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Sample records for complex reflection coefficient

  1. Frequency Dependencies of the Exchange Spin Wave Reflection Coefficient on a One-Dimensional Magnon Crystal with Complex Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii O. Reshetniak

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions. It is shown that the frequency dependencies are periodic, points of full transmission and areas, full of reflection. Decreasing exchange parameter value in interface causes the increase of reflectance coefficient. Changing the material parameters we get the necessary intensity value of the reflection coefficient depending on the frequency at a constant value of the external magnetic field.

  2. Low complexity joint estimation of reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift for MIMO-radar by exploiting 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-10-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation yields the best performance. For this problem, the ML estimation requires the joint estimation of spatial location and Doppler shift, which is a two dimensional search problem. Therefore, the computational complexity of ML estimation is prohibitively high. In this work, to estimate the parameters of a target, a reduced complexity optimum performance algorithm is proposed, which allow two dimensional fast Fourier transform to jointly estimate the spatial location and Doppler shift. To asses the performances of the proposed estimators, the Cramér-Rao-lower-bound (CRLB) is derived. Simulation results show that the mean square estimation error of the proposed estimators achieve the CRLB. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Low complexity joint estimation of reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift for MIMO-radar by exploiting 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation yields the best performance. For this problem, the ML estimation requires

  4. Approximate reflection coefficients for a thin VTI layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi

    2017-09-18

    We present an approximate method to derive simple expressions for the reflection coefficients of P- and SV-waves for a thin transversely isotropic layer with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) embedded in a homogeneous VTI background. The layer thickness is assumed to be much smaller than the wavelengths of P- and SV-waves inside. The exact reflection and transmission coefficients are derived by the propagator matrix method. In the case of normal incidence, the exact reflection and transmission coefficients are expressed in terms of the impedances of vertically propagating P- and S-waves. For subcritical incidence, the approximate reflection coefficients are expressed in terms of the contrast in the VTI parameters between the layer and the background. Numerical examples are designed to analyze the reflection coefficients at normal and oblique incidence, and investigate the influence of transverse isotropy on the reflection coefficients. Despite giving numerical errors, the approximate formulae are sufficiently simple to qualitatively analyze the variation of the reflection coefficients with the angle of incidence.

  5. Approximate reflection coefficients for a thin VTI layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi; Stovas, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    We present an approximate method to derive simple expressions for the reflection coefficients of P- and SV-waves for a thin transversely isotropic layer with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) embedded in a homogeneous VTI background. The layer

  6. Development of reflectance-based crop coefficients for corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neale, C.M.U.; Bausch, W.C.; Heermann, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Concurrent measurements of reflected canopy radiation and the basal crop coefficient (K^b) for corn were conducted throughout a season in order to develop a reflectance-based crop coefficient model. Reflectance was measured in Landsat Thematic Mapper bands TM3 (0.63 - 0.69 um) and TM4 (0.76 - 0.90 um) and used in the calculation of a vegetation index called the normalized difference (ND). A linear transformation of the ND was used as the reflectance-based crop coefficient (Kcr). The transformation equates the ND for dry bare soil and the ND at effective cover, to the basal crop coefficient for dry soil evaporation and at effective cover, respectively. Basal crop coefficient values for com were obtained from daily evapotranspiration measurements of corn and alfalfa, using hydraulic weighing lysimeters. The Richards growth curve function was fitted to both sets of data. The K^b values were determined to be within -2.6% and 4.7% of the K^^ values. The date of effective cover obtained from the K^b data was within four days of the date on which the ND curve reached its maxima according to the Richards function. A comparison of the Kcr with basal crop curves from the literature for several years of data indicated good agreement. Reflectance-based crop coefficients are sensitive to periods of slow and fast growth induced by weather conditions, resulting in a real time coefficient, independent from the traditional time base parameters based on the day of planting and effective cover

  7. Analytical computation of reflection and transmission coefficients for love waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanelli, F.; Vaccari, F.

    1995-09-01

    The computation of the transmission and reflection coefficients is an important step in the construction, if modal summation technique is used, of synthetic seismograms for 2-D or 3-D media. These coupling coefficients for Love waves at a vertical discontinuity are computed analytically. Numerical test for realistic structures show how the energy carried by an incoming mode is redistributed on the various modes existing on both sides of the vertical interface. (author). 15 refs, 8 figs

  8. Simulating complex noise barrier reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Lutgendorf, D.; Roo, F. de

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU FP7 QUIESST project, QUIeting the Environment for a Sustainable Surface Transport, a test method is being developed for the reflectivity of noise barriers. The method needs to account for a complex shape of barriers and the use of various types of absorbing materials. The performance

  9. Rational reflection coefficient and inverse scattering on the line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Inverse scattering for the Schroedinger equation on the line is studied for reflection and transmission coefficients that satisfy the usual regularity conditions and are rational functions of k. The origin is still a particular point, but the potentials do not need to be cut at this point like in previous studies. Giving up this restriction corresponds to the existence of poles for both reflection coefficients in both upper and lower half k-planes. It is shown that the problem reduces to solving a linear algebraic system. A different algorithm, made of a sequence of Darboux-Backlund transforms, gives also the solution in closed form and enables to study separately modifications of both sides of the potential due to the introduction of poles. Thus it paves the way for approximation studies. Generalizations and particular problems will be studied in forthcoming papers

  10. Reflection coefficients of permeant molecules in human red cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J D; Eyring, E M

    1975-08-01

    The Staverman reflection coefficient, sigma for several permeant molecules was determined in human red cell suspensions with a Durrum stopped-flow spectrophotometer. This procedure was first used with dog, cat, and beef red cells and with human red cells. The stopped-flow technique used was similar to the rapid-flow method used by those who originally reported sigma measurements in human red cells for molecules which rapidly penetrate the red cell membrane. The sigma values we obtained agreed with those previously reported for most of the slow penetrants, except malonamide, but disagreed with all the sigma values previously reported for the rapid penetrants. We were unable to calculate an "equivalent pore radius" with our sigma data. The advantages of our equipment and our experimental procedure are discussed. Our sigma data suggest that sigma is indirectly proportional to the log of the nonelectrolyte permeability coefficient, omega. Since a similar trend has been previously shown for log omega and molar volume of the permeant molecules, a correlatioo was shown between sigma and molar volume suggesting the membrane acts as a sieve.

  11. STUDY OF REFLECTION COEFFICIENT DISTRIBUTION FOR ANTI-REFLECTION COATINGS ON SMALL-RADIUS OPTICAL PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with findings for the energy reflection coefficient distribution of anti- reflection coating along the surface of optical elements with a very small radius (2-12 mm. The factors influencing the magnitude of the surface area of the optical element, in which the energy reflection coefficient is constant, were detected. The main principles for theoretical models that describe the spectral characteristics of the multilayer interference coatings were used to achieve these objectives. The relative size of the enlightenment area is defined as the ratio of the radius for the optical element surface, where the reflection is less than a certain value, to its radius (ρ/r. The result of research is the following: this size is constant for a different value of the curvature radius for the optical element made of the same material. Its value is determined by the refractive index of material (nm, from which the optical element was made, and the design of antireflection coatings. For single-layer coatings this value is ρ/r = 0.5 when nm = 1.51; and ρ/r = 0.73 when nm = 1.75; for two-layer coatings ρ/r = 0.35 when nm = 1.51 and ρ/r = 0.41 when nm = 1.75. It is shown that with increasing of the material refractive index for the substrate size, the area of minimum reflection coefficient is increased. The paper considers a single-layer, two-layer, three-layer and five-layer structures of antireflection coatings. The findings give the possibility to conclude that equal thickness coverings formed on the optical element surface with a small radius make no equal reflection from the entire surface, and distribution of the layer thickness needs to be looked for, providing a uniform radiation reflection at all points of the spherical surface.

  12. Measurements of the diffusion and reflection coefficients of Cd(1S0) in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudecki, P.; Domyslawska, J.

    2003-01-01

    A new method of simultaneous determining of the diffusion coefficient and the reflection coefficient of atoms from the reservoir walls is presented. The diffusion coefficient of cadmium atoms in the ground state in buffer noble gas atoms such as Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe and reflection coefficient of Cd atoms from the quartz cell wall in the temperature range 350-550 K were determined. Experimental values diffusion coefficient are compared with theoretical ones calculated from a available potentials. (author)

  13. Graphical Solution of the Monic Quadratic Equation with Complex Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    There are many geometrical approaches to the solution of the quadratic equation with real coefficients. In this article it is shown that the monic quadratic equation with complex coefficients can also be solved graphically, by the intersection of two hyperbolas; one hyperbola being derived from the real part of the quadratic equation and one from…

  14. Research on the Fault Coefficient in Complex Electrical Engineering

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    Yi Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and isolation in a complex system are research hotspots and frontier problems in the reliability engineering field. Fault identification can be regarded as a procedure of excavating key characteristics from massive failure data, then classifying and identifying fault samples. In this paper, based on the fundamental of feature extraction about the fault coefficient, we will discuss the fault coefficient feature in complex electrical engineering in detail. For general fault types in a complex power system, even if there is a strong white Gaussian stochastic interference, the fault coefficient feature is still accurate and reliable. The results about comparative analysis of noise influence will also demonstrate the strong anti-interference ability and great redundancy of the fault coefficient feature in complex electrical engineering.

  15. Sutherland models for complex reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampe, N.; Young, C.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    There are known to be integrable Sutherland models associated to every real root system, or, which is almost equivalent, to every real reflection group. Real reflection groups are special cases of complex reflection groups. In this paper we associate certain integrable Sutherland models to the classical family of complex reflection groups. Internal degrees of freedom are introduced, defining dynamical spin chains, and the freezing limit taken to obtain static chains of Haldane-Shastry type. By considering the relation of these models to the usual BC N case, we are led to systems with both real and complex reflection groups as symmetries. We demonstrate their integrability by means of new Dunkl operators, associated to wreath products of dihedral groups

  16. Density, ultrasound velocity, acoustic impedance, reflection and absorption coefficient determination of liquids via multiple reflection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoche, S; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of density, reflection coefficient, and acoustic impedance determination via multiple reflection method was validated experimentally. The ternary system water-maltose-ethanol was used to execute a systematic, temperature dependent study over a wide range of densities and viscosities aiming an application as inline sensor in beverage industries. The validation results of the presented method and setup show root mean square errors of: 1.201E-3 g cm(-3) (±0.12%) density, 0.515E-3 (0.15%) reflection coefficient and 1.851E+3 kg s(-1) m(-2) (0.12%) specific acoustic impedance. The results of the diffraction corrected absorption showed an average standard deviation of only 0.12%. It was found that the absorption change shows a good correlation to concentration variations and may be useful for laboratory analysis of sufficiently pure liquids. The main part of the observed errors can be explained by the observed noise, temperature variation and the low signal resolution of 50 MHz. In particular, the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the second reflector echo was found to be a main accuracy limitation. Concerning the investigation of liquids the unstable properties of the reference material PMMA, due to hygroscopicity, were identified to be an additional, unpredictable source of uncertainty. While dimensional changes can be considered by adequate methodology, the impact of the time and temperature dependent water absorption on relevant reference properties like the buffer's sound velocity and density could not be considered and may explain part of the observed deviations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Visualising the Complex Roots of Quadratic Equations with Real Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    The roots of the general quadratic equation y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c (real a, b, c) are known to occur in the following sets: (i) real and distinct; (ii) real and coincident; and (iii) a complex conjugate pair. Case (iii), which provides the focus for this investigation, can only occur when the values of the real coefficients a, b, and c are…

  18. Correlations and fluctuations in reflection coefficients for coherent wave propagation in disordered scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Feng, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relation between the reflection coefficients and the Green's function for a coherent wave propagation in a disordered elastic-scattering medium is derived. The sum rule of the reflection and transmission coefficients corresponding to probability conservation is shown rigorously for an arbitrary scattering potential. The correlation function of the reflection coefficients is then calculated by using a Feynman-diagrammatic approach in the weak-localized multiple-scattering regime (L much-gt l much-gt λ). The result is in agreement with recent experiments on the so-called ''memory effect'' in reflection coefficients. A more general condition under which the memory effect can occur is derived. Differences between the the correlation functions for reflection and that for transmission are discussed

  19. Effect of the refraction factor of a plastic fiber shell on the internal reflection coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pkrksypkin, A.I.; Ponomarev, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    Results of pilot studies of the effect of refraction factor of plastic fiber shell on the coefficient of light internal reflection in the fiber are presented. It is pointed, that the shell does not absorb the light, but effects the surface layer of the fiber centre so, that dependence of the coefficient of internal reflection on refraction factor of the shell may be described using Fresnel formulae. It is shown, that coefficient of internal reflection decreases with the increase of refraction factor. Technique to determine volume length of scintillation light absorption in the fiber is suggested

  20. Using wave intensity analysis to determine local reflection coefficient in flexible tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Parker, Kim H; Khir, Ashraf W

    2016-09-06

    It has been shown that reflected waves affect the shape and magnitude of the arterial pressure waveform, and that reflected waves have physiological and clinical prognostic values. In general the reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the energy of the reflected to the incident wave. Since pressure has the units of energy per unit volume, arterial reflection coefficient are traditionally defined as the ratio of reflected to the incident pressure. We demonstrate that this approach maybe prone to inaccuracies when applied locally. One of the main objectives of this work is to examine the possibility of using wave intensity, which has units of energy flux per unit area, to determine the reflection coefficient. We used an in vitro experimental setting with a single inlet tube joined to a second tube with different properties to form a single reflection site. The second tube was long enough to ensure that reflections from its outlet did not obscure the interactions of the initial wave. We generated an approximately half sinusoidal wave at the inlet of the tube and took measurements of pressure and flow along the tube. We calculated the reflection coefficient using wave intensity (R dI and R dI 0.5 ) and wave energy (R I and R I 0.5 ) as well as the measured pressure (R dP ) and compared these results with the reflection coefficient calculated theoretically based on the mechanical properties of the tubes. The experimental results show that the reflection coefficients determined by all the techniques we studied increased or decreased with distance from the reflection site, depending on the type of reflection. In our experiments, R dP , R dI 0.5 and R I 0.5 are the most reliable parameters to measure the mean reflection coefficient, whilst R dI and R I provide the best measure of the local reflection coefficient, closest to the reflection site. Additional work with bifurcations, tapered tubes and in vivo experiments are needed to further understand, validate the

  1. Measurement of integrated coefficients of ultracold neutron reflection from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.V.; Kulagin, E.N.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    The method of measurement of the integrated coefficients of ultracold neutrons (UCN) reflection from solid surfaces is reported. A simple formula is suggested which expresses the integrated coefficients of UCN reflection from a given sample through the measured counting rate of the detector with and without strong absorber (polyethelene). The parameters are determined describing anisotropic and inhomogeneity properties of UCN reflection from Al, Mg, Pb, Zn, Mo, stainless steel, T and V are measured. The thickness of oxide layers is determined within the 5-10A accuracy limits from the experimental coefficients of UCN reflection from metals having on their surfaces the oxides with boundary velocity larger than that for the metal. It has been determined that the density of 5000 A layer of heavy ice freezed on aluminium is 0.83 +- 0.05 from the crystal ice density

  2. The impact of different reference panels on spectral reflectance coefficients of some biological water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Walczykowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of water environment and ecosystem, detecting water contaminants and understanding water quality parameters are most important tasks in water management and protection of whole aquatic environment. Detection of biological contaminants play a very important role in preserving human health and water management. To obtain accurate and precise results of determination of the level of biological contamination and to distinguish its type it is necessary to determine precisely spectral reflectance coefficients of several water biological pollutants with inter alia spectroradiometer. This paper presents a methodology and preliminary results of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients with different reference panels (e.g. with 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 96% of reflectivity) of several biological pollutants. The authors' main task was to measure spectral reflectance coefficients of different biological water pollutants with several reference panels and to select optimal reference standard, which would allow for distinguish different types of several biological contaminants. Moreover it was necessary to indicate the spectral range in which it is possible to discriminate investigated samples of biological contaminants. By conducting many series of measurements of several samples of different types of biological pollutants, authors had concluded how the reflectivity of reference panel influences the accuracy of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients. This research was crucial in order to be able to distinguish several types of biological pollutants and to determine the useful spectral range for detection of different kinds of biological contaminants with multispectral and hyperspectral imagery.

  3. Reconstruction of fiber grating refractive-index profiles from complex bragg reflection spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D W; Yang, C C

    1999-07-20

    Reconstruction of the refractive-index profiles of fiber gratings from their complex Bragg reflection spectra is experimentally demonstrated. The amplitude and phase of the complex reflection spectrum were measured with a balanced Michelson interferometer. By integrating the coupled-mode equations, we built the relationship between the complex coupling coefficient and the complex reflection spectrum as an iterative algorithm for reconstructing the index profile. This method is expected to be useful for reconstructing the index profiles of fiber gratings with any apodization, chirp, or dc structures. An apodized chirped grating and a uniform grating with a depression of index modulation were used to demonstrate the technique.

  4. A Simple Student Laboratory on Osmotic Flow, Osmotic Pressure, and the Reflection Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, Joseph J.; Ford, George D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise containing a practical series of experiments that novice students can perform within two hours. The exercise provides a confirmation of van't Hoff's law while placing more emphasis on osmotic flow than pressure. Students can determine parameters such as the reflection coefficient which stress the interaction of both…

  5. Impact of the cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determining spectral reflectance coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orych, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Zdunek, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing plays a very important role in many different study fields, i.e. environmental studies, hydrology, mineralogy, ecosystem studies, etc. One of the key areas of remote sensing applications is water quality monitoring. Understanding and monitoring of the water quality parameters and detecting different water contaminants is an important issue in water management and protection of whole environment and especially the water ecosystem. There are many remote sensing methods to monitor water quality and detect water pollutants. One of the most widely used method for substance detection with remote sensing techniques is based on usage of spectral reflectance coefficients. They are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements. These however can be very time consuming, therefore image-based methods are used more and more often. In order to work out the proper methodology of obtaining spectral reflectance coefficients from hyperspectral and multispectral images, it is necessary to verify the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determination of them. This paper presents laboratory experiments that were conducted using two monochromatic XEVA video sensors (400-1700 nm spectral data registration) with two different radiometric resolutions (12 and 14 bits). In view of determining spectral characteristics from images, the research team used set of interferometric filters. All data collected with multispectral digital video cameras were compared with spectral reflectance coefficients obtained with spectroradiometer. The objective of this research is to find the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on reflectance values in chosen wavelength. The main topic of this study is the analysis of accuracy of spectral coefficients from sensors with different radiometric resolution. By comparing values collected from images acquired with XEVA sensors and with the curves obtained with spectroradiometer it

  6. Total reflection coefficients of low-energy photons presented as universal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of expressing the total particle and energy reflection coefficients of low-energy photons in the form of universal functions valid for different shielding materials is investigated in this paper. The analysis is based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of photon reflection by using MCNP, FOTELP, and PENELOPE codes. The normal incidence of the narrow monoenergetic photon beam of the unit intensity and of initial energies from 20 keV up to 100 keV is considered, and particle and energy reflection coefficients from the plane homogenous targets of water, aluminum, and iron are determined and compared. The representations of albedo coefficients on the initial photon energy, on the probability of large-angle photon scattering, and on the mean number of photon scatterings are examined. It is found out that only the rescaled albedo coefficients dependent on the mean number of photon scatterings have the form of universal functions and these functions are determined by applying the least square method.

  7. Calculating the reduced scattering coefficient of turbid media from a single optical reflectance signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Maureen; Liu, Hanli

    2003-07-01

    When light interacts with tissue, it can be absorbed, scattered or reflected. Such quantitative information can be used to characterize the optical properties of tissue, differentiate tissue types in vivo, and identify normal versus diseased tissue. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm that determines the reduced scattering coefficient (μs") of tissues from a single optical reflectance spectrum with a small source-detector separation. The basic relationship between μs" and optical reflectance was developed using Monte Carlo simulations. This produced an analytical equation containing μs" as a function of reflectance. To experimentally validate this relationship, a 1.3-mm diameter fiber optic probe containing two 400-micron diameter fibers was used to deliver light to and collect light from Intralipid solutions of various concentrations. Simultaneous measurements from optical reflectance and an ISS oximeter were performed to validate the calculated μs" values determined by the reflectance measurement against the 'gold standard" ISS readings. The calculated μs" values deviate from the expected values by approximately -/+ 5% with Intralipid concentrations between 0.5 - 2.5%. The scattering properties within this concentration range are similar to those of in vivo tissues. Additional calculations are performed to determine the scattering properties of rat brain tissues and to discuss accuracy of the algorithm for measured samples with a broad range of the absorption coefficient (μa).

  8. A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Determine Sensor Radiometric Response Coefficients for NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    Optical sensors aboard Earth orbiting satellites such as the next generation Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) assume that the sensors radiometric response in the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) is described by a quadratic polynomial, in relating the aperture spectral radiance to the sensor Digital Number (DN) readout. For VIIRS Flight Unit 1, the coefficients are to be determined before launch by an attenuation method, although the linear coefficient will be further determined on-orbit through observing the Solar Diffuser. In determining the quadratic polynomial coefficients by the attenuation method, a Maximum Likelihood approach is applied in carrying out the least-squares procedure. Crucial to the Maximum Likelihood least-squares procedure is the computation of the weight. The weight not only has a contribution from the noise of the sensor s digital count, with an important contribution from digitization error, but also is affected heavily by the mathematical expression used to predict the value of the dependent variable, because both the independent and the dependent variables contain random noise. In addition, model errors have a major impact on the uncertainties of the coefficients. The Maximum Likelihood approach demonstrates the inadequacy of the attenuation method model with a quadratic polynomial for the retrieved spectral radiance. We show that using the inadequate model dramatically increases the uncertainties of the coefficients. We compute the coefficient values and their uncertainties, considering both measurement and model errors.

  9. Visualising the Roots of Quadratic Equations with Complex Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a natural extension of the root visualisation techniques first presented by Bardell (2012) for quadratic equations with real coefficients. Consideration is now given to the familiar quadratic equation "y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c" in which the coefficients "a," "b," "c" are generally…

  10. A new fifth parameter for transverse isotropy III: reflection and transmission coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the newly defined fifth parameter, ηκ, of transverse anisotropy to the reflection and transmission coefficients, especially for P-to-S and S-to-P conversion coefficients, is examined. While ηκ systematically affects the P-to-S and S-to-P conversions, in the incidence angle range of the practical interest of receiver function studies, the effect may be asymmetric in a sense that P-wave receiver function is affected more than S-receiver function in terms of amplitude. This asymmetry may help resolving ηκ via extensive receiver function analysis. It is also found that P-wave anisotropy significantly influences P-to-S and S-to-P conversion coefficients that complicates the interpretation of receiver functions, because, for isotropic media, we typically attribute the primary receiver function signals to S-wave velocity changes but not to P-wave changes.

  11. Theoretical calculations of the self-reflection coefficients for some species of ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Z.M. E-mail: luozm@scu.edu.cn; Gou, C.; Hou, Q

    2002-06-01

    The bipartition model of ion transport has been applied to study the self-reflection coefficients of some species of ion beams which are normally incident to a surface. The computational results has been compared with the results taken from Eckstein and Biersack and the compilation data given by Thomas, Janev and Smith. It was found that there are in reasonable agreement between the results given by the bipartition model and the results given by Monte Carlo method.

  12. On determination of enthalpies of complex formation reactions by means of temperature coefficient of complexing degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povar, I.G.

    1995-01-01

    Equations describing the relation between temperature coefficient of ∂lnα/∂T complexing degree and the sum of changes in the enthalpy of complex formation of the composition M m L n δH mn multiplied by the weight coefficients k mm , are presented. A method to determine changes in the enthalpy of certain ΔH mm reactions from ∂lnα/∂T derivatives has been suggested. The best approximating equation from lnα/(T) dependence has been found. Errors of thus determined δH mm values are estimated and the results of calculation experiment for the system In 3+ -F - are provided. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  13. High-order dynamic modeling and parameter identification of structural discontinuities in Timoshenko beams by using reflection coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiang; Huang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Dayue

    2013-02-01

    Properties of discontinuities, such as bolt joints and cracks in the waveguide structures, are difficult to evaluate by either analytical or numerical methods due to the complexity and uncertainty of the discontinuities. In this paper, the discontinuity in a Timoshenko beam is modeled with high-order parameters and then these parameters are identified by using reflection coefficients at the discontinuity. The high-order model is composed of several one-order sub-models in series and each sub-model consists of inertia, stiffness and damping components in parallel. The order of the discontinuity model is determined based on the characteristics of the reflection coefficient curve and the accuracy requirement of the dynamic modeling. The model parameters are identified through the least-square fitting iteration method, of which the undetermined model parameters are updated in iteration to fit the dynamic reflection coefficient curve with the wave-based one. By using the spectral super-element method (SSEM), simulation cases, including one-order discontinuities on infinite- and finite-beams and a two-order discontinuity on an infinite beam, were employed to evaluate both the accuracy of the discontinuity model and the effectiveness of the identification method. For practical considerations, effects of measurement noise on the discontinuity parameter identification are investigated by adding different levels of noise to the simulated data. The simulation results were then validated by the corresponding experiments. Both the simulation and experimental results show that (1) the one-order discontinuities can be identified accurately with the maximum errors of 6.8% and 8.7%, respectively; (2) and the high-order discontinuities can be identified with the maximum errors of 15.8% and 16.2%, respectively; and (3) the high-order model can predict the complex discontinuity much more accurately than the one-order discontinuity model.

  14. Reflections and meditations upon complex chromosomal exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, John R K

    2002-12-01

    The application of FISH chromosome painting techniques, especially the recent mFISH (and its equivalents) where all 23 human chromosome pairs can be distinguished, has demonstrated that many chromosome-type structural exchanges are much more complicated (involving more "break-rejoins" and arms) than has hitherto been assumed. It is clear that we have been greatly under-estimating the damage produced in chromatin by such agents as ionising radiation. This article gives a brief historical summary of observations leading up to this conclusion, and after outlining some of the problems surrounding the formation of complex chromosomes exchanges, speculates about possible solutions currently being proposed.

  15. Laser Sensing of Vegetation Based on Dual Spectrum Measurements of Reflection Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Belov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a promising trend in remote sensing of environment is to monitor the vegetative cover: evaluate the productivity of agricultural crops; evaluate the moisture content of soils and the state of ecosystems; provide mapping the sites of bogging, desertification, drought, etc.; control the phases of vegetation of crops, etc.Development of monitoring systems for remote detection of vegetation sites being under unfavorable conditions (low or high temperature, excess or lack of water, soil salinity, disease, etc. is of relevance. Optical methods are the most effective for this task. These methods are based on the physical features of reflection spectra in the visible and near infrared spectral range for vegetation under unfavorable conditions and vegetation under normal conditions.One of the options of optoelectronic equipment for monitoring vegetation condition is laser equipment that allows remote sensing of vegetation from the aircraft and mapping of vegetation sites with abnormal (inactive periods of vegetation reflection spectra with a high degree of spatial resolution.The paper deals with development of a promising dual-spectrum method for laser remote sensing of vegetation. Using the experimentally measured reflection spectra of different vegetation types, mathematical modeling of probability for appropriate detection and false alarms to solve a problem of detecting the vegetation under unfavorable conditions (with abnormal reflection spectra is performed based on the results of dual-spectrum measurements of the reflection coefficient.In mathematical modeling, the lidar system was supposed to provide sensing at wavelengths of 0.532 μm and 0.85 μm. The noise of the measurement was supposed to be normal with zero mean value and mean-square value of 1% -10%.It is shown that the method of laser sensing of vegetation condition based on the results of dual-spectrum measurement of the reflection coefficient at wavelengths of 0.532 μm and 0

  16. SO-FDTD method and its application to the calculation of electromagnetic wave reflection coefficients of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongwei; Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing; Chen Rushan; Zhang Yun

    2006-01-01

    The dielectric property of dispersive media is written as rational polynomial function, the relation between D and E is derived in time domain. It is named shift operator FDTD (SO-FDTD) method. The high accuracy and efficiency of this method is confirmed by computing the reflection coefficients of electromagnetic waves by a collisional plasma slab. The reflection coefficients between plasma and the atmosphere or vacuum can be calculated by using the SO-FDTD method. The result is that the reflection coefficients are affected by plasma thickness, electron numerical density, the distributing orderliness of electron density, and incidence wave frequency. (authors)

  17. DETERMINING SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE COEFFICIENTS FROM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES OBTAINED FROM LOW ALTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Walczykowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote Sensing plays very important role in many different study fields, like hydrology, crop management, environmental and ecosystem studies. For all mentioned areas of interest different remote sensing and image processing techniques, such as: image classification (object and pixel- based, object identification, change detection, etc. can be applied. Most of this techniques use spectral reflectance coefficients as the basis for the identification and distinction of different objects and materials, e.g. monitoring of vegetation stress, identification of water pollutants, yield identification, etc. Spectral characteristics are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements in both laboratory and field conditions. Such measurements however can be very time consuming, which has led many international researchers to investigate the reliability and accuracy of using image-based methods. According to published and ongoing studies, in order to acquire these spectral characteristics from images, it is necessary to have hyperspectral data. The presented article describes a series of experiments conducted using the push-broom Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR. This hyperspectral scanner allows for registration of images with more than 300 spectral channels with a 1.9 nm spectral bandwidth in the 380- 1000 nm range. The aim of these experiments was to establish a methodology for acquiring spectral reflectance characteristics of different forms of land cover using such sensor. All research work was conducted in controlled conditions from low altitudes. Hyperspectral images obtained with this specific type of sensor requires a unique approach in terms of post-processing, especially radiometric correction. Large amounts of acquired imagery data allowed the authors to establish a new post- processing approach. The developed methodology allowed the authors to obtain spectral reflectance coefficients from a hyperspectral sensor

  18. Determining Spectral Reflectance Coefficients from Hyperspectral Images Obtained from Low Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Orych, A.; Siok, K.

    2016-06-01

    Remote Sensing plays very important role in many different study fields, like hydrology, crop management, environmental and ecosystem studies. For all mentioned areas of interest different remote sensing and image processing techniques, such as: image classification (object and pixel- based), object identification, change detection, etc. can be applied. Most of this techniques use spectral reflectance coefficients as the basis for the identification and distinction of different objects and materials, e.g. monitoring of vegetation stress, identification of water pollutants, yield identification, etc. Spectral characteristics are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements in both laboratory and field conditions. Such measurements however can be very time consuming, which has led many international researchers to investigate the reliability and accuracy of using image-based methods. According to published and ongoing studies, in order to acquire these spectral characteristics from images, it is necessary to have hyperspectral data. The presented article describes a series of experiments conducted using the push-broom Headwall MicroHyperspec A-series VNIR. This hyperspectral scanner allows for registration of images with more than 300 spectral channels with a 1.9 nm spectral bandwidth in the 380- 1000 nm range. The aim of these experiments was to establish a methodology for acquiring spectral reflectance characteristics of different forms of land cover using such sensor. All research work was conducted in controlled conditions from low altitudes. Hyperspectral images obtained with this specific type of sensor requires a unique approach in terms of post-processing, especially radiometric correction. Large amounts of acquired imagery data allowed the authors to establish a new post- processing approach. The developed methodology allowed the authors to obtain spectral reflectance coefficients from a hyperspectral sensor mounted on an

  19. Energy reflection coefficient for H+ ions at energies between 10 and 80 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.; Bohdansky, J.; Eckstein, W.; Robinson, M.T.

    1984-04-01

    The energy reflection coefficient for H + ions at energies between 10 keV and 80 keV was determined by experiments and by computer calculations. Measurements were made with graphite, Al, Cu, Mo and W. targets. The angle of ion incidence was restricted to 85 0 , 78 0 and 70 0 measured from the surface normal. Calculated data were obtained by two different Monte Carlo computer programs (MARLOWE, TRIM). It was found that both the calculated and the measured data scale with the parameter epsilon cos 2 α, where epsilon is Lindhard's reduced energy and α the angle of incidence for the ions. The measured values are smaller than those calculated. This can be explained by surface roughness which developed during the ion irradiation

  20. Simulation calculations of physical sputtering and reflection coefficient of plasma-irradiated carbon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.; Ono, T.; Yamamura, Y.

    1994-08-01

    Physical sputtering yields from the carbon surface irradiated by the boundary plasma are obtained with the use of a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The yields are calculated for many random initial energy and angle values of incident protons or deuterons with a Maxwellian velocity distribution, and then averaged. Here the temperature of the boundary plasma, the sheath potential and the angle δ between the magnetic field line and the surface normal are taken into account. A new fitting formula for an arrangement of the numerical data of sputtering yield is introduced, in which six fitting parameters are determined from the numerical results and listed. These results provide a way to estimate the erosion of carbon materials irradiated by boundary plasma. The particle reflection coefficients for deuterons and their neutrals from a carbon surface are also calculated by the same code and presented together with, for comparison, that for the case of monoenergetic normal incidence. (author)

  1. The determination of acoustic reflection coefficients by using cepstral techniques, II: Extensions of the technique and considerations of accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, J. S.; Gold, E.

    1986-10-01

    In a companion paper the cepstral technique for the measurement of reflection coefficients was described. In particular the concepts of extraction noise and extraction delay were introduced. They are considered further here, and, in addition, a means of extending the cepstral technique to accommodate surfaces having lengthy impulse responses is described. The character of extraction noise, a cepstral component which interferes with reflection measurements, is largely determined by the spectrum of the signal radiated from the source loudspeaker. Here the origin and effects of extraction noise are discussed and it is shown that inverse filtering techniques may be used to reduce extraction noise without making impractical demands of the electrical test signal or the source loudspeaker. The extraction delay, a factor which is introduced when removing the reflector impulse response from the power cepstrum, has previously been estimated by a cross-correlation technique. Here the importance of estimating the extraction delay accurately is emphasized by showing the effect of small spurious delays on the calculation of the normal impedance of a reflecting surface. The effects are shown to accord with theory, and it was found that the real part of the estimated surface normal impedance is very nearly maximized when the spurious delay is eliminated; this has suggested a new way of determining the extraction delay itself. Finally, the basic cepstral technique is suited only to the measurement of surfaces whose impulse responses are shorter than τ, the delay between the arrival of the direct and specularly reflected components at the measurement position. Here it is shown that this restriction can be eliminated, by using a process known as cepstral inversion, when the direct cepstrum has a duration less than τ and cepstral aliasing is insignificant. It is also possible to use this technique to deconvolve a signal from an echo sequence in the time domain, an operation

  2. Analysis of reflection-coefficient by wireless power transmission using superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, In Sung; Choi, Hyo Sang; Chung, Dong Chul

    2017-01-01

    The use of electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs has increased of late. However, the power which is supplied through wires has a limitation of the free use of devices and portability. Magnetic-resonance wireless power transfer (WPT) can achieve increased transfer distance and efficiency compared to the existing electromagnetic inductive coupling. A superconducting coil can be applied to increase the efficiency and distance of magnetic-resonance WPT. As superconducting coils have lower resistance than copper coils, they can increase the quality factor (Q-factor) and can overcome the limitations of magnetic-resonance WPT. In this study, copper coils were made from ordinary copper under the same condition as the superconducting coils for a comparison experiment. Superconducting coils use liquid nitrogen to keep the critical temperature. As there is a difference of medium between liquid nitrogen and air, liquid nitrogen was also used in the normal conductor coil to compare the experiment with under the same condition. It was confirmed that superconducting coils have a lower reflection-coefficient(S11) than the normal conductor coils

  3. Apparent diffusion coefficient value as a biomarker reflecting morphological and biological features of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeyeol; Yoshida, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ito, Eisaku; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Oya, Miyako; Nakayama, Takayuki; Takeshita, Hideki; Kijima, Toshiki; Ishioka, Junichiro; Numao, Noboru; Koga, Fumitaka; Saito, Kazutaka; Akashi, Takumi; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2014-03-01

    To assess whether there is an association between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and the pathological characteristics of prostate cancer. The study cohort consisted of 29 consecutive patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. All patients underwent diffusion-weighted MRI before the prostate biopsy. In 42 tumor foci, the associations of the ADC values with the clinicopathological characteristics and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were analyzed. High-grade cancers (Gleason score [GS] ≥ 4 + 3), larger cancers (maximum diameter (MD) ≥ 16 mm), and highly proliferating cancers (Ki-67 LI ≥ 4.43 %) had significantly lower ADC values, respectively (P value according to age, prostate-specific antigen, presence of extra-prostatic extension, and intra-tumoral stroma proportion. Multivariate analysis showed that GS, Ki-67 LI, and MD had independent and significant correlations with ADC value (P value to predict high-grade cancer foci are 81.8 and 93.5 %, respectively. A low ADC value reflects the morphological and biological features of prostate cancer. Analyzing the ADC value may make it possible to more precisely predict the cancer aggressiveness of each focus before treatment.

  4. Analysis of reflection-coefficient by wireless power transmission using superconducting coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Sung; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dong Chul [Korea Institute of Carbon Convergence Technology, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The use of electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs has increased of late. However, the power which is supplied through wires has a limitation of the free use of devices and portability. Magnetic-resonance wireless power transfer (WPT) can achieve increased transfer distance and efficiency compared to the existing electromagnetic inductive coupling. A superconducting coil can be applied to increase the efficiency and distance of magnetic-resonance WPT. As superconducting coils have lower resistance than copper coils, they can increase the quality factor (Q-factor) and can overcome the limitations of magnetic-resonance WPT. In this study, copper coils were made from ordinary copper under the same condition as the superconducting coils for a comparison experiment. Superconducting coils use liquid nitrogen to keep the critical temperature. As there is a difference of medium between liquid nitrogen and air, liquid nitrogen was also used in the normal conductor coil to compare the experiment with under the same condition. It was confirmed that superconducting coils have a lower reflection-coefficient(S11) than the normal conductor coils.

  5. Rebound coefficient of collisionless gas in a rigid vessel. A model of reflection of field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Hamada, Shigeo

    1996-01-01

    A system of collisionless neutral gas contained in a rigid vessel is considered as a simple model of reflection of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma by a magnetic mirror. The rebound coefficient of the system is calculated as a function of the incident speed of the vessel normalized by the thermal velocity of the gas before reflection. The coefficient is compared with experimental data of FIX (Osaka U.) and FRX-C/T(Los Alamos N.L.). Agreement is good for this simple model. Interesting is that the rebound coefficient takes the smallest value (∼0.365) as the incident speed tends to zero and approaches unity as it tends to infinity. This behavior is reverse to that expected for a system with collision dominated fluid instead of collisionless gas. By examining the rebound coefficient, therefore, it could be successfully inferred whether the ion mean free path in each experiment was longer or shorter than the plasma length. (author)

  6. Image potential effect on the specular reflection coefficient of alkali ions scattered from a nickel surface at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemih, R.; Boudjema, M.; Benazeth, C.; Boudouma, Y.; Chami, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The resonant charge exchange in the incoming path of alkali ions scattered at low energy from a polycrystalline nickel surface is studied by using the image effect occurring at glancing incidence (2-10 deg. from the surface plane) and for specular reflection. The part of the experimental artefacts (geometrical factor, surface roughness ...) is extracted from the reflection coefficient of almost completely neutralised projectiles (He + or Ne + ) compared with the coefficient obtained from numerical simulations (TRIM and MARLOWE codes). The present model explains very well the lowering of the reflection coefficient measured at grazing incidence (below 4 deg.). Furthermore, the optimised values of the charge fraction in the incoming path and the image potential are in agreement with the theoretical calculations in the case of Na + /Ni at 4 keV

  7. Non-invasive determination of the absorption coefficient of the brain from time-resolved reflectance using a neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Marion; Kienle, Alwin

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the performance of a neural network for derivation of the absorption coefficient of the brain from simulated non-invasive time-resolved reflectance measurements on the head. A five-layered geometry was considered assuming that the optical properties (except the absorption coefficient of the brain) and the thickness of all layers were known with an uncertainty. A solution of the layered diffusion equation was used to train the neural network. We determined the absorption coefficient of the brain with an RMS error of <6% from reflectance data at a single distance calculated by diffusion theory. By applying the neural network to reflectance curves obtained from Monte Carlo simulations, similar errors were found. (note)

  8. Far field effects of complex noise barrier reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgendorf, D.; Wessels, P.W.; Eerden, F.J.M. van den; Roo, F. de

    2012-01-01

    Within the EU FP7 QUIESST project, QUIeting the Environment for a Sustainable Surface Transport, a test method is being developed for the reflectivity of noise barriers. The method needs to account for a complex shape of barriers and the use of various types of absorbing materials. The performance

  9. Time domain analysis of thin-wire antennas over lossy ground using the reflection-coefficient approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Pantoja, M.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Rubio Bretones, A.; González García, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure to extend the methods of moments in time domain for the transient analysis of thin-wire antennas to include those cases where the antennas are located over a lossy half-space. This extended technique is based on the reflection coefficient (RC) approach, which

  10. Reflection and Transmission Coefficient of Yttrium Iron Garnet Filled Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite Using Rectangular Waveguide at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Abbas, Zulkifly; Yahya, Noorhana; Shameli, Kamyar; Soleimani, Hojjatollah; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel method was carried out to synthesize nanosized Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The nanomaterials with ferrite structure were heat-treated at different temperatures from 500 to 1000 °C. The phase identification, morphology and functional groups of the prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The YIG ferrite nanopowder was composited with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by a solution casting method. The magnitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients of PVDF/YIG containing 6, 10 and 13% YIG, respectively, were measured using rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in X-band frequencies. The results indicate that the presence of YIG in polymer composites causes an increase in reflection coefficient and decrease in transmission coefficient of the polymer. PMID:22942718

  11. Directed clustering coefficient as a measure of systemic risk in complex banking networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin M.; Takami, Marcelo; Rocha, Jadson M. C.; Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Souza, Sergio R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent literature has focused on the study of systemic risk in complex networks. It is clear now, after the crisis of 2008, that the aggregate behavior of the interaction among agents is not straightforward and it is very difficult to predict. Contributing to this debate, this paper shows that the directed clustering coefficient may be used as a measure of systemic risk in complex networks. Furthermore, using data from the Brazilian interbank network, we show that the directed clustering coefficient is negatively correlated with domestic interest rates.

  12. Improved Algorithms for Accurate Retrieval of UV - Visible Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients in Optically Complex, Inshore Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fang; Fichot, Cedric G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Miller, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical processes driven by high-energy ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in inshore, estuarine, and coastal waters play an important role in global bio geochemical cycles and biological systems. A key to modeling photochemical processes in these optically complex waters is an accurate description of the vertical distribution of UVR in the water column which can be obtained using the diffuse attenuation coefficients of down welling irradiance (Kd()). The Sea UV Sea UVc algorithms (Fichot et al., 2008) can accurately retrieve Kd ( 320, 340, 380,412, 443 and 490 nm) in oceanic and coastal waters using multispectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs(), Sea WiFS bands). However, SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms are currently not optimized for use in optically complex, inshore waters, where they tend to severely underestimate Kd(). Here, a new training data set of optical properties collected in optically complex, inshore waters was used to re-parameterize the published SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, resulting in improved Kd() retrievals for turbid, estuarine waters. Although the updated SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms perform best in optically complex waters, the published SeaUVSeaUVc models still perform well in most coastal and oceanic waters. Therefore, we propose a composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, optimized for Kd() retrieval in almost all marine systems, ranging from oceanic to inshore waters. The composite algorithm set can retrieve Kd from ocean color with good accuracy across this wide range of water types (e.g., within 13 mean relative error for Kd(340)). A validation step using three independent, in situ data sets indicates that the composite SeaUVSeaUVc can generate accurate Kd values from 320 490 nm using satellite imagery on a global scale. Taking advantage of the inherent benefits of our statistical methods, we pooled the validation data with the training set, obtaining an optimized composite model for estimating Kd() in UV wavelengths for almost all marine waters. This

  13. Remote sensing reflectance simulation of coastal optical complex water in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuo; Lou, Xiulin; Zhang, Huaguo; Zheng, Gang

    2018-02-01

    In this work, remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectra of the Zhejiang coastal water in the East China Sea (ECS) were simulated by using the Hydrolight software with field data as input parameters. The seawater along the Zhejiang coast is typical Case II water with complex optical properties. A field observation was conducted in the Zhejiang coastal region in late May of 2016, and the concentration of ocean color constituents (pigment, SPM and CDOM), IOPs (absorption and backscattering coefficients) and Rrs were measured at 24 stations of 3 sections covering the turbid to clear inshore coastal waters. Referring to these ocean color field data, an ocean color model suitable for the Zhejiang coastal water was setup and applied in the Hydrolight. A set of 11 remote sensing reflectance spectra above water surface were modeled and calculated. Then, the simulated spectra were compared with the filed measurements. Finally, the spectral shape and characteristics of the remote sensing reflectance spectra were analyzed and discussed.

  14. Determination of continuous complex refractive index dispersion of biotissue based on internal reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhichao; Wang, Jin; Ye, Qing; Sun, Tengqian; Zhou, Wenyuan; Mei, Jianchun; Zhang, Chunping; Tian, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The complex refractive index dispersion (CRID), which contains the information on the refractive index dispersion and extinction coefficient spectra, is an important optical parameter of biotissue. However, it is hard to perform the CRID measurement on biotissues due to their high scattering property. Continuous CRID measurement based on internal reflection (CCRIDM-IR) is introduced. By using a lab-made apparatus, internal reflectance spectra of biotissue samples at multiple incident angles were detected, from which the continuous CRIDs were calculated based on the Fresnel formula. Results showed that in 400- to 750-nm range, hemoglobin solution has complicated dispersion and extinction coefficient spectra, while other biotissues have normal dispersion properties, and their extinction coefficients do not vary much with different wavelengths. The normal dispersion can be accurately described by several coefficients of dispersion equations (Cauchy equation, Cornu equation, and Conrady equation). To our knowledge, this is the first time that the continuous CRID of scattering biotissue over a continuous spectral region is measured, and we hereby have proven that CCRIDM-IR is a good method for continuous CRID research of biotissue.

  15. Conjugate gradient type methods for linear systems with complex symmetric coefficient matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    We consider conjugate gradient type methods for the solution of large sparse linear system Ax equals b with complex symmetric coefficient matrices A equals A(T). Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as the numerical solution of the complex Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, most complex non-Hermitian linear systems which occur in practice are actually complex symmetric. We investigate conjugate gradient type iterations which are based on a variant of the nonsymmetric Lanczos algorithm for complex symmetric matrices. We propose a new approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The resulting algorithm presents several advantages over the standard biconjugate gradient method. We also include some remarks on the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  16. Formulae of differentiation for solving differential equations with complex-valued random coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Dong Hun

    1999-01-01

    Generalizing the work of Shapiro and Loginov, we derive new formulae of differentiation useful for solving differential equations with complex-valued random coefficients. We apply the formulae to the quantum-mechanical problem of noninteracting electrons moving in a correlated random potential in one dimension

  17. Reflecting on complexity of biological systems: Kant and beyond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vijver, Gertrudis; Van Speybroeck, Linda; Vandevyvere, Windy

    2003-01-01

    Living organisms are currently most often seen as complex dynamical systems that develop and evolve in relation to complex environments. Reflections on the meaning of the complex dynamical nature of living systems show an overwhelming multiplicity in approaches, descriptions, definitions and methodologies. Instead of sustaining an epistemic pluralism, which often functions as a philosophical armistice in which tolerance and so-called neutrality discharge proponents of the burden to clarify the sources and conditions of agreement and disagreement, this paper aims at analysing: (i) what has been Kant's original conceptualisation of living organisms as natural purposes; (ii) how the current perspectives are to be related to Kant's viewpoint; (iii) what are the main trends in current complexity thinking. One of the basic ideas is that the attention for structure and its epistemological consequences witness to a great extent of Kant's viewpoint, and that the idea of organisational stratification today constitutes a different breeding ground within which complexity issues are raised. The various approaches of complexity in biological systems are captured in terms of two different styles, universalism and (weak and strong) constructivism, between which hybrid forms exist.

  18. Determination of acoustic properties of thin polymer films utilizing the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Sakamoto, Yuhei

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on a technique to measure the acoustic properties of a thin polymer film utilizing the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient of ultrasound reflected back from a system comprising a reflection plate, the film, and a material that covers the film. The frequency components of the echo reflected from the back of the plate, where the film is attached, take their minimum values at the resonant frequency, and from these frequency characteristics, the acoustic impedance, sound velocity, and the density of the film can be determined. We applied this technique to characterize an ion exchange membrane, which has high water absorbability, and successfully determined the acoustic properties of the membrane without getting it wet.

  19. Robust Automatic Speech Recognition Features using Complex Wavelet Packet Transform Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TjongWan Sen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of phoneme based Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR in noisy environment; we developed a new technique that could add robustness to clean phonemes features. These robust features are obtained from Complex Wavelet Packet Transform (CWPT coefficients. Since the CWPT coefficients represent all different frequency bands of the input signal, decomposing the input signal into complete CWPT tree would also cover all frequencies involved in recognition process. For time overlapping signals with different frequency contents, e. g. phoneme signal with noises, its CWPT coefficients are the combination of CWPT coefficients of phoneme signal and CWPT coefficients of noises. The CWPT coefficients of phonemes signal would be changed according to frequency components contained in noises. Since the numbers of phonemes in every language are relatively small (limited and already well known, one could easily derive principal component vectors from clean training dataset using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. These principal component vectors could be used then to add robustness and minimize noises effects in testing phase. Simulation results, using Alpha Numeric 4 (AN4 from Carnegie Mellon University and NOISEX-92 examples from Rice University, showed that this new technique could be used as features extractor that improves the robustness of phoneme based ASR systems in various adverse noisy conditions and still preserves the performance in clean environments.

  20. Preload, Coefficient of Friction, and Thread Friction in an Implant-Abutment-Screw Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentaschek, Stefan; Tomalla, Sven; Schmidtmann, Irene; Lehmann, Karl Martin

    To examine the screw preload, coefficient of friction (COF), and tightening torque needed to overcome the thread friction of an implant-abutment-screw complex. In a customized load frame, 25 new implant-abutment-screw complexes including uncoated titanium alloy screws were torqued and untorqued 10 times each, applying 25 Ncm. Mean preload values decreased significantly from 209.8 N to 129.5 N according to the number of repetitions. The overall COF increased correspondingly. There was no comparable trend for the thread friction component. These results suggest that the application of a used implant-abutment-screw complex may be unfavorable for obtaining optimal screw preload.

  1. Burial diagenesis of deep sea chalk as reflected in Biot's coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2013-01-01

    to limestone as burial increases and porosity decreases. The porosity decrease is accompanied by an increasing velocity to elastic waves, and consequently a decreasing Biot's coefficient, as estimated from velocity and density of core samples. When the effective burial stress is normalized to total horizontal....... In the ooze, we find that the natural compaction causes an increasing stress on grain contact area, indicating that the ooze particles become strongly strained. In the chalk section, contact cement is probably the reason why particles become less strained as porosity declines. In the limestone, stress...... on particles apparently is low and not correlated with porosity, probably because the pore-filling cementation in this interval causes Biot's coefficient to decline as burial increases. Limestone from the water zone of the North sea Chalk Group follows the same stress trend as deep sea limestone. These results...

  2. Measurement of anchoring coefficient of homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal using a polarizing optical microscope in reflective mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-In Baek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals is widely used in LCD TVs, no easy method exists to measure its anchoring coefficient. In this study, we propose an easy and convenient measurement technique in which a polarizing optical microscope is used in the reflective mode with an objective lens having a low depth of focus. All measurements focus on the reflection of light near the interface between the liquid crystal and alignment layer. The change in the reflected light is measured by applying an electric field. We model the response of the director of the liquid crystal to the electric field and, thus, the change in reflectance. By adjusting the extrapolation length in the calculation, we match the experimental and calculated results and obtain the anchoring coefficient. In our experiment, the extrapolation lengths were 0.31 ± 0.04 μm, 0.32 ± 0.08 μm, and 0.23 ± 0.05 μm for lecithin, AL-64168, and SE-5662, respectively.

  3. Variability of the reflectance coefficient of skylight from the ocean surface and its implications to ocean color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilerson, Alexander; Carrizo, Carlos; Foster, Robert; Harmel, Tristan

    2018-04-16

    The value and spectral dependence of the reflectance coefficient (ρ) of skylight from wind-roughened ocean surfaces is critical for determining accurate water leaving radiance and remote sensing reflectances from shipborne, AERONET-Ocean Color and satellite observations. Using a vector radiative transfer code, spectra of the reflectance coefficient and corresponding radiances near the ocean surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are simulated for a broad range of parameters including flat and windy ocean surfaces with wind speeds up to 15 m/s, aerosol optical thicknesses of 0-1 at 440nm, wavelengths of 400-900 nm, and variable Sun and viewing zenith angles. Results revealed a profound impact of the aerosol load and type on the spectral values of ρ. Such impacts, not included yet in standard processing, may produce significant inaccuracies in the reflectance spectra retrieved from above-water radiometry and satellite observations. Implications for satellite cal/val activities as well as potential changes in measurement and data processing schemes are discussed.

  4. Properties of weak contrast PP reflection/transmission coefficients for weakly anisotropic elastic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšenčík, Ivan; Martins, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2001), s. 176-199 ISSN 0039-3169. [ICTCA'99. Trieste, 10.05.1999-14.05.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : elastic media * anisotropy * seismic reflection Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.680, year: 2001

  5. Retrieving Constitutive Parameters of Plasmonic Multilayers from Reflection and Transmission Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Yankovskaya, E. A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We show how to correctly extract the effective permittivity and permeability of plasmonic multilayers in the optical domain. For material parameters retrieval the classical Nicolson-Ross-Weir method is commonly used. However, its direct application leads to spurious zero-permittivity points and f...... and false permeability resonances in the case of total reflection from the slab. We offer a way to overcome this issue and retrieve correct constitutive parameters of plasmonic multilayers...

  6. Energy Reflection Coefficients for 5-10 keV He Ions Incident on Au, Ag, and Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Littmark, U.

    1978-01-01

    The calorimetric deuterium-film method was used for measurements of the energy reflection coefficient γ for normal incidence of 5-10 keV He ions on Cu, Ag and Au. A theoretical calculation of γ by means of transport theory gives fair agreement with the experimental results. The experimental data...... the experimental and theoretical results for the He ions are in acceptable agreement with other experimental and theoretical results. For He ions, the experimental γ-values are 20-30% above the values for hydrogen ions for the same value of ε...

  7. Reynolds number and friction coefficient for axial-parallel flow through complex cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markfort, D.

    1975-01-01

    Thermal and hydraulic lay-out of reactor fuel elements and other heat transfer equipment makes use of established functional relationship between dimensionless characters, the former being transferred from circular tube to more complex geometries. The stringent requirement (from theory) for 'geometrical similarity' is bypassed by defining 'equivalent diameters'. But dimensionless numbers may be derived from 'flow-integral-conditions' while the geometrical components contained therein reduce if not completely abolish the requirement for geometrical similarity. The derivation is demonstrated by using the Reynolds number. A friction coefficient valid for any kind of flow regime can be defined using integral-conditions. Correlations of friction coefficient and Reynolds number using universal-velocity profiles confirm the analysis when compared to well known experimental data. (orig.) [de

  8. Spectral slopes of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material inverted from UV-visible remote sensing reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianwei; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Mannino, Antonio; Tzortziou, Maria; Armstrong, Roy

    2016-03-01

    The spectral slope of the absorption coefficient of colored dissolved and detrital material (CDM), S cdm (units: nm -1 ), is an important optical parameter for characterizing the absorption spectral shape of CDM. Although highly variable in natural waters, in most remote sensing algorithms, this slope is either kept as a constant or empirically modeled with multiband ocean color in the visible domain. In this study, we explore the potential of semianalytically retrieving S cdm with added ocean color information in the ultraviolet (UV) range between 360 and 400 nm. Unique features of hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance in the UV-visible wavelengths (360-500 nm) have been observed in various waters across a range of coastal and open ocean environments. Our data and analyses indicate that ocean color in the UV domain is particularly sensitive to the variation of the CDM spectral slope. Here, we used a synthesized data set to show that adding UV wavelengths to the ocean color measurements will improve the retrieval of S cdm from remote sensing reflectance considerably, while the spectral band settings of past and current satellite ocean color sensors cannot fully account for the spectral variation of remote sensing reflectance. Results of this effort support the concept to include UV wavelengths in the next generation of satellite ocean color sensors.

  9. Influence of diffuse reflectance measurement accuracy on the scattering coefficient in determination of optical properties with integrating sphere optics (a secondary publication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Takuro; Ishii, Katsunori; Fukutomi, Daichi; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-30

    An estimation error of the scattering coefficient of hemoglobin in the high absorption wavelength range has been observed in optical property calculations of blood-rich tissues. In this study, the relationship between the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement in the integrating sphere and calculated scattering coefficient was evaluated with a system to calculate optical properties combined with an integrating sphere setup and the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. Diffuse reflectance was measured with the integrating sphere using a small incident port diameter and optical properties were calculated. As a result, the estimation error of the scattering coefficient was improved by accurate measurement of diffuse reflectance. In the high absorption wavelength range, the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement has an effect on the calculated scattering coefficient.

  10. On nonlinear changes of the reflection coefficient of the fast wave at LH frequencies due to ponderomotive forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1991-09-01

    The nonlinear changes of the reflection coefficient R of fast waves launched by waveguide arrays may be significant even for power densities S in the range of 3 or 4 kW/cm 2 . For the input parameters chosen in the computations, the effects of ponderomotive forces lead to an increase in plasma density in front of the grill , whereas for the slow wave the plasma density always decreases with growing S. For small plasma density in front of the grill, ponderomotive forces thus lead to the decrease of R, whereas for high plasma densities R grows with growing power density S. The heating of the edge plasma by the wave tends to weaken these changes. (Z.S.) 6 figs., 17 refs

  11. Histogram analysis parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient reflect tumor cellularity and proliferation activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Winter, Karsten; Richter, Cindy; Hoehn, Anna-Kathrin

    2018-05-04

    Our purpose was to analyze associations between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis parameters and histopathologicalfeatures in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The study involved 32 patients with primary HNSCC. For every tumor, the following histogram analysis parameters were calculated: ADCmean, ADCmax, ADC min , ADC median , ADC mode , P10, P25, P75, P90, kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. Furthermore, proliferation index KI 67, cell count, total and average nucleic areas were estimated. Spearman's correlation coefficient (p) was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. In overall sample, all ADC values showed moderate inverse correlations with KI 67. All ADC values except ADCmax correlated inversely with tumor cellularity. Slightly correlations were identified between total/average nucleic area and ADC mean , ADC min , ADC median , and P25. In G1/2 tumors, only ADCmode correlated well with Ki67. No statistically significant correlations between ADC parameters and cellularity were found. In G3 tumors, Ki 67 correlated with all ADC parameters except ADCmode. Cell count correlated well with all ADC parameters except ADCmax. Total nucleic area correlated inversely with ADC mean , ADC min , ADC median , P25, and P90. ADC histogram parameters reflect proliferation potential and cellularity in HNSCC. The associations between histopathology and imaging depend on tumor grading.

  12. Revealing Layers of Pristine Oriented Crystals Embedded Within Deep Ice Clouds Using Differential Reflectivity and the Copolar Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, W. J.; Westbrook, C. D.

    2017-11-01

    Pristine ice crystals typically have high aspect ratios (≫ 1), have a high density and tend to fall preferentially with their major axis aligned horizontally. Consequently, they can, in certain circumstances, be readily identified by measurements of differential reflectivity (ZDR), which is related to their average aspect ratio. However, because ZDR is reflectivity weighted, its interpretation becomes ambiguous in the presence of even a few, larger aggregates or irregular polycrystals. An example of this is in mixed-phase regions that are embedded within deeper ice cloud. Currently, our understanding of the microphysical processes within these regions is hindered by a lack of good observations. In this paper, a novel technique is presented that removes this ambiguity using measurements from the 3 GHz Chilbolton Advanced Meteorological Radar in Southern England. By combining measurements of ZDR and the copolar correlation coefficient (ρhv), we show that it is possible to retrieve both the relative contribution to the radar signal and "intrinsic" ZDR (ZDRIP) of the pristine oriented crystals, even in circumstances where their signal is being masked by the presence of aggregates. Results from two case studies indicate that enhancements in ZDR embedded within deep ice clouds are typically produced by pristine oriented crystals with ZDRIP values between 3 and 7 dB (equivalent to 5-9 dB at horizontal incidence) but with varying contributions to the radar reflectivity. Vertically pointing 35 GHz cloud radar Doppler spectra and in situ particle images from the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 aircraft support the conceptual model used and are consistent with the retrieval interpretation.

  13. Time domain analysis of thin-wire antennas over lossy ground using the reflection-coefficient approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    FernáNdez Pantoja, M.; Yarovoy, A. G.; Rubio Bretones, A.; GonzáLez GarcíA, S.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a procedure to extend the methods of moments in time domain for the transient analysis of thin-wire antennas to include those cases where the antennas are located over a lossy half-space. This extended technique is based on the reflection coefficient (RC) approach, which approximates the fields incident on the ground interface as plane waves and calculates the time domain RC using the inverse Fourier transform of Fresnel equations. The implementation presented in this paper uses general expressions for the RC which extend its range of applicability to lossy grounds, and is proven to be accurate and fast for antennas located not too near to the ground. The resulting general purpose procedure, able to treat arbitrarily oriented thin-wire antennas, is appropriate for all kind of half-spaces, including lossy cases, and it has turned out to be as computationally fast solving the problem of an arbitrary ground as dealing with a perfect electric conductor ground plane. Results show a numerical validation of the method for different half-spaces, paying special attention to the influence of the antenna to ground distance in the accuracy of the results.

  14. A Complex Network Model for Analyzing Railway Accidents Based on the Maximal Information Coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Fu-Bo; Li Ke-Ping

    2016-01-01

    It is an important issue to identify important influencing factors in railway accident analysis. In this paper, employing the good measure of dependence for two-variable relationships, the maximal information coefficient (MIC), which can capture a wide range of associations, a complex network model for railway accident analysis is designed in which nodes denote factors of railway accidents and edges are generated between two factors of which MIC values are larger than or equal to the dependent criterion. The variety of network structure is studied. As the increasing of the dependent criterion, the network becomes to an approximate scale-free network. Moreover, employing the proposed network, important influencing factors are identified. And we find that the annual track density-gross tonnage factor is an important factor which is a cut vertex when the dependent criterion is equal to 0.3. From the network, it is found that the railway development is unbalanced for different states which is consistent with the fact. (paper)

  15. Computation of infinite dilute activity coefficients of binary liquid alloys using complex formation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E., E-mail: draweoe2004@yahoo.com; Oshakuade, O.M.

    2016-04-15

    A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ{sup ∞}s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ{sup ∞}s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ{sup ∞}s of 10 binary alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ{sup ∞}s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ{sup ∞}s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ{sup ∞}s and then used the γ{sup ∞}s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ{sup ∞}s of binary liquid alloys.

  16. Apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water and binding percentage to BSA of 153Sm(113,117Snm) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuqing; Luo Shunzhong; Wang Guanquan; He Jiaheng; Bing Wenzeng; Pu Manfei; Wei Hongyuan; Wang Wenjin

    2004-01-01

    Apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water and binding percentage to BSA of 153 Sm-NTMP, 153 Sm-HEDTMP, 153 Sm-DCTMP, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 153 Sm-DTPMP, 113,117 Sn m -EDTMP, 113,117 Sn m -HEDTMP, 113,117 Sn m -DTPMP are measured. The results show that there is a linear relationship between the relative magnitude of the apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water and the relative magnitude of the binding percentage to BSA of these 153 Sm( 113,117 Sn m ) complexes. This linear relationship provides a new method for determination of the apparent partition coefficient in octanol-water of 153 Sm( 113,117 Sn m ) complexes of this kind. This linear relationship also implicates that hydrophobic force plays an important role in the binding of 153 Sm( 113,117 Sn m ) complexes to BSA

  17. Integral particle reflection coefficient for oblique incidence of photons as universal function in the domain of initial energies up to 300 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of calculations and analyses of the integral particle reflection coefficient of photons for oblique photon incidence on planar targets, in the domain of initial photon energies from 100 keV to 300 keV. The results are based on the Monte Carlo simulations of the photon reflection from water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper materials, performed by the MCNP code. It has been observed that the integral particle reflection coefficient as a function of the ratio of total cross-section of photons and effective atomic number of target material shows universal behavior for all the analyzed shielding materials in the selected energy domain. Analytical formulas for different angles of photon incidence have been proposed, which describe the reflection of photons for all the materials and energies analyzed.

  18. A High Molar Extinction Coefficient Mono-Anthracenyl Bipyridyl Heteroleptic Ruthenium(II Complex: Synthesis, Photophysical and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ajibade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In our quest to develop good materials as photosensitizers for photovoltaic dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, cis-dithiocyanato-4-(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid-2,2'-bipyridyl-4-(9-anthracenyl-(2,3-dimethylacrylic-2,2'-bipyridyl ruthenium(II complex, a high molar extinction coefficient charge transfer sensitizer, was designed, synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Earlier studies on heteroleptic ruthenium(II complex analogues containing functionalized oligo-anthracenyl phenanthroline ligands have been reported and documented. Based on a general linear correlation between increase in the length of π-conjugation bond and the molar extinction coefficients, herein, we report the photophysical and electrochemical properties of a Ru(II bipyridyl complex analogue with a single functionalized anthracenyl unit. Interestingly, the complex shows better broad and intense metal-to ligand charge transfer (MLCT band absorption with higher molar extinction coefficient (λmax = 518 nm, e = 44900 M−1cm−1, and appreciable photoluminescence spanning the visible region than those containing higher anthracenyl units. It was shown that molar absorption coefficient of the complexes may not be solely depended on the extended π-conjugation but are reduced by molecular aggregation in the molecules.

  19. Some Comments on the Use of de Moivre's Theorem to Solve Quadratic Equations with Real or Complex Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how a simple application of de Moivre's theorem may be used to not only find the roots of a quadratic equation with real or generally complex coefficients but also to pinpoint their location in the Argand plane. This approach is much simpler than the comprehensive analysis presented by Bardell (2012, 2014), but it does not…

  20. Does formal complexity reflect cognitive complexity? Investigating aspects of the Chomsky Hierarchy in an artificial language learning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öttl, Birgit; Jäger, Gerhard; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether formal complexity, as described by the Chomsky Hierarchy, corresponds to cognitive complexity during language learning. According to the Chomsky Hierarchy, nested dependencies (context-free) are less complex than cross-serial dependencies (mildly context-sensitive). In two artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiments participants were presented with a language containing either nested or cross-serial dependencies. A learning effect for both types of dependencies could be observed, but no difference between dependency types emerged. These behavioral findings do not seem to reflect complexity differences as described in the Chomsky Hierarchy. This study extends previous findings in demonstrating learning effects for nested and cross-serial dependencies with more natural stimulus materials in a classical AGL paradigm after only one hour of exposure. The current findings can be taken as a starting point for further exploring the degree to which the Chomsky Hierarchy reflects cognitive processes.

  1. A simple approach to enhance the performance of complex-coefficient filter-based PLL in grid-connected applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramezani, Malek; Golestan, Saeed; Li, Shuhui

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of three-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) have been developed. One of the most popular ones is the complex coefficient filterbased PLL (CCF-PLL). The CCFs benefit from a sequence selective filtering ability and, hence, enable the CCF-PLL to selectively reject/extract...... disturbances before the PLL control loop while maintaining an acceptable dynamic behavior. The aim of this paper is presenting a simple yet effective approach to enhance the standard CCF-PLL performance without requiring any additional computational load....

  2. Spectral dependence of backscattering coefficient of mixed phase clouds over West Africa measured with two-wavelength Raman polarization lidar: Features attributed to ice-crystals corner reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskii, I.; Goloub, P.; Podvin, T.; Tanre, D.; Ansmann, A.; Korenskiy, M.; Borovoi, A.; Hu, Q.; Whiteman, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    The existing models predict that corner reflection (CR) of laser radiation by simple ice crystals of perfect shape, such as hexagonal columns or plates, can provide a significant contribution to the ice cloud backscattering. However in real clouds the CR effect may be suppressed due to crystal deformation and surface roughness. In contrast to the extinction coefficient, which is spectrally independent, consideration of diffraction associated with CR results in a spectral dependence of the backscattering coefficient. Thus measuring the spectral dependence of the cloud backscattering coefficient, the contribution of CR can be identified. The paper presents the results of profiling of backscattering coefficient (β) and particle depolarization ratio (δ) of ice and mixed-phase clouds over West Africa by means of a two-wavelength polarization Mie-Raman lidar operated at 355 nm and 532 nm during the SHADOW field campaign. The lidar observations were performed at a slant angle of 43 degree off zenith, thus CR from both randomly oriented crystals and oriented plates could be analyzed. For the most of the observations the cloud backscatter color ratio β355/β532 was close to 1.0, and no spectral features that might indicate the presence of CR of randomly oriented crystals were revealed. Still, in two measurement sessions we observed an increase of backscatter color ratio to a value of nearly 1.3 simultaneously with a decrease of the spectral depolarization ratio δ355/δ532 ratio from 1.0 to 0.8 inside the layers containing precipitating ice crystals. We attribute these changes in optical properties to corner reflections by horizontally oriented ice plates.

  3. Dromion-like structures and stability analysis in the variable coefficients complex Ginzburg–Landau equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Pring; Pang, Li-Hui; Huang, Long-Gang; Li, Yan-Qing; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The study of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, which can describe the fiber laser system, is of significance for ultra-fast laser. In this paper, dromion-like structures for the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation are considered due to their abundant nonlinear dynamics. Via the modified Hirota method and simplified assumption, the analytic dromion-like solution is obtained. The partial asymmetry of structure is particularly discussed, which arises from asymmetry of nonlinear and dispersion terms. Furthermore, the stability of dromion-like structures is analyzed. Oscillation structure emerges to exhibit strong interference when the dispersion loss is perturbed. Through the appropriate modulation of modified exponent parameter, the oscillation structure is transformed into two dromion-like structures. It indicates that the dromion-like structure is unstable, and the coherence intensity is affected by the modified exponent parameter. Results in this paper may be useful in accounting for some nonlinear phenomena in fiber laser systems, and understanding the essential role of modified Hirota method

  4. Optimal reflection-free complex absorbing potentials for quantum propagation of wave packets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemer, Oded; Brisker, Daria; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2005-01-01

    The conditions for optimal reflection-free complex-absorbing potentials (CAPs) are discussed. It is shown that the CAPs as derived from the smooth-exterior-scaling transformation of the Hamiltonian [J. Phys. B 31, 1431 (1998)] serve as optimal reflection-free CAPs (RF CAPs) in wave-packet propagation calculations of open systems. The initial wave packet, Φ(t=0), can be located in the interaction region (as in half collision experiments) where the CAPs have vanished or in the asymptote where V CAP ≠0. As we show, the optimal CAPs can be introduced also in the region where the physical potential has not vanished. The unavoided reflections due to the use of a finite number of grid points (or basis functions) are discussed. A simple way to reduce the 'edge-grid' reflection effect is described

  5. Reflection at a complex potential barrier in the semiclassical theory of scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.; Knoll, J.

    1976-01-01

    The reflection of spherical waves at a complex potential barrier is discussed in the semiclassical approximation. We study the complex WKB method and the Uniform Approximation in the special case of weakly absorptive barriers, typical of surface transparent optical potentials used in heavy-ion reactions. It is found that the complex WKB results lead to a very accurate cross-section despite their inaccuracy in the most important phase shifts. Thereby, the amazing stamina of the WKB has been confirmed once more. (orig.) [de

  6. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC value: a potential imaging biomarker that reflects the biological features of rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqun Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We elected to analyze the correlation between the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC and the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical status of rectal cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine rectal cancer patients who received surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy were selected that underwent primary MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI. Tumor ADC values were determined and analyzed to identify any correlations between these values and pre-treatment CEA or CA19-9 levels, and/or the histological and immunohistochemical properties of the tumor. RESULTS: Inter-observer agreement of confidence levels from two separate observers was suitable for ADC measurement (k  =  0.775. The pre-treatment ADC values of different T stage tumors were not equal (p  =  0.003. The overall trend was that higher T stage values correlated with lower ADC values. ADC values were also significantly lower for the following conditions: tumors with the presence of extranodal tumor deposits (p  =  0.006 and tumors with CA19-9 levels ≥ 35 g/ml (p  =  0.006. There was a negative correlation between Ki-67 LI and the ADC value (r  =  -0.318, p  =  0.026 and between the AgNOR count and the ADC value (r  =  -0.310, p  =  0.030. CONCLUSION: Significant correlations were found between the pre-treatment ADC values and T stage, extranodal tumor deposits, CA19-9 levels, Ki-67 LI, and AgNOR counts in our study. Lower ADC values were associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, the ADC value may represent a useful biomarker for assessing the biological features and possible relationship to the status of identified rectal cancers.

  7. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) value: a potential imaging biomarker that reflects the biological features of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqun; Tong, Tong; Cai, Sanjun; Bi, Rui; Xin, Chao; Gu, Yajia

    2014-01-01

    We elected to analyze the correlation between the pre-treatment apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical status of rectal cancers. Forty-nine rectal cancer patients who received surgical resection without neoadjuvant therapy were selected that underwent primary MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Tumor ADC values were determined and analyzed to identify any correlations between these values and pre-treatment CEA or CA19-9 levels, and/or the histological and immunohistochemical properties of the tumor. Inter-observer agreement of confidence levels from two separate observers was suitable for ADC measurement (k  =  0.775). The pre-treatment ADC values of different T stage tumors were not equal (p  =  0.003). The overall trend was that higher T stage values correlated with lower ADC values. ADC values were also significantly lower for the following conditions: tumors with the presence of extranodal tumor deposits (p  =  0.006) and tumors with CA19-9 levels ≥ 35 g/ml (p  =  0.006). There was a negative correlation between Ki-67 LI and the ADC value (r  =  -0.318, p  =  0.026) and between the AgNOR count and the ADC value (r  =  -0.310, p  =  0.030). Significant correlations were found between the pre-treatment ADC values and T stage, extranodal tumor deposits, CA19-9 levels, Ki-67 LI, and AgNOR counts in our study. Lower ADC values were associated with more aggressive tumor behavior. Therefore, the ADC value may represent a useful biomarker for assessing the biological features and possible relationship to the status of identified rectal cancers.

  8. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  9. A Multi-Band Analytical Algorithm for Deriving Absorption and Backscattering Coefficients from Remote-Sensing Reflectance of Optically Deep Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.

    2001-01-01

    A multi-band analytical (MBA) algorithm is developed to retrieve absorption and backscattering coefficients for optically deep waters, which can be applied to data from past and current satellite sensors, as well as data from hyperspectral sensors. This MBA algorithm applies a remote-sensing reflectance model derived from the Radiative Transfer Equation, and values of absorption and backscattering coefficients are analytically calculated from values of remote-sensing reflectance. There are only limited empirical relationships involved in the algorithm, which implies that this MBA algorithm could be applied to a wide dynamic range of waters. Applying the algorithm to a simulated non-"Case 1" data set, which has no relation to the development of the algorithm, the percentage error for the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm a (sub 440) is approximately 12% for a range of 0.012 - 2.1 per meter (approximately 6% for a (sub 440) less than approximately 0.3 per meter), while a traditional band-ratio approach returns a percentage error of approximately 30%. Applying it to a field data set ranging from 0.025 to 2.0 per meter, the result for a (sub 440) is very close to that using a full spectrum optimization technique (9.6% difference). Compared to the optimization approach, the MBA algorithm cuts the computation time dramatically with only a small sacrifice in accuracy, making it suitable for processing large data sets such as satellite images. Significant improvements over empirical algorithms have also been achieved in retrieving the optical properties of optically deep waters.

  10. Diagonalization of complex symmetric matrices: Generalized Householder reflections, iterative deflation and implicit shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J. H.; Lubasch, M.; Stevens, J.; Jentschura, U. D.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a matrix diagonalization algorithm for complex symmetric (not Hermitian) matrices, A ̲ =A̲T, which is based on a two-step algorithm involving generalized Householder reflections based on the indefinite inner product 〈 u ̲ , v ̲ 〉 ∗ =∑iuivi. This inner product is linear in both arguments and avoids complex conjugation. The complex symmetric input matrix is transformed to tridiagonal form using generalized Householder transformations (first step). An iterative, generalized QL decomposition of the tridiagonal matrix employing an implicit shift converges toward diagonal form (second step). The QL algorithm employs iterative deflation techniques when a machine-precision zero is encountered "prematurely" on the super-/sub-diagonal. The algorithm allows for a reliable and computationally efficient computation of resonance and antiresonance energies which emerge from complex-scaled Hamiltonians, and for the numerical determination of the real energy eigenvalues of pseudo-Hermitian and PT-symmetric Hamilton matrices. Numerical reference values are provided.

  11. Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagues, Mikel; García Olcina, Raimundo; Loayssa, Alayn; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2008-01-07

    We propose a novel scheme to implement tunable multi-tap complex coefficient filters based on optical single sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering. A four tap filter is experimentally demonstrated to highlight the enhanced tuning performance provided by complex coefficients. Optical processing is performed by the use of a cascade of four phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings specifically fabricated for this purpose.

  12. A Search Complexity Improvement of Vector Quantization to Immittance Spectral Frequency Coefficients in AMR-WB Speech Codec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Jhih Yao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive multi-rate wideband (AMR-WB code is a speech codec developed on the basis of an algebraic code-excited linear-prediction (ACELP coding technique, and has a double advantage of low bit rates and high speech quality. This coding technique is widely used in modern mobile communication systems for a high speech quality in handheld devices. However, a major disadvantage is that a vector quantization (VQ of immittance spectral frequency (ISF coefficients occupies a significant computational load in the AMR-WB encoder. Hence, this paper presents a triangular inequality elimination (TIE algorithm combined with a dynamic mechanism and an intersection mechanism, abbreviated as the DI-TIE algorithm, to remarkably improve the complexity of ISF coefficient quantization in the AMR-WB speech codec. Both mechanisms are designed in a way that recursively enhances the performance of the TIE algorithm. At the end of this work, this proposal is experimentally validated as a superior search algorithm relative to a conventional TIE, a multiple TIE (MTIE, and an equal-average equal-variance equal-norm nearest neighbor search (EEENNS approach. With a full search algorithm as a benchmark for search load comparison, this work provides a search load reduction above 77%, a figure far beyond 36% in the TIE, 49% in the MTIE, and 68% in the EEENNS approach.

  13. Complexity dynamics and Hopf bifurcation analysis based on the first Lyapunov coefficient about 3D IS-LM macroeconomics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Ren, Wenbo; Zhan, Xueli

    2017-04-01

    Based on the study of scholars at home and abroad, this paper improves the three-dimensional IS-LM model in macroeconomics, analyzes the equilibrium point of the system and stability conditions, focuses on the parameters and complex dynamic characteristics when Hopf bifurcation occurs in the three-dimensional IS-LM macroeconomics system. In order to analyze the stability of limit cycles when Hopf bifurcation occurs, this paper further introduces the first Lyapunov coefficient to judge the limit cycles, i.e. from a practical view of the business cycle. Numerical simulation results show that within the range of most of the parameters, the limit cycle of 3D IS-LM macroeconomics is stable, that is, the business cycle is stable; with the increase of the parameters, limit cycles becomes unstable, and the value range of the parameters in this situation is small. The research results of this paper have good guide significance for the analysis of macroeconomics system.

  14. Identifying and ranking influential spreaders in complex networks by combining a local-degree sum and the clustering coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengtian; Zhang, Ruisheng; Hu, Rongjing; Yang, Fan; Yao, Yabing; Yuan, Yongna

    2018-03-01

    Identifying influential spreaders is a crucial problem that can help authorities to control the spreading process in complex networks. Based on the classical degree centrality (DC), several improved measures have been presented. However, these measures cannot rank spreaders accurately. In this paper, we first calculate the sum of the degrees of the nearest neighbors of a given node, and based on the calculated sum, a novel centrality named clustered local-degree (CLD) is proposed, which combines the sum and the clustering coefficients of nodes to rank spreaders. By assuming that the spreading process in networks follows the susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model, we perform extensive simulations on a series of real networks to compare the performances between the CLD centrality and other six measures. The results show that the CLD centrality has a competitive performance in distinguishing the spreading ability of nodes, and exposes the best performance to identify influential spreaders accurately.

  15. Determination of transport and reaction swarm coefficients from the analysis of complex transient pulses from the pulsed Townsend experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekstein, A; De Urquijo, J; Rodríguez-Luna, J C; Juárez, A M; Ducasse, O

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper the interpretation and analysis of transient pulses from a pulsed Townsend experiment by solving the continuity equations of the charged carriers (electrons and ions) involved in the avalanche. The set of second order partial differential equations is solved by SIMAV, a simulator designed specifically for the pulsed Townsend avalanche. Complex situations involving processes such as electron detachment, ion-molecule reactions, Penning ionization and secondary electron emission from ion impact at the cathode, virtually impossible to solve analytically, are discussed here to illustrate the capability of the simulator to help explain the various reaction processes involved in the avalanche, and also to derive some of the transport and reaction coefficients.

  16. A Simple Method Using a Topography Correction Coefficient for Estimating Daily Distribution of Solar Irradiance in Complex Terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.I.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate solar radiation data are critical to evaluate major physiological responses of plants. For most upland crops and orchard plants growing in complex terrain, however, it is not easy for farmers or agronomists to access solar irradiance data. Here we suggest a simple method using a sun-slope geometry based topographical coefficient to estimate daily solar irradiance on any sloping surfaces from global solar radiation measured at a nearby weather station. An hourly solar irradiance ratio (W i ) between sloping and horizontal surface is defined as multiplication of the relative solar intensity (k i ) and the slope irradiance ratio (r i ) at an hourly interval. The k i is the ratio of hourly solar radiation to the 24 hour cumulative radiation on a horizontal surface under clear sky conditions. The r i is the ratio of clear sky radiation on a given slope to that on a horizontal reference. Daily coefficient for slope correction is simply the sum of W i on each date. We calculated daily solar irradiance at 8 side slope locations circumventing a cone-shaped parasitic volcano (c.a., 570 m diameter for the bottom circle and 90 m bottom-to-top height) by multiplying these coefficients to the global solar radiation measured horizontally. Comparison with the measured slope irradiance from April 2007 to March 2008 resulted in the root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.61 MJ m −2 for the whole period but the RMSE for April to October (i.e., major cropping season in Korea) was much lower and satisfied the 5% error tolerance for radiation measurement. The RMSE was smallest in October regardless of slope aspect, and the aspect dependent variation of RMSE was greatest in November. Annual variation in RMSE was greatest on north and south facing slopes, followed by southwest, southeast, and northwest slopes in decreasing order. Once the coefficients are prepared, global solar radiation data from nearby stations can be easily converted to the solar irradiance map at landscape

  17. On the accuracy of Rüger's approximation for reflection coefficients in HTI media: implications for the determination of fracture density and orientation from seismic AVAZ data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Aamir; Jakobsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the accuracy of Rüger's approximation for PP reflection coefficients in HTI media (relative to an exact generalization of Zoeppritz to anisotropy derived by Schoenberg and Protazio) within the context of seismic fracture characterization. We consider the inverse problem of seismic amplitude-versus-angle and azimuth (AVAZ) inversion with respect to fracture density and azimuthal fracture orientation, as well as the forward problem of calculating PP reflection coefficients for different contrasts and anisotropy levels. The T-matrix approach was used to relate the contrast and anisotropy level to the parameters of the fractures (in the case of a single set of vertical fractures). We have found that Rüger's approximation can be used to recover the true fracture density with small uncertainty if, and only if, the fracture density and contrast are significantly smaller than the values that are believed to occur in many practically interesting cases of fractured (carbonate) reservoirs. In one example involving a minimal contrast and a fracture density in the range 0.05–0.1, Rüger's approximation performed satisfactorily for inversion, although the forward modelling results were not very accurate at high incident angles. But for fracture densities larger than 0.1 (which we believe may well occur in real cases), Rüger's approximation did not perform satisfactorily for forward or inverse modelling. However, it appears that Rüger's approximation can always be used to obtain estimates of the azimuthal fracture orientation with small uncertainty, even when the contrast and anisotropy levels are extremely large. In order to illustrate the significance of our findings within the context of seismic fracture characterization, we analysed a set of synthetic seismic AVAZ data associated with a fault facies model where the fracture density decreases exponentially with distance from the fault core, and a set of real seismic AVAZ data involving offset

  18. Derivation of Coefficients for the Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function from AVHRR-data over Europe, under Consideration of the Helmholtz Reciprocity Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, H.; Koslowsky, D.

    In the AVHRR data of the polar orbiting NOAA Satellites, directional reflectance under a certain view from satellite and a certain illumination by the sun is measured. Due to the nearly sunsynchroneous orbit of the NOAA satellite, each area is seen under different viewing angles in successive days. Only after approximately 9 days, the conditions are again similar. Areas, seen in specular direction, may appear only half as bright, as if seen in antispecular direction. This deviation from a Lambertian reflector is a function of the surface roughness and the degree of coverage with vegetation. The NOAA afternoon satellites drift by half an hour from year to year. Thus even data from the same season, but different years, are seen under different illumination conditions. To derive the bidirectional reflection distribution function in dependence on satellite viewing angle and solar illumination becomes a very complicated procedure. Using the Helmholtz reciprocity principle (HRP), i.e. the symetrie in viewing and illumination, reduces the problem by one dimension. For different bidimensional reflection laws it will be tested, whether they can be formulated to fullfill the HRP. Via regression, the parameters will be deduced for time series of AVHRR data of 10 years from NOAA 11,14,16 and 17. Brdfunctions, suggested by Rao as well as a law, suggested by Ba seem to become unstable for low sun resp. large viewing zenit angles. Only brdfs with 4 coefficients can fit the observed distributions. A nonlinear temporal angular model (NTAM), suggested by Latifovic,Cihlar and Chen, seems to be suitable to describe even the hot spot and the dependence on plant growth. The coefficients of these brdf-function will be derived via regression for monthly series of cloud free data for the European area, where AVHRR data in full resolution are received in Berlin. Using these coefficients, monthly maps of surface roughness are produced for the above area for the time since 1985. Ba, M

  19. Sensitive determination of trace mercury by UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy after complexation and membrane filtration-enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changhai; Iqbal, Jibran; Hu, Huilian; Liu, Bingxiang; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Bilin; Du, Yiping

    2012-09-30

    A simple, sensitive and selective solid phase reflectometry method is proposed for the determination of trace mercury in aqueous samples. The complexation reagent dithizone was firstly injected into the properly buffered solution with vigorous stirring, which started a simultaneous formation of nanoparticles suspension of dithizone and its complexation reaction with the mercury(II) ions to make Hg-dithizone nanoparticles. After a definite time, the mixture was filtered with membrane, and then quantified directly on the surface of the membrane by using integrating sphere accessory of the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The quantitative analysis was carried out at a wavelength of 485 nm since it yielded the largest difference in diffuse reflectance spectra before and after reaction with mercury(II).A good linear correlation in the range of 0.2-4.0 μg/L with a squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9944 and a detection limit of 0.12 μg/L were obtained. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by the analysis of spiked mercury(II) concentrations determined using this method along with those determined by the atomic fluorescence mercury vapourmeter and the results obtained were in good agreement. The proposed method was applied to the determination of mercury in tap water and river water samples with the recovery in an acceptable range (95.7-105.3%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Classification of Several Optically Complex Waters in China Using in Situ Remote Sensing Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Shen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the dominant optically active substances in water bodies via classification can improve the accuracy of bio-optical and water quality parameters estimated by remote sensing. This study provides four robust centroid sets from in situ remote sensing reflectance (Rrs (λ data presenting typical optical types obtained by plugging different similarity measures into fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering. Four typical types of waters were studied: (1 highly mixed eutrophic waters, with the proportion of absorption of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, phytoplankton, and non-living particulate matter at approximately 20%, 20%, and 60% respectively; (2 CDOM-dominated relatively clear waters, with approximately 45% by proportion of CDOM absorption; (3 nonliving solids-dominated waters, with approximately 88% by proportion of absorption of nonliving particulate matter; and (4 cyanobacteria-composed scum. We also simulated spectra from seven ocean color satellite sensors to assess their classification ability. POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER, Sentinel-2A, and MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS were found to perform better than the rest. Further, a classification tree for MERIS, in which the characteristics of Rrs (709/Rrs (681, Rrs (560/Rrs (709, Rrs (560/Rrs (620, and Rrs (709/Rrs (761 are integrated, is also proposed in this paper. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the proposed classification tree are 76.2% and 0.632, respectively.

  1. The practice of reflection in the russian goodwill when buying enterprises as a property complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Ovchinnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When buying enterprises as a property complex, firm-the buyer can pay for it as excess cost of the acquired entity on its balance sheet, and an amount less than the value of the assets on the balance sheet of the acquiree. Based on the requirements of the Russian legislation, in the account of the buyer acquires an intangible asset that distinguishes the Russian from the international practice. International financial reporting standards do not recognize goodwill an intangible asset of the buyer enterprise. Therefore, it is necessary to specify the Russian practice of accounting transactions in the purchase of enterprises as property complex. The article presents a definition of the property complex, based on the requirements of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, highlighted the stages of transfer of the property complex of the specified accounting documents that must be decorated, the analysis of the approaches of domestic and foreign authors to the recognition and measurement of goodwill, studied the specificity of the requirements of the Russian normative-legislative acts to the category “goodwill”, “intangible asset”. Based on the requirements of the Russian legislation, a positive goodwill is recognized in intangible asset (goodwill, in contrast to the negative goodwill (badwill, which immediately applies on other income of the organisation – the buyer of the enterprise – a property complex. On the positive business reputation, then the requirements of the Russian legislation, a positive goodwill is recognized intangible asset. In this paper, the authors proposed a model accounting for the purchase of enterprise as property complex as a result of which the acquisition price of an enterprise as a property complex exceeds its carrying amount of the assessment, therefore, in accounting, the buyer acquires an intangible asset in the form of a positive business reputation, compiled and substantiated recommended to reflect this

  2. [Elderly human being with ostomy and environments of care: reflection on the perspective of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Edaiane Joana Lima; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo

    2012-01-01

    This is discussion about the relationship between elderly human beings with ostomy and their environments care, under the perspective of Complexity Edgar Morin. An axis holds the reflection: environments of care for elderly humans with ostomy. In this sense, we present three types of environment that surround the context of elderly humans with ostomy: home environment, group environment and hospital environment. This brings, as a social contribution, a new look about resizing caring of elderly humans with ostomy in their environment. It is considered that the environment hosting this human being contains a diversity of feelings, emotions, experiences; it binds multiple meanings, from the Complexity perspective, about the relationship between the environment and the caring process.

  3. Influence of magnetic and ultrasonic fields on coefficient of reflectivity of GaAs, GaSb and InAs crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaveryukhin, B.N.; Zaveryukhina, N.N.; Zaveryukhina, E.V.; Volodarskiy, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Previously we demonstrated for the first time in the world that ultrasonic waves of the megahertz range can change the transport properties and a structure of semiconductors. In this work we have experimentally studied the influence of ultrasonic treatment on the spectral coefficients of reflection R in the magnetic fields of the samples of GaAs-, GaSb- and InAs-crystals. The reflectance spectra in the magnetic field of the samples before and after the ultrasonic treatment (UST) for a certain time were measured in a broad wavelength range including ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral regions. The semi-insulating GaAs-crystals had a thickness d=100 μm and a working area S of up to 3sm 2 . The p-GaSb- crystals had an area of S=0.25sm 2 and d =250 μm. The base p-GaSb-layers possessed the concentration N=2·10 17 sm 3 and n-GaSb-layers with a thickness of 0.5 m were created by diffusion doping with phosphorus. Besides, the experiments were performed also for of the n-InAs-crystals. The samples of the InAs-n crystals had a thickness of 100 μm an area S = 0.25 sm 2 . Some remains of sulfuric (S) were discovered in InAs-samples. As could was see from the experiments, all the initial IR spectra measured for the samples with various dopant concentrations NP exhibit maximums (peaks) for 0.2 μm and minimum (holes) for. The reflectance spectra measured after UST for time of t > l hour clearly reveal a shift of the R minima toward longer wavelengths and a general decrease in the reflectance of each sample. The shift of the R is unambiguous evidence of the acoustically stimulated diffusion of impurity (phosphorus) inward of the samples. Discovered peaks and holes slitted and changed their sizes in the magnetic fields. It should be emphasized that behavior of the R spectra of the GaAs-, In As- and GaSb- samples is determined by the same mechanisms. Changes of the R spectra after the UST are explained by acoustically stimulated diffusion of the dopant inward

  4. Comparison of Gini index and Tamura coefficient for holographic autofocusing based on the edge sparsity of the complex optical wavefront

    KAUST Repository

    Tamamitsu, Miu

    2017-08-27

    The Sparsity of the Gradient (SoG) is a robust autofocusing criterion for holography, where the gradient modulus of the complex refocused hologram is calculated, on which a sparsity metric is applied. Here, we compare two different choices of sparsity metrics used in SoG, specifically, the Gini index (GI) and the Tamura coefficient (TC), for holographic autofocusing on dense/connected or sparse samples. We provide a theoretical analysis predicting that for uniformly distributed image data, TC and GI exhibit similar behavior, while for naturally sparse images containing few high-valued signal entries and many low-valued noisy background pixels, TC is more sensitive to distribution changes in the signal and more resistive to background noise. These predictions are also confirmed by experimental results using SoG-based holographic autofocusing on dense and connected samples (such as stained breast tissue sections) as well as highly sparse samples (such as isolated Giardia lamblia cysts). Through these experiments, we found that ToG and GoG offer almost identical autofocusing performance on dense and connected samples, whereas for naturally sparse samples, GoG should be calculated on a relatively small region of interest (ROI) closely surrounding the object, while ToG offers more flexibility in choosing a larger ROI containing more background pixels.

  5. Dark and bright solitons for the two-dimensional complex modified Korteweg-de Vries and Maxwell-Bloch system with time-dependent coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhova, G.; Ozat, N.; Yesmakhanova, K.; Bekova, G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present Lax pair for two-dimensional complex modified Korteweg-de Vries and Maxwell-Bloch (cmKdV-MB) system with the time-dependent coefficient. Dark and bright soliton solutions for the cmKdV-MB system with variable coefficient are received by Darboux transformation. Moreover, the determinant representation of the one-fold and two-fold Darboux transformation for the cmKdV-MB system with time-dependent coefficient is presented.

  6. Complexities of management of a urostomy in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a reflective account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Julie

    Mary (pseudonym) is a 30-year-old woman who underwent a urinary diversion and formation of an ileal conduit/urostomy (urinary stoma) due to the formation of multiple bladder diverticula, which caused micturition difficulties and recurrent urinary tract infections with associated pain and discomfort. The bladder diverticula were caused by Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue or, particulary, defective collagen. Surgical intervention in patients with EDS is prone to complications due to poor wound healing, including issues of dehiscence, postoperative bleeding and poor uptake of anaesthesia and analgesia. After an initial presentation of the syndrome of EDS and Mary's history, this article offers a reflective account (informed by Gibbs' Reflective Cycle) and illustrates the complexities of caring for an individual with EDS who undergoes stoma formation. The author, a stoma care nurse, demonstrates how using purposeful reflection resulted in better understanding and awareness of caring for an individual with a rare syndrome and the nursing challenges this presented.

  7. Contribution to the measurement of the reflection coefficient for curved crystals between 50 and 80 keV; Contribution a la mesure du coefficient de reflexion de cristaux courbes entre 50 keV et 80 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    In the first part, we summarize the main approximate theories dealing with the diffraction of electromagnetic radiation by the crystalline medium, allowing the determination of the characteristic properties of flat and bent crystals used in X and gamma-Ray spectroscopy ('Laue Case'). We describe the experimental setting and we explain our method to measure {gamma}: reflectivity of elastically or plastically bent-crystals from narrow wave-length intervals in the continuous X-Ray spectrum. We discuss our experimental results obtained with different crystals (quartz (3140), Al (200), FLi (200) and compare them with theoretical ones. Finally, we refer to a use of the bent-crystal spectrometer (Cauchois arrangement) in dosimetry. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous resumons les principales approximations theoriques qui traitent la diffraction du rayonnement electromagnetique par le milieu cristallin et permettent de determiner les grandeurs caracteristiques des lames cristallines planes ou courbees utilisees 'par transmission' en spectroscopie X ou gamma. Apres avoir decrit le montage experimental, nous exposons la methode de mesure de {gamma}: coefficient de reflexion de cristaux courbes (elastiquement ou plastiquement). Le domaine energetique etudie est voisin de 100 keV. Dans cette methode, nous n'utilisons pas des rayonnements monoenergetiques provenant de transitions atomiques ou nucleaires mais des bandes etroites d'energie appartenant au spectre continu du rayonnement emis par un tube a rayons X. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus avec differents cristaux (quartz (3140), Al (200), FLi (200)) sont discutes et compares a ceux prevus par la theorie. Nous mentionnons, enfin, une application en dosimetrie du spectrographe a cristal couche (Geometrie Cauchois). (auteur)

  8. Reconstruction of hyperspectral reflectance for optically complex turbid inland lakes: test of a new scheme and implications for inversion algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Deyong; Hu, Chuanmin; Qiu, Zhongfeng; Wang, Shengqiang

    2015-06-01

    A new scheme has been proposed by Lee et al. (2014) to reconstruct hyperspectral (400 - 700 nm, 5 nm resolution) remote sensing reflectance (Rrs(λ), sr-1) of representative global waters using measurements at 15 spectral bands. This study tested its applicability to optically complex turbid inland waters in China, where Rrs(λ) are typically much higher than those used in Lee et al. (2014). Strong interdependence of Rrs(λ) between neighboring bands (≤ 10 nm interval) was confirmed, with Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) mostly above 0.98. The scheme of Lee et al. (2014) for Rrs(λ) re-construction with its original global parameterization worked well with this data set, while new parameterization showed improvement in reducing uncertainties in the reconstructed Rrs(λ). Mean absolute error (MAERrs(λi)) in the reconstructed Rrs(λ) was mostly -1 between 400 and 700nm, and mean relative error (MRERrs(λi)) was rs(λ) spectra. When Rrs(λ) at the MODIS bands were used to reconstruct the hyperspectral Rrs(λ), MAERrs(λi) was -1 and MRERrs(λi) was rs(λ) at the MERIS bands were used, MAERrs(λi) in the reconstructed hyperspectral Rrs(λ) was -1 and MRERrs(λi) was rs(λ) data using spectral bands that may not exist on satellite sensors.

  9. High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ru(II-Mixed Ligand Polypyridyl Complexes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new ruthenium(II mixed ligand terpyridine complexes, “Ru(Htcterpy(NCS(L1 (N(C4H94, mLBD1” and Ru(Htcterpy(NCS(L2(N(C4H94, mLBD2 were synthesized and fully characterized by UV-Vis, emission, cyclic voltammogram, and other spectroscopic means, and the structures of the compounds are confirmed by 1H-NMR, ESI-MASS, and FT-IR spectroscopes. The influence of the substitution of L1 and L2 on solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency (η of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was evaluated relative to reference black dye. The dyes showed molar extinction coefficients of 17600 M−1 cm−1 for mLBD1 and 21300 M−1 cm−1 for mLBD2 both at λ maximum of 512 nm, while black dye has shown 8660 M−1 cm−1 at λ maximum of 615 nm. The monochromatic incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiencies of 60.71% and 75.89% were obtained for mLBD1 and mLBD2 dyes, respectively. The energy conversion efficiencies of mLBD1 and mLBD2 dyes are 3.15% (SC=11.86 mA/cm2, OC=613 mV, ff=0.4337 and 3.36% (SC=12.71 mA/cm2, OC=655 mV, ff=0.4042, respectively, measured at the AM1.5G conditions, the reference black dye-sensitized solar cell, fabricated and evaluated under identical conditions exhibited η-value of 2.69% (SC=10.95 mA/cm2, OC=655 mV, ff=0.3750.

  10. Theoretical and Numerical Approaches for Determining the Reflection and Transmission Coefficients of OPEFB-PCL Composites at X-Band Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ahmad F; Abbas, Zulkifly; Obaiys, Suzan J; Ibrahim, Norazowa; Hashim, Mansor; Khaleel, Haider

    2015-01-01

    Bio-composites of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibres and polycaprolactones (PCL) with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared and characterized. The composites produced from these materials are low in density, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and possess good dielectric characteristics. The magnitudes of the reflection and transmission coefficients of OPEFB fibre-reinforced PCL composites with different percentages of filler were measured using a rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in the X-band frequency range. In contrast to the effective medium theory, which states that polymer-based composites with a high dielectric constant can be obtained by doping a filler with a high dielectric constant into a host material with a low dielectric constant, this paper demonstrates that the use of a low filler percentage (12.2%OPEFB) and a high matrix percentage (87.8%PCL) provides excellent results for the dielectric constant and loss factor, whereas 63.8% filler material with 36.2% host material results in lower values for both the dielectric constant and loss factor. The open-ended probe technique (OEC), connected with the Agilent vector network analyzer (VNA), is used to determine the dielectric properties of the materials under investigation. The comparative approach indicates that the mean relative error of FEM is smaller than that of NRW in terms of the corresponding S21 magnitude. The present calculation of the matrix/filler percentages endorses the exact amounts of substrate utilized in various physics applications.

  11. DNA variation of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex reflects genomic diversity and population history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhki, Naoya; O'Brien, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a multigene complex of tightly linked homologous genes that encode cell surface antigens that play a key role in immune regulation and response to foreign antigens. In most species, MHC gene products display extreme antigenic polymorphism, and their variability has been interpreted to reflect an adaptive strategy for accommodating rapidly evolving infectious agents that periodically afflict natural populations. Determination of the extent of MHC variation has been limited to populations in which skin grafting is feasible or for which serological reagents have been developed. The authors present here a quantitative analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of MHC class I genes in several mammalian species (cats, rodents, humans) known to have very different levels of genetic diversity based on functional MHC assays and on allozyme surveys. When homologous class I probes were employed, a notable concordance was observed between the extent of MHC restriction fragment variation and functional MHC variation detected by skin grafts or genome-wide diversity estimated by allozyme screens. These results confirm the genetically depauperate character of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, and the Asiatic lion, Panthera leo persica; further, they support the use of class I MHC molecular reagents in estimating the extent and character of genetic diversity in natural populations

  12. DNA variation of the mammalian major histocompatibility complex reflects genomic diversity and population history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuhki, Naoya; O' Brien, S.J. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a multigene complex of tightly linked homologous genes that encode cell surface antigens that play a key role in immune regulation and response to foreign antigens. In most species, MHC gene products display extreme antigenic polymorphism, and their variability has been interpreted to reflect an adaptive strategy for accommodating rapidly evolving infectious agents that periodically afflict natural populations. Determination of the extent of MHC variation has been limited to populations in which skin grafting is feasible or for which serological reagents have been developed. The authors present here a quantitative analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of MHC class I genes in several mammalian species (cats, rodents, humans) known to have very different levels of genetic diversity based on functional MHC assays and on allozyme surveys. When homologous class I probes were employed, a notable concordance was observed between the extent of MHC restriction fragment variation and functional MHC variation detected by skin grafts or genome-wide diversity estimated by allozyme screens. These results confirm the genetically depauperate character of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, and the Asiatic lion, Panthera leo persica; further, they support the use of class I MHC molecular reagents in estimating the extent and character of genetic diversity in natural populations.

  13. Strike-slip deformation reflects complex partitioning of strain in the Nankai Accretionary Prism (SE Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco C.; Alves, Tiago M.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested predominant extensional tectonics acting, at present, on the Nankai Accretionary Prism (NAP), and following a parallel direction to the convergence vector between the Philippine Sea and Amur Plates. However, a complex set of thrusts, pop-up structures, thrust anticlines and strike-slip faults is observed on seismic data in the outer wedge of the NAP, hinting at a complex strain distribution across SE Japan. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data reveal three main families of faults: (1) NE-trending thrusts and back-thrusts; (2) NNW- to N-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults; and (3) WNW-trending to E-W right-lateral strike-slip faults. Such a fault pattern suggests that lateral slip, together with thrusting, are the two major styles of deformation operating in the outer wedge of the NAP. Both styles of deformation reflect a transpressional tectonic regime in which the maximum horizontal stress is geometrically close to the convergence vector. This work is relevant because it shows a progressive change from faults trending perpendicularly to the convergence vector, to a broader partitioning of strain in the form of thrusts and conjugate strike-slip faults. We suggest that similar families of faults exist within the inner wedge of the NAP, below the Kumano Basin, and control stress accumulation and strain accommodation in this latter region.

  14. Theoretical and Numerical Approaches for Determining the Reflection and Transmission Coefficients of OPEFB-PCL Composites at X-Band Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad F Ahmad

    Full Text Available Bio-composites of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fibres and polycaprolactones (PCL with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared and characterized. The composites produced from these materials are low in density, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and possess good dielectric characteristics. The magnitudes of the reflection and transmission coefficients of OPEFB fibre-reinforced PCL composites with different percentages of filler were measured using a rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA in the X-band frequency range. In contrast to the effective medium theory, which states that polymer-based composites with a high dielectric constant can be obtained by doping a filler with a high dielectric constant into a host material with a low dielectric constant, this paper demonstrates that the use of a low filler percentage (12.2%OPEFB and a high matrix percentage (87.8%PCL provides excellent results for the dielectric constant and loss factor, whereas 63.8% filler material with 36.2% host material results in lower values for both the dielectric constant and loss factor. The open-ended probe technique (OEC, connected with the Agilent vector network analyzer (VNA, is used to determine the dielectric properties of the materials under investigation. The comparative approach indicates that the mean relative error of FEM is smaller than that of NRW in terms of the corresponding S21 magnitude. The present calculation of the matrix/filler percentages endorses the exact amounts of substrate utilized in various physics applications.

  15. Histogram analysis derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is more sensitive to reflect serological parameters in myositis than conventional ADC analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hans Jonas; Emmer, Alexander; Kornhuber, Malte; Surov, Alexey

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has the potential of being able to reflect histopathology architecture. A novel imaging approach, namely histogram analysis, is used to further characterize tissues on MRI. The aim of this study was to correlate histogram parameters derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with serological parameters in myositis. 16 patients with autoimmune myositis were included in this retrospective study. DWI was obtained on a 1.5 T scanner by using the b-values of 0 and 1000 s mm - 2 . Histogram analysis was performed as a whole muscle measurement by using a custom-made Matlab-based application. The following ADC histogram parameters were estimated: ADCmean, ADCmax, ADCmin, ADCmedian, ADCmode, and the following percentiles ADCp10, ADCp25, ADCp75, ADCp90, as well histogram parameters kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. In all patients, the blood sample was acquired within 3 days to the MRI. The following serological parameters were estimated: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and myoglobin. All patients were screened for Jo1-autobodies. Kurtosis correlated inversely with CRP (p = -0.55 and 0.03). Furthermore, ADCp10 and ADCp90 values tended to correlate with creatine kinase (p = -0.43, 0.11, and p = -0.42, = 0.12 respectively). In addition, ADCmean, p10, p25, median, mode, and entropy were different between Jo1-positive and Jo1-negative patients. ADC histogram parameters are sensitive for detection of muscle alterations in myositis patients. Advances in knowledge: This study identified that kurtosis derived from ADC maps is associated with CRP in myositis patients. Furthermore, several ADC histogram parameters are statistically different between Jo1-positive and Jo1-negative patients.

  16. Comparison of Gini index and Tamura coefficient for holographic autofocusing based on the edge sparsity of the complex optical wavefront

    KAUST Repository

    Tamamitsu, Miu; Zhang, Yibo; Wang, Hongda; Wu, Yichen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    of sparsity metrics used in SoG, specifically, the Gini index (GI) and the Tamura coefficient (TC), for holographic autofocusing on dense/connected or sparse samples. We provide a theoretical analysis predicting that for uniformly distributed image data, TC

  17. Effect of the coefficient of friction and tightening speed on the preload induced at the dental implant complex with the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaqi, Haddad Arabi; Mousavi Mashhadi, Mahmoud; Geramipanah, Farideh; Safari, Hamed; Paknejad, Mojgan

    2015-05-01

    To prevent screw loosening, a clear understanding of the factors influencing secure preload is necessary. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of coefficient of friction and tightening speed on screw tightening based on energy distribution method with exact geometric modeling and finite element analysis. To simulate the proper boundary conditions of the screw tightening process, the supporting bone of an implant was considered. The exact geometry of the implant complex, including the Straumann dental implant, direct crown attachment, and abutment screw were modeled with Solidworks software. Abutment screw/implant and implant/bone interfaces were designed as spiral thread helixes. The screw-tightening process was simulated with Abaqus software, and to achieve the target torque, an angular displacement was applied to the abutment screw head at different coefficients of friction and tightening speeds. The values of torque, preload, energy distribution, elastic energy, and efficiency were obtained at the target torque of 35 Ncm. Additionally, the torque distribution ratio and preload simulated values were compared to theoretically predicted values. Upon reducing the coefficient of friction and enhancing the tightening speed, the angle of turn increased at the target torque. As the angle of turn increased, the elastic energy and preload also increased. Additionally, by increasing the coefficient of friction, the frictional dissipation energy increased but the efficiency decreased, whereas the increase in tightening speed insignificantly affected efficiency. The results of this study indicate that the coefficient of friction is the most influential factor on efficiency. Increasing the tightening speed lowered the response rate to the frictional resistance, thus diminishing the coefficient of friction and slightly increasing the preload. Increasing the tightening speed has the same result as reducing the coefficient of friction. Copyright © 2015

  18. Novel medium-throughput technique for investigating drug-cyclodextrin complexation by pH-metric titration using the partition coefficient method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargó, Gergő; Boros, Krisztina; Péter, László; Malanga, Milo; Sohajda, Tamás; Szente, Lajos; Balogh, György T

    2018-05-05

    The present study was aimed to develop a medium-throughput screening technique for investigation of cyclodextrin (CD)-active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) complexes. Dual-phase potentiometric lipophilicity measurement, as gold standard technique, was combined with the partition coefficient method (plotting the reciprocal of partition coefficients of APIs as a function of CD concentration). A general equation was derived for determination of stability constants of 1:1 CD-API complexes (K 1:1,CD ) based on solely the changes of partition coefficients (logP o/w N -logP app N ), without measurement of the actual API concentrations. Experimentally determined logP value (-1.64) of 6-deoxy-6[(5/6)-fluoresceinylthioureido]-HPBCD (FITC-NH-HPBCD) was used to estimate the logP value (≈ -2.5 to -3) of (2-hydroxypropyl)-ß-cyclodextrin (HPBCD). The results suggested that the amount of HPBCD can be considered to be inconsequential in the octanol phase. The decrease of octanol volume due to the octanol-CD complexation was considered, thus a corrected octanol-water phase ratio was also introduced. The K 1:1,CD values obtained by this developed method showed a good accordance with the results from other orthogonal methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Complex dynamics of an eco-epidemiological model with different competition coefficients and weak Allee in the predator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, Md.; Biswas, Santanu; Samanta, Sudip; Sarkar, Susmita; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores an eco-epidemiological model with weak Allee in predator, and the disease in the prey population. We consider a predator-prey model with type II functional response. The curiosity of this paper is to consider different competition coefficients within the prey population, which leads to the emergent carrying capacity. We perform the local and global stability analysis of the equilibrium points and the Hopf bifurcation analysis around the endemic equilibrium point. Further we pay attention to the chaotic dynamics which is produced by disease. Our numerical simulations reveal that the three species eco-epidemiological system without weak-Allee induced chaos from stable focus for increasing the force of infection, whereas in the presence of the weak-Allee effect, it exhibits stable solution. We conclude that chaotic dynamics can be controlled by the Allee parameter as well as the competition coefficients. We apply basic tools of non-linear dynamics such as Poincare section and maximum Lyapunov exponent to identify chaotic behavior of the system.

  20. Measurement of the ferric diffusion coefficient in agarose and gelatine gels by utilization of the evolution of a radiation induced edge as reflected in relaxation rate images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Torje V.; Olsen, Dag R.; Skretting, Arne

    1997-01-01

    A method has been developed to determine the diffusion coefficients of ferric ions in ferrous sulphate doped gels. A radiation induced edge was created in the gel, and two spin-echo sequences were used to acquire a pair of images of the gel at different points of time. For each of these image pairs, a longitudinal relaxation rate image was derived. From profiles through these images, the standard deviations of the Gaussian functions that characterize diffusion were determined. These data provided the basis for the determination of the ferric diffusion coefficients by two different methods. Simulations indicate that the use of single spin-echo images in this procedure may in some cases lead to a significant underestimation of the diffusion coefficient. The technique was applied to different agarose and gelatine gels that were prepared, irradiated and imaged simultaneously. The results indicate that the diffusion coefficient is lower in a gelatine gel than in an agarose gel. Addition of xylenol orange to a gelatine gel lowers the diffusion coefficient from 1.45 to 0.81 mm 2 h -1 , at the cost of significantly lower R 1 sensitivity. The addition of benzoic acid to the latter gel did not increase the R 1 sensitivity. (author) OK

  1. The number of zero solutions for complex canonical differential equation of second order with constant coefficients in the first quadrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of complex differential equations in recent years has opened up some of questions concerning the determination of the frequency of zero solutions, the distribution of zero, oscillation of the solution, asymptotic behavior, rank growth and so on. Besides, this is solved by only some classes of differential equations. In this paper, our aim was to determine the number of zeros and their arrangement in the first quadrant, for the complex canonical differential equation of the second order. The accuracy of our results, we illustrate with two examples.

  2. Global minimum profile error (GMPE) - a least-squares-based approach for extracting macroscopic rate coefficients for complex gas-phase chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh V; Nguyen, Hieu T; Mai, Tam V-T; Huynh, Lam K

    2018-01-03

    Master equation/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (ME/RRKM) has shown to be a powerful framework for modeling kinetic and dynamic behaviors of a complex gas-phase chemical system on a complicated multiple-species and multiple-channel potential energy surface (PES) for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Derived from the ME time-resolved species profiles, the macroscopic or phenomenological rate coefficients are essential for many reaction engineering applications including those in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. Therefore, in this study, a least-squares-based approach named Global Minimum Profile Error (GMPE) was proposed and implemented in the MultiSpecies-MultiChannel (MSMC) code (Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 2015, 47, 564) to extract macroscopic rate coefficients for such a complicated system. The capability and limitations of the new approach were discussed in several well-defined test cases.

  3. Visual Complexity and Affect: Ratings Reflect More Than Meets the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Madan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli can vary on many dimensions, several aspects of which are captured by the term ‘visual complexity.’ Visual complexity can be described as, “a picture of a few objects, colors, or structures would be less complex than a very colorful picture of many objects that is composed of several components.” Prior studies have reported a relationship between affect and visual complexity, where complex pictures are rated as more pleasant and arousing. However, a relationship in the opposite direction, an effect of affect on visual complexity, is also possible; emotional arousal and valence are known to influence selective attention and visual processing. In a series of experiments, we found that ratings of visual complexity correlated with affective ratings, and independently also with computational measures of visual complexity. These computational measures did not correlate with affect, suggesting that complexity ratings are separately related to distinct factors. We investigated the relationship between affect and ratings of visual complexity, finding an ‘arousal-complexity bias’ to be a robust phenomenon. Moreover, we found this bias could be attenuated when explicitly indicated but did not correlate with inter-individual difference measures of affective processing, and was largely unrelated to cognitive and eyetracking measures. Taken together, the arousal-complexity bias seems to be caused by a relationship between arousal and visual processing as it has been described for the greater vividness of arousing pictures. The described arousal-complexity bias is also of relevance from an experimental perspective because visual complexity is often considered a variable to control for when using pictorial stimuli.

  4. Visual Complexity and Affect: Ratings Reflect More Than Meets the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Christopher R; Bayer, Janine; Gamer, Matthias; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Sommer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Pictorial stimuli can vary on many dimensions, several aspects of which are captured by the term 'visual complexity.' Visual complexity can be described as, "a picture of a few objects, colors, or structures would be less complex than a very colorful picture of many objects that is composed of several components." Prior studies have reported a relationship between affect and visual complexity, where complex pictures are rated as more pleasant and arousing. However, a relationship in the opposite direction, an effect of affect on visual complexity, is also possible; emotional arousal and valence are known to influence selective attention and visual processing. In a series of experiments, we found that ratings of visual complexity correlated with affective ratings, and independently also with computational measures of visual complexity. These computational measures did not correlate with affect, suggesting that complexity ratings are separately related to distinct factors. We investigated the relationship between affect and ratings of visual complexity, finding an 'arousal-complexity bias' to be a robust phenomenon. Moreover, we found this bias could be attenuated when explicitly indicated but did not correlate with inter-individual difference measures of affective processing, and was largely unrelated to cognitive and eyetracking measures. Taken together, the arousal-complexity bias seems to be caused by a relationship between arousal and visual processing as it has been described for the greater vividness of arousing pictures. The described arousal-complexity bias is also of relevance from an experimental perspective because visual complexity is often considered a variable to control for when using pictorial stimuli.

  5. Visual Complexity and Affect: Ratings Reflect More Than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Christopher R.; Bayer, Janine; Gamer, Matthias; Lonsdorf, Tina B.; Sommer, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    Pictorial stimuli can vary on many dimensions, several aspects of which are captured by the term ‘visual complexity.’ Visual complexity can be described as, “a picture of a few objects, colors, or structures would be less complex than a very colorful picture of many objects that is composed of several components.” Prior studies have reported a relationship between affect and visual complexity, where complex pictures are rated as more pleasant and arousing. However, a relationship in the opposite direction, an effect of affect on visual complexity, is also possible; emotional arousal and valence are known to influence selective attention and visual processing. In a series of experiments, we found that ratings of visual complexity correlated with affective ratings, and independently also with computational measures of visual complexity. These computational measures did not correlate with affect, suggesting that complexity ratings are separately related to distinct factors. We investigated the relationship between affect and ratings of visual complexity, finding an ‘arousal-complexity bias’ to be a robust phenomenon. Moreover, we found this bias could be attenuated when explicitly indicated but did not correlate with inter-individual difference measures of affective processing, and was largely unrelated to cognitive and eyetracking measures. Taken together, the arousal-complexity bias seems to be caused by a relationship between arousal and visual processing as it has been described for the greater vividness of arousing pictures. The described arousal-complexity bias is also of relevance from an experimental perspective because visual complexity is often considered a variable to control for when using pictorial stimuli. PMID:29403412

  6. Entropic Movement Complexity Reflects Subjective Creativity Rankings of Visualized Hand Motion Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhen; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we have shown that human motion trajectories can be characterized by translating continuous trajectories into symbol sequences with well-defined complexity measures. Here we test the hypothesis that the motion complexity individuals generate in their movements might be correlated to the degree of creativity assigned by a human observer to the visualized motion trajectories. We asked participants to generate 55 novel hand movement patterns in virtual reality, where each pattern had to be repeated 10 times in a row to ensure reproducibility. This allowed us to estimate a probability distribution over trajectories for each pattern. We assessed motion complexity not only by the previously proposed complexity measures on symbolic sequences, but we also propose two novel complexity measures that can be directly applied to the distributions over trajectories based on the frameworks of Gaussian Processes and Probabilistic Movement Primitives. In contrast to previous studies, these new methods allow computing complexities of individual motion patterns from very few sample trajectories. We compared the different complexity measures to how a group of independent jurors rank ordered the recorded motion trajectories according to their personal creativity judgment. We found three entropic complexity measures that correlate significantly with human creativity judgment and discuss differences between the measures. We also test whether these complexity measures correlate with individual creativity in divergent thinking tasks, but do not find any consistent correlation. Our results suggest that entropic complexity measures of hand motion may reveal domain-specific individual differences in kinesthetic creativity. PMID:26733896

  7. Abc-frame complex-coefficient filter and controller based current harmonic elimination strategy for three-phase grid connected inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Current quality is one of the most important issues for operating three-phase grid-connected inverter in distributed generation systems. In practice, the grid current quality is degraded in case of non-ideal utility voltage. A new control strategy is proposed for the three-phase gridconnected...... inverter. Different from the traditional method, our proposal utilizes the unique abc-frame complex-coefficient filter and controller to achieve the balanced, sinusoidal grid current. The main feature of the proposed method is simple and easy to implement without any frame transformation. The theoretical...

  8. Non-invasive identification of metal-oxalate complexes on polychrome artwork surfaces by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Rosi, Francesca; Miliani, Costanza; Daveri, Alessia; Brunetti, Brunetto G

    2013-12-01

    In this work a reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy study of twelve metal-oxalate complexes, of interest in art conservation science as alteration compounds, was performed. Spectra of the reference materials highlighted the presence of derivative-like and/or inverted features for the fundamental vibrational modes as result of the main contribution from the surface component of the reflected light. In order to provide insights in the interpretation of theses spectral distortions, reflection spectra were compared with conventional transmission ones. The Kramers-Kronig (KK) algorithm, employed to correct for the surface reflection distortions, worked properly only for the derivative-like bands. Therefore, to pay attention to the use of this algorithm when interpreting the reflection spectra is recommended. The outcome of this investigation was exploited to discriminate among different oxalates on thirteen polychrome artworks analyzed in situ by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The visualization of the νs(CO) modes (1400-1200 cm(-1)) and low wavenumber bands (below 900 cm(-1)) in the raw reflection profiles allowed Ca, Cu and Zn oxalates to be identified. Further information about the speciation of different hydration forms of calcium oxalates were obtained by using the KK transform. The work proves reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy to be a reliable and sensitive spectro-analytical method for identifying and mapping different metal-oxalate alteration compounds on the surface of artworks, thus providing conservation scientists with a non-invasive tool to obtain information on the state of conservation and causes of alteration of artworks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of the Monte Carlo method for building up models for octanol-water partition coefficient of platinum complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, Andrey A.; Toropova, Alla P.

    2018-06-01

    Predictive model of logP for Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes built up with the Monte Carlo method using the CORAL software has been validated with six different splits into the training and validation sets. The improving of the predictive potential of models for six different splits has been obtained using so-called index of ideality of correlation. The suggested models give possibility to extract molecular features, which cause the increase or vice versa decrease of the logP.

  10. An improved export coefficient model to estimate non-point source phosphorus pollution risks under complex precipitation and terrain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xian; Chen, Liding; Sun, Ranhao; Jing, Yongcai

    2018-05-15

    To control non-point source (NPS) pollution, it is important to estimate NPS pollution exports and identify sources of pollution. Precipitation and terrain have large impacts on the export and transport of NPS pollutants. We established an improved export coefficient model (IECM) to estimate the amount of agricultural and rural NPS total phosphorus (TP) exported from the Luanhe River Basin (LRB) in northern China. The TP concentrations of rivers from 35 selected catchments in the LRB were used to test the model's explanation capacity and accuracy. The simulation results showed that, in 2013, the average TP export was 57.20 t at the catchment scale. The mean TP export intensity in the LRB was 289.40 kg/km 2 , which was much higher than those of other basins in China. In the LRB topographic regions, the TP export intensity was the highest in the south Yanshan Mountains and was followed by the plain area, the north Yanshan Mountains, and the Bashang Plateau. Among the three pollution categories, the contribution ratios to TP export were, from high to low, the rural population (59.44%), livestock husbandry (22.24%), and land-use types (18.32%). Among all ten pollution sources, the contribution ratios from the rural population (59.44%), pigs (14.40%), and arable land (10.52%) ranked as the top three sources. This study provides information that decision makers and planners can use to develop sustainable measures for the prevention and control of NPS pollution in semi-arid regions.

  11. Enabling self-reflection with LifelogExplorer : generating simple views from complex data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocielnik, R.D.; Maggi, F.M.; Sidorova, N.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, people are overwhelmed with multiple tasks and responsibilities, resulting in increasing stress level. At the same time, it becomes harder to find time for self-reflection and diagnostics of problems that can be source of stress. In this paper, we propose a tool that supports a person in

  12. Source Determination of Red Gel Pen Inks using Raman Spectroscopy and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy combined with Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficients and Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Asri, Muhammad Naeim; Mat Desa, Wan Nur Syuhaila; Ismail, Dzulkiflee

    2018-01-01

    The potential combination of two nondestructive techniques, that is, Raman spectroscopy (RS) and attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with Pearson's product moment correlation (PPMC) coefficient (r) and principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the actual source of red gel pen ink used to write a simulated threatening note, was examined. Eighteen (18) red gel pens purchased from Japan and Malaysia from November to December 2014 where one of the pens was used to write a simulated threatening note were analyzed using RS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. The spectra of all the red gel pen inks including the ink deposited on the simulated threatening note gathered from the RS and ATR-FTIR analyses were subjected to PPMC coefficient (r) calculation and principal component analysis (PCA). The coefficients r = 0.9985 and r = 0.9912 for pairwise combination of RS and ATR-FTIR spectra respectively and similarities in terms of PC1 and PC2 scores of one of the inks to the ink deposited on the simulated threatening note substantiated the feasibility of combining RS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with PPMC coefficient (r) and PCA for successful source determination of red gel pen inks. The development of pigment spectral library had allowed the ink deposited on the threatening note to be identified as XSL Poppy Red (CI Pigment Red 112). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Coevolutionary constraints in the sequence-space of macromolecular complexes reflect their self-assembly pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Kundu, Sudip

    2017-07-01

    Is the order in which biomolecular subunits self-assemble into functional macromolecular complexes imprinted in their sequence-space? Here, we demonstrate that the temporal order of macromolecular complex self-assembly can be efficiently captured using the landscape of residue-level coevolutionary constraints. This predictive power of coevolutionary constraints is irrespective of the structural, functional, and phylogenetic classification of the complex and of the stoichiometry and quaternary arrangement of the constituent monomers. Combining this result with a number of structural attributes estimated from the crystal structure data, we find indications that stronger coevolutionary constraints at interfaces formed early in the assembly hierarchy probably promotes coordinated fixation of mutations that leads to high-affinity binding with higher surface area, increased surface complementarity and elevated number of molecular contacts, compared to those that form late in the assembly. Proteins 2017; 85:1183-1189. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Improving International Marketing Programs to Reflect Global Complexity and Risk: Curriculum Drivers and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the curriculum redesign of a master's-level program in international marketing from a UK perspective. In order to ensure that the program would be more fit-for-purpose for future managers working under conditions of complexity, uncertainty, and within regimes often very different from the home market, the team began the…

  15. Use of code DTF-4 for determining the coefficient of back-reflection of the neutron within the thermonuclear plasma of a thermonuclear reactor controlled by the rate of the fission reactions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristea, G.

    1975-01-01

    The neutron problems are discussed of the thermonuclear reactor controlled by the rate of the fission reactions. The results obtained by rolling the DTF-4 program in a spherical geometry in the case of an ''external source'' problem permit to draw conclusions concerning the problems of the neutronics system of this thermonuclear reactor type. A relation is deduced for estimating the coefficient of back-reflection of the neutrons within the thermonuclear plasma and the focussion system is discussed of the neutronics of this reactor type

  16. GEOMETRIC AND REFLECTANCE SIGNATURE CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPLEX CANOPIES USING HYPERSPECTRAL STEREOSCOPIC IMAGES FROM UAV AND TERRESTRIAL PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Honkavaara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Light-weight hyperspectral frame cameras represent novel developments in remote sensing technology. With frame camera technology, when capturing images with stereoscopic overlaps, it is possible to derive 3D hyperspectral reflectance information and 3D geometric data of targets of interest, which enables detailed geometric and radiometric characterization of the object. These technologies are expected to provide efficient tools in various environmental remote sensing applications, such as canopy classification, canopy stress analysis, precision agriculture, and urban material classification. Furthermore, these data sets enable advanced quantitative, physical based retrieval of biophysical and biochemical parameters by model inversion technologies. Objective of this investigation was to study the aspects of capturing hyperspectral reflectance data from unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV and terrestrial platform with novel hyperspectral frame cameras in complex, forested environment.

  17. Multi-segmental movement patterns reflect juggling complexity and skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Pacifici, Ilaria; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Federolf, Peter Andreas; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-08-01

    The juggling action of six experts and six intermediates jugglers was recorded with a motion capture system and decomposed into its fundamental components through Principal Component Analysis. The aim was to quantify trends in movement dimensionality, multi-segmental patterns and rhythmicity as a function of proficiency level and task complexity. Dimensionality was quantified in terms of Residual Variance, while the Relative Amplitude was introduced to account for individual differences in movement components. We observed that: experience-related modifications in multi-segmental actions exist, such as the progressive reduction of error-correction movements, especially in complex task condition. The systematic identification of motor patterns sensitive to the acquisition of specific experience could accelerate the learning process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The practice of reflection in the russian goodwill when buying enterprises as a property complex

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Ovchinnikova; T. O. Bazdаreva; V. N. Harina

    2016-01-01

    When buying enterprises as a property complex, firm-the buyer can pay for it as excess cost of the acquired entity on its balance sheet, and an amount less than the value of the assets on the balance sheet of the acquiree. Based on the requirements of the Russian legislation, in the account of the buyer acquires an intangible asset that distinguishes the Russian from the international practice. International financial reporting standards do not recognize goodwill an intangible asset of the bu...

  19. Collecting and analysing cost data for complex public health trials: reflections on practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batura, Neha; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Agrawal, Priya; Bagra, Archana; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Colbourn, Tim; Greco, Giulia; Hossain, Tanvir; Sinha, Rajesh; Thapa, Bidur; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2014-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for the conduct of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) are mainly applicable to facility-based interventions in high-income settings. Differences in the unit of analysis and the high cost of data collection can make these guidelines challenging to follow within public health trials in low- and middle- income settings. Objective This paper reflects on the challenges experienced within our own work and proposes solutions that may be useful to others attempting to collect, analyse, and compare cost data between public health research sites in low- and middle-income countries. Design We describe the generally accepted methods (norms) for collecting and analysing cost data in a single-site trial from the provider perspective. We then describe our own experience applying these methods within eight comparable cluster randomised, controlled, trials. We describe the strategies used to maximise adherence to the norm, highlight ways in which we deviated from the norm, and reflect on the learning and limitations that resulted. Results When the expenses incurred by a number of small research sites are used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of delivering an intervention on a national scale, then deciding which expenses constitute ‘start-up’ costs will be a nontrivial decision that may differ among sites. Similarly, the decision to include or exclude research or monitoring and evaluation costs can have a significant impact on the findings. We separated out research costs and argued that monitoring and evaluation costs should be reported as part of the total trial cost. The human resource constraints that we experienced are also likely to be common to other trials. As we did not have an economist in each site, we collaborated with key personnel at each site who were trained to use a standardised cost collection tool. This approach both accommodated our resource constraints and served as a knowledge sharing and capacity building process within the

  20. Collecting and analysing cost data for complex public health trials: reflections on practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Batura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current guidelines for the conduct of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA are mainly applicable to facility-based interventions in high-income settings. Differences in the unit of analysis and the high cost of data collection can make these guidelines challenging to follow within public health trials in low- and middle- income settings. Objective: This paper reflects on the challenges experienced within our own work and proposes solutions that may be useful to others attempting to collect, analyse, and compare cost data between public health research sites in low- and middle-income countries. Design: We describe the generally accepted methods (norms for collecting and analysing cost data in a single-site trial from the provider perspective. We then describe our own experience applying these methods within eight comparable cluster randomised, controlled, trials. We describe the strategies used to maximise adherence to the norm, highlight ways in which we deviated from the norm, and reflect on the learning and limitations that resulted. Results: When the expenses incurred by a number of small research sites are used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of delivering an intervention on a national scale, then deciding which expenses constitute ‘start-up’ costs will be a nontrivial decision that may differ among sites. Similarly, the decision to include or exclude research or monitoring and evaluation costs can have a significant impact on the findings. We separated out research costs and argued that monitoring and evaluation costs should be reported as part of the total trial cost. The human resource constraints that we experienced are also likely to be common to other trials. As we did not have an economist in each site, we collaborated with key personnel at each site who were trained to use a standardised cost collection tool. This approach both accommodated our resource constraints and served as a knowledge sharing and capacity

  1. Enrolling adolescents in HIV vaccine trials: reflections on legal complexities from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Catherine; Strode, Ann; Fleischer, Theodore; Gray, Glenda; Ranchod, Chitra

    2007-05-13

    South Africa is likely to be the first country in the world to host an adolescent HIV vaccine trial. Adolescents may be enrolled in late 2007. In the development and review of adolescent HIV vaccine trial protocols there are many complexities to consider, and much work to be done if these important trials are to become a reality. This article sets out essential requirements for the lawful conduct of adolescent research in South Africa including compliance with consent requirements, child protection laws, and processes for the ethical and regulatory approval of research. This article outlines likely complexities for researchers and research ethics committees, including determining that trial interventions meet current risk standards for child research. Explicit recommendations are made for role-players in other jurisdictions who may also be planning such trials. This article concludes with concrete steps for implementing these important trials in South Africa and other jurisdictions, including planning for consent processes; delineating privacy rights; compiling information necessary for ethics committees to assess risks to child participants; training trial site staff to recognize when disclosures trig mandatory reporting response; networking among relevant ethics committees; and lobbying the National Regulatory Authority for guidance.

  2. [A reflective case report applied to pain management in a complex care situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsperger, Laura; Mayrhofer, Stefanie Maria; Pichler, Birgit; Qin, Hong; Rheinfrank, Iris; Schrems, Berta

    2015-10-01

    This case report deals with the unsatisfying pain management of a 44 year old patient with cardiac arrest and subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The patient has (1) a reduced consciousness, (2) is isolated due to an infection with multi-resistant germs, (3) has a tracheotomy and (4) contractures of the muscles in fingers and hands. During nursing care he shows facial expressions and body postures that indicate pain which is insufficiently addressed. The case was processed according to the model of reflexive case report by Johns (1995) and interpreted by theoretical expertise and the change of the perspective. Therefore the following questions were answered: Which factors made the nurse who brought the case to the case deliberation feeling dissatisfied with the pain management? Insufficient pain management due to a lack of knowledge, no assessment of the state of consciousness, pain and isolation probably led to unnecessary burden of the patient, next of kin and nurses. Training, systematic pain management and multi-disciplinary case conferences might facilitate dealing with comparable complex situations of caring in the future. The present case report shows that pain can only be treated successfully if pain-triggering factors are recognized, systematically assessed and treated. An adequate external assessment of the pain situation is especially important when dealing with patients who suffer from disorders of consciousness. In complex cases, in which multiple factors influence the pain situation, interdisciplinary case conferences may help to improve the quality of pain management.

  3. Managing today's complex healthcare business enterprise: reflections on distinctive requirements of healthcare management education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, William E

    2004-01-01

    In early 2001, the community of educational programs offering master's-level education in healthcare management began an odyssey to modernize its approach to the organization and delivery of healthcare management education. The community recognized that cumulative long-term changes within healthcare management practice required a careful examination of healthcare management context and manpower requirements. This article suggests an evidence-based rationale for defining the distinctive elements of healthcare management, thus suggesting a basis for review and transformation of master's-level healthcare management curricula. It also suggests ways to modernize these curricula in a manner that recognizes the distinctiveness of the healthcare business enterprise as well as the changing management roles and careers within these complex organizations and systems. Through such efforts, the healthcare management master's-level education community would be better prepared to meet current and future challenges, to increase its relevance to the management practice community, and to allocate scarce faculty and program resources more effectively.

  4. Genome complexity in the coelacanth is reflected in its adaptive immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Nil Ratan; Ota, Tatsuya; Litman, Gary W.; Hansen, John; Parra, Zuly; Hsu, Ellen; Buonocore, Francesco; Canapa, Adriana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed the available genome and transcriptome resources from the coelacanth in order to characterize genes involved in adaptive immunity. Two highly distinctive IgW-encoding loci have been identified that exhibit a unique genomic organization, including a multiplicity of tandemly repeated constant region exons. The overall organization of the IgW loci precludes typical heavy chain class switching. A locus encoding IgM could not be identified either computationally or by using several different experimental strategies. Four distinct sets of genes encoding Ig light chains were identified. This includes a variant sigma-type Ig light chain previously identified only in cartilaginous fishes and which is now provisionally denoted sigma-2. Genes encoding α/β and γ/δ T-cell receptors, and CD3, CD4, and CD8 co-receptors also were characterized. Ig heavy chain variable region genes and TCR components are interspersed within the TCR α/δ locus; this organization previously was reported only in tetrapods and raises questions regarding evolution and functional cooption of genes encoding variable regions. The composition, organization and syntenic conservation of the major histocompatibility complex locus have been characterized. We also identified large numbers of genes encoding cytokines and their receptors, and other genes associated with adaptive immunity. In terms of sequence identity and organization, the adaptive immune genes of the coelacanth more closely resemble orthologous genes in tetrapods than those in teleost fishes, consistent with current phylogenomic interpretations. Overall, the work reported described herein highlights the complexity inherent in the coelacanth genome and provides a rich catalog of immune genes for future investigations.

  5. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  6. A Reflection on Low Energy Renovation of Residential Complexes in Southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Corvacho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of European existing building stock towards very low energy buildings requires a new approach. In this context, it seems reasonable to think that buildings should no longer be renovated individually but as part of a global energy system. Focusing on larger urban units may present some scale advantages and may constitute an opportunity to change the urban environment in a smart energy way. Specificities of Southern European countries are addressed. Due either to the climate or the life style, there are large differences in energy consumption per dwelling among southern and northern European countries. How much heating energy will be saved by over-insulating building envelopes if people do not feel the need to heat their houses in the first place? In addition, real energy use in buildings frequently shows major differences with respect to the predicted consumption. The definition of realistic solutions demands the availability of realistic predictions. A case of a residential complex in Portugal is used to illustrate the main questions and to conclude that moving from a building to a group of buildings scale may be an interesting challenge for policy makers to look closer in the near future.

  7. Feasibility of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to quantify iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut-Lohmann, Magdalena; Raab, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Contaminated sites create a significant risk to human health, by poisoning drinking water, soil, air and as a consequence food. Continuous release of persistent iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes from various industrial sources poses a high hazard to the environment and indicates the necessity to analyze considerable amount of samples. At the present time quantitative determination of Fe-CN concentration in soil usually requires a time consuming two step process: digestion of the sample (e.g., micro distillation system) and its analytical detection performed, e.g., by automated spectrophotometrical flow injection analysis (FIA). In order to determine the feasibility of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to quantify the Fe-CN complexes in soil matrix, 42 soil samples were collected (8 to 12.520 mg kg-1CN) indicating single symmetrical CN band in the range 2092 - 2084 cm-1. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration-validation model revealed IR response to CNtot exceeding 1268 mg kg-1 (limit of detection, LOD). Subsequently, leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) was performed on soil samples containing low CNtot (900 mg kg-1 resulted in LOD equal to 3494 mg kg-1. Our results indicate that spectroscopic data in combination with PLS statistics can efficiently be used to predict Fe-CN concentrations in soil. We conclude that the protocol applied in this study can strongly reduce the time and costs essential for the spatial and vertical screening of the site affected by complexed Fe-CN.

  8. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kotchoubey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise: no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels, or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data, both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data, no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms.

  9. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  10. Cultivating Critical Reflection: Educators Making Sense and Meaning of Professional Identity and Relational Dynamics in Complex Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Critical reflection underpins socially just and inclusive practices that are distinguishing features of democratic learning communities. Critical reflection supports educators' interrogation of the underlying assumptions, intentions, values and beliefs that shape their worldview and sociocultural standpoint. Dominant sociocultural norms…

  11. Study of cadmium-humic interactions and determination of stability constants of cadmium-humate complexes from their diffusion coefficients obtained by scanned stripping voltammetry and dynamic light scattering techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.

    for extracting other speciation parameters of the systems. This study revealed that Cd sup(2+) ion along with small dynamic Cd complexes was predominantly present in a Cd-HA system at pH 5 with high diffusion coefficients. HA molecules were in aggregated form...

  12. Complex versus Simple Modeling for DIF Detection: When the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (?) of the Studied Item Is Less Than the ? of the Total Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Myers, Nicholas D.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that differential item functioning (DIF) methods that do not account for multilevel data structure could result in too frequent rejection of the null hypothesis (i.e., no DIF) when the intraclass correlation coefficient (?) of the studied item was the same as the ? of the total score. The current study extended…

  13. A High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ru(II Complex Functionalized with cis-Dithiocyanato-bis-(9-anthracenyl-10-(2-methyl-2-butenoic acid-1,10-phenanthroline: Potential Sensitizer for Stable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale O. Adeloye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New heteroleptic ruthenium(II complex was formulated as [Ru(L12(NCS2], where L1 = 9-anthracenyl-10-(2-methyl-2-butenoic acid-1,10-phenanthroline was synthesized and its photophysical properties were studied and compared to previously reported analogue complex containing no anthracene moiety [Ru(L22(NCS2], L2 = (2-methyl-2-butenoic acid-1,10-phenanthroline. The two complexes though exhibit very strong molar extinction coefficient values; however, [Ru(L12(NCS2] shows better characteristic broad and intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT absorption band and higher molar absorptivity coefficient at (λmax=522 nm, ε=6.60×104 M−1 cm−1 than that of [Ru(L22(NCS2] complex, (λmax=446 nm, ε=4.82×104 M−1 cm−1. At room temperature, long wavelength emissions with strong intensity ratio centered at 660 nm were recorded for [Ru(L12(NCS2] complex with a bathochromic shift (λem=700 nm for [Ru(L22(NCS2] complex. It was shown that the luminescence wavelength characteristic of the complexes may be a function relating to the increasing length of π-conjugation and/or molecular weight. A preliminary cyclic voltammetry of [Ru(L12(NCS2] complex also exhibits good electroredox activity with oxidation potential of about 1.04 V, significantly better than other Ru(II polypyridine complexes containing bidentate ligands.

  14. Inversion of reflection for the one-dimensional Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerk, G.L.; Davies, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    It is a general result of one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics that the coefficient of reflection (reflected flux) is the same irrespective of the direction of traversing a potential barrier, a result that is independent of the barrier shape. In this note, the authors consider the transmission coefficient instead, and derive a strong result, namely that the transmission amplitude is independent of the direction of barrier traversal. That is, the transmission amplitude has the same complex phase as well as being unchanged in magnitude by changing the barrier around. This process was called inversion of reflection. 2 refs

  15. O the Determination of the Complex Refractive Index of Powdered Materials in the 9 TO 11 Micrometer Spectral Region Utilizing AN Attenuated Total Reflectance Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, James Bryce

    1982-03-01

    A specific method of determining the complex refractive index of powdered materials using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy was investigated. A very precise laser/goniometric ATR system was assembled and applied to powdered samples of carbon blacks, graphite, kaolin clay, quartz, calcite, and sodalime glass beads. The reflectivity data fell into two categories: (1) data representative of a medium having a unique effective refractive index and (2) data representative of a scattering medium having no unique refractive index. Data of the first kind were obtained from all the carbon black, graphite, and kaolin clay samples. The Fahrenfort-Visser solution of the Fresnel equations was applied to the goniometric reflectivity data for these samples to obtain the complex refractive index of these effective media. The complex refractive index obtained in this manner is not that of the bulk material but is instead a value which may be related to the bulk material value through some refractive index mixing rule. A systematic experiment using carbon black of particle size 0.0106 mm diameter was conducted to determine the applicability of several mixture rules for the volume packing fraction range of .2 to .6 which is most often encountered. The Bruggemann effective medium theory produced credible results while the Lorentz-Lorenz rule and the empirical Biot-Arago rule were invalid in this volume packing region. The Bruggemann rule was applied to lampblack, Mogul-L carbon black, graphite, and kaolin clay to obtain the complex refractive indices of these materials from the ATR spectroscopy data. Goniometric reflectivity data representative of an inhomogeneous scattering medium were obtained from all the powdered quartz, powdered calcite, and sodalime glass beads samples. These samples all contained particles with diameters nearly as large as the wavelength. These data demonstrate that the ATR technique, coupled with an effective medium analysis, may be used to obtain

  16. Studying complex interventions: reflections from the FEMHealth project on evaluating fee exemption policies in West Africa and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Bruno; Van Belle, Sara; De Brouwere, Vincent; Witter, Sophie

    2013-11-08

    The importance of complexity in health care policy-making and interventions, as well as research and evaluation is now widely acknowledged, but conceptual confusion reigns and few applications of complexity concepts in research design have been published. Taking user fee exemption policies as an entry point, we explore the methodological consequences of 'complexity' for health policy research and evaluation. We first discuss the difference between simple, complicated and complex and introduce key concepts of complex adaptive systems theory. We then apply these to fee exemption policies. We describe how the FEMHealth research project attempts to address the challenges of complexity in its evaluation of fee exemption policies for maternal care. We present how the development of a programme theory for fee exemption policies was used to structure the overall design. This allowed for structured discussions on the hypotheses held by the researchers and helped to structure, integrate and monitor the sub-studies. We then show how the choice of data collection methods and tools for each sub-study was informed by the overall design. Applying key concepts from complexity theory proved useful in broadening our view on fee exemption policies and in developing the overall research design. However, we encountered a number of challenges, including maintaining adaptiveness of the design during the evaluation, and ensuring cohesion in the disciplinary diversity of the research teams. Whether the programme theory can fulfil its claimed potential to help making sense of the findings is yet to be tested. Experience from other studies allows for some moderate optimism. However, the biggest challenge complexity throws at health system researchers may be to deal with the unknown unknowns and the consequence that complex issues can only be understood in retrospect. From a complexity theory point of view, only plausible explanations can be developed, not predictive theories. Yet here

  17. Modeling of retention of some fission products and actinides by ion-exchange chromatography with a complexing agent. Application to the determination of selectivity coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurdale-Tack, K.; Aubert, M.; Chartier, F.

    2000-01-01

    For an accurate determination of the isotopic and elemental composition of americium (Am), curium (Cm), neodymium (Nd) and cesium (Cs) in spent nuclear fuels, performed by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), it is necessary to separate these elements before analysis. This separation is mandatory because of isobaric interferences between americium and curium, neodymium and samarium (Sm) and between cesium and barium (Ba). This is the reason why Ba and Sm are analyzed with the other four elements. Separation is carried out by cation-exchange chromatography on a silica-based stationary phase in the presence of a complexing eluent. The complexing agent is 2-hydroxy-2-methyl butanoic acid (HMB), a monoprotic acid (HL) with a pK a of 3.6. Cations (M n+ ) interact with it to form ML y (n-y)+ complexes. Optimization of chromatographic separation conditions requires monitoring of the pH and eluent composition. The influence of each parameter on metal ion retention and on selectivity was investigated. The first studies on standard solutions with Sm(III), Nd(III), Cs(I) and Ba(II) showed that four conditions allow efficient separation. However, only one allows good separation with a real solution of spent nuclear fuels. This condition is a chelating agent concentration of 0.1 mol.l -1 and a pH of 4.2. With the other conditions, co-elution is observed for Cs(I) and Am(III). The overall results were used to study the retention mechanisms. The aim of this modeling is a closer knowledge of the form in which (M n+ and/or ML y (n-y)+ ...) each cationic element is extracted into the stationary phase. In fact, while cations can exist in the eluent in various forms depending on the analytical conditions, their forms may be different in the stationary phase. (authors)

  18. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  19. Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions, Rocket Performance, Incident and Reflected Shocks, and Chapman-Jouguet Detonations. Interim Revision, March 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description of the equations and computer program for computations involving chemical equilibria in complex systems is given. A free-energy minimization technique is used. The program permits calculations such as (1) chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states (T,P), (H,P), (S,P), (T,V), (U,V), or (S,V), (2) theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion, (3) incident and reflected shock properties, and (4) Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties. The program considers condensed species as well as gaseous species.

  20. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  1. [Complexity, law and science: Reflections on the UNESCO Recommendation on the status and responsibility of the scientific researcher].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2017-10-13

    The analysis of the complexity and interactivity in the production of social norms between science and technology, on the one hand, and between law and ethics, on the other hand, must be our first concern because without a lucid and in deep assessment of the fragmented and even opposed realities that make up our world, not only do we lose all forms of collective freedom but above all we favor reductive totalitarianism and warlike confrontation.It is with this in mind that it is necessary to examine whether the revision of the 1974 Recommendation on the Status and Responsibility of the Scientific Researcher is likely to provide relevant elements for responding to these changes.

  2. Four new bat species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii complex reflect Plio-Pleistocene divergence of dwarfs and giants across an Afromontane archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Taylor

    Full Text Available Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens. Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe. A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya. Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2, these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa. Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2 at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an "Allometric Speciation Hypothesis", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz represents the

  3. Four new bat species (Rhinolophus hildebrandtii complex) reflect Plio-Pleistocene divergence of dwarfs and giants across an Afromontane archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter J; Stoffberg, Samantha; Monadjem, Ara; Schoeman, Martinus Corrie; Bayliss, Julian; Cotterill, Fenton P D

    2012-01-01

    Gigantism and dwarfism evolve in vertebrates restricted to islands. We describe four new species in the Rhinolophus hildebrandtii species-complex of horseshoe bats, whose evolution has entailed adaptive shifts in body size. We postulate that vicissitudes of palaeoenvironments resulted in gigantism and dwarfism in habitat islands fragmented across eastern and southern Africa. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences recovered two clades of R. hildebrandtii senso lato which are paraphyletic with respect to a third lineage (R. eloquens). Lineages differ by 7.7 to 9.0% in cytochrome b sequences. Clade 1 includes R. hildebrandtii sensu stricto from the east African highlands and three additional vicariants that speciated across an Afromontane archipelago through the Plio-Pleistocene, extending from the Kenyan Highlands through the Eastern Arc, northern Mozambique and the Zambezi Escarpment to the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa. Clade 2 comprises one species confined to lowland savanna habitats (Mozambique and Zimbabwe). A third clade comprises R. eloquens from East Africa. Speciation within Clade 1 is associated with fixed differences in echolocation call frequency, and cranial shape and size in populations isolated since the late Pliocene (ca 3.74 Mya). Relative to the intermediate-sized savanna population (Clade 2), these island-populations within Clade 1 are characterised by either gigantism (South African eastern Great Escarpment and Mts Mabu and Inago in Mozambique) or dwarfism (Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge, Zimbabwe and Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa). Sympatry between divergent clades (Clade 1 and Clade 2) at Lutope-Ngolangola Gorge (NW Zimbabwe) is attributed to recent range expansions. We propose an "Allometric Speciation Hypothesis", which attributes the evolution of this species complex of bats to divergence in constant frequency (CF) sonar calls. The origin of species-specific peak frequencies (overall range = 32 to 46 kHz) represents the

  4. The Complex Cell Wall Composition of Syncytia Induced by Plant Parasitic Cyst Nematodes Reflects Both Function and Host Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant–parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of specialized feeding structures, syncytia, within their host roots. These unique plant organs serve as the sole nutrient resource for development and reproduction throughout the biotrophic interaction. The multinucleate syncytium, which arises through local dissolution of cell walls and protoplast fusion of multiple adjacent cells, has dense cytoplasm containing numerous organelles, surrounded by thickened outer cell walls that must withstand high turgor pressure. However, little is known about how the constituents of the syncytial cell wall and their conformation support its role during nematode parasitism. We used a set of monoclonal antibodies, targeted to a range of plant cell wall components, to reveal the microstructures of syncytial cell walls induced by four of the most economically important cyst nematode species, Globodera pallida, Heterodera glycines, Heterodera avenae and Heterodera filipjevi, in their respective potato, soybean, and spring wheat host roots. In situ fluorescence analysis revealed highly similar cell wall composition of syncytia induced by G. pallida and H. glycines. Both consisted of abundant xyloglucan, methyl-esterified homogalacturonan and pectic arabinan. In contrast, the walls of syncytia induced in wheat roots by H. avenae and H. filipjevi contain little xyloglucan but are rich in feruloylated xylan and arabinan residues, with variable levels of mixed-linkage glucan. The overall chemical composition of syncytial cell walls reflected the general features of root cell walls of the different host plants. We relate specific components of syncytial cell walls, such as abundant arabinan, methyl-esterification status of pectic homogalacturonan and feruloylation of xylan, to their potential roles in forming a network to support both the strength and flexibility required for syncytium function.

  5. The Complex Cell Wall Composition of Syncytia Induced by Plant Parasitic Cyst Nematodes Reflects Both Function and Host Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Lilley, Catherine J; Imren, Mustafa; Knox, J Paul; Urwin, Peter E

    2017-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes induce the formation of specialized feeding structures, syncytia, within their host roots. These unique plant organs serve as the sole nutrient resource for development and reproduction throughout the biotrophic interaction. The multinucleate syncytium, which arises through local dissolution of cell walls and protoplast fusion of multiple adjacent cells, has dense cytoplasm containing numerous organelles, surrounded by thickened outer cell walls that must withstand high turgor pressure. However, little is known about how the constituents of the syncytial cell wall and their conformation support its role during nematode parasitism. We used a set of monoclonal antibodies, targeted to a range of plant cell wall components, to reveal the microstructures of syncytial cell walls induced by four of the most economically important cyst nematode species, Globodera pallida , Heterodera glycines , Heterodera avenae and Heterodera filipjevi , in their respective potato, soybean, and spring wheat host roots. In situ fluorescence analysis revealed highly similar cell wall composition of syncytia induced by G. pallida and H. glycines . Both consisted of abundant xyloglucan, methyl-esterified homogalacturonan and pectic arabinan. In contrast, the walls of syncytia induced in wheat roots by H. avenae and H. filipjevi contain little xyloglucan but are rich in feruloylated xylan and arabinan residues, with variable levels of mixed-linkage glucan. The overall chemical composition of syncytial cell walls reflected the general features of root cell walls of the different host plants. We relate specific components of syncytial cell walls, such as abundant arabinan, methyl-esterification status of pectic homogalacturonan and feruloylation of xylan, to their potential roles in forming a network to support both the strength and flexibility required for syncytium function.

  6. Remote Sensing of Black Lakes and Using 810 nm Reflectance Peak for Retrieving Water Quality Parameters of Optically Complex Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Kutser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many lakes in boreal and arctic regions have high concentrations of CDOM (coloured dissolved organic matter. Remote sensing of such lakes is complicated due to very low water leaving signals. There are extreme (black lakes where the water reflectance values are negligible in almost entire visible part of spectrum (400–700 nm due to the absorption by CDOM. In these lakes, the only water-leaving signal detectable by remote sensing sensors occurs as two peaks—near 710 nm and 810 nm. The first peak has been widely used in remote sensing of eutrophic waters for more than two decades. We show on the example of field radiometry data collected in Estonian and Swedish lakes that the height of the 810 nm peak can also be used in retrieving water constituents from remote sensing data. This is important especially in black lakes where the height of the 710 nm peak is still affected by CDOM. We have shown that the 810 nm peak can be used also in remote sensing of a wide variety of lakes. The 810 nm peak is caused by combined effect of slight decrease in absorption by water molecules and backscattering from particulate material in the water. Phytoplankton was the dominant particulate material in most of the studied lakes. Therefore, the height of the 810 peak was in good correlation with all proxies of phytoplankton biomass—chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0.77, total suspended matter (R2 = 0.70, and suspended particulate organic matter (R2 = 0.68. There was no correlation between the peak height and the suspended particulate inorganic matter. Satellite sensors with sufficient spatial and radiometric resolution for mapping lake water quality (Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI were launched recently. In order to test whether these satellites can capture the 810 nm peak we simulated the spectral performance of these two satellites from field radiometry data. Actual satellite imagery from a black lake was also used to study whether these sensors can detect the peak

  7. The Architecture of the Anbu Complex Reflects an Evolutionary Intermediate at the Origin of the Proteasome System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Adrian C D; Alva, Vikram; Maldoner, Lorena; Albrecht, Reinhard; Hartmann, Marcus D; Martin, Jörg

    2017-06-06

    Proteasomes are self-compartmentalizing proteases that function at the core of the cellular protein degradation machinery in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria. Although their evolutionary history is under debate, it is thought to be linked to that of the bacterial protease HslV and the hypothetical bacterial protease Anbu (ancestral beta subunit). Here, together with an extensive bioinformatic analysis, we present the first biophysical characterization of Anbu. Anbu forms a dodecameric complex with a unique architecture that was only accessible through the combination of X-ray crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering. While forming continuous helices in crystals and electron microscopy preparations, refinement of sections from the crystal structure against the scattering data revealed a helical open-ring structure in solution, contrasting the ring-shaped structures of proteasome and HslV. Based on this primordial architecture and exhaustive sequence comparisons, we propose that Anbu represents an ancestral precursor at the origin of self-compartmentalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How to and how not to develop a theory of change to evaluate a complex intervention: reflections on an experience in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, Rishma; Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Borghi, Josephine

    2018-01-01

    Theories of change (ToCs) describe how interventions can bring about long-term outcomes through a logical sequence of intermediate outcomes and have been used to design and measure the impact of public health programmes in several countries. In recognition of their capacity to provide a framework for monitoring and evaluation, they are being increasingly employed in the development sector. The construction of a ToC typically occurs through a consultative process, requiring stakeholders to reflect on how their programmes can bring about change. ToCs help make explicit any underlying assumptions, acknowledge the role of context and provide evidence to justify the chain of causal pathways. However, while much literature exists on how to develop a ToC with respect to interventions in theory, there is comparatively little reflection on applying it in practice to complex interventions in the health sector. This paper describes the initial process of developing a ToC to inform the design of an evaluation of a complex intervention aiming to improve government payments to health workers in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Lessons learnt include: the need for the ToC to understand how the intervention produces effects on the wider system and having broad stakeholder engagement at the outset to maximise chances of the intervention's success and ensure ownership. Power relationships between stakeholders may also affect the ToC discourse but can be minimised by having an independent facilitator. We hope these insights are of use to other global public health practitioners using this approach to evaluate complex interventions.

  9. Phase inversion and frequency doubling of reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations in the layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhangwen; Guo, Wei; Ji, Dianxiang; Zhang, Tianwei; Gu, Chenyi; Tang, Chao; Gu, Zhengbin; Nie*, Yuefeng; Pan, Xiaoqing

    In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and its intensity oscillations are extremely important for the growth of epitaxial thin films with atomic precision. The RHEED intensity oscillations of complex oxides are, however, rather complicated and a general model is still lacking. Here, we report the unusual phase inversion and frequency doubling of RHEED intensity oscillations observed in the layer-by-layer growth of SrTiO3 using oxide molecular beam epitaxy. In contacts to the common understanding that the maximum(minimum) intensity occurs at SrO(TiO2) termination, respectively, we found that both maximum or minimum intensities can occur at SrO, TiO2, or even incomplete terminations depending on the incident angle of the electron beam, which raises a fundamental question if one can rely on the RHEED intensity oscillations to precisely control the growth of thin films. A general model including surface roughness and termination dependent mean inner potential qualitatively explains the observed phenomena, and provides the answer to the question how to prepare atomically and chemically precise surface/interfaces using RHEED oscillations for complex oxides. We thank National Basic Research Program of China (No. 11574135, 2015CB654901) and the National Thousand-Young-Talents Program.

  10. Techniques For Measuring Absorption Coefficients In Crystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Philipp H.

    1981-10-01

    Absorption coefficients smaller than 0.001 cm-1 can, with more or less difficulty, be measured by several techniques. With diligence, all methods can be refined to permit measurement of absorption coefficients as small as 0.00001 cm-1. Spectral data are most readily obtained by transmission (spectrophotometric) methods, using multiple internal reflection to increase effective sample length. Emissivity measurements, requiring extreme care in the elimination of detector noise and stray light, nevertheless afford the most accessible spectral data in the 0.0001 to 0.00001 cm-1 range. Single-wavelength informa-tion is most readily obtained with modifications of laser calorimetry. Thermo-couple detection of energy absorbed from a laser beam is convenient, but involves dc amplification techniques and is susceptible to stray-light problems. Photoacoustic detection, using ac methods, tends to diminish errors of these types, but at some expense in experimental complexity. Laser calorimetry has been used for measurements of absorption coefficients as small as 0.000003 cm-1. Both transmission and calorimetric data, taken as functions of intensity, have been used for measurement of nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  11. Using 3D Reflection Seismics for Deep Platinum Mine Planning and Risk Mitigation: A Case Study from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Manzi, M. S.; Webb, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Loss-of-ground in mining is a common problem. Using the integration of high resolution aeromagnetic and 3D reflection seismic data to delineate the causative geological features allows for more efficient mine planning and risk reduction. High resolution data from Impala Platinum mine in the western Bushveld Complex are used to image potholes, iron-rich ultramafic pegmatoids (IRUPs), faults, dykes and diapirs that may impact the economic horizons (UG2). Imaging of these structures was previously limited to outcrop, both on surface and underground, as well as 2D seismic data. These high resolution seismic data are able to resolve faults with throws as small as 10 m. A diapir is imaged in the southwest of the study area with a diameter of approximately 6 km. The diapir has a depth extend of around 4 km below the UG2 horizon and displaces the horizon by 350 m. It has been suggested that topographic highs in the Transvaal Supergroup basement initiate the formation of these diapirs as new magma is injected into the chamber. The origin of the diapir within the layered basement rocks, and disruption of layering within the complex is visible on the seismic section. In the north of the study area a large region of slumping or several merged potholes is identified that is up to 2.5 km in length, with up to 700 m of vertical displacement. Ductile deformation that formed the potholes is imaged on the seismic section, with the UG2 cutting down into the footwall. However, brittle deformation of the UG2 is also imaged with faulting at the edges of the regions of slumping. The edges of these slump regions are also characterised by the emplacement of iron-rich ultramafic pegmatoids (IRUPs), which show up as regions of diffuse reflectivity on the seismic data and magnetic highs. The proximity of these faults and IRUPs to the edges of the slump structure brings in to question whether they contribute to pothole formation. The diapir and slump structure displaces the economic UG2

  12. A comparison between two global optimization algorithms (genetic and differential evolution) to calculate the reflection coefficients in fractured media; Uma comparacao entre dois algoritmos de otimizacao global (algoritmo genetico e evolucao diferencial) para inversao de coeficientes de reflexao em meios fraturados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanzeler, Francisco Joclean Alves

    1999-06-01

    In this work, we extract the elastic stiffness and mass density from an multi azimuthal qP-wave reflection coefficients at an interface separating two anisotropic media with monoclinic symmetry with at least one of its planes of symmetry parallel to the interface. This objective was reach by forward and inverse modeling. We calculate the q-P-wave reflection for three models (I, II, III) of anisotropic equivalent medium: isotropic medium above a TIH medium; TIV medium above a TIH medium; and orthorhombic medium above a TIH medium. The TIH medium is equivalent an isotropic fractured medium with equivalent elastic stiffness and mass density calculated by the Hudson formulation. The reflection coefficients used was on its exact form and was generated for models I, II and III in multi-azimuthal/incidence angles and contaminated by gaussian noise. In the inverse modeling we work with GA and with DE algorithms to calculate the inversion parameter (5 elastic stiffness and mass density for bottom media and Vs of upper isotropic media) by minimization of 12 norm of difference between the true and synthetic reflection coefficient. We assume that we know the parameter of the upper media of the three models, except Vs for model one in especial case of inversion of upper media.The parameter to be determined by inverse modeling are parametrized in model space for values that is in according with the value of the observed velocity of propagation of elastic waves in the earth crust, and the resolution of measure, and constraints of elastic stability of the solid media. The GA and DE algorithms reached good inversion to the models with at least three azimuthal angles, (0 deg C, 45 deg C and 90 deg C) and incidence angles of 34 deg C for model I, and 50 deg C inverted only by GA for models II and III; and the especial case take by DE that need at least 44 deg C to invert the model I with the Vs of the upper media. From this results we can see the potential to determine from q

  13. A robust holographic autofocusing criterion based on edge sparsity: comparison of Gini index and Tamura coefficient for holographic autofocusing based on the edge sparsity of the complex optical wavefront

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamitsu, Miu; Zhang, Yibo; Wang, Hongda; Wu, Yichen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2018-02-01

    The Sparsity of the Gradient (SoG) is a robust autofocusing criterion for holography, where the gradient modulus of the complex refocused hologram is calculated, on which a sparsity metric is applied. Here, we compare two different choices of sparsity metrics used in SoG, specifically, the Gini index (GI) and the Tamura coefficient (TC), for holographic autofocusing on dense/connected or sparse samples. We provide a theoretical analysis predicting that for uniformly distributed image data, TC and GI exhibit similar behavior, while for naturally sparse images containing few high-valued signal entries and many low-valued noisy background pixels, TC is more sensitive to distribution changes in the signal and more resistive to background noise. These predictions are also confirmed by experimental results using SoG-based holographic autofocusing on dense and connected samples (such as stained breast tissue sections) as well as highly sparse samples (such as isolated Giardia lamblia cysts). Through these experiments, we found that ToG and GoG offer almost identical autofocusing performance on dense and connected samples, whereas for naturally sparse samples, GoG should be calculated on a relatively small region of interest (ROI) closely surrounding the object, while ToG offers more flexibility in choosing a larger ROI containing more background pixels.

  14. Reflection and Refraction of Light in Absorbing Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Koichi; Sasaki, Shosuke

    2018-05-01

    The results of a rigorous calculation of optical phenomena in absorbing media based on Maxwell's equations are reported. In the case of an absorbing dielectric, we assume a complex dielectric constant. We find an expression for the angle of refraction as a function of the incident angle and the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric constant, all of which are real. The amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted waves are calculated on the same footing. These amplitudes are shown to be complex, from which we deduce the magnitude and phase change of the reflection and transmission coefficients. The same argument applies to an absorbing magnetic material if we replace the complex dielectric constant by a complex magnetic permeability.

  15. Analysis of flow coefficient in chair manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković Dragoljub; Živković Slaven

    2005-01-01

    The delivery on time is not possible without the good-quality planning of deadlines, i.e. planning of the manufacturing process duration. The study of flow coefficient enables the realistic forecasting of the manufacturing process duration. This paper points to the significance of the study of flow coefficient on scientific basis so as to determine the terms of the end of the manufacture of chairs made of sawn timber. Chairs are the products of complex construction, often almost completely ma...

  16. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  17. In?situ permeability from integrated poroelastic reflection coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, K.N.; Ghose, R.; Drijkoningen, C.G.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A reliable estimate of the in?situ permeability of a porous layer in the subsurface is extremely difficult to obtain. We have observed that at the field seismic frequency band the poroelastic behavior for different seismic wavetypes can differ in such a way that their combination gives unique

  18. Reflection of a polarized light cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Jed; Weiss, Daniel; Berland, Keith

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a visually appealing experimental demonstration of Fresnel reflection. In this simple optical experiment, a polarized light beam travels through a high numerical-aperture microscope objective, reflects off a glass slide, and travels back through the same objective lens. The return beam is sampled with a polarizing beam splitter and produces a surprising geometric pattern on an observation screen. Understanding the origin of this pattern requires careful attention to geometry and an understanding of the Fresnel coefficients for S and P polarized light. We demonstrate that in addition to a relatively simple experimental implementation, the shape of the observed pattern can be computed both analytically and by using optical modeling software. The experience of working through complex mathematical computations and demonstrating their agreement with a surprising experimental observation makes this a highly educational experiment for undergraduate optics or advanced-lab courses. It also provides a straightforward yet non-trivial system for teaching students how to use optical modeling software.

  19. Attenuation coefficients of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, E.; Naziry, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    As a prerequisite to the interpretation of gamma-spectrometric in situ measurements of activity concentrations of soil radionuclides the attenuation of 60 to 1332 keV gamma radiation by soil samples varying in water content and density has been investigated. A useful empirical equation could be set up to describe the dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient upon photon energy for soil with a mean water content of 10%, with the results comparing well with data in the literature. The mean density of soil in the GDR was estimated at 1.6 g/cm 3 . This value was used to derive the linear attenuation coefficients, their range of variation being 10%. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  20. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  1. Note on the coefficient of variations of neuronal spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengler, Johannes; Steger, Angelika

    2017-08-01

    It is known that many neurons in the brain show spike trains with a coefficient of variation (CV) of the interspike times of approximately 1, thus resembling the properties of Poisson spike trains. Computational studies have been able to reproduce this phenomenon. However, the underlying models were too complex to be examined analytically. In this paper, we offer a simple model that shows the same effect but is accessible to an analytic treatment. The model is a random walk model with a reflecting barrier; we give explicit formulas for the CV in the regime of excess inhibition. We also analyze the effect of probabilistic synapses in our model and show that it resembles previous findings that were obtained by simulation.

  2. The Truth About Ballistic Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The ballistic coefficient of a bullet describes how it slows in flight due to air resistance. This article presents experimental determinations of ballistic coefficients showing that the majority of bullets tested have their previously published ballistic coefficients exaggerated from 5-25% by the bullet manufacturers. These exaggerated ballistic coefficients lead to inaccurate predictions of long range bullet drop, retained energy and wind drift.

  3. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    HD 38563B, are the main powerhouses behind Messier 78. However, the nebula is home to many more stars, including a collection of about 45 low mass, young stars (less than 10 million years old) in which the cores are still too cool for hydrogen fusion to start, known as T Tauri stars. Studying T Tauri stars is important for understanding the early stages of star formation and how planetary systems are created. Remarkably, this complex of nebulae has also changed significantly in the last ten years. In February 2004 the experienced amateur observer Jay McNeil took an image of this region with a 75 mm telescope and was surprised to see a bright nebula - the prominent fan shaped feature near the bottom of this picture - where nothing was seen on most earlier images. This object is now known as McNeil's Nebula and it appears to be a highly variable reflection nebula around a young star. This colour picture was created from many monochrome exposures taken through blue, yellow/green and red filters, supplemented by exposures through an H-alpha filter that shows light from glowing hydrogen gas. The total exposure times were 9, 9, 17.5 and 15.5 minutes per filter, respectively. Notes [1] Igor Chekalin from Russia uncovered the raw data for this image of Messier 78 in ESO's archives in the competition Hidden Treasures (eso1102). He processed the raw data with great skill, claiming first prize in the contest for his final image (Flickr link). ESO's team of in-house image processing experts then independently processed the raw data at full resolution to produce the image shown here. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an

  4. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Shahid

    Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number ‘3’ and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks

  5. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul

    Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.

  6. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  7. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  8. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  9. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  10. Evaluation of downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithms in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Yellepeddi, Sarma B.; Jones, Burton

    2016-01-01

    to comprehend the diffuse attenuation coefficient and its relationship with in situ properties. Two apparent optical properties, spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and the downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd), are calculated from vertical

  11. Accounting for Antenna in Half-Space Fresnel Coefficient Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D'Alterio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of retrieving the Fresnel reflection coefficients of a half-space medium starting from measurements collected under a reflection mode multistatic configuration is dealt with. According to our previous results, reflection coefficient estimation is cast as the inversion of linear operator. However, here, we take a step ahead towards more realistic scenarios as the role of antennas (both transmitting and receiving is embodied in the estimation procedure. Numerical results are presented to show the effectiveness of the method for different types of half-space media.

  12. On the Kendall Correlation Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we first discuss the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. In continuous case, we define the Kendall rank correlation coefficient in terms of the concomitants of order statistics, find the expected value of the Kendall rank correlation coefficient and show that the later is free of n. We also prove that in continuous case the Kendall correlation coefficient converges in probability to its expected value. We then propose to consider the expected value of the Kendall rank ...

  13. Determination of electromagnetic absorption parameters by reflection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1975-09-01

    The method described is for determining the electromagnetic absorption parameters of a material by measuring the optical reflection from a thick sample. With linearly polarized incident light (both perpendicular to and parallel to the plane of incidence), the ratio of the reflected intensities at three or more angles of incidence offers promise for determining the complex index of refraction of a material for a broad range of parameter values. The method may be applicable to molten materials, such as UO 2 , where high temperatures cause corrosion and containment difficulties. A method is given for extending the data to neighboring frequencies. Use of the method was successful for all portions of the complex index of refraction plane except for small values of the extinction coefficient

  14. Complex refractive index measurements for BaF 2 and CaF 2 via single-angle infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; DeVetter, Brent M.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Cannon, Bret D.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bliss, Mary; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2017-10-01

    We have re-investigated the optical constants n and k for the homologous series of inorganic salts barium fluoride (BaF2) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) using a single-angle near-normal incidence reflectance device in combination with a calibrated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with most previous works. However, certain features of the previously published data near the reststrahlen band exhibit distinct differences in spectral characteristics. Notably, our measurements of BaF2 do not include a spectral feature in the ~250 cm-1 reststrahlen band that was previously published. Additionally, CaF2 exhibits a distinct wavelength shift relative to the model derived from previously published data. We confirmed our results with recently published works that use significantly more modern instrumentation and data reduction techniques

  15. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  16. Lattice cell diffusion coefficients. Definitions and comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Definitions of equivalent diffusion coefficients for regular lattices of heterogeneous cells have been given by several authors. The paper begins by reviewing these different definitions and the unification of their derivation. This unification makes clear how accurately each definition (together with appropriate cross-section definitions to preserve the eigenvalue) represents the individual reaction rates within the cell. The approach can be extended to include asymmetric cells and whereas before, the buckling describing the macroscopic flux shape was real, here it is found to be complex. A neutron ''drift'' coefficient as well as a diffusion coefficient is necessary to produce the macroscopic flux shape. The numerical calculation of the various different diffusion coefficients requires the solutions of equations similar to the ordinary transport equation for an infinite lattice. Traditional reactor physics codes are not sufficiently flexible to solve these equations in general. However, calculations in certain simple cases are presented and the theoretical results quantified. In difficult geometries, Monte Carlo techniques can be used to calculate an effective diffusion coefficient. These methods relate to those already described provided that correlation effects between different generations of neutrons are included. Again, these effects are quantified in certain simple cases. (author)

  17. Diffusion coefficient calculations for cylindrical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam-Hime, M.

    1983-03-01

    An accurate and general diffusion coefficient calculation for cylindrical cells is described using isotropic scattering integral transport theory. This method has been particularly applied to large regular lattices of graphite-moderated reactors with annular coolant channels. The cells are divided into homogeneous zones, and a zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a collision probability problem. The reflection of neutrons at the cell boundary is accounted for by the conservation of the neutron momentum. The uncorrected diffusion coefficient Benoist's definition is used, and the described formulation does not neglect any effect. Angular correlation terms, energy coupling non-uniformity and anisotropy of the classical flux are exactly taken into account. Results for gas-graphite typical cells are given showing the importance of these approximations

  18. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  20. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the inequality is sharp for the inverse of the Koebe function k(z) = z/(1 − z)2. An alternative approach to the inverse coefficient problem for functions in the class S has been investigated by Schaeffer and Spencer [27] and FitzGerald [6]. Although, the inverse coefficient problem for the class S has been completely solved ...

  1. Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research: Reflections on the Research Approach Used to Understand the Complexity of Maternal Health Issues in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Byrne, Elaine; Manandhar, Mary; Hemmings, Joanne; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2017-07-01

    Many methodological approaches have been used to understand cultural dimensions to maternal health issues. Although a well-designed quantitative survey with a representative sample can provide essential information on trends in behavior, it does not necessarily establish a contextualized understanding of the complexity in which different behaviors occur. This article addresses how contextualized data can be collected in a short time and under conditions in which participants in conflict-affected zones might not have established, or time to establish, trust with the researchers. The solution, the Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research (PEER) approach, is illustrated through a study whereby South Sudanese marginalized women were trained to design research instruments, and collect and analyze qualitative data. PEER overcomes the problem that many ethnographic or participatory approaches face-the extensive time and resources required to develop trusting relationships with the community to understand the local context and the social networks they form.

  2. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  3. Measurements of complex impedance in microwave high power systems with a new bluetooth integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussy, Georges; Dichtel, Bernard; Chaabane, Haykel

    2003-01-01

    By using a new integrated circuit, which is marketed for bluetooth applications, it is possible to simplify the method of measuring the complex impedance, complex reflection coefficient and complex transmission coefficient in an industrial microwave setup. The Analog Devices circuit AD 8302, which measures gain and phase up to 2.7 GHz, operates with variable level input signals and is less sensitive to both amplitude and frequency fluctuations of the industrial magnetrons than are mixers and AM crystal detectors. Therefore, accurate gain and phase measurements can be performed with low stability generators. A mechanical setup with an AD 8302 is described; the calibration procedure and its performance are presented.

  4. Estimating varying coefficients for partial differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J

    2017-09-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to model complex dynamical systems in multiple dimensions, and their parameters often have important scientific interpretations. In some applications, PDE parameters are not constant but can change depending on the values of covariates, a feature that we call varying coefficients. We propose a parameter cascading method to estimate varying coefficients in PDE models from noisy data. Our estimates of the varying coefficients are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. The performance of our method is evaluated by a simulation study and by an empirical study estimating three varying coefficients in a PDE model arising from LIDAR data. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions

  6. The complexities of 'otherness': reflections on embodiment of a young White British woman engaged in cross-generation research involving older people in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Meriel

    2015-05-01

    If interviews are to be considered embodied experiences, than the potential influence of the embodied researcher must be explored. A focus on specific attributes such as age or ethnicity belies the complex and negotiated space that both researcher and participant inhabit simultaneously. Drawing on empirical research with stroke survivors in an ethnically mixed area of Indonesia, this paper highlights the importance of considering embodiment as a specific methodological concern. Three specific interactions are described and analysed, illustrating the active nature of the embodied researcher in narrative production and development. The intersectionality of embodied features is evident, alongside their fluctuating influence in time and place. These interactions draw attention to the need to consider the researcher within the interview process and the subsequent analysis and presentation of narrative findings. The paper concludes with a reinforcement of the importance of ongoing and meaningful reflexivity in research, a need to consider the researcher as the other participant, and specifically a call to engage with and present the dynamic nature of embodiment.

  7. What theory, for whom and in which context? Reflections on the application of theory in the development and evaluation of complex population health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham F; Evans, Rhiannon E

    2017-12-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on the value of building and testing middle range theory throughout the development and evaluation of complex population health interventions. We agree that a coherent theoretical basis for intervention development, and use of evaluation to test key causal assumptions and build theory, are crucial. However, in this editorial, we argue that such recommendations have often been operationalised in somewhat simplistic terms with potentially perverse consequences, and that an uncritical assumption that an intervention explicitly based on theory is inherently superior carries significant risks. We first argue that the drive for theory-based approaches may have exacerbated a propensity to select 'off-the-shelf' theories, leading to the selection of inappropriate theories which distract attention from the mechanisms through which a problem is actually sustained. Second, we discuss a tendency toward over-reliance on individual-level theorising. Finally, we discuss the relatively slow progress of population health intervention research in attending to issues of context, and the ecological fit of interventions with the systems whose functioning they attempt to change. We argue that while researchers should consider a broad range of potential theoretical perspectives on a given population health problem, citing a popular off-the-shelf theory as having informed an intervention and its evaluation does not inherently make for better science. Before identifying or developing a theory of change, researchers should develop a clear understanding of how the problem under consideration is created and sustained in context. A broader conceptualisation of theory that reaches across disciplines is vital if theory is to enhance, rather than constrain, the contribution of intervention research. Finally, intervention researchers need to move away from viewing interventions as discrete packages of components which can be described in isolation from

  8. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  9. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  10. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  11. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  12. Object detection by correlation coefficients using azimuthally averaged reference projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, William V

    2004-11-01

    A method of computing correlation coefficients for object detection that takes advantage of using azimuthally averaged reference projections is described and compared with two alternative methods-computing a cross-correlation function or a local correlation coefficient versus the azimuthally averaged reference projections. Two examples of an application from structural biology involving the detection of projection views of biological macromolecules in electron micrographs are discussed. It is found that a novel approach to computing a local correlation coefficient versus azimuthally averaged reference projections, using a rotational correlation coefficient, outperforms using a cross-correlation function and a local correlation coefficient in object detection from simulated images with a range of levels of simulated additive noise. The three approaches perform similarly in detecting macromolecular views in electron microscope images of a globular macrolecular complex (the ribosome). The rotational correlation coefficient outperforms the other methods in detection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin macromolecular views in electron micrographs.

  13. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  14. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  15. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK, the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning By Design (LBD environment, which was created to help preservice teachers develop TPACK. This paper investigated the participants’ TPACK development and examined how reflection helped them construct TPACK. Through content analysis of the participants’ reflective journals, the researcher found that the preservice teachers developed initial TPACK awareness. However, their reflection in technology knowledge and the content aspects of TPACK were limited and superficial. Interviews with the participants showed reflection helped the preservice teachers remember what they learned by describing and elaborating on their in-class experiences, pushed them to think about how to apply what they learned in their future classrooms, and helped them become more reflective and open-minded about using technology in classrooms. Finally, the researcher discussed this study’s implications for teacher educators and researchers.

  16. Probabilistic optimization of safety coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.; Devictor, N.; Magistris, F. de

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a reliability-based method for the optimization of safety coefficients defined and used in design codes. The purpose of the optimization is to determine the partial safety coefficients which minimize an objective function for sets of components and loading situations covered by a design rule. This objective function is a sum of distances between the reliability of the components designed using the safety coefficients and a target reliability. The advantage of this method is shown on the examples of the reactor vessel, a vapour pipe and the safety injection circuit. (authors)

  17. Relations between coefficients of fractional parentage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamick, L.

    2007-01-01

    For each of the (9/2) (11/2), and (13/2) single j shells we have only one state with J=j v=3 for a five particle system. For four identical particles there can be more than one state of seniority four. We note some 'ratio' relations for the coefficients of fractional parentage for the four and five identical particle systems, which are found in the works of de Shalit and Talmi [Nuclear Shell Theory (Academic Press, New York, 1963)] and Talmi [Simple Models of Complex Nuclei (Harwood Academic, Reading, UK, 1993)] to be useful for explaining the vanishing of a five particle coefficients of fractional parentage (cfp). These relations are used to show that there is a special (g 9/2 ) 4 I=4 v=4 wave function that cannot be admixed with an I=4 v=2 wave function, even with seniority violating interactions

  18. Activity coefficients of solutes in binary solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity coefficients in dilute ternary systems are discussed in detail by using the Margules equations. Analyses of some relevant data at high temperatures show that the sparingly dissolved solutes in binary solvents follow complex behavior even when the binary solvents are very nearly ideal. It is shown that the activity data on the solute or the binary system cannot permit computation of the remaining activities except for the regular solutions. It is also shown that a fourth-order equation is usually adequate in expressing the activity coefficient of a solute in binary solvents at high temperatures. When the activity data for a binary solvent are difficult to obtain in a certain range of composition, the activity data for a sparingly dissolved solute can be used to supplement determination of the binary activities

  19. In-line femtosecond common-path interferometer in reflection mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandezon, J; Rampnoux, J-M; Dilhaire, S; Audoin, B; Guillet, Y

    2015-10-19

    An innovative method to perform femtosecond time-resolved interferometry in reflection mode is proposed. The experiment consists in the combined use of a pump-probe setup and of a fully passive in-line femtosecond common-path interferometer. The originality of this interferometer relies on the use of a single birefringent crystal first to generate a pair of phase-locked pulses and second to recombine them to interfere. As predicted by analytical modeling, this interferometer measures the temporal derivative of the ultrafast changes of the complex optical reflection coefficient of the sample. Working conditions are illustrated through picosecond opto-acoustic experiments on a thin film.

  20. Viscoelasticity evaluation of rubber by surface reflection of supersonic wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Nobuaki; Suga, Takahiro; Furusawa, Hirokazu; Urabe, Shinichi; Kondo, Takeru; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2006-12-22

    The main characteristic of rubber is a viscoelasticity. So it is important to research the characteristic of the viscoelasticity of the high frequency band for the friction between a rubber material and the hard one with roughness, for instance, the tire and the road. As for the measurement of the viscoelasticity of rubber, DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis) is general. However, some problems are pointed out to the measurement of the high frequency band by DMA. Then, we evaluated the viscoelasticity characteristic by the supersonic wave measurement. However, attenuation of rubber is large, and when the viscoelasticity is measured by the supersonic wave therefore, it is inconvenient and limited in a past method by means of bottom reflection. In this report, we tried the viscoelasticity evaluation by the method of using complex surface reflection coefficient and we compared with the friction coefficient under wide-range friction velocity. As a result, some relationships had been found for two properties. We report the result that character of viscoelasticity of rubber was comparable to friction coefficient.

  1. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-01-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node

  2. Diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A report on the progress towards the goal of estimating the diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport is given. The gyrokinetic theory is used to identify different time and length scale inherent to the characteristics of plasmas which exhibit anomalous transport

  3. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  4. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Shang, Hua-Yan; Xue, Yu

    2009-10-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability. The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  5. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  6. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Sakaki, Michiko; Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2018-01-01

    Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other) measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node) are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients were strongly

  7. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Masuda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients

  8. Clustering Coefficients for Correlation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Sakaki, Michiko; Ezaki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takamitsu

    2018-01-01

    Graph theory is a useful tool for deciphering structural and functional networks of the brain on various spatial and temporal scales. The clustering coefficient quantifies the abundance of connected triangles in a network and is a major descriptive statistics of networks. For example, it finds an application in the assessment of small-worldness of brain networks, which is affected by attentional and cognitive conditions, age, psychiatric disorders and so forth. However, it remains unclear how the clustering coefficient should be measured in a correlation-based network, which is among major representations of brain networks. In the present article, we propose clustering coefficients tailored to correlation matrices. The key idea is to use three-way partial correlation or partial mutual information to measure the strength of the association between the two neighboring nodes of a focal node relative to the amount of pseudo-correlation expected from indirect paths between the nodes. Our method avoids the difficulties of previous applications of clustering coefficient (and other) measures in defining correlational networks, i.e., thresholding on the correlation value, discarding of negative correlation values, the pseudo-correlation problem and full partial correlation matrices whose estimation is computationally difficult. For proof of concept, we apply the proposed clustering coefficient measures to functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from healthy participants of various ages and compare them with conventional clustering coefficients. We show that the clustering coefficients decline with the age. The proposed clustering coefficients are more strongly correlated with age than the conventional ones are. We also show that the local variants of the proposed clustering coefficients (i.e., abundance of triangles around a focal node) are useful in characterizing individual nodes. In contrast, the conventional local clustering coefficients were strongly

  9. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  10. BOREAS TE-9 In Situ Understory Spectral Reflectance Within the NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Supronowicz, Jan; Edwards, Geoffrey; Viau, Alain; Thomson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves in boreal forest tree species. Spectral reflection coefficients of the forest understory at the ground level, in three boreal forest sites of Northern Manitoba (56 N latitude and 98 W longitude), were obtained and analyzed in 1994. In particular, angular variation of the reflection coefficients in the old jack pine and young jack pine forests, as well as nadir reflection coefficient in the young aspen forest, were investigated. The complexity of understory composition and the light patterns limited quantitative conclusions; however, a number of interesting trends in the behavior of the measured values can be inferred. In particular, the unique spectral profiles of lichens show very strongly in the old jack pine understory, yet are definitely less conspicuous for young jack pine, and virtually absent in the aspen forest. The angular variation of the reflection coefficient by the young pine understory seems to be significantly toned down by fine-structured branches and their shadows. Our study also indicates how difficult the ground reflection coefficient problem in a forest is, compared to certain previously investigated areas that have a more uniform appearance, such as prairie grassland, bare soil, or agricultural crops. This is due to several factors, generally typical of a forest environment, that may influence the overall understory reflection coefficient, including: (1) a strong diversity of the forest floor due to the presence of dead tree trunks, holes in the ground, patches of different types of vegetation or litter, etc.; (2) pronounced 3-D structures at the ground level, such as shrubs, bushes, and young trees; and (3) an irregular shadow mosaic, which not only varies with the time of the day, causing intensity variations, but likely also effectively modifies the spectrum of the

  11. Advanced analysis techniques for X-ray reflectivities. Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Klaus Martin

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this thesis adresses the phase problem in X-ray reflectivity. The analytical properties of the reflection coefficient imply that the phase is completely determined by the Hilbert transform of the logarithm of the modulus and the zeros in the upper half complex plane (UHP). To account in addition for interfacial roughness, a new formula for the Hilbert-phase is derived.In the following, the conditions for which the reflection coefficient has zeros in the UHP is discussed and the existing sufficient condition is extended to rough multi-layer systems. Procedures for locating these zeros are developed. The second part of this thesis introduces a new iterative inversion method for X-ray reflectivity. It expands the profile in a set of eigenfunctions, which are discrete approximations of the eigenfunction of the classical reconstruction problem of a compact supported function from its partially known Fourier-transform. In this work, piecewise constant functions, polygons and second-order B-splines are used to expand the density profile. The eigenvalue problems for the calculation of the above mentioned approximations are stated and solved. The formalism for the calculation of the reflection coefficient for these profiles is developed in dynamical and single-scattering theory. In the experimental part of this work iterative inverse schemes are applied to the analysis of X-ray reflectivity. Different sample systems are investigated: For two titanium-carbon samples tiny details at the Ti/C interface such as the formation of a thin TiC layer can be observed.The density profiles obtained from the reflectivities taken from nickel-carbon samples show the formation of SiC inside the Si sub strate. Finally, the new inversion scheme is applied to a series of reflectivities from a 700 AaSiGe film on a substrate.

  12. Advanced analysis techniques for X-ray reflectivities. Theory and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Klaus Martin

    2005-07-01

    The first part of this thesis adresses the phase problem in X-ray reflectivity. The analytical properties of the reflection coefficient imply that the phase is completely determined by the Hilbert transform of the logarithm of the modulus and the zeros in the upper half complex plane (UHP). To account in addition for interfacial roughness, a new formula for the Hilbert-phase is derived.In the following, the conditions for which the reflection coefficient has zeros in the UHP is discussed and the existing sufficient condition is extended to rough multi-layer systems. Procedures for locating these zeros are developed. The second part of this thesis introduces a new iterative inversion method for X-ray reflectivity. It expands the profile in a set of eigenfunctions, which are discrete approximations of the eigenfunction of the classical reconstruction problem of a compact supported function from its partially known Fourier-transform. In this work, piecewise constant functions, polygons and second-order B-splines are used to expand the density profile. The eigenvalue problems for the calculation of the above mentioned approximations are stated and solved. The formalism for the calculation of the reflection coefficient for these profiles is developed in dynamical and single-scattering theory. In the experimental part of this work iterative inverse schemes are applied to the analysis of X-ray reflectivity. Different sample systems are investigated: For two titanium-carbon samples tiny details at the Ti/C interface such as the formation of a thin TiC layer can be observed.The density profiles obtained from the reflectivities taken from nickel-carbon samples show the formation of SiC inside the Si sub strate. Finally, the new inversion scheme is applied to a series of reflectivities from a 700 AaSiGe film on a substrate.

  13. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...... impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model...

  14. Demystifying the reflective clinical journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinkovic, Danielle; Field, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    Student learning on clinical placement is a complex issue and cannot be defined solely by just doing things. Reflection during clinical practice is essential if the student is going to learn from the experience. Therefore it is important for educators to include as part of clinical education programs learning strategies that encourage reflection. The reflective clinical journal is an educational tool that is employed by the School of Medical Radiation Sciences at the University of Sydney to encourage reflection of undergraduate radiation therapy students whilst on clinical placement. This discussion paper explores the key concepts of reflection and the reflective clinical journal. Due to the paucity of information about this issue in radiation therapy the literature reviewed is from across all areas of the health sciences

  15. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  16. Photon albedo coefficients as functions of μ/Zeff parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analyses of photon reflection from planar targets for normal photon incidence and for different shielding materials (water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper, in the range of the initial photon energies from 20 keV to 300 keV. Calculations of photon reflection parameters based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the photon transport have been performed using MCNP4C code. Integral reflection coefficients, presented as functions of the ratio of total cross-section of photons and effective atomic number of target material, show universal behaviour for all the analyzed shielding materials in the selected energy domain.

  17. Power coefficient anomaly in JOYO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H

    1980-12-15

    Operation of the JOYO experimental fast reactor with the MK-I core has been divided into two phases: (1) 50 MWt power ascension and operation; and (2) 75 MWt power ascension and operation. The 50 MWt power-up tests were conducted in August 1978. In these tests, the measured reactivity loss due to power increases from 15 MWt to 50 MWt was 0.28% ..delta.. K/K, and agreed well with the predicted value of 0.27% ..delta.. K/K. The 75 MWt power ascension tests were conducted in July-August 1979. In the process of the first power increase above 50 MWt to 65 MWt conducted on July 11, 1979, an anomalously large negative power coefficient was observed. The value was about twice the power coefficient values measured in the tests below 50 MW. In order to reproduce the anomaly, the reactor power was decreased and again increased up to the maximum power of 65 MWt. However, the large negative power coefficient was not observed at this time. In the succeeding power increase from 65 MWt to 75 MWt, a similar anomalous power coefficient was again observed. This anomaly disappeared in the subsequent power ascensions to 75 MWt, and the magnitude of the power coefficient gradually decreased with power cycles above the 50 MWt level.

  18. Analysis of flow coefficient in chair manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Dragoljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery on time is not possible without the good-quality planning of deadlines, i.e. planning of the manufacturing process duration. The study of flow coefficient enables the realistic forecasting of the manufacturing process duration. This paper points to the significance of the study of flow coefficient on scientific basis so as to determine the terms of the end of the manufacture of chairs made of sawn timber. Chairs are the products of complex construction, often almost completely made of sawn timber as the basic material. They belong to the group of export products, so it is especially significant to analyze the duration of the production cycle, and the type and the degree of stoppages in this type of production. Parallel method of production is applied in chair manufacture. The study shows that the value of flow coefficient is close to one or higher, in most cases. The results indicate that the percentage of interoperational stoppage is unjustifiably high, so it is proposed how to decrease the percentage of stoppages in the manufacturing process.

  19. Hydrodynamic Coefficients Identification and Experimental Investigation for an Underwater Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaorong XIE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic coefficients are the foundation of unmanned underwater vehicles modeling and controller design. In order to reduce identification complexity and acquire necessary hydrodynamic coefficients for controllers design, the motion of the unmanned underwater vehicle was separated into vertical motion and horizontal motion models. Hydrodynamic coefficients were regarded as mapping parameters from input forces and moments to output velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle. The motion models of the unmanned underwater vehicle were nonlinear and Genetic Algorithm was adopted to identify those hydrodynamic coefficients. To verify the identification quality, velocities and acceleration of the unmanned underwater vehicle was measured using inertial sensor under the same conditions as Genetic Algorithm identification. Curves similarity between measured velocities and acceleration and those identified by Genetic Algorithm were used as optimizing standard. It is found that the curves similarity were high and identified hydrodynamic coefficients of the unmanned underwater vehicle satisfied the measured motion states well.

  20. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursol, N.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Yakushev, E.A.; Briancon, C.; Vylov, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  1. Algebraic polynomials with random coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Farahmand

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an asymptotic value for the mathematical expected number of points of inflections of a random polynomial of the form a0(ω+a1(ω(n11/2x+a2(ω(n21/2x2+…an(ω(nn1/2xn when n is large. The coefficients {aj(w}j=0n, w∈Ω are assumed to be a sequence of independent normally distributed random variables with means zero and variance one, each defined on a fixed probability space (A,Ω,Pr. A special case of dependent coefficients is also studied.

  2. Irrational "Coefficients" in Renaissance Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation. Christoff Rudolff (1525) was the first to admit them in special cases, and subsequently they appear more liberally in Cardano (1539), Scheubel (1550), Bombelli (1572), and others, though most algebraists continued to ban them. We survey this development by examining the texts that show irrational coefficients and those that argue against them. We show that the debate took place entirely in the conceptual context of premodern, "cossic" algebra, and persisted in the sixteenth century independent of the development of the new algebra of Viète, Decartes, and Fermat. This was a formal innovation violating prevailing concepts that we propose could only be introduced because of the growing autonomy of notation from rhetorical text.

  3. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  4. Variational problem with complex coefficient of a nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Arts and Science, Kafkas University, ..... Applying the Cauchy–Bunyakowski inequality to this equality and using the estimates ..... Firstly, let us show that the gradient Jα is continuous on the set V, i.e..

  5. Determination of complex electromechanical coefficients for piezoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao-Hong

    Sugar maple decline, a result of many possible biotic and abiotic causes, has been a problem in northern Pennsylvania since the early 1980s. Several studies have focused on specific causes, yet few have tried to look at a wide array. The purpose of this research was to investigate stresses in sugar maple forest plots in northern Pennsylvania. Three studies were undertaken. The first study examined the spatial extent of sugar maple on 248 plots in Bailey's ecoregions 212F and 212G, which are glaciated and unglaciated regions, respectively. In addition, a health assessment of sugar maple in Pennsylvania was made, with a resulting separation in population between healthy and unhealthy stands occurring at 20 percent dead sugar maple basal area. The second study was conducted to evaluate a statistical sampling design of 28 forested plots, from the above studies population of plots (248), and to provide data on physical and chemical soil variability and sample size estimation for other researchers. The variability of several soil parameters was examined within plots and between health classes of sugar maple and sample size estimations were derived for these populations. The effect of log-normal transformations on reducing variability and sample sizes was examined and soil descriptions of the plots sampled in 1998 were compared to the USDA Soil Survey mapping unit series descriptions for the plot location. Lastly, the effect of sampling intensity on the detection of significant differences between health class treatments was examined. The last study addressed sugar maple decline in northern Pennsylvania during the same period as the first study (approximately 1979-1989) but on 28 plots chosen from the first studies population. These were the same plots used in the second study on soil variability. Recent literature on sugar maple decline has focused on specific causes and few have tried to look at a wide array. This paper investigates stresses in sugar maple plots related to moisture and how these interact with other stresses such as chemistry, insect defoliation, geology, aspect, slope, topography, and atmospheric deposition.

  6. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. The products included the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd_490) and for the visible range (Kd_PAR), and euphotic depth (Zeu, corresponding to 1% of the surface incident photosynthetically available radiation or PAR). Above-water hyperspectral reflectance data collected over optically shallow waters of the Florida Keys between June 1997 and August 2011 were used to help understand algorithm performance over optically shallow waters. The in situ data covered a variety of water types in South Florida and the Caribbean Sea, ranging from deep clear waters, turbid coastal waters, and optically shallow waters (Kd_490 range of ~0.03 – 1.29m-1). An algorithm based on Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) showed the best performance (RMSD turbidity or shallow bottom contamination. Similar results were obtained when only in situ data were used to evaluate algorithm performance. The excellent agreement between satellite-derived remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and in situ Rrs suggested that

  7. Characterizing the reflectivity of handheld display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter; Badano, Aldo

    2014-08-01

    With increased use of handheld and tablet display devices for viewing medical images, methods for consistently measuring reflectivity of the devices are needed. In this note, the authors report on the characterization of diffuse reflections for handheld display devices including mobile phones and tablets using methods recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18 (TG18). The authors modified the diffuse reflectance coefficient measurement method outlined in the TG18 report. The authors measured seven handheld display devices (two phones and five tablets) and three workstation displays. The device was attached to a black panel with Velcro. To study the effect of the back surface on the diffuse reflectance coefficient, the authors created Styrofoam masks with different size square openings and placed it in front of the device. Overall, for each display device, measurements of illuminance and reflected luminance on the display screen were taken. The authors measured with no mask, with masks of varying size, and with display-size masks, and calculated the corresponding diffuse reflectance coefficient. For all handhelds, the diffuse reflectance coefficient measured with no back panel were lower than measurements performed with a mask. The authors found an overall increase in reflectivity as the size of the mask decreases. For workstations displays, diffuse reflectance coefficients were higher when no back panel was used, and higher than with masks. In all cases, as luminance increased, illuminance increased, but not at the same rate. Since the size of handheld displays is smaller than that of workstation devices, the TG18 method suffers from a dependency on illumination condition. The authors show that the diffuse reflection coefficients can vary depending on the nature of the back surface of the illuminating box. The variability in the diffuse coefficient can be as large as 20% depending on the size of the mask. For all measurements

  8. Calibration factor or calibration coefficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghzifene, A.; Shortt, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA/WHO network of SSDLs was set up in order to establish links between SSDL members and the international measurement system. At the end of 2001, there were 73 network members in 63 Member States. The SSDL network members provide calibration services to end-users at the national or regional level. The results of the calibrations are summarized in a document called calibration report or calibration certificate. The IAEA has been using the term calibration certificate and will continue using the same terminology. The most important information in a calibration certificate is a list of calibration factors and their related uncertainties that apply to the calibrated instrument for the well-defined irradiation and ambient conditions. The IAEA has recently decided to change the term calibration factor to calibration coefficient, to be fully in line with ISO [ISO 31-0], which recommends the use of the term coefficient when it links two quantities A and B (equation 1) that have different dimensions. The term factor should only be used for k when it is used to link the terms A and B that have the same dimensions A=k.B. However, in a typical calibration, an ion chamber is calibrated in terms of a physical quantity such as air kerma, dose to water, ambient dose equivalent, etc. If the chamber is calibrated together with its electrometer, then the calibration refers to the physical quantity to be measured per electrometer unit reading. In this case, the terms referred have different dimensions. The adoption by the Agency of the term coefficient to express the results of calibrations is consistent with the 'International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology' prepared jointly by the BIPM, IEC, ISO, OIML and other organizations. The BIPM has changed from factor to coefficient. The authors believe that this is more than just a matter of semantics and recommend that the SSDL network members adopt this change in terminology. (author)

  9. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars

    OpenAIRE

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O.; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 108 to 26.8 × 108 M−1cm−1. Measured values correl...

  10. A Reflectance Model for Relatively Clear and Turbid Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tiwari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs is of great interest for ocean colour studies in highly turbid and relatively clear waters. In this work a semianalytical model that simulates the spectral curves of remote sensing reflectance of these waters is developed based on the inherent optical properties (IOPs and f and Q factors. For accommodating differences in the optical properties of the water and accounting for their directional variations, IOPs and f and Q factors are derived as a function of phytoplankton pigments, suspended sediments and solar zenith angle. Results of this model are compared with in-situ bio-optical data collected at 83 stations encompassing highly turbid/relatively cleared waters of the South Sea of Korea. Measured and modeled remote sensing reflectances agree favorably in both magnitude and spectral shape, with considerably low errors (mean relative error MRE -0.0327; root mean square error RMSE 0.205, bias -0.0727 and slope 1.15 and correlation coefficient R2 0.74. These results suggest that the new model has the ability to reproduce measured reflectance values and has potentially profound implications for remote sensing of complex waters in this region.

  11. Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambui Mutoru, J.; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Irreversible thermodynamics establishes form of multicomponent diffusion coefficients. → Phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors affect sign of diffusion coefficients. → Negative diagonal elements of diffusion coefficients matrix can occur in non-ideal mixtures. → Eigenvalues of the matrix of Fickian diffusion coefficients may not be all real. - Abstract: The form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix in thermodynamically stable mixtures is established based on the form of phenomenological coefficients and thermodynamic factors. While phenomenological coefficients form a symmetric positive definite matrix, the determinant of thermodynamic factors matrix is positive. As a result, the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix has a positive determinant, but its elements - including diagonal elements - can be negative. Comprehensive survey of reported diffusion coefficients data for ternary and quaternary mixtures, confirms that invariably the determinant of the Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix is positive.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of diffuse attenuation coefficient in presence of non uniform profiles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E; Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E

    This paper presents a Monte Carlo simulation of the vertical depth structure of the downward attenuation coefficient (K sub(d)), and the irradiance reflectance (R) for a given profile of chlorophyll. The results are in quantitaive agreement...

  13. Reflection and transmission of light at periodic layered metamaterial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Thomas; Menzel, Christoph; Śmigaj, Wojciech; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lalanne, Philippe; Lederer, Falk

    2011-09-01

    The appropriate description of light scattering (transmission/reflection) at a bulky artificial medium, consisting of a sequence of functional metamaterial and natural material films, represents a major challenge in current theoretical nano-optics. Because in many relevant cases, in particular, in the optical domain, a metamaterial must not be described by an effective permittivity and permeability the usual Fresnel formalism cannot be applied. A reliable alternative consists in using a Bloch mode formalism known, e.g., from the theory of photonic crystals. It permits to split this complex issue into two more elementary ones, namely the study of light propagation in an infinitely extended metamaterial and the analysis of light scattering at interfaces between adjacent meta and natural materials. The first problem is routinely solved by calculating the relevant Bloch modes and their dispersion relations. The second task is more involved and represents the subject of the present study. It consists in using the general Bloch mode orthogonality to derive rigorous expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients at an interface between two three-dimensional absorptive periodic media for arbitrary incidence. A considerable simplification can be achieved if only the fundamental Bloch modes of both media govern the scattering properties at the interface. If this approximation is valid, which depends on the longitudinal metamaterial period, the periodic metamaterial may be termed homogeneous. Only in this case the disentanglement of the fundamental modes of both media can be performed and the reflection/transmission coefficients can be expressed in terms of two impedances, each depending solely on the properties of the fundamental mode of the respective medium. In order to complement the picture, we apply the present formalism to the quite general problem of reflection/transmission at a metamaterial film sandwiched between a dissimilar metamaterial. This

  14. Reflection and absorption of ordinary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, R.

    1990-11-01

    This study treats the system of Vlasov and Maxwell equations for the Fourier transform in space and time of a plasma referred to Cartesian coordinates with the coordinate z parallel to the uniform equilibrium magnetic field with the equilibrium plasma density dependent on ηx, where η is a parameter. The k y component of the wave vector is taken equal to zero, whereas k z is different from zero. When the interaction of ordinary and extraordinary waves is neglected, the Fourier transform of the electric field of the ordinary waves obeys a homogeneous integral equation with principal part integrals, which is solved in the case of weak absorption and sufficiently small η (essentially smaller than vacuum wave vector), but without limitations on the ratio of the wavelength to the Larmor radius (the usual approximation being limited to wavelengths much smaller than the Larmor radius). The reflection and transmission coefficients and the total energy absorption are given in this approximation, whereas the energy conservation theorem for the reflection and transmission coefficients in an absorption-free plasma are derived for every value of η without explicit knowledge of the solutions. Finally, a general and compact equation for the eigenvalues which does not require complex analysis and knowledge of all solutions of the dispersion relation is given. (orig.)

  15. Link prediction with node clustering coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihao; Lin, Youfang; Wang, Jing; Gregory, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Predicting missing links in incomplete complex networks efficiently and accurately is still a challenging problem. The recently proposed Cannistrai-Alanis-Ravai (CAR) index shows the power of local link/triangle information in improving link-prediction accuracy. Inspired by the idea of employing local link/triangle information, we propose a new similarity index with more local structure information. In our method, local link/triangle structure information can be conveyed by clustering coefficient of common-neighbors directly. The reason why clustering coefficient has good effectiveness in estimating the contribution of a common-neighbor is that it employs links existing between neighbors of a common-neighbor and these links have the same structural position with the candidate link to this common-neighbor. In our experiments, three estimators: precision, AUP and AUC are used to evaluate the accuracy of link prediction algorithms. Experimental results on ten tested networks drawn from various fields show that our new index is more effective in predicting missing links than CAR index, especially for networks with low correlation between number of common-neighbors and number of links between common-neighbors.

  16. Study of transport coefficients of nanodiamond nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Minakov, A. V.; Guzei, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental data on the thermal conductivity coefficient and viscosity coefficient of nanodiamond nanofluids are presented. Distilled water and ethylene glycol were used as the base fluid. Dependences of transport coefficients on concentration are obtained. It was shown that the thermal conductivity coefficient increases with increasing nanodiamonds concentration. It was shown that base fluids properties and nanodiamonds concentration affect on the rheology of nanofluids.

  17. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  18. Interlayer interactions in absorption and reflection spectra of bismuth HTSC crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruchinin, S.P.; Yaremko, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The HTSC reflection and absorption optic spectra peculiarities are analysed in the paper on the basis of bismuth and thallium. The approach suggested takes into account the complex character of crystals structure, possible localization of excitations in the isolated layers and further excitations exchange due to the interlayer interaction between cuprate (Cu O) and quasi-degenerate bismuth layers (Bi O/3pO). The expressions for the excitation and intensity energies of the corresponding transitions are obtained. It is shown that only part of excitations whose number is determined by the number of layers in the unit cell will be manifest in optical reflection and absorption spectra. The experimental results on spectral dependence of crystal reflection coefficients are analysed

  19. Correlation coefficients in neutron β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.

    1978-01-01

    The various angular and polarisation coefficients in neutron decay are the principal sources of information on the β-interaction. Measurements of the electron-neutrino angular correlation coefficient (a), the neutron-spin-electron-momentum correlation coefficient (A), the neutron-spin-neutrino-momentum correlation coefficient (B), and the triple correlation coefficient D and time-reversal invariance are reviewed and the results discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  1. Characterization of the effective electrostriction coefficients in ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkin, A. L.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Chauvy, P.-F.; Setter, N.

    2001-06-01

    Electromechanical properties of a number of ferroelectric films including PbZrxTi1-xO3(PZT), 0.9PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.1PbTiO3(PMN-PT), and SrBi2Ta2O9(SBT) are investigated using laser interferometry combined with conventional dielectric measurements. Effective electrostriction coefficients of the films, Qeff, are determined using a linearized electrostriction equation that couples longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient, d33, with the polarization and dielectric constant. It is shown that, in PZT films, electrostriction coefficients slightly increase with applied electric field, reflecting the weak contribution of non-180° domains to piezoelectric properties. In contrast, in PMN-PT and SBT films electrostriction coefficients are field independent, indicating the intrinsic nature of the piezoelectric response. The experimental values of Qeff are significantly smaller than those of corresponding bulk materials due to substrate clamping and possible size effects. Electrostriction coefficients of PZT layers are shown to depend strongly on the composition and preferred orientation of the grains. In particular, Qeff of (100) textured rhombohedral films (x=0.7) is significantly greater than that of (111) layers. Thus large anisotropy of the electrostrictive coefficients is responsible for recently observed large piezoelectric coefficients of (100) textured PZT films. Effective electrostriction coefficients obtained by laser interferometry allow evaluation of the electromechanical properties of ferroelectric films based solely on the dielectric parameters and thus are very useful in the design and fabrication of microsensors and microactuators.

  2. Influence of roughness parameters on coefficient of friction under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S¯adhan¯a Vol. 33, Part 3, June 2008, pp. ... Surface texture and thus roughness parameters influence coefficient of friction during sliding. ..... tural irregularities and complexities of the natural system, fractal is widely used to explain the natural ...

  3. Reciprocal relations for transmission coefficients - Theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianmin; Achenbach, Jan D.; Roberts, Ronald A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a rigorous proof of certain intuitively plausible reciprocal relations for time harmonic plane-wave transmission and reflection at the interface between a fluid and an anisotropic elastic solid. Precise forms of the reciprocity relations for the transmission coefficients and for the transmitted energy fluxes are derived, based on the reciprocity theorem of elastodynamics. It is shown that the reciprocity relations can be used in conjunction with measured values of peak amplitudes for transmission through a slab of the solid (water-solid-water) to obtain the water-solid coefficients. Experiments were performed for a slab of a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite. Good agreement of the experimentally measured transmission coefficients with theoretical values was obtained.

  4. Optimization of traceable coaxial RF reflection standards with 7-mm-N-connector using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new coaxial device with 7-mm-N-connector was developed providing calculable complex reflection coefficients for traceable calibration of vector network analyzers (VNA. It was specifically designed to fill the gap between 0 Hz (DC, direct current and 250MHz, though the device was tested up to 10GHz. The frequency dependent reflection coefficient of this device can be described by a model, which is characterized by traceable measurements. It is therefore regarded as a “traceable model". The new idea of using such models for traceability has been verified, found to be valid and was used for these investigations. The DC resistance value was extracted from RF measurements up to 10 GHz by means of Genetic Algorithms (GA. The GA was used to obtain the elements of the model describing the reflection coefficient Γ of a network of SMD resistors. The DC values determined with the GA from RF measurements match the traceable value at DC within 3·10-3, which is in good agreement with measurements using reference air lines at GHz frequencies.

  5. Extinction Coefficient of Gold Nanostars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puig, Helena; Tam, Justina O; Yen, Chun-Wan; Gehrke, Lee; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2015-07-30

    Gold nanostars (NStars) are highly attractive for biological applications due to their surface chemistry, facile synthesis and optical properties. Here, we synthesize NStars in HEPES buffer at different HEPES/Au ratios, producing NStars of different sizes and shapes, and therefore varying optical properties. We measure the extinction coefficient of the synthesized NStars at their maximum surface plasmon resonances (SPR), which range from 5.7 × 10 8 to 26.8 × 10 8 M -1 cm -1 . Measured values correlate with those obtained from theoretical models of the NStars using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which we use to simulate the extinction spectra of the nanostars. Finally, because NStars are typically used in biological applications, we conjugate DNA and antibodies to the NStars and calculate the footprint of the bound biomolecules.

  6. Kerr scattering coefficients via isomonodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Bruno Carneiro da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco,50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Novaes, Fábio [International Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte,Av. Odilon Gomes de Lima 1722, Capim Macio, Natal-RN 59078-400 (Brazil)

    2015-11-23

    We study the scattering of a massless scalar field in a generic Kerr background. Using a particular gauge choice based on the current conservation of the radial equation, we give a generic formula for the scattering coefficient in terms of the composite monodromy parameter σ between the inner and the outer horizons. Using the isomonodromy flow, we calculate σ exactly in terms of the Painlevé V τ-function. We also show that the eigenvalue problem for the angular equation (spheroidal harmonics) can be calculated using the same techniques. We use recent developments relating the Painlevé V τ-function to Liouville irregular conformal blocks to claim that this scattering problem is solved in the combinatorial sense, with known expressions for the τ-function near the critical points.

  7. Wave Reflection in 3D Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, Barbara; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent experiments carried out in wave basin on breakwaters with armour layer of rocks and cubes, this paper examines the dependence of the reflection coefficient on wave directional spreading and obliquity. Results suggest that long-crested and short-crested waves give similar reflectio...

  8. Criticality coefficient calculation for a small PWR using Monte Carlo Transport Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trombetta, Debora M.; Su, Jian, E-mail: dtrombetta@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Chirayath, Sunil S., E-mail: sunilsc@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute, Texas A and M University, TX (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Computational models of reactors are increasingly used to predict nuclear reactor physics parameters responsible for reactivity changes which could lead to accidents and losses. In this work, preliminary results for criticality coefficient calculation using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX were presented for a small PWR. The computational modeling developed consists of the core with fuel elements, radial reflectors, and control rods inside a pressure vessel. Three different geometries were simulated, a single fuel pin, a fuel assembly and the core, with the aim to compare the criticality coefficients among themselves.The criticality coefficients calculated were: Doppler Temperature Coefficient, Coolant Temperature Coefficient, Coolant Void Coefficient, Power Coefficient, and Control Rod Worth. The coefficient values calculated by the MCNP code were compared with literature results, showing good agreement with reference data, which validate the computational model developed and allow it to be used to perform more complex studies. Criticality Coefficient values for the three simulations done had little discrepancy for almost all coefficients investigated, the only exception was the Power Coefficient. Preliminary results presented show that simple modelling as a fuel assembly can describe changes at almost all the criticality coefficients, avoiding the need of a complex core simulation. (author)

  9. The optical constants and spectral specular reflectivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havstad, M.A.; Schildbach, M.A.; McLean, W. II.

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of the specular reflectivity and the optical constants of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) have been made using two independent optical systems. The first measures reflectance (at 1.06 μm and 293 K) by comparing the intensity of a laser beam before and after reflecting off the sample. The second determines the complex index of raft-action (from 0.55 to 8.45 μm, with sample temperatures of 293, 480, 900 and 1300 K) by ellipsometry. Agreement between the two methods is good. Moderate reflectivities are observed over the full spectral range of measurement: the spectral directional-hemispherical reflectivity at normal incidence varies from 0.41 at 0.55 μm to 0.74 at 8.45 μm. The components of the complex index of refraction increase smoothly with wavelength. The index of refraction increases from 3.10 at 0.55 μm to 7.84 at 8.45 μm. The extinction coefficient varies from 2.01 to 6.66 over the same range

  10. Thor, a thorium-reflected plutonium-metal critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, G.E.; Paxton, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Critical specifications of Thor, an old assembly of thorium-reflected plutonium, have been refined. These specifications are brought together with void coefficients, Rossi-alpha values, fission traverses, and spectral indices

  11. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...

  12. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  13. Condensation coefficient of water in a weak condensation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Yamano, Daigo; Yano, Takeru; Fujikawa, Shigeo

    2008-07-01

    The condensation coefficient of water at a vapor-liquid interface is determined by combining shock tube experiments and numerical simulations of the Gaussian-BGK Boltzmann equation. The time evolution in thickness of a liquid film, which is formed on the shock tube endwall behind the shock wave reflected at the endwall, is measured with an optical interferometer consisting of the physical beam and the reference one. The reference beam is utilized to eliminate systematic noises from the physical beam. The growth rate of the film is evaluated from the measured time evolution and it is incorporated into the kinetic boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation. From a numerical simulation using the boundary condition, the condensation coefficient of water is uniquely deduced. The results show that, in a condition of weak condensation near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state, the condensation coefficient of water is almost equal to the evaporation coefficient estimated by molecular dynamics simulations near a vapor-liquid equilibrium state and it decreases as the system becomes a nonequilibrium state. The condensation coefficient of water is nearly identical with that of methanol [Mikami, S., Kobayashi, K., Ota, T., Fujikawa, S., Yano, T., Ichijo, M., 2006. Molecular gas dynamics approaches to interfacial phenomena accompanied with condensation. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 30, 795-800].

  14. The influence of hydrogen bonding on partition coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nádia Melo; Kenny, Peter W.; Montanari, Carlos A.; Prokopczyk, Igor M.; Ribeiro, Jean F. R.; Rocha, Josmar R.; Sartori, Geraldo Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    This Perspective explores how consideration of hydrogen bonding can be used to both predict and better understand partition coefficients. It is shown how polarity of both compounds and substructures can be estimated from measured alkane/water partition coefficients. When polarity is defined in this manner, hydrogen bond donors are typically less polar than hydrogen bond acceptors. Analysis of alkane/water partition coefficients in conjunction with molecular electrostatic potential calculations suggests that aromatic chloro substituents may be less lipophilic than is generally believed and that some of the effect of chloro-substitution stems from making the aromatic π-cloud less available to hydrogen bond donors. Relationships between polarity and calculated hydrogen bond basicity are derived for aromatic nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen. Aligned hydrogen bond acceptors appear to present special challenges for prediction of alkane/water partition coefficients and this may reflect `frustration' of solvation resulting from overlapping hydration spheres. It is also shown how calculated hydrogen bond basicity can be used to model the effect of aromatic aza-substitution on octanol/water partition coefficients.

  15. Factorization of Transport Coefficients in Macroporous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    We prove the fundamental theorem about factorization of the phenomenological coefficients for transport in macroporous media. By factorization we mean the representation of the transport coefficients as products of geometric parameters of the porous medium and the parameters characteristic...

  16. Teoria, determinação, complexidade: desafios da reflexão sobre educação Theory, determination, complexity: challenging issues in the reflection on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian do Valle

    2003-09-01

    answers, the old concepts, the logic and the explicative theories that fall under the weight of the everyday evidences of their exhaustion; on the other, the demand to mistrust all answers and the childish pleasure in deconstructing - how could we be surprised by the huge success being obtained by analyses that - under new clothing - offer to education the model of the natural world as a parameter and as a tool to help its understanding of the "human complexity"? How can we apprehend through our understanding something that, in its being, reveals its igneous character or, as it is usually said, its complexity? The present text looks at these issues and proposes, as a sort of challenge, that, in order to reflect upon the way of being that is peculiar to human beings, we should start with the human being him/herself.

  17. Schur Stability Regions for Complex Quadratic Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sui Sun; Huang, Shao Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Given a quadratic polynomial with complex coefficients, necessary and sufficient conditions are found in terms of the coefficients such that all its roots have absolute values less than 1. (Contains 3 figures.)

  18. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aselage, T.L.; Emin, D.; Wood, C.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Howard, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Boron carbides exhibit an anomalously large Seebeck coefficient with a temperature coefficient that is characteristic of polaronic hopping between inequivalent sites. The inequivalence in the sites is associated with disorder in the solid. The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient for materials prepared by different techniques provides insight into the nature of the disorder

  19. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  20. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  1. Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.

    1985-01-01

    Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains

  2. The seismic reflection inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, W W

    2009-01-01

    The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)

  3. Energy coefficients for a propeller series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency for a propeller is calculated by energy coefficients. These coefficients are related to four types of losses, i.e. the axial, the rotational, the frictional, and the finite blade number loss, and one gain, i.e. the axial gain. The energy coefficients are derived by use...... of the potential theory with the propeller modelled as an actuator disk. The efficiency based on the energy coefficients is calculated for a propeller series. The results show a good agreement between the efficiency based on the energy coefficients and the efficiency obtained by a vortex-lattice method....

  4. Broadband computation of the scattering coefficients of infinite arbitrary cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Cédric; Guizal, Brahim; Felbacq, Didier

    2012-07-01

    We employ a time-domain method to compute the near field on a contour enclosing infinitely long cylinders of arbitrary cross section and constitution. We therefore recover the cylindrical Hankel coefficients of the expansion of the field outside the circumscribed circle of the structure. The recovered coefficients enable the wideband analysis of complex systems, e.g., the determination of the radar cross section becomes straightforward. The prescription for constructing such a numerical tool is provided in great detail. The method is validated by computing the scattering coefficients for a homogeneous circular cylinder illuminated by a plane wave, a problem for which an analytical solution exists. Finally, some radiation properties of an optical antenna are examined by employing the proposed technique.

  5. Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of discrete groups in subgroup bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gaoli

    2018-04-01

    We express each Clebsch-Gordan (CG) coefficient of a discrete group as a product of a CG coefficient of its subgroup and a factor, which we call an embedding factor. With an appropriate definition, such factors are fixed up to phase ambiguities. Particularly, they are invariant under basis transformations of irreducible representations of both the group and its subgroup. We then impose on the embedding factors constraints, which relate them to their counterparts under complex conjugate and therefore restrict the phases of embedding factors. In some cases, the phase ambiguities are reduced to sign ambiguities. We describe the procedure of obtaining embedding factors and then calculate CG coefficients of the group 𝒫𝒮ℒ2(7) in terms of embedding factors of its subgroups S4 and 𝒯7.

  6. A program for calculating and plotting soft x-ray optical interaction coefficients for molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.M.; Davis, J.C.; Jacobsen, C.J.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1989-08-01

    Comprehensive tables for atomic scattering factor components, f1 and f2, were compiled by Henke et al. for the extended photon region 50 - 10000 eV. Accurate calculations of optical interaction coefficients for absorption, reflection and scattering by material systems (e.g. filters, multi-layers, etc...), which have widespread application, can be based simply upon the atomic scattering factors for the elements comprising the material, except near the absorption threshold energies. These calculations based upon the weighted sum of f1 and f2 for each atomic species present can be very tedious if done by hand. This led us to develop a user friendly program to perform these calculations on an IBM PC or compatible computer. By entering the chemical formula, density and thickness of up to six molecules, values of the f1, f2, mass absorption transmission efficiencies, attenuation lengths, mirror reflectivities and complex indices of refraction can be calculated and plotted as a function of energy or wavelength. This program will be available distribution. 7 refs., 1 fig

  7. The reflection seismology measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, C.

    1987-01-01

    Even though data acquisition and data processing procedures have become more and more complex in recent decades, the end products of a reflection seismic survey have remained simple and illustrative. A seismic section resembles a geological cross-section and can be interpreted without in-depth knowledge provided that the basic principles behind the method are understood. This article attempts to convey some insight into the methodology without claiming to be scientifically exact or complete. (author)

  8. Local diffusion coefficient determination: Mediterranean Sea experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacciola, D.; Borghini, M.; Cannarsa, S.

    1993-10-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi/enclosed basin characterized by the presence of channels and straits influencing the circulation, temperature and salinity fields. The tides generally have amplitudes of the order of 10 cm and velocities of few cm/s. Conversely, the wind forced circulation is very strong and can assume velocity values of 1 m/s at the sea surface. The temperature and salinity fields have a high temporal and spatial variability, because of many mixing processes existing in the sea. For example, the waters coming from the Provencal basin meet those waters coming from the Tyrrhenian Sea in the eastern Ligurian Sea, creating meanders and eddies. Local runoff influences significantly the coastal circulation. This paper describes diffusion experiments carried out in this complex environment. The experimental apparatus for the detection of the fluorescine released at sea was composed by two Turner mod. 450 fluorometres. During the experiments, temperature and salinity vertical profiles were measured by using a CTD; meteorological data were acquired on a dinghy. The positioning was obtained by means of a Motorola system, having a precision of about 1 meter. The experiments were carried out under different stratification and wind conditions. From data analysis it was found that the horizontal diffusion coefficient does not depend on time or boundary conditions. The role of stratification is important with regard to vertical displacement of the dye. However, its role with regard to vertical diffusion cannot be assessed with the actual experimental apparatus

  9. Taylor coefficients and coefficient multipliers of Hardy and Bergman-type spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jevtić, Miroljub; Arsenović, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic overview of the theory of Taylor coefficients of functions in some classical spaces of analytic functions and especially of the coefficient multipliers between spaces of Hardy type. Offering a comprehensive reference guide to the subject, it is the first of its kind in this area. After several introductory chapters covering the basic material, a large variety of results obtained over the past 80 years, including the most recent ones, are treated in detail. Several chapters end with discussions of practical applications and related topics that graduate students and experts in other subjects may find useful for their own purposes. Thus, a further aim of the book is to communicate to non-specialists some concrete facts that may be of value in their own work. The book can also be used as a textbook or a supplementary reference for an advanced graduate course. It is primarily intended for specialists in complex and functional analysis, graduate students, and experts in other related...

  10. Quality-factor and reflection-coefficient estimation using surface-wave ghost reflections from subvertical structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganov, Deyan; Ruigrok, Elmer; Ghose, Ranajit; Mikesell, Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper

    Seismic interferometry can retrieve the Green's function between receivers from the cross-correlation and summation of recordings from a boundary of surrounding sources. Having the sources only along a boundary is sufficient if the medium is lossless. If the medium is dissipative, the retrieved

  11. Joule-Thomson Coefficient for Strongly Interacting Unitary Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Kai; Chen Jisheng; Li Chao

    2010-01-01

    The Joule-Thomson effect reflects the interaction among constituent particles of macroscopic system. For classical ideal gas, the corresponding Joule-Thomson coefficient is vanishing while it is non-zero for ideal quantum gas due to the quantum degeneracy. In recent years, much attention is paid to the unitary Fermi gas with infinite two-body scattering length. According to universal analysis, the thermodynamical law of unitary Fermi gas is similar to that of non-interacting ideal gas, which can be explored by the virial theorem P = 2E/3V. Based on previous works, we further study the unitary Fermi gas properties. The effective chemical potential is introduced to characterize the nonlinear levels crossing effects in a strongly interacting medium. The changing behavior of the rescaled Joule-Thomson coefficient according to temperature manifests a quite different behavior from that for ideal Fermi gas. (general)

  12. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived......The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However......, in many cases such a coefficient would be highly appreciated, e.g. in interaction of industry and research or for the distinction and selection of suitable building materials throughout design and practise. This article first highlights the importance of drying experiments for hygrothermal...

  13. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  14. Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.

  15. New definition of the cell diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.

    1975-01-01

    As was shown in a recent work by Gelbard, the usually applied Benoist definition of the cell diffusion coefficient gives two different values if two different definitions of the cell are made. A new definition is proposed that preserves the neutron balance for the homogenized lattice and that is independent of the cell definition. The resulting diffusion coefficient is identical with the main term of Benoist's diffusion coefficient

  16. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  17. Transfer coefficients in ultracold strongly coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A. A.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Zelener, B. V.

    2018-03-01

    We use both analytical and molecular dynamic methods for electron transfer coefficients in an ultracold plasma when its temperature is small and the coupling parameter characterizing the interaction of electrons and ions exceeds unity. For these conditions, we use the approach of nearest neighbor to determine the average electron (ion) diffusion coefficient and to calculate other electron transfer coefficients (viscosity and electrical and thermal conductivities). Molecular dynamics simulations produce electronic and ionic diffusion coefficients, confirming the reliability of these results. The results compare favorably with experimental and numerical data from earlier studies.

  18. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate......This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  19. Khovanov homology for virtual knots with arbitrary coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manturov, Vassily O

    2007-01-01

    The Khovanov homology theory over an arbitrary coefficient ring is extended to the case of virtual knots. We introduce a complex which is well-defined in the virtual case and is homotopy equivalent to the original Khovanov complex in the classical case. Unlike Khovanov's original construction, our definition of the complex does not use any additional prescription of signs to the edges of a cube. Moreover, our method enables us to construct a Khovanov homology theory for 'twisted virtual knots' in the sense of Bourgoin and Viro (including knots in three-dimensional projective space). We generalize a number of results of Khovanov homology theory (the Wehrli complex, minimality problems, Frobenius extensions) to virtual knots with non-orientable atoms

  20. Hodge-DeRham theory with degenerating coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, E.

    2006-12-01

    Let L be a variation of Hod ge structures on the complement X* of a normal crossing divisor (NCD) Y in a smooth analytic variety X and let j : X* = X - Y → X denote the open embedding. The purpose of this paper is to describe the weight filtration W on a combinatorial logarithmic complex computing the (higher) direct image j * L, underlying a mixed Hodge complex when X is proper, proving in this way the results in the note [14] generalizing the constant coefficients case. When a morphism f : X → D to a complex disc is given with Y = f -1 (0), the weight filtration on the complex of nearby cocycles Ψ f (L) on Y can be described by these logarithmic techniques and a comparison theorem shows that the filtration coincides with the weight defined by the logarithm of the monodromy which provides the link with various results on the subject. (author)

  1. Thin transparent film characterization by photothermal reflectance (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Voti, R.; Wright, O. B.; Matsuda, O.; Larciprete, M. C.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.

    2003-01-01

    Photothermal reflectance methods have been intensively applied to the nondestructive testing of opaque thin films [D. P. Almond and P. M. Patel, Photothermal Science and Techniques (Chapman and Hall, London, 1996); C. Bento and D. P. Almond, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1022 (1995); J. Opsal, A. Rosencwaig, and D. Willenborg, Appl. Opt. 22, 3169 (1983)]. The basic principle is based on thermal wave interferometry: the opaque specimen is illuminated by a laser beam, periodically chopped at the frequency f, so as to generate a plane thermal wave in the surface region. This wave propagates in the film, approaches the rear interface (film-bulk), is partially reflected back, reaches the front surface, is again partially reflected back and so on, giving rise to thermal wave interference. A consequence of this interference is that the surface temperature may be enhanced (constructive interference) or reduced (destructive interference) by simply scanning the frequency f (that is, the thermal diffusion length μ=√D/πf ), so as to observe damped oscillations as a function of f; in practice only the first oscillation may be clearly resolved and used to measure either the film thickness d or the film thermal diffusivity D, and this situation occurs when μ≈d. In general, photothermal reflectance does not measure directly the surface temperature variation, but rather a directly related signal determined by the thermo-optic coefficients and the sample geometry; for detection it is common to monitor the optical reflectivity variation of a probe beam normally incident on the sample. If the thin film is partially transparent to the probe, the theory becomes more difficult [O. Matsuda and O. B. Wright, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (in press)] and one should consider the probe beam multiple reflections in the thin film. The probe modulation is optically inhomogeneous due to the temperature-induced changes in refractive index. Although in the past the complexity of the analysis has impeded

  2. Electro-optic study of PZT ferroelectric ceramics using modulation of reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazkov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optic coefficients of variations in the refractive index of PZT and PLZT ceramic materials induced by ac electric field are estimated using modulation of reflected light. The electro-optic coefficients of PLZT ceramics measured with the aid of conventional birefringence using the phase shift of transmitted radiation and the proposed method of birefringence using the modulation of reflected light are compared.

  3. Dealing with equality and benefit for water allocation in a lake watershed: A Gini-coefficient based stochastic optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C.; Qin, X. S.; Chen, Y.; Guo, H. C.

    2018-06-01

    A Gini-coefficient based stochastic optimization (GBSO) model was developed by integrating the hydrological model, water balance model, Gini coefficient and chance-constrained programming (CCP) into a general multi-objective optimization modeling framework for supporting water resources allocation at a watershed scale. The framework was advantageous in reflecting the conflicting equity and benefit objectives for water allocation, maintaining the water balance of watershed, and dealing with system uncertainties. GBSO was solved by the non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithms-II (NSGA-II), after the parameter uncertainties of the hydrological model have been quantified into the probability distribution of runoff as the inputs of CCP model, and the chance constraints were converted to the corresponding deterministic versions. The proposed model was applied to identify the Pareto optimal water allocation schemes in the Lake Dianchi watershed, China. The optimal Pareto-front results reflected the tradeoff between system benefit (αSB) and Gini coefficient (αG) under different significance levels (i.e. q) and different drought scenarios, which reveals the conflicting nature of equity and efficiency in water allocation problems. A lower q generally implies a lower risk of violating the system constraints and a worse drought intensity scenario corresponds to less available water resources, both of which would lead to a decreased system benefit and a less equitable water allocation scheme. Thus, the proposed modeling framework could help obtain the Pareto optimal schemes under complexity and ensure that the proposed water allocation solutions are effective for coping with drought conditions, with a proper tradeoff between system benefit and water allocation equity.

  4. The reflected amplitude ratio of multilayers and superlattice describe the dynamical diffraction of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Q.A.; Mangi, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Calculating the rocking curves of complicated layered structures, such as non-ideal super lattices on perfect crystals are clearly exposed with observed diffraction profile. Recursion formulas for calculating reflected amplitude ratio of multilayer and super lattices have been involved from the Takagi-Taupin differential equation, which describes the dynamical diffraction of X-rays in deformed crystal. The Kinematical theory can computing time only in case of ideal superlattice for which geometric series can be used but the reflectivity must be below 10 % so that multiple reflections can be neglected for a perfect crystal of arbitrary thickness the absorption at the centre of the dynamical reflection is found to be proportional to the square root of the reflectivity. Sputter- deposited periodic multilayers of tungsten and carbon can be considered as an artificial crystal, for which dynamical X-rays diffraction calculations give the result very similar to those of macroscopic optical description in terms of the complex index of refraction and Frensnel relation coefficient. (author)

  5. Monoenergetic particle transport in a semi-infinite medium with reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    Next to neutron or photon transport in infinite geometry, particle transport in semi-infinite geometry is probably the most investigated transport problem. When the mean free path for particle interaction is small compared to the physical dimension of the scattering medium, the infinite or semi-infinite geometry assumption is reasonable for a variety of applications. These include nondestructive testing, photon transport in plant canopies, and inverse problems associated with well logging. Another important application of the transport solution in a semi-infinite medium is as a benchmark to which other more approximate methods can be compared. In this paper, the transport solution in a semi-infinite medium with both diffuse and specular reflection at the free surface is solved analytically and numerically evaluated. The approach is based on a little-known solution obtained by Sobelev for the problem with specular reflection, which itself originates from the classical albedo problem solution without reflection. Using Sobelev's solution as a partial Green's function, the exiting flux for diffuse reflection can be obtained. In this way, the exiting flux for a half-space with both constant diffuse and specular reflection coefficients is obtained for the first time. This expression can then be extended to the complex plane to obtain the interior flux as an inverse Laplace transform, which is numerically evaluated

  6. Permeability and Dispersion Coefficients in Rocks with Fracture Network - 12140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.K.; Htway, M.Z. [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 150, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Fluid flow and solute transport are considered for a rock medium with a fracture network with regard to the effective permeability and the dispersion coefficients. To investigate the effects of individual fractures a three-fracture system is chosen in which two are parallel and the third one connects the two at different angles. Specifically the micro-cell boundary-value problems(defined through multiple scale analysis) are solved numerically by using finite elements to calculate the permeability and dispersion coefficients. It is shown that the permeability depends significantly on the pattern of the fracture distribution and the dispersion coefficient is influenced by both the externally imposed pressure gradient (which also reflects the flow field) and the direction of the gradient of solute concentration on the macro-scale. From the calculations of the permeability and dispersion coefficients for solute in a rock medium with a fracture network the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium depends on the primary orientation of the fracture network and is influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The cross permeability, e.g., permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the external pressure gradient is rather insensitive to the orientation of the fracture network. 3. Calculation of permeability is most efficiently achieved with optimal discretization across individual fractures and is rather insensitive to the discretization along the fracture.. 4. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient Dxx of a fractured medium depends on both the macro-scale concentration gradient and the direction of the flow (pressure gradient). Hence both features must be considered when investigating solute transport in a fractured medium. (authors)

  7. Resummed coefficient function for the shape function

    OpenAIRE

    Aglietti, U.

    2001-01-01

    We present a leading evaluation of the resummed coefficient function for the shape function. It is also shown that the coefficient function is short-distance-dominated. Our results allow relating the shape function computed on the lattice to the physical QCD distributions.

  8. Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferraris

    2012-01-01

    accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.

  9. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  10. Alternatives to Pearson's and Spearman's Correlation Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several alternatives to Pearson's correlation coefficient and many examples. In the samples where the rank in a discrete variable counts more than the variable values, the mixtures that we propose of Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients give better results.

  11. Anomaly coefficients: Their calculation and congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of anomaly coefficients is presented. For su(n) some explicit and general expressions are given for these. In particular, certain congruences are discovered and investigated among the leading anomaly coefficients. As an application of these congruences, the absence of global six-dimensional gauge anomalies is shown

  12. Prediction of friction coefficients for gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. F.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.

  13. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  14. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change signi- ficantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal varia- tions in the rotation rate near the solar ...

  15. Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

  16. Gini coefficient as a life table function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini

  17. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable...... conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease...... of the drag coefficient with wind speed occurs for all of the calculation methods. A classification of flux calculation methods is constructed, which unifies the most common previous approaches. The roughness length corresponding to the usual Monin-Obukhov stability functions decreases with increasing wind...

  18. Diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Santos, Cecilia I.A.V.; Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V.; Gaspar, Gualter D.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mutual diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous dilute solutions. ► Influence of the thermodynamic factors on the variation of their mutual diffusion coefficients. ► Estimation of the mutual limiting diffusion coefficients of the molecular, D m 0 , and ionized forms, D ± 0 , of this drug. - Abstract: Binary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by the Taylor dispersion method, for aqueous solutions of paracetamol (PA) at concentrations from (0.001 to 0.050) mol·dm −3 at T = 298.15 K, are reported. From the Nernst–Hartley equation and our experimental results, the limiting diffusion coefficient of this drug and its thermodynamic factors are estimated, thereby contributing in this way to a better understanding of the structure of such systems and of their thermodynamic behaviour in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  19. Estimation of the simple correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates some unfamiliar properties of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for the estimation of simple correlation coefficient. Although Pearson's r is biased, except for limited situations, and the minimum variance unbiased estimator has been proposed in the literature, researchers routinely employ the sample correlation coefficient in their practical applications, because of its simplicity and popularity. In order to support such practice, this study examines the mean squared errors of r and several prominent formulas. The results reveal specific situations in which the sample correlation coefficient performs better than the unbiased and nearly unbiased estimators, facilitating recommendation of r as an effect size index for the strength of linear association between two variables. In addition, related issues of estimating the squared simple correlation coefficient are also considered.

  20. Prediction of liquid metal alloy radiant properties from measurements of the Hall coefficient and the direct current resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havstad, M.A.; Qiu, T.

    1995-04-01

    The thermal radiative properties of high temperature solid and liquid metal alloys are particularly useful to research and development efforts in laser cladding and machining, electron beam welding and laser isotope separation. However the cost, complexity, and difficulty of measuring these properties have forced the use of crude estimates from the Hagen-Rubens relation, the Drude relations, or extrapolation from low temperature or otherwise flawed data (e.g., oxidized). The authors have found in this work that published values for the Hall coefficient and the electrical resistivity of liquid metal alloys can provide useful estimates of the reflectance and emittance of some groups of binary liquid metal and high temperature solid alloys. The estimation method computes the Drude free electron parameters, and thence the optical constants and the radiant properties from the dependence of the Hall coefficient and direct current resistivity on alloy composition (the Hall coefficient gives the free electron density and the resistivity gives the average time between collisions). They find that predictions of the radiant properties of molten cerium-copper alloy, which use the measured variations in the Hall coefficient and resistivity (both highly nonlinear) as a function of alloy fraction (rather than linear combinations of the values of the pure elements) yield a good comparison to published measurements of the variation of the normal spectral emittance (a different but also nonlinear function) of cerium-copper alloy at the single wavelength available for comparison, 0.645 μm. The success of the approach in the visible range is particularly notable because one expects a Drude based approach to improve with increasing wavelength from the visible into the infrared. Details of the estimation method, the comparison between the calculation and the measured emittance, and a discussion of what groups of elements may also provide agreement is given

  1. Reflections around Artefacts: Using a Deliberative Approach to Teaching Reflective Practices in Fashion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael; Brough, Dean

    2012-01-01

    While requiring students to think reflectively is a desirable teaching goal, it is often fraught with complexity and is sometimes poorly implemented in higher education. In this paper, we describe an approach to academic reflective practices that fitted a design subject in fashion education and was perceived as effective in enhancing student…

  2. Regression Models for Predicting Force Coefficients of Aerofoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ABDUL AKBAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable sources of energy are attractive and advantageous in a lot of different ways. Among the renewable energy sources, wind energy is the fastest growing type. Among wind energy converters, Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs have received renewed interest in the past decade due to some of the advantages they possess over their horizontal axis counterparts. VAWTs have evolved into complex 3-D shapes. A key component in predicting the output of VAWTs through analytical studies is obtaining the values of lift and drag coefficients which is a function of shape of the aerofoil, ‘angle of attack’ of wind and Reynolds’s number of flow. Sandia National Laboratories have carried out extensive experiments on aerofoils for the Reynolds number in the range of those experienced by VAWTs. The volume of experimental data thus obtained is huge. The current paper discusses three Regression analysis models developed wherein lift and drag coefficients can be found out using simple formula without having to deal with the bulk of the data. Drag coefficients and Lift coefficients were being successfully estimated by regression models with R2 values as high as 0.98.

  3. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  4. Development of database on the distribution coefficient. 1. Collection of the distribution coefficient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Abe, Masayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The distribution coefficient is very important parameter for environmental impact assessment on the disposal of radioactive waste arising from research institutes. The literature survey in the country was mainly carried out for the purpose of selecting the reasonable distribution coefficient value on the utilization of this value in the safety evaluation. This report was arranged much informations on the distribution coefficient for inputting to the database for each literature, and was summarized as a literature information data on the distribution coefficient. (author)

  5. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  6. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  7. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...... between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has not been compared with correlation's....

  8. Virial Coefficients for the Liquid Argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Micheal; Kim, Saesun

    2014-03-01

    We begin with a geometric model of hard colliding spheres and calculate probability densities in an iterative sequence of calculations that lead to the pair correlation function. The model is based on a kinetic theory approach developed by Shinomoto, to which we added an interatomic potential for argon based on the model from Aziz. From values of the pair correlation function at various values of density, we were able to find viral coefficients of liquid argon. The low order coefficients are in good agreement with theoretical hard sphere coefficients, but appropriate data for argon to which these results might be compared is difficult to find.

  9. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  10. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  11. Mathematical modelling of thin films growth and calculation of coefficients reflection, transmission and absorption waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istratov, A. V.; Gerke, M. N.

    2018-01-01

    Progress in nano- and microsystem technology is directly related to the development of thin-film technologies. At the present time, thin metal films can serve as the basis for the creation of new instruments for nanoelectronics. One of the important parameters of thin films affecting the characteristics of devices is their optical properties. That is why the island structures, whose optical properties, can change in a wide range depending on their morphology, are of increasing interest. However, despite the large amount of research conducted by scientists from different countries, many questions about the optimal production and use of thin films remain unresolved.

  12. First-order reflection/transmission coefficients for unconverted plane P waves in weakly anisotropic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farra, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 3 (2010), s. 1443-1454 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : body waves * seismic anisotropy * wave propagation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.411, year: 2010

  13. Weak-contrast reflection/transmission coefficients in weakly anisotropic elastic media; P-wave incidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 2 (1999), s. 553-562 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/96/0968 Grant - others:INCO-Copernicus(XE) IC15 CT96 200 Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.620, year: 1999

  14. Sound excitation at reflection of two electromagnetic waves from dence semibounded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livdan, D.O.; Muratov, V.I.; Shuklin, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of two electromagnetic waves reflection by semibounded plasma which is nontransparent for each of these waves is solved. The reflection coefficients are obtained for normally incident waves. It is shown that the moduli of the reflection coefficients differ from the unit and this is due to the interaction of the external raiation with the acoustic wave excited in plasma. The energy flux in plasma is calculated

  15. What Kind of Reflection Do We Need in Public Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knassmüller, Monika; Meyer, Renate E.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing and increasingly complex environment, the importance of reflection for public managers has been acknowledged almost unanimously by academics as well as practitioners. In this article we highlight the necessity to look at reflection in a more nuanced way. Reflection is a broad and multifaceted concept and public sector work…

  16. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  17. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...

  18. Quantum reflection in the linearly downward potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnan, N.; Krunavakarn, B.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the motion of a particle in one dimension under the influence of the linearly downward potential well is studied within the context of the non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The attention is paid on the paradoxical phenomenon of the reflection of a particle that is in contrast between classical and quantum physics. Classically, the reflection effect occurs only at a potential barrier. To demonstrate such counter-intuitive phenomenon, the Schrödinger equation is solved to obtain the reflection coefficient in the scattering state by considering an incident particle that is represented by a monochromatic plane wave having an energy E > 0, propagates freely from left to right, pass through the potential well. The continuity conditions at boundaries give the desired result that is expressed in terms of the Airy functions which depends on the incident energy E, the strength jV 0 j and the range L of the well. The value of the reflection coefficient R lies in the interval 0 < R < 1, and its behavior is the decreasing function with respect to the range L.

  19. Recurrence relations between transformation coefficients of hyperspherical harmonics and their application to Moshinsky coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynal, J.

    1976-01-01

    Closed formulae and recurrence relations for the transformation of a two-body harmonic oscillator wave function to the hyperspherical formalism are given. With them Moshinsky or Smirnov coefficients are obtained from the transformation coefficients of hyperspheric harmonics. For these coefficients the diagonalization method of Talman and Lande reduces to simple recurrence relations which can be used directly to compute them. New closed formulae for these coefficients are also derived: they are needed to compute the two simplest coefficients which determine the sign for the recurrence relation. (Auth.)

  20. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  1. Revised Mark 22 coolant temperature coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Coolant temperature coefficients for the Mark 22 charge published previously are non-conservative because of the neglect of a significant mechanism which has a positive contribution to reactivity. Even after correcting for this effect, dynamic tests made on a Mark VIB charge in the early 60's suggest the results are still non-conservative. This memorandum takes both of these sources of information into account in making a best estimate of the prompt (coolant plus metal) temperature coefficient. Although no safety issues arise from this work (the overall temperature coefficient still strongly contributes to reactor stability), it is obviously desirable to use best estimates for prompt coefficients in limits and other calculations

  2. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  3. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers.

  4. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  5. Experimental techniques of conversion coefficient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses briefly the history of conversion electron spectra measurements, and the interpretation of the collected data. Then provides a comprehensive review of techniques presently available to measure the conversion coefficients. (Auth.)

  6. Form coefficient of helical toroidal solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, V.Z.; Kunchenko, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    For toroidal solenoids with continuous spiral coil, winded according to the laws of equiinclined and simple cylindrical spirals with homogeneous, linearly increasing to the coil periphery and ''Bitter'' distribution of current density, the analytical expressions for the dependence between capacity consumed and generated magnetic field, expressions for coefficients of form similar to Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids are obtained and dependence of the form coefficient and relative volume of solenoid conductor on the number of revolutions of screw line per one circumvention over the large torus radius is also investigated. Analytical expressions of form coefficients and graphical material permit to select the optimum geometry as to capacity consumed both for spiral (including ''force-free'') and conventional toroidal solenoids of magnetic systems in thermonulear installations

  7. Explicit formulas for Clebsch-Gordan coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki-Bujnowski, G.

    1975-01-01

    The problem is to obtain explicit algebraic formulas of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for high values of angular momentum. The method of solution is an algebraic method based on the Racah formula using the FORMAC programming language. (Auth.)

  8. Diffusion Coefficients of Several Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Erwin D.; Riele, Marcel J.M. te; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1993-01-01

    The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine

  9. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Ya Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green–Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  10. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chloe; Limmer, David

    2017-10-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation function. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which is a scaled cumulant generating function analogous to the free energy. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green-Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.

  11. A new approach to estimate Angstrom coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, M.

    1991-09-01

    A simple quadratic equation to estimate global solar radiation with coefficients depending on some physical atmospheric parameters is presented. The importance of the second order and sensitivity to some climatic variations is discussed. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  12. A new proposal for Lagrangian correlation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinsoy, N.; Tugrul, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    The statistical description of dispersion in turbulent flow was first considered by Taylor (Proc. London Math. Soc. 20 (1921) 196) and the statistical properties of the field were determined by Lagrangian correlation coefficient R L (τ). Frenkiel (Adv. Appl. Mech. 3 (1953) 61) has proposed several simple forms for R L (τ). Some workers have investigated for a proper form of the Lagrangian correlation coefficient. In this work, a new proposal for the Lagrangian correlation coefficient is proposed and discussed. It can be written in general form with the one of the Frenkiel's (Adv. Appl. Mech. 3 (1953) 61) Lagrangian correlation coefficient. There is very satisfactory agreement between the new correlation and the experiment

  13. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Runoff Coefficient C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation District (RTD)s light rail tracks were modeled to determine the Rational Method : runoff coefficient, C, values corresponding to ballasted tracks. To accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a : rain...

  14. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  15. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  16. Relativistic neoclassical transport coefficients with momentum correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marushchenko, I.; Azarenkov, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The parallel momentum correction technique is generalized for relativistic approach. It is required for proper calculation of the parallel neoclassical flows and, in particular, for the bootstrap current at fusion temperatures. It is shown that the obtained system of linear algebraic equations for parallel fluxes can be solved directly without calculation of the distribution function if the relativistic mono-energetic transport coefficients are already known. The first relativistic correction terms for Braginskii matrix coefficients are calculated.

  17. Torsion method for measuring piezooptic coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skab, I.; Smaga, I.; Savaryn, V.; Vasylkiv, Yu.; Vlokh, R. [Institute of Physical Optics, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-01-15

    We develop and describe analytically a torsion method for measuring piezooptic coefficients associated with shear stresses. It is shown that the method enables to increase significantly the accuracy of determination of piezooptic coefficients. The method and the appropriate apparatus are verified experimentally on the example of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Measuring Resource Inequality: The Gini Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Catalano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper stems from work done by the authors at the Mathematics for Social Justice Workshop held in June of 2007 at Middlebury College. We provide a description of the Gini coefficient and some discussion of how it can be used to promote quantitative literacy skills in mathematics courses. The Gini Coefficient was introduced in 1921 by Italian statistician Corrado Gini as a measure of inequality. It is defined as twice the area between two curves. One, the Lorenz curve for a given population with respect to a given resource, represents the cumulative percentage of the resource as a function of the cumulative percentage of the population that shares that percentage of the resource. The second curve is the line y = x which is the Lorenz curve for a population which shares the resource equally. The Gini coefficient can be interpreted as the percentage of inequality represented in the population with respect to the given resource. We propose that the Gini coefficient can be used to enhance students’ understanding of calculus concepts and provide practice for students in using both calculus and quantitative literacy skills. Our examples are based mainly on distribution of energy resources using publicly available data from the Energy Information Agency of the United States Government. For energy resources within the United States, we find that by household, the Gini coefficient is 0.346, while using the 51 data points represented by the states and Washington D.C., the Gini coefficient is 0.158. When we consider the countries of the world as a population of 210, the Gini coefficient is 0.670. We close with ideas for questions which can be posed to students and discussion of the experiences two other mathematics instructors have had incorporating the Gini coefficient into pre-calculus-level mathematics classes.

  19. The Binomial Coefficient for Negative Arguments

    OpenAIRE

    Kronenburg, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of the binomial coefficient in terms of gamma functions also allows non-integer arguments. For nonnegative integer arguments the gamma functions reduce to factorials, leading to the well-known Pascal triangle. Using a symmetry formula for the gamma function, this definition is extended to negative integer arguments, making the symmetry identity for binomial coefficients valid for all integer arguments. The agreement of this definition with some other identities and with the bin...

  20. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficients for marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basyigit, C; Akkurt, I; Kilincarslan, S; Akkurt, A

    2005-01-01

    The total linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm -1 ) have been obtained using the XCOM program at photon energies of 1 keV to 1 GeV for six different natural marbles produced in different places in Turkey. The individual contribution of photon interaction processes to the total linear attenuation coefficients for marble has been investigated. The calculated results were also compared with the measurements. The results obtained for marble were also compared with concrete. (note)

  1. On computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, I. A.; Vinnikov, E. L.

    The algorithm of computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives is proposed with application of recurrent relations. The A.G.M.-method is used for the calculation of values L0(0), L0(1). The FORTRAN-program corresponding to the algorithm is given. The precision control was provided with numerical integrating by Simpsons method. The behavior of Laplace's coefficients and their third derivatives whith varying indices K, n for fixed values of the α-parameter is presented graphically.

  2. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  3. Drag Coefficient Estimation in Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Craig A.; Manee, Steve; Lichtenberg, Travis

    2011-07-01

    Drag modeling is the greatest uncertainty in the dynamics of low Earth satellite orbits where ballistic coefficient and density errors dominate drag errors. This paper examines fitted drag coefficients found as part of a precision orbit determination process for Stella, Starlette, and the GEOSAT Follow-On satellites from 2000 to 2005. The drag coefficients for the spherical Stella and Starlette satellites are assumed to be highly correlated with density model error. The results using MSIS-86, NRLMSISE-00, and NRLMSISE-00 with dynamic calibration of the atmosphere (DCA) density corrections are compared. The DCA corrections were formulated for altitudes of 200-600 km and are found to be inappropriate when applied at 800 km. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients are calculated for each satellite for each year studied. The yearly mean drag coefficients are higher for Starlette than Stella, where Starlette is at a higher altitude. The yearly mean fitted drag coefficients for all three satellites decrease as solar activity decreases after solar maximum.

  4. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To determine and monitor the local power peaking coefficients by a method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Constitution: Representative values for the local power distribution can be obtained by determining corresponding burn-up degrees based on the burn-up degree of each of fuel assembly segments obtained in a power distribution monitor and by the interpolation and extrapolation of void coefficients. The typical values are multiplied with compensation coefficients for the control rod effect and coefficients for compensating the effect of adjacent fuel assemblies in a calculation device to obtain typical values for the present local power distribution compensated with all of the effects. Further, the calculation device compares them with typical values of the present local power distribution to obtain an aimed local power peaking coefficient as the maximum value thereof. According to the present invention, since the local power peaking coefficients can be determined not depending on the combination of the kind of fuels, if the combination of fuel assemblies is increased upon fuel change, the amount of operation therefor is not increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Monitoring device for local power peaking coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Ishi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the local power peaking coefficients obtained by the method not depending on the combination of fuel types. Method: A plurality of representative values for the local power distribution determined by the nuclear constant calculation for one fuel assembly are memorized regarding each of the burn-up degree and the void coefficient on every positions and fuel types in fuel rod assemblies. While on the other hand, the representative values for the local power distribution as described above are compensated by a compensation coefficient considering the effect of adjacent segments and a control rod compensation coefficient considering the effect due to the control rod insertion relative to the just-mentioned compensation coefficient. Then, the maximum value among them is selected to determine the local power peaking coefficient at each of the times and each of the segments, which is monitored. According to this system, the calculation and the working required for the fitting work depending on the combination of fuel types are no more required at all to facilitate the maintenance as well. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Properties of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae are the closest analog in the interstellar medium to studies of cometary dust in our solar system. The presence of a bright star near the reflection nebula dust provides the opportunity to study both the reflection and emission characteristics of interstellar dust. At 0.1 to 1 micrometer, the reflection nebula emission is due to starlight scattered by dust. The albedo and scattering phase function of the dust is determined from observations of the scattered light. At 50 to 200 micrometers, thermal emission from the dust in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field is observed. The derived dust temperature determines the relative values of the absorption coefficient of the dust at wavelengths where the stellar energy is absorbed and at far infrared wavelengths where the absorbed energy is reradiated. These emission mechanisms directly relate to those seen in the near and mid infrared spectra of comets. In a reflection nebula the dust is observed at much larger distances from the star than in our solar system, so that the equilibrium dust temperature is 50 K rather than 300 K. Thus, in reflection nebulae, thermal emission from dust is emitted at 50 to 200 micrometer

  7. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  8. Reflection and transformation of acoustic waves at the interface in superfluid 3He-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekutiya, Sh.E.; Chkhaidze, N.D.

    1997-01-01

    Reflection and transformation of acoustic waves in 3 He-A and 3 He-A 1 are considered for two cases: (1) at the boundary with a solid impermeable wall at an arbitrary angle of incidence of a wave and (2) for normal incidence of waves on the interface between a free liquid and a system of periodic plane-parallel capillaries filling the semi-space. For the first case we have calculated the reflection coefficients of the first and the second sounds and spin and spin-temperature waves as well as the coefficients of transformation of these waves into each other. It is shown that the longitudinal wave undergoes no transformation into other waves, there occurs instead its complete reflection from the solid wall. The angle of incidence at which the energy attenuation coefficient of the first sound is maximum, and the interval of angles corresponding to the attenuation and the total interval reflection of the second sound are estimated. For the second case we have obtained: the coefficients of excitation of the fourth sound and the magneto-acoustic wave by the first and the second sounds; the reflection coefficients for the first and the second sounds and the longitudinal spin wave; the coefficient of transformation of the first sound into the second one and vice versa; the coefficient of reflection of the fourth sound from the capillary system - free liquid interface; the coefficient of excitation of longitudinal spin wave in free helium by the same wave in a capillary

  9. MORET: a Monte Carlo program for fast computation of the effective multiplying factors of fissile media within complex geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caizergues, Robert; Poullot, Gilles; Teillet, J.-R.

    1976-06-01

    The MORET code determines effective multiplying factors. It uses the Monte Carlo technique and the multigroup theory; a collision is taken as isotropic, but anisotropy is taken into account by means of the transport correction. Complex geometries can be rapidly treated: the array to be studied is divided in simple elementary volumes (spheres, cylinders, boxes, cones, half space planes...) to which are applied operators of the theory of sets. Some constant or differential (albedos) reflection coefficients simulate neighboring reflections on the outer volume [fr

  10. Discharge Coefficient of Rectangular Short-Crested Weir with Varying Slope Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejun Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rectangular short-crested weirs are widely used for simple structure and high discharge capacity. As one of the most important and influential factors of discharge capacity, side slope can improve the hydraulic characteristics of weirs at special conditions. In order to systemically study the effects of upstream and downstream slope coefficients S1 and S2 on overflow discharge coefficient in a rectangular short-crested weir the Volume of Fluid (VOF method and the Renormalization Group (RNG κ-ε turbulence model are used. In this study, the slope coefficient ranges from V to 3H:1V and each model corresponds to five total energy heads of H0 ranging from 8.0 to 24.0 cm. Comparisons of discharge coefficients and free surface profiles between simulated and laboratory results display a good agreement. The simulated results show that the difference of discharge coefficients will decrease with upstream slopes and increase with downstream slopes as H0 increases. For a given H0, the discharge coefficient has a convex parabolic relation with S1 and a piecewise linearity relation with S2. The maximum discharge coefficient is always obtained at S2 = 0.8. There exists a difference between upstream and downstream slope coefficients in the influence range of free surface curvatures. Furthermore, a proposed discharge coefficient equation by nonlinear regression is a function of upstream and downstream slope coefficients.

  11. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  12. Bound states and scattering coefficients of the -aδ(x)+bδ'(x) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadella, M.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    We show that a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in which the potential is a delta well plus a δ ' interaction at the same point has a bound state, and we obtain the energy of this bound state in terms of the parameters. In addition, the expression of the reflection and transmission coefficients is also fully determined

  13. Evaluating Multispectral Snowpack Reflectivity With Changing Snow Correlation Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Do Hyuk; Barros, Ana P.; Kim, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of multispectral reflectivity to changing snow correlation lengths. Matzler's ice-lamellae radiative transfer model was implemented and tested to evaluate the reflectivity of snow correlation lengths at multiple frequencies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the microwave bands. The model reveals that, in the UV to infrared (IR) frequency range, the reflectivity and correlation length are inversely related, whereas reflectivity increases with snow correlation length in the microwave frequency range. The model further shows that the reflectivity behavior can be mainly attributed to scattering rather than absorption for shallow snowpacks. The largest scattering coefficients and reflectivity occur at very small correlation lengths (approximately 10(exp -5 m) for frequencies higher than the IR band. In the microwave range, the largest scattering coefficients are found at millimeter wavelengths. For validation purposes, the ice-lamella model is coupled with a multilayer snow physics model to characterize the reflectivity response of realistic snow hydrological processes. The evolution of the coupled model simulated reflectivities in both the visible and the microwave bands is consistent with satellite-based reflectivity observations in the same frequencies. The model results are also compared with colocated in situ snow correlation length measurements (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment 2002-2003). The analysis and evaluation of model results indicate that the coupled multifrequency radiative transfer and snow hydrology modeling system can be used as a forward operator in a data-assimilation framework to predict the status of snow physical properties, including snow correlation length.

  14. Crack diffusion coefficient - A candidate fracture toughness parameter for short fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, M. A.; Chudnovsky, A.; Moet, A.

    1987-01-01

    In brittle matrix composites, crack propagation occurs along random trajectories reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the strength field. Considering the crack trajectory as a diffusive process, the 'crack diffusion coefficient' is introduced. From fatigue crack propagation experiments on a set of identical SEN polyester composite specimens, the variance of the crack tip position along the loading axis is found to be a linear function of the effective 'time'. The latter is taken as the effective crack length. The coefficient of proportionality between variance of the crack trajectory and the effective crack length defines the crack diffusion coefficient D which is found in the present study to be 0.165 mm. This parameter reflects the ability of the composite to deviate the crack from the energetically most efficient path and thus links fracture toughness to the microstructure.

  15. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  16. Radon emanation coefficients in sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Baranova, A.; Sykora, I.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution the results of the study of an influence of the water content on the emanation coefficient for two sandy soil samples are reported. These samples were chosen on the because of the long-term continual monitoring of the 222 Rn concentration just in such types of soils and this radon concentration showed the significant variations during a year. These variations are chiefly given in connection with the soil moisture. Therefore, the determination of the dependence of the emanation coefficient of radon on the water content can help to evaluate the influence of the soil moisture variations of radon concentrations in the soil air. The presented results show that the emanation coefficient reaches the constant value in the wide interval of the water content for both sandy soil samples. Therefore, in the common range of the soil moisture (5 - 20 %) it is impossible to expect the variations of the radon concentration in the soil air due to the change of the emanation coefficient. The expressive changes of the radon concentration in the soil air can be observed in case of the significant decrease of the emanation coefficient during the soil drying when the water content decreases under 5 % or during the complete filling of the soil pores by the water. (authors)

  17. Temporal correlation coefficient for directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies dealing with network theory focused mainly on the static aggregation of edges over specific time window lengths. Thus, most of the dynamic information gets lost. To assess the quality of such a static aggregation the temporal correlation coefficient can be calculated. It measures the overall possibility for an edge to persist between two consecutive snapshots. Up to now, this measure is only defined for undirected networks. Therefore, we introduce the adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient to directed networks. This new methodology enables the distinction between ingoing and outgoing edges. Besides a small example network presenting the single calculation steps, we also calculated the proposed measurements for a real pig trade network to emphasize the importance of considering the edge direction. The farm types at the beginning of the pork supply chain showed clearly higher values for the outgoing temporal correlation coefficient compared to the farm types at the end of the pork supply chain. These farm types showed higher values for the ingoing temporal correlation coefficient. The temporal correlation coefficient is a valuable tool to understand the structural dynamics of these systems, as it assesses the consistency of the edge configuration. The adaption of this measure for directed networks may help to preserve meaningful additional information about the investigated network that might get lost if the edge directions are ignored.

  18. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  19. Incertidumbre y complejidad: Reflexiones acerca de los retos y dilemas de la pedagogía contemporánea / Uncertainty and complexity: reflections about the challenges and dilemmas of the contemporary pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Hernández, Rodrigo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo desarrolla una reflexión acerca de los retos y dilemas que suponen para la pedagogía contemporánea la presencia de la incertidumbre y de la complejidad como condiciones en que debe desenvolverse la actividad científica en la socio-cultura actual. Interesa destacar cómo, frente a estas realidades inciertas y complejas, se impone la necesidad de revisar sustancialmente el quehacer pedagógico para responder a las múltiples demandas del nuevo entorno que supone la llamada sociedad del conocimiento. El artículo no pretende agotar el tema, sino, por el contrario, abrir espacios de discusión que contribuyan con el proceso de renovación pedagógica tan necesaria en estos momentos para la sociedad costarricense. En este sentido, nuestra principal propuesta parte de la tesis de Morin acerca de que lo que está en juego en este momento no es una reforma programática de la pedagogía, que podría dar origen a nuevos planes de estudio, sino una reforma paradigmática que reconozca el carácter sistémico, transdisciplinar y complejo del conocimiento. Ya que sólo desde esta perspectiva será posible diseñar, desarrollar e innovar el quehacer curricular y didáctico en nuestro sistema educativo.Abstract: This article analyzes the challenges and dilemmas that contemporary pedagogy faces when considering primordial conditions such as the uncertainty and complexity principles in the development of the scientific activity in present day socio-culture. It is important to highlight the need to review the pedagogical practice when confronted with these uncertain and complex realities while trying to respond to the multiple demands of the new surroundings that constitute the so-called knowledge society.The article is not intended to be exhaustive, on the contrary, is meant to open spaces for discussion, which will contribute to renew necessary pedagogical perspectives in the Costa Rican society. It is in this sense that our main

  20. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  1. Compounds Containing Tetragonal Cu2+ Complexes: Is the dx2–y2–d3z2–r2 Gap a Direct Reflection of the Distortion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Fernández, Pablo; Barriuso, María Teresa; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2013-01-01

    complex. This internal field, especially important for layered compounds, is shown to explain all puzzling experimental facts on the d–d transitions of the studied systems and is of interest in the search of new Cu2+ and Ag2+ superconducting materials where a strong correlation between Δ...... to be not correct through the study of pure K2CuF4-, KCuF3-, and Cu2+-doped KZnF3 and K2ZnF4 model compounds. Indeed, ab initio calculations prove that Δ in these insulating materials also depends on the internal electric field created by the rest of lattice ions on active electrons confined in a given CuF64...

  2. Computation of Clebsch-Gordan and Gaunt coefficients using binomial coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, I.I.; Oezmen, A.; Atav, Ue

    1995-01-01

    Using binomial coefficients the Clebsch-Gordan and Gaunt coefficients were calculated for extremely large quantum numbers. The main advantage of this approach is directly calculating these coefficients, instead of using recursion relations. Accuracy of the results is quite high for quantum numbers l 1 , and l 2 up to 100. Despite direct calculation, the CPU times are found comparable with those given in the related literature. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  4. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  5. The coefficient of restitution of pressurized balls: a mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgallas, Alex; Landry, Gaëtan

    2016-01-01

    Pressurized, inflated balls used in professional sports are regulated so that their behaviour upon impact can be anticipated and allow the game to have its distinctive character. However, the dynamics governing the impacts of such balls, even on stationary hard surfaces, can be extremely complex. The energy transformations, which arise from the compression of the gas within the ball and from the shear forces associated with the deformation of the wall, are examined in this paper. We develop a simple mechanistic model of the dependence of the coefficient of restitution, e, upon both the gauge pressure, P_G, of the gas and the shear modulus, G, of the wall. The model is validated using the results from a simple series of experiments using three different sports balls. The fits to the data are extremely good for P_G > 25 kPa and consistent values are obtained for the value of G for the wall material. As far as the authors can tell, this simple, mechanistic model of the pressure dependence of the coefficient of restitution is the first in the literature. *%K Coefficient of Restitution, Dynamics, Inflated Balls, Pressure, Impact Model

  6. Experimental Investigation of Discharge Coefficient in Mesh Panel Bottom Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    keivan bina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bottom racks is a hydraulic structure which is placed in the bed of stream through which, part of flow in the main channel is diverted. These structures have very wide application in industry, irrigation, drainage and etc. Of course much attention had been paid to the study of such structures, but characteristics of flow through bottom racks are complex. The present study was directed to estimate the discharge coefficient of a new kind of bottom racks including both transverse and longitudinal bars that named "mesh panel racks" without considering any solids in the fluid. This kind of bottom intake has advantages from structural point of view and has less deformation under static and dynamic loads. Laboratory setup with three mesh panel intakes was built and the effects of various parameters such as racks slope, porosity and geometry were explored. A dimensional analysis using Buckingham theory showed the effective hydraulic and geometric factors that affect the discharge coefficient (Cd of bottom racks. Then, a statistical approach to determine the discharge coefficient of a rack structure was developed with linear and nonlinear regression using SPSS software. The efficiency of the proposed technique is high enough that the associated error is limited to 10%. Finally, hydraulic performance of mesh panel intakes was compared with regular type of bottom intakes, which consist of longitudinal bars. For this purpose, diverted discharge through both type of intakes calculated in same situation

  7. Osmotic and activity coefficients of triorganophosphates in n-octane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagert, N.H.; Lau, D.W.P.

    1982-01-01

    Vapour pressure osmometry was used to measure osmotic coefficients for tributylphosphate (TBP), tricresylphosphate (TCP), and triethylhexylphosphate (THEP) in n-octane at 30, 40, 50, and 60 0 C and at molalities up to 0.3 mol/kg. Activity coefficients and excess thermodynamic properties (unsymmetrical definition) were calculated from these osmotic coefficients. At 30 0 C, the excess Gibbs free energies for 0.1 mol of solute in 1.0 kg n-octane were -42 J, -66 J, and -20 J for TBP, TCP, and TEHP, respectively. The more ideal behavior of the TEHP-octane system is attributed to the increasing importance of hydrocarbon-hydrocarbon interactions as the chain length is increased. The excess enthalpies for 0.1 mol of solute in 1.0 kg of solvent were -100 J, and -300 J, and -150 J for TBP, TCP, and TEHP, respectively. Thus, association of these solutes arises primarily from entropic effects. Our data could generally be accommodated adequately by postulating association of monomers into dimmers. The exception was TCP at lower temperatures, where more complex models were required

  8. Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature (“meshed” network to negative curvature (“core concentric” network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.

  9. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...... of separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678ha) located in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over the catchment and runoff...... measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level. The number of potential subcatchments is limited by the number of available rainfall events with a sufficient spatial variability....

  10. Experimental determination of fission gas adsorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, R.; Underhill, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Large charcoal beds have been used for a number of years for the holdup and decay of radioactive isotopes of krypton and xenon. Reliable design of these beds depends on an accurate knowledge of the adsorption coefficient of krypton and xenon on the adsorbents used in these beds. It is somewhat surprising that there is no standard procedure of determining the adsorption coefficient for krypton and xenon. Fundamental information needed to establish a standardized reproducible test procedure is given emphasizing the breakthrough curves commonly used to analyze dynamic adsorption data can lead to serious systematic errors and the fact that the adsorption coefficient, if calculated from the arithmetic holding time, is independent of geometric factors such as the shape of the adsorption bed and the irregular shape of the adsorbent

  11. Ideal related K-theory with coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilers, Soren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...... to determine the new groups, and will in a companion paper be used to prove a universal multi-coefficient theorem for the one distinguished ideal case for a large class of algebras......In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...

  12. Nozzle geometry variations on the discharge coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. Alam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical works have been conducted to investigate the effect of nozzle geometries on the discharge coefficient. Several contoured converging nozzles with finite radius of curvatures, conically converging nozzles and conical divergent orifices have been employed in this investigation. Each nozzle and orifice has a nominal exit diameter of 12.7×10−3 m. A 3rd order MUSCL finite volume method of ANSYS Fluent 13.0 was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations in simulating turbulent flows through various nozzle inlet geometries. The numerical model was validated through comparison between the numerical results and experimental data. The results obtained show that the nozzle geometry has pronounced effect on the sonic lines and discharge coefficients. The coefficient of discharge was found differ from unity due to the non-uniformity of flow parameters at the nozzle exit and the presence of boundary layer as well.

  13. Plasma density fluctuation measurements from coherent and incoherent microwave reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, G.D.; Schott, L.; Hirose, A.

    1996-01-01

    Using the spatial coherency present in a reflected microwave signal (Conway et al 1994 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65 2920) it is possible to measure a coherent, Γ c , and an incoherent, Γ i , reflection coefficient (proportional to the radar cross section) from a turbulent plasma cutoff layer. Results acquired with a 17 GHz reflectometer from a STOR-M tokamak edge region (r/a ∼ 0.8) give significant Γ c and Γ i , which suggests two-dimensional structure in the reflection layer. Using a 'distorted-mirror' model for the plasma fluctuations, estimates of an effective radial width, σ, and poloidal correlation length, L p , can be derived from the reflection coefficients. STOR-M results typically give a σ of a few millimetres and an L p of a couple of centimetres. (author)

  14. Specular reflection treatment for the 3D radiative transfer equation solved with the discrete ordinates method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Hardy, D. [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Favennec, Y., E-mail: yann.favennec@univ-nantes.fr [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Rousseau, B. [Université de Nantes, LTN UMR CNRS 6607 (France); Hecht, F. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7598, inria de Paris, Laboratoire Jacques-Louis Lions, F-75005, Paris (France)

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of this paper relies in the development of numerical algorithms for the mathematical treatment of specular reflection on borders when dealing with the numerical solution of radiative transfer problems. The radiative transfer equation being integro-differential, the discrete ordinates method allows to write down a set of semi-discrete equations in which weights are to be calculated. The calculation of these weights is well known to be based on either a quadrature or on angular discretization, making the use of such method straightforward for the state equation. Also, the diffuse contribution of reflection on borders is usually well taken into account. However, the calculation of accurate partition ratio coefficients is much more tricky for the specular condition applied on arbitrary geometrical borders. This paper presents algorithms that calculate analytically partition ratio coefficients needed in numerical treatments. The developed algorithms, combined with a decentered finite element scheme, are validated with the help of comparisons with analytical solutions before being applied on complex geometries.

  15. Estimating temperature reactivity coefficients by experimental procedures combined with isothermal temperature coefficient measurements and dynamic identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Masashi; Aoki, Yukinori; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Yamasaki, Masatoshi; Hanayama, Yasushi

    2006-01-01

    A method to evaluate the moderator coefficient (MTC) and the Doppler coefficient through experimental procedures performed during reactor physics tests of PWR power plants is proposed. This method combines isothermal temperature coefficient (ITC) measurement experiments and reactor power transient experiments at low power conditions for dynamic identification. In the dynamic identification, either one of temperature coefficients can be determined in such a way that frequency response characteristics of the reactivity change observed by a digital reactivity meter is reproduced from measured data of neutron count rate and the average coolant temperature. The other unknown coefficient can also be determined by subtracting the coefficient obtained from the dynamic identification from ITC. As the proposed method can directly estimate the Doppler coefficient, the applicability of the conventional core design codes to predict the Doppler coefficient can be verified for new types of fuels such as mixed oxide fuels. The digital simulation study was carried out to show the feasibility of the proposed method. The numerical analysis showed that the MTC and the Doppler coefficient can be estimated accurately and even if there are uncertainties in the parameters of the reactor kinetics model, the accuracies of the estimated values are not seriously impaired. (author)

  16. Experimental Determination of Infrared Extinction Coefficients of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This technique is based on irradiating a single isolated charged dust particle suspended in balance by an electric field, and measuring the scattered radiation as a function of angle. The observed scattered intensity profile at a specific wavelength obtained for a dust particle of known composition is compared with Mie theory calculations, and the variable parameters relating to the particle size and complex refractive index are adjusted for a best fit between the two profiles. This leads to a simultaneous determination of the particle radius, the complex refractive index, and the scattering and extinction coefficients. The results of these experiments can be utilized to examine the IRAS and DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) infrared data sets in order to determine the dust particle physical characteristics and distributions by using infrared models and inversion techniques. This technique may also be employed for investigation of the rotational bursting phenomena whereby large size cosmic and interplanetary particles are believed to fragment into smaller dust particles.

  17. Criterions for fixing regulatory seismic acceleration coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1988-03-01

    Acceleration coeffficients to be taken into account in seismic areas for calculation of structures are defined in national seismic regulations. Joined to the described qualitative requirements, these coefficients represent a balance between precaution costs and avoided damages, both in terms of material repairing costs and damage to human life. Persons in charge of fixing these coefficients must be informed of corresponding quantitative aspects. Data on seismic motions occurrencies and consequences are gathered here and convoluted to mean damage evaluations. Indications on precaution costs are joined, which shows that currently recommended levels of seismic motions are high relatively to financial profitability, and represent in fact an aethical choice about human life value [fr

  18. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  19. A Simple Measure of Price Adjustment Coefficients.

    OpenAIRE

    Damodaran, Aswath

    1993-01-01

    One measure of market efficiency is the speed with which prices adjust to new information. The author develops a simple approach to estimating these price adjustment coefficients by using the information in return processes. This approach is used to estimate t he price adjustment coefficients for firms listed on the NYSE and the A MEX as well as for over-the-counter stocks. The author finds evidence of a lagged adjustment to new information in shorter return intervals for firms in all market ...

  20. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  1. Transfer of risk coefficients across populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The variation of lifetime risk projections for a Canadian population caused by the uncertainty in the choice of method for transferring excess relative risk coefficients between populations is assessed. Site-specific projections, varied by factors up to 3.5 when excess risk coefficients of the BEIR V relative risk models were transferred to the Canadian population using an additive and multiplicative method. When the risk from all cancers are combined, differences between transfer methods were no longer significant. The Canadian projections were consistent with the ICRP-60 nominal fatal cancer risk estimates. (author)

  2. Reaction rate calculations via transmission coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feit, M.D.; Alder, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transmission coefficient of a wavepacket traversing a potential barrier can be determined by steady state calculations carried out in imaginary time instead of by real time dynamical calculations. The general argument is verified for the Eckart barrier potential by a comparison of transmission coefficients calculated from real and imaginary time solutions of the Schroedinger equation. The correspondence demonstrated here allows a formulation for the reaction rate that avoids difficulties due to both rare events and explicitly time dependent calculations. 5 refs., 2 figs

  3. Dependence of sputtering coefficient on ion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colligon, J.S.; Patel, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The sputtering coefficient of polycrystalline gold bombarded by 10-40 keV Ar + ions had been measured as a function of total ion dose and shown to exhibit oscillations in magnitude between 30 and 100%. Possible experimental errors which would give rise to such an oscillation have been considered, but it is apparent that these factors are unable to explain the measurements. It is proposed that a change in the Sublimation Energy associated with either bulk damage or formation of surface topographical features arising during ion bombardment may be responsible for the observed variations in sputtering coefficient. (author)

  4. ANL results for LMFR reactivity coefficients benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The fast reactor analysis methods developed at ANL were extensively tested in ZPR and ZPPR experiments, applied to EBR-2 and FFTF test reactors. The basic nuclear data library used was ENDF/B-V.2 with the ETOE-2 data processing code and the ENDF/B-VI. Multigroup constants were generated by Monte Carlo code MCNP 2 -2. Neutron flux calculation were done by DIF3D code applying neutron diffusion theory and finite difference method. The results obtained include basic parameters; fuel and structure regional Doppler coefficients; geometry expansion fuel coefficients; kinetics parameters. In general, agreement between phase 1 and 2 results were excellent

  5. Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, sub -0.47 ) x 10(exp 13) e(-15813 +/- 587 K/T)/cubic cm.mol.s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.

  6. Rate Coefficient Measurements of the Reaction CH3+O2+CH3O+O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S. M.; Ryu, Si-Ok; DeWitt, K. J.; Rabinowitz, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reaction CH3 + O2 = CH3O + O were measured behind reflected shock waves in a series of lean CH4-O2-Ar mixtures using hydroxyl and methyl radical diagnostics. The rate coefficients are well represented by an Arrhenius expression given as k = (1.60(sup +0.67, -0.47)) X 10(exp 13) exp(- 15813 +/- 587 K/T)cc/mol s. This expression, which is valid in the temperature range 1575-1822 K, supports the downward trend in the rate coefficients that has been reported in recent determinations. All measurements to date, including the present study, have been to some extent affected by secondary reactions. The complications due to secondary reactions, choice of thermochemical data, and shock-boundary layer interactions that affect the determination of the rate coefficients are examined.

  7. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  8. Optimized Finite-Difference Coefficients for Hydroacoustic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Responsible utilization of marine renewable energy sources through the use of current energy converter (CEC) and wave energy converter (WEC) devices requires an understanding of the noise generation and propagation from these systems in the marine environment. Acoustic noise produced by rotating turbines, for example, could adversely affect marine animals and human-related marine activities if not properly understood and mitigated. We are utilizing a 3-D finite-difference acoustic simulation code developed at Sandia that can accurately propagate noise in the complex bathymetry in the near-shore to open ocean environment. As part of our efforts to improve computation efficiency in the large, high-resolution domains required in this project, we investigate the effects of using optimized finite-difference coefficients on the accuracy of the simulations. We compare accuracy and runtime of various finite-difference coefficients optimized via criteria such as maximum numerical phase speed error, maximum numerical group speed error, and L-1 and L-2 norms of weighted numerical group and phase speed errors over a given spectral bandwidth. We find that those coefficients optimized for L-1 and L-2 norms are superior in accuracy to those based on maximal error and can produce runtimes of 10% of the baseline case, which uses Taylor Series finite-difference coefficients at the Courant time step limit. We will present comparisons of the results for the various cases evaluated as well as recommendations for utilization of the cases studied. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Bounds for OPE coefficients on the Regge trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Hansen, Tobias; Penedones, João

    2017-10-01

    We consider the Regge limit of the CFT correlation functions and , where J is a vector current, T is the stress tensor and O is some scalar operator. These correlation functions are related by a type of Fourier transform to the AdS phase shift of the dual 2-to-2 scattering process. AdS unitarity was conjectured some time ago to be positivity of the imaginary part of this bulk phase shift. This condition was recently proved using purely CFT arguments. For large N CFTs we further expand on these ideas, by considering the phase shift in the Regge limit, which is dominated by the leading Regge pole with spin j( ν), where ν is a spectral parameter. We compute the phase shift as a function of the bulk impact parameter, and then use AdS unitarity to impose bounds on the analytically continued OPE coefficients {C}_JJ}j(ν )} and C TTj(ν) that describe the coupling to the leading Regge trajectory of the current J and stress tensor T. AdS unitarity implies that the OPE coefficients associated to non-minimal couplings of the bulk theory vanish at the intercept value ν = 0, for any CFT. Focusing on the case of large gap theories, this result can be used to show that the physical OPE coefficients {C}_{JJT and C TTT , associated to non-minimal bulk couplings, scale with the gap Δ g as Δ g - 2 or Δ g - 4 . Also, looking directly at the unitarity condition imposed at the OPE coefficients {C_JJT and C TTT results precisely in the known conformal collider bounds, giving a new CFT derivation of these bounds. We finish with remarks on finite N theories and show directly in the CFT that the spin function j( ν) is convex, extending this property to the continuation to complex spin.

  10. On time-dependent diffusion coefficients arising from stochastic processes with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio-Bernido, M. Victoria; Barredo, Wilson I.; Bernido, Christopher C.

    2017-08-01

    Time-dependent diffusion coefficients arise from anomalous diffusion encountered in many physical systems such as protein transport in cells. We compare these coefficients with those arising from analysis of stochastic processes with memory that go beyond fractional Brownian motion. Facilitated by the Hida white noise functional integral approach, diffusion propagators or probability density functions (pdf) are obtained and shown to be solutions of modified diffusion equations with time-dependent diffusion coefficients. This should be useful in the study of complex transport processes.

  11. A convolutional approach to reflection symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicconet, Marcelo; Birodkar, Vighnesh; Lund, Mads

    2017-01-01

    We present a convolutional approach to reflection symmetry detection in 2D. Our model, built on the products of complex-valued wavelet convolutions, simplifies previous edge-based pairwise methods. Being parameter-centered, as opposed to feature-centered, it has certain computational advantages w...

  12. A new methodology for determining dispersion coefficient using ordinary and partial differential transport equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Seungwon; Ham, Young Sik; Hwang, Jin Hwan; Cha, Sung Min; Park, Yongeun; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    The present study proposes a methodology for determining the effective dispersion coefficient based on the field measurements performed in Gwangju (GJ) Creek in South Korea which is environmentally degraded by the artificial interferences such as weirs and culverts. Many previous works determining the dispersion coefficient were limited in application due to the complexity and artificial interferences in natural stream. Therefore, the sequential combination of N-Tank-In-Series (NTIS) model and Advection-Dispersion-Reaction (ADR) model was proposed for evaluating dispersion process in complex stream channel in this study. The series of water quality data were intensively monitored in the field to determine the effective dispersion coefficient of E. coli in rainy day. As a result, the suggested methodology reasonably estimates the dispersion coefficient for GJ Creek with 1.25 m(2)/s. Also, the sequential combined method provided Number of tank-Velocity-Dispersion coefficient (NVD) curves for convenient evaluation of dispersion coefficient of other rivers or streams. Comparing the previous studies, the present methodology is quite general and simple for determining the effective dispersion coefficients which are applicable for other rivers and streams.

  13. Tensor models, Kronecker coefficients and permutation centralizer algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloun, Joseph Ben; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2017-11-01

    We show that the counting of observables and correlators for a 3-index tensor model are organized by the structure of a family of permutation centralizer algebras. These algebras are shown to be semi-simple and their Wedderburn-Artin decompositions into matrix blocks are given in terms of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of symmetric groups. The matrix basis for the algebras also gives an orthogonal basis for the tensor observables which diagonalizes the Gaussian two-point functions. The centres of the algebras are associated with correlators which are expressible in terms of Kronecker coefficients (Clebsch-Gordan multiplicities of symmetric groups). The color-exchange symmetry present in the Gaussian model, as well as a large class of interacting models, is used to refine the description of the permutation centralizer algebras. This discussion is extended to a general number of colors d: it is used to prove the integrality of an infinite family of number sequences related to color-symmetrizations of colored graphs, and expressible in terms of symmetric group representation theory data. Generalizing a connection between matrix models and Belyi maps, correlators in Gaussian tensor models are interpreted in terms of covers of singular 2-complexes. There is an intriguing difference, between matrix and higher rank tensor models, in the computational complexity of superficially comparable correlators of observables parametrized by Young diagrams.

  14. Friction Coefficient Determination by Electrical Resistance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunyagi, A.; Kandrai, K.; Fülöp, Z.; Kapusi, Z.; Simon, A.

    2018-01-01

    A simple and low-cost, DIY-type, Arduino-driven experiment is presented for the study of friction and measurement of the friction coefficient, using a conductive rubber cord as a force sensor. It is proposed for high-school or college/university-level students. We strongly believe that it is worthwhile planning, designing and performing Arduino…

  15. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  16. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...

  17. On finding algebraic expressions for genealogical coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyauskas, J.M.; Shimonis, V.Ch.; Rudzikas, Z.B.

    1979-01-01

    It has been attempted to obtain analytical expressions for genealogical coefficients with one detached electron in the case of L-S coupling. A method of second quantization and tensorial properties of the quasi-spin operator are applied. It is restricted to the states for the classification of which the seigniority quantum number v is sufficient. Three ways of the acquirement of these expressions are discussed: 1. In the recurrent way wave functions of N and N-1 electrons are built, consequently expressing these functions in terms of the creation-annihilation operators. 2. Recurrent summation with the use of evident, simple genealogical coefficients. 3. Using the ratios, connecting the genealogical coefficients with the normalized multiplier. The data are presented in formulae and discussions. The generalization of the Redmond's formula is obtained and relatively simple algebraic expressions of the genealogical coefficients of the equivalent electron configurations, for the distinction of the recurrent terms of which introduction of the seigniority quantum number v is sufficient, are given

  18. Power coefficient anomaly in Joyo, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Yamashita, Yoshioki; Sasaki, Makoto; Nara, Yoshihiko.

    1981-12-01

    In this report, the presumption about the mechanism having caused the power coefficient anomaly in Joyo during the 75 MW power-raising test in 1979 is described. After the previous report, the new information about the results of the post-irradiation examination and the analysis of the power coefficient of Joyo were able to be obtained. From these information, the mechanism of causing the anomaly was presumed as follows. In 50 MW operation, the fuel burnup reached about 10,000 MWD/ton at the end of second cycle, and produced fission gas was almost retained in fuel pellets. When the power was raised from 50 MW to 75 MW for the first time, the fission gas began to be released when 50 MW was somewhat exceeded. The fission gas release caused the temperature rise and cracking of fuel pellets, and elongated fuel stack length abruptly. These phenomena induced to enlarge the fuel expansion reactivity effect and Doppler reactivity effect, and caused the anomalous behavior of power coefficient. After reaching 75 MW, the fuel stack length did not respond normally to reactor power change, and the magnitude of power coefficient became smaller. The reactivity was lost considerably from the core after the anomaly. (Kako, I.)

  19. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  20. Effective stress coefficient for uniaxial strain condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, M.M.; Fabricius, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    one dimensional rock mechanical deformation. We further investigated the effect of boundary condition on the stress dependency of effective stress coefficient and discussed its application in reservoir study. As stress field in the reservoirs are most unlikely to be hydrostatic, effective stress...... determined under uniaxial strain condition will be more relevant in reservoir studies. Copyright 2012 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association....

  1. Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)

  2. Absorption coefficients of silicon: A theoretical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model with explicit formulas for calculating the optical absorption and gain coefficients of silicon is presented. It incorporates direct and indirect interband transitions and considers the effects of occupied/unoccupied carrier states. The indirect interband transition is calculated from the second-order time-independent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all eight possible routes of absorption or emission of photons and phonons. Absorption coefficients of silicon are calculated from these formulas. The agreements and discrepancies among the calculated results, the Rajkanan-Singh-Shewchun (RSS) formula, and Green's data are investigated and discussed. For example, the RSS formula tends to overestimate the contributions of indirect transitions for cases with high photon energy. The results show that the state occupied/unoccupied effect is almost negligible for silicon absorption coefficients up to the onset of the optical gain condition where the energy separation of Quasi-Femi levels between electrons and holes is larger than the band-gap energy. The usefulness of using the physics-based formulas, rather than semi-empirical fitting ones, for absorption coefficients in theoretical studies of photovoltaic devices is also discussed.

  3. Control in the coefficients with variational crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

    2012-01-01

    We study convergence of discontinuous Galerkin-type discretizations of the problems of control in the coefficients of uniformly elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). As a model problem we use that of the optimal design of thin (Kirchhoff) plates, where the governing equations...

  4. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  5. Activity risk coefficients for living generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.; Merkle, M.; Ninkovic, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the new concept of the Activity risk coefficients, ARCs, which are in Probabilistic risk assessment PRA computer codes used for the calculation of the stochastic effects due to low dose exposures. As an example, ARC expressions for the Cloudshine is derived. (author)

  6. Rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO right arrow N2 + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900 to 1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch (1992), and at the low temperatures (100 to 200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox (1993). Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation (DeMore et al., 1992) is accurate at 300 K, we derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits the Viking 1 measured NO densities. We find that the fit is acceptable for a rate coefficient of about 1.3 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-400/T) and better for a value of about 2.5 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-600/T)cu cm/s.

  7. The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…

  8. Probability based calibration of pressure coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Ole; Pedersen, Marie Louise; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Normally, a consistent basis for calculating partial factors focuses on a homogeneous reliability index neither depending on which material the structure is constructed of nor the ratio between the permanent and variable actions acting on the structure. Furthermore, the reliability index should n...... the characteristic shape coefficients are based on mean values as specified in background documents to the Eurocodes. Importance of hidden safeties judging the reliability is discussed for wind actions on low-rise structures....... not depend on the type of variable action. A probability based calibration of pressure coefficients have been carried out using pressure measurements on the standard CAARC building modelled on scale of 1:383. The extreme pressures measured on the CAARC building model in the wind tunnel have been fitted.......3, the Eurocode partial factor of 1.5 for variable actions agrees well with the inherent uncertainties of wind actions when the pressure coefficients are determined using wind tunnel test results. The increased bias and uncertainty when pressure coefficients mainly are based on structural codes lead to a larger...

  9. Correlation Coefficients: Appropriate Use and Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Patrick; Boer, Christa; Schwarte, Lothar A

    2018-05-01

    Correlation in the broadest sense is a measure of an association between variables. In correlated data, the change in the magnitude of 1 variable is associated with a change in the magnitude of another variable, either in the same (positive correlation) or in the opposite (negative correlation) direction. Most often, the term correlation is used in the context of a linear relationship between 2 continuous variables and expressed as Pearson product-moment correlation. The Pearson correlation coefficient is typically used for jointly normally distributed data (data that follow a bivariate normal distribution). For nonnormally distributed continuous data, for ordinal data, or for data with relevant outliers, a Spearman rank correlation can be used as a measure of a monotonic association. Both correlation coefficients are scaled such that they range from -1 to +1, where 0 indicates that there is no linear or monotonic association, and the relationship gets stronger and ultimately approaches a straight line (Pearson correlation) or a constantly increasing or decreasing curve (Spearman correlation) as the coefficient approaches an absolute value of 1. Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals can be used to address the statistical significance of the results and to estimate the strength of the relationship in the population from which the data were sampled. The aim of this tutorial is to guide researchers and clinicians in the appropriate use and interpretation of correlation coefficients.

  10. Modelling of power-reactivity coefficient measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strmensky, C.; Petenyi, V.; Jagrik, J.; Minarcin, M.; Hascik, R.; Toth, L.

    2005-01-01

    Report describes results of modeling of power-reactivity coefficient analysis on power-level. In paper we calculate values of discrepancies arisen during transient process. These discrepancies can be arisen as result of experiment evaluation and can be caused by disregard of 3D effects on neutron distribution. The results are critically discussed (Authors)

  11. Regularity of the Interband Light Absorption Coefficient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the interband light absorption coefficient (ILAC), in a symmetric form, in the case of random operators on the -dimensional lattice. We show that the symmetrized version of ILAC is either continuous or has a component which has the same modulus of continuity as the density of states.

  12. Low Complexity Parameter Estimation For Off-the-Grid Targets

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2015-10-05

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, a derived cost function is usually evaluated and optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms is directly affected by the size of the grid: increasing the number of points will enhance the resolution of the algorithm but exponentially increase its complexity. In this work, to estimate the parameters of a target, a reduced complexity super resolution algorithm is proposed. For off-the-grid targets, it uses a low order two dimensional fast Fourier transform to determine a suboptimal solution and then an iterative algorithm to jointly estimate the spatial location and Doppler shift. Simulation results show that the mean square estimation error of the proposed estimators achieve the Cram\\'er-Rao lower bound. © 2015 IEEE.

  13. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    largely depending on the test room. Several conversion methods for porous absorbers from the Sabine absorption coefficient to the random incidence absorption coefficient were suggested by considering the finite size of a test specimen and non-uniformly incident energy onto the specimen, which turned out...... resistivity optimization outperforms the surface impedance optimization in terms of the reproducibility....

  14. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  15. Drag coefficient Variability and Thermospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Kenneth

    Satellite drag coefficients depend upon a variety of factors: The shape of the satellite, its altitude, the eccentricity of its orbit, the temperature and mean molecular mass of the ambient atmosphere, and the time in the sunspot cycle. At altitudes where the mean free path of the atmospheric molecules is large compared to the dimensions of the satellite, the drag coefficients can be determined from the theory of free-molecule flow. The dependence on altitude is caused by the concentration of atomic oxygen which plays an important role by its ability to adsorb on the satellite surface and thereby affect the energy loss of molecules striking the surface. The eccentricity of the orbit determines the satellite velocity at perigee, and therefore the energy of the incident molecules relative to the energy of adsorption of atomic oxygen atoms on the surface. The temperature of the ambient atmosphere determines the extent to which the random thermal motion of the molecules influences the momentum transfer to the satellite. The time in the sunspot cycle affects the ambient temperature as well as the concentration of atomic oxygen at a particular altitude. Tables and graphs will be used to illustrate the variability of drag coefficients. Before there were any measurements of gas-surface interactions in orbit, Izakov and Cook independently made an excellent estimate that the drag coefficient of satellites of compact shape would be 2.2. That numerical value, independent of altitude, was used by Jacchia to construct his model from the early measurements of satellite drag. Consequently, there is an altitude dependent bias in the model. From the sparce orbital experiments that have been done, we know that the molecules which strike satellite surfaces rebound in a diffuse angular distribution with an energy loss given by the energy accommodation coefficient. As more evidence accumulates on the energy loss, more realistic drag coefficients are being calculated. These improved drag

  16. Theoretical reflections on the structural polymorphism of the oxygen-evolving complex in the S2 state and the correlations to substrate water exchange and water oxidation mechanism in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Li, Hui; He, Lan-Lan; Zhao, Dong-Xia; Gong, Li-Dong; Yang, Zhong-Zhi

    2017-10-01

    The structural polymorphism of the oxygen-evolving complex is of great significance to photosynthetic water oxidation. Employing density functional theory calculations, we have made further advisement on the interconversion mechanism of O5 transfer in the S 2 state, mainly focusing on the potentiality of multi-state reactivity and spin transitions. Then, O5 protonation is proven impossible in S 2 for irreversibility of the interconversion, which serves as an auxiliary judgment for the protonation state of O5 in S 1 . Besides, the structural polymorphism could also be archived by alternative mechanisms involving Mn3 ligand exchange, one of which with Mn3(III) makes sense to substrate water exchange in S 2 , although being irresponsible for the derivations of the observed EPR signals. During the water exchange, high-spin states would prevail to facilitate electron transfer between the ferromagnetically coupled Mn centers. In addition, water exchange in S 1 could account for the closed-cubane structure as the initial form entering S 2 at cryogenic temperatures. With regard to water oxidation, the structural flexibility and variability in both S 2 and S 3 guarantee smooth W2-O5 coupling in S 4 , according to the substrate assignments from water exchange kinetics. Within this theoretical framework, the new XFEL findings on S 1 -S 3 can be readily rationalized. Finally, an alternative mechanistic scenario for OO bond formation with ·OH radical near O4 is presented, followed by water binding to the pivot Mn4(III) from O4 side during S 4 -S 0 . This may diversify the substrate sources combined with the Ca channel in water delivery for the forthcoming S-cycle. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  18. Low Complexity Moving Target Parameter Estimation for MIMO Radar using 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2017-06-16

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to localize a target and estimate its reflection coefficient, a given cost function is usually optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms is directly affected by the grid resolution. Increasing the number of grid points enhances the resolution of the estimator but also increases its computational complexity exponentially. In this work, two reduced complexity algorithms are derived based on Capon and amplitude and phase estimation (APES) to estimate the reflection coefficient, angular location and, Doppler shift of multiple moving targets. By exploiting the structure of the terms, the cost-function is brought into a form that allows us to apply the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform (2D-FFT) and reduce the computational complexity of estimation. Using low resolution 2D-FFT, the proposed algorithm identifies sub-optimal estimates and feeds them as initial points to the derived Newton gradient algorithm. In contrast to the grid-based search algorithms, the proposed algorithm can optimally estimate on- and off-the-grid targets in very low computational complexity. A new APES cost-function with better estimation performance is also discussed. Generalized expressions of the Cramér-Rao lower bound are derived to asses the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Low Complexity Moving Target Parameter Estimation for MIMO Radar using 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to localize a target and estimate its reflection coefficient, a given cost function is usually optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms is directly affected by the grid resolution. Increasing the number of grid points enhances the resolution of the estimator but also increases its computational complexity exponentially. In this work, two reduced complexity algorithms are derived based on Capon and amplitude and phase estimation (APES) to estimate the reflection coefficient, angular location and, Doppler shift of multiple moving targets. By exploiting the structure of the terms, the cost-function is brought into a form that allows us to apply the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform (2D-FFT) and reduce the computational complexity of estimation. Using low resolution 2D-FFT, the proposed algorithm identifies sub-optimal estimates and feeds them as initial points to the derived Newton gradient algorithm. In contrast to the grid-based search algorithms, the proposed algorithm can optimally estimate on- and off-the-grid targets in very low computational complexity. A new APES cost-function with better estimation performance is also discussed. Generalized expressions of the Cramér-Rao lower bound are derived to asses the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.

    1984-06-01

    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  1. Nondestructive hall coefficient measurements using ACPD techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicheti, Dheeraj; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2018-04-01

    Hall coefficient measurements offer great opportunities as well as major challenges for nondestructive materials characterization. The Hall effect is produced by the magnetic Lorentz force acting on moving charge carriers in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The magnetic perturbation gives rise to a Hall current that is normal to the conduction current but does not directly perturb the electric potential distribution. Therefore, Hall coefficient measurements usually exploit the so-called transverse galvanomagnetic potential drop effect that arises when the Hall current is intercepted by the boundaries of the specimen and thereby produce a measurable potential drop. In contrast, no Hall potential is produced in a large plate in the presence of a uniform normal field at quasi-static low frequencies. In other words, conventional Hall coefficient measurements are inherently destructive since they require cutting the material under tests. This study investigated the feasibility of using alternating current potential drop (ACPD) techniques for nondestructive Hall coefficient measurements in plates. Specifically, the directional four-point square-electrode configuration is investigated with superimposed external magnetic field. Two methods are suggested to make Hall coefficient measurements in large plates without destructive machining. At low frequencies, constraining the bias magnetic field can replace constraining the dimensions of the specimen, which is inherently destructive. For example, when a cylindrical permanent magnet is used to provide the bias magnetic field, the peak Hall voltage is produced when the diameter of the magnet is equal to the diagonal of the square ACPD probe. Although this method is less effective than cutting the specimen to a finite size, the loss of sensitivity is less than one order of magnitude even at very low frequencies. In contrast, at sufficiently high inspection frequencies the magnetic field of the Hall current induces a

  2. Reflections in the clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Carrió, F; Hernández-Clemente, J C

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze some models of expert decision and their impact on the clinical practice. We have analyzed decision-making considering the cognitive aspects (explanatory models, perceptual skills, analysis of the variability of a phenomenon, creating habits and inertia of reasoning and declarative models based on criteria). We have added the importance of emotions in decision making within highly complex situations, such as those occurring within the clinical practice. The quality of the reflective act depends, among other factors, on the ability of metacognition (thinking about what we think). Finally, we propose an educational strategy based on having a task supervisor and rectification scenarios to improve the quality of medical decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Dew point measurement technique utilizing fiber cut reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostritskii, S. M.; Dikevich, A. A.; Korkishko, Yu. N.; Fedorov, V. A.

    2009-05-01

    The fiber optical dew point hygrometer based on change of reflection coefficient for fiber cut has been developed and examined. We proposed and verified the model of condensation detector functioning principle. Experimental frost point measurements on air with different frost points have been performed.

  4. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  5. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  6. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  7. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  8. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  9. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  10. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  11. Onward: Reflections on Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberley Buster

    2018-01-01

    The author has been blessed with great mentors throughout her career. When she was invited to participate in the Leadership University of Mary Washington (UMW), a mentoring program at her institution, she did not hesitate to say yes. In this article, the author shares her reflections on mentoring.

  12. Interferometric reflection moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Combell, Olivier

    1995-06-01

    A new reflection moire technique is introduced in this paper. The basic equations that relate the measurement of slopes to the basic geometric and optical parameters of the system are derived. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed. Examples of application to the study of silicon wafers and electronic chips are given.

  13. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  14. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  15. Reflecting on Writing Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The following reflections relate to the reasons for and an approach to an autobiographic task, the notions that underpin it, and some thoughts about the quality and value of such a project. The focus was on the ways one views curriculum change over time; and the intention was to provide an example that others may sense as either familiar or at…

  16. Reflections on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Reflections on the field of special education offer six ideas: (1) the value of science; (2) the continuing value of separate and special education for some students; (3) the continuing importance of prevention; (4) the importance of academic instruction; (5) the importance of social justice for the poor; and (6) a renewed emphasis on human…

  17. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  18. A Semianalytical Ocean Color Inversion Algorithm with Explicit Water Column Depth and Substrate Reflectance Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinna, Lachlan I. W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fearns, Peter R. C.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Reichstetter, Martina; Franz, Bryan A.; Shea, Donald M.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2015-01-01

    A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm was developed for improving retrievals of inherent optical properties (IOPs) in optically shallow waters. In clear, geometrically shallow waters, light reflected off the seafloor can contribute to the water-leaving radiance signal. This can have a confounding effect on ocean color algorithms developed for optically deep waters, leading to an overestimation of IOPs. The algorithm described here, the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM), uses pre-existing knowledge of bathymetry and benthic substrate brightness to account for optically shallow effects. SWIM was incorporated into the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's L2GEN code and tested in waters of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua time series (2002-2013). SWIM-derived values of the total non-water absorption coefficient at 443 nm, at(443), the particulate backscattering coefficient at 443 nm, bbp(443), and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 488 nm, Kd(488), were compared with values derived using the Generalized Inherent Optical Properties algorithm (GIOP) and the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA). The results indicated that in clear, optically shallow waters SWIM-derived values of at(443), bbp(443), and Kd(443) were realistically lower than values derived using GIOP and QAA, in agreement with radiative transfer modeling. This signified that the benthic reflectance correction was performing as expected. However, in more optically complex waters, SWIM had difficulty converging to a solution, a likely consequence of internal IOP parameterizations. Whilst a comprehensive study of the SWIM algorithm's behavior was conducted, further work is needed to validate the algorithm using in situ data.

  19. A parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and energy absorption coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, S M

    2004-01-21

    A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements 1 coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies.

  20. Weyl q-coefficients for uq(3) and Racah q -coefficients for suq(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asherova, R.M.; Smirnov, Yu.F.; Tolstoy, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    With the aid of the projection-operator technique, the general analytic expression for the elements of the matrix that relates the U and T bases of an arbitrary finite-dimensional irreducible representation of the uq(3) quantum algebra (Weyl q-coefficients) is obtained for the case where the deformation parameter q is not equal to a square root of unity. The procedure for resummation of q-factorial expressions is used to prove that, modulo phase factors, these Weyl q-coefficients coincide with Racah q-coefficients for the suq(2) quantum algebra. It is also shown that, on the basis of one general formula, the q-analogs of all known general analytic expressions for the 6j symbols (and Racah coefficients) of the Lie algebras of the angular momentum can be obtained by using this resummation procedure. The symmetry properties of these q coefficients are discussed. The result is formulated in the following way: the general formulas for the q-6j symbols (Racah q-coefficients) of the suq(2) quantum algebra are obtained from the general formulas for the conventional 6j symbols (Racah coefficients) of the su(2) Lie algebra by replacing directly all factorials with q-factorials, the symmetry properties of the q-6j symbols being completely coincident with the symmetry properties of the conventional 6j symbols

  1. Meromorphic univalent function with negative coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dernek

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Mn be the classes of regular functions f(z=z−1+a0+a1z+… defined in the annulus 00, (n∈ℕ0, where I0f(z=f(z, If(z=(z−1−z(z−1−2∗f(z, Inf(z=I(In−1f(z, and ∗ is the Hadamard convolution. We denote by Γn=Mn⋃Γ, where Γ denotes the class of functions of the form f(z=z−1+∑k=1∞|ak|zk. We obtained that relates the modulus of the coefficients to starlikeness for the classes Mn and Γn, and coefficient inequalities for the classes Γn.

  2. Heat transfer coefficients during quenching of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, H.S.; Jalil, J.M. [University of Technology, Department of Electromechanical Engineering, Baghdad (Iraq); Peet, M.J.; Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Heat transfer coefficients for quenching in water have been measured as a function of temperature using steel probes for a variety of iron alloys. The coefficients were derived from measured cooling curves combined with calculated heat-capacities. The resulting data were then used to calculate cooling curves using the finite volume method for a large steel sample and these curves have been demonstrated to be consistent with measured values for the large sample. Furthermore, by combining the estimated cooling curves with time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams it has been possible to predict the variation of hardness as a function of distance via the quench factor analysis. The work should prove useful in the heat treatment of the steels studied, some of which are in the development stage. (orig.)

  3. Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristadoro, Giampaolo [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Str. 38, D 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2006-03-10

    Dynamical zeta functions provide a powerful method to analyse low-dimensional dynamical systems when the underlying symbolic dynamics is under control. On the other hand, even simple one-dimensional maps can show an intricate structure of the grammar rules that may lead to a non-smooth dependence of global observables on parameters changes. A paradigmatic example is the fractal diffusion coefficient arising in a simple piecewise linear one-dimensional map of the real line. Using the Baladi-Ruelle generalization of the Milnor-Thurnston kneading determinant, we provide the exact dynamical zeta function for such a map and compute the diffusion coefficient from its smallest zero. (letter to the editor)

  4. Fractal diffusion coefficient from dynamical zeta functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristadoro, Giampaolo

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical zeta functions provide a powerful method to analyse low-dimensional dynamical systems when the underlying symbolic dynamics is under control. On the other hand, even simple one-dimensional maps can show an intricate structure of the grammar rules that may lead to a non-smooth dependence of global observables on parameters changes. A paradigmatic example is the fractal diffusion coefficient arising in a simple piecewise linear one-dimensional map of the real line. Using the Baladi-Ruelle generalization of the Milnor-Thurnston kneading determinant, we provide the exact dynamical zeta function for such a map and compute the diffusion coefficient from its smallest zero. (letter to the editor)

  5. Asymptotic normalization coefficients and astrophysical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Azhari, A.; Clark, H.L.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Lui, Y.-W.; Sattarov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.E.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Carstoiu, F.

    2000-01-01

    The S factor for the direct capture reaction 7 Be(p,γ) 8 B can be found at astrophysical energies from the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's) which provide the normalization of the tails of the overlap functions for 8 B → 7 Be + p. Peripheral transfer reactions offer a technique to determine these ANC's. Using this technique, the 10 B( 7 Be, 8 B) 9 Be and 14 N( 7 Be, 8 B) 13 C reactions have been used to measure the asymptotic normalization coefficient for 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B. These results provide an indirect determination of S 17 (0). Analysis of the existing 9 Be(p, γ) 10 B experimental data within the framework of the R-matrix method demonstrates that experimentally measured ANC's can provide a reasonable determination of direct radiative capture rates. (author)

  6. Differences between charged-current coefficient functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.; Rogal, M.; Vogt, A.

    2007-08-01

    Second- and third-order results are presented for the structure functions of charged-current deepinelastic scattering in the framework of massless perturbative QCD. We write down the two-loop differences between the corresponding crossing-even and -odd coefficient functions, including those for the longitudinal structure function not covered in the literature so far. At three loops we compute the lowest five moments of these differences for all three structure functions and provide approximate expressions in Bjorken-x space. Also calculated is the related third-order coefficient-function correction to the Gottfried sum rule. We confirm the conjectured suppression of these quantities if the number of colours is large. Finally we derive the second- and third-order QCD contributions to the Paschos-Wolfenstein ratio used for the determination of the weak mixing angle from neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering. These contributions are found to be small. (orig.)

  7. Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzer, Kenneth S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Peiper, J. Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO2 above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO3 from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO3 mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO3.

  8. Gate Control Coefficient Effect on CNFET Characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanudin, Rahmat; Ma'Radzi, Ahmad Alabqari; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2009-01-01

    The development of carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNFET) as alternative to existing transistor technology has long been published and discussed. The emergence of this device offers new material and structure in building a transistor. This paper intends to do an analysis of gate control coefficient effect on CNFET performance. The analysis is based on simulation study of current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of ballistic CNFET. The simulation study used the MOSFET-like CNFET mathematical model to establish the device output characteristic. Based on the analysis of simulation result, it is found that the gate control coefficient contributes to a significant effect on the performance of CNFET. The result also shown the parameter could help to improve the device performance in terms of its output and response as well. Nevertheless, the characteristic of the carbon nanotube that acts as the channel is totally important in determining the performance of the transistor as a whole.

  9. Atomic rate coefficients in a degenerate plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanyan, Valentin; Tallents, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The electrons in a dense, degenerate plasma follow Fermi-Dirac statistics, which deviate significantly in this regime from the usual Maxwell-Boltzmann approach used by many models. We present methods to calculate the atomic rate coefficients for the Fermi-Dirac distribution and present a comparison of the ionization fraction of carbon calculated using both models. We have found that for densities close to solid, although the discrepancy is small for LTE conditions, there is a large divergence from the ionization fraction by using classical rate coefficients in the presence of strong photoionizing radiation. We have found that using these modified rates and the degenerate heat capacity may affect the time evolution of a plasma subject to extreme ultraviolet and x-ray radiation such as produced in free electron laser irradiation of solid targets.

  10. The coefficient of friction, particularly of ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The static and dynamic coefficients of friction are defined, and values from 0.3 to 0.6 are quoted for common materials. These drop to about 0.15 when oil is added as a lubricant. Water ice at temperatures not far below 0 °C is remarkable for low coefficients of around 0.05 for static friction and 0.04–0.02 for dynamic friction, but these figures increase as the temperature diminishes. Reasons for the slipperiness of ice are summarized, but they are still not entirely clear. One hypothesis suggests that it is related to the transient formation of a lubricating film of liquid water produced by frictional heating. If this is the case, some composition melting a little above ambient temperatures might provide a skating rink that did not require expensive refrigeration. Various compositions have been tested, but an entirely satisfactory material has yet to be found

  11. Doppler coefficient measurements in Zebra Core 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.R.; Wheeler, R.C.

    1965-11-01

    Measurements using a central hot loop in Zebra Core 5 are described. Results are given for the Doppler coefficients found in a number of assemblies with PuO 2 and 16% PuO 2 /84% depleted UO 2 pins, loaded with different combinations of steel, sodium or void pins. The mixed oxide results are in general about 20% more negative than was calculated using the FD2 data set, but agreement is good if the plutonium contributions in the calculations are omitted. The small positive Doppler coefficient calculated for Pu239 was not observed, and two measurements indicated instead a small negative effect. The Doppler effect in the mixed oxide systems was found to vary approximately as 1/T. The results from the empty loop and non-fissile assemblies indicate either a small negative Doppler effect in steel or alternatively the presence of an unexplained expansion effect. (author)

  12. Differences between charged-current coefficient functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moch, S.; Rogal, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Vogt, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2007-08-15

    Second- and third-order results are presented for the structure functions of charged-current deepinelastic scattering in the framework of massless perturbative QCD. We write down the two-loop differences between the corresponding crossing-even and -odd coefficient functions, including those for the longitudinal structure function not covered in the literature so far. At three loops we compute the lowest five moments of these differences for all three structure functions and provide approximate expressions in Bjorken-x space. Also calculated is the related third-order coefficient-function correction to the Gottfried sum rule. We confirm the conjectured suppression of these quantities if the number of colours is large. Finally we derive the second- and third-order QCD contributions to the Paschos-Wolfenstein ratio used for the determination of the weak mixing angle from neutrino-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering. These contributions are found to be small. (orig.)

  13. Dynamics analysis of SIR epidemic model with correlation coefficients and clustering coefficient in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juping; Yang, Chan; Jin, Zhen; Li, Jia

    2018-07-14

    In this paper, the correlation coefficients between nodes in states are used as dynamic variables, and we construct SIR epidemic dynamic models with correlation coefficients by using the pair approximation method in static networks and dynamic networks, respectively. Considering the clustering coefficient of the network, we analytically investigate the existence and the local asymptotic stability of each equilibrium of these models and derive threshold values for the prevalence of diseases. Additionally, we obtain two equivalent epidemic thresholds in dynamic networks, which are compared with the results of the mean field equations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August, H.J.; Wernisch, J.

    1989-01-01

    Several analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient for massive homogeneous samples are compared with experimental data, directing special attention to the dependence of this quantity on the electron acceleration energy. It is shown that this dependence generally cannot be neglected. The expression proposed by Hunger and Kuechler turns out to be better than that of Love and Scott, although even the better formula can be slightly improved by a small modification. (author)

  15. Thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boldyš, Jiří; Hrach, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 55-64 ISSN 0011-4626 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 173/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thin films * wavelet transform * descriptors * histogram model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/boldys-thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics .pdf

  16. Analytic posteriors for Pearson's correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Alexander; Marsman, Maarten; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2018-02-01

    Pearson's correlation is one of the most common measures of linear dependence. Recently, Bernardo (11th International Workshop on Objective Bayes Methodology, 2015) introduced a flexible class of priors to study this measure in a Bayesian setting. For this large class of priors, we show that the (marginal) posterior for Pearson's correlation coefficient and all of the posterior moments are analytic. Our results are available in the open-source software package JASP.

  17. Analytic posteriors for Pearson's correlation coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, A.; Marsman, M.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2018-01-01

    Pearson's correlation is one of the most common measures of linear dependence. Recently, Bernardo (11th International Workshop on Objective Bayes Methodology, 2015) introduced a flexible class of priors to study this measure in a Bayesian setting. For this large class of priors, we show that the (marginal) posterior for Pearson's correlation coefficient and all of the posterior moments are analytic. Our results are available in the open‐source software package JASP.

  18. Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chloe Ya; Limmer, David T.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate th...

  19. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  20. Determination of surface tension coefficient of liquids by diffraction of light on capillary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolić, D; Nešić, Lj

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for determining the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids, based on laser light diffraction on capillary waves. Capillary waves of given frequency are created by an exciter needle acting on the surface of liquid and represent a reflective diffraction grating, the constant of which (the wavelength of capillary waves) can be determined based on a known incidence angle of light (grazing angle). We obtain the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids by applying the dispersion relation for capillary waves and analyze the difficulties that arise when setting up and conducting the experiment in detail. (paper)

  1. Sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash concrete for railway application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi Hannan, N. I. R.; Shahidan, S.; Maarof, Z.; Ali, N.; Abdullah, S. R.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2017-11-01

    A porous concrete able to reduce the sound wave that pass through it. When a sound waves strike a material, a portion of the sound energy was reflected back and another portion of the sound energy was absorbed by the material while the rest was transmitted. The larger portion of the sound wave being absorbed, the lower the noise level able to be lowered. This study is to investigate the sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash (CBA) concrete compared to the sound absorption coefficient of normal concrete by carried out the impedance tube test. Hence, this paper presents the result of the impedance tube test of the CBA concrete and normal concrete.

  2. Moderator temperature coefficient in BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka

    1977-01-01

    Temperature dependences of infinite multiplication factor k sub(infinity) and neutron leakage from the core must be examined for estimation of moderator temperature coefficient. Temperature dependence on k sub(infinity) has been investigated by many researchers, however, the dependence on neutron leakage of a BWR with cruciformed control rods has hardly been done. Because there are difficulties and necessity on calculations of three space dimensional and multi-energy groups neutron distribution in a BWR core. In this study, moderator temperature coefficients of JPDR-II (BWR) core were obtained by calculation with DIFFUSION-ACE, which is newly developed three-dimensional multi-group computer code. The results were compared with experimental data measured from 20 to 275 0 C of the moderator temperature and the good agreement was obtained between calculation and measurement. In order to evaluate neutron leakage from the core, the other two calculations were carried out, adjusting criticality by uniform absorption rate and by material buckling. The former underestimated neutron leakage and the latter overestimated it. Discussion on the results shows that in order to estimate the temperature coefficient of BWR, neutron leakage must be evaluated precisely, therefore the calculation at actual pattern of control rods is necessary. (auth.)

  3. Varying coefficients model with measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2008-06-01

    We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.

  4. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  5. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  6. Effect of electrostatic field on dynamic friction coefficient of pistachio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H Aghkhani

    2016-04-01

    25 mm and with wall thickness of 5 mm placed on trolleys. In the bottom of the container a separate aluminum plate was installed as the negative pole of the electric field. The friction plates as a positive pole placed on top of the sample. There were no contact between friction plates and walls of vessel (samples were about 2 to 3 mm higher from the edges of wall. Frictional force changes due to movement of table, measured and recorded by an accurate load cell. From force-displacement curves, the coefficient of dynamic friction and static coefficient of friction calculated. In general, according to the experimental design, 486 tests were performed. Results and Discussion: According to the results of statistical analysis, there is significant interaction affect between pistachios type and electrical field, as well as, the interaction between electrical field and speed, on dynamic coefficient of friction. It means two pistachio types can be separated by electrical charging. Different physical properties of surface of filled non-splits pistachio nuts (such as corners and edges and filled splits ones, caused differences in the distribution of electric charge and as a result, its interaction with the electric field were significant. Changes in dynamic coefficient of friction according to the electric field intensity at different levels of moisture content and speed on the friction surfaces of iron, aluminum and rubber, was drawn in Fig.4, 5 and 6, respectively. These figures reflected the reduction of dynamic coefficient of friction by increasing the movement speed of table. According to Fig.7, increasing the intensity of the electric field increases the dynamic coefficient of friction. Because this leads to build the opposition charge on samples and galvanized iron sheets, and with increase of electrical field, these charges will rise. Fig.9 shows different trends of variation of dynamic coefficient of friction against moisture on rubber surface. This chart shows the

  7. Prediction of Sliding Friction Coefficient Based on a Novel Hybrid Molecular-Mechanical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Jianmei; Sheng, Chenxing; Li, Zhixiong

    2018-08-01

    Sliding friction is a complex phenomenon which arises from the mechanical and molecular interactions of asperities when examined in a microscale. To reveal and further understand the effects of micro scaled mechanical and molecular components of friction coefficient on overall frictional behavior, a hybrid molecular-mechanical model is developed to investigate the effects of main factors, including different loads and surface roughness values, on the sliding friction coefficient in a boundary lubrication condition. Numerical modelling was conducted using a deterministic contact model and based on the molecular-mechanical theory of friction. In the contact model, with given external loads and surface topographies, the pressure distribution, real contact area, and elastic/plastic deformation of each single asperity contact were calculated. Then asperity friction coefficient was predicted by the sum of mechanical and molecular components of friction coefficient. The mechanical component was mainly determined by the contact width and elastic/plastic deformation, and the molecular component was estimated as a function of the contact area and interfacial shear stress. Numerical results were compared with experimental results and a good agreement was obtained. The model was then used to predict friction coefficients in different operating and surface conditions. Numerical results explain why applied load has a minimum effect on the friction coefficients. They also provide insight into the effect of surface roughness on the mechanical and molecular components of friction coefficients. It is revealed that the mechanical component dominates the friction coefficient when the surface roughness is large (Rq > 0.2 μm), while the friction coefficient is mainly determined by the molecular component when the surface is relatively smooth (Rq < 0.2 μm). Furthermore, optimal roughness values for minimizing the friction coefficient are recommended.

  8. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  9. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  10. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  11. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András

    2014-01-01

    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  12. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  13. Comparison of field-measured radon diffusion coefficients with laboratory-measured coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Silker, W.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare radon diffusion coefficients determined for 0.1-m depths of soils by a steady-state method in the laboratory and diffusion coefficients evaluated from radon fluxes through several-fold greater depths of the same soils covering uranium-mill tailings. The coefficients referred to diffusion in the total pore volume of the soils and are equivalent to values for the quantity, D/P, in the Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two soils were tested: a well-graded sand and an inorganic clay of low plasticity. For the flux evaluations, radon was collected by adsorption on charcoal following passive diffusion from the soil surface and also from air recirculating through an aluminum tent over the soil surface. An analysis of variance in the flux evaluations showed no significant difference between these two collection methods. Radon diffusion coefficients evaluated from field data were statistically indistinguishable, at the 95% confidence level, from those measured in the laboratory; however, the low precision of the field data prevented a sensitive validation of the laboratory measurements. From the field data, the coefficients were calculated to be 0.03 +- 0.03 cm 2 /s for the sand cover and 0.0036 +- 0.0004 cm 2 /s for the clay cover. The low precision in the coefficients evaluated from field data was attributed to high variation in radon flux with time and surface location at the field site

  14. Reflections on Measuring Thinking, while Listening to Mozart's "Jupiter" Symphony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Selma

    1989-01-01

    Reflects on educators' current preoccupation with assessment of higher order thinking skills. Easy-to-mark, forced-choice, pencil-and-paper tests with single numerical scores may trivialize the wonderful complexity of human capabilities. Includes 17 references. (MLH)

  15. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  16. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  17. A correlation to the heat transfer coefficient in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribatski, Gherhardt; Jabardo, Jose M. Saiz

    1999-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer is a complex phenomenon, making the development of a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient rather cumbersome due to the number of physical parameters involved in it. Some authors have followed a pragmatic approach to the problem by correlating the heat transfer coefficient in terms of reduced primitive properties. Two of the most knowledgeable authors who have followed this approach are Gorenflo and Cooper. Comparisons have been performed among results from the correlations proposed by these researchers and experimental results obtained elsewhere for refrigerants R-11, R-113 and R-114. These comparisons have shown that Cooper's correlation is best fitted for halocarbon refrigerants. The correlation proposed by Gorenflo ads the difficulty of including a numerical factor specific for each fluid. Leiner modified Gorenflo's correlation to determine the numerical factor as a function of known physical parameters of the fluid. In present study, the form of this function has been investigated for halocarbon refrigerants. The obtained correlation is written in terms of the following parameters: reduced pressure, eccentric and compressibility factors at the critical state, and a dimensionless specific heat of the vapor phase. The correlation compares well with experimental results. (author)

  18. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, D.; Williams, W.F.; Rockmann, D.D.; Allen, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium 51 less than 0.01%; manganese 54 0.033 +- 0.005%; cobalt 60 0.01 +- 0.002%; iron 59 0.0048 +- 0.002%; zinc 65 0.31 +- 0.07%; selenium 75 0.29 +- 0.1%; antimony 125 0.011 +- 0.003%; iodine 131 0.88 +- 0.05%; and cesium 137 0.79 +- 0.08%

  19. Automatic estimation of pressure-dependent rate coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua W; Goldsmith, C Franklin; Green, William H

    2012-01-21

    A general framework is presented for accurately and efficiently estimating the phenomenological pressure-dependent rate coefficients for reaction networks of arbitrary size and complexity using only high-pressure-limit information. Two aspects of this framework are discussed in detail. First, two methods of estimating the density of states of the species in the network are presented, including a new method based on characteristic functional group frequencies. Second, three methods of simplifying the full master equation model of the network to a single set of phenomenological rates are discussed, including a new method based on the reservoir state and pseudo-steady state approximations. Both sets of methods are evaluated in the context of the chemically-activated reaction of acetyl with oxygen. All three simplifications of the master equation are usually accurate, but each fails in certain situations, which are discussed. The new methods usually provide good accuracy at a computational cost appropriate for automated reaction mechanism generation.

  20. Enhancing Reflective Practice in Multicultural Counseling through Cultural Auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra; Arthur, Nancy; Wong-Wylie, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Counselors work in an increasingly complex cultural milieu where every encounter with a client must be considered multicultural in nature. Reflective practice is a central component of professional competence and necessarily involves attention to culture. The cultural auditing model provides an effective and flexible reflective process for…