in this paper. The network architecture and the signaling system under development to support the mobile services are discussed. The time-scale for procurement of the system is discussed.

  13. L'entrepreneuriat au Canada dans le contexte mondial | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 nov. 2014 ... Également selon le rapport, au Canada, les immigrants de première génération se lancent en affaires dans une proportion plus élevée que le reste de la population, et les femmes participent davantage à l'activité entrepreneuriale que dans les autres pays du G7. En outre, au Canada, contrairement à ce ...

  14. The Apprenticeship System in Canada: Trends and Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Sharpe; James Gibson

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the trends and issues related to the apprenticeship system in Canada. It first discusses theoretical perspectives on apprenticeship, then reviews the institutional features of apprenticeship systems in Canada and in other countries. The report concludes that the market for apprenticeship is principally constrained by employer demand rather than by the supply of potential apprentices. Consequently, it proposes reforms based on three main principles: apprenti...

  15. Health Consequences to Immigrant Family Caregivers in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhee Vajracharya Suwal

    2010-12-01

    Immigrant family caregivers were three times more likely than non-immigrants to report a health consequence. Reciprocity played a big role in this outcome. Given the fact that an increasing number of culturally diverse immigrants enter Canada every year and that the immigrant population is aging, more caregivers will be in demand. Policy makers need to find ways to keep immigrant caregivers healthy so that quality care can be given to immigrant older adults and also for maintaining an overall healthy Canada.

  16. Productivity Trends in Natural Resources Industries in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Centre for the Study of Living Standards

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an overview of the evolution of productivity in the natural resources industries in Canada over the last 40 years. This report presents data and discusses trends in labour and total factor productivity for natural resources industries in Canada over the 1961-2000 period. It also examines the major determinants of these trends. Industries covered by the report are: the energy industries, including crude petroleum and natural gas extraction, refined pe...

  17. Partenariat en recherche ANASE-Canada | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Partenariat en recherche ANASE-Canada contribuera à renforcer les relations entre le Canada et l'Association des nations de l'Asie du Sud-Est (ANASE) grâce à la recherche et au dialogue sur les politiques portant sur des questions d'intérêt commun dans la région. L'organisme bénéficiaire, le Centre for ...

  18. Racial gradients of ambient air pollution exposure in Hamilton, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Buzzelli; Michael Jerrett

    2004-01-01

    Environmental justice research in the United States has coalesced around the notion that visible-minority status, along with socioeconomic position (SEP), conditions exposure to environmental health hazards. In the context of long-standing debates over Canada - USA urban differences, we address the question of whether racial gradients exist in air pollution across Hamilton, Canada. Monitored air quality data are spatially interpolated with a kriging algorithm. These interpolated exposures are...

  19. A review of renewable energy in Canada, 1990-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboer, J.; Rivers, N.; Muncaster, K.; Bennett, M.; Bennett, S. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Centre

    2004-10-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive database of renewable energy facilities in Canada by province and by resource type. It considers technologies used for power generation or cogeneration, renewable energy heating systems, hydrogen generation and transportation fuels. Renewable energy technologies convert naturally regenerating resources into useful energy such as electricity, thermal energy, hydrogen or bio-fuels. The database contains information on renewable power operations in Canada over a scale of 100 kilowatts of rated capacity. Smaller applications have been included for run-of-river, hydro, earth, wind and solar power. There are 753 records for renewable energy facilities in Canada, including wind, hydroelectricity, wood residue biomass, landfill/sewage gas, solar photovoltaic, municipal solid waste, and tidal energy. The data in this report was acquired from Statistics Canada and other public information sources. For each of the 753 renewable energy power plants, this report states its type of renewable energy, the province, the name of the project, its location, its operator, electrical generating capacity, number of generating units, average annual electricity production, and the year it began operation. Canada currently has an installed electrical capacity of 115 GW, of which renewable energy sources constitute 76 per cent with the dominant source being hydroelectricity. Manitoba has the highest portion of renewable energy in its installed electrical capacity. Approximately 40 per cent Canada's renewable power capacity is in Quebec, followed by 15 per cent in British Columbia. Nova Scotia has Canada's only tidal power plant. Most of the installed renewable energy power capacity in Canada is owned by integrated electric utilities and a small percentage is owned by renewable electricity generating companies, aluminium companies, pulp and paper companies or diversified electricity generators. It is expected that interest in renewable energy will

  20. L'entrepreneuriat au Canada dans le contexte mondial | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Également selon le rapport, au Canada, les immigrants de première génération se lancent en affaires dans une proportion plus élevée que le reste de la population, et les femmes participent davantage à l'activité entrepreneuriale que dans les autres pays du G7. En outre, au Canada, contrairement à ce que l'on observe ...