Sample records for complex non-isothermal loading

  1. Replicative manufacturing of complex lighting optics by non-isothermal glass molding (United States)

    Kreilkamp, Holger; Vu, Anh Tuan; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz


    The advantages of LED lighting, especially its energy efficiency and the long service life have led to a wide distribution of LED technology in the world. However, in order to make fully use of the great potential that LED lighting offers, complex optics are required to distribute the emitted light from the LED efficiently. Nowadays, many applications use polymer optics which can be manufactured at low costs. However, due to ever increasing luminous power, polymer optics reach their technological limits. Due to its outstanding properties, especially its temperature resistance, resistance against UV radiation and its long term stability, glass is the alternative material of choice for the use in LED optics. This research is introducing a new replicative glass manufacturing approach, namely non-isothermal glass molding (NGM) which is able to manufacture complex lighting optics in high volumes at competitive prices. The integration of FEM simulation at the early stage of the process development is presented and helps to guarantee a fast development cycle. A coupled thermo-mechanical model is used to define the geometry of the glass preform as well as to define the mold surface geometry. Furthermore, simulation is used to predict main process outcomes, especially in terms of resulting form accuracy of the molded optics. Experiments conducted on a commercially available molding machine are presented to validate the developed simulation model. Finally, the influence of distinct parameters on important process outcomes like form accuracy, surface roughness, birefringence, etc. is discussed.

  2. The deformation and acoustic emission of aluminum-magnesium alloy under non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, S. V.; Plotnikov, V. A., E-mail:; Lysikov, M. V. [Altai State University, Barnaul, 656049 (Russian Federation); Kolubaev, E. A., E-mail: [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)


    The following study investigates the deformation behavior and acoustic emission in aluminum-magnesium alloy under conditions of non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading. The accumulation of deformation in the alloy, in conditions of change from room temperature to 500°C, occurs in two temperature intervals (I, II), characterized by different rates of deformation. The rate of deformation accumulation is correlated with acoustic emission. With load increasing in cycles from 40 to 200 MPa, the value of the boundary temperature (T{sub b}) between intervals I and II changes non-monotonically. In cycles with load up to 90 MPa, the T{sub b} value increases, while an increase up to 200 MPa makes T{sub b} shift toward lower temperatures. This suggests that the shift of boundaries in the region of low temperatures and the appearance of high-amplitude pulses of acoustic emission characterize the decrease of the magnitude of thermal fluctuations with increasing mechanical load, leading to the rupture of interatomic bonds in an elementary deformation act.

  3. Complex Burgers' Equation: Evolution of Shock Waves with a Pair of Non-isothermal Ions in an Arbitrarily Charged Dusty Plasma (United States)

    Dev, Apul N.; Deka, Manoj Kr.


    The evolution characteristics of dust-acoustic shock wave phenomenon in an arbitrarily charged dusty plasma in presence of pair-ion are investigated by deriving modified Complex Burgers' equation. In this work, the effect of state of both the ions on the shock wave potential is analysed and discussed in detail. It has been observed that the variation of the non-linear coefficient is more consistent with the non-isothermal positive ions moving toward thermal equilibrium than with non-isothermal negative ions. A significant effect on the amplitude of the shock wave potential is observed as the distribution of the non-isothermal positive and negative ions changes from a hump shape through the flat-topped to Boltzmann type. A weighty effect on the height of the shock wave is observed as and when the Mach number of positive and negative ions changes. The shock wave potential shows a greater (lesser) value with negative (positive) ions moving ahead for thermal equilibrium.

  4. Layup and process dependent wrinkling behavior of PPS/CF UD tape-laminates during non-isothermal press forming into a complex component (United States)

    Joppich, Tobias; Doerr, Dominik; van der Meulen, Leonie; Link, Tobias; Hangs, Benjamin; Henning, Frank


    Forming of thermoplastic, multilayered UD-Tape laminates using high-volume press forming processes play an increasingly important role in the manufacturing of load carrying structural vehicle components [1-4]. Within previous studies mainly lab-scale process equipment, simple shaped geometries and standard layup configurations [5-10] have been analyzed. The geometrical forming limits and the development of wrinkles [8], which are influenced by the processing parameters as well as the layup configuration are not sufficiently investigated yet. Thus, this article presents an experimental forming study of multilayered UD-Tape laminates into a complex box-shaped component. A fully automated process sequence and industrial scale equipment was used. By means of online thermal measurements, it is proven that even at initial contact points of the mold and laminate the forming ends well above the recrystallization temperature revealing the formability of the given materials at different mold temperatures and closing speeds. Additionally, a detailed forming study was performed comparing three different layup configurations within different stages of the forming. Thereby, the layup dependent development of wrinkles was analyzed using topographical object measurements with a laser-scanner and was quantified by calculating the surface curvature from a generated surface mesh [11].

  5. Non-isothermal curing kinetics and physical properties of MMT-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UP) resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, María A., E-mail: [Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Av. Tecnológico S/N, Valle de Anáhuac, 55210 Ecatepec de Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez, H. [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Física, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Guthausen, G. [KIT, Pro2NMR at MVM and IBG, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Highlights: • Non-isothermal DSC analysis results have shown that the addition of MMT to a UP resin produces a delay in the cure reaction. • The shape of experimental heat-flow DSC curves showed two exothermic peaks for all the samples at different heating rates. • The overall kinetic analysis was performed by isoconversional methods. • It was found that the dependence of the activation energy (E{sub a}) on degree of reaction (α) is complex. - Abstract: Cure behavior of unsaturated polyester (UP)/montmorillonite (MMT)/methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP)/cobalt octoate intercalated nanocomposites with various MMT loadings was investigated by dynamic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UP/MMT nanocomposites were prepared by sequential mixing. Non-isothermal DSC curves were obtained by applying heating rates ranging from 5 to 20 °C/min. They presented two exothermic peaks, which should correspond to two independent cure reactions. The effective activation energy E{sub a}, was determined by applying both the Kissinger’s and Starink’s methods. The results showed slightly higher activation energy for nanocomposites, except for UP/10-MMT. It was found that the dependence of E{sub a} on α is complex. All the systems in this study fitted Sesták–Berggren (SB) model in overall reaction controlled kinetics and the corresponding model parameters, n, m, A were obtained, but it was insufficient in depicting the complex reaction kinetics. Transmission electron microscopy data support the formation of a partially delaminated nanocomposite material. UP and nanocomposites showed similar behavior on thermal stability.

  6. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of polyethylene–clay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of pure medium density polyethylene (MDPE) and MDPE– clay nanocomposites have been investigated by differential scanning calorimeter. The modified Avrami,. Ozawa, Liu and Ziabicki equations have been applied to describe non-isothermal crystallization process. The.

  7. Synthesis, non-isothermal crystallization and magnetic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A non-isothermal study of the crystallization kinetic of ferrite/PEVA nanocomposite was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It was observed that the Ozawa equation describes perfectly the primary process of non-isothermal ...

  8. Precision retrieval of non-isothermal exo-atmospheres (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo Peter; Rocchetto, Marco


    Spectroscopy of extrasolar planets is as fast moving as it is new. When trying to characterise the atmospheres of these foreign worlds, we are faced with three challenges: 1) The correct treatment of atmospheric opacities at high temperatures, 2) Low signal-to-noise of the observed data, and 3) Large, degenerate parameter spaces. To advance in the interpretation of exoplanetary atmospheres, one must address these challenges in one coherent framework. This is particularly true for emission spectroscopy, where the need for non-isothermal temperature-pressure profiles significantly increases degeneracies in low signal-to-noise data. In the light of these challenges, we developed a novel, bayesian atmospheric retrieval suite, Tau-REx (Waldmann et al. 2015a,b). Tau-REx is a full line-by-line emission/transmission spectroscopy retrieval code based on the most complete hot line-lists from the ExoMol project. For emission spectroscopy, the correct retrieval of the atmosphere’s thermal gradient is extremely challenging with sparse and/or low SNR data. Tau-REx implements a novel two-stage retrieval algorithm which allows the code to iteratively adapt its retrieval complexity to the likelihood surface of the observed data. This way we achieve a very high retrieval accuracy and robustness to low SNR data. Using nested-sampling in conjunction with large scale cluster computing, Tau-REx integrates the full Bayesian Evidence, which allows for precise model selection of the exoplanet’s chemistry and thermal dynamics. Precision and statistical rigour is paramount in the measurement of quantities such as the carbon-oxygen ratio of planets which allow insights into the formation history of these exotic worlds. In this conference I will discuss the intricacies of retrieving the thermal emission of non-isothermal atmospheres and what can be learned from data of current and future facilities.

  9. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of polyethylene–clay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MDPE) and MDPE–clay nanocomposites have been investigated by differential scanning calorimeter. The modified Avrami, Ozawa, Liu and Ziabicki equations have been applied to describe non-isothermal crystallization process. The results of ...

  10. Non-isothermal Moisture Transport Through Insulation Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    conclusions and therefore the question about existence of the type of transport forms driven by the non-isothermal effects remains open. Rather surprisingly, all the materials, including the almost non-hygroscopic materials (e.g. rock wool) and very hygroscopic materials (e.g. cellulose insulation) showed...

  11. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and thermal behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The thermal behaviour and crystallization kinetics of PA12/SEBS-g-MA blends were investigated under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The macrokinetic model given by Avrami was used to analyse both the non-.

  12. LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalek, W.R.; Liew, R.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Zeegers, J.C.H.

    In this paper subgrid models for LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow are tested and improved for three Reynolds numbers based on friction velocity, Reτ of 150, 395, and 950 with the aim to develop a simulation method for LES of a droplet-laden Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube. A new subgrid

  13. Non-isothermal gas absorption with reversible chemical reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vas Bhat, R.D.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van; Benes, N.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, G.F.


    A fundamental description of non-isothermal mass transfer accompanied by a single reversible chemical reaction has been presented. The description is based on the Higbie penetration theory. Arrhenius type dependence of solubility, reaction rates and diffusivities on temperature has been assumed.

  14. Non-isothermal gas absorption with reversible chemical reaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vas bhat, R.D.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, Geert


    A fundamental description of non-isothermal mass transfer accompanied by a single reversible chemical reaction has been presented. The description is based on the Higbie penetration theory. Arrhenius type dependence of solubility, reaction rates and diffusivities on temperature has been assumed.

  15. LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow (United States)

    Michałek, W. R.; Liew, R.; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Zeegers, J. C. H.


    In this paper subgrid models for LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow are tested and improved for three Reynolds numbers based on friction velocity, Reτ of 150, 395, and 950 with the aim to develop a simulation method for LES of a droplet-laden Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube. A new subgrid model combining the beneficial properties of the dynamic eddy-viscosity model and the approximate deconvolution model is proposed. Furthermore, the subgrid model in the droplet equations based on approximate deconvolution is found to perform well also in non-isothermal channel flow. At the highest Reynolds number in the test the dynamic model yields results with a similar accuracy as the approximate deconvolution model.

  16. LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalek, W R; Kuerten, J G M [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Liew, R; Zeegers, J C H, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    In this paper subgrid models for LES of droplet-laden non-isothermal channel flow are tested and improved for three Reynolds numbers based on friction velocity, Re{sub {tau}} of 150, 395, and 950 with the aim to develop a simulation method for LES of a droplet-laden Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube. A new subgrid model combining the beneficial properties of the dynamic eddy-viscosity model and the approximate deconvolution model is proposed. Furthermore, the subgrid model in the droplet equations based on approximate deconvolution is found to perform well also in non-isothermal channel flow. At the highest Reynolds number in the test the dynamic model yields results with a similar accuracy as the approximate deconvolution model.

  17. Modeling of Non-isothermal Austenite Formation in Spring Steel (United States)

    Huang, He; Wang, Baoyu; Tang, Xuefeng; Li, Junling


    The austenitization kinetics description of spring steel 60Si2CrA plays an important role in providing guidelines for industrial production. The dilatometric curves of 60Si2CrA steel were measured using a dilatometer DIL805A at heating rates of 0.3 K to 50 K/s (0.3 °C/s to 50 °C/s). Based on the dilatometric curves, a unified kinetics model using the internal state variable (ISV) method was derived to describe the non-isothermal austenitization kinetics of 60Si2CrA, and the abovementioned model models the incubation and transition periods. The material constants in the model were determined using a genetic algorithm-based optimization technique. Additionally, good agreement between predicted and experimental volume fractions of transformed austenite was obtained, indicating that the model is effective for describing the austenitization kinetics of 60Si2CrA steel. Compared with other modeling methods of austenitization kinetics, this model, which uses the ISV method, has some advantages, such as a simple formula and explicit physics meaning, and can be probably used in engineering practice.

  18. A numerical study of non-isothermal turbulent coaxial jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Abderrazak, Kamel; Mhiri, Hatem [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et Thermique, Monastir (Tunisia); Palec, Georges le; Bournot, Philippe [Institut de Mecanique de Marseille, Marseille (France)


    In this work, we propose to study non isothermal air-air coaxial jets with two different approaches: parabolic and elliptic approaches. The standard k-{epsilon} model and the RSM model were applied in this study. The numerical resolution of the equations governing this flow type was carried out for: the parabolic approach, by a ''home-made'' CFD code based on a finite difference method, and the elliptic approach by an industrial code (FLUENT) based on a finite volume method. In forced convection mode (Fr={infinity}), the two turbulence models are valid for the prediction of the mean flow. But for turbulent sizes, k-{epsilon} model gives results closer to those achieved in experiments compared to RSM Model. Concerning the limit of validity of the parabolic and elliptic approaches, we showed that for velocities ratio r lower than 1, the results of the two approaches were satisfactory. On the other hand, for r>1, the difference between the results became increasingly significant. In mixed convection mode (Fr{approx_equal}20), the results obtained by the two turbulence models for the mean axial velocity were very different even in the plume region. For the temperature and the turbulent sizes the two models give satisfactory results which agree well with the correlations suggested by the experimenters for X{>=}20. Thus, the second order model with {sigma}{sub t}=0.85 is more effective for a coaxial jet study in a mixed convection mode. (orig.)

  19. Modeling and analysis for general non-isothermal convective phase field systems


    Haas, Robert


    In this work general non-isothermal phase field models for multi-phase and multi-component systems are considered. The modelling of the free energy by Ginzburg-Landau functionals for multi-phase systems is considered and analyzed theoretically and numerically. Furthermore a general non-isothermal phase field model for convective systems with multiple components and phases has been derived. Finally for a isothermal multi-phase phase field model the existence of a solution is proved in...

  20. Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.


    The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.

  1. Evaluation of agricultural residues pyrolysis under non-isothermal conditions: Thermal behaviors, kinetics, and thermodynamics. (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Ren, Xiu'e; Fan, Shuanshi


    The thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of agricultural residues, rape straw (RS) and wheat bran (WB), were investigated under non-isothermal conditions. TGA experiments showed that the pyrolysis characteristics of RS were quite different from those of WB. As reflected by the comprehensive devolatilization index, when the heating rate increased from 10 to 30Kmin-1, the pyrolysis performance of RS and WB were improved 5.27 and 5.96 times, respectively. The kinetic triplets of the main pyrolysis process of agricultural residues were calculated by the Starink method and the integral master-plots method. Kinetic analysis results indicated that the most potential kinetic models for the pyrolysis of RS and WB were D2 and F2.7, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS) were determined by the activated complex theory. The positive ΔH, positive ΔG, and negative ΔS at characteristic temperatures validated that the pyrolysis of agricultural residues was endothermic and non-spontaneous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the heavy-group lanthanide dititanates (United States)

    Milićević, Bojana; Kuzman, Sanja; Porobić, Slavica J.; Marinović-Cincović, Milena; Dramićanin, Miroslav D.


    The systematic investigation of crystallization kinetics of heavy-group lanthanide dititanate pyrochlores, HL2Ti2O7 (HL=Lu, Tm, Er, Ho, Y, Dy, and Tb) is presented. Materials are prepared by the Pechini-type polymerized complex route, and their thermal properties were studied by differential thermal analysis under non-isothermal conditions. For this group, the crystallization temperature became larger with increasing the ionic radius of lanthanides, from 1066 K for Lu2Ti2O7 to 1125 K for Tb2Ti2O7. The linear dependence of crystallization temperature on radius of heavy lanthanide ions is found to follows Tc [ K ] = 168.86 + 920.89 ×rion [ Å ] semi-empirical equation. Apparent activation energies of crystallization were obtained from calculations based on the Arrhenius equation, isoconversional method and Pérez-Maqueda method, and are ∼805 kJ mol-1 calculated by three different methods. The crystallization kinetics followed the so-called Avrami-Erofeev (A3) model, as confirmed using several criteria, namely, the Málek, master plot, and Pérez-Maqueda methods. The crystallization mechanism of all lanthanide dititanate pyrochlores is found to be the same, and the crystallization process involves a constant rate of nucleation and two-dimensional growth of nuclei.

  3. Complex Regression Functional And Load Tests Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Andreevich Krasnopevtsev


    Full Text Available The article describes practical approaches for realization of automatized regression functional and load testing on random software-hardware complex, based on «MARSh 3.0» sample. Testing automatization is being realized for «MARSh 3.0» information security increase.

  4. Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Wu, Zih-Ying; Chang, Jo-Shu


    Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) CNW-N are studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of S. obliquus CNW-N with increasing temperature is characterized by four-stage decomposition. Depending on the torrefaction temperature, light, mild, and severe torrefaction from the weight loss and the maximum decomposition rate of the microalga can be classified. Under the same average temperature and torrefaction duration, non-isothermal torrefaction gives more severe pretreatment than the isothermal one. Increasing the heating rate of non-isothermal torrefaction also intensifies the pretreatment severity. Therefore, microalgae can be torrefied via non-isothermal torrefaction in a shorter time under the same pretreatment extent. The atomic H/C ratio in the microalga decreases with increasing torrefaction severity, whereas the atomic O/C ratio rises. The analysis suggests that the activation energy of isothermal torrefaction is 57.52×10(3)Jmol(-1), while it is between 40.14×10(3) and 88.41×10(3)Jmol(-1) for non-isothermal torrefaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-isothermal effects on multi-phase flow in porous medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Wang, W; Park, C. H.


    In this paper a ppT -formulation for non-isothermal multi-phase flow is given including diffusion and latent heat effects. Temperature and pressure dependencies of governing parameters are considered, in particular surface tension variation on phase interfaces along with temperature changes. A weak...

  6. A simple method of evaluating non-isothermal crystallization kinetics in multicomponent polymer systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kelnar, Ivan


    Roč. 47, October (2015), s. 79-86 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : non-isothermal crystallization kinetics * cumulative curves * inflection point Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2015

  7. Non-isothermal diffusion in a binary mixture with smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieulot, C; Espanol, P


    We explore the possibility of controlling the pattern formation in a purely diffusive binary mixture described by a van der Waals equation of state in non-isothermal situations. Simulations are conducted with a previously formulated thermodynamically consistent smoothed particle hydrodynamics model

  8. Non-isothermal kinetics of thermal degradation of chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Velyana


    apparent activation energy E, pre-exponential factor A in Arrhenius equation, as well as the changes of entropy ΔS≠, enthalpy ΔH≠ and free Gibbs energy ΔG≠ for the formation of the activated complex from the reagent are calculated.

  9. Non-isothermal kinetics model to predict accurate phase transformation and hardness of 22MnB5 boron steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bok, H.-H.; Kim, S.N.; Suh, D.W. [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Barlat, F., E-mail: [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M.-G., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A non-isothermal phase transformation kinetics model obtained by modifying the well-known JMAK approach is proposed for application to a low carbon boron steel (22MnB5) sheet. In the modified kinetics model, the parameters are functions of both temperature and cooling rate, and can be identified by a numerical optimization method. Moreover, in this approach the transformation start and finish temperatures are variable instead of the constants that depend on chemical composition. These variable reference temperatures are determined from the measured CCT diagram using dilatation experiments. The kinetics model developed in this work captures the complex transformation behavior of the boron steel sheet sample accurately. In particular, the predicted hardness and phase fractions in the specimens subjected to a wide range of cooling rates were validated by experiments.

  10. Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. (United States)

    Jeong, Ha Myung; Seo, Myung Won; Jeong, Sang Mun; Na, Byung Ki; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Lee, Woon Jae


    To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonequilibrium steady state of biochemical cycle kinetics under non-isothermal conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Xiao


    Nonequilibrium steady state of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics has been extensively studied, but much less investigated under non-isothermal conditions. However, once the heat exchange between subsystems is rather slow, the isothermal assumption of the whole system meets great challenge, which is indeed the case inside many kinds of living organisms. Here we generalize the nonequilibrium steady-state theory of isothermal biochemical cycle kinetics, in the master-equation models, to the situation in which the temperatures of subsystems can be far from uniform. We first obtain a new thermodynamic relation between the chemical reaction rates and thermodynamic potentials under such a non-isothermal circumstances, which immediately implies simply applying the isothermal transition-state rate formula for each chemical reaction in terms of only the reactants' temperature, is not thermodynamically consistent. Therefore, we mathematically derive several revised reaction-rate formulas which not only obey the new ...

  12. Application of Non-Isothermal Thermogravimetric Method to Interpret the Decomposition Kinetics of , and (United States)

    Pouretedal, H. R.; Ebadpour, R.


    The non-isothermal thermogravimetric method was used to study the thermal decomposition of , and at heating rates of (5, 10, 15, and 20) . The activation energy of thermal decomposition reactions was computed by isoconversional methods of Ozawa-Flynn-Wall, Kissinger-Akahiro-Sunose, and Friedman equations. Also, the kinetic triplet of the thermal decomposition of salts was determined by the model-fitting method of the modified Coats-Redfern equation. The activation energies of , and of (293 to 307, 160 to 209, and 192 to 245) , respectively, are obtained by non-isothermal isoconversional methods. The modified Coats and Redfern method showed that the most probable mechanism functions of (model A3: Arami-Erofeev equation) and (model F2: second order) can be used to predict the decomposition mechanisms of , , and , respectively.

  13. Mathematical quantification of the induced stress resistance of microbial populations during non-isothermal stresses. (United States)

    Garre, Alberto; Huertas, Juan Pablo; González-Tejedor, Gerardo A; Fernández, Pablo S; Egea, Jose A; Palop, Alfredo; Esnoz, Arturo


    This contribution presents a mathematical model to describe non-isothermal microbial inactivation processes taking into account the acclimation of the microbial cell to thermal stress. The model extends the log-linear inactivation model including a variable and model parameters quantifying the induced thermal resistance. The model has been tested on cells of Escherichia coli against two families of non-isothermal profiles with different constant heating rates. One of the families was composed of monophasic profiles, consisting of a non-isothermal heating stage from 35 to 70°C; the other family was composed of biphasic profiles, consisting of a non-isothermal heating stage followed by a holding period at constant temperature of 57.5°C. Lower heating rates resulted in a higher thermal resistance of the bacterial population. This was reflected in a higher D-value. The parameter estimation was performed in two steps. Firstly, the D and z-values were estimated from the isothermal experiments. Next, the parameters describing the acclimation were estimated using one of the biphasic profiles. This set of parameters was able to describe the remaining experimental data. Finally, a methodology for the construction of diagrams illustrating the magnitude of the induced thermal resistance is presented. The methodology has been illustrated by building it for a biphasic temperature profile with a linear heating phase and a holding phase. This diagram provides a visualization of how the shape of the temperature profile (heating rate and holding temperature) affects the acclimation of the cell to the thermal stress. This diagram can be used for the design of inactivation treatments by industry taking into account the acclimation of the cell to the thermal stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Method to Predict Tempering of Steels Under Non-isothermal Conditions (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Kohli, A.


    A common way of representing the tempering responses of steels is with a "tempering parameter" that includes the effect of temperature and time on hardness after hardening. Such functions, usually in graphical form, are available for many steels and have been applied for isothermal tempering. In this article, we demonstrate that the method can be extended to non-isothermal conditions. Controlled heating experiments were done on three grades in order to verify the method.

  15. Influence of rare earth oxides on the non-isothermal crystallization of phosphosilicate melts during cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.J.; Shan, Z.T.; Fu, G.Z.


    We report a detailed calorimetric study concerning the influence of Yb2O3 and Er2O3 on the non-isothermal crystallization in phosphosilicate melts. The results show that Yb3+/Er3+ ions promote the Zn2SiO4 crystal formation, but suppress the Na3PO4 and AlPO4 formation during cooling. The non-isoth...

  16. Modeling of the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of polyamide 6 composites during thermoforming (United States)

    Kugele, Daniel; Dörr, Dominik; Wittemann, Florian; Hangs, Benjamin; Rausch, Julius; Kärger, Luise; Henning, Frank


    The combination of thermoforming processes of continuous-fiber reinforced thermoplastics and injection molding offers a high potential for cost-effective use in automobile mass production. During manufacturing, the thermoplastic laminates are initially heated up to a temperature above the melting point. This is followed by continuous cooling of the material during the forming process, which leads to crystallization under non-isothermal conditions. To account for phase change effects in thermoforming simulation, an accurate modeling of the crystallization kinetics is required. In this context, it is important to consider the wide range of cooling rates, which are observed during processing. Consequently, this paper deals with the experimental investigation of the crystallization at cooling rates varying from 0.16 K/s to 100 K/s using standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fast scanning calorimetry (Flash DSC). Two different modeling approaches (Nakamura model, modified Nakamura-Ziabicki model) for predicting crystallization kinetics are parameterized according to DSC measurements. It turns out that only the modified Nakamura-Ziabicki model is capable of predicting crystallization kinetics for all investigated cooling rates. Finally, the modified Nakamura-Ziabicki model is validated by cooling experiments using PA6-CF laminates with embedded temperature sensors. It is shown that the modified Nakamura-Ziabicki model predicts crystallization at non-isothermal conditions and varying cooling rates with a good accuracy. Thus, the study contributes to a deeper understanding of the non-isothermal crystallization and presents an overall method for modeling crystallization under process conditions.

  17. Material characterization and finite element simulations of aluminum alloy sheets during non-isothermal forming process (United States)

    Zhang, Nan

    constructed by calculating the theoretical M-K model with Newton method and backtracking algorithm. The obtained FLDs are found to be instructive and will be applied in the post-processing of FE simulation for stamping so as to identify the critical area of failure. The developed constitutive model and modified yield function are implemented in the form of user defined subroutine (VUMAT) in ABAQUS/Explicit. An explicit stress integration algorithm has been selected for the stress integration with rate-depend viscoplasticity model at temperature higher than 150°. In the low temperature range, the Newton method and cutting plane algorithm are utilized to update the stress tensor with a classic elastoplastic constitutive model. To validate the VUMAT, a non-isothermal tensile testing has been performed with aids of infrared thermal camera and DIC. The heat transfer coefficients in FE model are calibrated with captured thermal images. With appropriate selection of mesh size and mass scaling factor, the punch load vs. displacement curve obtained from the simulation perfectly correlates the experimental result.

  18. An experimental investigation of thermo-capillary convection in solution of lithium bromide at non-isothermal absorption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bufetov N. S; Dekhtyar R. A; Ovchinikov V. V


    The aim of this work is to obtain new experimental data on the development of thermo-capillary convection in a solution of lithium bromide with non-isothermal absorption of water vapor in a confined vessel...

  19. Non-isothermal buoyancy-driven exchange flows in inclined pipes (United States)

    Eslami, B.; Shariatnia, S.; Ghasemi, H.; Alba, K.


    We study non-isothermal buoyancy-driven exchange flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids in an inclined pipe experimentally. The heavy cold fluid is released into the light hot one in an adiabatic small-aspect-ratio pipe under the Boussinesq limit (small Atwood number). At a fixed temperature, the two fluids involved have the same viscosity. Excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement is first found against rather recent studies in literature on isothermal flows where the driving force of the flow comes from salinity as opposed to temperature difference. The degree of flow instability and mixing enhances as the pipe is progressively inclined towards vertical. Similar to the isothermal limit, maximal rate of the fluids interpenetration in the non-isothermal case occurs at an intermediate angle, β . The interpenetration rate increases with the temperature difference. The degree of fluids mixing and diffusivity is found to increase in the non-isothermal case compared to the isothermal one. There has also been observed a novel asymmetric behavior in the flow, never reported before in the isothermal limit. The cold finger appears to advance faster than the hot one. Backed by meticulously designed supplementary experiments, this asymmetric behavior is hypothetically associated with the wall contact and the formation of a warm less-viscous film of the fluid lubricating the cold more-viscous finger along the pipe. On the other side of the pipe, a cool more-viscous film forms decelerating the hot less-viscous finger. Double diffusive effects associated with the diffusion of heat and mass (salinity) are further investigated. In this case and for the same range of inclination angles and density differences, the level of flow asymmetry is found to decrease. The asymmetric behaviour of the flow is quantified over the full range of experiments. Similar to the study of Salort et al. ["Turbulent velocity profiles in a tilted heat pipe," Phys. Fluids 25(10), 105110

  20. Wall modeling for the simulation of highly non-isothermal unsteady flows; Modelisation de paroi pour la simulation d'ecoulements instationnaires non-isothermes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devesa, A


    Nuclear industry flows are most of the time characterized by their high Reynolds number, density variations (at low Mach numbers) and a highly unsteady behaviour (low to moderate frequencies). High Reynolds numbers are un-affordable by direct simulation (DNS), and simulations must either be performed by solving averaged equations (RANS), or by solving only the large eddies (LES), both using a wall model. A first investigation of this thesis dealt with the derivation and test of two variable density wall models: an algebraic law (CWM) and a zonal approach dedicated to LES (TBLE-{rho}). These models were validated in quasi-isothermal cases, before being used in academic and industrial non-isothermal flows with satisfactory results. Then, a numerical experiment of pulsed passive scalars was performed by DNS, were two forcing conditions were considered: oscillations are imposed in the outer flow; oscillations come from the wall. Several frequencies and amplitudes of oscillations were taken into account in order to gain insights in unsteady effects in the boundary layer, and to create a database for validating wall models in such context. The temporal behaviour of two wall models (algebraic and zonal wall models) were studied and showed that a zonal model produced better results when used in the simulation of unsteady flows. (author)

  1. Simulations of coupled non-isothermal soil moisture transport and evaporation fluxes in a forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Wei


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the quantification of non-isothermal soil moisture transport and evaporation fluxes in vegetated area. A one-dimensional numerical model is developed by integrating a multi-phase flow model with a twolayer energy-balance model. The non-isothermal multi-phase flow model solves four governing equations for coupled air, vapour, moisture, and heat transport in soil porous medium. The two-layer energy balance model estimates evaporation fluxes from transpiration, interception, and soil surface. The model was implemented to an oak forest area in Missouri, USA. For model calibration and validation, measurements of energy fluxes, soil moisture, and soil temperature were used. The proposed model is compared with a simple model that couples the Penman-Monteith equation with the Richards’ equation. The results indicate that the simple model underestimate the total evaporation rate. On the contrary, the proposed model includes a more detailed description of energy transfer, which could improve the accuracy in estimating evaporation rates. The proposed model could be a promising tool to quantify the energy and moisture fluxes in a soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum in vegetated area.

  2. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mold Fluxes for Casting High-Aluminum Steels (United States)

    Zhou, Lejun; Li, Huan; Wang, Wanlin; Wu, Zhaoyang; Yu, Jie; Xie, Senlin


    This paper investigates the crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2- and CaO-Al2O3-based mold fluxes for casting high-aluminum steels using single hot thermocouple technology, developed kinetic models, and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the crystallization ability of the typical CaO-SiO2-based Flux A (CaO/SiO2 0.62, Al2O3 2 mass pct) is weaker than that of CaO-Al2O3-based Flux B (CaO/SiO2 4.11, Al2O3 31.9 mass pct) because of its higher initial crystallization temperature. The crystallization kinetics of Flux A was "surface nucleation and growth, interface reaction control" in the overall non-isothermal crystallization process, whereas that of Flux B was "constant nucleation rate, 1-dimensional growth, diffusion control, in the primary crystallization stage, and then transformed into constant nucleation rate, 3-dimensional growth, interface reaction control in the secondary crystallization stage." The energy dispersive spectroscopy results for Flux B suggested that the variations in the crystallization kinetics for Flux B are due to different crystals precipitating in the primary (BaCa2Al8O15) and secondary (CaAl2O4) crystallization periods during the non-isothermal crystallization process.

  3. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mold Fluxes for Casting High-Aluminum Steels (United States)

    Zhou, Lejun; Li, Huan; Wang, Wanlin; Wu, Zhaoyang; Yu, Jie; Xie, Senlin


    This paper investigates the crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2- and CaO-Al2O3-based mold fluxes for casting high-aluminum steels using single hot thermocouple technology, developed kinetic models, and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the crystallization ability of the typical CaO-SiO2-based Flux A (CaO/SiO2 0.62, Al2O3 2 mass pct) is weaker than that of CaO-Al2O3-based Flux B (CaO/SiO2 4.11, Al2O3 31.9 mass pct) because of its higher initial crystallization temperature. The crystallization kinetics of Flux A was "surface nucleation and growth, interface reaction control" in the overall non-isothermal crystallization process, whereas that of Flux B was "constant nucleation rate, 1-dimensional growth, diffusion control, in the primary crystallization stage, and then transformed into constant nucleation rate, 3-dimensional growth, interface reaction control in the secondary crystallization stage." The energy dispersive spectroscopy results for Flux B suggested that the variations in the crystallization kinetics for Flux B are due to different crystals precipitating in the primary (BaCa2Al8O15) and secondary (CaAl2O4) crystallization periods during the non-isothermal crystallization process.

  4. Non-isothermal cure and exfoliation of tri-functional epoxy-clay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shiravand


    Full Text Available The non-isothermal cure kinetics of polymer silicate layered nanocomposites based on a tri-functional epoxy resin has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. From an analysis of the kinetics as a function of the clay content, it can be concluded that the non-isothermal cure reaction can be considered to consist of four different processes: the reaction of epoxy groups with the diamine curing agent; an intra-gallery homopolymerisation reaction which occurs concurrently with the epoxy-amine reaction; and two extra-gallery homopolymerisation reactions, catalysed by the onium ion of the organically modified clay and by the tertiary amines resulting from the epoxy-amine reaction. The final nanostructure displays a similar quality of exfoliation as that observed for the isothermal cure of the same nanocomposite system. This implies that the intra-gallery reaction, which is responsible for the exfoliation, is not significantly inhibited by the extra-gallery epoxy-amine cross-linking reaction.

  5. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of As30Te60Ga10 glass (United States)

    Mohamed, Mansour; Abd-Elnaiem, Alaa M.; Hassan, R. M.; Abdel-Rahim, M. A.; Hafiz, M. M.


    The crystallization study under non-isothermal conditions of As30Te60Ga10 glass was investigated. The studied composition was synthesized by melt-quenching technique and characterized by different techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The XRD analysis revealed that the as-prepared and annealed bulk glass of As30Te60Ga10 exhibit the amorphous, and polycrystalline nature, respectively. The DSC results showed that the heating rate affects the characteristic temperatures, for instance, the glass transition, onset, and peak crystallization temperatures. Furthermore, some thermal analysis methods such as the Kissinger and Matusita et al., approximations were employed to determine the crystallization parameters: for example Avrami exponent and the activation energies for glass transition and crystallization process. In addition, we have compared the experimental DSC data with the calculated ones based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) and Sestak-Berggren SB(M,N) models. The results indicated that the SB(M,N) model is more suitable for describing the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the investigated composition.

  6. Non-isothermal cold crystallization kinetics of poly(3-hydoxybutyrate) filled with zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, Andreas, E-mail: [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB 58051-900 (Brazil); Canedo, Eduardo L. [Materials Engineering Department, Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB 58429-900 (Brazil); Souto, Cícero R. [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB 58051-900 (Brazil); Wellen, Renate M.R. [Materials Engineering Department, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB 58051-900 (Brazil)


    Highlights: • Non-isothermal cold crystallization kinetics of PHB filled with ZnO is presented. • Pseudo-Avrami model is best for describing an individual crystallization condition. • Mo model is allows to judge the kinetics of a condition untested in this work. • ZnO affects the kinetics irregularly. - Abstract: The non-isothermal cold crystallization kinetics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and PHB-ZnO composites, with ZnO content of 1%, 5% and 10% per weight, was investigated at different heating rates (5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 °C/min) using differential scanning calorimetry. Both, Kissinger and Friedman activation energies predict correctly the slowest and fastest crystallizing composition. It was further found, that ZnO can neither be classified as a crystallization accelerator, nor as a crystallization inhibitor; its action is strongly concentration dependent. The empirical Pseudo-Avrami model has the best overall capability for fitting the experimental kinetic data. However, since the Pseudo-Avrami exponent was found to vary irregularly with heating rate and filler content, this model should not be applied for kinetic predictions of an arbitrary composition or an untested heating rate. In such cases, Mo's model should be used.

  7. Thermal stability and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon (United States)

    Wang, Xutong; Zeng, Mo; Nollmann, Niklas; Wilde, Gerhard; Wang, Jiang; Tang, Chengying


    Rapidly quenched Pd82Si18 ribbon was prepared by melt spinning. The thermal stability and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter measurements. Its structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy. The activation energy was calculated by the Kissinger method, and the nucleation and growth during non-isothermal crystallization were investigated by the local activation energy and local Avrami exponent. The average activation energy for Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon based on the Kissinger method is 330.672 kJ/mol, indicating that it has high thermal stability. The local activation energy of the glass ribbon was determined by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method, and the local Avrami exponent was obtained based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model. The calculated local activation energy increases to a maximum when the crystallization column fraction reaches 0.3, and it then decreases, which shows that crystallization is a multistep process. The local Avrami exponent indicates that the crystallization process of Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon is controlled by volume nucleation with three-dimensional growth at various nucleation rates.

  8. Thermal stability and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xutong Wang


    Full Text Available Rapidly quenched Pd82Si18 ribbon was prepared by melt spinning. The thermal stability and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter measurements. Its structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy. The activation energy was calculated by the Kissinger method, and the nucleation and growth during non-isothermal crystallization were investigated by the local activation energy and local Avrami exponent. The average activation energy for Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon based on the Kissinger method is 330.672 kJ/mol, indicating that it has high thermal stability. The local activation energy of the glass ribbon was determined by the Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose method, and the local Avrami exponent was obtained based on the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami model. The calculated local activation energy increases to a maximum when the crystallization column fraction reaches 0.3, and it then decreases, which shows that crystallization is a multistep process. The local Avrami exponent indicates that the crystallization process of Pd82Si18 amorphous ribbon is controlled by volume nucleation with three-dimensional growth at various nucleation rates.

  9. Parallel numerical modeling of hybrid-dimensional compositional non-isothermal Darcy flows in fractured porous media (United States)

    Xing, F.; Masson, R.; Lopez, S.


    This paper introduces a new discrete fracture model accounting for non-isothermal compositional multiphase Darcy flows and complex networks of fractures with intersecting, immersed and non-immersed fractures. The so called hybrid-dimensional model using a 2D model in the fractures coupled with a 3D model in the matrix is first derived rigorously starting from the equi-dimensional matrix fracture model. Then, it is discretized using a fully implicit time integration combined with the Vertex Approximate Gradient (VAG) finite volume scheme which is adapted to polyhedral meshes and anisotropic heterogeneous media. The fully coupled systems are assembled and solved in parallel using the Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) paradigm with one layer of ghost cells. This strategy allows for a local assembly of the discrete systems. An efficient preconditioner is implemented to solve the linear systems at each time step and each Newton type iteration of the simulation. The numerical efficiency of our approach is assessed on different meshes, fracture networks, and physical settings in terms of parallel scalability, nonlinear convergence and linear convergence.

  10. The effect of Pglass state on the non-isothermal cold and melt crystallization processes of PET matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huichao [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ma, Jinghong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Gong, Jinghua [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xu, Jian, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    Highlights: • Pglass is an inorganic polymer with low T{sub g} and mutable viscosity. • Kinetics models and activation energy can be used to analyze the process. • Pglass can play different effect on the crystallization process of PET. - Abstract: The physical state of phosphate glass (Pglass) has an influence on the non-isothermal crystallization behaviors of PET matrix in the PET/Pglass blends, which has been investigated via heating the glassy state and cooling the melt state of the blends at various scanning rates, respectively, by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. The kinetics models based on the Avrami and Mo equations were used to analyze the non-isothermal crystallization process. Furthermore, the activation energy of non-isothermal crystallization, according to Kissinger theory for heating process and Friedman theory for cooling process, has been evaluated. The results showed that the Pglass accelerated the non-isothermal cold crystallization rate of PET matrix due to its nucleation effect. In contrast, for the non-isothermal melt crystallization, the Pglass hindered the crystallization process due to its large melt viscosity.

  11. Study on non-isothermal kinetics for modified coal tar pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Shui, H.; Feng, Y. [East China Institute of Metallurgy, Maanshan (China). Dept of Chemical Engineering


    The non-isothermal kinetics for the mesophase transformation of Baogang-I coal tar pitch (I-CTP), soft pitch consisted of I-CTP and 18% phenanthrene residue oil (PRO) or I-CTP and 30% PRO have been studied in a thermal conversion unit. Kinetic parameters were calculated by using and integral method. Results showed that the process of mesophase pitch transformation could be described in first order reaction. The activation energy of I-CTP is 175.36 kJ/mol. But adding 30% PRO, which improved the reactivity of I-CTP with activation energy 138.07 kJ/mol, is not beneficial to the mesophase transformation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Non-isothermal flow of viscous liquids: engineering correlations for scale-up guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, A.K.


    Measurements of pressure distribution and temperature distribution along the length of model pipeline test rigs were made at varying operating variables for laminar flow of newtonion and power-law liquids. Flow data were also collected for different concentrations of Sobhason Field crude oil mixed with various mixtures of petroleum products. The pressure gradient was found to vary with the length of pipe. The departure of the results from a Poiseuille type equation were examined in the light of related information available in the literature. The selection of proper operating variables could reduce power consumption substantially. The relationships developed from experimental results for a varying range of non-isothermal parameters based on inlet condition and ambient temperature acclaimed importance to scale up in designing pipelines for a given flow rate or pressure drop under variable heat flux conditions. 11 figs., 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Migration of a surfactant-laden droplet in non-isothermal Poiseuille flow

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sayan; Som, S K; Chakraborty, Suman


    The motion of a surfactant-laden viscous droplet in the presence of background non-isothermal Poiseuille flow is studied analytically and numerically. Specifically, the effect of interfacial Marangoni stress due to non-uniform distribution of surfactants and temperature at the droplet interface on the velocity and direction of motion of the droplet along the centerline of imposed Poiseuille flow is investigated in the presence of linearly varying temperature field. In the absence of thermal convection, fluid inertia and shape deformation, the interfacial transport of bulk-insoluble surfactants is governed by the surface Peclet number which represents the relative strength of the advective transport of surfactant over the diffusive transport. We obtain analytical solution for small and large values of the surface Peclet number. Numerical solution is obtained for arbitrary surface Peclet number, which compares well with the analytical solution. Depending on the direction of temperature gradient with respect to ...

  14. Non-isothermal kinetic analysis of processes occurring during thermal treatment of kaolinite (United States)

    Ondro, Tomáš; Trník, Anton


    A non-isothermal kinetic analysis of processes occurring during thermal treatment of kaolinite is carried out using differential thermal analysis on powder samples with heating rates from 1 to 10 °C min-1 in static air atmosphere. For the parameterization of dehydroxylation process and crystallization of Al-Si spinel phase from metakaolinite the Kissinger method is used. The determined values of apparent activation energy for the dehydroxylation of kaolinite and formation of Al-Si spinel phase are (163 ± 11) kJ mol-1 and (826 ± 16) kJ mol-1, respectively. For the dehydroxylation of kaolinite the diffusion controlled growth of a new phase with a decreasing nucleation rate is determined as a mechanism of the process. The results also show that the formation of Al-Si spinel phase from metakaolinite is controlled by grain edge nucleation after saturation.

  15. A study of the non-isothermal crystallization kinetic of Zn10Se90 glass (United States)

    Abdel-Rahim, M. A.; Hafiz, M. M.; Abdel-Latief, A. Y.; Abd-Elnaiem, Alaa M.; Alwany, A. Elwhab. B.


    The glass transition and the crystallization kinetics of Zn10Se90 glass by differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique under non-isothermal conduction were studied. The effective activation energies of the glass transition and the crystallization have been evaluated on the basses of the Kissinger and Matusita et al. approximations. Kinetic parameters of the crystallization process are significantly influenced by the heating rate. We have compared the experimental DTA with the calculated data curves for Zn10Se90 system using the Johanson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) and Sestak-Berggren SB( M, N) models. Simulation results indicated that the SB( M, N) model is more suitable for describing the crystallization kinetics for the studied composition. Furthermore, the crystalline phases of annealed Zn10Se90 were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The surface morphology of the annealed samples was examined using scanning electron microscopy.

  16. Thermodynamic Model Formulations for Inhomogeneous Solids with Application to Non-isothermal Phase Field Modelling (United States)

    Gladkov, Svyatoslav; Kochmann, Julian; Reese, Stefanie; Hütter, Markus; Svendsen, Bob


    The purpose of the current work is the comparison of thermodynamic model formulations for chemically and structurally inhomogeneous solids at finite deformation based on "standard" non-equilibrium thermodynamics [SNET: e. g. S. de Groot and P. Mazur, Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, North Holland, 1962] and the general equation for non-equilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling (GENERIC) [H. C. Öttinger, Beyond Equilibrium Thermodynamics, Wiley Interscience, 2005]. In the process, non-isothermal generalizations of standard isothermal conservative [e. g. J. W. Cahn and J. E. Hilliard, Free energy of a non-uniform system. I. Interfacial energy. J. Chem. Phys. 28 (1958), 258-267] and non-conservative [e. g. S. M. Allen and J. W. Cahn, A macroscopic theory for antiphase boundary motion and its application to antiphase domain coarsening. Acta Metall. 27 (1979), 1085-1095; A. G. Khachaturyan, Theory of Structural Transformations in Solids, Wiley, New York, 1983] diffuse interface or "phase-field" models [e. g. P. C. Hohenberg and B. I. Halperin, Theory of dynamic critical phenomena, Rev. Modern Phys. 49 (1977), 435-479; N. Provatas and K. Elder, Phase Field Methods in Material Science and Engineering, Wiley-VCH, 2010.] for solids are obtained. The current treatment is consistent with, and includes, previous works [e. g. O. Penrose and P. C. Fife, Thermodynamically consistent models of phase-field type for the kinetics of phase transitions, Phys. D 43 (1990), 44-62; O. Penrose and P. C. Fife, On the relation between the standard phase-field model and a "thermodynamically consistent" phase-field model. Phys. D 69 (1993), 107-113] on non-isothermal systems as a special case. In the context of no-flux boundary conditions, the SNET- and GENERIC-based approaches are shown to be completely consistent with each other and result in equivalent temperature evolution relations.

  17. Isothermal and non-isothermal sublimation kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl{sub 4}) for producing nuclear grade Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Hong [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Mi Sun [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST), Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Dong Joon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joo Hyun, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Sublimation of ZrCl{sub 4} is important for the production of nuclear grade metallic Zr in Kroll's process. The sublimation kinetics of ZrCl{sub 4} was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The sublimation rate of ZrCl{sub 4} increased with increasing temperature under isothermal conditions. ZrCl{sub 4} sublimation was confirmed to be a zero-order process under isothermal conditions, whereas it was first-order kinetics under non-isothermal conditions. The activation energy of ZrCl{sub 4} sublimation under isothermal conditions was 21.7 kJ mol{sup −1}. The activation energy for non-isothermal sublimation was 101.4 kJ mol{sup −1} and 108.1 kJ mol{sup −1} with the Kissinger method and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method, respectively. These non-isothermal activation energies were very close to the heat of sublimation (103.3 kJ mol{sup −1}). Sublimation occurs by two elementary steps: surface reaction and desorption. Therefore, the overall activation energy of ZrCl{sub 4} sublimation is 104.8 (±3.4) kJ mol{sup −1}. The activation energy of the surface reaction and desorption steps are proposed to be 83.1 kJ mol{sup −1} and 21.7 kJ mol{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • Sublimation kinetics of ZrCl{sub 4} was quantitatively analyzed using TGA method. • Isothermal and non-isothermal sublimation kinetics were quantitatively evaluated. • Activation energies of isothermal and non-isothermal kinetics were obtained. • Sublimation mechanism was proposed from kinetic analyses and SEM observations. • This kinetic information will be very useful in production of nuclear grade Zr.

  18. Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity. (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Rojas, David; Childs, Ruth; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam


    Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care simulation. We investigate the sensitivity of these measures to predicted differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in task complexity and learner expertise during simulation-based surgical skills training. We randomly assigned 28 novice medical students to simulation training on a simple or complex surgical knot-tying task. Participants completed 13 practice trials, interspersed with computer-based video instruction. On trials 1, 5, 9 and 13, knot-tying performance was assessed using time and movement efficiency measures, and cognitive load was assessed using subjective rating of mental effort (SRME) and simple reaction time (SRT) on a vibrotactile stimulus-monitoring secondary task. Significant improvements in knot-tying performance (F(1.04,24.95)  = 41.1, p cognitive load (F(2.3,58.5)  = 57.7, p cognitive load during skills training. Mental effort ratings are also sensitive to small differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in the physical complexity of a simulation task. The complementary nature of these subjective and objective measures suggests their combined use is advantageous in simulation instructional design research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Non-isothermal kinetics of phase transformations in magnetron sputtered alumina films with metastable structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuzjaková, Š., E-mail:; Zeman, P.; Kos, Š.


    Highlights: • Non-isothermal kinetics of phase transformations in alumina films was investigated. • The structure of alumina films affects kinetics of the transformation processes. • Kinetic triplets of all transformation processes were determined. • The KAS, FWO, FR and IKP methods for determination of E{sub a} and A were used. • The Málek method for determination of the kinetic model was used. - Abstract: The paper reports on non-isothermal kinetics of transformation processes in magnetron sputtered alumina thin films with an amorphous and γ-phase structure leading ultimately to the formation of the thermodynamically stable α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. Phase transformation sequences in the alumina films were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at four different heating rates (10, 20, 30, 40 °C/min). Three isoconversional methods (Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS), Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Friedman (FR) method) as well as the invariant kinetic parameters (IKP) method were used to determine the activation energies for transformation processes. Moreover, the pre-exponential factors were determined using the IKP method. The kinetic models of the transformation processes were determined using the Málek method. It was found that the as-deposited structure of alumina films affects kinetics of the transformation processes. The film with the amorphous as-deposited structure heated at 40 °C/min transforms to the crystalline γ phase at a temperature of ∼930 °C (E{sub a,IKP} = 463 ± 10 kJ/mol) and subsequently to the crystalline α phase at a temperature of ∼1200 °C (E{sub a,IKP} = 589 ± 10 kJ/mol). The film with the crystalline γ-phase structure heated at 40 °C/min is thermally stable up to ∼1100 °C and transforms to the crystalline α phase (E{sub a,IKP} = 511 ± 16 kJ/mol) at a temperature of ∼1195 °C. The empirical two-parameter Šesták–Berggren kinetic model was found to be the most adequate one to describe

  20. Barrier experiment: Shock initiation under complex loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The barrier experiments are a variant of the gap test; a detonation wave in a donor HE impacts a barrier and drives a shock wave into an acceptor HE. The question we ask is: What is the trade-off between the barrier material and threshold barrier thickness to prevent the acceptor from detonating. This can be viewed from the perspective of shock initiation of the acceptor subject to a complex pressure drive condition. Here we consider key factors which affect whether or not the acceptor undergoes a shock-to-detonation transition. These include the following: shock impedance matches for the donor detonation wave into the barrier and then the barrier shock into the acceptor, the pressure gradient behind the donor detonation wave, and the curvature of detonation front in the donor. Numerical simulations are used to illustrate how these factors affect the reaction in the acceptor.

  1. Non-isothermal degradation kinetics of filled with rise husk ash polypropene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The thermal stability and kinetics of non-isothermal degradation of polypropene and polypropene composites filled with 20 mass% vigorously grounded and mixed raw rice husks (RRH, black rice husks ash (BRHA, white rice husks ash (WRHA and Aerosil Degussa (AR were studied. The calculation procedures of Coats – Redfern, Madhysudanan et al., Tang et al., Wanjun et al. and 27 model kinetic equations were used. The kinetics of thermal degradation were found to be best described by kinetic equations of n-th order (Fn mechanism. The kinetic parameters E, A, ΔS≠, ΔH≠and ΔG≠for all the samples studied were calculated. The highest values of n, E and A were obtained for the composites filled with WRHA and AR. A linear dependence between lnA and E was observed, known also as kinetic compensation effect. The results obtained were considered enough to conclude that the cheap RRH and the products of its thermal degradation BRHA and WRHA, after vigorously grounding and mixing, could successfully be used as fillers for polypropene instead of the much more expensive synthetic material Aerosil to prepare various polypropene composites.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin; Lavie, Baptiste [University of Bern, Physics Institute, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Wyttenbach, Aurélien; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe [Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Sing, David K., E-mail: [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)


    We present a theory for interpreting the sodium lines detected in transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres. Previous analyses employed the isothermal approximation and dealt only with the transit radius. By recognizing the absorption depth and the transit radius as being independent observables, we develop a theory for jointly interpreting both quantities, which allows us to infer the temperatures and number densities associated with the sodium lines. We are able to treat a non-isothermal situation with a constant temperature gradient. Our novel diagnostics take the form of simple-to-use algebraic formulae and require measurements of the transit radii (and their corresponding absorption depths) at line center and in the line wing for both sodium lines. We apply our diagnostics to the HARPS data of HD 189733b, confirm the upper atmospheric heating reported by Huitson et al., derive a temperature gradient of 0.4376 ± 0.0154 K km{sup −1}, and find densities ∼1–10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}.

  3. Non-isothermal kinetic studies on co-processing of vacuum residue, plastics, coal and petrocrop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)


    Co-processing of petroleum vacuum residue (BVR) with plastics (polypropylene, bakelite), coal (Samla coal), and biomass (bagasse, Calotropis procera) was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) reaction system in nitrogen atmosphere with a view to comparing the process of the mixture with those of the individual components. Experiments were conducted at heating rate of 40{sup o}C/min, in the temperature range of 30-900{sup o}C. Based on the results obtained, three temperature regimes were selected for studying the non-isothermal kinetics of TGA of individual BVR, plastics, coal, biomass as well as of the co-processing of these with BVR, i.e., below 400{sup o}C, between 400 and 500{sup o}C and above 500{sup o}C. The kinetic studies were performed using Coats and Redfern kinetic-modeling equations. The overall activation energies were 60.83kJ/mole for petroleum residue, 99.41kJ/mole for polypropylene, 21.08kJ/mole for coal, 22.68kJ/mole for C. procera and 31.9kJ/mole for the mixture of these four materials. Thus, it has been found that there exists an overall synergy, when four materials were co-processed together. The overall orders and activation energies change during co-processing of two, three or four different macromolecules including petroleum residue as observed presently. The results obtained are being reported.

  4. Non-isothermal precipitation behaviors of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with different Zn contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, M.X., E-mail:; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.K.; Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z.


    The non-isothermal precipitation behaviors of Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloys with different Zn contents were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, hardness measurement and high resolution transmission electron microscope characterization. The results show that Zn addition has a significant effect on the GP zone dissolution and precipitation of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys. And their activation energies change with the changes of Zn content and aging conditions. Precipitation kinetics can be improved by adding 0.5 wt% or 3.0 wt%Zn, while be suppressed after adding 1.5 wt%Zn. The Mg-Si precipitates (GP zones and β″) are still the main precipitates in the Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys after heated up to 250 °C, and no Mg-Zn precipitates are observed in the Zn-added alloy due to the occurrence of Mg-Zn precipitates reversion. The measured age-hardening responses of the alloys are corresponding to the predicted results by the established precipitation kinetic equations. Additionally, a double-hump phenomenon of hardness appears in the artificial aging of pre-aged alloy with 3.0 wt% Zn addition, which resulted from the formation of pre-β″ and β″ precipitates. Finally, the precipitation mechanism of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with different Zn contents was proposed based on the microstructure evolution and interaction forces between Mg, Si and Zn atoms.

  5. Navier-Stokes-Fourier analytic solutions for non-isothermal Couette slip gas flow

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    Milićev Snežana S.


    Full Text Available The explicit and reliable analytical solutions for steady plane compressible non-isothermal Couette gas flow are presented. These solutions for velocity and temperature are developed by macroscopic approach from Navier-Stokes-Fourier system of continuum equations and the velocity slip and the temperature jump first order boundary conditions. Variability of the viscosity and thermal conductivity with temperature is involved in the model. The known result for the gas flow with constant and equal temperatures of the walls (isothermal walls is verified and a new solution for the case of different temperature of the walls is obtained. Evan though the solution for isothermal walls correspond to the gas flow of the Knudsen number Kn≤0.1, i.e. to the slip and continuum flow, it is shown that the gas velocity and related shear stress are also valid for the whole range of the Knudsen number. The deviation from numerical results for the same system is less than 1%. The reliability of the solution is confirmed by comparing with results of other authors which are obtained numerically by microscopic approach. The advantage of the presented solution compared to previous is in a very simple applicability along with high accuracy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 35046 i 174014

  6. Evaluating the Energy Recovery Potential of Nigerian Coals under Non-Isothermal Thermogravimetry (United States)

    Bevan Nyakuma, Bemgba; Oladokun, Olagoke; Jauro, Aliyu; Damian Nyakuma, Denen


    This study investigated the fuel properties and energy recovery potential of two coal samples from Ihioma (IHM) and Ogboligbo (OGB) environs in Nigeria. The ultimate, proximate, and bomb calorimetric analyses of the coal were examined. Next, the rank classification and potential application of the coals were evaluated according to the ASTM standard D388. Lastly, thermal decomposition behaviour was examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetry (TG) under pyrolysis conditions from 30 - 900 °C. The results indicated IHM and OGB contain high proportions of combustible elements for potential thermal conversion. The higher heating value (HHV) of IHM was 20.37 MJ/kg whereas OGB was 16.33 MJ/kg. TG analysis revealed 55% weight loss for OGB and 76% for IHM. The residual mass was 23% for IHM and 44% for OGB. Based on the temperature profile characteristics (TPCs); Ton , Tmax , and Toff , IHM was more reactive than OGB due to its higher volatile matter (VM). Overall, results revealed the coals are Lignite (Brown) low-rank coals (LRCs) with potential for electric power generation.

  7. Non-isothermal pyrolysis of de-oiled microalgal biomass: Kinetics and evolved gas analysis. (United States)

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Saravaia, Hitesh; Paliwal, Chetan; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya


    Non-isothermal (β=5, 10, 20, 35°C/min) pyrolysis of de-oiled microalgal biomass (DMB) of Chlorella variabilis was investigated by TGA-MS (30-900°C, Argon atmosphere) to understand thermal decomposition and evolved gas analysis (EGA). The results showed that three-stage thermal decomposition and three volatilization zone (100-400°C, 400-550°C and 600-750°C) of organic matters during pyrolysis. The highest rate of weight-loss is 8.91%/min at 302°C for 35°C/min heating-rate. Kinetics of pyrolysis were investigated by iso-conversional (KAS, FWO) and model-fitting (Coats-Redfern) method. For Zone-1and3, similar activation energy (Ea) is found in between KAS (α=0.4), FWO (α=0.4) and Avrami-Erofe'ev (n=4) model. Using the best-fitted kinetic model Avrami-Erofe'ev (n=4), Ea values (R(2)=>0.96) are 171.12 (Zone-1), 404.65 (Zone-2) and 691.42kJ/mol (Zone-3). EGA indicate the abundance of most gases observed consequently between 200-300°C and 400-500°C. The pyrolysis of DMB involved multi-step reaction mechanisms for solid-state reactions having different Ea values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kink Waves in Non-isothermal Stratified Solar Waveguides: Effect of the External Magnetic Field (United States)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.


    We study the effect of an external magnetic field on the properties of kink waves, propagating along a thin non-isothermal stratified and diverging magnetic flux tube. A wave equation, governing the propagation of kink waves under the adopted model is derived. It is shown that the vertical gradient of temperature introduces a spatially local cut-off frequency ω c . The vertical distribution of the cut-off frequency is calculated for the reference VAL-C model of the solar atmosphere and for different values of a ratio of external to internal magnetic fields. The results show that the cut-off frequency is negative below the temperature minimum due to the negative temperature gradient. In the chromosphere the cut-off frequency at a given height is smaller for a stronger external magnetic field. For the appropriate range of a ratio B e /B i ≈ 0-0.8, the cutoff lies in the range ω c ≈ 0.003-0.010 s-1 (periods 600 , ω 2/ω 1 < 2. This reduction grows for a larger ratio of temperature at the loop top to the temperature at the footpoints. Moreover, the effect of reduction is most pronounced for the steeper temperature profiles.

  9. Failure mechanisms of load-sharing complex systems (United States)

    Siddique, Shahnewaz; Volovoi, Vitali


    We investigate the failure mechanisms of load-sharing complex systems. The system is composed of multiple nodes or components whose failures are determined based on the interaction of their respective strengths and loads (or capacity and demand, respectively) as well as the ability of a component to share its load with its neighbors when needed. We focus on two distinct mechanisms to model the interaction between components' strengths and loads. The failure mechanisms of these two models demonstrate temporal scaling phenomena, phase transitions, and multiple distinct failure modes excited by extremal dynamics. For critical ranges of parameters the models demonstrate power-law and exponential failure patterns. We identify the similarities and differences between the two mechanisms and the implications of our results for the failure mechanisms of complex systems in the real world.

  10. Pyrolysis of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse: non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis. (United States)

    Ounas, A; Aboulkas, A; El Harfi, K; Bacaoui, A; Yaacoubi, A


    Thermal degradation and kinetics for olive residue and sugar cane bagasse have been evaluated under dynamic conditions in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). The effect of heating rate was evaluated in the range of 2-50 K min(-1) providing significant parameters for the fingerprinting of the biomass. The DTG plot for the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse clearly shows that the bagasse begins to degrade at 473 K and exhibits two major peaks. The initial mass-loss was associated with hemicellulose pyrolysis and responsible for the first peak (538-543 K) whereas cellulose pyrolysis was initiated at higher temperatures and responsible for the second peak (600-607 K). The two biomass mainly devolatilized around 473-673 K, with total volatile yield of about 70-75%. The char in final residue was about 19-26%. Mass loss and mass loss rates were strongly affected by heating rate. It was found that an increase in heating rate resulted in a shift of thermograms to higher temperatures. Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were applied to determine apparent activation energy to the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse. Two different steps were detected with apparent activation energies in the 10-40% conversion range have a value of 153-162 kJ mol(-1) and 168-180 kJ mol(-1) for the hemicellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. In the 50-80% conversion range, this value is 204-215 kJ mol(-1) and 231-240 kJ mol(-1) for the cellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and characterization of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate-co-neopentyl glycol succinate) copolyesters. (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Xiao-Ming


    Both biodegradable aliphatic neat poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-neopentyl glycol succinate) (P(BS-co-NPGS)) copolyesters with different 1,4-butanediol/neopentyl glycol ratios were synthesized through a two-step process of transesterification and polycondensation using stannous chloride and 4-Methylbenzenesulfonic acid as the co-catalysts. The structure, non-isothermal crystallization behavior, crystalline morphology and crystal structure of neat PBS and P(BS-co-NPGS) copolyesters were characterized by (1)H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscope (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), respectively. The Avrami equation modified by Jeziorny and Mo's method was employed to describe the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the neat PBS and its copolyesters. The modified Avrami equation could adequately describe the primary stage of non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the neat PBS and its copolyesters. Mo's method provided a fairly satisfactory description of the non-isothermal crystallization of neat PBS and its copolyesters. Interestingly, the values of 1/t1/2, Zc and F(T) obtained by the modified Avrami equation and Mo's method analysis indicated that the crystallization rate increased first and then decreased with an increase of NPGS content compared that of neat PBS, whereas the crystallization mechanism almost kept unchanged. The results of tensile testing showed that the ductility of PBS was largely improved by incorporating NPGS units. The elongation at break increased remarkably with increasing NPGS content. In particular, the sample with 20% NPGS content showed around 548% elongation at break. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling the growth of Lactobacillus viridescens under non-isothermal conditions in vacuum-packed sliced ham. (United States)

    Silva, Nathália Buss da; Longhi, Daniel Angelo; Martins, Wiaslan Figueiredo; Laurindo, João Borges; Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão de; Carciofi, Bruno Augusto Mattar


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for spoiling vacuum-packed meat products, such as ham. Since the temperature is the main factor affecting the microbial dynamic, the use of mathematical models describing the microbial behavior into a non-isothermal environment can be very useful for predicting food shelf life. In this study, the growth of Lactobacillus viridescens was measured in vacuum-packed sliced ham under non-isothermal conditions, and the predictive ability of primary (Baranyi and Roberts, 1994) and secondary (Square Root) models were assessed using parameters estimated in MRS culture medium under isothermal conditions (between 4 and 30°C). Fresh ham piece was sterilized, sliced, inoculated, vacuum-packed, and stored in a temperature-controlled incubator at five different non-isothermal conditions (between 4 and 25°C) and one isothermal condition (8°C). The mathematical models obtained in MRS medium were assessed by comparing predicted values with L. viridescens growth data in vacuum-packed ham. Its predictive ability was assessed through statistical indexes, with good results (bias factor between 0.95 and 1.03; accuracy factor between 1.04 and 1.07, and RMSE between 0.76 and 1.33), especially in increasing temperature, which predictions were safe. The model parameters obtained from isothermal growth data in MRS medium enabled to estimate the shelf life of a commercial ham under non-isothermal conditions in the temperature range analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of polypyrrole embedment on non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Bhattacharya, S.


    Polypyrrole (PPy)/Poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) blend is synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole. FTIR confirms the formation of Polypyrrole (PPy) within PVDF-HFP matrices. Weight percentages of different components within composites are estimated by TGA. Detailed study of nucleation and kinetics at its melt condition under non-isothermal environment is done by the DSC measurement. The presence of PPy within the PVDF-HFP matrices accelerated the nucleation rate of the polymer.

  14. Production of valuable pyrolytic oils from mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in Indonesia using non-isothermal and isothermal experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Mamad Gandidi


    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste (MSW, disposed of at open dumping sites, poses health risks, contaminates surface water, and releases greenhouse gasses such as methane. However, pyrolysis offers the opportunity to convert MSW into Bio-Oil (BO for clean energy resource. In this paper, an MSW sample consisting of plastic, paper and cardboard, rubber and textiles, and vegetable waste is pyrolysed on a laboratory scale in a fixed-bed vacuum reactor. In the non-isothermal process, the sample was fed into the reactor and then heated. In the isothermal process, the reactor is first heated and then the sample is added. The non-isothermal process created greater BO in both quality and quantity. The BO had a larger amount of gasoline species than diesel-48 fuel, with at 33.44%the BO produced by isothermal pyrolysis and 36.42% in non-isothermal pyrolysis. However the product of isothermal pyrolysis had a higher acid content that reduced its heating value.

  15. Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration and deuterium transport: a case study on undisturbed soil column from headwater catchment (United States)

    Sobotkova, Martina; Snehota, Michal; Tesar, Miroslav


    Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration experiments with tracer breakthrough were carried out in the laboratory on intact column of sandy loam soil taken from Roklan site (Sumava Mountains, Czech Republic). In the case of isothermal experiment, the temperature of infiltrating water was almost equal to the initial temperature of the sample. For the non-isothermal case the infiltration was performed using water approximately 10 °C colder than was the initial temperature of soil sample. The experiments were otherwise conducted under the same initial and boundary conditions. Pressure heads and temperatures in two depths (8.8 and 15.3 cm) inside the soil were monitored as well as the temperature of water entering and leaving the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample by gravity and outflow was measured using tipping bucket flowmeter. Permeability of the sample calculated for steady state stages of the experiment showed that significant difference between water flow rates recorded during two experiment could not be justified only by temperature induced changes of water viscosity and density. Results of deuterium breakthrough were nearly identical for isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

  16. Thermodynamic characterization of polymeric materials subjected to non-isothermal flows: Experiment, theory and simulation (United States)

    Ionescu, Tudor Constantin

    Frictional or viscous heating phenomena are found in virtually every industrial operation dealing with processing of polymeric materials. This work is aimed at addressing some of the existing shortcomings in modeling non-isothermal polymer flowing processes. Specifically, existing theories suggest that when a polymer melt is subjected to deformation, its internal energy changes very little compared to its conformational entropy. This statement forms the definition of the Theory of Purely Entropic Elasticity (PEE) applied to polymer melts. Under the auspices of this theory, the temperature evolution equation for modeling the polymer melt under an applied deformation is greatly simplified. In this study, using a combination of experimental measurements, continuum-based computer modeling and molecular simulation techniques, the validity of this theory is tested for a wide range of processing conditions. First, we present experimental evidence that this theory is only valid for low deformation regimes. Furthermore, using molecular theory, a direct correlation is found between the relaxation characteristics of the polymer and the flow regime where this theory stops being valid. We present a new and improved form of the temperature equation containing an extra term previously neglected under the PEE assumption, followed by a recipe for evaluating the extra term. The corrected temperature equation is found to give more accurate predictions for the temperature profiles in the high flow rate regimes, in excellent agreement with our experimental measurements. Next, in order to gain a molecular-level understanding of our experimental findings, a series of polydisperse linear alkane systems with average chain lengths between 24 and 78 carbon atoms are modeled with an applied "orienting field" using a highly efficient non-equilibrium Monte Carlo scheme. Our simulation results appear to substantiate our experimental findings. The internal energy change of the oriented

  17. Non-isothermal kinetics of the thermal desorption of mercury from a contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, Félix A.


    Full Text Available The Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain was the largest cinnabar (mercury sulphide mine in the world. Its soils have high levels of mercury a consequence of its natural lithology, but often made much worse by its mining history. The present work examines the thermal desorption of two contaminated soils from the Almadén area under non-isothermal conditions in a N2 atmosphere, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. DSC was performed at different heating rates between room temperature and 600 °C. Desorption temperatures for different mercury species were determined. The Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Coasts–Redfern methods were employed to determine the reaction kinetics from the DSC data. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor for mercury desorption were calculated.El distrito minero de Almadén (Ciudad Real, España tiene la mayor mina de cinabrio (sulfuro de mercurio del mundo. Sus suelos tienen altos niveles de mercurio como consecuencia de su litología natural, pero a menudo su contenido en mercurio es mucho más alto debido a la historia minera de la zona. Este trabajo examina la desorción térmica de dos suelos contaminados procedentes de Almadén bajo condiciones isotérmicas en atmósfera de N2, empleando calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC. La calorimetría se llevó a cabo a diferentes velocidades de calentamiento desde temperatura ambiente hasta 600 °C. Se determinaron las diferentes temperaturas de desorción de las especies de mercurio presentes en los suelos. Para determinar la cinética de reacción a partir de los datos de DSC se utilizaron los métodos de Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa y Coasts–Redfern. Además se calcularon las energías de activación y los factores pre-exponenciales para la desorción del mercurio.

  18. Synthesis and Non-isothermal Carbothermic Reduction of FeTiO3-Fe2O3 Solid Solution Systems (United States)

    Liu, Yiran; Zhang, Jianliang; Xing, Xiangdong; Liu, Zhengjian; Liu, Xingle; Li, Naiyao; Shen, Yansong


    To investigate the carbothermic reduction behaviors of xFeTiO3·(1 - x)Fe2O3 solid solutions, the solid solutions with different x values were synthesized and used in the corresponding reactions. With an increase in x, the temperature pertaining to the onset of carbothermic reduction increased, while the rate of reduction of the solid solutions, α, decreased. The lattice parameters calculated from XRD patterns indicated that the solid solution with a higher x led to a larger lattice distortion. The non-isothermal kinetics were calculated, and an average activation energy E value of 3.0 × 102 kJ/mol was obtained.

  19. Approximations to the Non-Isothermal Distributed Activation Energy Model for Biomass Pyrolysis Using the Rayleigh Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of some parameters relevant to biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solutions of the nonisothermal nth order distributed activation energy model using the Rayleigh distribution. Investigated parameters are the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, the heating rate, the reaction order and the scale parameters of the Rayleigh distribution. The influence of these parameters has been considered for the determination of the kinetic parameters of the non-isothermal nth order Rayleigh distribution from the experimentally derived thermoanalytical data of biomass pyrolysis.

  20. Optimal experimental design for improving the estimation of growth parameters of Lactobacillus viridescens from data under non-isothermal conditions. (United States)

    Longhi, Daniel Angelo; Martins, Wiaslan Figueiredo; da Silva, Nathália Buss; Carciofi, Bruno Augusto Mattar; de Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão; Laurindo, João Borges


    In predictive microbiology, the model parameters have been estimated using the sequential two-step modeling (TSM) approach, in which primary models are fitted to the microbial growth data, and then secondary models are fitted to the primary model parameters to represent their dependence with the environmental variables (e.g., temperature). The Optimal Experimental Design (OED) approach allows reducing the experimental workload and costs, and the improvement of model identifiability because primary and secondary models are fitted simultaneously from non-isothermal data. Lactobacillus viridescens was selected to this study because it is a lactic acid bacterium of great interest to meat products preservation. The objectives of this study were to estimate the growth parameters of L. viridescens in culture medium from TSM and OED approaches and to evaluate both the number of experimental data and the time needed in each approach and the confidence intervals of the model parameters. Experimental data for estimating the model parameters with TSM approach were obtained at six temperatures (total experimental time of 3540h and 196 experimental data of microbial growth). Data for OED approach were obtained from four optimal non-isothermal profiles (total experimental time of 588h and 60 experimental data of microbial growth), two profiles with increasing temperatures (IT) and two with decreasing temperatures (DT). The Baranyi and Roberts primary model and the square root secondary model were used to describe the microbial growth, in which the parameters b and Tmin (±95% confidence interval) were estimated from the experimental data. The parameters obtained from TSM approach were b=0.0290 (±0.0020) [1/(h(0.5)°C)] and Tmin=-1.33 (±1.26) [°C], with R(2)=0.986 and RMSE=0.581, and the parameters obtained with the OED approach were b=0.0316 (±0.0013) [1/(h(0.5)°C)] and Tmin=-0.24 (±0.55) [°C], with R(2)=0.990 and RMSE=0.436. The parameters obtained from OED approach

  1. Investigation of non-isothermal electron effects on the dust acoustic waves in four components dusty plasma (United States)

    Nazari-Golshan, A.; Nourazar, S. S.; Parvin, P.; Ghafoori-Fard, H.


    The time fractional modified KdV, the so-called TFMKdV equation is solved to study the nonlinear propagation of the dust acoustic (DA) solitary waves in un-magnetized four components dusty plasma. This plasma consists of positively charged warm adiabatic dust, negatively charged cold dust, non-isothermal electrons and Maxwellian ions. The TFMKdV equation is derived by using semi-inverse and Agrawal's method and solved by the Laplace Adomian decomposition method (LADM). The effects of the time fractional order ( β), the ratio of dust to ion temperature ( δ d ), the time ( τ), the mass and charge ratio ( α), the non-isothermal parameter ( γ) and wave velocity ( v) on the DA solitary wave are studied. Our results show that the variations of the amplitude of DA solitary wave versus ( γ) are in agreement with the results obtained previously. Moreover, the time fractional order plays a role of higher order perturbation in modulating the soliton shape. The achievements of this research for the DA solitary waves may be applicable in space plasma environments and laboratory plasmas.

  2. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of As{sub 30}Te{sub 60}Ga{sub 10} glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Mansour; Abd-Elnaiem, Alaa M.; Abdel-Rahim, M.A.; Hafiz, M.M. [Assiut University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut (Egypt); Hassan, R.M. [Assiut University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut (Egypt); Aden University, Physics Department, Faculty of Education-Zingiber, Aden (Yemen)


    The crystallization study under non-isothermal conditions of As{sub 30}Te{sub 60}Ga{sub 10} glass was investigated. The studied composition was synthesized by melt-quenching technique and characterized by different techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The XRD analysis revealed that the as-prepared and annealed bulk glass of As{sub 30}Te{sub 60}Ga{sub 10} exhibit the amorphous, and polycrystalline nature, respectively. The DSC results showed that the heating rate affects the characteristic temperatures, for instance, the glass transition, onset, and peak crystallization temperatures. Furthermore, some thermal analysis methods such as the Kissinger and Matusita et al., approximations were employed to determine the crystallization parameters: for example Avrami exponent and the activation energies for glass transition and crystallization process. In addition, we have compared the experimental DSC data with the calculated ones based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) and Sestak-Berggren SB(M,N) models. The results indicated that the SB(M,N) model is more suitable for describing the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the investigated composition. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mashak

    Full Text Available Abstract Poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF and PVDF blends with various molecular weights of poly (N- vinylpyrrolidone (PVP films were prepared in dimethyl formamide through the solution casting method. Non-isothermal melt crystallization studies of PVDF films were carried out by cooling the molten samples at different temperatures using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The obtained films have been characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. Crystallization kinetics of PVDF films were successfully described by the Jeziorney, Mo and Ziabicki models. The Ozawa equation was found to be invalid for describing the crystallization kinetics. Kinetic parameters such as t1/2, Zc and F(T indicated that the crystallization rate decreased for PVDF/PVP films as compared to neat PVDF films and was affected by the molecular weight of PVP. The results based on Ziabicki's model revealed that the addition of PVP decreased the ability of PVDF to crystallize under non-isothermal melt crystallization conditions. The activation energy was calculated through Friedman and advanced isoconversional methods. Results showed that the addition of PVP to PVDF films caused an increase in activation energy. By comparing DMTA results of PVDF/PVP blends with neat PVDF films, it could be concluded that blending PVDF with PVP caused an increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg while the storage modulus was decreased.

  4. The effects of non-isothermal deformation on martensitic transformation in 22MnB5 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naderi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Shariati Street, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Saeed-Akbari, A.; Bleck, W. [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)


    In the present paper, the effects of process parameters on phase transformations during non-isothermal deformations are described and discussed. Non-isothermal high temperature compressive deformations were conducted on 22MnB5 boron steel by using deformation dilatometry. Cylindrical samples were uniaxially deformed at different strain rates ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 s{sup -1} to a maximum compressive strain of 50%. Qualitative and quantitative investigations were carried out using surface hardness mapping data as well as dilatation curves. It was observed that a higher initial deformation temperatures resulted in a higher martensite fraction of the microstructure, while a variation in the martensite start temperature was negligible. Another conclusion was that by applying larger amounts of strain as well as higher force levels, not only the martensite start temperature, but also the amount of martensite was reduced. Moreover, it was concluded that using surface hardness mapping technique and dilatometry experiments were very reliable methods to quantify and qualify the coexisting phases.

  5. Low-complexity energy disaggregation using appliance load modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Altrabalsi


    Full Text Available Large-scale smart metering deployments and energy saving targets across the world have ignited renewed interest in residential non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NALM, that is, disaggregating total household’s energy consumption down to individual appliances, using purely analytical tools. Despite increased research efforts, NALM techniques that can disaggregate power loads at low sampling rates are still not accurate and/or practical enough, requiring substantial customer input and long training periods. In this paper, we address these challenges via a practical low-complexity lowrate NALM, by proposing two approaches based on a combination of the following machine learning techniques: k-means clustering and Support Vector Machine, exploiting their strengths and addressing their individual weaknesses. The first proposed supervised approach is a low-complexity method that requires very short training period and is fairly accurate even in the presence of labelling errors. The second approach relies on a database of appliance signatures that we designed using publicly available datasets. The database compactly represents over 200 appliances using statistical modelling of measured active power. Experimental results on three datasets from US, Italy, Austria and UK, demonstrate the reliability and practicality.

  6. Mixed convection boundary layer flows of a non-Newtonian Jeffrey’s fluid from a non-isothermal wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdul Gaffar


    Full Text Available This article presents the nonlinear, steady state mixed convection boundary layer flow, heat and mass transfer of an incompressible non-Newtonian Jeffrey’s fluid past a non-isothermal wedge. The transformed conservation equations are solved numerically subject to physically appropriate boundary conditions using a versatile, implicit finite-difference Keller box technique. The influence of a number of emerging non-dimensional parameters, namely Deborah number (De, ratio of relaxation to retardation times (λ, pressure gradient parameter (m, Buoyancy ratio parameter (N, mixed convection parameter (λ1, radiation parameter (F and heat generation/absorption parameter (Δ on velocity, temperature and concentration evolution in the boundary layer regime is examined in detail. Also, the effects of these parameters on surface heat transfer rate, mass transfer rate and local skin friction are investigated.

  7. Morphology, melting behavior, and non-isothermal crystallization of poly(butylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.-W. [Department of Styling and Cosmetology, Tainan University of Technology, 529 Chung Cheng Rd., Yung Kang City 710, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:; Wen, Y.-L. [Department of Nursing, Meiho Institute of Technology, 23 Ping Kuang Rd., Neipu Hsiang, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Kang, C.-C. [R and D Center, Hi-End Polymer Film Co., Ltd. 15-1 Sin Jhong Rd., Sin Ying City 730, Taiwan (China); Yeh, M.-Y. [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Centre, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Wen, S.-B. [Department of Nursing, Meiho Institute of Technology, 23 Ping Kuang Rd., Neipu Hsiang, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Rd., Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)


    The morphology, melting behavior, and non-isothermal crystallization of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) and poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (PEMA) blends were studied with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). PEMA forms immiscible, yet compatible, blends with PBT. Subsequent DSC scans on melt-crystallized samples exhibited two melting endotherms (T{sub mI} and T{sub mII}). The presence of PEMA would facilitate the recrystallization during heating scan and retard PBT molecular chains to form a perfect crystal in cooling crystallization. The dispersion phases of molten PEMA acts as nucleating agents to enhance the crystallization rate of PBT. The solidified PBT could act as nucleating agents to enhance the crystallization of PEMA, but also retard the molecular mobility to reduce crystallization rate. The U* and K{sub g} of Hoffman-Lauritzen theory were also determined by Vyazovkin's methods to support the interpretation.

  8. Interpretation and evaluation of monitoring results for main pipelines hydraulic pressure testing under non-isothermal conditions (United States)

    Kraus, Ju. A.; Ivanov, R. N.; Grinevich, V. A.; Pakhotin, A. N.


    The paper examines hydraulic pressure testing of main oil pipelines. The research objective is to identify and describe the characteristic features of pressure changes in pressure testing of the main pipeline, caused by temperature changes. The notions on the interpretation and evaluation of the results for pipeline pressure testing under non-isothermal conditions are given, the number of pressure sampling points and temperature information being limited; and considering the elevation difference along the length of the test section (where applicable). A formula for calculating the fresh water volumetric expansion coefficient correlation with temperature and pressure is proposed. A method for interpreting the hydraulic pressure testing results is developed, considering the parameters spread effect on the coefficients of the volumetric expansion and the modulus of elasticity for the test fluid, as well as the coefficients of linear expansion and Young's modulus for pipe steel. The application of the method allows to monitor the hydraulic pressure testing for main oil pipelines.

  9. Impact of thermal radiation on MHD slip flow of a ferrofluid over a non-isothermal wedge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, A.M.


    This article is concerned with the problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow of Cobalt-kerosene ferrofluid adjacent a non-isothermal wedge under the influence of thermal radiation and partial slip. Such type of problems are posed by electric generators and biomedical enforcement. The governing equations are solved using the Thomas algorithm with finite-difference type and solutions for a wide range of magnet parameter are presented. It is found that local Nusselt number manifests a considerable diminishing for magnetic parameter and magnifies intensively in case of slip factor, thermal radiation and surface temperature parameters. Further, the skin friction coefficient visualizes a sufficient enhancement for the parameters thermal radiation, surface temperature and magnetic field, but a huge reduction is recorded by promoting the slip factor.

  10. Study of Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Biodegradable Poly(ethylene adipate/SiO2 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Memarzadeh


    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene adipte and poly(ethylene adipate/silica nanocomposite (PEAd/SiO2 containing 3 wt. % SiO2  were prepared by an in situ method. The examinations on the non-isothermal crystallization kinetic behavior have been conducted by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The Avrami, Ozawa, and combined Avrami and Ozawa equations were applied to describe the crystallization kinetics and to determine the crystallization parameters of the prepared PEAd/SiO2 nanocomposites. It is found that the inclusion of the silica nanoparticles can accelerate the nucleation rate due to heterogeneous nucleation effect of silica on the polymer matrix. According to the obtained results, the combined Avrami and Ozawa equation shown that the better model for examination of this system.

  11. Withdrawal and drainage of thin film flow of a generalized Oldroyd-B fluid on non-isothermal cylindrical surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Ullah


    Full Text Available This investigation deals with analytical solutions of thin film flow for withdrawal and drainage of an incompressible generalized Oldroyd-B fluid on a vertical cylinder under the influence of non-isothermal effects. The derived solutions are presented under series form for velocity profile, temperature distribution, volume flux, average film velocity and shear stress in both cases. These solutions satisfy both the governing equations and all imposed initial and boundary conditions. The corresponding exact solutions for Newtonian fluid are also obtained as a special case of our derived solutions. Moreover, solutions for generalized Maxwell fluid and Power Law model, performing the same motion, can be obtained as limiting cases of our general solutions. The influence of pertinent parameters on the fluid motion is also underlined by graphical illustration.

  12. Study on the non-isothermal curing kinetics of a polyfurfuryl alcohol bioresin by DSC using different amounts of catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez Toribio, Juan Carlos; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Madsen, Bo


    The curing kinetics of a biomass-based polyfurfuryl alcohol resin with three different amounts of catalyst was studied by DSC non-isothermal measurements using seven heating rates. The change of the activation energy of the curing process was obtained by the isoconversional methods of Kissinger...... and gelling of the resin which leads to a constrained mobility of the polymer chains; and a final stage, where the activation energy decreases more rapidly due to the formation of a rigid molecular network that restricts diffusion processes. Altogether, the obtained knowledge of the curing kinetics will form...... a valuable contribution to the design of improved cure cycles for manufacturing of composite materials with a polyfurfuryl alcohol matrix....

  13. Kinetic analysis for non-isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated and gamma-irradiated anhydrous cadmium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culas, S.; Samuel, J. [Mar Ivanios College, Kerala (India). Dept. of Chemistry


    The thermal decomposition of untreated and γ-irradiated samples of anhydrous cadmium nitrate was performed under non-isothermal conditions at different heating rates (5, 10, 15 and 20 C min{sup -1}). The results showed that the decomposition proceeds in one major step with the formation of cadmium oxide as solid residue. The data were analysed by using both isoconversional and non-isoconversional methods. The activation energy was calculated by various model-free isoconversional methods: Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Friedman (FR) methods. Irradiation enhances the decomposition and the effect increases with the irradiation dose. The activation energy decreases on irradiation. The appropriate conversion model for the thermal decomposition process selected by means of the master-plot method agrees with phase boundary reaction with spherical symmetry (R3 mechanism) for both untreated and irradiated salts at all heating rates. (orig.)

  14. A study by non-isothermal thermal methods of spruce wood bark materialss after their application for dye removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of some materials obtained from spruce bark (Picea abies, Romania, after retention of some dyes frequently used in dyeing processes in the textile industry and waste water treatment. These materials obtained by dye retention exhibit a particular thermal behavior which is different from that of the blank sample (spruce bark. The characteristic temperatures, weight losses, the residue remaining after thermo-oxidative degradation, as well as the activation energies of the significant thermo-destruction stages, estimated from non-isothermal thermogravimetric data, together with the thermal quantities calculated from DTAdata support the conclusion presented in a previous study on dye retention from aqueous solution. The obtained results made evident that, under optimal retention conditions, spruce bark shows the highest retention capacity for the Basic Blue dye, followed by Direct Brown 95 and Direct Brown 2.

  15. Non isothermal decomposition of lanthanum titanates precursors prepared by sol gel process: A kinetic and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassil, S. [Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France); Kaddouri, A., E-mail: [Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France); Béguin, B.; Gélin, P. [Université Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5256, IRCELYON, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l’environnement de Lyon, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)


    Highlights: ► Metal-propionates is a most promising route for the preparation of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3+δ} (LST) at a temperature substantially lower than that used for the preparation of the same solid by traditional methods. ► Activation energy and isothermal thermodynamic parameters calculated for the decomposition process are close to those observed for metal organic compounds. ► Sol gel-prepared LST presented low propensity to coke deposition and high stability with time during the critical long term exposure to methane and steam at high temperatures. - Abstract: The single phase La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3+δ} was prepared via the sol gel process using propionic acid. Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of the precursors has been studied using differential thermogravimetry under non-isothermal conditions in different atmospheres (air and helium). Non isothermal kinetic (A and ΔE) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and Cp) were determined using different heating rates. La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SrO and TiO{sub 2} products crystallized at temperatures of ca. 730, 960 and 470 °C respectively while pure La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3+δ} phase was obtained at 1200 °C, temperature substantially lower than that used for the preparation of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3+δ} by conventional solid state method. Precursors and/or final solids were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (DR-UV–vis) and methane steam reforming under water deficient conditions.

  16. Morphology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized by solvo-thermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majeed Khan, M.A., E-mail: [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, Sushil [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa 125055 (India); Alsalhi, M.S. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics and Astronomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahamed, Maqusood [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alhoshan, Mansour [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chemical Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Alrokayan, Salman A. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahamad, Tansir [Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)


    Nanocrystals of copper indium disulphide (CuInS{sub 2}) were synthesized by a solvo-thermal method. The structure, morphology and non-isothermal crystallization kinetic behavior of samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. Non-isothermal measurements at different heating rates were carried out and the crystallization kinetics of samples were analyzed using the most reliable non-isothermal kinetic methods. The kinetic parameters such as glass transition temperature, thermal stability, activation energy, Avrami exponent etc. were evaluated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals have scientific and technological importance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples have been prepared by solvo-thermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesized samples exhibit excellent morphology and thermal properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated properties may be utilized in design and fabrication of solar cell devices.

  17. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of eucalyptus lignosulfonate/polyvinyl alcohol composite. (United States)

    Ye, De-Zhan; Zhang, Xi; Gu, Shaojin; Zhou, Yingshan; Xu, Weilin


    The nonisothermal crystallinization kinetic was performed on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) mixed with eucalyptus lignosulfonate calcuim (HLS) as the biobased thermal stabilizer, which was systematically analyzed based on Jeziorny model, Ozawa equation and the Mo method. The results indicated that the entire crystallization process took place through two main stages involving the primary and secondary crystallization processes. The Mo method described nonisothermal crystallization behavior well. Based on the results of the half time for completing crystallization, k c value in Jeziorny model, F(T) value in Mo method and crystallization activation energy, it was concluded that low loading of HLS accelerated PVA crystallization process, however, the growth rate of PVA crystallization was impeded at high content of HLS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Non-Isothermal Chemical Lattice Boltzmann Model Incorporating Thermal Reaction Kinetics and Enthalpy Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Bartlett


    Full Text Available The lattice Boltzmann method is an efficient computational fluid dynamics technique that can accurately model a broad range of complex systems. As well as single-phase fluids, it can simulate thermohydrodynamic systems and passive scalar advection. In recent years, it also gained attention as a means of simulating chemical phenomena, as interest in self-organization processes increased. This paper will present a widely-used and versatile lattice Boltzmann model that can simultaneously incorporate fluid dynamics, heat transfer, buoyancy-driven convection, passive scalar advection, chemical reactions and enthalpy changes. All of these effects interact in a physically accurate framework that is simple to code and readily parallelizable. As well as a complete description of the model equations, several example systems will be presented in order to demonstrate the accuracy and versatility of the method. New simulations, which analyzed the effect of a reversible reaction on the transport properties of a convecting fluid, will also be described in detail. This extra chemical degree of freedom was utilized by the system to augment its net heat flux. The numerical method outlined in this paper can be readily deployed for a vast range of complex flow problems, spanning a variety of scientific disciplines.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sidorenko


    Full Text Available We consider a one-dimensional steady flow of highly viscous medium in a cylindrical channel with Dissipation and dependence of the viscosity on the temperature. It is assumed that a relatively small intervals of temperature variation of the dynamic viscosity with a sufficient degree of accuracy can be assumed to be linear. The model was based on the equations of hydrodynamics and the heat transfer fluid. In the task channel wall temperature is assumed constant. An approximate solution of the problem, according to which the distribution of velocity, pressure and temperature is sought in the form of an expansion in powers of the dimensionless transverse coordinates. A special case, when the ratio of the velocity distribution, pressure and temperature is allowed to restrict the number of terms in the expansion as follows: for speed - the first 3 to the pressure - the first two for the temperature - the first 5. The expressions to determine the temperature profile of the medium in the channel and characterization dissipative heating. To simulate the process of heat transfer highly viscous media developed a program for personal electronic computers. The calculation was performed using experimental research data melt flow grain mixture of buckwheat and soybeans for the load speed of 0.08 mm / s. The method of computer simulation carried out checks on the adequacy of the solutions to the real process of heat transfer. Analysis of the results indicates that for small values of the length of the channel influence dissipation function appears mainly at the wall. By increasing the reduced length of this phenomenon applies to all section of the channel. At high temperature profile along the channel length is determined entirely by dissipation. In the case of heat transfer due to frictional heat only, the form of curves of temperature distribution is a consequence of the interaction effects of heating due to viscous shear effects cooling by conduction. The

  20. Non-Isothermal Degradation Kinetics of CaCO3 from Different Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velyana Georgieva


    Full Text Available Thermogravimetric studies on two varieties of calcium carbonate, namely, analytical reagent-grade and in situ product from thermal degradation of calcium oxalate monohydrate, were carried out at four rates of linear increase of the temperature. The kinetics and mechanism of their solid-state thermal decomposition reaction were evaluated from the TG data using four calculation procedures and isoconversion method, as well as 27 mechanism functions. The comparison of the results obtained with these calculation procedures showed that they strongly depend on the selection of proper mechanism function for the process. Therefore, it is very important to determine the most probable mechanism function. In this respect the isoconversion calculation procedure turned out to be more appropriate. In the present work, the values of apparent activation energy E, preexponential factor A in Arrhenius equation, as well as the changes of entropy , enthalpy , and free Gibbs energy for the formation of the activated complex from the reagent are calculated. All calculations were performed using programs compiled by ourselves.

  1. Technical Assessment of Isothermal and Non-Isothermal Modelings of Natural Gas Pipeline Operational Conditions Évaluation technique de modélisations isothermes et non isothermes de conditions opérationnelles de conduites de gaz naturel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaye S.


    Full Text Available Modeling of equipment in a gas pipeline was performed here by deriving a new form of conservation equation set for compressible flow. Then a section of the third Iranian gas transmission pipeline (Nourabad-Pataveh-Dorahan, N-P-D was investigated by isothermal (IT and non-isothermal (NIT modeling approaches taking into account the effects of ground temperature. In the first part, the steady state operation of the N-P-D pipeline including a compressor station at Pataveh was studied. For the known values of natural gas mass flow rate, and inlet/outlet gas pressures at Nourabad/Dorahan points, the IT and NIT modelings showed about 33.7%, 16.6% and 23% maximum difference percent points for the compressors head, compressors rotational speed and fuel consumption rates respectively. In the second part, the unsteady operation of the N-P-D pipeline due to the shutdown of a compressor at Pataveh Compressor Station (PCS was studied. The results confirmed that at lower ground temperatures (0 and 20°C, the remaining compressors could compensate the loss of one compressor. However, at higher ground temperatures (40 and 50°C, the compressors had to run faster than the highest permissible speed to be able to deliver a certain mass flow rate without reducing the required pipeline pressure. In all above studied cases, the computing time for the non-isothermal modeling was about three times longer than that for the isothermal one. Une modélisation d'équipement au sein d'un gazoduc a été réalisée en dérivant une nouvelle forme d'ensemble d'équations de conservation pour un écoulement compressible. Une section du troisième réseau de distribution de gaz iranien (Nourabad-Pataveh-Dorahan, N-P-D a été ensuite étudiée selon des approches de modélisation isotherme (IT et non isotherme (NIT en prenant en compte les effets de la température du sol. Dans la première partie, le fonctionnement en régime stationnaire du gazoduc N-P-D, comprenant une station

  2. Crystallization kinetics of orthorhombic paracetamol from supercooled melts studied by non-isothermal DSC. (United States)

    Nikolakakis, Ioannis; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos


    A simple and highly reproducible procedure was established for the study of orthorhombic paracetamol crystallization kinetics, comprising melting, quench-cooling of the melt and scanning the formed glass by DSC at different heating rates. Results were analyzed on the basis of the mean as well as local values of the Avrami exponent, n, the energy of activation, as well as the Šesták-Berggren two-parameter autocatalytic kinetic model. The mean value of the Avrami kinetic exponent, n, ranged between 3 and 5, indicating deviation from the nucleation and growth mechanism underlying the Johnson-Mehl, Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. To verify the extent of the deviation, local values of the Avrami exponent as a function of the volume fraction transformed were calculated. Inspection of the local exponent values indicates that the crystallization mechanism changes over time, possibly reflecting the uncertainty of crystallization onset, instability of nucleation due to an autocatalytic effect of the crystalline phase, and growth anisotropy due to impingement of spherulites in the last stages of crystallization. The apparent energy of activation, E a , has a rather low mean value, close to 81 kJ/mol, which is in agreement with the observed instability of glassy-state paracetamol. Isoconversional methods revealed that E a tends to decrease with the volume fraction transformed, possibly because of the different energy demands of nucleation and growth. The exponents of the Šesták-Berggren two-parameter model showed that the crystallized fraction influences the process, confirming the complexity of the crystallization mechanism.

  3. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive geochemical Transport in Variable Saturated Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten


    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport and chemical reactions can be used for the assessment of mineral alteration in hydrothermal systems, waste disposal sites, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. A comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator, TOUGHREACT, has been developed. A wide range of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. The program can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The model can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can proceed either subject to local equilibrium or kinetic conditions. Changes in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution and precipitation can be considered. Linear adsorption and decay can be included. For the purpose of future extensions, surface complexation by double layer model is coded in the program. Xu and Pruess (1998) developed a first version of a non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport model, TOUGHREACT, by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). Xu, Pruess, and their colleagues have applied the program to a variety of problems such as: (1) supergene copper enrichment (Xu et al, 2001), (2) caprock mineral alteration in a hydrothermal system (Xu and Pruess, 2001a), and (3) mineral trapping for CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline aquifers (Xu et al, 2003b and 2004a). For modeling the coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes during

  4. Preparation of polypropylene/Mg–Al layered double hydroxides nanocomposites through wet pan-milling: non-isothermal crystallization behaviour (United States)

    Zheng, Yilei


    Differential scanning calorimeter was used to extensively investigate the non-isothermal crystallization of polypropylene (PP)/layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanocomposites prepared through wet solid-state shear milling. The corresponding crystallization kinetics was further investigated by using Ozawa, modified Avrami and combined Avrami–Ozawa method, respectively. The results showed that the Ozawa method could not well describe the crystallization kinetics of pure PP and its nanocomposites. Comparatively, the modified Avrami method as well as the combined Avrami–Ozawa method gives the satisfactory results. Under the effect of pan-milling, the produced LDH nano intercalated/exfoliated particles exhibit the inhibitive effect on the PP nucleation but more remarkable promotion effect on the spherulite growth, leading to enhancement in the overall crystallization rate. This is reflected in increase of the calculated fold surface free energy σe and also the supercooling degree ΔT required for crystallization nucleation. In addition, the polarized optical microscopy observation also verifies the higher spherulite growth rate of PP/LDHs nanocomposites than that of pure PP. PMID:29410819

  5. Thermodiffusion as a close-to-interface effect that matters in non-isothermal (dis)orderly protein aggregations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadomski, A., E-mail:; Kruszewska, N., E-mail:


    The goal of this discussion letter is to argue how and why an inherent nanoscale thermodiffusion (Soret-type) effect can be relevant in (dis)orderly protein aggregation. We propose a model in which the aggregation of proteins, in the presence of temperature gradient, is described in terms of Smoluchowski dynamics in the phase space of nuclei sizes. The Soret coefficient of the aggregation is proportional to the variations of the aggregation free energy over temperature. The free energy is related to the (interface) boundary condition of the system. When boundary condition is of equilibrium Gibbs–Thomson type, with a well-stated surface tension of the nucleus, to the system can be assigned a negative Soret effect. On the contrary, when a non-equilibrium perturbing (salting-out) term enters the boundary condition, a positive Soret effect may manifest. A zero-value Soret regime is expected to occur in between, yielding very soft (“fragile”) non-Kossel protein-type crystals. - Highlights: • Comprehension for non-isothermal formation of (dis)orderly protein aggregation. • Classification of temperature-sensitive morphologies in colloid-type aggregation. • Morphologies split into near-equilibrium and nonequilibrium structural outcomes. • Classification on mesoscopic nonequilibrium thermodynamics near local equilibrium.

  6. Effects of Covalent Functionalization of MWCNTs on the Thermal Properties and Non-Isothermal Crystallization Behaviors of PPS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myounguk Kim


    Full Text Available In this study, a PPS/MWCNTs composite was prepared with poly(phenylene sulfide (PPS, as well as pristine and covalent functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs via melt-blending techniques. Moreover, the dispersion of the MWCNTs on the PPS matrix was improved by covalent functionalization as can be seen from a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM images. The thermal properties of the PPS/MWCNTs composites were characterized using a thermal conductivity analyzer, and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. To analyze the crystallization behavior of polymers under conditions similar with those in industry, the non-isothermal crystallization behaviors of the PPS/MWCNTs composites were confirmed using various kinetic equations, such as the modified Avrami equation and Avrami-Ozawa combined equation. The crystallization rate of PPS/1 wt % pristine MWCNTs composite (PPSP1 was faster because of the intrinsic nucleation effect of the MWCNTs. However, the crystallization rates of the composites containing covalently-functionalized MWCNTs were slower than PPSP1 because of the destruction of the MWCNTs graphitic structure via covalent functionalization. Furthermore, the activation energies calculated by Kissinger’s method were consistently decreased by covalent functionalization.

  7. TOUGHREACT Version 2.0: A simulator for subsurface reactive transport under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Spycher, N.; Sonnenthal, E.; Zhang, G.; Zheng, L.; Pruess, K.


    TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media, and was developed by introducing reactive chemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2 V2. The first version of TOUGHREACT was released to the public through the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC) in August 2004. It is among the most frequently requested of ESTSC's codes. The code has been widely used for studies in CO{sub 2} geological sequestration, nuclear waste isolation, geothermal energy development, environmental remediation, and increasingly for petroleum applications. Over the past several years, many new capabilities have been developed, which were incorporated into Version 2 of TOUGHREACT. Major additions and improvements in Version 2 are discussed here, and two application examples are presented: (1) long-term fate of injected CO{sub 2} in a storage reservoir and (2) biogeochemical cycling of metals in mining-impacted lake sediments.

  8. Modelling of Non-isothermal Flow Abnormally Viscous Fluid in the Channels with Various Geometry of Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Litvinov


    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyzed the flat non-isothermal stationary flow of abnormally viscous fluid in the channels with asymmetric boundary conditions and an unknown output boundary. The geometry of the channels in which the problem is considered, is such regions, that at the transition to bipolar a system of coordinates map into rectangles. This greatly simplifies the boundary conditions, since it is possible to use an orthogonal grid and boundary conditions are given in its nodes. Fields of this type are often found in applications. The boundary conditions are set as follows: the liquid sticks to the boundaries of the channels, which rotate at different speeds and have different radius and temperature; moreover, temperature at the entrance to deformation is known, while on the boundary with the surface the material has the surface temperature; the pressure on the enter and exit of the region becomes zero. The rheological model only takes into account the anomaly of viscosity. The material is not compressible. This process can be described by a system consisting of continuity equations, the equations of conservation of momentum and an energy equation: ∇

  9. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Cuesta, Francisco Javier; Herranz, Beatriz; Canet, Wenceslao


    An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G′) of chickpea flour (CF)-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP), xanthan gum (XG), inulin (INL), and their blends) in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF) substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 °C to 90 °C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n), frequency factor (k0), and activation energy (Ea)) using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G′ value. The change of the derivative of G′ with respect to time (dG′/dt) versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol−1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins. PMID:28231082

  10. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of partially miscible ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer/low density polyethylene blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA, 14 wt% vinyl acetate content, low density polyethylene (LDPE and their binary blends with different blending ratio were investigated via differential scanning calorimetry. Jeziorny theory and Mo’s method were utilized in evaluating the crystallization behavior of both neat materials successfully. In the primary crystallization stage both EVA and LDPE had three-dimensional spherulitic growth mechanism. Apparently the crystallization rate of LDPE was faster than that of EVA at a low cooling rate. Increase in cooling rate limited the spherulites’ growth, which narrowed their rate difference. Influences from blending on the crystallization kinetics of each component in EVA/LDPE mixture were evaluated by Kissinger’s activation energy (∆E and Khanna’s crystallization rate coefficient (CRC. Inter-molecular interaction in the melt increased the ∆E of both EVA and LDPE components at the beginning of cooling. During the primary crystallization stage of LDPE, dilution effect from EVA facilitated the crystal growth in LDPE. Co-crystallization between EVA component and the secondary crystallization stage of LDPE component also increased the CRC of EVA. In blend of EVA/LDPE = 7/3, LDPE obtained the maximal CRC value of 174.2 h–1. Results obtained from various approaches accorded well with each other, which insured the rationality of conclusion.

  11. TOURGHREACT: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal MultiphaseReactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated GeologicMedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten


    TOUGHREACT is a numerical simulation program for chemically reactive non-isothermal flows of multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The program was written in Fortran 77 and developed by introducing reactive geochemistry into the multiphase fluid and heat flow simulator TOUGH2. A variety of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under a wide range of conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, ionic strength, and pH and Eh. Interactions between mineral assemblages and fluids can occur under local equilibrium or kinetic rates. The gas phase can be chemically active. Precipitation and dissolution reactions can change formation porosity and permeability. The program can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. Here we present two examples to illustrate applicability of the program: (1) injectivity effects of mineral scaling in a fractured geothermal reservoir and (2) CO2 disposal in a deep saline aquifer.

  12. Oxidative synthesis of a novel polyphenol having pendant Schiff base group: Synthesis, characterization, non-isothermal decomposition kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilek, Deniz [Faculty of Education, Secondary Science and Mathematics Education, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); Dogan, Fatih, E-mail: [Faculty of Education, Secondary Science and Mathematics Education, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Canakkale (Turkey); Bilici, Ali, E-mail: [Control Laboratory of Agricultural and Forestry Ministry, 34153 Istanbul (Turkey); Kaya, Ismet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale (Turkey)


    Research highlights: {yields} In this study, the synthesis and thermal characterization of a new functional polyphenol are reported. {yields} Non-isothermal methods were used to evaluate the thermal decomposition kinetics of resulting polymer. {yields} Thermal decomposition of polymer follows a diffusion type kinetic model. {yields} It is noted that this kinetic model is quite rare in polymer degradation studies. - Abstract: In here, the facile synthesis and thermal characterization of a novel polyphenol containing Schiff base pendant group, poly(4-{l_brace}[(4-hydroxyphenyl)imino]methyl{r_brace}benzene-1,2,3-triol) [PHPIMB], are reported. UV-vis, FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, GPC, TG/DTG-DTA, CV (cyclic voltammetry) and solid state conductivity measurements were utilized to characterize the obtained monomer and polymer. The spectral analyses results showed that PHPIMB was composed of polyphenol main chains containing Schiff base pendant side groups. Thermal properties of the polymer were investigated by thermogravimetric analyses under a nitrogen atmosphere. Five methods were used to study the thermal decomposition of PHPIMB at different heating rate and the results obtained by using all the kinetic methods were compared with each other. The thermal decomposition of PHPIMB was found to be a simple process composed of three stages. These investigated methods were those of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Tang, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Friedman and Kissinger methods.

  13. An experimental investigation of thermo-capillary convection in solution of lithium bromide at non-isothermal absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bufetov N. S.


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain new experimental data on the development of thermo-capillary convection in a solution of lithium bromide with non-isothermal absorption of water vapor in a confined vessel. In experiments the contactless method of measuring the temperature of the interface based on using thermal imaging equipment, and the visualization method of the flow arising in the absorbent layer by introducing markers into solution have been used. The immobile layer of lithium bromide solution with an initial concentration of 58 % and a layer thickness of 20 mm in a confined vessel of 70 mm in diameter has been chosen as an object of investigation. The water vapor has been used as the absorbed gas, whose pressure was kept constant during the absorption (approximately 2 000 Pa. The absorption process has started after the steam supply to the absorber where the initial pressure has corresponded to saturated water vapor pressure at the temperature of the solution (250–300 Pa. The speed and duration of convective motion in the layer absorption on the basis of imaging arising due to thermo-capillary convection have been measured. The thermograms of the interface for various operating parameters have been obtained with the development of thermo-concentration convection. The characteristic time of the thermo-capillary convection development has been determined. Based on the experimental data analysis the empirical expressions for duration of the convective motion depending on the vapor pressure in the absorber and the thickness of the absorbent layer have been proposed. It has been shown that lowering the initial temperature of the solution leads to enhancement of thermo-concentration convection. The results are useful for the design and optimization of elements of refrigeration engineering of the absorption type.

  14. A comparison of results obtained with two subsurface non-isothermal multiphase reactive transport simulators, FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juncosa Rivera, Ricardo; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten


    FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT are codes used to model the non-isothermal multiphase flow with multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. Different flow and reactive transport problems were used to compare the FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT codes. These problems take into account the different cases of multiphase flow with and without heat transport, conservative transport, and reactive transport. Consistent results were obtained from both codes, which use different numerical methods to solve the differential equations resulting from the various physicochemical processes. Here we present the results obtained from both codes for various cases. Some results are slightly different with minor discrepancies, which have been remedied, so that both codes would be able to reproduce the same processes using the same parameters. One of the discrepancies found is related to the different calculation for thermal conductivity in heat transport, which affects the calculation of the temperatures, as well as the pH of the reaction of calcite dissolution problem modeled. Therefore it is possible to affirm that the pH is highly sensitive to temperature. Generally speaking, the comparison was concluded to be highly satisfactory, leading to the complete verification of the FADES-CORE code. However, we must keep in mind that, as there are no analytical solutions available with which to verify the codes, the TOUGHREACT code has been thoroughly corroborated, given that the only possible way to prove that the code simulation is correct, is by comparing the results obtained with both codes for the identical problems, or to validate the simulation results with actual measured data.

  15. Initial precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging in an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenchao, E-mail: [School of material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST), Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Ji, Shouxun [Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST), Brunel University, Uxbridge, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Huang, Lanping [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Sheng, Xiaofei; Li, Zhou; Wang, Mingpu [School of material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)


    The characterization of precipitation and hardening mechanism during non-isothermal aging had been investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy for an Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. It was proposed that the needle-shaped β″ precipitates with a three-dimension coherency strain-field and an increased number density in the Al matrix provided the maximum strengthening effect for the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy. Simultaneously, it was also found that the formation and evolution of clusters in the early precipitation were associated with the vacancy binding energy, during which Si atoms played an important role in controlling the numbers density of Mg/Si co-clusters, and the excess Si atoms provided the increased number of nucleation sites for the subsequent precipitates to strengthen and improve the precipitation rate. Finally, based on the experimental observation and theoretical analysis, the precipitation sequence during the early precipitation in the Al–Mg–Si–Cu 6005A alloy was proposed as: supersaturated solid solution → Si-vacancy pairs, Mg-vacancy pairs and Mg clusters → Si clusters, and dissolution of Mg clusters → Mg atoms diffusion into the existing Si clusters → Mg/Si co-clusters → GP zone. - Highlights: • β″ precipitates provide the maximum strengthening effect for the 6005A alloy. • Si atoms play an important role in controlling the numbers of Mg/Si co-clusters. • The early aging sequence is deduced based on the solute-vacancy binding energy.

  16. Eulerian-Lagrangian simulation of non-isothermal gas-solid flows: particle-turbulence interactions in pipe flows; Simulation eulerienne-lagrangienne d'ecoulements gaz-solide non isothermes: interactions particules-turbulence, application aux ecoulements en conduite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagras, V.


    The aim of this work is to contribute to the numerical modeling of turbulent gas-solid flows in vertical or horizontal non isothermal pipes, which can be found in many industrial processes (pneumatic transport, drying, etc). The model is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach allowing a fine description of the interactions between the two phases (action of the fluid upon the particles (dispersion), action of the particles upon the fluid (two way coupling) and between particles (collisions)), more or less influential according to the characteristics of the flow. The influence of the gas phase turbulence on the particle motion is taken into account using a non-isotropic dispersion model, which allows the generation of velocity and temperature fluctuations of the fluid seen by the particles. The numerical developments brought to the model for vertical and horizontal pipe flow have been validated by comparison with available experimental results from the literature. The sensitivity tests highlight the influence of the dispersion model, collisions and turbulence modulation (direct and non direct modifications ) on the dynamic and thermal behavior of the suspension. The model is able to predict the heat exchanges in the presence of particles for a wide range of flows in vertical and horizontal pipes. However numerical problems still exist in two-way coupling for very small particles and loading ratios above one. This is related to the problems encountered when modeling the coupling terms between the two phases (parameters C{sub {epsilon}}{sub 2} and C{sub {epsilon}}{sub 3} ) involved in the turbulence dissipation balance. (author)

  17. Complex Mobile Learning That Adapts to Learners' Cognitive Load (United States)

    Deegan, Robin


    Mobile learning is cognitively demanding and frequently the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing means that mobile devices are used in cognitively demanding environments. This paper examines the use of mobile devices from a Learning, Usability and Cognitive Load Theory perspective. It suggests scenarios where these fields interact and presents an…

  18. Analysis of loads on wind turbines in complex terrain wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K.; Markkilde Petersen, S. (The Test Station for Wind Turbines, Risoe National laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)); Lading, P.; Sangill, O. (Windgineering ApS, Centre for Advanced Technology, Roskilde (Denmark))


    This paper describes structural load analysis of wind turbines erected in wind farms in complex terrain. The analysis is based on measurements on two Danwin turbines in Alta Mesa, San Gorgonia Pass California. The wind climate in wind farms in mountainous terrain differs significantly from wind conditions in homogeneous terrain, and this influences the turbine loading. Special attention is paid to characterize this difference by the wind turbulence characteristics. The power spectrum of the longitudinal turbulence component is investigated, and the measured wind conditions are analyzed in relation to what is expected for the free flow in homogenous terrain. The structural response is characterized by the main loads, i.e. blade and rotor loads. The response is related to the actual wind inflow. The relative importance of the deterministic and stochastic load-generating mechanisms is investigated. The azimuthal variations of the loads are calculated, and the load signals are spectral analyzed. The fatigue loads are estimated by Rainflow counting at different operational conditions and the resulting lifetime accumulated load spectra are calculated on the basis of wind distribution and turbulence level. The differences between lifetime fatigue loads seen in wind farms in complex terrain and wind farms in homogenous terrain are discussed. The accumulated load spectra are compared to the Danish Standard for Loads and Safety of Wind Turbines, and extensions to this standard are suggested for wind turbines erected in wind farm clusters. (au) (17 refs.).

  19. Hydrodynamic boundary conditions for one-component liquid-gas flows on non-isothermal solid substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng


    Recently, liquid-gas flows related to droplets, bubbles, and thin films on solid surfaces with thermal and wettability gradients have attracted widespread attention because of the many physical processes involved and their promising potential applications in biology, chemistry, and industry. Various new physical effects have been discovered at fluid-solid interfaces by experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, e.g., fluid velocity slip, temperature slip (Kapitza resistance), mechanical-thermal cross coupling, etc. There have been various models and theories proposed to explain these experimental and numerical observations. However, to the best of our knowledge,a continuum hydrodynamic model capable of predicting the temperature and velocity profiles of liquid-gas flows on non-isothermal, heterogeneous solid substrates is still absent. The purpose of this work is to construct a continuum model for simulating the liquid-gas flows on solid surfaces that are flat and rigid, and may involve wettability gradients and thermal gradients. This model is able to describe fluid velocity slip, temperature slip, and mechanical-thermal coupling that may occur at fluid-solid interfaces. For this purpose, we first employ the diffuse interface modeling to formulate the hydrodynamic equations for one-component liquid-gas flows in the bulk region. This reproduces the dynamic van der Waals theory of Onuki [Phys. Rev. Lett., 94: 054501, 2005]. We then extendWaldmann\\'s method [Z. Naturforsch. A, 22: 1269-1280, 1967] to formulate the boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface that match the hydrodynamic equations in the bulk. The effects of the solid surface curvature are also briefly discussed in the appendix. The guiding principles of our model derivation are the conservation laws and the positive definiteness of entropy production together with the Onsager reciprocal relation. The derived model is self-consistent in the sense that the boundary conditions are

  20. Experimental study on corrosion and precipitation in non-isothermal Pb-17Li system for development of liquid breeder blanket of fusion reactor (United States)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Ishii, Masaomi; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Muroga, Takeo


    The corrosion characteristics of RAFM steel JLF-1 in a non-isothermal Pb-17Li flowing system were investigated by means of the corrosion test using a non-isothermal mixing pot. The corrosion test was performed at 739K with a temperature gradient of 14K for 500 hours. The corrosion tests at a static and a flowing conditions in an isothermal Pb-17Li system were also performed at the same temperature for the same duration with the non-isothermal test. Then, the effect of mass transfer both by the flow and the temperature gradient on the corrosion behaviors was featured by the comparison of these results. The corrosion was caused by the dissolution of Fe and Cr from the steel surface into the flowing Pb-17Li. The specimen surface revealed a fine granular microstructure after the corrosion tests. A large number of pebbleshaped protrusions were observed on the specimen surface. This microstructure was different from the original martensite microstructure of the steel, and might be formed by the influence of the reaction with Li component in the alloy. The formation of the granular microstructure was accelerated by the flow and the temperature gradient. Some pebble-shaped protrusions had gaps at their bases. The removal of these pebble-shaped granules by the flowing Pb-17Li might cause a small-scale corrosion-erosion. The results of metallurgical analysis indicated that a large-scale corrosion-erosion was also caused by their destruction of the corroded layer on the surface. The non-isothermal mixing pot equipped a cold trap by a metal mesh in the low temperature region. The metal elements of Fe and Cr were recovered as they precipitated on the surface of the metal mesh. It was found that a Fe-Cr binary intermetallic compound was formed in the precipitation procedure. The overall mass transfer coefficient for the dissolution type corrosion in the non-isothermal system was much bigger than that in the isothermal system. This model evaluation indicated that the temperature

  1. Instructional Control of Cognitive Load in the Design of Complex Learning Environments


    Kester, Liesbeth; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen


    Kester, L., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Instructional control of cognitive load in the design of complex learning environments. In J. L. Plass, R. Moreno, & Roland Brünken (Eds.), Cognitive Load Theory (pp. 109-130). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  2. Understanding the Fatigue Behavior of FML Structures and Materials under Complex Variable Amplitude Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderdiesten, R.; Benedictus, R.; Khan, S.


    This paper presents various failure mechanisms in FMLs, highlights the presence or absence of interaction effects, and describes how the failure mechanisms can be described for predicting damage growth under arbitrary complex load spectra.

  3. Experimental results for the behavior of MSMAs subjected to loads seen in power harvesting applications and complex loads (United States)

    Ciocanel, C.; Feigenbaum, H. P.


    The microstructure of magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) is comprised of tetragonal martensite variants, each with their preferred internal magnetization orientation. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the martensite variants tend to reorient so that the preferred internal magnetization aligns with the external magnetic field. Thus MSMAs exhibit the shape memory effect when there is a magnetic field in the vicinity of a material point. Furthermore, the tetragonal nature of the martensite variants allows for a compressive stress to cause variant reorientation. This paper focuses on the experimental evaluation of MSMAs in power harvesting as well as on the response of the material under complex loading conditions. The experimental data reported here provides a basis for the evaluation of MSMAs suitability for applications other than the traditional actuation under a constant magnetic field. For power harvesting applications, consider an MSMA element subject to a large enough magnetic field so that all the variants begin in a field preferred state. Keeping the magnetic field constant and adding a variable compressive stress in a direction normal to that of the magnetic field, some or all of the martensitic variants may rotate into a stress preferred state. As the variants reorient, the internal magnetization vectors rotate, and the specimen's magnetization changes. The change in magnetization induces a current in a pick-up coil, resulting in an output voltage at its terminals according to Faraday's law of inductance. For other applications, the loads that an MSMA element is subject to may be different. Investigation into other potential loadings of an MSMA will give a better overall understanding of the magneto-mechanical behavior of MSMAs and perhaps highlight potential applications of these materials. Thus complex loads on MSMAs should be investigated experimentally and eventually modeled mathematically. For example, this work will study variable field

  4. Phloem loading--not metaphysical, only complex: towards a unified model of phloem loading. (United States)

    Komor, E; Orlich, G; Weig, A; Köckenberger, W


    Phloem loading comprises the entire pathway of phloem-mobile solutes from their place of generation (or delivery) to the sieve tubes in a sequence of transport steps across or passing by several different cell types. Each of these steps can be classified as symplastic or apoplastic. The detailed anatomical-cytological work in the past ten years made clear that the symplastic continuity from mesophyll to sieve tubes may be very different for different plant species or even in different vein orders. Therefore data from one species are not transferable to another species and a well-rounded picture involving different experimental methods has to be aimed at for each species separately. The information obtained with the Ricinus seedling, where phloem loading and sieve tube sap analysis can be achieved relatively easily, is presented. The analysis of the radioactive labelling of sucrose from the sieve tubes of cotyledons, in which external and intracellular sucrose had been differently labelled, revealed that at sucrose concentrations close to the natural one, 50% of sucrose is loaded directly from the external medium. The other 50% is first taken up by mesophyll and then released for uptake into the sieve tubes. No bundle tissue works as obligate, intermediate sucrose storage. The apoplast therefore definitely serves as a transit reservoir for sucrose destined to be loaded into the sieve tubes. The sieve tube sap contains glycolytic metabolites at concentrations higher than found in the hypocotyl tissue, whereas the corresponding glycolytic enzymes are missing. It is concluded that the enzymes are sequestered in the companion cell or by parietal membrane stacks. Not only the sieve tubes but nearly all cotyledonary cells are equipped with a sucrose-H(+) symporter able to achieve sucrose accumulation and sensitive to inhibition by high salt concentrations or SH reagents. A cDNA clone coding for a sucrose carrier was isolated. It is transcribed at approximately the same

  5. In vitro kinematics of the axially loaded ankle complex in response to dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. (United States)

    Hintermann, B; Nigg, B M


    The rotational movements of the tibia and calcaneus that occur with dorsiflexion-plantarflexion and axial loading were studied in cadaver foot-leg specimens using an unconstrained testing apparatus. Independent of the foot flexion position, significant internal rotation of the tibia and eversion of the calcaneus were noted after the ankle complex was axially loaded. Independent of loading, 10 degrees of dorsiflexion resulted in 0.1 degrees of eversion and 2.1 degrees of internal rotation of the tibia. Conversely, 10 degrees of plantarflexion resulted in 1.6 degrees of inversion and 1.3 degrees of external rotation of the tibia. The induced rotational movements of the tibia and the calcaneus differed significantly between the specimens. These results suggest that the foot "axes" did not change by axially loading the ankle complex and they support previous reports that the ankle complex uses different axes for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion.

  6. TOUGHREACT User's Guide: A Simulation Program for Non-isothermal Multiphase Reactive Geochemical Transport in Variably Saturated Geologic Media, V1.2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten


    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport, and chemical reactions can be applied to many geologic systems and environmental problems, including geothermal systems, diagenetic and weathering processes, subsurface waste disposal, acid mine drainage remediation, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. TOUGHREACT has been developed as a comprehensive non-isothermal multi-component reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport simulator to investigate these and other problems. A number of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes are considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. TOUGHREACT can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity. The code can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases. A variety of equilibrium chemical reactions are considered, such as aqueous complexation, gas dissolution/exsolution, and cation exchange. Mineral dissolution/precipitation can take place subject to either local equilibrium or kinetic controls, with coupling to changes in porosity and permeability and capillary pressure in unsaturated systems. Chemical components can also be treated by linear adsorption and radioactive decay. The first version of the non-isothermal reactive geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT was developed (Xu and Pruess, 1998) by introducing reactive geochemistry into the framework of the existing multi-phase fluid and heat flow code TOUGH2 (Pruess, 1991). TOUGHREACT was further enhanced with the addition of (1) treatment of mineral-water-gas reactive-transport under boiling conditions, (2) an improved HKF activity model for aqueous species, (3) gas species diffusion coefficients calculated as a function of pressure, temperature, and molecular properties, (4) mineral reactive surface area formulations for fractured

  7. Unpacking the Complexity of Linear Equations from a Cognitive Load Theory Perspective (United States)

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Phan, Huy P.


    The degree of element interactivity determines the complexity and therefore the intrinsic cognitive load of linear equations. The unpacking of linear equations at the level of operational and relational lines allows the classification of linear equations in a hierarchical level of complexity. Mapping similar operational and relational lines across…

  8. Assessment of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth on lettuce exposed to isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. (United States)

    de Oliveira Elias, Susana; Noronha, Tiago Baptista; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar


    This study aimed to assess the growth of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce exposed to isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Pathogens were inoculated on lettuce separately and stored under isothermal condition at 5 °C, 10 °C, 25 °C, 37 °C for both bacteria, at 40 °C for Salmonella and 42 °C for E. coli O157:H7. Growth curves were built by fitting the data to the Baranyi's DMFit, generating R2 values greater than 0.92 for primary models. Secondary models were fitted with Ratkowsky equations, generating R2 values higher than 0.91 and RMSE lower than 0.1. Experimental data showed that both bacteria could grow at all temperatures. Also, the growth of both pathogens under non-isothermal conditions was studied simulating temperatures found from harvest to supermarkets in Brazil. Models were analysed by R2, RMSE, bias factor (Bf) and accuracy factor (Af). Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 were able to grow in this temperature profile and the models could predict the behavior of these microorganisms on lettuce under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Based on the results, a negligible growth time (ς) was proposed to provide the time which lettuce could be exposed to a specific temperature and do not present an expressive growth of bacteria. The ς was developed based on Baranyi's primary model equation and on growth potential concept. ς is the value of lag phase added of the time necessary to population grow 0.5 log CFU/g. The ς of lettuce exposed to 37 °C was 1.3 h, while at 5 °C was 3.3 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Formulation of strongly non-local, non-isothermal dynamics for heterogeneous solids based on the GENERIC with application to phase-field modeling (United States)

    Hütter, Markus; Svendsen, Bob


    The purpose of the current work is the formulation of models for conservative and non-conservative dynamics in solid systems with the help of the General Equation for the Non-Equilibrium Reversible-Irreversible Coupling (GENERIC: e.g., Grmela and Öttinger, Phys. Rev. E 56(6), 6620 (1997); Öttinger and Grmela, Phys. Rev. E 56(6), 6633 (1997)). In this context, the resulting models are inherently spatially strongly non-local (i.e., functional) and non-isothermal in character. They are applicable in particular to the modeling of phase transitions as well as mass and heat transport in multiphase, multicomponent solids. In the last part of the work, the strongly non-local model formulation is reduced to weakly non-local form with the help of generalized gradient approximation of the energy and entropy functionals. On this basis, the current model formulation is shown to be consistent with and reduce to a recent non-isothermal generalization (Gladkov et al., J. Non-Equilib. Thermodyn. 41(2), 131 (2016)) of the well-known phase-field models of Cahn and Hilliard (J. Chem. Phys. 28(2), 258 (1958)) for conservative dynamics and of Allen and Cahn (Acta Metall. 27(6), 1085 (1979)) for non-conservative dynamics. Finally, the current approach is applied to derive a non-isothermal generalization of a phase-field crystal model for binary alloys (see, e.g., Elder et al., Phys. Rev. B 75(6), 064107 (2007)).

  10. TOUGHREACT: a new code of the TOUGH Family for Non-Isothermal multiphase reactive geochemical transport in variably saturated geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten


    Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport and chemical reactions can be used for the assessment of acid mine drainage remediation, waste disposal sites, hydrothermal convection, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. We have developed a comprehensive numerical simulator, TOUGHREACT, which considers non-isothermal multi-component chemical transport in both liquid and gas phases. A wide range of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. The code can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity.

  11. Investigation of drug loading and in vitro release mechanisms of insulin-lauryl sulfate complex loaded PLGA nanoparticles. (United States)

    Shi, K; Cui, F; Yamamoto, H; Kawashima, Y


    Insulin, a water soluble peptide hormone, was hydrophobically ion-paired with sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) at the stoichiometric molar ratio of 6:1. The obtained insulin-SDS complex precipitation was subsequently formulated in biodegradable poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles by a modified spontaneous emulsion solvent diffusion method. Compared with a conventional method for free insulin encapsulation, direct dissolution of SDS-paired insulin in the non-aqueous organic phase led to an increase in drug recovery from 42.5% to 89.6%. The more hydrophobic complex contributes to the improved affinity of insulin to the polymer matrix, resulting in a higher drug content in the nanoparticles. The drug loading was investigated by determining initial burst release at the first 30 min. The results showed that 64.8% of recovered drug were preferentially surface bound on complex loaded nanoparticles. The in vitro drug release was characterized by an initial burst and subsequent delayed release in dissolution media of deionized water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Compared with that in PBS, nanoparticles in deionized water medium presented very low initial burst release (15% vs. 65%) and incomplete cumulative release (25% vs. 90%) of the drug. In addition, dialysis experiments were performed to clarify the form of the released insulin in the dissolution media. The results suggested that the ion-pair complex was sensitive to ionic strength, insulin was released from the particular matrix as complex form and subsequently suffered dissociation from SDS in buffer saline. Moreover, the in vivo bioactivity of the SDS-paired insulin and nanoparticulate formulations were evaluated in mice by estimation of their blood sugar levels. The results showed that the bioactivity of insulin was unaltered after the ion-pairing process.

  12. Effect of inflow condition on near-field prediction of Large Eddy Simulations of isothermal and non-isothermal turbulent jets (United States)

    Salkhordeh, Sasan; Kimber, Mark


    In order to develop an experimentally validated computational model, turbulent round jets have been studied extensively under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology. Capturing the near-field physics of a turbulent jet has been a challenge when utilizing LES. To address this concern, the effect of inlet flow profile and turbulent fluctuations on the evolution of both type of jets has been analyzed in detail by performing separate large eddy simulations of the flow in the nozzle upstream of the jet inlet to accurately determine the inlet turbulent spectra. From the precursor simulations, the accurate turbulence fluctuations at the jet nozzle can be sampled and then implement to the inlet boundary of the main jet simulation. Properly specifying the turbulent fluctuations at the jet inlet was found to play a vital role in order to accurately predict key characteristics throughout the computational domain. For isothermal jets, the experimental measurements of Hussein et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 1994 Jan;258:31-75) has been simulated computationally using LES. The experimental measurement of Mi et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 2001 Apr;432:91-125) has been chosen for performing LES for a non-isothermal jet at the same Reynolds number and identical temperature difference. The LES results show good agreement for first and higher order statistics of velocities and temperatures in both near field and far-field data.

  13. Model Free Approach for Non-Isothermal Decomposition of Un-Irradiated and g-Irradiated Silver Acetate: New Route for Synthesis of Ag2O Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser M. Abd El-Salam


    Full Text Available Kinetic studies for the non-isothermal decomposition of unirradiated and γ‑irradiated silver acetate with 103 kGy total γ-ray doses were carried out in air. The results showed that the decomposition proceeds in one major step in the temperature range of (180–270 °C with the formation of Ag2O as solid residue. The non-isothermal data for un‑irradiated and γ-irradiated silver acetate were analyzed using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO and nonlinear Vyazovkin (VYZ iso-conversional methods. These free models on the investigated data showed a systematic dependence of Ea on a indicating a simple decomposition process. No significant changes in the thermal decomposition behavior of silver acetate were recorded as a result of γ-irradiation. Calcinations of γ-irradiated silver acetate (CH3COOAg at 200 °C for 2 hours only led to the formation of pure Ag2O mono-dispersed nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction, FTIR and SEM techniques were employed for characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles.

  14. Thermo-kinetic prediction of metastable and stable phase precipitation in Al–Zn–Mg series aluminium alloys during non-isothermal DSC analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Peter, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Charles Babbage Road 27, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Wojcik, Tomasz [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory “Early Stages of Precipitation”, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Falahati, Ahmad [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Kozeschnik, Ernst [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory “Early Stages of Precipitation”, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria)


    Highlights: • Comparison of laboratory Al–Zn–Mg alloy to industrial Al 7xxx series. • Heat flow evolution during non-isothermal DSC analysis is calculated. • TEM investigations of laboratory Al–Zn–Mg alloy at three pronounced temperatures. • Simulation and modelling of precipitation sequence. • Calculation and prediction of heat flow curves of Al 7xxx series. - Abstract: The technological properties of heat treatable Al–Zn–Mg alloys originate in the morphology and distribution of metastable particles. Starting from the solution-annealed condition, this paper describes the precipitate evolution during non-isothermal temperature changes, namely continuous heating differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The distribution and the morphology of the metastable and stable precipitates and the heat flow accompanying the precipitation process is investigated experimentally and calculated by numerical thermo-kinetic simulations. The computer simulation results of the sizes and distributions are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The theoretical background and the results of the investigations are discussed.

  15. Low frequency wireless power transfer using modified parallel resonance matching at a complex load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artit Rittiplang


    Full Text Available In the Impedance Matching (IM condition of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT, series resonant and strong coupling structures have been widely studied which operate at an optimal parameter, a resistive load, and the high resonant frequency of greater than 1 MHz. However, i The optimal parameter (particular value limits the design, ii the common loads are complex, iii The high frequency RF sources are usually inefficient. This paper presents a modified parallel resonant structure that can operate at a low frequency of 15 kHz without an optimal parameter under the IM condition with a complex load, and the calculated efficiency is equal to 71.2 % at 5-cm transfer distance.

  16. The MHC I loading complex: a multitasking machinery in adaptive immunity. (United States)

    Hulpke, Sabine; Tampé, Robert


    Recognition and elimination of virally or malignantly transformed cells are pivotal tasks of the adaptive immune system. For efficient immune detection, snapshots of the cellular proteome are presented as epitopes on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules for recognition by cytotoxic T cells. Knowledge about the track from the equivocal protein to the presentation of antigenic peptides has greatly expanded, leading to an astonishingly elaborate understanding of the MHC I peptide loading pathway. Here, we summarize the current view on this complex process, which involves ABC transporters, proteases, chaperones, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control. The contribution of individual proteins and subcomplexes is discussed, with a focus on the architecture and dynamics of the key player in the pathway, the peptide-loading complex (PLC). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of Glass-Transition Kinetics of Pb-Modified SeIn System by Using Non-isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry (United States)

    Ram, Indra Sen; Singh, Kedar


    Glass-transition kinetics of ( 0, 5, 10, and 15) chalcogenide glasses have been carried out at different heating rates by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) under the non-isothermal condition. The glass-transition temperature and peak glass-transition temperature have been determined from DSC thermograms. The reduced glass temperature , total relaxation time thermal-stability parameters and , the activation energy of glass transition , the fragility index , and the average coordination number have been calculated on the basis of the experimental results. The temperature differences , and are found to be maxima for glass. This indicates that glass has the highest thermal stability and glass-forming ability in the investigated compositional range. These results could be explained on the basis of modification of the chemical bond formation due to incorporation of Pb in the Se-In glassy matrix.

  18. Influence of thermophoresis and Soret-Dufour on magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer over a non-isothermal wedge with thermal radiation and Ohmic dissipation (United States)

    Pal, Dulal; Mondal, Hiranmoy


    The present paper deals with the thermophoresis particle deposition and Soret-Dufour effects on the convective flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of an incompressible Newtonian electrically conducting fluid having temperature-dependent viscosity over a non-isothermal wedge in the presence of thermal radiation. The governing boundary layer equations are written into a dimensionless form by similarity transformations. The transformed coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. The effects of various important physical parameters are analyzed in detail. It is found that the skin friction coefficient and the local Sherwood number increase with increase in the values of thermal radiation parameter in the presence of heat generation/absorption whereas reverse effect is seen on the local Nusselt number.

  19. Unpacking the Complexity of Patient Handoffs Through the Lens of Cognitive Load Theory. (United States)

    Young, John Q; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Irby, David M


    The transfer of a patient from one clinician to another is a high-risk event. Errors are common and lead to patient harm. More effective methods for learning how to give and receive sign-out is an important public health priority. Performing a handoff is a complex task. Trainees must simultaneously apply and integrate clinical, communication, and systems skills into one time-limited and highly constrained activity. The task demands can easily exceed the information-processing capacity of the trainee, resulting in impaired learning and performance. Appreciating the limits of working memory can help identify the challenges that instructional techniques and research must then address. Cognitive load theory (CLT) identifies three types of load that impact working memory: intrinsic (task-essential), extraneous (not essential to task), and germane (learning related). The authors generated a list of factors that affect a trainee's learning and performance of a handoff based on CLT. The list was revised based on feedback from experts in medical education and in handoffs. By consensus, the authors associated each factor with the type of cognitive load it primarily effects. The authors used this analysis to build a conceptual model of handoffs through the lens of CLT. The resulting conceptual model unpacks the complexity of handoffs and identifies testable hypotheses for educational research and instructional design. The model identifies features of a handoff that drive extraneous, intrinsic, and germane load for both the sender and the receiver. The model highlights the importance of reducing extraneous load, matching intrinsic load to the developmental stage of the learner and optimizing germane load. Specific CLT-informed instructional techniques for handoffs are explored. Intrinsic and germane load are especially important to address and include factors such as knowledge of the learner, number of patients, time constraints, clinical uncertainties, overall patient

  20. Studying the Laws of the Thermoviscoplastic Deformation of a Solid Under Nonisothermal Complex Loading. Part 2 (United States)

    Shevchenko, Yu. N.; Terekhov, R. G.


    The studies made at the thermoplasticity department of the S. P. Timoshenko Institute of Mechanics are analyzed. These studies involve experimental validations of the kinematic equation of creep damage and the constitutive equations describing simple thermoviscoelastoplastic loading, with history, of isotropic and transversally isotropic bodies, for elastoviscoplastic deformation of bodies along slightly curved paths, for complex loading along arbitrary paths lying either in a plane arbitrarily oriented in the five-dimensional space of stresses or in one coordinate plane, and for elastoplastic deformation of a body's elements along paths of moderate curvature and small torsion

  1. Reduced functional loads alter the physical characteristics of the bone-periodontal ligament-cementum complex. (United States)

    Niver, E L; Leong, N; Greene, J; Curtis, D; Ryder, M I; Ho, S P


    Adaptive properties of the bone-periodontal ligament-tooth complex have been identified by changing the magnitude of functional loads using small-scale animal models, such as rodents. Reported adaptive responses as a result of lower loads due to softer diet include decreased muscle development, change in structure-function relationship of the cranium, narrowed periodontal ligament space, and changes in the mineral level of the cortical bone and alveolar jaw bone and in the glycosaminoglycans of the alveolar bone. However, the adaptive role of the dynamic bone-periodontal ligament-cementum complex to prolonged reduced loads has not been fully explained to date, especially with regard to concurrent adaptations of bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. Therefore, in the present study, using a rat model, the temporal effect of reduced functional loads on physical characteristics, such as morphology and mechanical properties and the mineral profiles of the bone-periodontal ligament-cementum complex was investigated. Two groups of 6-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed nutritionally identical food with a stiffness range of 127-158 N/mm for hard pellet or 0.3-0.5 N/mm for soft powder forms. Spatio-temporal adaptation of the bone-periodontal ligament-cementum complex was identified by mapping changes in the following: (i) periodontal ligament collagen orientation and birefringence using polarized light microscopy, bone and cementum adaptation using histochemistry, and bone and cementum morphology using micro-X-ray computed tomography; (ii) mineral profiles of the periodontal ligament-cementum and periodontal ligament-bone interfaces by X-ray attenuation; and (iii) microhardness of bone and cementum by microindentation of specimens at ages 6, 8, 12 and 15 wk. Reduced functional loads over prolonged time resulted in the following adaptations: (i) altered periodontal ligament orientation and decreased periodontal ligament collagen birefringence, indicating decreased

  2. Predicting Deformation Limits of Dual-Phase Steels Under Complex Loading Paths (United States)

    Cheng, G.; Choi, K. S.; Hu, X.; Sun, X.


    In this study, the deformation limits of various DP980 steels are examined with the deformation instability theory. Under uniaxial tension, overall stress-strain curves of the material are estimated based on a simple rule of mixture (ROM) with both iso-strain and iso-stress assumptions. Under complex loading paths, an actual microstructure-based finite element (FE) method is used to resolve the deformation compatibilities explicitly between the soft ferrite and hard martensite phases. The results show that, for uniaxial tension, the deformation instability theory with iso-strain-based ROM can be used to provide the lower bound estimate of the uniform elongation (UE) for the various DP980 considered. Under complex loading paths, the deformation instability theory with microstructure-based FE method can be used in examining the effects of various microstructural features on the deformation limits of DP980 steels.

  3. Reducing cognitive load while teaching complex instruction to occupational therapy students. (United States)

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Samuel, Preethy S


    Cognitive load theory is a field of research used to improve the learning of complex cognitive tasks by matching instruction to the learner's cognitive architecture. We used an experimental posttest control-group design to test the effectiveness of instruction designed to reduce cognitive load (CL) and improve instructional effectiveness in teaching complex instruction to 24 first-year master's students under authentic classroom conditions. We modified historically taught instruction using an isolated-to-interacting-elements sequencing approach intended to reduce high CL levels. We compared control and modified instructional formats using written assessment scores, subjective ratings of CL, and task completion times. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for postinstruction, posttest CL ratings, and delayed written posttest scores (p instructional efficiency in teaching human locomotion to occupational therapy students. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Core 2D. A code for non-isothermal water flow and reactive solute transport. Users manual version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samper, J.; Juncosa, R.; Delgado, J.; Montenegro, L. [Universidad de A Coruna (Spain)


    Understanding natural groundwater quality patterns, quantifying groundwater pollution and assessing the effects of waste disposal, require modeling tools accounting for water flow, and transport of heat and dissolved species as well as their complex interactions with solid and gases phases. This report contains the users manual of CORE ''2D Version V.2.0, a COde for modeling water flow (saturated and unsaturated), heat transport and multicomponent Reactive solute transport under both local chemical equilibrium and kinetic conditions. it is an updated and improved version of CORE-LE-2D V0 (Samper et al., 1988) which in turns is an extended version of TRANQUI, a previous reactive transport code (ENRESA, 1995). All these codes were developed within the context of Research Projects funded by ENRESA and the European Commission. (Author)

  5. Assembly and function of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I peptide-loading complex are conserved across higher vertebrates. (United States)

    Hinz, Andreas; Jedamzick, Johanna; Herbring, Valentina; Fischbach, Hanna; Hartmann, Jessica; Parcej, David; Koch, Joachim; Tampé, Robert


    Antigen presentation to cytotoxic T lymphocytes via major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules depends on the heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). For efficient antigen supply to MHC I molecules in the ER, TAP assembles a macromolecular peptide-loading complex (PLC) by recruiting tapasin. In evolution, TAP appeared together with effector cells of adaptive immunity at the transition from jawless to jawed vertebrates and diversified further within the jawed vertebrates. Here, we compared TAP function and interaction with tapasin of a range of species within two classes of jawed vertebrates. We found that avian and mammalian TAP1 and TAP2 form heterodimeric complexes across taxa. Moreover, the extra N-terminal domain TMD0 of mammalian TAP1 and TAP2 as well as avian TAP2 recruits tapasin. Strikingly, however, only TAP1 and TAP2 from the same taxon can form a functional heterodimeric translocation complex. These data demonstrate that the dimerization interface between TAP1 and TAP2 and the tapasin docking sites for PLC assembly are conserved in evolution, whereas elements of antigen translocation diverged later in evolution and are thus taxon specific. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Simulation of warpage induced by non-isothermal crystallization of co-polypropylene during the SLS process (United States)

    Amado, Antonio; Schmid, Manfred; Wegener, Konrad


    Polymer processing using Additive Manufacturing Technologies (AM) has experienced a remarkable growth during the last years. The application range has been expanding rapidly, particularly driven by the so-called consumer 3D printing sector. However, for applications demanding higher requirements in terms of thermo-mechanical properties and dimensional accuracy the long established AM technologies such as Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) do not depict a comparable development. The higher process complexity hinders the number of materials that can be currently processed and the interactions between the different physics involved have not been fully investigated. In case of thermoplastic materials the crystallization kinetics coupled to the shrinkage strain development strongly influences the stability of the process. Thus, the current investigation presents a transient Finite Element simulation of the warpage effect during the SLS process of a new developed polyolefin (co-polypropylene) coupling the thermal, mechanical and phase change equations that control the process. A thermal characterization of the material was performed by means of DSC, integrating the Nakamura model with the classical Hoffmann-Lauritzen theory. The viscoelastic behavior was measured using a plate-plate rheometer at different degrees of undercooling and a phase change-temperature superposition principle was implemented. Additionally, for validation porpoises the warpage development of the first sintered layers was captured employing an optical device. The simulation results depict a good agreement with experimental measurements of deformation, describing the high sensitivity of the geometrical accuracy of the sintered parts related to the processing conditions.

  7. Wear Behavior of Uncoated and Coated Tools under Complex Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieland


    Full Text Available In automotive industry crash relevant structures of the body in white are manufactured using the direct hot stamping process. Due to the high temperature difference between the hot blank and the cold tool surfaces and the relative movement between the blank and the tool surfaces during the forming operation, high thermal and mechanical loads are applied on the tool leading to excessive wear in terms of adhesion on the tool surfaces. One possibility to reduce wear of hot stamping tools is the application of tool coating systems. In the scope of this work uncoated and coated tools are characterized under complex loading conditions with respect to adhesive layer build-up.

  8. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain-Gupta, Neeta [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States); Pothayee, Nipon; Pothayee, Nikorn [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (United States); Tyler, Ronald; Caudell, David L. [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States); Balasubramaniam, Sharavanan; Hu, Nan; Davis, Richey M.; Riffle, Judy S. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute (United States); Sriranganathan, Nammalwar, E-mail: [Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology (United States)


    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30–32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from −39 to −13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log{sub 10}), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log{sub 10}). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B.melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers.

  9. Efficacies of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes against chronic Brucella melitensis infection (United States)

    Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Pothayee, Nipon; Pothayee, Nikorn; Tyler, Ronald; Caudell, David L.; Balasubramaniam, Sharavanan; Hu, Nan; Davis, Richey M.; Riffle, Judy S.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar


    Anionic copolymers can enable intracellular delivery of cationic drugs which otherwise cannot cross cell membrane barriers. We tested the efficacy of gentamicin-loaded magnetite block ionomer complexes (MBICs) against intracellular Brucella melitensis. Anionic block copolymers were used to coat nanomagnetite through adsorption of a portion of anions on the particle surfaces, then the remaining anions were complexed with 30-32 weight percentage of gentamicin. The zeta potential changed from -39 to -13 mV after encapsulation of the drug with complementary charge. The gentamicin-loaded MBICs had intensity average hydrodynamic diameters of 62 nm, while the polymer-coated nanomagnetite particles without drug were 34 nm in size. No toxicity as measured by a MTS assay was observed upon incubation of the MBICs with J774A.1 murine macrophage-like cells. Confocal microscopic images showed that the MBICs were taken up by the macrophages and distributed in the cell cytoplasm and endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Upon treatment with gentamicin-loaded MBICs (3.5 Log10), B. melitensis-infected macrophages showed significantly higher clearance of Brucella compared to the treatment with free g (0.9 Log10). Compared to doxycycline alone, a combination of doxycycline and gentamicin (either free or encapsulated in MBICs) showed significantly higher clearance of B. melitensis from chronically infected mice. Histopathological examination of kidneys from the MBICs-treated mice revealed multifocal infiltration of macrophages containing intracytoplasmic iron (MBICs) in peri-renal adipose. Although MBICs showed similar efficacy as free gentamicin against Brucella in mice, our strategy presents an effective way to deliver higher loads of drugs intracellularly and ability to study the bio-distribution of drug carriers.

  10. Characterization, non-isothermal decomposition kinetics and photocatalytic water splitting of green chemically synthesized polyoxoanions of molybdenum containing phosphorus as hetero atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Cruz, Bessy [Department of Chemistry, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015 (India); Samuel, Jadu, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695015 (India); George, Leena [Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India)


    Highlights: • CPM nanorods were synthesized by applying the principles of green chemistry. • The isoconversional method was used to analyze the effective activation energy. • The appropriate reaction models of the two decomposition stages were determined. • Photocatalytic water splitting was investigated in the presence of platinum co-catalyst. - Abstract: In here, the green synthesis and thermal characterization of a novel polyoxoanions of molybdenum containing phosphorus as hetero atom are reported. The composition and morphology of the nanorods were established by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) techniques. Thermal properties of the nanoparticles were investigated by non-isothermal analysis under nitrogen atmosphere. The values activation energy of each stage of thermal decomposition for all heating rates was calculated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunnose (KAS) methods. Invariant kinetic parameter (IKP) method and master plot method were also used to evaluate the kinetic parameters and mechanism for the thermal decomposition of cetylpyridinium phosphomolybdate (CPM). Photocatalytic water oxidation mechanism using CPM catalyst in the presence of platinum (Pt) co-catalyst enhances the H{sub 2} evolution and was found to be 1.514 mmol/g/h.

  11. Characterization of crystallization kinetics of a Ni- (Cr, Fe, Si, B, C, P) based amorphous brazing alloy by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, S. [Physical Metallurgy Section, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India)]. E-mail:; Kumar, N.S. Arun [Physical Metallurgy Section, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Jeyaganesh, B. [Physical Metallurgy Section, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Mohandas, E. [Physical Metallurgy Section, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India); Mudali, U. Kamachi [Corrosion Science and Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603 102 (India)


    The thermal stability and crystallization kinetics of a Ni- (Cr, Si, Fe, B, C, P) based amorphous brazing foil have been investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry. The glass transition temperature T {sub g}, is found to be 720 {+-} 2 K. The amorphous alloy showed three distinct, yet considerably overlapping crystallization transformations with peak crystallization temperatures centered around 739, 778 and 853 {+-} 2 K, respectively. The solidus and liquidus temperatures are estimated to be 1250 and 1300 {+-} 2 K, respectively. The apparent activation energies for the three crystallization reactions have been determined using model free isoconversional methods. The typical values for the three crystallization reactions are: 334, 433 and 468 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. The X-ray diffraction of the crystallized foil revealed the presence of following compounds Ni{sub 3}B (Ni{sub 4}B{sub 3}), CrB, B{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Si{sub 3}, CrSi{sub 2}, and Ni{sub 4.5}Si{sub 2}B.

  12. Computational solutions for non-isothermal, nonlinear magneto-convection in porous media with hall/ionslip currents and ohmic dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Anwar Bég


    Full Text Available A theoretical and numerical study is presented to analyze the nonlinear, non-isothermal, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD free convection boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a non-Darcian, isotropic, homogenous porous medium, in the presence of Hall currents, Ionslip currents, viscous heating and Joule heating. A power-law variation is used for the temperature at the wall. The governing nonlinear coupled partial differential equations for momentum conservation in the x and z directions and heat conservation, in the flow regime are transformed from an (x, y, z coordinate system to a (ξ,η coordinate system in terms of dimensionless x-direction velocity (∂F/∂η and z-direction velocity (G and dimensionless temperature function (H under appropriate boundary conditions. Both Darcian and Forchheimer porous impedances are incorporated in both momentum equations. Computations are also provided for the variation of the x and z direction shear stress components and also local Nusselt number. Excellent correlation is achieved with a Nakamura tridiagonal finite difference scheme (NTM. The model finds applications in magnetic materials processing, MHD power generators and purification of crude oils.

  13. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers. (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Cuesta, Francisco Javier; Herranz, Beatriz; Canet, Wenceslao


    An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G0) of chickpea flour (CF)-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP), xanthan gum (XG), inulin (INL), and their blends) in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF) substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 ◦C to 90 ◦C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n), frequency factor (k0), and activation energy (Ea)) using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G0 value. The change of the derivative of G0 with respect to time (dG0/dt) versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol-1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins.

  14. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Alvarez


    Full Text Available An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G0 of chickpea flour (CF-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP, xanthan gum (XG, inulin (INL, and their blends in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 ◦C to 90 ◦C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n, frequency factor (k0, and activation energy (Ea using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G0 value. The change of the derivative of G0 with respect to time (dG0/dt versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol−1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins.

  15. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and glass-forming ability of Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 bulk metallic glass investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (United States)

    Gong, Pan; Zhao, Shaofan; Wang, Xin; Yao, Kefu


    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and glass-forming ability of Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 glassy alloy were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The activation energies corresponding to the characteristic temperatures have been calculated by Kissinger and Ozawa equations. Based on Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall models, it has been found that the local activation energy is higher at the beginning of the crystallization process for the first exothermic peak. The local Avrami exponent indicates that the first-step crystallization is mainly a high-dimensional nucleation and growth with an increasing nucleation rate. According to the calculated fragility index, Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 alloy can be classified as "strong glass former." The studied alloy also possesses a critical size up to centimeter order, and the high glass-forming ability is probably related to the relatively low Gibbs energy difference between the liquid and crystalline states. The critical cooling rate of Ti41Zr25Be28Fe6 glassy alloy has also been determined using Barandiaran-Colmenero's method.

  16. Kinetic and safety parameters analysis for 1,1,-di-(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane in isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. (United States)

    Tseng, Jo-Ming; Lin, Chun-Ping; Huang, Sheng-Tien; Hsu, Johnson


    Over the past 30 years, the field of thermal analysis of organic peroxides has become an important issue in chemical engineering departments, safety departments, and in companies working with polymerization, petrifaction process, and so on. The contributions of thermal analysis to the evaluation and prediction of the runaway reactions have been important for decreasing or preventing a hazard, such as fire or explosion accident. This study was carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to evaluate the kinetic and safety parameters in isothermal and non-isothermal conditions, for instance, temperature of no return (T(NR)), self accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT), time to maximum rate (TMR), activation energy (E(a)), frequency factor (A), reaction order (n), and reaction heat (ΔH), in terms of the hazardous material of 1,1,-di-(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (TMCH) 88 mass%. On the basis of this study, we demonstrated that TMCH 88 mass% must be well controlled in the manufacturing process due to the unstable structure of O-O, which releases a great quantity of heat, higher than 1300 J/g under decomposition. Results of this study could contribute to the relevant plants adopting TMCH 88mass% in a process, in order to prevent a fire or explosion accident from happening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of pressure, temperature, and treatment time on oscillatory rheological properties and non-isothermal gelatinization kinetics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) flour slurry (United States)

    Canet, W.; Cuesta, F. J.; Fuentes, R.; Alvarez, M. D.


    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), temperature at pressurization, and treatment time at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C 5, 15, 25 min) on the gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF) slurry during non-isothermal heating from 25 to 95 °C and gel rheological properties after subsequent cooling to 25 °C was investigated. CF gelatinization kinetics from the cross-over of elastic modulus (G’) and viscous modulus (G″) to 95 °C were considered for rate estimation. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described the CF gelatinization process. Structure development rate (dG‧/dt) is described by two exponential functions with activation energies ranging from 51.2 to 576.6 and –128.9 to 538.9 kJ mol–1 for downward and upward gelatinization curves, respectively. Changes in dG‧/dt vs. temperature seem to be closely related to the degree of gelatinization induced by HHP pre-treatment.

  18. Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: A comparison of Richards' and two-phase flow approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Rutqvist, J.; Gorke, U.-J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Kolditz, O.


    The present work compares the performance of two alternative flow models for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic coupled processes in low permeable porous media: non-isothermal Richards and two-phase flow concepts. Both models take vaporization processes into account: however, the Richards model neglects dynamic pressure variations and bulk flow of the gaseous phase. For the comparison of the two approaches first published data from a laboratory experiment is studied involving thermally driven moisture flow in a partially saturated bentonite sample. Then a benchmark test of longer-term thermal-hydraulic behavior in the engineered barrier system of a geological nuclear waste repository is analyzed (DECOVALEX project). It was found that both models can be used to reproduce the vaporization process if the intrinsic permeability is relative high. However, when a thermal-hydraulic coupled problem has the same low intrinsic permeability for both the liquid and the gas phase, only the two-phase flow approach provides reasonable results.

  19. Non-isothermal decomposition kinetics of magnesite Decomposição não isotérmica de magnesita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maitra


    Full Text Available Kinetics of thermal decomposition of Indian magnesite was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis under non-isothermal condition. Coats and Redfern Integral approximation method was used to determine the kinetic parameters. Using the kinetic parameters different kinetic functions were analyzed with the experimental data to ascertain the decomposition mechanism of magnesium carbonate and it was observed that the decomposition reaction followed a contracting sphere kinetic mechanism.A cinética de decomposição térmica de magnesita indiana foi estudada por análise termogravimétrica sob condição não-isotérmica. O método da aproximação da integral de Coats e Redfern foi usado para determinar os parâmetros cinéticos. Usando estes parâmetros, foram analisadas diferentes funções cinéticas com os dados experimentais para avaliar o mecanismo de decomposição do carbonato de magnésio e foi observado que a reação de decomposição segue o mecanismo cinético de contração de esfera.

  20. Modeling of the non isothermal and non isobaric transformations kinetics. Application to the kaolinite de-hydroxylation and to the tri-uranium octo-oxide reduction by hydrogen; Modelisation de la cinetique de transformations non isothermes et (ou) non isobares. Application a la deshydroxylation de la kaolinite et a la reduction de l'octooxyde de triuranium par l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, St


    The aim of this work is to be able to describe transformations, occurring when solids and gases are in non isothermal and non isobaric conditions, with kinetic models. A methodology has been used. Two essential processes have to be taken into account: the germination and the growth. The germs are supposed to be formed (at constant temperature and pressure) in the grains surface with a constant velocity by surface unit, (gamma), called germination surface frequency (number of germs.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. The growth velocity is characterized by a growth surface reactivity, (phi) (in mol.m{sup -2}.s{sup -1}). With an appropriate transformation model, it is possible to obtain the variations of (gamma) and (phi) in terms of the temperature and pressure which are then used in the calculation of the velocity in non isothermal and non isobaric conditions. In order to validate the developed method, two reactions have been studied. For the first one, the kaolinite de-hydroxylation, an anisotropic germination-growth model, where the step limiting the growth is a diffusion step, has been developed in order to explain the experimental kinetic curves. Nevertheless the velocity curves calculated from this model do not allow to describe the reaction for some temperature variations. This result shows the difficulty to precisely determine the germination surface frequency what induces an important approximation on the kinetic curves. The second reaction is the tri-uranium octo-oxide reduction by hydrogen. It has been shown that this reaction occurs according to three successive transformations. A kinetic model has been developed for each of these reactions considering germination as instantaneous. At last, in comparing this model with the experimental velocity curves, a very good agreement has been verified as well as for a temperature variation than for a hydrogen partial pressure change during the reaction. (O.M.)

  1. Long-term non-isothermal reactive transport model of compacted bentonite, concrete and corrosion products in a HLW repository in clay. (United States)

    Mon, Alba; Samper, Javier; Montenegro, Luis; Naves, Acacia; Fernández, Jesús


    Radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories envisages engineered barriers such as carbon-steel canisters, compacted bentonite and concrete liners. The stability and performance of the bentonite barrier could be affected by the corrosion products at the canister-bentonite interface and the hyper-alkaline conditions caused by the degradation of concrete at the bentonite-concrete interface. Additionally, the host clay formation could also be affected by the hyper-alkaline plume at the concrete-clay interface. Here we present a non-isothermal multicomponent reactive transport model of the long-term (1Ma) interactions of the compacted bentonite with the corrosion products of a carbon-steel canister and the concrete liner of the engineered barrier of a high-level radioactive waste repository in clay. Model results show that magnetite is the main corrosion product. Its precipitation reduces significantly the porosity of the bentonite near the canister. The degradation of the concrete liner leads to the precipitation of secondary minerals and the reduction of the porosity of the bentonite and the clay formation at their interfaces with the concrete liner. The reduction of the porosity becomes especially relevant at t=104years. The zones affected by pore clogging at the canister-bentonite and concrete-clay interfaces at 1Ma are approximately equal to 1 and 3.3cm thick, respectively. The hyper-alkaline front (pH>8.5) spreads 2.5cm into the clay formation after 1Ma. Our simulation results share the key features of the models reported by others for engineered barrier systems at similar chemical conditions, including: 1) Pore clogging at the canister-bentonite and concrete-clay interfaces; 2) Narrow alteration zones; and 3) Limited smectite dissolution after 1Ma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A hypothesis for using pathway genetic load analysis for understanding complex outcomes in bilirubin encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Riordan


    Full Text Available Genetic-based susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus is still poorly understood. Neonatal jaundice affects 60-80% of newborns, and considerable effort goes into preventing this relatively benign condition from escalating into the development of kernicterus making the incidence of this potentially devastating condition very rare in more developed countries. The current understanding of the genetic background of kernicterus is largely comprised of mutations related to alterations of bilirubin production, elimination, or both. Less is known about mutations that may predispose or protect against CNS bilirubin neurotoxicity. The lack of a monogenetic source for this risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity suggests that disease progression is dependent upon an overall decrease in the functionality of one or more essential genetically controlled metabolic pathways. In other words, a load is placed on key pathways in the form of multiple genetic variants that combine to create a vulnerable phenotype. The idea of epistatic interactions creating a pathway genetic load that affects the response to a specific insult has been previously reported as a pathway genetic load (PGL score. We hypothesize that the PGL score can be used to investigate whether increased susceptibility to bilirubin-induced CNS damage in neonates is due to a mutational load being placed on key genetic pathways important to the central nervous system’s response to bilirubin neurotoxicity. We propose a modification of the PGL score method that replaces the use of a canonical pathway with custom gene lists organized into three tiers with descending levels of evidence combined with the utilization of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP causality prediction methods. The PGL score has the potential to explain the genetic background of complex bilirubin-induced neurological disorders (BIND such as kernicterus and could be the key to understanding

  3. Enhanced skin delivery of liquiritigenin and liquiritin-loaded liposome-in-hydrogel complex system. (United States)

    Kim, S J; Kwon, S S; Jeon, S H; Yu, E R; Park, S N


    To study the permeation of liquiritigenin (LQG) and liquiritin (LQ) as licorice flavonoids into the skin, we prepared ceramide liposome-in-cellulose hydrogel complex system. Liposome-in-hydrogel complex systems were developed by incorporating ceramide liposomes into cellulose hydrogels by the swelling method. We evaluated their physical and chemical properties, encapsulation efficiency and skin permeability using Franz Diffusion Cell. It was visually seen by CLSM images analysis. The ceramide liposome, consisting of biocompatible lipid membranes, remained stable for over 3 weeks. Encapsulation efficiencies for liquiritigenin and liquiritin-loaded liposome-in-hydrogel were 69.39% and 64.71%, respectively. Liposome-in-hydrogel complex systems (LQG: 56.55%, LQ: 66.99%) had greater skin permeability than control (LQG: 4.92%, LQ: 5.30%) or a single liposome systems (LQG: 43.34%, LQ: 48.97%) and hydrogel systems (LQG: 38.21%, LQ: 55.07%). Liposome-in-hydrogel system can be a potential drug delivery system for topical delivery of antioxidants such as licorice flavonoids to construct antioxidative skin barrier. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Docetaxel-nicotinamide complex-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for transdermal delivery. (United States)

    Fan, Xiucong; Chen, Jinjin; Shen, Qi


    Docetaxel (DTX) proved one of the most effective active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) for the treatment of cancers. However, in respect of its low solubility and high lipophilic property, nicotinamide (NCT) was chosen as the co-former to form the docetaxel-nicotinamide complex to handle the drawbacks. As was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer, thermal analysis and saturated solubility, the complex proved stable. Then, docetaxel-nicotinamide complex nanostructured lipid carriers (DN-NLCs) were prepared by emulsion-evaporation at low temperature method. The average drug entrapment efficiency, particle size and drug loading of docetaxel-NLCs (D-NLCs) and DN-NLCs were 81.41-79.48%, 61.45-59.48nm and 1.60-1.63%, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles were valued by transmission electron microscope and Powder X Ray Diffraction. The in vitro drug-release profile of nanoparticle formulations fitted the Weibull dynamic equation. The skin permeability test was performed by Vertical Franz-type diffusion cells. It demonstrated that DN-NLCs transported drugs more easily than D-NLCs. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy observation showed DN-NLCs permeated more effectively than D-NLCs. In vivo study demonstrated that DN-NLCs maintained most in the skin. These results suggest that the DN-NLCs can be a useful method to increase skin permeation of docetaxel. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mild Negishi cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by acenaphthoimidazolylidene palladium complexes at low catalyst loadings. (United States)

    Liu, Zelong; Dong, Ningning; Xu, Mizhi; Sun, Zheming; Tu, Tao


    Considering that the strong σ-donor property of ylidenes derived from π-extended imidazolium salts is conducive to increasing the catalytic activity of the resulting palladium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes, robust acenaphthoimidazol-ylidene palladium complexes 3a-c with varying bulky substituted groups were prepared from the corresponding acenaphthoimidazolium chlorides by heating with PdCl2 and K2CO3 in neat 3-chloropyridine in satisfactory yields. Even at a catalyst loading as low as 0.25 mol %, complex 3a exhibited extremely high catalytic activity toward Negishi cross-coupling of alkylzinc reagents with a wide range of (hetero)aryl halides under mild reaction conditions within 30 min. Besides a great number of bromoarenes, various less expensive and inactive (hetero)aryl chlorides were coupled successfully with the alkyl- and arylzinc reagents, in which active functional groups (such as -NH2) were well tolerated even in one-pot dicoupling transformations without protection. In addition, in the case of coupling with secondary alkylzinc reagents, undesired β-hydride elimination leading to isomerized linear products was efficaciously suppressed. The catalyst system also displayed superiority in the construction of heterobiaryls through the coupling of heteroarylzinc reagents and heterocylic chloroarenes which were hardly accessible from the corresponding organoboron reagents by Suzuki-coupling reactions. Therefore, the protocol described in this paper represents a mild, general, and scalable approach to access various structurally intriguing and functionalized (hetero)aryls.

  6. Aerosolized antimicrobial agents based on degradable dextran nanoparticles loaded with silver carbene complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cátia


    Degradable acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX) nanoparticles were prepared and loaded with a hydrophobic silver carbene complex (SCC) by a single-emulsion process. The resulting particles were characterized for morphology and size distribution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The average particle size and particle size distribution were found to be a function of the ratio of the organic phase to the surfactant containing aqueous phase with a 1:5 volume ratio of Ac-DEX CH2Cl2 (organic):PBS (aqueous) being optimal for the formulation of nanoparticles with an average size of 100 ± 40 nm and a low polydispersity. The SCC loading was found to increase with an increase in the SCC quantity in the initial feed used during particle formulation up to 30% (w/w); however, the encapsulation efficiency was observed to be the best at a feed ratio of 20% (w/w). In vitro efficacy testing of the SCC loaded Ac-DEX nanoparticles demonstrated their activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; the nanoparticles inhibited the growth of every bacterial species tested. As expected, a higher concentration of drug was required to inhibit bacterial growth when the drug was encapsulated within the nanoparticle formulations compared with the free drug illustrating the desired depot release. Compared with free drug, the Ac-DEX nanoparticles were much more readily suspended in an aqueous phase and subsequently aerosolized, thus providing an effective method of pulmonary drug delivery. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. 3D imaging using X-Ray tomography and SEM combined FIB to study non isothermal creep damage of (111) oriented samples of γ / γ ′ nickel base single crystal superalloy MC2

    KAUST Repository

    Jouiad, Mustapha


    An unprecedented investigation consisting of the association of X-Ray tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with Focus Ion Beam (SEM-FIB) is conducted to perform a 3D reconstruction imaging. These techniques are applied to study the non-isothermal creep behavior of close (111) oriented samples of MC2 nickel base superalloys single crystal. The issue here is to develop a strategy to come out with the 3D rafting of γ\\' particles and its interaction whether with dislocation structures or/and with the preexisting voids. This characterization is uncommonly performed away from the conventional studied orientation [001] in order to feed the viscoplastic modeling leading to its improvement by taking into account the crystal anisotropy. The creep tests were performed at two different conditions: classical isothermal tests at 1050°C under 140 MPa and a non isothermal creep test consisting of one overheating at 1200°C and 30 seconds dwell time during the isothermal creep life. The X-Ray tomography shows a great deformation heterogeneity that is pronounced for the non-isothermal tested samples. This deformation localization seems to be linked to the preexisting voids. Nevertheless, for both tested samples, the voids coalescence is the precursor of the observed damage leading to failure. SEM-FIB investigation by means of slice and view technique gives 3D views of the rafted γ\\' particles and shows that γ corridors evolution seems to be the main creep rate controlling parameter. © 2012 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  8. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetic study on Ga{sub 15}Se{sub 85-x}Ag{sub x} chalcogenide glasses by using differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, A.A.; Alvi, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Shamshad A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)


    Research highlights: > The Ag doped chalcogenide glasses can be used as optical memory, materials for holography and also be used as sensitive electrochemical electrodes or their membranes for sensors for potentiometric determination. > On the basis of the obtained experimental data, the temperature difference (T{sub c} - T{sub g}) and the enthalpy released ({Delta}H{sub c}) are found to be maximum and minimum, respectively, for Ga{sub 15}Se{sub 77}Ag{sub 8} glass, which indicate that this glass is thermally most stable in the composition range under investigation. > In our study volume nucleation with two dimensional growth is responsible during amorphous-crystallization phase transformation. > The speed of rate of crystallization, is faster with Ag at 8% in the present system. > It is observed that Ga{sub 10}Se{sub 90} has a larger probability to jump to a state of lower configurationally energy. - Abstract: At different heating rates, the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and the crystallization temperature (T{sub c}) are obtained from the non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements of bulk Ga{sub 15}Se{sub 85-x}Ag{sub x} (x = 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8) chalcogenide glasses prepared by melt quenching technique. Their amorphous state was verified by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that the glass transition temperature and crystallization temperatures both increase with increasing heating rates and also by increasing Ag concentration in Ga-Se system. The activation energy of crystallization (E{sub c}), activation energy of glass transition (E{sub g}), crystallization enthalpy ({Delta}H{sub c}) and the Avrami exponent (n) have been determined from the dependence of T{sub g} and T{sub c} on the heating rate ({beta}). The obtained value of the n indicates that the volume nucleation with two dimensional growth is responsible for amorphous-crystallization phase transformation. On the basis of

  9. Non-isothermal scavenging of highly soluble gaseous pollutants by rain in the atmosphere with non-uniform vertical concentration and temperature distributions (United States)

    Elperin, Tov; Fominykh, Andrew; Krasovitov, Boris


    We suggest a non-isothermal one-dimensional model of precipitation scavenging of highly soluble gaseous pollutants in inhomogeneous atmosphere. When gradients of soluble trace gases' concentrations and temperature in the atmosphere are small, scavenging of gaseous pollutants is governed by two linear wave equations that describe propagation of a scavenging and temperature waves in one direction. If wash-down front velocity is much larger than the velocity of the temperature front, scavenging is determined by propagating scavenging front in the atmosphere with inhomogeneous temperature distribution. We solved the derived equation by the method of characteristics and determined scavenging coefficient and the rates of precipitation scavenging for wet removal of sulfur dioxide using measured initial distributions of trace gases and temperature in the atmosphere. It is shown that in the case of exponential initial distribution of soluble trace gases and linear temperature distribution in the atmosphere, scavenging coefficient in the region between the ground and the position of a scavenging front is proportional to rainfall rate, solubility parameter in the under-cloud region, adjacent to a bottom of a cloud and to the growth constant in the formula for the initial profile of a soluble trace gas in the atmosphere. The derived formula yields the same value of scavenging coefficient for sulfur dioxide scavenging by rain as field estimates presented by McMahon and Denison (Atmos Environ 13:571-585, 1979). It is demonstrated that in the case when the altitude variation of temperature in the atmosphere is determined by the environmental lapse rate, scavenging coefficient increases with height in the region between the scavenging front and the ground. In the case when altitude temperature variation in the atmosphere is determined by temperature inversion, scavenging coefficient decreases with height in a region between the scavenging front and the ground. Theoretical

  10. Drug-Polymer Electrostatic Complexes as New Structuring Agents for the Formation of Drug-Loaded Ordered Mesoporous Silica. (United States)

    Molina, Emilie; Warnant, Jérôme; Mathonnat, Mélody; Bathfield, Maël; In, Martin; Laurencin, Danielle; Jérôme, Christine; Lacroix-Desmazes, Patrick; Marcotte, Nathalie; Gérardin, Corine


    Using aminoglycoside antibiotics as drug models, it was shown that electrostatic complexes between hydrophilic drugs and oppositely charged double-hydrophilic block copolymers can form ordered mesophases. This phase behavior was evidenced by using poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers in the presence of silica precursors, and this allowed preparing drug-loaded mesoporous silica directly from the drug-polymer complexes. The novel synthetic strategy of the hybrid materials is highly efficient, avoiding waste and multistep processes; it also ensures optimal drug loading and provides pH-dependence of the drug release from the materials.

  11. The Characterization of Mechanical Properties of a Rabbit Femur-Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Tibia Complex During Cyclic Loading (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Hidetaka; Han, Jungsoo; Ryu, Jaiyoung; Han, Changsoo

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cyclic loading, which produced the condition of ACLs during sports activities, on tensile properties of femur-ACL-tibia complexes (FATCs). Paired FATCs of 40 New Zealand white rabbits were tested on a materials testing machine. One specimen of each pair was designated as a control and loaded until failure. The contralateral specimen was loaded cyclically (1.4 Hz, 1 hr.) with 20%, 30%, 40%, or 50% of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the control and then loaded until failure. The UTS and mode of failure were recorded after each test. Five specimens ruptured during cyclic loading in the 50% group. In the 40% group, the mean value of UTS of cycled specimens was significantly lower than that of controls. There was no statistically significant difference in UTS values between control and cycled specimens in the 20% and 30% groups. Cycled specimens had a significantly higher incidence of substance failure than controls. Our results demonstrated that FATCs have the strength to withstand cyclic loading within normal sports activity levels. However, FACTs can be damaged by cyclic loading under strenuous sports activity levels. We speculate that cyclic loading makes the ACL substance weaker than the insertion site.

  12. Maximization of Loading and Stability of ssDNA:Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Complexes Formed through Electrostatic Interaction (United States)

    Berti, Lorenzo; Woldeyesus, Temesgen; Li, Yuanpei; Lam, Kit S.


    The use of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) as vectors for the delivery of oligonucleotides for in vitro and in vivo applications is rapidly gaining momentum. Some of the reasons making them especially good candidates for this purpose are their ease of synthesis in a range of sizes and surface coatings, their propensity to penetrate cell membranes, their stability and biocompatibility and their unique size-dependent physical properties that impart additional diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Notwithstanding these notable attributes, a major obstacle to their practical use is given by the typically low oligonucleotide loading levels attainable through conventional bioconjugation procedures. This shortcoming is especially worrisome as toxicity concerns have been associated with co-delivery of NPs. In this paper we are analytically analyzing the formation of electrostatic complexes between negatively charged ssDNA and positively charged iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO-NP) with the purpose of identifying the optimal conditions leading to stable formulations at high oligo loading levels. The formation and loading levels of ssDNA:SPIO-NP complexes have been investigated at different oligo:NP ratios and under different ionic strengths through Dynamic Light Scattering, fluorescence quenching experiments and pull-down assays. Through these studies we have identified optimal conditions for attaining maximal oligo loading levels and we are proposing a simple model to explain an unusual behavior observed in the formation of the complexes. Finally we introduce an alternative loading method relying on the electrostatic co-loading of an oligo sequence in the presence of a negatively charged PEGylated block copolymer, yielding very stable and high loading PEGylated ssDNA:SPIO-NPs. The findings that we are reporting are of general validity and similar conditions could be easily translated to the electrostatic formation of ssDNA:NP complexes consisting of different NP materials and

  13. A Hypothesis for Using Pathway Genetic Load Analysis for Understanding Complex Outcomes in Bilirubin Encephalopathy (United States)

    Riordan, Sean M.; Bittel, Douglas C.; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Watchko, Jon F.; Wennberg, Richard P.; Shapiro, Steven M.


    Genetic-based susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus) is still poorly understood. Neonatal jaundice affects 60–80% of newborns, and considerable effort goes into preventing this relatively benign condition from escalating into the development of kernicterus making the incidence of this potentially devastating condition very rare in more developed countries. The current understanding of the genetic background of kernicterus is largely comprised of mutations related to alterations of bilirubin production, elimination, or both. Less is known about mutations that may predispose or protect against CNS bilirubin neurotoxicity. The lack of a monogenetic source for this risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity suggests that disease progression is dependent upon an overall decrease in the functionality of one or more essential genetically controlled metabolic pathways. In other words, a “load” is placed on key pathways in the form of multiple genetic variants that combine to create a vulnerable phenotype. The idea of epistatic interactions creating a pathway genetic load (PGL) that affects the response to a specific insult has been previously reported as a PGL score. We hypothesize that the PGL score can be used to investigate whether increased susceptibility to bilirubin-induced CNS damage in neonates is due to a mutational load being placed on key genetic pathways important to the central nervous system's response to bilirubin neurotoxicity. We propose a modification of the PGL score method that replaces the use of a canonical pathway with custom gene lists organized into three tiers with descending levels of evidence combined with the utilization of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) causality prediction methods. The PGL score has the potential to explain the genetic background of complex bilirubin induced neurological disorders (BIND) such as kernicterus and could be the key to understanding ranges of outcome severity

  14. Microstructure of Commercial Purity Titanium Subjected to Complex Loading by the Kobo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawałko J.


    Full Text Available Observations of refined microstructure of Commercial Purity titanium for applications in biomedical devices has been carried out. Refinement of titanium microstructure has been performed in process with complex strain scheme. Materials investigated in this work were: Commercial Purity titanium grade 2 and grade 4. Samples of as received materials were subjected to plastic deformation in complex loading process of extrusion combined with oscillation twisting (KoBo extrusion. Both types of samples were deformed in single step of extrusion, in temperature of 450 °C, with extrusion ratio 19.14 and 12.25 for grade 2 titanium and grade 4 titanium, respectively. Initial mean grain diameter for both types of materials was approximately 30 μm. Samples were investigated by means of crystal orientation microscopy. In both cases considerable microstructure refinement has been observed. Microstructures of deformed samples are heterogenous and consist of both elongated and fine equiaxed grains. Elongated grains (lamellae are separated by High Angle Grain Boundaries and feature internal structure with subgrains and dislocation walls. Grain refinement is stronger in material with higher extrusion ratio and mean grain diameter in this case is equal to 1.48 μm compared to 8.07 μm. in material with lower extrusion ratio. Mean misorientation angle (24° and 27° for grade 4 and grade 2 titanium indicates high fraction of HAGBs in microstructures of KoBo deformed samples. Misorientation fluctuations inside grains have been analyzed and distinct curvature of crystal lattice have been observed. Hardness of samples after plastic deformation increased from 174.6±3.4 and 234.9±3.5 to 205.0±3.2 and 251.2±2.2 for titanium grade 2 and grade 4 respectively.

  15. Control of Genome Integrity by RFC Complexes; Conductors of PCNA Loading onto and Unloading from Chromatin during DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Shiomi


    Full Text Available During cell division, genome integrity is maintained by faithful DNA replication during S phase, followed by accurate segregation in mitosis. Many DNA metabolic events linked with DNA replication are also regulated throughout the cell cycle. In eukaryotes, the DNA sliding clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, acts on chromatin as a processivity factor for DNA polymerases. Since its discovery, many other PCNA binding partners have been identified that function during DNA replication, repair, recombination, chromatin remodeling, cohesion, and proteolysis in cell-cycle progression. PCNA not only recruits the proteins involved in such events, but it also actively controls their function as chromatin assembles. Therefore, control of PCNA-loading onto chromatin is fundamental for various replication-coupled reactions. PCNA is loaded onto chromatin by PCNA-loading replication factor C (RFC complexes. Both RFC1-RFC and Ctf18-RFC fundamentally function as PCNA loaders. On the other hand, after DNA synthesis, PCNA must be removed from chromatin by Elg1-RFC. Functional defects in RFC complexes lead to chromosomal abnormalities. In this review, we summarize the structural and functional relationships among RFC complexes, and describe how the regulation of PCNA loading/unloading by RFC complexes contributes to maintaining genome integrity.

  16. Cognitive Load Theory and Complex Learning: Recent Developments and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Sweller, J.


    Traditionally, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) has focused on instructional methods to decrease extraneous cognitive load so that available cognitive resources can be fully devoted to learning. This article strengthens the cognitive base of CLT by linking cognitive processes to the processes used by

  17. Fibrin gels loaded with cisplatin and cisplatin-hyaluronate complexes tested in a subcutaneous human melanoma model. (United States)

    Viale, Maurizio; Rossi, Marta; Russo, Eleonora; Cilli, Michele; Aprile, Anna; Profumo, Aldo; Santi, Pierluigi; Fenoglio, Carla; Cafaggi, Sergio; Rocco, Mattia


    Fibrin gels are attractive biomaterials for local delivery of a variety of agents, from drugs to proteins. Similarly, polymer-anticancer-drug conjugates and nanoparticles are emerging as potential candidates for cancer treatment. Combining these different approaches, we have studied the efficacy of fibrin gels loaded with cisplatin (DDP) and a complex of DDP with hyaluronate (DDP-HA) for tumor growth inhibition in a melanoma model. Loaded gels prepared at relatively high fibrinogen concentration (22 mg/ml) showed good in vitro antiproliferative activities, prolonged release of the anticancer drug, and a long persistence (10-15 days) in vivo when implanted subcutaneously (sc) in immunodeficient mice. Gels loaded with DDP or DDP-HA containing 1/3 or even 1/6 of their systemic dose (6 mg/kg) and positioned under the tumor mass in mice bearing a sc human SK-Mel-28 tumor showed an antitumor activity better than that of the original parent compound given intraperitoneally (ip). Moreover, in an additional experiment in vivo, fibrin gels loaded with N-trimethyl chitosan-based nanoparticles containing a DDP-HA complex were assayed, resulting in a further 8 % improvement of anticancer activity, with lesser adverse systemic toxic effects. Taken together, these results suggest that the combination of fibrin gels and drugs complexed with suitable macromolecules holds great promise for loco-regional anticancer therapy of melanoma and other surgically removable cancer types.

  18. Multiple polysaccharide-drug complex-loaded liposomes: A unique strategy in drug loading and cancer targeting. (United States)

    Ruttala, Hima Bindu; Ramasamy, Thiruganesh; Gupta, Biki; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh


    In the present study, a unique strategy was developed to develop nanocarriers containing multiple therapeutics with controlled release characteristics. In this study, we demonstrated the synthesis of dextran sulfate-doxorubicin (DS-DOX) and alginate-cisplatin (AL-CIS) polymer-drug complexes to produce a transferrin ligand-conjugated liposome. The targeted nanoparticles (TL-DDAC) were nano-sized and spherical. The targeted liposome exhibited a specific receptor-mediated endocytic uptake in cancer cells. The enhanced cellular uptake of TL-DDAC resulted in a significantly better anticancer effect in resistant and sensitive breast cancer cells compared to that of the free drugs. Specifically, DOX and CIS at a molar ratio of 1:1 exhibited better therapeutic performance compared to that of other combinations. The combination of an anthracycline-based topoisomerase II inhibitor (DOX) and a platinum compound (CIS) resulted in significantly higher cell apoptosis (early and late) in both types of cancer cells. In conclusion, treatment with DS-DOX and AL-CIS based combination liposomes modified with transferrin (TL-DDAC) was an effective cancer treatment strategy. Further investigation in clinically relevant animal models is warranted to prove the therapeutic efficacy of this unique strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TMVOC-MP: a parallel numerical simulator for Three-PhaseNon-isothermal Flows of Multicomponent Hydrocarbon Mixtures inporous/fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keni; Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten


    TMVOC-MP is a massively parallel version of the TMVOC code (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), a numerical simulator for three-phase non-isothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous/fractured media. TMVOC-MP was developed by introducing massively parallel computing techniques into TMVOC. It retains the physical process model of TMVOC, designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuels or organic solvents in saturated and unsaturated zones. TMVOC-MP can model contaminant behavior under 'natural' environmental conditions, as well as for engineered systems, such as soil vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, or steam-assisted source remediation. With its sophisticated parallel computing techniques, TMVOC-MP can handle much larger problems than TMVOC, and can be much more computationally efficient. TMVOC-MP models multiphase fluid systems containing variable proportions of water, non-condensible gases (NCGs), and water-soluble volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). The user can specify the number and nature of NCGs and VOCs. There are no intrinsic limitations to the number of NCGs or VOCs, although the arrays for fluid components are currently dimensioned as 20, accommodating water plus 19 components that may be either NCGs or VOCs. Among them, NCG arrays are dimensioned as 10. The user may select NCGs from a data bank provided in the software. The currently available choices include O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, and air (a pseudo-component treated with properties averaged from N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}). Thermophysical property data of VOCs can be selected from a chemical data bank, included with TMVOC-MP, that provides parameters for 26 commonly encountered chemicals. Users also can input their own data for other fluids. The fluid components may partition (volatilize and/or dissolve) among gas, aqueous

  20. Influence of foundation model complexity on the design loads for offshore WTG on jacket foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Melchior; Larsen, Torben J.; Yde, Anders

    The present work investigates the influence of using different ways of interfacing wind turbine model and foundation on loads in the combined structure. In the design procedure for offshore wind turbines it is common that foundation and wind turbine design loads are obtained in two sequential steps...... to obtain the design loads for the foundation. The dynamic interaction between the wind turbine and foundation is left out in that procedure. Herein, three different design methodologies are applied to the same offshore wind turbine with identical turbulent wind (18 m/s) and irregular waves (Hs=6 m/Tp=10 s...

  1. Structural analysis of tree trunks and branches: tapered cantilever beams subject to large deflections under complex loading. (United States)

    Morgan, J; Cannell, M G


    The dimensions, deflections and support costs of tree trunks and branches can be deduced using the structural theory for cantilever beams. However, elementary theory applies only as long as deflections are small, and complex analytical solutions are required to account for complex taper and patterns of loading. This paper describes a method that copes with large deflections, any patterns of taper, and any patterns of distributed loading, point loading or externally applied bending moments. A beam is considered to be composed of a series of short segments, such that each has only a small deflection, and each can have specified dimensions, Young's modulus and loading. The transport matrix method of structural analysis is used to determine the end conditions of each segment and of the whole beam. The method is verified by comparing predicted deflections with deflections (a) calculated using an analytical solution by Bisshopp and Drucker (1945), (b) calculated and measured for sapling tree trunks by Leiser and Kemper (1968), and (c) measured on tapered and untapered plastic rods.

  2. Monitoring task loading with multivariate EEG measures during complex forms of human-computer interaction (United States)

    Smith, M. E.; Gevins, A.; Brown, H.; Karnik, A.; Du, R.


    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made while 16 participants performed versions of a personal-computer-based flight simulation task of low, moderate, or high difficulty. As task difficulty increased, frontal midline theta EEG activity increased and alpha band activity decreased. A participant-specific function that combined multiple EEG features to create a single load index was derived from a sample of each participant's data and then applied to new test data from that participant. Index values were computed for every 4 s of task data. Across participants, mean task load index values increased systematically with increasing task difficulty and differed significantly between the different task versions. Actual or potential applications of this research include the use of multivariate EEG-based methods to monitor task loading during naturalistic computer-based work.

  3. The characterization of secondary lithium-ion battery degradation when operating complex, ultra-high power pulsed loads (United States)

    Wong, Derek N.

    The US Navy is actively developing all electric fleets, raising serious questions about what is required of onboard power supplies in order to properly power the ship's electrical systems. This is especially relevant when choosing a viable power source to drive high power propulsion and electric weapon systems in addition to the conventional loads deployed aboard these types of vessels. Especially when high pulsed power loads are supplied, the issue of maintaining power quality becomes important and increasingly complex. Conventionally, a vessel's electrical power is generated using gas turbine or diesel driven motor-generator sets that are very inefficient when they are used outside of their most efficient load condition. What this means is that if the generator is not being utilized continuously at its most efficient load capacity, the quality of the output power may also be effected and fall outside of the acceptable power quality limits imposed through military standards. As a solution to this potential problem, the Navy has proposed using electrochemical storage devices since they are able to buffer conventional generators when the load is operating below the generator's most efficient power level or able to efficiently augment a generator when the load is operating in excess of the generator's most efficient power rating. Specifically, the US Navy is interested in using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium-ion batteries within an intelligently controlled energy storage module that could act as either a prime power supply for on-board pulsed power systems or as a backup generator to other shipboard power systems. Due to the unique load profile of high-rate pulsed power systems, the implementation of lithium-ion batteries within these complex systems requires them to be operated at very high rates and the effects these things have on cell degradation has been an area of focus. There is very little published research into the effects that high power transient

  4. Pupillary response to complex interdependent tasks: A cognitive-load theory perspective. (United States)

    Mitra, Ritayan; McNeal, Karen S; Bondell, Howard D


    Pupil dilation is known to indicate cognitive load. In this study, we looked at the average pupillary responses of a cohort of 29 undergraduate students during graphical problem solving. Three questions were asked, based on the same graphical input. The questions were interdependent and comprised multiple steps. We propose a novel way of analyzing pupillometry data for such tasks on the basis of eye fixations, a commonly used eyetracking parameter. We found that pupil diameter increased during the solution process. However, pupil diameter did not always reflect the expected cognitive load. This result was studied within a cognitive-load theory model. Higher-performing students showed evidence of germane load and schema creation, indicating use of the interdependent nature of the tasks to inform their problem-solving process. However, lower-performing students did not recognize the interdependent nature of the tasks and solved each problem independently, which was expressed in a markedly different pupillary response pattern. We discuss the import of our findings for instructional design.

  5. Non-isothermal synergetic catalytic effect of TiF{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} on dehydrogenation high-energy ball milled MgH{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tiebang, E-mail:; Hou, Xiaojiang; Hu, Rui; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan


    MgH{sub 2}-M (M = TiF{sub 3} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} or both of them) composites prepared by high-energy ball milling are used in this work to illustrate the dehydrogenation behavior of MgH{sub 2} with the addition of catalysts. The phase compositions, microstructures, particle morphologies and distributions of MgH{sub 2} with catalysts have been evaluated. The non-isothermal synergetic catalytic-dehydrogenation effect of TiF{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry gives the evidences that the addition of catalysts is an effective strategy to destabilize MgH{sub 2} and reduce hydrogen desorption temperatures and activation energies. Depending on additives, the desorption peak temperatures of catalyzed MgH{sub 2} reduce from 417 °C to 341 °C for TiF{sub 3} and from 417 °C to 336 °C for Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, respectively. The desorption peak temperature reaches as low as 310 °C for MgH{sub 2} catalyzed by TiF{sub 3} coupling with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The non-isothermal synergetic catalytic effect of TiF{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is mainly attributed to electronic exchange reactions with hydrogen molecules, which improve the recombination of hydrogen atoms during dehydrogenation process of MgH{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Catalytic surface for MgH{sub 2} is achieved by high-energy ball milling. • Non-isothermal dehydrogenation behavior of MgH{sub 2} with TiF{sub 3} and/or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is illustrated. • Dehydrogenation activation energies of synergetic catalyzed MgH{sub 2} are obtained. • Synergetic catalytic-dehydrogenation mechanism of TiF{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is proposed.

  6. Embedded interruptions and task complexity influence schema-related cognitive load progression in an abstract learning task. (United States)

    Wirzberger, Maria; Esmaeili Bijarsari, Shirin; Rey, Günter Daniel


    Cognitive processes related to schema acquisition comprise an essential source of demands in learning situations. Since the related amount of cognitive load is supposed to change over time, plausible temporal models of load progression based on different theoretical backgrounds are inspected in this study. A total of 116 student participants completed a basal symbol sequence learning task, which provided insights into underlying cognitive dynamics. Two levels of task complexity were determined by the amount of elements within the symbol sequence. In addition, interruptions due to an embedded secondary task occurred at five predefined stages over the task. Within the resulting 2x5-factorial mixed between-within design, the continuous monitoring of efficiency in learning performance enabled assumptions on relevant resource investment. From the obtained results, a nonlinear change of learning efficiency over time seems most plausible in terms of cognitive load progression. Moreover, different effects of the induced interruptions show up in conditions of task complexity, which indicate the activation of distinct cognitive mechanisms related to structural aspects of the task. Findings are discussed in the light of evidence from research on memory and information processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early motor learning changes in upper-limb dynamics and shoulder complex loading during handrim wheelchair propulsion. (United States)

    Vegter, Riemer J K; Hartog, Johanneke; de Groot, Sonja; Lamoth, Claudine J; Bekker, Michel J; van der Scheer, Jan W; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J


    To propel in an energy-efficient manner, handrim wheelchair users must learn to control the bimanually applied forces onto the rims, preserving both speed and direction of locomotion. Previous studies have found an increase in mechanical efficiency due to motor learning associated with changes in propulsion technique, but it is unclear in what way the propulsion technique impacts the load on the shoulder complex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical efficiency, propulsion technique and load on the shoulder complex during the initial stage of motor learning. 15 naive able-bodied participants received 12-minutes uninstructed wheelchair practice on a motor driven treadmill, consisting of three 4-minute blocks separated by two minutes rest. Practice was performed at a fixed belt speed (v = 1.1 m/s) and constant low-intensity power output (0.2 W/kg). Energy consumption, kinematics and kinetics of propulsion technique were continuously measured. The Delft Shoulder Model was used to calculate net joint moments, muscle activity and glenohumeral reaction force. With practice mechanical efficiency increased and propulsion technique changed, reflected by a reduced push frequency and increased work per push, performed over a larger contact angle, with more tangentially applied force and reduced power losses before and after each push. Contrary to our expectations, the above mentioned propulsion technique changes were found together with an increased load on the shoulder complex reflected by higher net moments, a higher total muscle power and higher peak and mean glenohumeral reaction forces. It appears that the early stages of motor learning in handrim wheelchair propulsion are indeed associated with improved technique and efficiency due to optimization of the kinematics and dynamics of the upper extremity. This process goes at the cost of an increased muscular effort and mechanical loading of the shoulder complex. This seems to be associated with an

  8. Two Different Approaches for Oral Administration of Voriconazole Loaded Formulations: Electrospun Fibers versus β-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panoraia I. Siafaka


    Full Text Available In this work, a comparison between two different preparation methods for the improvement of dissolution rate of an antifungal agent is presented. Poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL electrospun fibers and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD complexes, which were produced via an electrospinning process and an inclusion complexation method, respectively, were addressed for the treatment of fungal infections. Voriconazole (VRCZ drug was selected as a model drug. PCL nanofibers were characterized on the basis of morphology while phase solubility studies for β-CDs complexes were performed. Various concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt % of VRCZ were loaded to PCL fibers and β-CD inclusions to study the in vitro release profile as well as in vitro antifungal activity. The results clearly indicated that all formulations showed an improved VRCZ solubility and can inhibit fungi proliferation.

  9. Validation of a Simplified Building Cooling Load Model Using a Complex Computer Simulation Model


    Stewart, Morgan Eugene


    Building energy simulation has become a useful tool for predicting cooling, heating and electrical loads for facilities. Simulation models have been validated throughout the years by comparing simulation results to actual measured values. The simulations have become more accurate as approaches were changed to be more comprehensive in their ability to model building features. These simulation models tend to require considerable experience in determining input parameters and large amounts of...

  10. Simulation of Complex Cracking in Plain Weave C/SiC Composite under Biaxial Loading (United States)

    Cheng, Ron-Bin; Hsu, Su-Yuen


    Finite element analysis is performed on a mesh, based on computed geometry of a plain weave C/SiC composite with assumed internal stacking, to reveal the pattern of internal damage due to biaxial normal cyclic loading. The simulation encompasses intertow matrix cracking, matrix cracking inside the tows, and separation at the tow-intertow matrix and tow-tow interfaces. All these dissipative behaviors are represented by traction-separation cohesive laws. Not aimed at quantitatively predicting the overall stress-strain relation, the simulation, however, does not take the actual process of fiber debonding into account. The fiber tows are represented by a simple rule-of-mixture model where the reinforcing phase is a hypothetical one-dimensional material. Numerical results indicate that for the plain weave C/SiC composite, 1) matrix-crack initiation sites are primarily determined by large intertow matrix voids and interlayer tow-tow contacts, 2) the pattern of internal damage strongly depends on the loading path and initial stress, 3) compressive loading inflicts virtually no damage evolution. KEY WORDS: ceramic matrix composite, plain weave, cohesive model, brittle failure, smeared crack model, progressive damage, meso-mechanical analysis, finite element.

  11. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and fragility of (Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 47}Al{sub 7}){sub 97}Ti{sub 3} bulk metallic glass investigated by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Man, E-mail: [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Li, Junjie [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Yao, Lijuan; Jian, Zengyun; Chang, Fang’e [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Yang, Gencang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)


    Highlights: • Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of (Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 47}Al{sub 7}){sub 97}Ti{sub 3} BMGs was studied. • Two-stage of crystallization process is confirmed by DSC. • The nucleation process is difficult than growth process during crystallization. • The second crystallization process is the most sensitive to heating rate. • Kinetic fragility index is evaluated suggesting it is an intermediate glass. - Abstract: In this paper, bulk metallic glasses with the composition of (Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 47}Al{sub 7}){sub 97}Ti{sub 3} were prepared by copper mold casting technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to investigate its structure and non-isothermal crystallization kinetics. DSC traces revealed that it undergoes two-stage crystallization. The activation energies corresponding to the characteristic temperatures have been calculated, and the results reveal that the as-cast alloys have a good thermal stability in thermodynamics. Based on Kissinger equation, the activation energies for glass transition, the first and second crystallization processes were obtained as 485 ± 16 kJ/mol, 331 ± 7 kJ/mol and 210 ± 3 kJ/mol, respectively, suggesting that the nucleation process is more difficult than the grain growth process. The fitting curves using Lasocka's empirical relation show that the influence of the heating rate for crystallization is larger than glass transition. Furthermore, the kinetic fragility for (Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 47}Al{sub 7}){sub 97}Ti{sub 3} bulk metallic glasses is evaluated. Depending on the fragility index, (Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 47}Al{sub 7}){sub 97}Ti{sub 3} bulk metallic glasses should be considered as “intermediate glasses”.

  12. Complex Estimation of Intersystem Relations of Functional Reactions on Physical Load


    Romanchuk, A.P.


    The studying of features of functional mutual relations in the group of persons engaged in physical culture was the purpose of this paper. The complex research including the survey of 55 examinees engaged in physical culture and 50 persons of control group was carried out. The results of the carried out complex researches had allowed allocating the number of attributes showing the intersystem mutual relation at the persons engaged in physical culture. They cardinally differ from parameters in...

  13. Humic Acid Complexation of Th, Hf and Zr in Ligand Competition Experiments: Metal Loading and Ph Effects (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer C.; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Salters, Vincent J. M.


    The mobility of metals in soils and subsurface aquifers is strongly affected by sorption and complexation with dissolved organic matter, oxyhydroxides, clay minerals, and inorganic ligands. Humic substances (HS) are organic macromolecules with functional groups that have a strong affinity for binding metals, such as actinides. Thorium, often studied as an analog for tetravalent actinides, has also been shown to strongly associate with dissolved and colloidal HS in natural waters. The effects of HS on the mobilization dynamics of actinides are of particular interest in risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories. Here, we present conditional equilibrium binding constants (Kc, MHA) of thorium, hafnium, and zirconium-humic acid complexes from ligand competition experiments using capillary electrophoresis coupled with ICP-MS (CE- ICP-MS). Equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange (EDLE) experiments using size exclusion via a 1000 Damembrane were also performed to validate the CE-ICP-MS analysis. Experiments were performed at pH 3.5-7 with solutions containing one tetravalent metal (Th, Hf, or Zr), Elliot soil humic acid (EHA) or Pahokee peat humic acid (PHA), and EDTA. CE-ICP-MS and EDLE experiments yielded nearly identical binding constants for the metal- humic acid complexes, indicating that both methods are appropriate for examining metal speciation at conditions lower than neutral pH. We find that tetravalent metals form strong complexes with humic acids, with Kc, MHA several orders of magnitude above REE-humic complexes. Experiments were conducted at a range of dissolved HA concentrations to examine the effect of [HA]/[Th] molar ratio on Kc, MHA. At low metal loading conditions (i.e. elevated [HA]/[Th] ratios) the ThHA binding constant reached values that were not affected by the relative abundance of humic acid and thorium. The importance of [HA]/[Th] molar ratios on constraining the equilibrium of MHA complexation is apparent when our estimated Kc, MHA values

  14. Parsing Complex Noun Phrases: Effects of Hierarchical Structure and Sentence Position on Memory Load. (United States)

    Mota, Sergio; Igoa, José Manuel


    In this paper, we report two experiments in Spanish designed to find out what kind of processes underlie the online parsing of complex noun phrases (NPs). To that end, we used a 'click detection' paradigm coupled with an oral comprehension task with sentences made up of complex NPs comprising embedded prepositional phrases PPs or coordinate NPs. The critical NPs consisted of words or pseudowords, and were inserted either at subject position (Experiment 1) or at object position (Experiment 2) in the sentence. Results show an opposite pattern of RTs to clicks when the complex NP is located at subject (vs. object) position, with the former case showing heavier processing demands as the parser delves deeper into the complex NP, regardless of the internal constituency of the target NP and its lexical content, and the latter yielding the opposite pattern. These results suggest that structural complexity by itself does not determine an increase in processing costs during sentence parsing, which is only apparent in cases involving deferred operations like subject-verb agreement.

  15. Complexation induced phase separation: preparation of composite membranes with a nanometer thin dense skin loaded with metal ions

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco


    We present the development of a facile phase-inversion method for forming asymmetric membranes with a precise high metal ion loading capacity in only the dense layer. The approach combines the use of macromolecule-metal intermolecular complexes to form the dense layer of asymmetric membranes with nonsolvent-induced phase separation to form the porous support. This allows the independent optimization of both the dense layer and porous support while maintaining the simplicity of a phase-inversion process. Moreover, it facilitates control over (i) the thickness of the dense layer throughout several orders of magnitude—from less than 15 nm to more than 6 μm, (ii) the type and amount of metal ions loaded in the dense layer, (iii) the morphology of the membrane surface, and (iv) the porosity and structure of the support. This simple and scalable process provides a new platform for building multifunctional membranes with a high loading of well-dispersed metal ions in the dense layer.

  16. In Vitro Activity of Copper(II) Complexes, Loaded or Unloaded into a Nanostructured Lipid System, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (United States)

    da Silva, Patricia B.; de Souza, Paula C.; Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Lopes, Erica de O.; Frem, Regina C. G.; Netto, Adelino V. G.; Mauro, Antonio E.; Pavan, Fernando R.; Chorilli, Marlus


    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), presenting 9.5 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths in 2014. The aim of this study was to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system (NLS) composed of 10% phase oil (cholesterol), 10% surfactant (soy phosphatidylcholine, sodium oleate), and Eumulgin® HRE 40 ([castor oil polyoxyl-40-hydrogenated] in a proportion of 3:6:8), and an 80% aqueous phase (phosphate buffer pH = 7.4) as a tactic to enhance the in vitro anti-Mtb activity of the copper(II) complexes [CuCl2(INH)2]·H2O (1), [Cu(NCS)2(INH)2]·5H2O (2) and [Cu(NCO)2(INH)2]·4H2O (3). The Cu(II) complex-loaded NLS displayed sizes ranging from 169.5 ± 0.7095 to 211.1 ± 0.8963 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) varying from 0.135 ± 0.0130 to 0.236 ± 0.00100, and zeta potential ranging from −0.00690 ± 0.0896 to −8.43 ± 1.63 mV. Rheological analysis showed that the formulations behave as non-Newtonian fluids of the pseudoplastic and viscoelastic type. Antimycobacterial activities of the free complexes and NLS-loaded complexes against Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 were evaluated by the REMA methodology, and the selectivity index (SI) was calculated using the cytotoxicity index (IC50) against Vero (ATCC® CCL-81), J774A.1 (ATCC® TIB-67), and MRC-5 (ATCC® CCL-171) cell lines. The data suggest that the incorporation of the complexes into NLS improved the inhibitory action against Mtb by 52-, 27-, and 4.7-fold and the SI values by 173-, 43-, and 7-fold for the compounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The incorporation of the complexes 1, 2 and 3 into the NLS also resulted in a significant decrease of toxicity towards an alternative model (Artemia salina L.). These findings suggest that the NLS may be considered as a platform for incorporation of metallic complexes aimed at the treatment of TB. PMID:27196901

  17. In Vitro Activity of Copper(II Complexes, Loaded or Unloaded into a Nanostructured Lipid System, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia B. da Silva


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, presenting 9.5 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths in 2014. The aim of this study was to evaluate a nanostructured lipid system (NLS composed of 10% phase oil (cholesterol, 10% surfactant (soy phosphatidylcholine, sodium oleate, and Eumulgin® HRE 40 ([castor oil polyoxyl-40-hydrogenated] in a proportion of 3:6:8, and an 80% aqueous phase (phosphate buffer pH = 7.4 as a tactic to enhance the in vitro anti-Mtb activity of the copper(II complexes [CuCl2(INH2]·H2O (1, [Cu(NCS2(INH2]·5H2O (2 and [Cu(NCO2(INH2]·4H2O (3. The Cu(II complex-loaded NLS displayed sizes ranging from 169.5 ± 0.7095 to 211.1 ± 0.8963 nm, polydispersity index (PDI varying from 0.135 ± 0.0130 to 0.236 ± 0.00100, and zeta potential ranging from −0.00690 ± 0.0896 to −8.43 ± 1.63 mV. Rheological analysis showed that the formulations behave as non-Newtonian fluids of the pseudoplastic and viscoelastic type. Antimycobacterial activities of the free complexes and NLS-loaded complexes against Mtb H37Rv ATCC 27294 were evaluated by the REMA methodology, and the selectivity index (SI was calculated using the cytotoxicity index (IC50 against Vero (ATCC® CCL-81, J774A.1 (ATCC® TIB-67, and MRC-5 (ATCC® CCL-171 cell lines. The data suggest that the incorporation of the complexes into NLS improved the inhibitory action against Mtb by 52-, 27-, and 4.7-fold and the SI values by 173-, 43-, and 7-fold for the compounds 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The incorporation of the complexes 1, 2 and 3 into the NLS also resulted in a significant decrease of toxicity towards an alternative model (Artemia salina L.. These findings suggest that the NLS may be considered as a platform for incorporation of metallic complexes aimed at the treatment of TB.

  18. Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Interfacial Drug Delivery System with Controlled Loading and Improved Release Performance for Bone Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vehlow


    Full Text Available An improved interfacial drug delivery system (DDS based on polyelectrolyte complex (PEC coatings with controlled drug loading and improved release performance was elaborated. The cationic homopolypeptide poly(l-lysine (PLL was complexed with a mixture of two cellulose sulfates (CS of low and high degree of substitution, so that the CS and PLL solution have around equal molar charged units. As drugs the antibiotic rifampicin (RIF and the bisphosphonate risedronate (RIS were integrated. As an important advantage over previous PEC systems this one can be centrifuged, the supernatant discarded, the dense pellet phase (coacervate separated, and again redispersed in fresh water phase. This behavior has three benefits: (i Access to the loading capacity of the drug, since the concentration of the free drug can be measured by spectroscopy; (ii lower initial burst and higher residual amount of drug due to removal of unbound drug and (iii complete adhesive stability due to the removal of polyelectrolytes (PEL excess component. It was found that the pH value and ionic strength strongly affected drug content and release of RIS and RIF. At the clinically relevant implant material (Ti40Nb similar PEC adhesive and drug release properties compared to the model substrate were found. Unloaded PEC coatings at Ti40Nb showed a similar number and morphology of above cultivated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC compared to uncoated Ti40Nb and resulted in considerable production of bone mineral. RIS loaded PEC coatings showed similar effects after 24 h but resulted in reduced number and unhealthy appearance of hMSC after 48 h due to cell toxicity of RIS.

  19. A purification method for a molecular complex in which a scaffold molecule is fully loaded with heterogeneous molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji J Ohuchi

    Full Text Available An affinity resin-based pull-down method is convenient for the purification of biochemical materials. However, its use is difficult for the isolation of a molecular complex fully loaded with multiple components from a reaction mixture containing the starting materials and intermediate products. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new purification procedure that depends on sequential elimination of the residues. In practice, two affinity resins were used for purifying a triangular-shaped RNP (RNA-protein complex consisting of three ribosomal proteins (L7Ae bound to an RNA scaffold. First, a resin with immobilized L7Ae protein captured the incomplete RNP complexes and the free RNA scaffold. Next, another resin with an immobilized chemically modified RNA of a derivative of Box C/D motif, the binding partner of L7Ae, was used to capture free protein. The complete triangular RNP was successfully purified from the mixture by these two steps. Obviously, the purified triangular RNP displaying three protein-binding peptides exhibited an improved performance when compared with the unrefined product. Conceptually, this purification procedure should be applicable for the purification of a variety of complexes consisting of multiple components other than RNP.

  20. Modeling and simulation of non-isothermal rate-dependent damage processes in inhomogeneous materials using the phase-field approach (United States)

    Radszuweit, Markus; Kraus, Christiane


    We present a continuum model that incorporates rate-dependent damage and fracture, a material order-parameter field and temperature within a phase-field approach. The models covers partial damage as well as the formation of macro-cracks. For the material order parameter we assume a Cahn Larché-type dynamics, which makes the model in particular applicable to binary alloys. We give thermodynamically consistent evolution equations resulting from a unified variational approach. Diverse coupling mechanisms can be covered within the model, such as heat dissipation, thermal-expansion-induced failure and crack deflection due to inhomogeneities. With help of an adaptive finite element code we conduct numerical experiments of different complexity in order to study the possibilities and limitations of the presented model. We furthermore include anisotropic linear elasticity in our model and investigate the effect on the crack pattern.

  1. Preparation and antimicrobial evaluation of polyion complex (PIC) nanoparticles loaded with polymyxin B. (United States)

    Insua, Ignacio; Majok, Sieta; Peacock, Anna F A; Krachler, Anne Marie; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco


    Here, we describe novel polyion complex (PIC) particles for the delivery of Polymyxin B (Pol-B), an antimicrobial peptide currently used in the clinic as a last resort antibiotic against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. A range of conditions for the controlled assembly of Pol-B with poly(styrene sulphonate) (PSS) has been identified which let us prepare stable colloidal PIC particles. This way, PIC particles containing different Pol-B:PSS ratios have been prepared and their stability under simulated physiological conditions ( i.e . pH, osmotic pressure and temperature) characterised. Furthermore, preliminary evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of these Pol-B containing PIC particles has been performed, by monitoring their effect on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , an opportunistic gram-negative bacterium.

  2. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.


    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  3. Reduced-complexity adaptive multi-channel assignment for shared access points in over-loaded small-cell networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud


    This paper proposes a reduced-complexity downlink multi-channel assignment scheme when feedback links are capacity-limited. The system model treats the case when multiple access points are allocated to serve scheduled users in over-loaded (i.e. dense) pico/femtocell networks. It assumes that the deployed access points can be shared simultaneously and employ isotropic antenna arrays of arbitrary sizes. Moreover, they transmit their data on a common physical channel and can not coordinate their transmissions. On the other hand, each scheduled user can be served by single transmit channel from each active access point at a time, and it lacks coordination with concurrent active users. The scheme operates according to the occupancy of available transmit channels, wherein extensively occupied access points are avoided adaptively, while reducing the load of processing. The operation is linked to a target performance via controlling the observed aggregate interference from the projected set of serving points. Through the analysis, results for the scheduled user outage performance, and the average number of active access points are presented. Numerical and simulations studies clarify the gains of the proposed scheme for different operating conditions. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Comparison of generation 3 polyamidoamine dendrimer and generation 4 polypropylenimine dendrimer on drug loading, complex structure, release behavior, and cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Shao, Naimin; Su, Yunzhang; Hu, Jingjing; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Hongfeng; Cheng, Yiyun


    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) and polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimers are the commercially available and most widely used dendrimers in pharmaceutical sciences and biomedical engineering. In the present study, the loading and release behaviors of generation 3 PAMAM and generation 4 PPI dendrimers with the same amount of surface amine groups (32 per dendrimer) were compared using phenylbutazone as a model drug. The dendrimer-phenylbutazone complexes were characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and nuclear Overhauser effect techniques, and the cytotoxicity of each dendrimer was evaluated. Aqueous solubility results suggest that the generation 3 PAMAM dendrimer has a much higher loading ability towards phenylbutazone in comparison with the generation 4 PPI dendrimer at high phenylbutazone-dendrimer feeding ratios. Drug release was much slower from the generation 3 PAMAM matrix than from the generation 4 PPI dendrimer. In addition, the generation 3 PAMAM dendrimer is at least 50-fold less toxic than generation 4 PPI dendrimer on MCF-7 and A549 cell lines. Although the nuclear Overhauser effect nuclear magnetic resonance results reveal that the generation 4 PPI dendrimer with a more hydrophobic interior encapsulates more phenylbutazone, the PPI dendrimer-phenylbutazone inclusion is not stable in aqueous solution, which poses a great challenge during drug development.

  5. Insulin-loaded nanoparticles are prepared by alginate ionotropic pre-gelation followed by chitosan polyelectrolyte complexation. (United States)

    Sarmento, B; Ribeiro, A J; Veiga, F; Ferreira, D C; Neufeld, R J


    Alginate nanoparticles were prepared from dilute alginate sol by inducing a pre-gel with calcium counter ions, followed by polyelectrolyte complex coating with chitosan. Particles in the nanometer size range were obtained with 0.05% alginate and 0.9 mM Ca2+. The mean particle size was influenced by time and stirring speed of nanoparticle preparation, by alginate guluronic acid content and chitosan molecular weight and by the initial alginate:chitosan mass ratio. The association efficiency of insulin into alginate nanoparticles, as well as loading capacity were mainly influenced by the alginate:chitosan mass ratio. Under optimized size conditions, the association efficiency and loading capacities were as high as 92% and 14.3%, respectively. Approximately 50% of the protein was partially retained by the nanoparticles in gastric pH environment up to 24 hours while a more extensive release close to 75% was observed under intestinal pH conditions. Mild formulation conditions, optimum particle size range obtained, high insulin entrapment efficiency, and resistance to gastrointestinal release seem to be synergic and promising factors toward development of an oral insulin delivery form.

  6. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: induced anisotropic damage model under complex loadings (United States)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.


    The present paper details an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for automotive brake discs made of flake graphite cast iron. In a companion paper (Augustins et al. in Contin Mech Thermodyn, 2015), the authors proposed a one-dimensional setting appropriate for representing the complex behavior of the material (i.e., asymmetry between tensile and compressive loadings) under anisothermal conditions. The generalization of this 1D model to 3D cases on a volume element and the associated challenges are addressed. A direct transposition is not possible, and an alternative solution without unilateral conditions is first proposed. Induced anisotropic damage and associated constitutive laws are then introduced. The transition from the volume element to the real structure and the numerical implementation require a specific basis change. Brake disc simulations with this constitutive model show that unilateral conditions are needed for the friction bands. A damage deactivation procedure is therefore defined.

  7. Electrospun curcumin-loaded cellulose acetate/polyvinylpyrrolidone fibrous materials with complex architecture and antibacterial activity. (United States)

    Tsekova, Petya B; Spasova, Mariya G; Manolova, Nevena E; Markova, Nadya D; Rashkov, Iliya B


    Novel fibrous materials from cellulose acetate (CA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) containing curcumin (Curc) with original design were prepared by one-pot electrospinning or dual spinneret electrospinning. The electrospun materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water contact angle measurements, and microbiological tests. It was found that the incorporation of Curc into the CA and PVP solutions resulted in an increase of the solution viscosity and obtaining fibers with larger diameters (ca. 1.5μm) compared to the neat CA (ca. 800nm) and PVP fibers (ca. 500nm). The incorporation of PVP resulted in increased hydrophilicity of the fibers and in faster Curc release. Curc was found in the amorphous state in the Curc-containing fibers and these mats exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The results suggest that, due to their complex architecture, the obtained new antibacterial materials are suitable for wound dressing applications, which necessitate diverse release behaviors of the bioactive compound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transport of nanoparticles and tobramycin-loaded liposomes in Burkholderia cepacia complex biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Messiaen

    Full Text Available Due to the intrinsic resistance of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc to many antibiotics and the production of a broad range of virulence factors, lung infections by these bacteria, primarily occurring in cystic fibrosis (CF patients, are very difficult to treat. In addition, the ability of Bcc organisms to form biofilms contributes to their persistence in the CF lung. As Bcc infections are associated with poor clinical outcome, there is an urgent need for new effective therapies to treat these infections. In the present study, we investigated whether liposomal tobramycin displayed an increased anti-biofilm effect against Bcc bacteria compared to free tobramycin. Single particle tracking (SPT was used to study the transport of positively and negatively charged nanospheres in Bcc biofilms as a model for the transport of liposomes. Negatively charged nanospheres became immobilized in close proximity of biofilm cell clusters, while positively charged nanospheres interacted with fiber-like structures, probably eDNA. Based on these data, encapsulation of tobramycin in negatively charged liposomes appeared promising for targeted drug delivery. However, the anti-biofilm effect of tobramycin encapsulated into neutral or anionic liposomes did not increase compared to that of free tobramycin. Probably, the fusion of the anionic liposomes with the negatively charged bacterial surface of Bcc bacteria was limited by electrostatic repulsive forces. The lack of a substantial anti-biofilm effect of tobramycin encapsulated in neutral liposomes could be further investigated by increasing the liposomal tobramycin concentration. However, this was hampered by the low encapsulation efficiency of tobramycin in these liposomes.

  9. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CaO–SiO{sub 2} glass containing nucleation agent P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin, E-mail:; Wang, Yongya; Luo, Wenqin; Li, Jingfen [Huzhou University, Department of Material Chemistry (China); Li, Jianyou [Huzhou Central Hospital, Orthopedic Department (China)


    Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CaO–SiO{sub 2} glass ceramics containing nucleation agent P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} were prepared by sol-gel method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The activation energy and kinetic parameters for crystallization of the samples were calculated by the Johnson-Mehi-Avrami (JMA) model and Augis-Bennett method according to the results of DSC. The results showed that the crystallization mechanism of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CaO–SiO{sub 2} glass, whose non-isothermal kinetic parameter n = 2.3, was consistent with surface crystallization of the JMA model. The kinetics model function of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CaO–SiO{sub 2} glass, f(α) = 2.3(1–α)[–ln(1–α)]{sup 0.57}, was also obtained. The addition of nucleation agent P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} could reduce the activation energy, which made the crystal growth modes change from onedimensional to three-dimensional.

  10. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and glass-forming ability of Ti{sub 41}Zr{sub 25}Be{sub 28}Fe{sub 6} bulk metallic glass investigated by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Pan; Zhao, Shaofan; Yao, Kefu [Tsinghua University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing (China); Wang, Xin [Hebei University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin (China)


    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and glass-forming ability of Ti{sub 41}Zr{sub 25}Be{sub 28}Fe{sub 6} glassy alloy were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The activation energies corresponding to the characteristic temperatures have been calculated by Kissinger and Ozawa equations. Based on Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall models, it has been found that the local activation energy is higher at the beginning of the crystallization process for the first exothermic peak. The local Avrami exponent indicates that the first-step crystallization is mainly a high-dimensional nucleation and growth with an increasing nucleation rate. According to the calculated fragility index, Ti{sub 41}Zr{sub 25}Be{sub 28}Fe{sub 6} alloy can be classified as ''strong glass former.'' The studied alloy also possesses a critical size up to centimeter order, and the high glass-forming ability is probably related to the relatively low Gibbs energy difference between the liquid and crystalline states. The critical cooling rate of Ti{sub 41}Zr{sub 25}Be{sub 28}Fe{sub 6} glassy alloy has also been determined using Barandiaran-Colmenero's method. (orig.)

  11. A drug-loaded gel based on polyelectrolyte complexes of poly (acrylic acid) with poly (vinylpyrrolidone) and chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Shuping [Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Chemistry of West China, Department of Chemistry, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China); Liu Mingzhu, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen Shilan [Department of Chemistry, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China); Gao Chunmei [Department of Chemistry and State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)


    A drug-loaded gel (CSPP) based on ionic crosslinked chitosan (CS) and polyelectrolyte complexes of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) with poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was prepared by dropping CS solution containing suitable amount of PVP into PAA and trisodium citrate co-existing gelling solution. The surface and cross-section morphology of the gel was observed using scanning electron microscopy, and the observation showed that the CSPP gel had more compact structure than CS gel. In vitro release profiles of model drug from the CSPP gel, which was prepared under different conditions, were investigated in simulative gastric fluid (pH 1.8) using an UV/vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that the rapid release of the model was restrained due to the complex of PVP and PAA, and the CSPP gel could serve as a suitable candidate in drug delivery system such as the site-specific controlled release of the drug in stomach. In addition, the release mechanism of drug was analyzed by fitting the amount of drug released into Peppa's potential equation.

  12. Experiments on non-isothermal spreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhard, P.


    Experiments are performed on axisymmetric spreading of viscous drops on glass plates. Two liquids are investigated: silicone oil (M-100) spreads to `infinity` and paraffin oil spreads to a finite-radius steady state. The experiments with silicone oil partly recover the behaviour of previous workers data; those experiments with paraffin oil provide new data. It is found that gravitational forces dominate at long enough times while at shorter times capillary forces dominate. When the plate is heated or cooled with respect to the ambient gas, thermocapillary forces generate flows that alter the spreading dynamics. Heating (cooling) the plate is found to retard (augment) the streading. Moreover, in case of partial wetting, the finally-approached drop radius is smaller (larger) for a heated (cooled) plate. These data are all new. All these observations are in excellent quantitative agreement with the related model predictions of Ehrhard and Davis (1991). A breakdown of the axisymmetric character of the flow is observed only for very long times and/or very thin liquid layers. (orig.). [Deutsch] Es werden Experimente zur Ausbreitung achsensymmetrischer, viskoser Fluessigkeitstropfen auf Glas vorgestellt. Zwei Fluessigkeiten werden betrachtet: Fuer Silikonoeltropfen (M-100) beobachten wir eine unbeschraenkte Ausbreitung, waehrend sich Paraffinoeltropfen gegen eine stationaere Endkontur entwickeln. Die Silikonoelexperimente bestaetigen teilweise die Ergebnisse frueherer Experimentatoren, die Paraffinoelexperimente liefern gaenzlich neue Daten. Wir finden, dass die Schwerkraft fuer lange Zeiten den Ausbreitungsprozess kontrolliert. Fuer kurze Zeiten spielen dagegen Kapillaritaetskraefte eine wichtigere Rolle. Wird die Glasplatte gegenueber der Umgebung zusaetzlich erwaermt oder gekuehlt, so treiben thermokapillare Kraefte eine Stroemung innerhalb des Tropfens. Die Dynamik der Ausbreitung wird dadurch massgeblich geaendert. Eine Erwaermung (Kuehlung) fuehrt zu einer verzoegerten (beschleunigten) Ausbreitung der Tropfen. Im Falle der teilweisen Benetzung wird zusaetzlich der stationaere Endradius beeinflusst. Er ist kleiner (groesser) im Falle einer beheizten (gekuehlten) Platte. Diese Ergebnisse sind neu. Die experimentellen Beobachtungen befinden sich fuer alle Faelle in guter quantitativer Uebereinstimmung mit dem theoretischen Modell von Ehrhard und Davis (1991). Abweichungen von einer achsensymmetrischen Form der Tropfen treten nur fuer sehr lange Zeiten und/oder sehr flache Tropfen auf. (orig.).

  13. A software system used for load distribution at a combined heat and power plant with the complex mix of the equipment and complex schemes of heat and electric power supply (United States)

    Makarch'yan, V. A.; Chernyaev, A. N.; Andryushin, A. V.; Pechenkin, S. P.; Lisitsa, V. I.; Logvinov, E. I.; Molchanov, A. Yu.


    The authors describe various approaches to construction of an algorithm for the solution of the problem of load distribution at a combined heat and power (CHP) plant with the complex mix of the equipment and complex schemes of heat and electrical energy supply on the basis of which the software system has been developed. Methods of obtaining energy characteristics of the equipment used for solving the problem of load distribution were studied. The results of the implementation of the software system for load distribution at the CHP-23 plant belonging to OAO Mosenergo are given. Realization of recommendations on maintaining an operational mode of the equipment with due regard for its optimal loading makes it possible to obtain fuel savings of up to 1%.

  14. Static Heat Loads in the LHC Arc Cryostats: Final Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V


    This note presents the final assessment of the static heat loads in the LHC arc cryostats, using different experimental methods during the first commissioning period in 2007. This assessment further develops and completes previous estimates made during the commissioning of sector 7_8 [1]. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the internal energy balance during natural as well as powered warm-ups of the helium baths in different subsector. The helium inventory is calculated from the internal energy balance during powered warm-ups and matched with previous assessments. Furthermore, heat loads to the thermal shield are estimated from the non-isothermal cooling of the supercritical helium in line E. The comparison of measured heat loads with previous estimates and with budgeted values is then presented, while their correlation with some important parameters like insulation vacuum pressure and some heat ...

  15. Mannosylated Lipid Nano-emulsions Loaded with Lycorine-oleic Acid Ionic Complex for Tumor Cell-specific Delivery (United States)

    Guo, Yangming; Liu, Xing; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Qiang; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong


    This study was to prepare a mannosylated lycorine lipid nano-emulsion formulation (M-LYC-OA-LNEs) for the aim of achieving tumor targeting delivery of lycorine (LYC) . The low lipophilicity of LYC made it hard to be dispersed into lipid nano-emulsions (LNEs). In order to increase its lipophilicity, lycorine-oleic acid ionic complex (LYC-OA) was made. M-LYC-OA-LNEs and uncoated lycorine-oleic acid loaded lipid nano-emulsions (LYC-OA-LNEs) were prepared by solvent injection method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size, polydispersity index, zeta-potential and entrapment efficiency analysis. The in vitro cellular uptake and growth inhibition activity studies were performed on A549 cell lines. The entrapment efficiency of M-LYC-OA-LNEs was 82.7 ± 1.6 %. The cellular uptake study showed that coated LNEs were preferably taken up by A549 cells than uncoated LNEs. The effective test by MTT assay showed better growth inhibition activity of M-LYC-OA-LNEs on A549 cell lines when compared with LYC-OA-LNEs and blank LNEs. These results demonstrated that M-LYC-OA-LNEs could be a promising formulation for tumor targeting delivery of LYC with the potential of being applied in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. PMID:23227126

  16. T2Well/ECO2N Version 1.0: Multiphase and Non-Isothermal Model for Coupled Wellbore-Reservoir Flow of Carbon Dioxide and Variable Salinity Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.


    At its most basic level, the injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites involves a system comprising the wellbore and the target reservoir. The wellbore is the only conduit available to emplace CO{sub 2} into reservoirs for long-term storage. At the same time, wellbores in general have been identified as the most likely conduit for CO{sub 2} and brine leakage from geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites, especially those in sedimentary basins with historical hydrocarbon production. We have developed a coupled wellbore and reservoir model for simulating the dynamics of CO{sub 2} injection and leakage through wellbores. The model describes the following processes: (1) upward or downward wellbore flow of CO{sub 2} and variable salinity water with transition from supercritical to gaseous CO{sub 2} including Joule-Thomson cooling, (2) exsolution of CO{sub 2} from the aqueous phase as pressure drops, and (3) cross flow into or interaction with layers of surrounding rock (reservoirs). We use the Drift-Flux Model and related conservation equations for describing transient two-phase non-isothermal wellbore flow of CO{sub 2}-water mixtures under different flow regimes and interacting with surrounding rock. The mass and thermal energy balance equations are solved numerically by a finite difference scheme with wellbore heat transmission to the surrounding rock handled either semi-analytically or numerically. The momentum balance equation for the flow in the wellbore is solved numerically with a semi-explicit scheme. This manual provides instructions for compilation and use of the new model, and presents some example problems to demonstrate its use.

  17. Alternative Ii-independent antigen-processing pathway in leukemic blasts involves TAP-dependent peptide loading of HLA class II complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijn, M.M.; Chamuleau, M.E.D.; Ressing, M.E.; Wiertz, E.J.; Ostrand-Rosenberg, S.; Souwer, Y.; Zevenbergen, A.; Ossenkoppele, G.J.; van de Loosdrecht, A.A.; Ham, S.M.


    During HLA class II synthesis in antigen-presenting cells, the invariant chain (Ii) not only stabilizes HLA class II complexes in the endoplasmic reticulum, but also mediates their transport to specialized lysosomal antigen-loading compartments termed MIICs. This study explores an alternative HLA

  18. TOGA: A TOUGH code for modeling three-phase, multi-component, and non-isothermal processes involved in CO2-based Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    TOGA is a numerical reservoir simulator for modeling non-isothermal flow and transport of water, CO2, multicomponent oil, and related gas components for applications including CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and geologic carbon sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs. TOGA uses an approach based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) to calculate the thermophysical properties of the gas and oil phases including the gas/oil components dissolved in the aqueous phase, and uses a mixing model to estimate the thermophysical properties of the aqueous phase. The phase behavior (e.g., occurrence and disappearance of the three phases, gas + oil + aqueous) and the partitioning of non-aqueous components (e.g., CO2, CH4, and n-oil components) between coexisting phases are modeled using K-values derived from assumptions of equal-fugacity that have been demonstrated to be very accurate as shown by comparison to measured data. Models for saturated (water) vapor pressure and water solubility (in the oil phase) are used to calculate the partitioning of the water (H2O) component between the gas and oil phases. All components (e.g., CO2, H2O, and n hydrocarbon components) are allowed to be present in all phases (aqueous, gaseous, and oil). TOGA uses a multiphase version of Darcy’s Law to model flow and transport through porous media of mixtures with up to three phases over a range of pressures and temperatures appropriate to hydrocarbon recovery and geologic carbon sequestration systems. Transport of the gaseous and dissolved components is by advection and Fickian molecular diffusion. New methods for phase partitioning and thermophysical property modeling in TOGA have been validated against experimental data published in the literature for describing phase partitioning and phase behavior. Flow and transport has been verified by testing against related TOUGH2 EOS modules and

  19. A Study of BMP-2-Loaded Bipotential Electrolytic Complex around a Biphasic Calcium Phosphate-Derived (BCP Scaffold for Repair of Large Segmental Bone Defect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallyanashis Paul

    Full Text Available A bipotential polyelectrolyte complex with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP powder dispersion provides an excellent option for protein adsorption and cell attachment and can facilitate enhanced bone regeneration. Application of the bipotential polyelectrolyte complex embedded in a spongy scaffold for faster healing of large segmental bone defects (LSBD can be a promising endeavor in tissue engineering application. In the present study, a hollow scaffold suitable for segmental long bone replacement was fabricated by the sponge replica method applying the microwave sintering process. The fabricated scaffold was coated with calcium alginate at the shell surface, and genipin-crosslinked chitosan with biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP dispersion was loaded at the central hollow core. The chitosan core was subsequently loaded with BMP-2. The electrolytic complex was characterized using SEM, porosity measurement, FTIR spectroscopy and BMP-2 release for 30 days. In vitro studies such as MTT, live/dead, cell proliferation and cell differentiation were performed. The scaffold was implanted into a 12 mm critical size defect of a rabbit radius. The efficacy of this complex is evaluated through an in vivo study, one and two month post implantation. BV/TV ratio for BMP-2 loaded sample was (42±1.76 higher compared with hollow BCP scaffold (32±0.225.

  20. An evaluation of Bayesian techniques for controlling model complexity and selecting inputs in a neural network for short-term load forecasting. (United States)

    Hippert, Henrique S; Taylor, James W


    Artificial neural networks have frequently been proposed for electricity load forecasting because of their capabilities for the nonlinear modelling of large multivariate data sets. Modelling with neural networks is not an easy task though; two of the main challenges are defining the appropriate level of model complexity, and choosing the input variables. This paper evaluates techniques for automatic neural network modelling within a Bayesian framework, as applied to six samples containing daily load and weather data for four different countries. We analyse input selection as carried out by the Bayesian 'automatic relevance determination', and the usefulness of the Bayesian 'evidence' for the selection of the best structure (in terms of number of neurones), as compared to methods based on cross-validation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance limitations for PWR fuel burnup extensions and high burnup complex loading patterns; Esquemas de recarga de combustible de alto quemado y limitaciones asociadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J. M.; Cabellos, O.; Garcia Herranz, N. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)


    The analysis, design and on-line surveillance of pressurized water reactors require extensive and detailed 3D core calculations. The development and the improvement of codes are required due to the increasing heterogeneity in PWR (new type of fuel assemblies, complex loading patterns and safety and reliability requirements of nuclear reactor operation). The SEANAP system has been extensively validated and this system has been used to analyze high burnup fuel specifications and several types of long cycles. Some Programs (with Spanish participation) have been developed to study limitations for fuel burnup extensions: Robust Fuel Program, Segmented Rods Program and gain regulatory acceptance of fuel design and operation to higher burnup levels. (Author)

  2. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit


    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  3. Controllable synthesis and characterisation of palladium (II) anticancer complex-loaded colloidal gelatin nanoparticles as a novel sustained-release delivery system in cancer therapy. (United States)

    Alasvand, Neda; Saeidifar, Maryam; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Mozafari, Masoud


    Over the past few years, there have been several attempts to deliver anticancer drugs into the body. It has been shown that compared to other available carriers, colloidal gelatin nanoparticles (CGNPs) have distinct properties due to their exceptional physico-chemical and biological characteristics. In this study, a novel water-soluble palladium (II) anticancer complex was first synthesised, and then loaded into CGNPs. The CGNPs were synthesised through a two-step desolvation method with an average particle size of 378 nm. After confirming the stability of the drug in the nanoparticles, the drug-loaded CGNPs were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity against human breast cancer cells. The results showed that the average drug encapsulating efficiency and drug loading of CGNPs were 64 and 10 ± 2.1% (w/w), respectively. There was a slight shift to higher values of cumulative release, when the samples were tested in lower pH values. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity test indicated that the number of growing cells significantly decreased after 48 h in the presence of different concentrations of drug. The results also demonstrated that the released drug could bind to DNA by a static mechanism at low concentrations (0.57 µM) on the basis of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding interactions.

  4. Competition between siRNA duplexes: impact of RNA-induced silencing complex loading efficiency and comparison between conventional-21 bp and Dicer-substrate siRNAs. (United States)

    Tanudji, Marcel; Machalek, Dorothy; Arndt, Greg M; Rivory, Laurent


    Cotransfection of a mixture of siRNAs species is typically used when simultaneous targeting of more than one mRNA is required. However, competition between siRNAs could occur and reduce the activity of some siRNAs within the mixture. To further study the factors affecting the degree of competition between siRNAs, we cotransfected luciferase targeting siRNAs with various irrelevant (ie, nonluciferase targeting) siRNAs into cells and examined differences in their competition profiles by assessing the effect on luciferase expression. We show that the degree of competition varies between irrelevant siRNAs and occurs at the point of RISC loading. Although the competition profile appears to be related to the calculated RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) loading potential, empirical testing is required to confirm the competitive effects. We also observed reduced competition with siRNAs in the Dicer-substrate format, presumably due to more efficient RISC loading as a consequence of the physical transfer of the processed siRNA from Dicer.

  5. Preparation and characterization of insulin-surfactant complexes for loading into lipid-based drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ping; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Fano, Mathias


    as complexing surfactant and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent. Significant change in secondary structure of insulin freeze dried from DMSO was observed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Changes were quantitatively smaller in the presence of surfactants, demonstrating both a stabilizing effect...

  6. The interaction of equine lysozyme:oleic acid complexes with lipid membranes suggests a cargo off-loading mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bang; Wilhelm, Kristina; Vad, Brian


    The normal function of equine lysozyme (EL) is the hydrolysis of peptidoglycan residues of bacterial cell walls. EL is closely related to alpha-lactalbumins with respect to sequence and structure and further possesses the calcium binding site of alpha-lactalbumins. Recently, EL multimeric complex...

  7. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria


    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are a key element of the cellular immune response. Encoded by the MHC they are a family of highly polymorphic peptide receptors presenting peptide antigens for the surveillance by T cells. We have shown that certain organic compounds can amplify im...

  8. Magnetic adsorbent constructed from the loading of amino functionalized Fe3O4 on coordination complex modified polyoxometalates nanoparticle and its tetracycline adsorption removal property study (United States)

    Ou, Jinzhao; Mei, Mingliang; Xu, Xinxin


    A magnetic polyoxometalates based adsorbent has been synthesized successfully through the loading of amino functionalized Fe3O4 (NH2-Fe3O4) on nanoparticle of a coordination complex modified polyoxometalates (CC/POMNP). FTIR illustrate there exist intense hydrogen bonds between NH2-Fe3O4 and CC/POMNP, which keep the stability of this adsorbent. At room temperature, this adsorbent exhibits ferromagnetic character with saturation magnetization of 8.19 emu g-1, which provides prerequisite for fast magnetic separation. Water treatment experiment illustrates this POM based magnetic adsorbent exhibits high adsorption capacity on tetracycline. The adsorption process can be described well with Temkin model, which illustrates the interaction between adsorbent and tetracycline plays the dominated role in tetracycline removal. The rapid, high efficient tetracycline adsorption ability suggests this POM based magnetic adsorbent exhibits promising prospect in medical and agriculture waste water purification. A magnetic polyoxometalates based adsorbent, which exhibits excellent tetracycline adsorption removal property has been synthesized through the loading of NH2-Fe3O4 on coordination complex modified polyoxometalates

  9. A Mn(II) complex of boradiazaindacene (BODIPY) loaded graphene oxide as both LED light and H2O2 enhanced anticancer agent. (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Lei; Shao, Jian; Chen, Qiu-Yun; Li, Cheng-Hao; Kong, Meng-Yun; Fang, Fang; Ji, Ling; Boison, Daniel; Huang, Tao; Gao, Jing; Feng, Chang-Jian


    Cancer cells are more susceptible to H2O2 induced cell death than normal cells. H2O2-activatable and O2-evolving nanoparticles could be used as photodynamic therapy agents in hypoxic environments. In this report, a photo-active Mn(II) complex of boradiazaindacene derivatives (Mn1) was used as a dioxygen generator under irradiation with LED light in water. Moreover, the in vitro biological evaluation for Mn1 and its loaded graphene oxide (herein called Mn1@GO) on HepG-2 cells in normal and hypoxic conditions has been performed. In particular, Mn1@GO can react with H2O2 resulting active anticancer species, which show high inhibition on both HepG-2 cells and CoCl2-treated HepG-2 cells (hypoxic cancer cells). The mechanism of LED light enhanced anticancer activity for Mn1@GO on HepG-2 cells was discussed. Our results show that Mn(II) complexes of boradiazaindacene (BODIPY) derivatives loaded GO can be both LED light and H2O2-activated anticancer agents in hypoxic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. New fly ash TiO{sub 2} composite for the sustainable treatment of wastewater with complex pollutants load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visa, Maria, E-mail:; Isac, Luminita; Duta, Anca


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel substrate FADAht is obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. • The composite type structure has specific surface ten times higher than fly ash. • Simultaneous removal of three pollutants reaches efficiencies above 90%. • Kinetic investigations show fast adsorption of the dye on the new composite. - Abstract: The goal of this paper was to develop a new composite obtained in mild hydrothermal conditions starting from fly ash (a waste raising significant environmental problems), and TiO{sub 2}. The composite was characterized through XRD, SEM/EDX, AFM, and BET surface measurements. The composite was further used for the advanced treatment of wastewaters with multiple-pollutants load. The photocatalytic efficiency of the powder composite was tested on synthetic solutions containing a heavy metal cation (copper), a dye (methyl orange), and a surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate), under UV and simulated solar radiation. Comparative experiments were done in systems with and without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} showing a significant increase in efficiency for methyl orange removal from mono-, bi-, and tri-pollutants solutions. The process parameters were optimized and the adsorption mechanisms are discussed, outlining that adsorption is the limiting step. Experiments also outlined that homogeneous photocatalysis (using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) is less efficient then the heterogeneous process using the novel composite, both under UV and simulated solar radiation.

  11. New fly ash TiO2 composite for the sustainable treatment of wastewater with complex pollutants load (United States)

    Visa, Maria; Isac, Luminita; Duta, Anca


    The goal of this paper was to develop a new composite obtained in mild hydrothermal conditions starting from fly ash (a waste raising significant environmental problems), and TiO2. The composite was characterized through XRD, SEM/EDX, AFM, and BET surface measurements. The composite was further used for the advanced treatment of wastewaters with multiple-pollutants load. The photocatalytic efficiency of the powder composite was tested on synthetic solutions containing a heavy metal cation (copper), a dye (methyl orange), and a surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate), under UV and simulated solar radiation. Comparative experiments were done in systems with and without H2O2 showing a significant increase in efficiency for methyl orange removal from mono-, bi-, and tri-pollutants solutions. The process parameters were optimized and the adsorption mechanisms are discussed, outlining that adsorption is the limiting step. Experiments also outlined that homogeneous photocatalysis (using H2O2) is less efficient then the heterogeneous process using the novel composite, both under UV and simulated solar radiation.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel-cyclodextrin complexes loaded in mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for oral administration. (United States)

    Calleja, Patricia; Espuelas, Socorro; Corrales, Leticia; Pio, Ruben; Irache, Juan M


    The authors report a novel approach for enhancing the oral absorption of paclitaxel (PTX) by encapsulation in poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NPs) containing cyclodextrins and poly(ethylene glycol). Formulations were prepared using the solvent displacement method. Subsequently, pharmacokinetics and organ distribution assays were evaluated after oral administration into C57BL/6J mice. In addition, antitumor efficacy studies were performed in a subcutaneous tumor model of Lewis lung carcinoma. PTX-loaded NPs displayed sizes between 190-300 nm. Oral NPs achieved drug plasma levels for at least 24 h, with an oral bioavailability of 55-80%. Organ distribution studies revealed that PTX, orally administered in NPs, underwent a similar distribution to intravenous Taxol(®) (Bristol-Myers Squibb, NJ, USA). For in vivo antitumor assays, oral strategy maintained a slower tumor growth than intravenous Taxol. PTX orally administered in poly(anhydride) NPs, combined with cyclodextrins and poly(ethylene glycol), displayed sustained plasma levels and significant antitumor effect in a syngenic tumor model of carcinoma in mice.

  13. Regional molecular and cellular differences in the female rabbit Achilles tendon complex: potential implications for understanding responses to loading (United States)

    Huisman, Elise S; Andersson, Gustav; Scott, Alexander; Reno, Carol R; Hart, David A; Thornton, Gail M


    The aim of this study was: (i) to analyze the morphology and expression of extracellular matrix genes in six different regions of the Achilles tendon complex of intact normal rabbits; and (ii) to assess the effect of ovariohysterectomy (OVH) on the regional expression of these genes. Female New Zealand White rabbits were separated into two groups: (i) intact normal rabbits (n = 4); and (ii) OVH rabbits (n = 8). For each rabbit, the Achilles tendon complex was dissected into six regions: distal gastrocnemius (DG); distal flexor digitorum superficialis; proximal lateral gastrocnemius (PLG); proximal medial gastrocnemius; proximal flexor digitorum superficialis; and paratenon. For each of the regions, hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histological evaluation of intact normal rabbit tissues and mRNA levels for proteoglycans, collagens and genes associated with collagen regulation were assessed by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for both the intact normal and OVH rabbit tissues. The distal regions displayed a more fibrocartilaginous phenotype. For intact normal rabbits, aggrecan mRNA expression was higher in the distal regions of the Achilles tendon complex compared with the proximal regions. Collagen Type I and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression levels were increased in the PLG compared to the DG in the intact normal rabbit tissues. The tendons from OVH rabbits had lower gene expressions for the proteoglycans aggrecan, biglycan, decorin and versican compared with the intact normal rabbits, although the regional differences of increased aggrecan expression in distal regions compared with proximal regions persisted. The tensile and compressive forces experienced in the examined regions may be related to the regional differences found in gene expression. The lower mRNA expression of the genes examined in the OVH group confirms a potential effect of systemic estrogen on tendon. PMID:24571598

  14. Multi-state steric mass action model and case study on complex high loading behavior of mAb on ion exchange tentacle resin. (United States)

    Diedrich, Juliane; Heymann, William; Leweke, Samuel; Hunt, Stephen; Todd, Robert; Kunert, Christian; Johnson, Will; von Lieres, Eric


    Tentacle resins for IEX are increasingly applied in preparative chromatography for their higher selectivity and higher capacities in comparison to IEX resins without tentacles. However, tentacle resins are often observed to cause unusual elution behavior of monoclonal antibodies under high loading conditions. Understanding this elution behavior is important for a quality by design approach, as it is now mandated by regulatory agencies. A model-based analysis of load, wash and gradient elution is performed for a monoclonal antibody (mAb) on Fractogel SO 3 - . Four experiments with increasing loaded mass show complex peak shapes and formation of a shoulder under overloaded conditions. We hypothesize that the observed peak shapes are caused by mAbs binding in multiple states on the tentacle ion-exchange resin. A new multi-state SMA binding model is used for testing this hypothesis. A two-state binding model is found to quantitatively reproduce all four experiments. An in-depth analysis reveals that the shoulder formation under overloaded conditions can be explained by multi-state binding that particularly manifests in rapid but weak re-adsorption of eluting molecules near the column end. The introduced multi-state SMA model combines features of the so-called spreading model (multiple bound states) and of the standard SMA model (salt dependency). It is by no means limited to ion-exchange chromatography on tentacle resins, but the same concept can be applied for studying systems that are based on other physical mechanisms. The new model can potentially improve mechanistic understanding and facilitate quantitative simulation of various phenomena, such as caused by reorientation, reconformation or unfolding of bound species. Similar concepts can be applied for studying surface-induced aggregation and denaturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinação da constante cinética de cristalização não-isotérmica de polipropilenos modificados com ácido acrílico e anidrido maleico Determination of the non-isothermal crystallization rate constant of grafted maleic anhydride and grafted acrylic acid polypropylenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim de M. Carvalho


    Full Text Available O propósito do presente trabalho foi testar a validade do Método da Curva Mestre para a determinação da constante de cristalização não-isotérmica de polipropilenos modificados com anidrido maleico e ácido acrílico. Experimentos de cristalização não-isotérmica foram realizados a diversas taxas de resfriamento por meio de Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC. Para serem usadas no Método da Curva Mestre, as curvas originais obtidas em DSC foram corrigidas em termos da defasagem de temperatura entre a amostra polimérica e o forno do equipamento. A equação de Nakamura e a constante de cristalização determinada foram utilizadas para simular as curvas de cristalinidade relativa em função da temperatura para as diversas taxas de resfriamento. As curvas simuladas apresentaram boa concordância com as curvas experimentais para ambas as amostras de polipropileno modificado, mostrando que o Método da Curva Mestre pode ser empregado com sucesso para este polímero.The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the Master Curve Approach in the determination of the non-isothermal crystallization constant, for samples of two modified polypropylenes (grafted maleic anhydride and grafted acrylic acid polypropylenes. Non-isothermal crystallization experiments were carried out in a differential scanning calorimeter, DSC, at several cooling rates. The original DSC curves were corrected for the temperature lag between the sample and the DSC furnace. The Nakamura equation and the non-isothermal crystallization constant obtained by the Master Curve Approach were employed to simulate the curves of relative crystallinity as a function of temperature, for the different cooling rates. The generated curves presented good agreement with the experimental data for both samples of grafted polypropylene, showing that the Master Curve Approach can be successfully employed for these polymers.

  16. Increased susceptibility to Strongyloides venezuelensis infection is related to the parasite load and absence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria; Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia Ribeiro; Silva, Neide Maria; Massa, Virgínia; Alves, Ronaldo; Ueta, Marlene Tiduko; Silva, João Santana; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria


    In human and murine models strongyloidiasis induce a Th2 type response. In the current study we investigated the role of different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis in the immune response raised against the parasite and the participation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule in the disease outcome in face of the different parasite burden. The C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and MHC II(-/-) mice were individually inoculated by subcutaneous injection with 500 or 3000 S. venezuelensis L3. The MHC II(-/-) mice infected with 3000L3 were more susceptible to S. venezuelensis infection when compared with WT groups, in which the parasite was completely eliminated. The production of Th2 cytokines and specific IgG1 or IgE antibodies against parasite were significantly lowered in MHC II(-/-) infected mice with different larvae inoculums. The infection of MHC II(-/-) mice with S. venezuelensis induced slight inflammatory alterations in the small intestine, and these lesions were lower when compared with WT mice, irrespective of the parasite load utilized to infect animals. Finally, we concluded that MHC class II molecules are essential in the immune response against S. venezuelensis mainly when infection occurs with high parasite inoculum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. DeNOx active iron sites in iron loaded ZSM-5 - a multitechnique analysis of a complex heterogeneous catalyst based on Mössbauer spectroscopy (United States)

    Padmalekha, K. G.; Huang, H.; Ellmers, I.; Pérez Vélez, R.; van Leusen, J.; Brückner, A.; Grünert, W.; Schünemann, V.


    Iron loaded zeolites like Fe-ZSM-5 are potent candidates for the catalytic abatement of nitrogen oxides from car exhaust, e.g. from Diesel engines. Recent problems in this field show that there is an urgent need in further improvement of such catalysts, for which a full analysis of Fe species present in them under different conditions is highly desirable. We have studied Fe-ZSM-5 catalysts prepared via solid-state ion exchange by using field dependent Mössbauer spectroscopy at low temperature in order to identify the different iron species present in this type of catalyst in the fresh state and after use in catalysis. Mössbauer spectroscopy proved to be the key technique for a full understanding of species structures, but due to the complexity of structures, guidance by parallel EPR experiments and control by SQUID magnetometry were essential to prove reliability of derived species distributions.

  18. Daidzein-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocarriers improved oral absorption: in vitro characteristics and in vivo behavior in rats (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Huang, Yan; Gao, Fang; Bu, Huihui; Gu, Wangwen; Li, Yaping


    A nano-based delivery system was developed to improve the oral absorption of daidzein, which has poor hydrophilicity and lipophilicity. A daidzein-phospholipid complex (DPC) was firstly prepared to improve its lipophilicity, and then encapsulated into lipid nanocarriers (DLNs) to verify the effectiveness of the strategy in enhancing the oral delivery of daidzein. DLNs were spherical nanosized particles with evidently increased dissolution. DLNs were mainly distributed in stomach and proximal intestine of mice after oral administration, and the intestinal permeability of DLNs in rats was significantly improved when compared with that of daidzein solution. The peak concentration of daidzein in rats after oral administration of DPC and DLNs was 6833 +/- 1112 ng mL-1 and 14 512 +/- 2390 ng mL-1, respectively, which was improved over 10-fold and 21-fold than that of free daidzein. Moreover, the areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) of DPC and DLNs were enhanced by 3.62-fold and 6.87-fold compared with that of free daidzein. These results suggested that DLNs could be an effective strategy to improve the oral absorption of poor hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs like daidzein.

  19. Influence of metal loading and humic acid functional groups on the complexation behavior of trivalent lanthanides analyzed by CE-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautenburger, Ralf, E-mail: [Institute of Inorganic Solid State Chemistry, Saarland University, Campus Dudweiler, Am Markt Zeile 3-5, D-66125 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hein, Christina; Sander, Jonas M. [Institute of Inorganic Solid State Chemistry, Saarland University, Campus Dudweiler, Am Markt Zeile 3-5, D-66125 Saarbrücken (Germany); Beck, Horst P. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Saarland University, Campus Dudweiler, Am Markt Zeile 5, D-66125 Saarbrücken (Germany)


    Highlights: • Free and complexed HA-Ln species are separated by CE-ICP-MS. • Weaker and stronger HA-binding sites for Ln-complexation can be detected. • Complexation by original and modified humic acid (HA) with blocked phenolic hydroxyl- and carboxyl-groups is compared. • Stronger HA-binding sites for Ln³⁺ can be assumed as chelating complexes. • Chelates consist of trivalent Ln and a combination of both OH- and COOH-groups. Abstract: The complexation behavior of Aldrich humic acid (AHA) and a modified humic acid (AHA-PB) with blocked phenolic hydroxyl groups for trivalent lanthanides (Ln) is compared, and their influence on the mobility of Ln(III) in an aquifer is analyzed. As speciation technique, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For metal loading experiments 25 mg L⁻¹ of AHA and different concentrations (c Ln(Eu+Gd)} = 100–6000 μg L⁻¹) of Eu(III) and Gd(III) in 10 mM NaClO₄ at pH 5 were applied. By CE-ICP-MS, three Ln-fractions, assumed to be uncomplexed, weakly and strongly AHA-complexed metal can be detected. For the used Ln/AHA-ratios conservative complex stability constants log βLnAHA decrease from 6.33 (100 μg L⁻¹ Ln³⁺) to 4.31 (6000 μg L⁻¹ Ln³⁺) with growing Ln-content. In order to verify the postulated weaker and stronger humic acid binding sites for trivalent Eu and Gd, a modified AHA with blocked functional groups was used. For these experiments 500 μg L⁻¹ Eu and 25 mg L⁻¹ AHA and AHA-PB in 10 mM NaClO₄ at pH-values ranging from 3 to 10 have been applied. With AHA-PB, where 84% of the phenolic OH-groups and 40% of the COOH-groups were blocked, Eu complexation was significantly lower, especially at the strong binding sites. The log β-values decrease from 6.11 (pH 10) to 5.61 at pH 3 (AHA) and for AHA-PB from 6.01 (pH 7) to 3.94 at pH 3. As a potential consequence, particularly humic acids with a high amount of

  20. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I of the upper limb - treatment based on Stress Loading Program: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sarturi Ponte


    Full Text Available The daily life of an individual suffering from Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CPRS I becomes limited, because this syndrome causes signs and symptoms located in the affected limb, and may occur in other parts. From this premise, this study aims to present the contributions of Occupational Therapy and the Rehabilitation Stress Loading Program for a subject with CRPS I in the upper limb, attended by the Group of Pain from the University Hospital of Santa Maria (HUSM, Rio Grande do Sul state. This research is characterized as a case study, experimental, which deals with pre and post occupational therapy intervention. The instruments used for data collection were the protocols of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH, the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health (ICF, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM, the Visual Analogue Scale, and goniometry (EVA. After assessment, the subject was exposed to the treatment of compressive active resistive exercises; after this treatment was completed, the subject was reassessed. It was observed that the treatment applied has contributed to the reduction of the pain and to the improvement in the Range of Motion (ROM of the subject. The use of the stress protocol and active compression contributed significantly to the reduction of pain, ADM gain and occupational performance improvement.

  1. Exploring the potential of complex-vesicle based niosomal ocular system loaded with azithromycin: Development of in situ gel and ex vivo characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Akhtar


    Full Text Available Abstract Bacterial conjunctivitis characterized as pink eye referred as an inflammation of an eye caused by the enlargement of blood vessels present in conjunctiva, resulting in a red or bloodshot appearance of the eyes. Topical ocular delivery is found to be useful in treating conjunctivitis, but to maintain an effective drug concentration at a site of action in order to achieve desired pharmacological action is highly challenging. Thus, keeping in mind this limitation niosomal carrier was designed to provide localized drug delivery with enhanced residence time. Thus, the present investigation was targeted to explore the utility of niosomes loaded with azithromycin-β-CD complex. Azithromycin-β-CD complex was prepared and niosomes containing this complex were developed based on 32 full factorial design using ether injection method and characterized. Optimized niosomal formulation (NF2 was selected on the basis of minimum vesicle size (306 ± 3.05 nm, polydispersity index (0.115 ± 5.51, maximum zeta potential (45.3 ± 0.25 mv, entrapment efficiency (78.17 ± 1.81 % and % CDR (73.09 ± 2.10. Optimized formulation was then formulated in the form of in situ gel (temperature sensitive and evaluated. Optimized formulation [in situ gel (NG-5] was found to exhibit superior in vitro drug release profile in comparison to Zithromax® eye drop. Better in-vitro mucoadhesive strength was observed and formulation was found to be non-irritant to the sclera surface. Thus, it can be put into conclusion that temperature-sensitive niosomal in situ ocular gel possessed increased residence time and provide localized drug delivery effective for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. Optimized niosomal formulation (NF2 was selected on the basis of minimum vesicle size (306 ± 3.05 nm, polydispersity index (0.115 ± 5.51, maximum zeta potential (45.3 ± 0.25, entrapment efficiency (78.17 ± 1.81 % and % CDR (73.09 ± 2.10. Optimized formulation was then

  2. An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning of Complex Cognitive Tasks (United States)

    Paas, Fred; Sweller, John


    Cognitive load theory is intended to provide instructional strategies derived from experimental, cognitive load effects. Each effect is based on our knowledge of human cognitive architecture, primarily the limited capacity and duration of a human working memory. These limitations are ameliorated by changes in long-term memory associated with…

  3. Non-isothermal nanocrystallization kinetics study on (Fe{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.15}M{sub 0.05}){sub 78}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14} (M = Nb, Ta, W) amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Shanghai Key Lab. of D and A for Metal-Functional Materials, Shanghai 201804 (China); Yan, Biao, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Shanghai Key Lab. of D and A for Metal-Functional Materials, Shanghai 201804 (China); Yang, Ying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Shanghai Key Lab. of D and A for Metal-Functional Materials, Shanghai 201804 (China); Wang, Yuxin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Shanghai Key Lab. of D and A for Metal-Functional Materials, Shanghai 201804 (China); Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, PB 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)


    Highlights: •Nb, Ta and W addition affected nucleation and growth mechanism of FeNiSiB alloys. •The alloy with Ta had the best thermal stability compared to the other two alloys. •A process of Fe2B from metastable Fe3B phase existed in the alloy M = Ta. •Nb and W may inhibit formation of metastable Fe3B phase. -- Abstract: The nanocrystallization kinetics of the (Fe{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.15}M{sub 0.05}){sub 78}Si{sub 8}B{sub 14} (M = Nb, Ta, W) amorphous alloy was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Kissinger method, Ozawa method and the expended Friedman method were used to calculate and compare the kinetic parameters of the crystallization processes. The nanocrystallization mechanism for the non-isothermal primary crystallization of the amorphous alloys were discussed using Avrami exponent n. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies verified the influence of nanocrystallization mechanism on the microstructure.

  4. Development and use of a new burner rig facility to mimic service loading conditions of Ni-based single crystal superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauget Florent


    Full Text Available Performing representative experiments of in-service operating conditions of Ni-based superalloys used as high pressure turbine blades in aeroengines is a challenging issue due to the complex environmental, mechanical and thermal solicitations encountered by those components. A new burner rig test facility called MAATRE (French acronym for Mechanics and Aerothermics of Cooled Turbine Blades has been developed at ENSMA – Pprime Institute to mimic as close as possible those operating conditions. This new test bench has been used to perform complex non-isothermal creep tests representative of thermomechanical solicitations seen by some sections of HP turbine blades during engine certification procedure.

  5. Synthesis, characterisation and non-isothermal degradation kinetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 7 ... Synthesis of a novel co-polymer made by the addition polymerisation between MEGDMA and 4-AB by aza-Michael addition (AMA) polymerisation method is a ... Among the modelsused, the Kissinger method yielded the lowest degradation kinetics.

  6. Synthesis, characterisation and non-isothermal degradation kinetics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–visible reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differ- ential scanning calorimetry .... lytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV–visible ..... [15] Kim T I, Seo H J, Baek J H, Park J H and Park J S 2005 Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 26 175.

  7. Synthesis, non-isothermal crystallization and magnetic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Arshady. 1993; Wiltshire et al 2001). The impregnation of mag- netic fillers in the polymer matrix imparts the magnetic pro- perties and modifies the physical properties of the matrix considerably. However, mechanical properties of the poly- mer bonded magnets depend ...

  8. Thermographic analysis of turbulent non-isothermal water boundary layer

    CERN Document Server

    Znamenskaya, Irina A


    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the turbulent water boundary layer in the jet mixing flows using high-speed infrared (IR) thermography. Two turbulent mixing processes were studied: a submerged water jet impinging on a flat surface and two intersecting jets in a round disc-shaped vessel. An infrared camera (FLIR Systems SC7700) was focused on the window transparent for IR radiation; it provided high-speed recordings of heat fluxes from a thin water layer close to the window. Temperature versus time curves at different points of water boundary layer near the wall surface were acquired using the IR camera with the recording frequency of 100 Hz. The time of recording varied from 3 till 20 min. The power spectra for the temperature fluctuations at different points on the hot-cold water mixing zone were calculated using the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. The obtained spectral behavior was compared to the Kolmogorov "-5/3 spectrum" (a direct energy cascade) and the dual-cascade scenario predicted for...

  9. Fluid/Solid Boundary Conditions in Non-Isothermal Systems (United States)

    Rosner, Daniel E.


    The existing theoretical research concerned with thermal creep at fluid/solid interfaces is briefly reviewed, and the importance of microgravity-based experimental data is then discussed. It is noted that the ultimate goal of this research is a rational molecular level theory that predicts the dependence of a dimensionless thermal creep coefficient, Ctc, on relevant dimensionless parameters describing the way fluid molecules interact with the solid surface and how they interact among themselves. The discussion covers thermophoresis of isolated solid spheres and aggregates in gases; solid sphere thermophoresis in liquids and dense vapors; thermophoresis of small immiscible liquid droplets; and applications of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  10. Simulation of non-isothermal transient flow in gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Luis Carlos; Soares, Matheus; Lima, Enrique Luis; Pinto, Jose Carlos [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Muniz, Cyro; Pires, Clarissa Cortes; Rochocz, Geraldo [ChemTech, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Modeling of gas pipeline usually considers that the gas flow is isothermal (or adiabatic) and that pressure changes occur instantaneously (quasi steady state approach). However, these assumptions are not valid in many important transient applications (changes of inlet and outlet flows/pressures, starting and stopping of compressors, changes of controller set points, among others). Besides, the gas properties are likely to depend simultaneously on the pipe position and on the operation time. For this reason, a mathematical model is presented and implemented in this paper in order to describe the gas flow in pipeline when pressure and temperature transients cannot be neglected. The model is used afterwards as a tool for reconciliation of available measured data. (author)

  11. Kinetics of magnetite oxidation under non-isothermal conditions (United States)

    Sardari, Aref; Alamdari, Eskandar Keshavarz; Noaparast, Mohammad; Shafaei, Sied Ziaedin


    Oxidation of magnetite concentrates, which occurs during the pellet induration process, must be deeply understood to enable the appropriate design of induration machines. In the present paper, the kinetics of the magnetite oxidation reaction was studied. Primary samples were obtained from the Gol-e-Gohar iron ore deposit. Magnetic separation and flotation decreased the sulfur content in the samples to be approximately 0.1wt%. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to measure mass changes during the oxidation of magnetite and, consequently, the conversion values. The aim of this study was to use isoconversional methods to calculate the kinetic parameters. The Coats-Redfern method was also used to obtain the activation energy. Thermogravimetric analyses were run at three different heating rates. The Coats-Redfern results were too ambiguous for a meaningful interpretation. In the case of the isoconversional method, however, the mean activation energy and pre-exponential factor of the oxidation reaction were obtained as 67.55 kJ and 15.32 × 108 min-1, respectively. Such a large activation energy implies that temperature strongly affects the reaction rate. The oxidation reaction exhibits a true multi-step nature that is predominantly controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion mechanisms.

  12. Mathematical modelling of non-isothermal flow in buildings (United States)

    Lenhard, Richard; Puchor, Tomáš

    Numerical simulations are used in many areas of science and technology. In last time are numerical methods used not only in small scale applications, in fluid mechanics, but are also used in civil engineering for simulation of air flow, for simulation of heat transfer. This paper deals with simulation of air flow in building for municipal use. The core of the paper is the calculation of the input parameters for the creation of numerical model and description of the model itself. The conclusion provides an analysis and comparison of simulation results with calculated values for the building.

  13. A benchmark study on non-isothermal compositional fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Böttcher, Norbert; Görke, U. J.


    CO2 capture and storage technology is often hampered by CO2 leakage through natural occurring fractures in the overlying caprock. This work suggests a two-dimensional test case of typical CO2 injection with possible leakage into freshwater resource. By using this test case in combination with a 1...

  14. Calorimetric studies of non-isothermal crystallization in amorphous

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    calorimeter (DSC) technique. The applicability of Meyer–Neldel relation between the ... Amorphous materials; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); phase transitions. 1. Introduction. There is a significant attention to ... factor K0 of the rate constant K with the activation energy of crystallization Ec by changing the variation of ...

  15. Kinetics of non-isothermal decomposition of cinnamic acid (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-rui; Qi, Zhen-li; Chen, Fei-xiong; Yue, Xia-xin


    The thermal stability and kinetics of decomposition of cinnamic acid were investigated by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry at four heating rates. The activation energies of this process were calculated from analysis of TG curves by methods of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Doyle, Distributed Activation Energy Model, Šatava-Šesták and Kissinger, respectively. There are only one stage of thermal decomposition process in TG and two endothermic peaks in DSC. For this decomposition process of cinnamic acid, E and log A[s-1] were determined to be 81.74 kJ mol-1 and 8.67, respectively. The mechanism was Mampel Power law (the reaction order, n = 1), with integral form G(α) = α (α = 0.1-0.9). Moreover, thermodynamic properties of Δ H ≠, Δ S ≠, Δ G ≠ were 77.96 kJ mol-1, -90.71 J mol-1 K-1, 119.41 kJ mol-1.

  16. Thermal decomposition and non-isothermal decomposition kinetics of carbamazepine (United States)

    Qi, Zhen-li; Zhang, Duan-feng; Chen, Fei-xiong; Miao, Jun-yan; Ren, Bao-zeng


    The thermal stability and kinetics of isothermal decomposition of carbamazepine were studied under isothermal conditions by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at three heating rates. Particularly, transformation of crystal forms occurs at 153.75°C. The activation energy of this thermal decomposition process was calculated from the analysis of TG curves by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Doyle, distributed activation energy model, Šatava-Šesták and Kissinger methods. There were two different stages of thermal decomposition process. For the first stage, E and log A [s-1] were determined to be 42.51 kJ mol-1 and 3.45, respectively. In the second stage, E and log A [s-1] were 47.75 kJ mol-1 and 3.80. The mechanism of thermal decomposition was Avrami-Erofeev (the reaction order, n = 1/3), with integral form G(α) = [-ln(1 - α)]1/3 (α = ˜0.1-0.8) in the first stage and Avrami-Erofeev (the reaction order, n = 1) with integral form G(α) = -ln(1 - α) (α = ˜0.9-0.99) in the second stage. Moreover, Δ H ≠, Δ S ≠, Δ G ≠ values were 37.84 kJ mol-1, -192.41 J mol-1 K-1, 146.32 kJ mol-1 and 42.68 kJ mol-1, -186.41 J mol-1 K-1, 156.26 kJ mol-1 for the first and second stage, respectively.

  17. Abareshi Maryam Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    497. Baniani D Dehghan. A study on role of nano sized SiO2 on deformation mecha- nism of vinylester. 1677 .... Synthesis and photoluminescence property of silicon carbide nanowires thin film by HF-PECVD system ..... posite for hardness enhancement of glass ionomer cement. (GIC). 213. Rai Renu see Lawrence Mathias ...

  18. On the origin of residual strain in shape memory alloys: experimental investigation on evolutions in the microstructure of CuAlBe during complex thermomechanical loadings (United States)

    Barati, M.; Arbab Chirani, S.; Kadkhodaei, M.; Saint-Sulpice, L.; Calloch, S.


    The behaviors of shape memory alloys (SMAs) strongly depend on the presence of different phases: austenite, thermally-induced martensite and stress-induced martensite. Consequently, it is important to know the phase volume fraction of each phases and their evolution during thermomechanical loadings. In this work, a three-phase proportioning method based on electric resistivity variation of a CuAlBe SMA is proposed. Simple thermomechanical loadings (i. e. pseudoplasticity and pseudoelasticity), one-way shape memory effect, recovery stress, assisted two-way memory effect at different level of stress and cyclic pseudoelasticity tests are investigated. Based on the electric resistivity results, during each loading path, evolution of the microstructure is determined. The origin of residual strain observed during the considered thermomechanical loadings is discussed. A special attention is paid to two-way shape memory effect generated after considered cyclic loadings and its relation with the developed residual strain. These results permit to identify and to validate the macroscopic models of SMAs behaviors.

  19. Magnetic adsorbent constructed from the loading of amino functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} on coordination complex modified polyoxometalates nanoparticle and its tetracycline adsorption removal property study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Jinzhao; Mei, Mingliang; Xu, Xinxin, E-mail:


    A magnetic polyoxometalates based adsorbent has been synthesized successfully through the loading of amino functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (NH{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) on nanoparticle of a coordination complex modified polyoxometalates (CC/POMNP). FTIR illustrate there exist intense hydrogen bonds between NH{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CC/POMNP, which keep the stability of this adsorbent. At room temperature, this adsorbent exhibits ferromagnetic character with saturation magnetization of 8.19 emu g{sup −1}, which provides prerequisite for fast magnetic separation. Water treatment experiment illustrates this POM based magnetic adsorbent exhibits high adsorption capacity on tetracycline. The adsorption process can be described well with Temkin model, which illustrates the interaction between adsorbent and tetracycline plays the dominated role in tetracycline removal. The rapid, high efficient tetracycline adsorption ability suggests this POM based magnetic adsorbent exhibits promising prospect in medical and agriculture waste water purification. A magnetic polyoxometalates based adsorbent, which exhibits excellent tetracycline adsorption removal property has been synthesized through the loading of NH{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} on coordination complex modified polyoxometalates - Graphical abstract: A magnetic polyoxometalates based adsorbent, which exhibits excellent tetracycline adsorption removal property has been synthesized through the loading of NH{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} on coordination complex modified polyoxometalate. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A POM based magnetic adsorbent was fabricated through the loading of NH{sub 2}-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} on POM nanoparticle. • This adsorbent possesses excellent tetracycline adsorption property. • Saturation magnetization value of this adsorbent is 8.19 emug−1, which is enough for magnetic separation.

  20. A proposed mechanism for nitrate and thicyanate elution of strong base ion exchange resins loaded with copper and gold cyono complexes


    Oliveira, Adélia Moreira; Leão, Versiane Albis; Silva, Carlos Antônio da


    The use of ion exchange resins for the recovery of gold cyanide and other base metal cyanocomplexes has been hindered by poor elution, among other factors. To overcome this drawback, saline solutions have been proposed as an eluant for the loaded cyanocomplexes, with nitrate and thiocyanate being the most promising. In the present work, the elution of goldand copper-cyanocomplexes from polyacrylic- and polystyrene-based resins at 50 _C was studied. The results showed that copper cyanide was e...

  1. Subject-specific finite element modelling of the human foot complex during walking: sensitivity analysis of material properties, boundary and loading conditions. (United States)

    Akrami, Mohammad; Qian, Zhihui; Zou, Zhemin; Howard, David; Nester, Chris J; Ren, Lei


    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a subject-specific framework for modelling the human foot. This was achieved by integrating medical image-based finite element modelling, individualised multi-body musculoskeletal modelling and 3D gait measurements. A 3D ankle-foot finite element model comprising all major foot structures was constructed based on MRI of one individual. A multi-body musculoskeletal model and 3D gait measurements for the same subject were used to define loading and boundary conditions. Sensitivity analyses were used to investigate the effects of key modelling parameters on model predictions. Prediction errors of average and peak plantar pressures were below 10% in all ten plantar regions at five key gait events with only one exception (lateral heel, in early stance, error of 14.44%). The sensitivity analyses results suggest that predictions of peak plantar pressures are moderately sensitive to material properties, ground reaction forces and muscle forces, and significantly sensitive to foot orientation. The maximum region-specific percentage change ratios (peak stress percentage change over parameter percentage change) were 1.935-2.258 for ground reaction forces, 1.528-2.727 for plantar flexor muscles and 4.84-11.37 for foot orientations. This strongly suggests that loading and boundary conditions need to be very carefully defined based on personalised measurement data.

  2. An intravenous clarithromycin lipid emulsion with a high drug loading, H-bonding and a hydrogen-bonded ion pair complex exhibiting excellent antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Gong


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an intravenous clarithromycin lipid emulsion (CLE with good stability and excellent antibacterial activity. The CLE was prepared by the thin-film dispersed homogenization method. The interaction between clarithromycin (CLA and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS was confirmed by DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR analysis. The interfacial drug loading, thermal sterilization, freeze–thaw stability, and in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity were investigated systematically. DSC, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra showed that CHEMS (CLA: CHEMS, M ratio 1:2 could interact with CLA through H-bonding and a hydrogen-bonded ion pair. The CHEMS was found necessary to maintain the stability of CLE. Ultracentrifugation showed that almost 88% CLA could be loaded into the interfacial layer. The optimized CLE formulation could withstand autoclaving at 121 °C for 10 min and remain stable after three freeze–thaw cycles. The in vitro susceptibility test revealed that the CLA–CHEMS ion-pair and CLE have similar activity to the parent drug against many different bacterial strains. The in vivo antibacterial activity showed that the ED50 of intravenous CLE was markedly lower than that of CLA solution administrated orally. CLE exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity and might be a candidate for a new nanocarrier for CLA with potential advantages over the current commercial formulation.

  3. Response of Compacted Bentonites to Thermal and Thermo-Hydraulic Loadings at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehasis Tripathy


    Full Text Available The final disposal of high-level nuclear waste in many countries is preferred to be in deep geological repositories. Compacted bentonites are proposed for use as the buffer surrounding the waste canisters which may be subjected to both thermal and hydraulic loadings. A significant increase in the temperature is anticipated within the buffer, particularly during the early phase of the repository lifetime. In this study, several non-isothermal and non-isothermal hydraulic tests were carried on compacted MX80 bentonite. Compacted bentonite specimens (water content = 15.2%, dry density = 1.65 Mg/m3 were subjected to a temperature of either 85 or 150 °C at one end, whereas the temperature at the opposite end was maintained at 25 °C. During the non-isothermal hydraulic tests, water was supplied from the opposite end of the heat source. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored along predetermined depths of the specimens. The profiles of water content, dry density, and degree of saturation were established after termination of the tests. The test results showed that thermal gradients caused redistribution of the water content, whereas thermo-hydraulic gradients caused both redistribution and an increase in the water content within compacted bentonites, both leading to development of axial stress of various magnitudes. The applied water injection pressures (5 and 600 kPa and temperature gradients appeared to have very minimal impact on the magnitude of axial stress developed. The thickness of thermal insulation layer surrounding the testing devices was found to influence the temperature and relative humidity profiles thereby impacting the redistribution of water content within compacted bentonites. Under the influence of both the applied thermal and thermo-hydraulic gradients, the dry density of the bentonite specimens increased near the heat source, whereas it decreased at the opposite end. The test results emphasized the influence of

  4. Modelling and simulation of electrical energy systems through a complex systems approach using agent-based models. Case study: Under-frequency load shedding for refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremers, Enrique [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). European Inst. for Energy Research (EIFER); Gonzalez de Durana, Jose Maria; Barambones, Oscar [Universidad del Pais Vasco, Vitoria (Spain). Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria de Vitoria-Gasteiz


    One of the ways of studying complex systems is through modelling and simulation, which are used as tools to represent these systems in a virtual environment. Current advances in computing performance (which has been a major constraint in this field for some time) allow for the simulation these kinds of systems within reasonable time horizons. One of the tools for simulating complex systems is agent-based modelling. This individual-centric approach is based on autonomous entities that can interact with each other, thus modelling the system in a disaggregated way. Agent-based models can be coupled with other modelling methods, such as continuous models and discrete events, which can be embedded or run in parallel to the multi-agent system. When representing the electrical energy system in a systemic and multi-layered way, it is treated as a true socio-technical system, in which not only technical models are taken into account, but also socio-behavioural ones. In this work, a number of different models for the parts of an electrical system are presented, related to production, demand and storage. The models are intended to be as simple as possible in order to be simulated in an integrated framework representing the system as a whole. Furthermore, the models allow the inclusion of social behaviour and other, not purely engineering-related aspects of the system, which have to be considered from a complex point of view. (orig.)

  5. Well-defined iron complexes as efficient catalysts for "green" atom-transfer radical polymerization of styrene, methyl methacrylate, and butyl acrylate with low catalyst loadings and catalyst recycling. (United States)

    Nakanishi, So-Ichiro; Kawamura, Mitsunobu; Kai, Hidetomo; Jin, Ren-Hua; Sunada, Yusuke; Nagashima, Hideo


    Environmentally friendly iron(II) catalysts for atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) were synthesized by careful selection of the nitrogen substituents of N,N,N-trialkylated-1,4,9-triazacyclononane (R3 TACN) ligands. Two types of structures were confirmed by crystallography: "[(R3 TACN)FeX2 ]" complexes with relatively small R groups have ionic and dinuclear structures including a [(R3 TACN)Fe(μ-X)3 Fe(R3 TACN)](+) moiety, whereas those with more bulky R groups are neutral and mononuclear. The twelve [(R3 TACN)FeX2 ]n complexes that were synthesized were subjected to bulk ATRP of styrene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and butyl acrylate (BA). Among the iron complexes examined, [{(cyclopentyl)3 TACN}FeBr2 ] (4 b) was the best catalyst for the well-controlled ATRP of all three monomers. This species allowed easy catalyst separation and recycling, a lowering of the catalyst concentration needed for the reaction, and the absence of additional reducing reagents. The lowest catalyst loading was accomplished in the ATRP of MMA with 4 b (59 ppm of Fe based on the charged monomer). Catalyst recycling in ATRP with low catalyst loadings was also successful. The ATRP of styrene with 4 b (117 ppm Fe atom) was followed by precipitation from methanol to give polystyrene that contained residual iron below the calculated detection limit (0.28 ppm). Mechanisms that involve equilibria between the multinuclear and mononuclear species were also examined. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Design and Fabrication of Complex Scaffolds for Bone Defect Healing: Combined 3D Plotting of a Calcium Phosphate Cement and a Growth Factor-Loaded Hydrogel. (United States)

    Ahlfeld, Tilman; Akkineni, Ashwini Rahul; Förster, Yvonne; Köhler, Tino; Knaack, Sven; Gelinsky, Michael; Lode, Anja


    Additive manufacturing enables the fabrication of scaffolds with defined architecture. Versatile printing technologies such as extrusion-based 3D plotting allow in addition the incorporation of biological components increasing the capability to restore functional tissues. We have recently described the fabrication of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds by 3D plotting of an oil-based CPC paste under mild conditions. In the present study, we have developed a strategy for growth factor loading based on multichannel plotting: a biphasic scaffold design was realised combining CPC with VEGF-laden, highly concentrated hydrogel strands. As hydrogel component, alginate and an alginate-gellan gum blend were evaluated; the blend exhibited a more favourable VEGF release profile and was chosen for biphasic scaffold fabrication. After plotting, two-step post-processing was performed for both, hydrogel crosslinking and CPC setting, which was shown to be compatible with both materials. Finally, a scaffold was designed and fabricated which can be applied for testing in a rat critical size femur defect. Optimization of CPC plotting enabled the fabrication of highly resolved structures with strand diameters of only 200 µm. Micro-computed tomography revealed a precise strand arrangement and an interconnected pore space within the biphasic scaffold even in swollen state of the hydrogel strands.

  7. Relationship between tumor cell load and sensitivity to the cytostatic effect of two novel platinum-bile acid complexes, Bamet-D3 and Bamet-UD2. (United States)

    Larena, Monica G; Martinez-Diez, Maria C; Macias, Rocio I R; Dominguez, Maria F; Serrano, Maria A; Marin, Jose J G


    Based on the organotropic characteristics of bile acids towards the liver and the intestine, two novel compounds of the Bamet family, containing at least one bile acid moiety bound to platinum(II), have been synthesized and their cytostatic effect compared to their ability to become accumulated in tumor cells of hepato-intestinal origin. Bamet-UD2 [cis-diammine-bis-ursodeoxycholic platinum(II)] induced a marked inhibition of cell growth, which was more marked in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 and mouse hepatoma Hepa 1-6 cells than in rat hepatoma McA-RH7777 and human colon adenocarcinoma LS 174T cells. This effect was similar to that observed for cisplatin and stronger than that previously reported for other members of this family, such as Bamet-H2 and Bamet-R2. By contrast, Bamet-D3 [(N'N'' cis-dichloro N(3-3-amminepropylammine)propyl) glycocholamide platinum (II)] was only effective in reducing growth in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. Because the in vitro DNA-reactivity was approximately 5-fold higher for Bamet-D3 than for Bamet-UD2, an additional cause for the difference in their cytostatic abilities was sought, investigating the relationship between cell load and the cytostatic effect of the drugs. Drug uptake by two cell lines, Hepa 1-6 and HepG2, with different sensitivities to these compounds was measured. The cellular uptake of Bamet-D3 and Bamet-UD2 was several-fold higher than that of cisplatin. No significant difference in the amount of both drugs taken up by these cell types was found. A study on sodium-dependency and substrate specificity indicated that Hepa 1-6 cells take up Bamet-D3 and Bamet-UD2 via similar mechanism(s), whereas these compounds do not seem to share the uptake pathways in HepG2 cells. Measurement of cell viability by formazan formation from tetrazolium salts and by neutral red uptake, after short-term (6 h) exposure to the desired drug, indicated that no acute toxic effect occurs in the presence of cisplatin or Bamet-D3 in either Hep

  8. A complex-systems approach to predicting effects of sea level rise and nitrogen loading on nitrogen cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Serena Moseman,; Alyson Santoro,; Kristine Hopfensperger,; Amy Burgin,


    To effectively manage coastal ecosystems, we need an improvedunderstanding of how tidal marsh ecosystem services will respond to sea-level rise and increased nitrogen (N) loading to coastal areas. Here we review existing literature to better understand how these interacting perturbations s will likely impact N removal by tidal marshes. We propose that the keyy factors controlling long-term changes in N removal are plant-community changes, soil accretion rates, surface-subsurface flow paths, marsh geomorphology microbial communities, and substrates for microbial reactions. Feedbacks affecting relative elevations and sediment accretion ratess will serve as dominant controls on future N removal throughout the marsh. Given marsh persistence, we hypothesize that the processes dominating N removal will vary laterally across the marsh and longitudinallyalong the estuarine gradient. In salt marsh interiors, where nitrate reduction rates are often limited by delivery of nitrate to bacterial communities, reductions in groundwater discharge due to sea level rise may trigger a net reduction in N removal. In freshwater marshes, we expect a decreasee in N removal efficiency due to increased sulfide concentrations. Sulfide encroachment will increase the relative importance of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and lead to greater bacterial nitrogen immobilization, ultimately resulting in an ecosystem that retains more N and is less effective at permanent N removal from the watershed. In contrast, we predict that sealevel–driven expansion of the tidal creek network and the degree of surface-subsurface exchange flux through tidal creek banks will result in greater N-removal efficiency from these locations.

  9. Carbohydrate Loading. (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  10. Training load quantification in triathlon


    Cejuela Anta, Roberto; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan


    There are different Indices of Training Stress of varying complexity, to quantification Training load. Examples include the training impulse (TRIMP), the session (RPE), Lucia’s TRIMP or Summated Zone Score. But the triathlon, a sport to be combined where there are interactions between different segments, is a complication when it comes to quantify the training. The aim of this paper is to review current methods of quantification, and to propose a scale to quantify the training load in triathl...

  11. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  12. Loads in the design of flight vehicles




    The calculation of flight loads is a critical part of air vehicle design. On the other hand, the prediction of accurate loads is a sophisticated and complex process that requires skilled and experienced engineers. They must integrate results from wind tunnel tests, computer simulations, historical data and empirical formulations into a number of loads cases that provide a realistic assessment of the flight vehicle’s environment. Under these conditions, the vehicle must satisfy requirements im...

  13. Cyclic Triaxial Loading of Cohesionless Silty Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    To engineer efficient structures offshore, we need to extend our knowledge of soil response. Cyclic loading and high water pressure encountered offshore greatly influence cohesionless soil performance. Silty sand from Frederikshavn wind turbine farm was tested using single diameter height samples...... with lubricated, smooth boundary piston heads in a Danish triaxial apparatus. Samples were successfully subjected to loading histories of high complexity. Loading include high strains and stresses, post liquefaction response, transitioning through multiple densities and restoring initial soil properties after...

  14. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  15. Loads in the design of flight vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion TĂTARU


    Full Text Available The calculation of flight loads is a critical part of air vehicle design. On the other hand, the prediction of accurate loads is a sophisticated and complex process that requires skilled and experienced engineers. They must integrate results from wind tunnel tests, computer simulations, historical data and empirical formulations into a number of loads cases that provide a realistic assessment of the flight vehicle’s environment. Under these conditions, the vehicle must satisfy requirements imposed by regulatory agencies as part of the vehicle certification process.Loads and boundary conditions can be associated to either the finite element model or the underlying geometry. By associating loads and boundary conditions to the geometry the finite element model mesh and elements can be modified without redefining and applying the loads to the model. Loads and boundary conditions are associated to the model geometry by default.

  16. Effect of loading parameter on fretting fatigue (United States)

    Kowser, Md. Arefin; Chowdhury, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Shah, Quazi Md. Zobaer


    Fretting fatigue has become one of the major concern in the recent few decades since developed designs both structure's and complex engineering are facing with fatigue accompanied by friction. In this study, load factors as normal and bending forces influence on stress distribution along contact surface as well as fatigue life has been experimented by FEM analysis. Fatigue life is influenced prominently by variable fretting loads than variable tensile loadings. Maximum Von mises Stress and strain shows uniform horizontal straight line is found for maximum loading while for both type of bending, minimum loads yield the same character. It has been observed that stress distribution is more uniform for varying bending loads when variable fretting loads yield stress singularity nearer to the tip of contact between fretting pad and beam.

  17. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  18. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  19. The role of a cytoplasmic loop of MotA in load-dependent assembly and disassembly dynamics of the MotA/B stator complex in the bacterial flagellar motor. (United States)

    Pourjaberi, Seyedeh Noorolhoda Shajari; Terahara, Naoya; Namba, Keiichi; Minamino, Tohru


    The proton-driven flagellar motor of Salmonella enterica can accommodate a dozen MotA/B stators in a load-dependent manner. The C-terminal periplasmic domain of MotB acts as a structural switch to regulate the number of active stators in the motor in response to load change. The cytoplasmic loop termed MotA C is responsible for the interaction with a rotor protein, FliG. Here, to test if MotA C is responsible for stator assembly around the rotor in a load-dependent manner, we analyzed the effect of MotA C mutations, M76V, L78W, Y83C, Y83H, I126F, R131L, A145E and E155K, on motor performance over a wide range of external load. All these MotA C mutations reduced the maximum speed of the motor near zero load, suggesting that they reduce the rate of conformational dynamics of MotA C coupled with proton translocation through the MotA/B proton channel. Dissociation of the stators from the rotor by decrease in the load was facilitated by the M76V, Y83H and A145E mutations compared to the wild-type motor. The E155K mutation reduced the number of active stators in the motor from 10 to 6 under extremely high load. We propose that MotA C is responsible for load-dependent assembly and disassembly dynamics of the MotA/B stator units. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development of the analytic methodology for the consideration of complex load assumptions in case of high-dynamical impact on reinforced concrete structures. Final report; Weiterentwicklung der Analysemethodik zur Beruecksichtigung komplexer Lastannahmen bei hochdynamischen Einwirkungen auf Stahlbetonstrukturen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckoetter, Christian; Sievers, Juergen


    Within the framework of project RS1509 sponsored by the German Ministry BMWi GRS investigated different phenomena which might occur during the impact of deformable, liquid-filled, rigid or partially deformable missiles as well as during the detonation of high-explosives on reinforced concrete structures. The safety-related significance of the research work lies in the evaluation of analysis methods utilized for the assessment of the load-bearing capacity of nuclear building structures subjected to targeted external hazards. In this context participation in Phase III of the VTT IMPACT project and the CSNI activity IRIS2012 contributed to achievement of the objectives. Within the framework of the IMPACT project participation a test series dealing with partially liquid-filled missiles was specified, from which first experiments have already been performed. One focus of the research work was the examination of impact and blast tests with reinforced concrete target structures. Failure modes of the reinforced concrete slabs in impact tests include bending failure, punching failure, cracking, spalling, scabbing, penetration and perforation. The focus of the selected blast tests was related to the local damage modes of scabbing and perforation. The numerical simulations on the tests have been performed by using the analysis codes AUTODYN /ANS 10/ and LSDYNA /LST 14/. Regarding application of findings from test analyses to real structures the impact of missiles with more complex geometries on reinforced concrete structures was examined. Beside simulation of the full-scale test carried out at SNL with a military aircraft of type F4-Phantom, numerical studies with simplified impactor models of a civilian aircraft of type Airbus A320 and jet-engines of type CFM56, used e.g. in the A320 were carried out. Exemplarily, the impact of these models on a generic reactor building structure was examined. Future research work will address the simulation of induced vibrations of

  1. 改性载顺铂磁性纳米药物治疗鼻咽癌的体外实验%Complexing cis-diaminedichioroplatinum-loaded magnetic nano-medicine for treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仲汉; 谢民强; 陈帅君; 王蕾


    高,药效没有降低.%BACKGROUND:Anticancer drugs-loaded magnetic nanopartides,as a novel targeting drug delivery system,are characterized by high drug loading dose,targeting location transport,heat effect of magnetic grains,and biological degradation.Thus,this system brings new hopes for chemical therapy with high efficiency and low toxic and side effects.OBJECTIVE:To observe in vitro toxic effects of complexing cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (CDDP)-loaded magnetic nanopartides on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) CNE2 cells.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:The in vitro controlled study was performed at the Laboratory of Pharmacology,Northern Region,Sun Yet-sen University in March 2005.MATERIALS:CDDP was provided by Shandong Qilu Pharmaceutical factory.CDDP-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (CDDP-SAMNP),43-52 nm in particle diameter.Utilization rate of CDDP was about 65%.NPC CNE2 cell line was supplied by the Laboratory of Cell Pathology,Cancer Hospital,Sun Yat-sen University.METHODS:This study contained medication and control groups.The medication group was assigned to CDDP and CDDP-SAMNP groups.CDDP and CDDP-SAMNP were diluted by RPMI-1640 medium.Drug concentration was in accordance with CDDP content.The control group was divided into RPMI-1640 medium and SAMNP groups (adding ferroso-ferric oxide,magnetic nucleus concentration was 7 g/L,diluted by the medium).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:MTT assay was used to observe kill and wound rate of 1.89-11.34 mg/L CDDP and corresponding dose of CDDP-SAMNP on NPC CNE2 cells following 24 and 48 hours.Uptake of CDDP-SAMNP by CNE2 cells was investigated under a transmission electron microscope.RESULTS:SAMNP as the medium group had no effect on killing or wounding CNE2 cells (P>0.05).With the increment of CDDP and CDDP-SAMNP dose,the kill and wound rate presented an obvious dose-effect relationship.At the same dose,the same medicine showed an increasing kill and wound rate with the extension of reaction time,presenting an obvious time-effect relationship.At 24 hours after reaction,the kill

  2. Mental load: helping clinical learners. (United States)

    White, Geoff


    The quality of an individual's learning is influenced significantly by the quantity of mental processing they are required to manage in a clinical learning situation. Some clinical learning settings require the learner to process high levels of complex knowledge and skills, whilst simultaneously monitoring and responding to challenging social or emotional inputs. This paper introduces the concept of 'cognitive load', its negative impacts upon novice learners in particular, and its real-world implications for teaching and supervision. Narrative review and discussion. The concept of cognitive load is reviewed, and examples of its application to clinical learning and teaching are provided. Teaching and supervision strategies for managing the cognitive load of learners are presented. The clinical teacher has significant capacity to reduce the cognitive load of learners by creating safe and supportive learning environments, establishing trusting relationships with the learner, and implementing structured learning experiences that are designed to support the learner's growth in knowledge, understanding and skills. A threefold focus on the nature of the learning task, the learning environment and the learner's perceptions of these elements, which characterises cognitive load, provides a useful framework for diagnosing poor learning behaviours and maximising learning outcomes. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  3. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet (United States)

    ... of your calories from carbohydrates. The role of carbohydrates Carbohydrates, also known as starches and sugars, are ... to consume some energy sources during your event. Carbohydrate loading Carbohydrate loading is done the week before ...

  4. A methodology for Electric Power Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Almeshaiei


    Full Text Available Electricity demand forecasting is a central and integral process for planning periodical operations and facility expansion in the electricity sector. Demand pattern is almost very complex due to the deregulation of energy markets. Therefore, finding an appropriate forecasting model for a specific electricity network is not an easy task. Although many forecasting methods were developed, none can be generalized for all demand patterns. Therefore, this paper presents a pragmatic methodology that can be used as a guide to construct Electric Power Load Forecasting models. This methodology is mainly based on decomposition and segmentation of the load time series. Several statistical analyses are involved to study the load features and forecasting precision such as moving average and probability plots of load noise. Real daily load data from Kuwaiti electric network are used as a case study. Some results are reported to guide forecasting future needs of this network.

  5. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee


    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  6. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland


    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  7. Integrating Autonomous Load Controllers in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James

    and reliability constraints in power systems are motivating research into new control architectures suitable for such a large and complex system. The focus of this thesis is on an intermediate stage of evolution between today's largely passive loads and a future "Internet of Things". Specifically...... to the fluctuating production. The large number and geographic dispersion of loads make coordinating their behavior challenging. New telecommunication technology has reduced the cost of linking devices, promising a future "Internet of Things" where loads are fully networked. Strict real-time constraints...

  8. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  9. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.M.; Larsen, G.C.; Antoniou, I.; Lind, S.O.; Courtney, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)


    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  10. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  11. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)


    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  12. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells


    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  13. A Microstructural Study of Load Distribution in Cartilage: A Comparison of Stress Relaxation versus Creep Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin Thambyah


    Full Text Available The compressive response of articular cartilage has been extensively investigated and most studies have focussed largely on the directly loaded matrix. However, especially in relation to the tissue microstructure, less is known about load distribution mechanisms operating outside the directly loaded region. We have addressed this issue by using channel indentation and DIC microscopy techniques that provide visualisation of the matrix microstructural response across the regions of both direct and nondirect loading. We hypothesise that, by comparing the microstructural response following stress relaxation and creep compression, new insights can be revealed concerning the complex mechanisms of load bearing. Our results indicate that, with stress relaxation, the initial mode of stress decay appears to primarily involve relaxation of the surface layer. In the creep loading protocol, the main mode of stress release is a lateral distribution of load via the mid matrix. While these two modes of stress redistribution have a complex relationship with the zonally differentiated tissue microstructure and the depth of strain, four mechanostructural mechanisms are proposed to describe succinctly the load responses observed.

  14. Finite element analysis of non-isothermal warm deep drawing of dual phase steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepelnjak T.


    Full Text Available Improving the formability of the material is an important issue in the deep drawing process. Heating the material above its recrystallization temperature drastically increases formability but in the case of dual phase (DP steels it results in the loss of their mechanical properties. To improve the drawing ratio, only the heating of the flange region in the warm temperature range up to 300°C was studied on DP600 sheet steel by numerical simulation. Thermo-elastic-plastic FEM analysis of deep drawing at several drawing ratios was performed and compared with experimental results.

  15. Implementation of Fuzzy Sets in the Non-Isothermal Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Dhaundiyal


    Full Text Available This paper proposes the study of the application of fuzzy logic on the relevant parameter of biomass pyrolysis. The frequency factor, the upper limit of ‘dE’, and the scale and shape parameters of the fuzzy Gamma distribution were fuzzified in order to estimate randomness and to accommodate realistic values. The distribution function, f (E, of the activation energies was assumed to follow the fuzzy Gamma distribution. Thermo-analytical data was found experimentally with the help of TGA/DTG analysis. The approximated solution of the DAEM was obtained using the asymptotic approach.

  16. Surface tension and buoyancy-driven flow in a non-isothermal liquid bridge (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Alexander, J. I. D.


    The Navier-Stokes-Boussinesq equations governing the transport of momentum, mass and heat in a nonisothermal liquid bridge with a temperature-dependent surface tension are solved using a vorticity-stream-function formulation together with a nonorthogonal coordinate transformation. The equations are discretized using a pseudo-unsteady semi-implicit finite difference scheme and are solved by the ADI method. A Picard-type iteration is adopted which consists of inner and outer iterative processes. The outer iteration is used to update the shape of the free surface. Two schemes have been used for the outer iteration; both use the force balance normal to the free surface as the distinguished boundary condition. The first scheme involves successive approximation by the direct solution of the distinguished boundary condition. The second scheme uses the artificial force imbalance between the fluid pressure, viscous and capillary forces at the free surface which arises when the boundary condition for force balance normal to the surface is not satisfied. This artificial imbalance is then used to change the surface shape until the distinguished boundary condition is satisfied. These schemes have been used to examine a variety of model liquid bridge situations including purely thermocapillary-driven flow situations and mixed thermocapillary- and bouyancy-driven flow.

  17. Non isothermal kinetic study of the aluminium titanate formation in alumina-titania mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rendtorff


    Full Text Available Aluminum titanate (Al2TiO5 is a high refractoriness material with excellent thermal shock resistance. Hence it is suitable for several applications at elevated temperatures where insulation and thermal shock resistance are required. Such as components of internal combustion engines, exhaust port liners, metallurgy, and thermal barriers. The thermal instability of Al2TiO5 at high temperature is another characteristic of this material that has been studied and controlled by the incorporation of several additives. The Al2TiO5 formation from pure oxides presents an endothermic peak in the differential thermal analysis (DTA. The thermodynamic temperature is 1280 ºC. But experimentally, as in every other DTA experiment, these peaks strongly depend on the heating rate: this fact has been extensively employed for the kinetic study of transformation processes and the mechanism determination of chemical reactions. Both activation energies (Ea and nucleation rates can be obtained from these experiments. The present work reports the formation Ea of Al2TiO5 prepared from pure oxides at air atmosphere by the Kissinger DTA based methods. Previously the particle size distribution of the starting powders together with X-ray diffraction analysis of the starting powders and the resulting materials was carried out. The properties of the Al2TiO5 formation were grouped into two groups corresponding to the low and high heating rates, below and over 5 K/min. Ea values were obtained after the Avrami (n constant evidenced that the crystallization mechanism is strongly related to the heating rate, even in the wide range studied which includes the technological ones(0.5-40 K/min.

  18. A 2+1-Dimensional Non-Isothermal Magnetogasdynamic System. Hamiltonian-Ermakov Integrable Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli An


    Full Text Available A 2+1-dimensional anisentropic magnetogasdynamic system with a polytropic gas law is shown to admit an integrable elliptic vortex reduction when γ=2 to a nonlinear dynamical subsystem with underlying integrable Hamiltonian-Ermakov structure. Exact solutions of the magnetogasdynamic system are thereby obtained which describe a rotating elliptic plasma cylinder. The semi-axes of the elliptical cross-section, remarkably, satisfy a Ermakov-Ray-Reid system.

  19. Concentration fluctuations in non-isothermal reaction-diffusion systems. II. The nonlinear case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedeaux, D.; Ortiz de Zárate, J.M.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Sengers, J.V.; Kjelstrup, S.


    In this paper, we consider a simple reaction-diffusion system, namely, a binary fluid mixture with an association-dissociation reaction between two species. We study fluctuations at hydrodynamic spatiotemporal scales when this mixture is driven out of equilibrium by the presence of a temperature

  20. Experimental investigation of mixing of non-isothermal water streams at BWR operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergagio, Mattia, E-mail: [AlbaNova University Center, Nuclear Reactor Technology Division, Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Anglart, Henryk, E-mail: [AlbaNova University Center, Nuclear Reactor Technology Division, Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 21/25 Nowowiejska Street, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)


    Highlights: • Temperatures are measured in the presence of mixing at BWR operating conditions. • The thermocouple support is moved along a pattern to extend the measurement region. • Uncertainty of 1.58 K for temperatures acquired at 1000 Hz. • Momenta of the hot streams and thermal stratification affect the data examined. • Unconventional spectral analysis is required to further study the data collected. - Abstract: In this experimental investigation, wall surface temperatures have been measured during mixing of three water streams in the annular gap between two coaxial stainless-steel tubes. The inner tube, with an outer diameter of 35 mm and a thickness of 5 mm, holds six K-type, ungrounded thermocouples with a diameter of 0.5 mm, which measured surface temperatures with a sampling rate of either 100 Hz or 1000 Hz. The tube was rotated from 0 to 360° and moved in a range of 387 mm in the axial direction to allow measurements of surface temperatures in the whole mixing region. The outer tube has an inner diameter of 80 mm and a thickness of 10 mm to withstand a water pressure of 9 MPa. A water stream at a temperature of either 333 K or 423 K and a Reynolds number between 1657 and 8410 rose vertically in the annular gap and mixed with two water streams at a temperature of 549 K and a Reynolds number between 3.56 × 10{sup 5} and 7.11 × 10{sup 5}. These two water streams entered the annulus radially on the same axial level, 180° apart. Water pressure was kept at 7.2 MPa. Temperature recordings were performed at five axial and eight azimuthal locations, for each set of boundary conditions. Each recording lasted 120 s to provide reliable data on the variance, intermittency and frequency of the surface temperature time series at hand. Thorough calculations indicate that the uncertainty in the measured temperature is of 1.58 K. The mixing region extends up to 0.2 m downward of the hot inlets. In most cases, measurements indicate non-uniform mixing in the azimuthal direction, because of asymmetries in either geometry or mass flow rates at the hot inlets. Due to the measurement accuracy and a relatively simple geometry, an experimental database has been obtained for validation of computational methods to predict thermal mixing and fatigue. Furthermore, these data can provide new insight into turbulent mixing at BWR operating conditions and, more generally, into mixing coupled to the dynamics, also termed level-2 mixing.

  1. Mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics of non-isothermal reaction-diffusion. (United States)

    Bedeaux, D; Pagonabarraga, I; Ortiz de Zárate, J M; Sengers, J V; Kjelstrup, S


    We show how the law of mass action can be derived from a thermodynamic basis, in the presence of temperature gradients, chemical potential gradients and hydrodynamic flow. The solution gives the law of mass action for the forward and the reverse contributions to the net chemical reaction. In addition we derive the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the fluctuating contributions to the reaction rate, heat flux and mass fluxes. All these results arise without any other assumptions than those which are common in mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamics; namely quasi-stationary transport across a high activation energy barrier, and local equilibrium along the reaction coordinate. Arrhenius-type behaviour of the kinetic coefficients is recovered. The thermal conductivity, Soret coefficient and diffusivity are significantly influenced by the presence of a chemical reaction. We thus demonstrate how chemical reactions can be fully reconciled with non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

  2. Fluid Creep Effects on Near-Wall Solute Transport for Non-Isothermal Ampoules (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Rosner, Daniel E.


    There is a growing practical and theoretical interest in developing accurate macroscopic modelling for flows arising in chemical or physical vapor transport (VT) crystal growth experiments, including those conducted in reduced gravity environments. Rosner was the first person to point out that previously neglected rarefield gas dynamics phenomena (Stefan and bouyancy-driven flows) become rather important sources of convection. In particular, the combination of rarefaction and strong gradients of temperature (and/or concentration) tangential to the side-walls of the ampoule induces convective flows known as thermal (and concentration) 'creep' respectively. His order-of-magnitude estimates revealed that thermal creep effects can be non-negligible even at normal gravitational levels. On the macroscopic level, the bulk fluid mechanics can be adequately described by the familiar macroscopic equations as long as the boundary conditions are modified to account for the integrated effect of kinetic boundary layers adjacent to solid boundaries. Motivated by the growing importance of these phenomena, we have embarked on a series of computational studies to elucidate these fundamental creep-induced effects for a rarefied gas in simple, two-dimensional confined geometries. However, unlike previous related studies, we resort to a microscopic description of the gas, mathematically expressed by the Boltzmann integro-differential equation. We employ the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird, the theoretical foundations and several practical applications. In the case of thermally induced flows, the no-time counter method of Bird is used, as implemented for a hard-sphere gas. The scheme has been also extended to account for realistic molecular interaction models, an extension necessary if the diffusion physics underlying concentration creep are to be captured.

  3. Mathematical modelling of moisture transport into an electronic enclosure under non-isothermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Mohanty, S.; Jabbari, Mahmoud


    has the capability of combining lumped components and a 1D description. Heat and mass transport is based on a FVM discretization of the heat conduction equation and Fick's second law. Simulation results are compared with corresponding experimental findings and good agreement is found. Since, the paper...

  4. Numerical study to represent non-isothermal melt-crystallization kinetics at laser-powder cladding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Niziev, VG


    Full Text Available model for direct metal deposition with coaxial powder injection. He et al. [9] used that model for investigation of transport phenomena. Modeling of heat-and-mass transfer during plasma deposition manu- facturing has some similar solutions [10... in plasma torch formation and decreases powder capture efficiency that influences negatively on laser cladding. The effect of fluid motion due to Marangoni forces is modeled by in- troducing an enhanced thermal conductivity factor in the melt pool region...

  5. Non-isothermal axial flow of a rarefied gas between two coaxial cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Barbera


    Full Text Available A stationary problem of heat transfer in a rarefied gas confined between two coaxial cylinders is presented. The two cylinders are maintained at two different constant temperatures, so that a radial temperature gradient is created. The external cylinder is at rest, while the internal one moves in the axial direction with a constant velocity. A flow of the gas in the z-direction, orthogonal to the temperature gradient, is created by the motion of the internal boundary. Instead of the classical Navier-Stokes and Fourier theory, the field equations of extended thermodynamics with 13 moments are used in order to describe this physical problem. It turns out that, although only a radial temperature difference is imposed, the heat flux presents also an axial component. Moreover, some components of the stress tensor do not vanish, even though the axial velocity of the gas depends only on the radial coordinate r. The solution here obtained is compared with the classical one. Furthermore, the dependence of the solution on the boundary velocity is investigated.

  6. Does the schock wave in a highly ionized non-isothermal plasma really exist ?

    CERN Document Server

    Rukhadze, A A; Samkharadze, T


    Here we study the structure of a highly ionizing shock wave in a gas of high atmospheric pressure. We take into account the gas ionization when the gas temperature reaches few orders of an ionization potential. It is shown that after gasdynamic temperature-raising shock and formation of a highly-ionized nonisothermal plasma $T_e>>T_i$ only the solitary ion-sound wave (soliton) can propagate in this plasma. In such a wave the charge separation occurs: electrons and ions form the double electric layer with the electric field. The shock wave form, its amplitude and front width are obtained.

  7. Does the schock wave in a highly ionized non-isothermal plasma really exist ?


    Rukhadze, A. A.; Sadykova, S.; Samkharadze, T.


    Here we study the structure of a highly ionizing shock wave in a gas of high atmospheric pressure. We take into account the gas ionization when the gas temperature reaches few orders of an ionization potential. It is shown that after gasdynamic temperature-raising shock and formation of a highly-ionized nonisothermal plasma $T_e>>T_i$ only the solitary ion-sound wave (soliton) can propagate in this plasma. In such a wave the charge separation occurs: electrons and ions form the double electri...

  8. Non-isothermal compositional gas flow during carbon dioxide storage and enhanced gas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Böettcher, N.; Wang, W.


    to solve mass balance equation for the gaseous mixture with heat and fractional mass transport equations. Temperature change resulting from fluid expansion and viscous heat dissipation is included in heat transport in addition to advection and conduction. We have used a modified version of the Peng...

  9. Pyrolysis kinetics of olive residue/plastic mixtures by non-isothermal thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulkas, A.; El harfi, K. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Reactivite des Materiaux et l' Optimisation des Procedes, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40001 Marrakech (Morocco); Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Sciences et en Techniques, Faculte polydisciplinaire de Beni-Mellal, Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, BP 592, 23000 Beni-Mellal (Morocco); El bouadili, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Analytique, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Beni-Mellal, Universite Sultan Moulay Slimane, BP 523, 23000 Beni-Mellal (Morocco); Nadifiyine, M.; Benchanaa, M.; Mokhlisse, A. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Reactivite des Materiaux et l' Optimisation des Procedes & lt; & lt; REMATOP& gt; & gt; , Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 2390, 40001 Marrakech (Morocco)


    The TGA studies of a pyrolytic decomposition of mixtures of olive residue/plastic were carried out. The investigation was made at the temperature ranging from 300 to 1273 K) in the nitrogen atmosphere at four heating rates {beta} = 2, 10, 20 and 50 K min{sup -} {sup 1}. High density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) were selected as plastic samples. Based on the results obtained, three thermal stages were identified during the thermal degradation. The first two were dominated by the olive residue pyrolysis, while the third was linked to the plastics pyrolysis, which occurred at much higher temperatures. Discrepancies between the experimental and calculated TG/DTG profiles were considered as a measurement of the extent of interactions occurring on pyrolysis olive residue/plastic mixtures. The maximum degradation temperatures of each component in the mixture were higher than those of the individual components. These experimental results indicate a significant synergistic effect during olive residue and plastic co-pyrolysis at the high temperature region. In addition, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogravimetric data. A reasonable fit to the experimental data was obtained for all materials and their mixtures. (author)

  10. Irreversibility Analysis of Non Isothermal Flat Plate Solar Collectors for Air Heating with a Dimensionless Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baritto-Loreto Miguel Leonardo


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, el modelo adimensional desarrollado y validado por Baritto y Bracamonte (2012 para describir el comportamiento térmico de colectores solares de placas planas sin cubierta transparente, se complementa con la ecuación adimensional de balance de entropía para un elemento diferencial de colector solar. El modelo se resuelve para un amplio rango de valores de relaciones de aspecto y número de flujo de masa. A partir de los resultados del modelo se desarrolla un análisis detallado de la influencia de estos parámetros sobre la distribución de irreversibilidades internas a lo largo del colector. Adicionalmente se estudia la influencia de estos parámetros sobre los números de generación de entropía por fricción viscosa, por transferencia de calor y total. Se encuentra que existen combinaciones de los parámetros antes mencionados, para los cuales, la operación del colector es termodinámicamente óptima para números de flujo de masa elevados.

  11. Thermal decomposition of wood in oxidizing atmosphere: A kinetic study from non-isothermal TG experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, T.; Rodriguez-Maroto, F.G.; Rodriguez, J.J. (Univ. of Malaga (Spain))


    The kinetics of thermal decomposition of four wood species in oxygen-bearing atmospheres of 5, 10 and 20% molar O{sub 2} concentrations have been studied from temperature-programmed experiments carried out at 5, 10 and 20 K min{sup {minus}1} heating rate. Devolatilization as well as combustion of the reamining solid have been considered to analyze the weight loss curves. The homogeneous volume reaction (VR) model has been used to describe devolatilization, whereas for solid combustion the grain model has been also checked. A two-stage approach has been used to fit the conversion-time curves and to derive the corresponding apparent kinetic parameters. The VR/VR (pyrolysis/combustion) combination provided a better description of the experimental {alpha}-t curves than the VR/grain combination. Holm oak and cork oak showed very close reactivities, whereas some differences were observed for aleppo pine and eucalyptus. 6 figs. 8 tabs., 20 refs.

  12. Irreversibility Analysis of Non Isothermal Flat Plate Solar Collectors for Air Heating with a Dimensionless Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta-Flores José Jesús


    Full Text Available En ingeniería nos enfrentamos con problemas tan diversos como la elección del sitio donde debe construirse una carretera, una presa, un puente o un aeropuerto. Las consecuencias de tomar decisiones equivocadas son tan grandes que es conveniente contar con un método eficiente para enfrentar dichas situaciones, ya que siempre existe incertidumbre sobre lo que puede acontecer. En este artículo se presenta dicho método a través de un ejemplo sobre un sistema de protección de huracanes en el que dos actores serán fundamentales: el decisor y el analista. Se ha elegido este ejemplo porque permitiría tomar decisiones que disminuyan los daños que ocasionan los huracanes en nuestro país.

  13. Precipitation Processes during Non-Isothermal Ageing of Fine-Grained 2024 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł J.


    Full Text Available Mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy procedures were used to manufacture very fine-grained bulk material made from chips of the 2024 aluminum alloy. Studies of solution treatment and precipitation hardening of as-received material were based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC tests and TEM/STEM/EDX structural observations. Structural observations complemented by literature data lead to the conclusion that in the case of highly refined structure of commercial 2024 alloys prepared by severe plastic deformation, typical multi-step G-P-B →θ” →θ’ →θ precipitation mechanism accompanied with G-P-B →S” →S’ →S precipitation sequences result in skipping the formation of metastable phases and direct growth of the stable phases. Exothermic effects on DSC characteristics, which are reported for precipitation sequences in commercial materials, were found to be reduced with increased milling time. Moreover, prolonged milling of 2024 chips was found to shift the exothermic peak to lower temperature with respect to the material produced by means of common metallurgy methods. This effect was concluded to result from preferred heterogeneous nucleation of particles at subboundaries and grain boundaries, enhanced by the boundary diffusion in highly refined structures.

  14. Structural effects and thermal decomposition kinetics of chalcones under non-isothermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manikandan


    Full Text Available Two chalcones namely, 1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylpentan-1,4-dien-3-one (BHMPD and 2,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidenecyclopentanone (BHMBC have been synthesised and characterized by microanalysis, FT-IR, mass spectra and NMR (1H and 13C techniques. The thermal decomposition of these compounds was studied by TGA and DTA under dynamic nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 K min−1. The kinetic parameters were calculated using model-fitting (Coats–Redfern, CR and model-free methods (Friedman, Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose, KAS and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa, FWO. The decomposition process of BHMPD and BHMBC followed a single step mechanism as evidenced from the data. Existence of compensation effect was noticed for the decomposition of these compounds. Invariant kinetic parameters are consistent with the average values obtained by Friedman and KAS isoconversional method in both compounds.

  15. Non-isothermal electro-osmotic flow in a microchannel with charge-modulated surfaces (United States)

    Bautista, Oscar; Sanchez, Salvador; Mendez, Federico


    In this work, we present an theoretical analysis of a nonisothermal electro-osmotic flow of a Newtonian fluid over charge-modulated surfaces in a microchannel. Here, the heating in the microchannel is due to the Joule effect caused by the imposition of an external electric field. The study is conducted through the use of perturbation techniques and is validated by means of numerical simulations. We consider that both, viscosity and electrical conductivity of the fluid are temperature-dependent; therefore, in order to determine the heat transfer process and the corresponding effects on the flow field, the governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and electric potential have to be solved in a coupled manner. The principal obtained results evidence that the flow patterns are perturbed in a noticeable manner in comparison with the isothernal case. Our results may be used for increasing microfluidics mixing by conjugating thermal effects with the use of charge-modulated surfaces. This work has been supported by the research grants no. 220900 of Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) and 20150919 of SIP-IPN at Mexico. F. Méndez acknowledges also the economical support of PAPIIT-UNAM under contract number IN112215.

  16. A summary of the workshop on CFD prediction of non-isothermal flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hooff, Twan; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Li, Yuguo


    For this workshop, a backward facing step flow problem with a heated wall below the supply opening was studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by a total of 32 teams from all over the world. We presented a summary of these results in the workshop, followed by a discussion...

  17. Does the shock wave in a highly ionized non-isothermal plasma really exist? (United States)

    Rukhadze, A. A.; Sadykova, S. P.; Samkharadze, T. G.


    Here, we study the structure of a highly ionizing shock wave in a gas of high atmospheric pressure. We take into account the gas ionization when the gas temperature reaches few orders above ionization potential. It is shown that after gasdynamic temperature-raising shock and formation of a highly-ionized nonisothermal collisionless plasma Te≫Ti , only the solitary ion-sound wave (soliton) can propagate in this plasma. In such a wave, the charge separation occurs: electrons and ions form the double electric layer with the electric field. The shock wave form, its amplitude, and front width are derived.

  18. Non-isothermal kinetic characterisation of a gas–solid reaction by TG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A series of silica-supported Ni-catalyst precursors was synthesized, with different SiO2/Nimole ratios between 0.2 and 1.15. The reduction of all the prepared samples was studied by thermogravimetry (TG in a hydrogen flow. The results of the TG analysis were analyzed by the multi-thermal history model-fitting method, with non-linear regression. The activation energies for the reduction of each sample were determined. The statistical F-test was performed to discriminate between various models. It was found that increasing the SiO2/Ni mole ratio leads to a change in the reaction mechanism of the nickel reduction, resulting finally in a change from second order reaction kinetics to three halves order reaction kinetics.

  19. Densification and crystalization kinetics of mullite diphasic gels from non_isothermal dilatometry experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgaz, Felipe


    Full Text Available Mullite (3 AI2O3_2 SiO2 was processed by mixing silica and alumina colloids at pH below 3 in a high shear blender. The gels were sieved to ‹ 125 microns and cold isostatically pressed to form rods. The various processes involved during the sintering process such as condensation-polymerization and the competition between mullite crystallization and densification were analysed from constant heating rate equations and rate controlled sintering dilatometer experiments. Changes in the slopes permitted the identification of such processes and the activation energy for mullitization was calculated. Fast firing (20-30 K/min in the critical mullitization temperature range of 1230-1505ºC and low heating rates (2-3 K/min in the viscous flow densification intervals of below 1230ºC and higher than 1505 gives rise to near full density and fine grain microstructures of sintered mullite. Fast firing and high (0.5 to 1 % /min densification rate controlled processes seem to be the most suitable approaches to high density gel processed mullite. Amorphous silica is the rate controlling mechanism for the viscous flow densification process before alumina is solved and nucleation and crystallization of mullite appears. Deviations from the linear Frenkel model for viscous flow are also observed.

    Mullita de composición (3Al2O3 -2 SiO2 ha sido preparada mezclando coloides de sílice y alúmina en un mezclador de alta velocidad a pH inferior a 3. Los geles formados eran secados, tamizados por debajo de 125 micras y prensados isostáticamrente para formar varillas de unos 6 mm de diámetro. Los diferentes procesos que ocurren durante el proceso de sinterización, tales como polimerización- condensación y la competición entre cristalización y densificación, han sido analizados utilizando las ecuaciones de ecuaciones de velocidad de calentamiento constantte y experimentos de dilatometría utilizando un software que permite realizar ensayos a velocidad de contracción constante. Cambios en las pendientes han permitido la identificación de tales procesos y el calculo de la energia de activación para la formación de mullita. Calentamiento rápido (20-30 K/min en el rango critico de formación de mullita entre 1230-1505ºC y bajas velocidades de calentamiento (2-3 K/min en las zonas de densificación por flujo viscoso daban lugar a mullitas sinterizadas con densidad cercana a la teórica y fina micro-estructura. Altas velocidades de densificación (o,5% a 1%/min son las mas adecuadas para sinterizar mullita de alta densidad. Flujo viscoso de la sílice amorfa es el mecanismo que controla la velocidad del proceso antes de disolver la alúmina y formar mullita por un proceso de nucleación y crecimiento. Se observan también desviaciones del modelo lineal de Frenkel para el flujo viscoso.

  20. Experimental detection of turbulent thermaldiffusion of aerosols in non-isothermal flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eidelman


    Full Text Available We studied experimentally a new phenomenon of turbulent thermal diffusion of particles which can cause formation of the large-scale aerosol layers in the vicinity of the atmospheric temperature inversions. This phenomenon was detected experimentally in oscillating grids turbulence in air flow. Three measurement techniques were used to study turbulent thermal diffusion in strongly inhomogeneous temperature fields, namely Particle Image Velocimetry to determine the turbulent velocity field, an image processing technique to determine the spatial distribution of aerosols, and an array of thermocouples for the temperature field. Experiments are presented for both, stably and unstably stratified fluid flows, by using both directions of the imposed mean vertical temperature gradient. We demonstrated that even in strongly inhomogeneous temperature fields particles in turbulent fluid flow accumulate at the regions with minimum of mean temperature of surrounding fluids due to the phenomenon of turbulent thermal diffusion.

  1. Load Induced Blindness (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli


    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  2. Application of PSAT to Load Flow Analysis with STATCOM under Load Increase Scenario and Line Contingencies (United States)

    Telang, Aparna S.; Bedekar, P. P.


    Load flow analysis is the initial and essential step for any power system computation. It is required for choosing better options for power system expansion to meet with ever increasing load demand. Implementation of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) device like STATCOM, in the load flow, which is having fast and very flexible control, is one of the important tasks for power system researchers. This paper presents a simple and systematic approach for steady state power flow calculations with FACTS controller, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) using command line usage of MATLAB tool-power system analysis toolbox (PSAT). The complexity of MATLAB language programming increases due to incorporation of STATCOM in an existing Newton-Raphson load flow algorithm. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is to show how command line usage of user friendly MATLAB tool, PSAT, can extensively be used for quicker and wider interpretation of the results of load flow with STATCOM. The novelty of this paper lies in the method of applying the load increase pattern, where the active and reactive loads have been changed simultaneously at all the load buses under consideration for creating stressed conditions for load flow analysis with STATCOM. The performance have been evaluated on many standard IEEE test systems and the results for standard IEEE-30 bus system, IEEE-57 bus system, and IEEE-118 bus system are presented.

  3. The Statistical Properties of Host Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Dinda


    Full Text Available Understanding how host load changes over time is instrumental in predicting the execution time of tasks or jobs, such as in dynamic load balancing and distributed soft real‐time systems. To improve this understanding, we collected week‐long, 1 Hz resolution traces of the Digital Unix 5 second exponential load average on over 35 different machines including production and research cluster machines, compute servers, and desktop workstations. Separate sets of traces were collected at two different times of the year. The traces capture all of the dynamic load information available to user‐level programs on these machines. We present a detailed statistical analysis of these traces here, including summary statistics, distributions, and time series analysis results. Two significant new results are that load is self‐similar and that it displays epochal behavior. All of the traces exhibit a high degree of self‐similarity with Hurst parameters ranging from 0.73 to 0.99, strongly biased toward the top of that range. The traces also display epochal behavior in that the local frequency content of the load signal remains quite stable for long periods of time (150–450 s mean and changes abruptly at epoch boundaries. Despite these complex behaviors, we have found that relatively simple linear models are sufficient for short‐range host load prediction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov


    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of development of the complex-alloyed steel compounds for cutting parts of high-speed instrument, particularly influence of alloying elements on its structure and characteristics are considered. It is shown that combined alloying of steel by carbon, chrome, silicon, manganese, vanadium and molybdenum in a certain proportion allows to reach the intended aim, achieving at the same time increase of solidity, impact elasticity and heat stability.

  5. Mechanism isolates load weighing cell during lifting of load (United States)

    Haigler, J. S.


    Load weighing cell used in conjuction with a hoist is isolated during lifting and manipulation of the load. A simple mechanism, attached to a crane hook, provides a screw adjustment for engaging the load cell during weighing of the load and isolating it from lift forces during hoisting of the load.

  6. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The conventional load flow methods like Newton-Raphson load flow (NRLF), Fast Decoupled load flow (FDLF) provide poor performance under critical conditions such as high R/X ratio, heavily loading condition etc. Exploiting the decoupling properties of power system, reliable fuzzy load flow is developed to overcome the ...

  7. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  8. Preparation, thermodynamic property and antimicrobial activity of some rare-earth (III) complexes with 3-bromo-5-iodobenzoic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-Yu [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Ren, Ning [Department of Chemistry, Handan College, Handan 056005 (China); Zhang, Jian-Jun, E-mail: [Testing and Analysis Center, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Zhang, Cun-Ying [No.1 High School of Shijiazhuang, Shijiazhuang 050011 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Four new rare-earth complexes of general formula [Ln(3-Br-5-IBA){sub 3}phen]{sub 2} [Ln = Er (1), Tb (2), Dy (3) and Ho (4); 3-Br-5-IBA = 3-bromo-5-iodobenzoate; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline] were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV and TG/DSC-FTIR technology. Heat capacities of the four complexes were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were tested using disc diffusion method. - Highlights: • Four new complexes [Ln(3-Br-5-IBA){sub 3}phen]{sub 2} were synthesized and characterized. • The non-isothermal kinetics of the first stage for the complexes was studied. • The heat capacities of the complexes were measured by differential scanning calorimeter. • The antimicrobial activities for these complexes were tested. • The fluorescence properties of the complexes 2 and 3 were studied. - Abstract: Four new rare-earth complexes of general formula [Ln(3-Br-5-IBA){sub 3}phen]{sub 2} (Ln(III) = Er (1), Tb (2), Dy (3) and Ho (4); 3-Br-5-IBA = 3-bromo-5-iodobenzoate; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized by solution-precipitation method, and investigated using elemental analysis, infrared spectra, ultraviolet spectra and TG/DSC-FTIR technology. The non-isothermal kinetics of the first stage for the complexes was studied by using non-linear integral isoconversional method and double equal-double steps method. The heat capacities of the complexes were measured between 263.15 and 485.55 K by means of differential scanning calorimeter, and the values of the experimental heat capacities were fitted to a polynomial equation with the least-squares method. And the thermodynamic functions [H{sub T} − H{sub 298.15}], [S{sub T} − S{sub 298.15}] and [G{sub T} − G{sub 298.15}] were also derived based on the fitted polynomials and thermodynamic relationships with temperature interval of 10 K. Moreover, the

  9. A finite element formulation with combined loadings for shear dominant RC structures. (United States)


    Inelastic failure of reinforced concrete (RC) structures under seismic loadings can be due either to loss of flexural, shear or bond : capacity. Specifically, the effect of combined loadings can lead to a complex failure mechanism that plays a vital ...


    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  11. Plug Load Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...


    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  13. HIV Viral Load (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... used each time. Will exercise, nutrition, and other lifestyle modifications help decrease my HIV viral load? There ...

  14. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  15. Static Loads Test Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  16. Kinetics of the non-isothermal desorption of ethanol absorbed onto CMS-3A / Неизотермическая кинетика десорбции этанола, абсорбированного на углеродном молекулярном сите CMS-3А / Neizotermna kinetika desorpcije etanola adsorbovanog na ugljeničnom molekulskom situ CMS-3A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola S. Jovančić


    Full Text Available The kinetics of the desorption of ethanol previously absorbed onto carbon molecular sieves (CMS-3A was studied using the non-isothermal thermogravimetric technique. The dependence of activation energy (Ea,α for a particular degree of desorption (α was established. It was confirmed that the non-isothermal desorption of ethanol was a kinetically complex process. A novel mathematical model for the kinetics of non-isothermal desorption for the absorbed ethanol is established. This model is based on the proposed dependence of the specific desorption rate on time/temperature. The correlation dependences of the model parameters β and η on heating rates were established. A general kinetic equation for the non-isothermal desorption of ethanol was developed. It was found that the specific desorption rate at every single heating rate increases, whereas Ea, decreases during the desorption process. / В данной статье описаны проведенные исследования по кинетике десорбции эталона, абсорбированного на углеродном молекулярном сите CMS-3A. Главным источником биоэтанола являются: сахар, кукуруза и лигноцеллюлозные материалы. Выработанный биоэтанол содержит определенное количество воды. Для его очистки используются различные сеперационные методы, которые в настоящий момент еще недостаточно испытаны. Главная проблема очистки биоэтанола заключается в высокой стоимости процедуры и больших затратах энергии – на 50% превышающих производимую биоэтанолом энергию. Селективная

  17. Model-based Diagnostics for Propellant Loading Systems (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The loading of spacecraft propellants is a complex, risky operation. Therefore, diagnostic solutions are neces- sary to quickly identify when a fault occurs, so that...

  18. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)


    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  19. Critical loads - assessment of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, A.


    The effects of data uncertainty in applications of the critical loads concept were investigated on different spatial resolutions in Sweden and northern Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity (CL) were calculated for Sweden using the biogeochemical model PROFILE. Three methods with different structural complexity were used to estimate the adverse effects of S0{sub 2} concentrations in northern Czech Republic. Data uncertainties in the calculated critical loads/levels and exceedances (EX) were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainties within cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were aggregated by accounting for the overlap between site specific confidence intervals. Aggregation of data uncertainties within CDFs resulted in lower CL and higher EX best estimates in comparison with percentiles represented by individual sites. Data uncertainties were consequently found to advocate larger deposition reductions to achieve non-exceedance based on low critical loads estimates on 150 x 150 km resolution. Input data were found to impair the level of differentiation between geographical units at all investigated resolutions. Aggregation of data uncertainty within CDFs involved more constrained confidence intervals for a given percentile. Differentiation as well as identification of grid cells on 150 x 150 km resolution subjected to EX was generally improved. Calculation of the probability of EX was shown to preserve the possibility to differentiate between geographical units. Re-aggregation of the 95%-ile EX on 50 x 50 km resolution generally increased the confidence interval for each percentile. Significant relationships were found between forest decline and the three methods addressing risks induced by S0{sub 2} concentrations. Modifying S0{sub 2} concentrations by accounting for the length of the vegetation period was found to constitute the most useful trade-off between structural complexity, data availability and effects of data uncertainty. Data

  20. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.


    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  1. Predicting Lifetime of a Thermomechanically Loaded Component (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Mital, Subodh; Brewer, David N.


    NASALIFE is a computer program for predicting the lifetime, as affected by low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep rupture, of a structural component subject to temporally varying, multiaxial thermomechanical loads. The component could be, for example, part of an aircraft turbine engine. Empirical data from LCF tests, creep rupture tests, and static tensile tests are used as references for predicting the number of missions the component can withstand under a given thermomechanical loading condition. The user prepares an input file containing the creep-rupture and cyclic-fatigue information, temperature-dependent material properties, and mission loading and control flags. The creep rupture information can be entered in tabular form as stress versus life or by means of parameters of the Larson-Miller equation. The program uses the Walker mean-stress model to adjust predicted life for ranges of the ratio between the maximum and minimum stresses. Data representing complex load cycles are reduced by the rainflow counting method. Miner's rule is utilized to combine the damage at different load levels. Finally, the program determines the total damage due to creep and combines it with the fatigue damage due to the cyclic loading and predicts the approximate number of missions a component can endure before failing.

  2. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jung Lee


    Full Text Available The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shock Analysis codes. In the long run, this deflection and stress data will assist in examining the structural arrangement of the submarine pressure hull.

  3. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter


    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  4. Dielectrically Loaded Biconical Antennas (United States)

    Nusseibeh, Fouad Ahmed


    Biconical antennas are of great interest to those who deal with broadband applications including the transmission/reception of pulses. In particular, wide-angle conical antennas are an attractive choice in many applications including Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and the measurements of transient surface currents and charge densities on aircraft. Dielectric loading in the interior region of a conical antenna can be used to reduce the size of the antenna especially at low frequencies and/or for structural strength. Therefore, having an analytical solution for the input impedance and the frequency response is very helpful in optimizing the design and understanding the behavior of the antenna. From the quasi-analytical solution for the input impedance and the electric field of a wide-angle conical antenna, it can be seen that the dielectric loading in the antenna region improves the input impedance at low frequencies, but increases the number of resonance points and the magnitude of these peaks. When an inhomogeneous dielectric load is used, the magnitude of the resonance peaks is decreased (depending on the way the load is distributed), improving the input impedance of the antenna significantly. Introducing a dielectric load in the interior region of an electrically short receiving cone makes the antenna behave as an electrically longer antenna. However, this is not true for the case for electrical1y long antennas. For the case of pulse transmission, the dielectric load affects only the amplitude. Of course, if the dielectric fills the whole space, both transmitting and receiving antennas behave as electrically longer antennas.

  5. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter


    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  6. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gui


    Full Text Available We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  7. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Bo


    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  8. Traditional posterior load carriage: effects of load mass and size on torso kinematics, kinetics, muscle activity and movement stability. (United States)

    Muslim, Khoirul; Nussbaum, Maury A


    Traditional posterior load carriage (PLC), done without the use of an assistive device (e.g., backpack), has been associated with low back pain (LBP) development. This study evaluated the effects of important task demands, related to load mass and size, on potential mechanisms linking traditional PLC with LBP. Nine healthy participants completed PLC tasks with three load masses (20%, 35% and 50% of individual body mass) and three load sizes (small, medium and large). Torso kinematics, kinetics, muscle activity and slip risk were evaluated during PLC on a walkway, and torso movement stability was quantified during PLC on a treadmill. Increasing load mass caused increased torso flexion, L5/S1 flexion moment, abdominal muscle activity and torso movement stability in the frontal plane. Increasing load size also caused higher torso flexion, peak torso angular velocity and acceleration, and abdominal muscle activity. Complex interactive effects of load mass and size were found on paraspinal muscle activity and slip risk. Specific task demands, related to load mass and size, may thus influence the risk of LBP during PLC. This study examined the effects of load mass and size on low back pain (LBP) risk using intermediary measures derived from torso kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity. Our current findings, along with earlier work, suggest that load mass and size can influence LBP risk, and that use of smaller and light loads may be beneficial during PLC.

  9. Load research and load estimation in electricity distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems


    The topics introduced in this thesis are: the Finnish load research project, a simple form customer class load model, analysis of the origins of customers load distribution, a method for the estimation of the confidence interval of customer loads and Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) which utilises both the load models and measurements from distribution networks. The Finnish load research project started in 1983. The project was initially coordinated by the Association of Finnish Electric Utilities and 40 utilities joined the project. Now there are over 1000 customer hourly load recordings in a database. A simple form customer class load model is introduced. The model is designed to be practical for most utility applications and has been used by the Finnish utilities for several years. The only variable of the model is the customers annual energy consumption. The model gives the customers average hourly load and standard deviation for a selected month, day and hour. The statistical distribution of customer loads is studied and a model for customer electric load variation is developed. The model results in a lognormal distribution as an extreme case. Using the `simple form load model`, a method for estimating confidence intervals (confidence limits) of customer hourly load is developed. The two methods selected for final analysis are based on normal and lognormal distribution estimated in a simplified manner. The estimation of several cumulated customer class loads is also analysed. Customer class load estimation which combines the information from load models and distribution network load measurements is developed. This method, called Distribution Load Estimation (DLE), utilises information already available in the utilities databases and is thus easy to apply

  10. Palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes containing benzimidazole ligands: Molecular structures, vibrational frequencies and cytotoxicity (United States)

    Abdel Ghani, Nour T.; Mansour, Ahmed M.


    (1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-(4-methoxyl-phenyl)-amine (L 1), (1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-(4-methyl-phenyl)-amine (L 2) and their Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes have been synthesized as potential anticancer compounds and their structures were elucidated using a variety of physico-chemical techniques. Theoretical calculations invoking geometry optimization, vibrational assignments, 1H NMR, charge distribution and molecular orbital description HOMO and LUMO were done using density functional theory. Natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) method was performed to provide details about the type of hybridization and the nature of bonding in the studied complexes. Strong coordination bonds (LP(1)N11 → σ *(M sbnd Cl22)) and (LP(1)N21 → σ *(M sbnd Cl23)) (M = Pd or Pt) result from donation of electron density from a lone pair orbital on the nitrogen atoms to the acceptor metal molecular orbitals. The experimental results and the calculated molecular parameters revealed square-planar geometries around the metallic centre through the pyridine-type nitrogen of the benzimidazole ring and secondary amino group and two chlorine atoms. The activation thermodynamic parameters were calculated using non-isothermal methods. The synthesized ligands, in comparison to their metal complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity. In addition, the studied complexes showed activity against three cell lines of different origin, breast cancer (MCF-7), Colon Carcinoma (HCT) and human heptacellular carcinoma (Hep-G2) comparable to cis-platin.

  11. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  12. Fuel Load (FL) (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane


    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  13. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  14. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert


    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  15. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  16. Upper Bound Limit Load Solutions for Welded Joints with Cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergey


    The present short monograph concerns analytic and semi-analytic techniques for finding an approximate value of the limit load. The limit load is an essential input parameter of flaw assessment procedures. In most cases, finding the limit load involves some numerical calculations of different levels of complexity, including numerical minimization of functions of one or several arguments, the slip-line technique and the finite element method. This book shows in particular how to use singular behavior of the real velocity field in the vicinity of bi-material interfaces in kinematically admissible velocity fields to increase the accuracy of upper bound solutions. An approach to recalculate the limit load for a class of structures with defects with the use of its value for the corresponding structure with no defect is discussed. The upper bound technique is applied to evaluate the limit load of overmatched and undermatched welded joints with cracks subject to various loading conditions of practical importance in c...

  17. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.


    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  18. Concrete structures under impact loading: general aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Baeră


    Full Text Available Dynamic loading conditions distress the structural integrity of a structure differently than the static ones. Such actions transfer high rate strains and instant energy waves to the structure, inducing the possibility of imminent collapse and casualties as a direct consequence. In the latest years, considering the dramatic increase of terrorist threats and global warming, the structural safety criteria imply more than ever the need to withstand this kind of loading (e.g., missiles and blast, projectiles, strong winds, tornados and earthquakes in addition to the static ones. The aim of this paper is to provide a general overview with regard to impact loading in terms of defining the phenomenon from physical and mechanical perspective, its complex local or global effect on the targeted structure, relevant material characteristics, main research approaches, namely theoretical studies and experimental procedures developed for improving the predictability of the dynamic loads and their effects. New directions in developing superior cementitious composites, with better characteristics in terms of dynamic loading performance are also emphasized.

  19. Structural and chelation behaviors of new Ru(II), Pt(IV) and Ir(III) gatifloxacin drug complexes: Spectroscopic characterizations (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mohammed T.; Alsibaai, A. A.; El-Shahawi, M. S.; Refat, Moamen S.


    The interaction between gatifloxacin drug (GAT) with some transition metals (Ru(III), Pt(IV) and Ir(III)) yield the complexes of formulas [Ru(GAT-NH4)(Cl)3(H2O)2], [Pt(GAT-NH4)2(Cl)4]·3H2O and [Ir(GAT-NH4)2(Cl)2(H2O)2]·Cl·2H2O at pH = 7-8. The composition of the GAT complexes was confirmed by elemental data. The IR frequencies reveal the coordination of the GAT with metal ions and the coordination mode of the sbnd N atom of 3-methylpiperazinyl moiety to metal. XRD pattern show isomorphism among the complexes with similar chelation behavior. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the particle size of GAT complexes. The thermal data reveals that various steps of decomposition of the complexes to form their metal oxide as final product. The electronic spectra and the magnetic susceptibility values reveal that the coordination and geometry of Ru3+, Pt4+ and Ir3+ complexes possess distorted octahedral geometry with six number of coordination. Thermodynamic parameters (E*, ΔS*, ΔH* and ΔG*) were calculated from TG curves dependent on Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzeger non-isothermal methods.

  20. Heavy-Load Lifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Oturai, Peter; Steele, Megan L


    PURPOSE: Despite a paucity of evidence, prevention guidelines typically advise avoidance of heavy lifting in an effort to protect against breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study compared acute responses in arm swelling and related symptoms after low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among...... women at risk of lymphedema while receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This is a randomized, cross-over equivalence trial. Women receiving adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection (n=21) participated in low- (60-65% 1...... repetition maximum (RM), two sets of 15-20 repetitions) and heavy-load (85-90% 1RM, three sets of 5-8 repetition) upper-extremity resistance exercise separated by a one-week wash-out period. Swelling was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, with breast cancer...

  1. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.


    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  2. Active load control using microtabs (United States)

    Yen, Dora Te-Lun


    Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) translational tabs are introduced for enhancing and controlling the aerodynamic loading on lifting surfaces. These microtabs are mounted near the trailing edge of lifting surfaces, retract and extend approximately normal to the surface and have a maximum deployment height on the order of the boundary-layer thickness. Deployment of the device effectively modifies the camber distribution of the lifting surface and hence, the lift generated. The effect of the microtabs on lift is shown to be as powerful as conventional control surfaces with lift changes of 30%--50% in the linear range of the lift curve using a tab with a height of 1% of airfoil chord placed at 5% of chord upstream of the trailing edge on the lower surface. A multi-disciplinary approach incorporating aspects of experimental and computational aerodynamics, mechanical design and microfabrication techniques has been taken to develop and test a "proof of concept" model. Flow simulations, using a Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver, have been conducted to optimize the size and placement of the devices based on trailing edge volume constraints. Numerical and experimental wind tunnel results are in good agreement, and both confirm that these micro-scale devices create macro-scale changes in aerodynamic loading. Application of this rather simple but innovative lift control system based on microfabrication techniques introduces a robust, dynamic control device and will allow for the miniaturization of conventional high lift and control systems. The result is a significant reduction in typical control system weight, complexity and cost. Also due to the minute size of these tabs, their activation and response times are much faster than that of conventional trailing edge devices. The "proof of concept" tab design, fabrication techniques, computational and experimental setup, and test results using a representative airfoil are presented in this research. (For more information, see

  3. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  4. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.


    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  5. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  6. Evaluations of Strength of Thermal Sprayed Coating for Complex Loading (United States)

    Kaneko, Kenji; Ohmori, Akira

    Fracture strength of WC-12Co thermal sprayed coating is investigated experimentally and analytically. In the experiments, one pair of butt cylindrical specimen with coating is subjected to combined tension with torsion stresses. Fracture loci were obtained for three kinds of thickness of the coating in σ-τ stress plane. Stress distributions at crack tip singular point on fractured surfaces are analyzed by Finite-Element-Method and approximated by the expression σ=KR-λ where R means normalized thickness coordinate. It is found that the normal stress distributions are common to all cases of testing stress conditions and so fracture condition of the brittle coating is represented as K≥Kcr in the normal stress distribution even under mixed deformation mode I and III. The delamination critical shear stress distribution could also be obtained.

  7. Effects of Load, Cognitive Complexity and Type A on Satisfaction. (United States)


    Alderfer, 1969, 1972; and the utilization of Maslow’s, 1943, theory) and research efforts directed at the individual (e.g., Downey, Hellriegel and Slocum...Behavioral Medicine, 1978, 1, 159-176. Downey, H, K., Hellriegel , D., & Slocum, J. W. Jr. Environmental uncertainty: The construct and its application

  8. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández


    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... the accuracy in the load estimation. Finally, the results of an experimental program carried out on a simple structure are presented....

  9. Dynamically Loaded Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    In design by calculation of sophisticated high speed light craft the panel scantlings often reach values below the allowable values specified by classification rules. In order to verify these high performance constructions, access to complex strength criteria are required....

  10. Research of Impact Load in Large Electrohydraulic Load Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongguang Liu


    Full Text Available The stronger impact load will appear in the initial phase when the large electric cylinder is tested in the hardware-in-loop simulation. In this paper, the mathematical model is built based on AMESim, and then the reason of the impact load is investigated through analyzing the changing tendency of parameters in the simulation results. The inhibition methods of impact load are presented according to the structural invariability principle and applied to the actual system. The final experimental result indicates that the impact load is inhibited, which provides a good experimental condition for the electric cylinder and promotes the study of large load simulator.

  11. Pollution Load Estimation Based on Characteristic Section Load Method (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Song, JinXi; Liu, WanQing


    Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section is taken as the research objective in this paper and COD is chosen as the water quality parameter. According to the discharge characteristics of point source pollutions and non-point source pollutions, a new method to estimate pollution loads-Characteristic Section Load Method(CSLM) is proposed and point source pollution and non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are calculated in the rainy, normal and dry season in the year 2007. The results show that the monthly point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are discharged stably, the monthly non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section change greatly, the non-point source pollution load proportions of total pollution load of COD are gradually decreased in the rainy, normal and wet periods.

  12. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob


    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  13. Variable loading roller (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.


    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  14. Structural concerns in dynamic drop loads on transfer lock mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Moran, T.J.; Kulak, R.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Engineering Div.


    Drop loads are usually low probability events that can generate substantial loading to the impacted structures. When the impacted structure contains slender elements, the concern about dynamic buckling must be addressed. The problem of interest here is a structure is also under significant preload, which must be taken into account in the transient analysis. For complex structures, numerical simulations are the only viable option for assessing the transient response to short duration impactive loads. this paper addresses several analysis issues of preloaded structures with slender members subjected to drop loads. A three-dimensional beam element is validated for use in dynamic buckling analysis. the numerical algorithm used to solve the transient response of preloaded structures is discussed. The methodology is applied to an inter-compartment lock that is under significant preloads, and subjected to a drop load.

  15. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...... of nail row, edge distance, fixed nail-plate, bending direction, unloading, and grain direction, plate and load direction on the load-displacement curves are analysed. Mean load-displacement curves from all the tests are given....

  16. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)


    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  17. Limitations of subjective cognitive load measures in simulation-based procedural training. (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Ringsted, Charlotte; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B


    The effective implementation of cognitive load theory (CLT) to optimise the instructional design of simulation-based training requires sensitive and reliable measures of cognitive load. This mixed-methods study assessed relationships between commonly used measures of total cognitive load and the extent to which these measures reflected participants' experiences of cognitive load in simulation-based procedural skills training. Two groups of medical residents (n = 38) completed three questionnaires after participating in simulation-based procedural skills training sessions: the Paas Cognitive Load Scale; the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and a cognitive load component (CLC) questionnaire we developed to assess total cognitive load as the sum of intrinsic load (how complex the task is), extraneous load (how the task is presented) and germane load (how the learner processes the task for learning). We calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients to assess agreement among these instruments. Group interviews explored residents' perceptions about how the simulation sessions contributed to their total cognitive load. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Total cognitive load scores differed significantly according to the instrument used to assess them. In particular, there was poor agreement between the Paas Scale and the TLX. Quantitative and qualitative findings supported intrinsic cognitive load as synonymous with mental effort (Paas Scale), mental demand (TLX) and task difficulty and complexity (CLC questionnaire). Additional qualitative themes relating to extraneous and germane cognitive loads were not reflected in any of the questionnaires. The Paas Scale, TLX and CLC questionnaire appear to be interchangeable as measures of intrinsic cognitive load, but not of total cognitive load. A more complete understanding of the sources of extraneous and germane cognitive loads in simulation-based training contexts is

  18. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan


    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. carbene complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Reaction of oligomeric Cu(I) complexes [Cu{µ-S-C(=NR)(O–Ar–CH3)}]n with Lewis acids gave Cu(I) carbene complexes, which were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Cu(I) car- bene complexes could be directly generated from RNCS, Cu(I)–OAr and Lewis acids; this method can be used to ...

  20. The Application of Load-cell Technique in the Study of Armour Unit Responses to Impact Loads Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.


    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used for rubble mound breakwaters. Many of the recent failures of such structures were caused by unforeseen early breakage of the units, thus revealing an in balance between the strength (structural integrity......) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements) of the armour layers. Breakage is caused by stresses from static, pulsating and impact loads. Impact load generated stresses are difficult to investigate due to non-linear scaling laws. The paper describes a method by which impact loads on...

  1. Estimating constituent loads (United States)

    Cohn, T.A.; DeLong, L.L.; Gilroy, E.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Wells, D.K.


    This paper compares the bias and variance of three procedures that can be used with log linear regression models: the traditional rating curve estimator, a modified rating curve method, and a minimum variance unbiased estimator (MVUE). Analytical derivations of the bias and efficiency of all three estimators are presented. It is shown that for many conditions the traditional and the modified estimator can provide satisfactory estimates. However, other conditions exist where they have substantial bias and a large mean square error. These conditions commonly occur when sample sizes are small, or when loads are estimated during high-flow conditions. The MVUE, however, is unbiased and always performs nearly as well or better than the rating curve estimator or the modified estimator provided that the hypothesis of the log linear model is correct. Since an efficient unbiased estimator is available, there seems to be no reason to employ biased estimators. -from Authors

  2. Characterization of electric load with Information Theory quantifiers (United States)

    Aquino, Andre L. L.; Ramos, Heitor S.; Frery, Alejandro C.; Viana, Leonardo P.; Cavalcante, Tamer S. G.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.


    This paper presents a study of the electric load behavior based on the Causality Complexity-Entropy Plane. We use a public data set, namely REDD, which contains detailed power usage information from several domestic appliances. In our characterization, we use the available power data of the circuit/devices of all houses. The Bandt-Pompe methodology combined with the Causality Complexity-Entropy Plane was used to identify and characterize regimes and behaviors over these data. The results showed that this characterization provides a useful insight into the underlying dynamics that govern the electric load.

  3. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado


    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  4. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.


    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  5. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Strategy I. Alice x ∈ {0, 1}n. ⇒. ⇐. Bob y ∈ {0, 1}n. Naive strategy. Alice sends x to Bob. Bob tells Alice if x = y. Cost. Requires n + 1 bits of communication. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  6. Complexity Theory (United States)

    Lee, William H K.


    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  7. Complex derivatives (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph


    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  8. Analysis of collaborative communication for linguistic cues of cognitive load. (United States)

    Khawaja, M Asif; Chen, Fang; Marcus, Nadine


    Analyses of novel linguistic and grammatical features, extracted from transcribed speech of people working in a collaborative environment, were performed for cognitive load measurement Prior studies have attempted to assess users' cognitive load with several measures, but most of them are intrusive and disrupt normal task flow. An effective measurement of people's cognitive load can help improve their performance by deploying appropriate output and support strategies accordingly. The authors studied 33 members of bushfire management teams working collaboratively in computerized incident control rooms and involved in complex bushfire management tasks. The participants' communication was analyzed for some novel linguistic features as potential indices of cognitive load, which included sentence length, use of agreement and disagreement phrases, and use of personal pronouns, including both singular and plural pronoun types. Results showed users' different linguistic and grammatical patterns with various cognitive load levels. Specifically, with high load, people spoke more and used longer sentences, used more words that indicated disagreement with other team members, and exhibited increased use of plural personal pronouns and decreased use of singular pronouns. The article provides encouraging evidence for the use of linguistic and grammatical analysis for measuring users' cognitive load and proposes some novel features as cognitive load indices. The proposed approach may be applied to many data-intense and safety-critical task scenarios, such as emergency management departments, for example, bushfire or traffic incident management centers; air traffic control rooms; and call centers, where speech is used as part of everyday tasks.

  9. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...... the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer...

  10. The Complexity of One-Step Equations (United States)

    Ngu, Bing


    An analysis of one-step equations from a cognitive load theory perspective uncovers variation within one-step equations. The complexity of one-step equations arises from the element interactivity across the operational and relational lines. The higher the number of operational and relational lines, the greater the complexity of the equations.…

  11. Short-term load forecasting by a neuro-fuzzy based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruey-Hsun Liang; Ching-Chi Cheng [National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    An approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN) combined with a fuzzy system is proposed for short-term load forecasting. This approach was developed in order to reach the desired short-term load forecasting in an efficient manner. Over the past few years, ANNs have attained the ability to manage a great deal of system complexity and are now being proposed as powerful computational tools. In order to select the appropriate load as the input for the desired forecasting, the Pearson analysis method is first applied to choose two historical record load patterns that are similar to the forecasted load pattern. These two load patterns and the required weather parameters are then fuzzified and input into a neural network for training or testing the network. The back-propagation (BP) neural network is applied to determine the preliminary forecasted load. In addition, the rule base for the fuzzy inference machine contains important linguistic membership function terms with knowledge in the form of fuzzy IF-THEN rules. This produces the load correction inference from the historical information and past forecasted load errors to obtain an inferred load error. Adding the inferred load error to the preliminary forecasted load, we can obtain the finial forecasted load. The effectiveness of the proposed approach to the short-term load-forecasting problem is demonstrated using practical data from the Taiwan Power Company (TPC). (Author)

  12. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik


    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...

  13. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.


    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  14. Metamaterial Loadings for Waveguide Miniaturization

    CERN Document Server

    Odabasi, H


    We show that a rectangular metallic waveguide loaded with metamaterial elements consisting of electric-field coupled (ELC) resonators placed at the side walls can operate well below the cutoff frequency of the respective unloaded waveguide. The dispersion diagrams indicate that propagating modes in ELC-loaded waveguides are of forward-type for both TE and TM modes. We also study the dispersion diagram and transmission characteristics of rectangular metallic waveguides simultaneously loaded with ELCs and split ring resonators (SRRs). Such doubly-loaded waveguides can support both forward wave and backward waves, and provide independent control of the propagation characteristics for the respective modes.

  15. Heuristics for container loading of furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens; Garavelli, Claudio; Lisi, Stefano


    . In the studied company, the problem arises hundreds of times daily during transport planning. Instances may contain more than one hundred different items with irregular shapes. To solve this complex problem we apply a set of heuristics successively that each solve one part of the problem. Large items...... are combined in specific structures to ensure proper protection of the items during transportation and to simplify the problem. The solutions generated by the heuristic has an average loading utilization of 91.3% for the most general instances with average running times around 100 seconds....

  16. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D


    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Ebben


    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plyometric training is well supported by research. Complex training has gained popularity as a training strategy combining weight training and plyometric training. Anecdotal reports recommend training in this fashion in order to improve muscular power and athletic performance. Recently, several studies have examined complex training. Despite the fact that questions remain about the potential effectiveness and implementation of this type of training, results of recent studies are useful in guiding practitioners in the development and implementation of complex training programs. In some cases, research suggests that complex training has an acute ergogenic effect on upper body power and the results of acute and chronic complex training include improved jumping performance. Improved performance may require three to four minutes rest between the weight training and plyometrics sets and the use of heavy weight training loads

  18. electrical load survey electrical load survey and forecast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    paper reports the results of electrical load demand and forecast for Elebu rural community located in Kwara State,. Nigeria. The expected peak ... Keywords: hybrid system, renewable energy, optimization, electrical energy, load survey and forecasts. 1. ..... vehicle renewable energy, Monaco, March 26-29,. 2009, pp. 1-9.

  19. Crane-Load Contact Sensor (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Cox, Robert


    An electronic instrument has been developed as a prototype of a portable crane-load contact sensor. Such a sensor could be helpful in an application in which the load rests on a base in a horizontal position determined by vertical alignment pins (see Figure 1). If the crane is not positioned to lift the load precisely vertically, then the load can be expected to swing once it has been lifted clear of the pins. If the load is especially heavy, large, and/or fragile, it could hurt workers and/or damage itself and nearby objects. By indicating whether the load remains in contact with the pins when it has been lifted a fraction of the length of the pins, the crane-load contact sensor helps the crane operator determine whether it is safe to lift the load clear of the pins: If there is contact, then the load is resting against the sides of the pins and, hence, it may not be safe to lift; if contact is occasionally broken, then the load is probably not resting against the pins, so it should be safe to lift. It is assumed that the load and base, or at least the pins and the surfaces of the alignment holes in the load, are electrically conductive, so the instrument can use electrical contact to indicate mechanical contact. However, DC resistance cannot be used as an indicator of contact for the following reasons: The load and the base are both electrically grounded through cables (the load is grounded through the lifting cable of the crane) to prevent discharge of static electricity. In other words, the DC resistance between the load and the pins is always low, as though they were always in direct contact. Therefore, instead of DC resistance, the instrument utilizes the AC electrical impedance between the pins and the load. The signal frequency used in the measurement is high enough (.1 MHz) that the impedance contributed by the cables and the electrical ground network of the building in which the crane and the base are situated is significantly greater than the contact

  20. Probabilistic Load Models for Simulating the Impact of Load Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe


    to simulate the impact of load management. The joint-normal model is superior in modeling the tail region of the hourly load distribution and implementing the change of hourly standard deviation. Whereas the AR(12) model requires much less parameter and is superior in modeling the autocorrelation......This paper analyzes a distribution system load time series through autocorrelation coefficient, power spectral density, probabilistic distribution and quantile value. Two probabilistic load models, i.e. the joint-normal model and the autoregressive model of order 12 (AR(12)), are proposed....... It is concluded that the AR(12) model is favored with limited measurement data and that the joint-normal model may provide better results with a large data set. Both models can be applied in general to model load time series and used in time-sequential simulation of distribution system planning....

  1. Carney Complex (United States)

    ... at least one of the features listed. Major diagnostic features for Carney Complex Spotty skin pigmentation with ... called large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor (LCCST) Thyroid cancer Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma, meaning tumors that grow on ...

  2. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld


    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  3. The effects of ordinal load on incidental temporal learning. (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Castro, São Luís


    How can we grasp the temporal structure of events? A few studies have indicated that representations of temporal structure are acquired when there is an intention to learn, but not when learning is incidental. Response-to-stimulus intervals, uncorrelated temporal structures, unpredictable ordinal information, and lack of metrical organization have been pointed out as key obstacles to incidental temporal learning, but the literature includes piecemeal demonstrations of learning under all these circumstances. We suggest that the unacknowledged effects of ordinal load may help reconcile these conflicting findings, ordinal load referring to the cost of identifying the sequence of events (e.g., tones, locations) where a temporal pattern is embedded. In a first experiment, we manipulated ordinal load into simple and complex levels. Participants learned ordinal-simple sequences, despite their uncorrelated temporal structure and lack of metrical organization. They did not learn ordinal-complex sequences, even though there were no response-to-stimulus intervals nor unpredictable ordinal information. In a second experiment, we probed learning of ordinal-complex sequences with strong metrical organization, and again there was no learning. We conclude that ordinal load is a key obstacle to incidental temporal learning. Further analyses showed that the effect of ordinal load is to mask the expression of temporal knowledge, rather than to prevent learning.

  4. Particle loading rates for HVAC filters, heat exchangers, and ducts. (United States)

    Waring, M S; Siegel, J A


    The rate at which airborne particulate matter deposits onto heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components is important from both indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy perspectives. This modeling study predicts size-resolved particle mass loading rates for residential and commercial filters, heat exchangers (i.e. coils), and supply and return ducts. A parametric analysis evaluated the impact of different outdoor particle distributions, indoor emission sources, HVAC airflows, filtration efficiencies, coils, and duct system complexities. The median predicted residential and commercial loading rates were 2.97 and 130 g/m(2) month for the filter loading rates, 0.756 and 4.35 g/m(2) month for the coil loading rates, 0.0051 and 1.00 g/month for the supply duct loading rates, and 0.262 g/month for the commercial return duct loading rates. Loading rates are more dependent on outdoor particle distributions, indoor sources, HVAC operation strategy, and filtration than other considered parameters. The results presented herein, once validated, can be used to estimate filter changing and coil cleaning schedules, energy implications of filter and coil loading, and IAQ impacts associated with deposited particles. The results in this paper suggest important factors that lead to particle deposition on HVAC components in residential and commercial buildings. This knowledge informs the development and comparison of control strategies to limit particle deposition. The predicted mass loading rates allow for the assessment of pressure drop and indoor air quality consequences that result from particle mass loading onto HVAC system components.

  5. Load Forecasting in Electric Utility Integrated Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sanstad, Alan H [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is a process used by many vertically-integrated U.S. electric utilities to determine least-cost/risk supply and demand-side resources that meet government policy objectives and future obligations to customers and, in many cases, shareholders. Forecasts of energy and peak demand are a critical component of the IRP process. There have been few, if any, quantitative studies of IRP long-run (planning horizons of two decades) load forecast performance and its relationship to resource planning and actual procurement decisions. In this paper, we evaluate load forecasting methods, assumptions, and outcomes for 12 Western U.S. utilities by examining and comparing plans filed in the early 2000s against recent plans, up to year 2014. We find a convergence in the methods and data sources used. We also find that forecasts in more recent IRPs generally took account of new information, but that there continued to be a systematic over-estimation of load growth rates during the period studied. We compare planned and procured resource expansion against customer load and year-to-year load growth rates, but do not find a direct relationship. Load sensitivities performed in resource plans do not appear to be related to later procurement strategies even in the presence of large forecast errors. These findings suggest that resource procurement decisions may be driven by other factors than customer load growth. Our results have important implications for the integrated resource planning process, namely that load forecast accuracy may not be as important for resource procurement as is generally believed, that load forecast sensitivities could be used to improve the procurement process, and that management of load uncertainty should be prioritized over more complex forecasting techniques.

  6. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.


    We consider the problem of estimating the probability of survival (non-failure) and the probability of safe operation (strength greater than a limiting value) of structures subjected to random loads. These probabilities are formulated in terms of the probability distributions of the loads and the...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  7. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman


    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  8. Load forecasting of supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Buth; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik


    This paper presents a novel study of models for forecasting the electrical load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. Every hour the hourly electrical load for refrigeration is forecasted for the following 42 h. The forecast models are adaptive linear time series models. The model has two regimes; one for opening hours and one for closing hours, this is modeled by a regime switching model and two different...... methods for predicting the regimes are tested. The dynamic relation between the weather and the load is modeled by simple transfer functions and the non-linearities are described using spline functions. The results are thoroughly evaluated and it is shown that the spline functions are suitable...

  9. Predictive equations for lumbar spine loads in load-dependent asymmetric one- and two-handed lifting activities. (United States)

    Arjmand, N; Plamondon, A; Shirazi-Adl, A; Parnianpour, M; Larivière, C


    Asymmetric lifting activities are associated with low back pain. A finite element biomechanical model is used to estimate spinal loads during one- and two-handed asymmetric static lifting activities. Model input variables are thorax flexion angle, load magnitude as well as load sagittal and lateral positions while response variables are L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc compression and shear forces. A number of levels are considered for each input variable and all their possible combinations are introduced into the model. Robust yet user-friendly predictive equations that relate model responses to its inputs are established. Predictive equations with adequate goodness-of-fit (R(2) ranged from ~94% to 99%, P≤0.001) that relate spinal loads to task (input) variables are established. Contour plots are used to identify combinations of task variable levels that yield spine loads beyond the recommended limits. The effect of uncertainties in the measurements of asymmetry-related inputs on spinal loads is studied. A number of issues regarding the NIOSH asymmetry multiplier are discussed and it is concluded that this multiplier should depend on the trunk posture and be defined in terms of the load vertical and horizontal positions. Due to an imprecise adjustment of the handled load magnitude this multiplier inadequately controls the biomechanical loading of the spine. Ergonomists and bioengineers, faced with the dilemma of using either complex but more accurate models on one hand or less accurate but simple models on the other hand, have hereby easy-to-use predictive equations that quantify spinal loads under various occupational tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Convergence of Crowdsourcing Ideas: A Cognitive Load perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Shixuan; de Vreede, Gert-Jan; Cheng, Xusen


    and satisfaction with the convergence process and outcomes. We propose an experimental study that adopts Cognitive Load Theory as its theoretical lens to investigate the effects of task complexity, idea presentation, and instructional guidance on convergence quality and satisfaction. This study has the potential...

  11. Daily peak electricity load forecasting in South Africa using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) modelling approach towards daily peak electricity load forecasting in South Africa is presented in this paper for the period 2000 to 2009. MARS is a non-parametric multivariate regression method which is used in high-dimensional problems with complex model structures, ...

  12. Complex chimerism (United States)

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.


    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  13. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard


    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  14. Complex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M


    With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m

  15. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James


    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  16. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia


    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  17. phenanthroline complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural analyses. Mass spectral studies of the complexes indicate both the compounds to produce identical cationic species viz., [Co(phen)2Cl2]+ in methanol solution. ... Cobalt(III); X-ray structure; Catecholase activity; DNA cleavage; Anti-cancer activity. 1. ..... necrotic as judged by the staining, nuclear morphology.

  18. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China). Lecithin from soya bean was a product of. Sangon (Shanghai, China). Methanol of HPLC grade was purchased from Tedia (USA). Other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of polydatin-lecithin complex. Polydatin (200 mg) and lecithin (400 mg) were dissolved in 50 mL of tetrahydrofuran and stirred.

  19. Complex Criminality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, D.; Abels, D.; van der Wilt, H.


    This book presents a collection of essays on the wide diversity of meanings of complex criminality. These essays were written to commemorate a national gathering of PhD candidates, from criminal law departments of different universities, at the University of Amsterdam on the 6th of June 2014.

  20. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta


    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  1. peroxo complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The investigation of dioxygen binding and activation in dinuclear iron complexes has attracted recent interest because of the presence of carboxylate bridged dinuclear iron sites in several biologically important proteins, such as the R2 protein of ribonucleotide reductase, the hydroxylase component of methane ...

  2. carbohydrate complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ferrocene-carbohydrate conjugates38,39 have lead to the design and study of the cytotoxic activity of metal com- plexes containing carbohydrate ligands. Hence, here we present the detailed synthesis and characteriza- tion of the carbohydrate triazole ligands and their Pd- complexes together with the crystal structures of ...

  3. Ntem Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    New ages were obtained from charnockites and tonalites collected in the So'o Group in the Ntem Complex. The rocks were analyzed for their petrography, tectonics and 207Pb/206Pb zircon minimum ages of their zircons as well as .... Owona, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box.

  4. Hydrodynamic loading of tensegrity structures (United States)

    Wroldsen, Anders S.; Johansen, Vegar; Skelton, Robert E.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.


    This paper introduces hydrodynamic loads for tensegrity structures, to examine their behavior in marine environments. Wave compliant structures are of general interest when considering large marine structures, and we are motivated by the aquaculture industry where new concepts are investigated in order to make offshore installations for seafood production. This paper adds to the existing models and software simulations of tensegrity structures exposed to environmental loading from waves and current. A number of simulations are run to show behavior of the structure as a function of pretension level and string stiffness for a given loading condition.

  5. Current research on shear buckling and thermal loads with PASCO - Panel analysis and sizing code (United States)

    Stroud, W. J.; Greene, W. H.; Anderson, M. S.


    The stiffened composite structural panel analysis and sizing code designated 'PASCO' encompasses both the generality required for the exploitation of composite materials' design flexibility and an accurate buckling analysis for the detection of complex buckling modes. PASCO can accordingly design for buckling, frequency, material strength, and panel stiffness requirements. Attention is given to an additional thermal loading design capability. Design studies illustrate the importance of the multiple load condition capability when thermal loads are present.

  6. GMDH-Based Semi-Supervised Feature Selection for Electricity Load Classification Forecasting


    Lintao Yang; Honggeng Yang; Hongyan Yang; Haitao Liu


    With the development of smart power grids, communication network technology and sensor technology, there has been an exponential growth in complex electricity load data. Irregular electricity load fluctuations caused by the weather and holiday factors disrupt the daily operation of the power companies. To deal with these challenges, this paper investigates a day-ahead electricity peak load interval forecasting problem. It transforms the conventional continuous forecasting problem into a novel...

  7. 14 CFR 23.301 - Loads. (United States)


    ... load would significantly change the distribution of external or internal loads, this redistribution...) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed factors of safety). Unless otherwise provided... validated by flight test measurement unless the methods used for determining those loading conditions are...

  8. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert


    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  9. High drug-loading nanomedicines: progress, current status, and prospects. (United States)

    Shen, Shihong; Wu, Youshen; Liu, Yongchun; Wu, Daocheng


    Drug molecules transformed into nanoparticles or endowed with nanostructures with or without the aid of carrier materials are referred to as "nanomedicines" and can overcome some inherent drawbacks of free drugs, such as poor water solubility, high drug dosage, and short drug half-life in vivo. However, most of the existing nanomedicines possess the drawback of low drug-loading (generally less than 10%) associated with more carrier materials. For intravenous administration, the extensive use of carrier materials might cause systemic toxicity and impose an extra burden of degradation, metabolism, and excretion of the materials for patients. Therefore, on the premise of guaranteeing therapeutic effect and function, reducing or avoiding the use of carrier materials is a promising alternative approach to solve these problems. Recently, high drug-loading nanomedicines, which have a drug-loading content higher than 10%, are attracting increasing interest. According to the fabrication strategies of nanomedicines, high drug-loading nanomedicines are divided into four main classes: nanomedicines with inert porous material as carrier, nanomedicines with drug as part of carrier, carrier-free nanomedicines, and nanomedicines following niche and complex strategies. To date, most of the existing high drug-loading nanomedicines belong to the first class, and few research studies have focused on other classes. In this review, we investigate the research status of high drug-loading nanomedicines and discuss the features of their fabrication strategies and optimum proposal in detail. We also point out deficiencies and developing direction of high drug-loading nanomedicines. We envision that high drug-loading nanomedicines will occupy an important position in the field of drug-delivery systems, and hope that novel perspectives will be proposed for the development of high drug-loading nanomedicines.

  10. Approximations to the Non-Isothermal Distributed Activation Energy Model for Biomass Pyrolysis Using the Rayleigh Distribution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alok Dhaundiyal; Suraj B. Singh


    This paper deals with the influence of some parameters relevant to biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solutions of the nonisothermal order distributed activation energy model using the Rayleigh distribution...

  11. Numerical investigation of the influence of electromagnetic treatment on calcium carbonate scaling rate in non-isothermal pipe flow (United States)

    Kireev, Victor; Kovaleva, Liana; Isakov, Andrey; Alimbekova, Sofya


    In the present paper, an attempt to explain the mechanisms of the electromagnetic field influence on the process of formation and deposition of calcium carbonate from supersaturated brine solution has been made using numerical modeling. The one-dimensional mathematical model of the brine laminar flow through a cylindrical tube with non-uniform temperature field is written in the form of the system of transient convection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations describing temperature field and chemical components concentrations (Ca2+, HCO3-, CaCO3). The influence of the temperature on the kinetics of formation of calcium carbonate is taken into account and it is described in accordance with the Arrhenius equation. The kinetics of the calcium carbonate precipitation on the wall of the pipe is given on the basis of the Henry isotherm. It has been established that the electromagnetic treatment of brine solution leads to a decrease of the adsorption rate constant and Henry's constant but it does not significantly influence on the chemical reaction rate of calcium carbonate formation. It also has been shown that treatment with electromagnetic field significantly reduces the amount of calcium carbonate deposits on the wall of the pipe.

  12. Estimation of Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagrams of Mold Powder Slags from Thermo-analysis of Non-isothermal Crystallization (United States)

    Maldonado, Yadira G.; Barraza de la P., Claudia; Rodríguez A., Sergio; Castillejos E., A. Humberto; Thomas, Brian G.


    The temperature range across the mold powder slag in the interfacial gap between the continuous casting mold and strand leads through different transformation behavior into crystalline phases. The transformation rates play a key role in determining the proportion of glassy and crystalline phases present, and thus greatly influence mold heat transfer and lubrication. Although thermal analysis has held great promise to quantify the crystallization of mold slags, so far the information it has provided is scarce. This work shows how differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, data allow evaluation of Time-Temperature-Transformation, TTT, diagrams of mold powder slags, when analyzed with the induction period and the Kissinger methods. The data required for estimating this important tool for the analysis and design of mold powders are onset temperature, T i, peak maximum temperature, T m, shape index, S, and conversion at peak maximum, x m, of the crystallization peaks appearing on thermograms obtained at various heating and cooling rates, ϕ or - ϕ, respectively. Industrial mold powders for casting low- and medium-carbon steels were analyzed to obtain TTT diagrams which correctly portray their different crystallization behavior. The diagrams reveal the start and end curves of the crystalline phases forming at each DSC crystallization peak. The estimated TTT curves present a correct picture of the degree of transformation observed in glass disks (~3 mm thick) treated isothermally for specified time intervals, quenched and examined with a scanning electron microscope. Additionally, the procedure developed for DSC-based TTT diagram calculation is supported by the good agreement between expected transformations and qualitative or quantitative X-ray diffraction results obtained from mold glass-powdered samples treated isothermally in a muffle furnace.

  13. Lagrangian finite element method for 3D time-dependent non-isothermal flow of K-BKZ fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.


    equation is replaced with a temperature dependent pseudo time. The spatial coordinate system attached to the particles is discretized by 10-node quadratic tetrahedral elements using Cartesian coordinates. The temperature and the pressure are discretized by 10-node quadratic and linear interpolation...... utilizing an implicit variable step backwards differencing (BDF2) scheme, obtaining second order convergence of the temperature in time. A quadratic interpolation in time is applied to approximate the time integral in the K-BKZ equation. This type of scheme ensures third order accuracy with respect......, respectively, in the tetrahedral particle elements. The spatial discretization of the governing equations follows a mixed Galerkin finite element method. This type of scheme ensures third order accuracy with respect to the discretization of spatial dimension. The temperature equation is solved in time...

  14. Correlation and prediction of thermophoretic and inertial effects on particle deposition from non-isothermal turbulent boundary layers (United States)

    Rosner, D. E.; Fernandez De La Mora, J.


    The problem of small particle deposition which can cause hot stage corrosion and/or fouling in combustion turbines operating on fuels containing ash or inorganic salts is investigated. Two boundary layer transport phenomena are shown to assume importance in these cases: particle thermophoresis (migration down a temperature gradient) and particle inertia. Thermophoretic and eddy transport across turbulent boundary layers without and with particle inertia effects are quantitatively analyzed. The effects of streamwise blade curvature on particle transport across turbulent boundary layers are determined. It is shown that these phenomena destroy the analogy between mass and heat transfer or mass and momentum transfer. Also studied are the effects on particle deposition of distributed or localized wall blowing, surface roughness, and mainstream turbulence.

  15. Isothermal and non-isothermal water and oil two-phase flow (core-flow in curved pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Andrade


    Full Text Available The occurrence of heavy oils in the world has increased substantially and points favorable to investment in exploration of mineral deposits and consequently, for the development of new technologies. Heavy oil has a high viscosity that varies from 100 to 10,000 times greater than the viscosity of water. The high pressure due to friction and viscous effects during the transport of heavy oil has been a major challenge, for itself to be economically viable for production or transportation. The core annular flow technique is a more recent technology favorable the explotation and transportation of heavy oils that provides a considerable reduction of pressure drop during the flow of these oils type. In this sense, this paper presents a 3D numerical study involving the heavy oil transportation in curved pipes, using the core-flow technique by CFD (ANSYS CFX® 12.0. Results of pressure, velocity, volume fraction and temperature distribution of the heavy oil are presented and analysed.

  16. Solving the non-isothermal reaction-diffusion model equations in a spherical catalyst by the variational iteration method (United States)

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid


    In this work we address the Lane-Emden boundary value problems which appear in chemical applications, biochemical applications, and scientific disciplines. We apply the variational iteration method to solve two specific models. The first problem models reaction-diffusion equation in a spherical catalyst, while the second problem models the reaction-diffusion process in a spherical biocatalyst. We obtain reliable analytical expressions of the concentrations and the effectiveness factors. Proper graphs will be used to illustrate the obtained results. The proposed analysis demonstrates reliability and efficiency applicability of the employed method.

  17. Effect of thymol in heating and recovery media on the isothermal and non-isothermal heat resistance of Bacillus spores. (United States)

    Esteban, Maria-Dolores; Conesa, Raquel; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Palop, Alfredo


    Members of the genus Bacillus include important food-borne pathogen and spoilage microorganisms for food industry. Essential oils are natural products extracted from herbs and spices, which can be used as natural preservatives in many foods because of their antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of the addition of different concentrations of thymol to the heating and recovery media on the thermal resistance of spores of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis at different temperatures. While the heat resistance was hardly reduced when thymol was present in the heating medium, the effect in the recovery medium was greater, reducing the D100 °C values down to one third for B. subtilis and B. cereus when 0.5 mM thymol was added. This effect was dose dependent and was also observed at other heating temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Advantages of using non-isothermal bioreactors for the enzymatic synthesis of antibiotics: the penicillin G acylase as enzyme model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travascio, P.; Zito, E.; Maio, de A.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Durante, D.; Luca, de P.; Bencivenga, U.


    A new hydrophobic and catalytic membrane was prepared by immobilizing Penicillin G acylase (PGA, EC. from E. coli on a nylon membrane, chemically grafted with butylmethacrylate (BMA). Hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and glutaraldehyde (Glu) were used as a spacer and coupling agent,

  19. Heat transfer at microscopic level in a MHD fractional inertial flow confined between non-isothermal boundaries (United States)

    Shoaib Anwar, Muhammad; Rasheed, Amer


    Heat transfer through a Forchheimer medium in an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) developed differential-type fluid flow is analyzed numerically in this study. The boundary layer flow is modeled with the help of the fractional calculus approach. The fluid is confined between infinite parallel plates and flows by motion of the plates in their own plane. Both the plates have variable surface temperature. Governing partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions are solved by employing a finite-difference scheme to discretize the fractional time derivative and finite-element discretization for spatial variables. Coefficients of skin friction and local Nusselt numbers are computed for the fractional model. The flow behavior is presented for various values of the involved parameters. The influence of different dimensionless numbers on skin friction and Nusselt number is discussed by tabular results. Forchheimer medium flows that involve catalytic converters and gas turbines can be modeled in a similar manner.

  20. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics and phase transformation of Bi2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo H.W.


    Full Text Available The Bi2O3-SiO2 (BS glass-ceramics were prepared by melt-quench technique, and the crystallization kinetics and phase transformation behavior were investigated in accordance with Kissinger and Johson-Mehl-Avrami equation, DSC, XRD and SEM. The results show that in the heat treatment process (or termed as re-crystallizing process Bi2SiO5 and Bi4Si3O12 crystals were found consequently. Respectively, the crystallization activation energies of the two crystals are Ep1=14.8kJ/mol and Ep2=34.1kJ/mol. And the average crystallization index of n1=1.73 and n2=1.38 suggested volume nucleation, one-dimensional growth and surface nucleation, one-dimensional growth from surface to the inside respectively. The meta-stable needle-like Bi2SiO5 crystals are easily to be transformed into stable prismatic Bi4Si3O12 crystals. By quenching the melt and hold in 850°C for 1h, the homogenous single Bi4Si3O12 crystals were found in the polycrystalline phase of the BS glassceramics system.

  1. Non-isothermal Characterization of the Precipitation Hardening of a Cu-11Ni-19Zn-1Sn Alloy (United States)

    Donoso, E.; Diánez, M. J.; Criado, J. M.; Espinoza, R.; Mosquera, E.


    The precipitation hardening of a Cu-11Ni-19Zn-1Sn alloy has been studied by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), and hardness measurements. The calorimetric curves, in the range of temperatures analyzed, show the presence of one exothermic reaction followed by an endothermic one. The exothermic DSC peak is due to the segregation of Cu2NiZn precipitates and it is associated to a noticeable improvement of the mechanical properties of the alloy. The endothermic effect is associated to the dissolution of the Cu2NiZn precipitates into the copper matrix for restoring the starting Cu-11Ni-19Zn-1Sn homogeneous solid solution. The reaction mechanisms of these processes have been proposed from the kinetic analysis of the exothermic and endothermic DSC signals. The results obtained point out that tin plays a decisive role on the precipitation hardening of the alloy, because age hardening is not observed in the case of a Cu-Ni-Zn ternary alloy of similar composition.

  2. Influence of the plate inclination angle on rivulet formation and breakdown of non-isothermal liquid film (United States)

    Chinnov, E. A.; Sharina, I. A.


    The influence of the plate inclination angle relative to the horizon on a distance between formed rivulets and breakdown of a falling water film was studied experimentally on a heater of 150×150 mm. Dependences of the distance between rivulets on the heat flux density and plate inclination angle were examined. In experiments two zones of influence of the heat flux on a distance between rivulets were revealed: at θ ≥ 20° distances between the rivulets do not depend on the heat flux, and at θ ≤ 15° they decrease with a rise of the heat flux. Data on film breakdown were generalized with consideration of evaporation effect. It is shown that there is almost no effect of inclination angle on film breakdown in the whole range of studied Reynolds numbers.

  3. Non-isothermal and isothermal kinetics of high temperature oxidation of micrometer-sized titanium particles in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Olga, E-mail: [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 7, D-76327 Pfinztal (Germany); Eisenreich, Norbert; Kelzenberg, Stefan; Schuppler, Heike; Neutz, Jochen [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Joseph-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 7, D-76327 Pfinztal (Germany); Kondratenko, Evgenii [Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse e.V. an der Universitaet Rostock, Albert Einstein Str. 29a, D-18059 Rostock (Germany)


    Research highlights: {yields} The oxidation of titanium particles in the temperature interval between 700 and 1400 K. {yields} Their three-dimensional diffusion differs from the one-dimensional diffusion in a stratified structure of bulky materials. {yields} A dense rutile layer. - Abstract: The oxidation behaviour of micrometer-sized titanium particles was investigated in the temperature range from 323 to 1473 K in air using high-temperature X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis with multiple heating rates (2, 5, and 10 K/min). The investigated titanium particles were directly transformed to rutile without the formation of other polymorphic crystalline phases. Moreover, only traces of titanium nitride were observed below 700 K. Assuming mono-modal particles, a Jander model for three-dimensional diffusion was applied to derive the kinetic parameters of the oxidation of titanium particles (5 and 20 {mu}m) from fitting the TG measurements using a least squares fit procedure. The model described reasonably well the oxidation process when all the TG experiments (multiple heating rates and two different particle sizes) were simultaneously used for the fitting. For titanium particles the oxidation occurs by a three-dimensional diffusion through a dense rutile layer and differs from the one-dimensional diffusion in a stratified structure of bulky materials. The derived diffusion coefficients ranged from 10{sup -14} to 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s in the temperature interval 700-1400 K.

  4. Structural Impact of Construction Loads (United States)


    Numerous bridge construction accidents have occurred across the country because of construction loadings, which are an underemphasized : topic in many DOT specifications and design manuals. Bridge girders are least stable when they are subjected to c...

  5. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)


    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  6. Redirecting learners' attention during training: effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merriënboer, J.J.G.; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; de Croock, M.B.M.; Paas, F.G.W.C.


    Cognitive load theory provides guidelines for improving the training of complex cognitive skills and their transfer to new situations. One guideline states that extraneous cognitive load that is irrelevant to the construction of cognitive schemata should be minimised. Experiment 1 (N=26) compares

  7. Loadings in thermal barrier coatings of jet engine turbine blades an experimental research and numerical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, Tomasz


    This book discusses complex loadings of turbine blades and protective layer Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC), under real working airplane jet conditions. They obey both multi-axial mechanical loading and sudden temperature variation during starting and landing of the airplanes. In particular, two types of blades are analyzed: stationary and rotating, which are widely applied in turbine engines produced by airplane factories.

  8. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  9. Aircraft ditching loads simulation tool


    Bonanni, A.; Vandewaeter, L.; Havill, C.; Kanyoo, P.; Taunton, D.J.; Blake, J.I.R.; Cropper, E.; Hancock, S.


    The present work presents a novel methodology developed for calculating the steady loads acting on aircraft structures in the event of ditching in water. It represents the preliminary result of Stirling Dynamics as part of a NATEP research project. The overall objective of the project is to expand the capabilities of the Stirling Dynamics proprietary software SD-GLOAD (originally designed for ground and crash loads dynamic simulations) to aircraft ditching simulations. The methodology present...

  10. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.


    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  11. Complex Questions Promote Complex Thinking (United States)

    Degener, Sophie; Berne, Jennifer


    Intermediate-grade teachers often express concerns about meeting the Common Core State Standards for Reading, primarily because of the emphasis on deep understanding of complex texts. No matter how difficult the text, if teachers demand little of the reading, student meaning making is not challenged. This article offers a tool for teachers to…

  12. Load Estimation from Natural input Modal Analysis


    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Canteli, Alfonso Fernández


    One application of Natural Input Modal Analysis consists in estimating the unknown load acting on structures such as wind loads, wave loads, traffic loads, etc. In this paper, a procedure to determine loading from a truncated modal model, as well as the results of an experimental testing programme, are presented. The method involves the inversion of the FRF matrix partly solving the numerical problems that appear because of the truncation of the modal space. However, the error in the load est...

  13. Calibration set up for load cells (United States)

    Rao, T. V. Govinda; Venkatesh, C. S.; Shivashankar, N.


    The planning, designing, fabrication, and calibration of 30, 50, and 100 ton tension load cells and 30 ton shear load cells are described. The tension load cells are for monitoring the force developed by earth moving vehicles and the shear load cells are for monitoring the load that tipplers unload form platform to ground. The shear load cells were incorporated into a rotary wagon tippler.

  14. Vertical Load Distribution for Cloud Computing via Multiple Implementation Options (United States)

    Phan, Thomas; Li, Wen-Syan

    Cloud computing looks to deliver software as a provisioned service to end users, but the underlying infrastructure must be sufficiently scalable and robust. In our work, we focus on large-scale enterprise cloud systems and examine how enterprises may use a service-oriented architecture (SOA) to provide a streamlined interface to their business processes. To scale up the business processes, each SOA tier usually deploys multiple servers for load distribution and fault tolerance, a scenario which we term horizontal load distribution. One limitation of this approach is that load cannot be distributed further when all servers in the same tier are loaded. In complex multi-tiered SOA systems, a single business process may actually be implemented by multiple different computation pathways among the tiers, each with different components, in order to provide resilience and scalability. Such multiple implementation options gives opportunities for vertical load distribution across tiers. In this chapter, we look at a novel request routing framework for SOA-based enterprise computing with multiple implementation options that takes into account the options of both horizontal and vertical load distribution.

  15. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.


    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  16. Self-aligning biaxial load frame (United States)

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.


    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  17. Advanced Power Management of a Telehandler using Electronic Load Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm


    New possibilities within electronic control of mobile hydraulic systems are becoming available as hydraulic components are implemented with more electrical sensors and actuators. This paper presents how the traditional hydro-mechanical load sensing (HLS) control of a specific mobile hydraulic...... application, a telehandler, can be replaced with electronic control, i.e. Electronic Load Sensing (ELS). The motivation for ELS is the potentials of better dynamic performance and system utilization, along with reduced mechanical complexity by transferring features as pump pressure control, flow...

  18. Load Balancing in Multi Cloud Computing Environment with Genetic Algorithm (United States)

    Vhansure, Fularani; Deshmukh, Apurva; Sumathy, S.


    Cloud is a pool of resources that is available on pay per use model. It provides services to the user which is increasing rapidly. Load balancing is an issue because it cannot handle so many requests at a time. It is also known as NP complete problem. In traditional system the functions consist of various parameter values to maximise it in order to achieve best optimal individualsolutions. Challenge is when there are many parameters of solutionsin the system space. Another challenge is to optimize the function which is much more complex. In this paper, various techniques to handle load balancing virtually (VM) as well as physically (nodes) using genetic algorithm is discussed.

  19. Thermo-mechanical fatigue behaviour of the near-{gamma}-titanium aluminide alloy TNB-V5 under uniaxial and multiaxial loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, Stephen Peter


    With increasing environmental awareness and the general need to economise on the use of fossil fuels, there is growing pressure for industry to produce lighter, more efficient, gas turbine engines. One such material that will help to achieve these improvements is the intermetallic gamma titanium aluminide ({gamma}-TiAl) alloy. At only half the density of current nickel-based superalloys its weight saving capability is highly desirable, however, its mechanical properties have not yet been fully explored especially, when it is to be considered for structural components in aeronautical gas turbine engines. Critical components in these engines typically experience large variations in temperatures and multiaxial states of stress under non-isothermal conditions. These stress states are known as tri-axial thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). The work presented here investigates the effects these multi-axial stresses, have on a {gamma}-TiAl, (Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.2B-0.2C) alloy under TMF conditions. The uniaxial, torsional and axialtorsional TMF behaviour of this {gamma}-TiAl alloy have been examined at 400 - 800 C with strain amplitudes ranging from 0.15% to 0.7%. The tests were conducted at both thermomechanical in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP). Selected tests additionally contained a 180 seconds hold period. Fatigue lifetimes are strongly influenced by the strain amplitude, a small increase in amplitude reduces the lifetime considerably. The uniaxial IP tests showed significantly longer fatigue lifetimes than of all the tests performed. Torsional loading although have shorter fatigue lifetimes than the uniaxial IP loading they have longer fatigue lifetimes than the uniaxial OP loading. The non-proportional axial-torsional 90 degree OP test is most damaging which resulted in a shorter lifetime than the uniaxial OP test with the same Mises equivalent mechanical strain amplitude. A hold period at maximum temperatures reduced the lifetime for all tests regardless of the temperature

  20. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J


    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  1. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Joseph L


    The text covers a broad spectrum between basic and advanced complex variables on the one hand and between theoretical and applied or computational material on the other hand. With careful selection of the emphasis put on the various sections, examples, and exercises, the book can be used in a one- or two-semester course for undergraduate mathematics majors, a one-semester course for engineering or physics majors, or a one-semester course for first-year mathematics graduate students. It has been tested in all three settings at the University of Utah. The exposition is clear, concise, and lively

  2. One week ahead short term load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baharudin, Z.; Kamel, N. [Petronas Technology Univ., Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Electrical and Electronics


    Autoregressive (AR) Burg techniques were used to optimize week-ahead short-term load forecasting for Malaysia's electricity grid. The digital signal processing method used historical data signals to predict performance over future intervals. The predicted value was hourly to a maximum of 168 hours. The AR model provided an improved mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values for short term load forecasts (STLF). The model was then compared with other models of the electricity grids of both Malaysia and New South Wales (NSW). A time series model was used to simulate discrete-time stochastic progresses using linear difference equations of complex coefficients. An autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model was generated by filtering unit variance white noise with a causal linear shift-invariant filter. The Burg's spectrum estimation method computed reflection coefficients sequentially by minimizing mean-squares of the forward and backward prediction errors. The performance of the different parametric techniques on week-ahead forecasts were investigated using both the ARMA and AR models. Results of the evaluation demonstrated that the average value of MAPE over a 7-day period was 54 per cent less for the AR models than for the ARMA model. Fourteen weeks of data were used to develop the 1-week forecasts. It was concluded that removing periods of load variation and weekends from the data improve the accuracy of the ARMA model by 50 per cent, while the accuracy of the AR model was improved by only 40 per cent. 20 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit (United States)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.


    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  4. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart


    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  5. and complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrin Ken


    Full Text Available Granular materials have a strange propensity to behave as either a complex media or a simple media depending on the precise question being asked. This review paper offers a summary of granular flow rheologies for well-developed or steady-state motion, and seeks to explain this dichotomy through the vast range of complexity intrinsic to these models. A key observation is that to achieve accuracy in predicting flow fields in general geometries, one requires a model that accounts for a number of subtleties, most notably a nonlocal effect to account for cooperativity in the flow as induced by the finite size of grains. On the other hand, forces and tractions that develop on macro-scale, submerged boundaries appear to be minimally affected by grain size and, barring very rapid motions, are well represented by simple rate-independent frictional plasticity models. A major simplification observed in experiments of granular intrusion, which we refer to as the ‘resistive force hypothesis’ of granular Resistive Force Theory, can be shown to arise directly from rate-independent plasticity. Because such plasticity models have so few parameters, and the major rheological parameter is a dimensionless internal friction coefficient, some of these simplifications can be seen as consequences of scaling.

  6. A comparative experiment in distributed load balancing

    KAUST Repository

    Randles, Martin


    The anticipated uptake of Cloud computing, built on the well-established research fields of web services, networks, utility computing, distributed computing and virtualisation, will bring many advantages in cost, flexibility and availability for service users. These benefits are expected to further drive the demand for cloud services, increasing both the cloud customer base and the scale of cloud installations. This has implications for many technical issues in such Service Oriented Architectures and Internet of Services (IoS) type applications; fault tolerance, high availability and scalability for examples. Central to these issues is the establishment of effective load balancing techniques. It is clear that the scale and complexity of these systems makes centralized individual assignment of jobs to specific servers infeasible; leading to the need for an effective distributed solution. This paper investigates three possible distributed solutions, which have been proposed for load balancing: An approach inspired by the foraging behaviour of the Honeybee, Biased Random Sampling and Active Clustering. © 2009 IEEE.

  7. Optimal Topology of Aircraft Rib and Spar Structures under Aeroelastic Loads (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Dunning, Peter D.


    Several topology optimization problems are conducted within the ribs and spars of a wing box. It is desired to locate the best position of lightening holes, truss/cross-bracing, etc. A variety of aeroelastic metrics are isolated for each of these problems: elastic wing compliance under trim loads and taxi loads, stress distribution, and crushing loads. Aileron effectiveness under a constant roll rate is considered, as are dynamic metrics: natural vibration frequency and flutter. This approach helps uncover the relationship between topology and aeroelasticity in subsonic transport wings, and can therefore aid in understanding the complex aircraft design process which must eventually consider all these metrics and load cases simultaneously.

  8. Observations during static and cyclic undrained loading of dense Aalborg University sand no. 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Diaz, Alberto Troya; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Offshore structures are subjected to cyclic loading, which is one of the most important factors in the foundation design. Cyclic loading lead to complex soil response in undrained conditions. In this paper dense Aalborg University sand no. 1, ID = 90 %, is investigated performing a series....... Soil strength and stiffness are found to change depending on the type of loading applied. Effective friction angle is found to be changing during various phases of loading. Linear Mohr Coulomb model could potentially be sufficient for modeling the full spectrum of dense sand behavior if extended...

  9. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across U.S. Regions of the Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alkadi, Nasr [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ma, Ookie [USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)


    Demand response has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles for demand response that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study.

  10. Loads specification and embedded plate definition for the ITER cryoline system (United States)

    Badgujar, S.; Benkheira, L.; Chalifour, M.; Forgeas, A.; Shah, N.; Vaghela, H.; Sarkar, B.


    ITER cryolines (CLs) are complex network of vacuum-insulated multi and single process pipe lines, distributed in three different areas at ITER site. The CLs will support different operating loads during the machine life-time; either considered as nominal, occasional or exceptional. The major loads, which form the design basis are inertial, pressure, temperature, assembly, magnetic, snow, wind, enforced relative displacement and are put together in loads specification. Based on the defined load combinations, conceptual estimation of reaction loads have been carried out for the lines located inside the Tokamak building. Adequate numbers of embedded plates (EPs) per line have been defined and integrated in the building design. The finalization of building EPs to support the lines, before the detailed design, is one of the major design challenges as the usual logic of the design may alter. At the ITER project level, it was important to finalize EPs to allow adequate design and timely availability of the Tokamak building. The paper describes the single loads, load combinations considered in load specification and the approach for conceptual load estimation and selection of EPs for Toroidal Field (TF) Cryoline as an example by converting the load combinations in two main load categories; pressure and seismic.

  11. Plasma protein haptoglobin modulates renal iron loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoonee, Sharmila; Gburek, Jakub; Hirsch, Emilio


    Haptoglobin is the plasma protein with the highest binding affinity for hemoglobin. The strength of hemoglobin binding and the existence of a specific receptor for the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the monocyte/macrophage system clearly suggest that haptoglobin may have a crucial role in heme...... morphological and functional parameters of renal damage. These data demonstrate that haptoglobin crucially prevents glomerular filtration of hemoglobin and, consequently, renal iron loading during aging and following acute plasma heme-protein overload....... distribution of hemoglobin in haptoglobin-deficient mice resulted in abnormal iron deposits in proximal tubules during aging. Moreover, iron also accumulated in proximal tubules after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury or after an acute plasma heme-protein overload caused by muscle injury, without affecting...

  12. Excavating and loading equipment for peat mining (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Zhigulskaya, A. I.; Yakonovskaya, T. B.


    Recently, the issues of sustainable development of Russian regions, related to ensuring energy security, are more urgent than ever. To achieve sustainable development, an integrated approach to the use of local natural resources is needed. Practically in all north regions of the Russian Federation, peat as a local natural resource is widespread, which has a practical application in the area of housing services. The paper presents the evaluation of technologies for open-pit peat mining, as well as analysis of technological equipment for peat production. Special attention is paid to a question of peat materials excavating and loading. The problem of equipment selection in a peat surface mine is complex. Many features, restrictions and criteria need to be considered. Use of low and ultra-low ground pressure excavators and low ground pressure front-end loaders with full-range tires to provide the necessary floatation in the peat bog environment is offered.

  13. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing. (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H


    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  14. Electrospun Thermoplastic Polyurethane Mats Containing Naproxen– Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akduman Çiğdem


    Full Text Available Incorporation of cyclodextrins (CDs into electrospun nanofibrous materials can be considered as potential candidates for functional medical textile applications. Naproxen (NAP is a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly administered for the treatment of pain, inflammation and fever. Drug-inclusion complex formation with CDs is an approach to improve the aqueous solubility via molecular encapsulation of the drug within the cavity of the more soluble CD molecule. In this study, NAP or different NAP-CD inclusion complexes loaded nanofibres were successfully produced through electrospinning and characterised. The inclusion complex loaded mats exhibited significantly faster release profiles than NAP-loaded thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU mats. Overall, NAP-inclusion complex loaded TPU electrospun nanofibres could be used as drug delivery systems for acute pain treatments since they possess a highly porous structure that can release the drug immediately.

  15. Cosmic Complexity (United States)

    Mather, John C.


    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  16. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans


    to establish partial safety factors for design of such components against this failure mode, structuralreliability methods must be applied. This type of analysis accounts for the variability of the external (wind) loading (as addressed in the analyses of the general wind climate) - and thereby the induced......An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...

  17. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    mismatch and summation of power mismatches are taken as two inputs for fuzzy logic controller. Considering magnitude of power mismatch and sign of power mismatch, new 25 fuzzy rules are created from two sets of inputs. The proposed Decoupled. Fuzzy Load Flow (FDLF) is applied to IEEE 14 bus, IEEE 30 bus, IEEE ...

  18. Nitrogen-Rich Energetic Metal-Organic Framework: Synthesis, Structure, Properties, and Thermal Behaviors of Pb(II Complex Based on N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl-Amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Liu


    Full Text Available The focus of energetic materials is on searching for a high-energy, high-density, insensitive material. Previous investigations have shown that 3D energetic metal–organic frameworks (E-MOFs have great potential and advantages in this field. A nitrogen-rich E-MOF, Pb(bta·2H2O [N% = 31.98%, H2bta = N,N-Bis(1H-tetrazole-5-yl-amine], was prepared through a one-step hydrothermal reaction in this study. Its crystal structure was determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complex has high heat denotation (16.142 kJ·cm−3, high density (3.250 g·cm−3, and good thermostability (Tdec = 614.9 K, 5 K·min−1. The detonation pressure and velocity obtained through theoretical calculations were 43.47 GPa and 8.963 km·s−1, respectively. The sensitivity test showed that the complex is an impact-insensitive material (IS > 40 J. The thermal decomposition process and kinetic parameters of the complex were also investigated through thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Non-isothermal kinetic parameters were calculated through the methods of Kissinger and Ozawa-Doyle. Results highlighted the nitrogen-rich MOF as a potential energetic material.

  19. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F


    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  20. Methodologies for predicting the part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian


    Prediction of the part-load performance of gas turbines is advantageous in various applications. Sometimes reasonable part-load performance is sufficient, while in other cases complete agreement with the performance of an existing machine is desirable. This paper is aimed at providing some guidance...... on methodologies for predicting part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines. Two different design models – one simple and one more complex – are created. Subsequently, for each of these models, the part-load performance is predicted using component maps and turbine constants, respectively. Comparisons...... with manufacturer data are made. With respect to the design models, the simple model, featuring a compressor, combustor and turbines, results in equally good performance prediction in terms of thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature as does a more complex model. As for part-load predictions, the results suggest...

  1. A Space-Based Generic Pattern for Self-Initiative Load Balancing Agents (United States)

    Kühn, Eva; Sesum-Cavic, Vesna

    Load-Balancing is a significant problem in heterogeneous distributed systems. There exist many load balancing algorithms, however, most approaches are very problem specific oriented and a comparison is therefore complex. This paper proposes a generic architectural pattern for a load balancing framework that allows for the plugging of different load balancing algorithms, reaching from unintelligent to intelligent ones, to ease the selection of the best algorithm for a certain problem scenario. As in complex network environments there is no "one-fits-all solution", also the integration of several different algorithms shall be supported. The presented pattern assumes autonomous agents and decentralized control. It can be composed towards arbitrary network topologies, foresees exchangeable policies for load-balancing, and uses a black-board based communication mechanism to achieve high software architecture agility. The pattern has been implemented and first instantiations of it with three algorithms have been benchmarked.

  2. The effect of loading solution and dissolution media on release of Diclofenac from ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Atyabi F


    Full Text Available Drugs can be loaded on ion exchange resins in order to control their release. Loading of diclofenac sodium on the resin beads not only sustain its release but also reduce its gastrointestinal mucosal injury. In this study the effect of loading solution and concentration of diclofenac in loading solution on total amount of drug loaded on the resin beads (Amberlite IRA-900 and the release characteristic of drug in different media were examined. Results showed that diclofenac resin complex did not release their drug content in simulated gastric fluid but released it in simulated intestinal fluid independent of exposure time in acidic conditions. The effect of a number of parameters such as ionic strength and pH on the release characteristic of drug - resin complexes were also examined. Results showed that although ionic strength is an important factor, drug release is more affected by the pH of the media. NO ABSTRACT

  3. Deformation and shock consolidation of various sands under explosive loading (United States)

    Weckert, S. A.; Resnyansky, A. D.


    The response of various geological materials to shock loading is important in both military and industrial applications. The composition of a real soil is complex and involves multiple constituents that undergo a number of physical and mechanical transformations during the shock loading. The present study analyzes several sands, a limestone sand both wet and dry, and a dry silica sand representing simplified model system for the soil. The sands are compressed using two different steel encapsulation assemblies subject to loading by explosive detonation products. These set-ups attempt to vary the magnitude and duration of applied pressure and temperature to the encapsulated sand. A comparative analysis of the recovered sand samples, including a microstructural analysis focusing on the grain breakage, compaction and consolidation, is correlated with a CTH numerical analysis employing a multi-phase rate sensitive material model.

  4. Load and Flexibility Models for Distribution Grid Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos

    Recent trends in power systems have favored the electrification of residential heating and transportation by means of modern partially flexible loads. Furthermore, environmental concerns have promoted the notion of distributed generation, thus increasing its penetration in low voltage distribution...... to advanced metering and control infrastructure investments. These investments will transform distribution networks into smarter" grids which will facilitate flexible load/generation control in return for financial and reliability benefits to electricity consumers. The theoretical idea of modernising the grid...... grids. These technological advancements have changed the nature of conventional demand and supply; nonetheless, the grid has remained the same on the grounds that network modifications are considerably more complex and expensive than individual load/generation changes. It is evident, that by radically...

  5. Commercial building energy use monitoring for utility load research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucchi, R.P.


    This paper describes a method to acquire empirical data regarding commercial building energy performance for utility load research. The method was devised and implemented for a large scale monitoring program being conducted for a federal electricity marketing and transmission agency in the Pacific Northwest states. An important feature of this method is its hierarchical approach, wherein building types, end-use loads, and key building characteristics are classified to accommodate analysis at many levels. Through this common taxonomy and measurement protocol, energy-use metering projects of varying detail and comprehensiveness can be coordinated. The procedures devised for this project have been implemented for approximately 150 buildings to date by specially trained contractors. Hence, this paper provides real-world insights of the complexity and power of end use measurements from commercial buildings to address utility load research topics. 6 refs.

  6. Load Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ivar Chr. Bjerg; Hansen, Søren Mosegaard; Brincker, Rune


    When performing operational modal analysis the dynamic loading is unknown, however, once the modal properties of the structure have been estimated, the transfer matrix can be obtained, and the loading can be estimated by inverse filtering. In this paper loads in frequency domain are estimated...... and the errors on the estimated loads are determined....

  7. 14 CFR 27.865 - External loads. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 27.865 Section 27.865... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 27.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for...

  8. 14 CFR 29.865 - External loads. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External loads. 29.865 Section 29.865... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction External Loads § 29.865 External loads. (a) It must be shown by analysis, test, or both, that the rotorcraft external load attaching means for...

  9. Complex matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A


    Mechanisms for performing a complex matrix multiplication operation are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the complex matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. The first vector operand comprises a real and imaginary part of a first complex vector value. A complex load and splat operation is performed to load a second complex vector value of a second vector operand and replicate the second complex vector value within a second target vector register. The second complex vector value has a real and imaginary part. A cross multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the complex matrix multiplication operation. The partial product is accumulated with other partial products and a resulting accumulated partial product is stored in a result vector register.

  10. Analyses of tunnel stability under dynamic loads


    Oraee, B; Hosseini, N.; Oraee, K; Gholinejad, M


    Tunnels as any other structures are affected by different loads and stresses. Generally, the loads on tunnels consist of both static and dynamic loads. These loads must both be considered in the tunnel design process. In this paper, the stability state of Jiroft water-transform tunnel is evaluated. Firstly, the in-situ stresses and then using Kirschs equations the induced stresses due to static loads in walls and crown of tunnel are calculated. Consequently, the strain caused by probable eart...

  11. Numerical prediction of slamming loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Jensen, Jørgen J; Pedersen, Preben T


    It is important to include the contribution of the slamming-induced response in the structural design of large vessels with a significant bow flare. At the same time it is a challenge to develop rational tools to determine the slamming-induced loads and the prediction of their occurrence. Today i...

  12. Resource augmentation in load balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Azar; L. Epstein (Lea); R. van Stee (Rob)


    textabstractWe consider load-balancing in the following setting. The on-line algorithm is allowed to use $n$ machines, whereas the optimal off-line algorithm is limited to $m$ machines, for some fixed $m < n$. We show that while the greedy algorithm has a competitive ratio which decays linearly in

  13. Soil Profiles and Seismic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janotka, V.


    Full Text Available The contribution estimates different geotechnical profiles of site condition change and their influences on the computed seismic response spectra and time histories final values and forms applying on the seismic structures loading. The mentioned problems methodics attitude solution is based on the computed seismic motion parameters.

  14. Short-Term Load Forecasting for Microgrids Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Sanchez-Esguevillas


    Full Text Available Electricity is indispensable and of strategic importance to national economies. Consequently, electric utilities make an effort to balance power generation and demand in order to offer a good service at a competitive price. For this purpose, these utilities need electric load forecasts to be as accurate as possible. However, electric load depends on many factors (day of the week, month of the year, etc., which makes load forecasting quite a complex process requiring something other than statistical methods. This study presents an electric load forecast architectural model based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN that performs Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF. In this study, we present the excellent results obtained, and highlight the simplicity of the proposed model. Load forecasting was performed in a geographic location of the size of a potential microgrid, as microgrids appear to be the future of electric power supply.

  15. Online short-term forecast of greenhouse heat load using a weather forecast service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogler-Finck, P. J.C.; Bacher, P.; Madsen, Henrik


    the performance of recursive least squares for predicting the heat load of individual greenhouses in an online manner. Predictor inputs (weekly curves terms and weather forecast inputs) are selected in an automated manner using a forward selection approach. Historical load measurements from 5 Danish greenhouses...... with different operational characteristics were used, together with weather measurements and a weather forecast service. It was found that these predictors of reduced complexity and computational load performed well at capturing recurring load profiles, but not fast frequency random changes. Overall, the root......In some district heating systems, greenhouses represent a significant share of the total load, and can lead to operational challenges. Short term load forecast of such consumers has a strong potential to contribute to the improvement of the overall system efficiency. This work investigates...

  16. How and why multiple MCMs are loaded at origins of DNA replication. (United States)

    Das, Shankar P; Rhind, Nicholas


    Recent work suggests that DNA replication origins are regulated by the number of multiple mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) complexes loaded. Origins are defined by the loading of MCM - the replicative helicase which initiates DNA replication and replication kinetics determined by origin's location and firing times. However, activation of MCM is heterogeneous; different origins firing at different times in different cells. Also, more MCMs are loaded in G1 than are used in S phase. These aspects of MCM biology are explained by the observation that multiple MCMs are loaded at origins. Having more MCMs at early origins makes them more likely to fire, effecting differences in origin efficiency that define replication timing. Nonetheless, multiple MCM loading raises new questions, such as how they are loaded, where these MCMs reside at origins, and how their presence affects replication timing. In this review, we address these questions and discuss future avenues of research. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fracture load of ceramic restorations after fatigue loading. (United States)

    Baladhandayutham, Balasudha; Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O


    A clinician must decide what ceramic coping and veneer material to prescribe based on the amount of tooth reduction possible and the desired esthetic outcome of the restoration. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture strength of monolithic and bilayered lithium disilicate (IPS e.max) and zirconia (LAVA) crowns at clinically relevant thicknesses after load cycling. Crowns (n=8) were fabricated from 6 groups: 1.2-mm monolithic lithium disilicate, 1.5-mm monolithic lithium disilicate, 1.5-mm bilayered lithium disilicate with hand-layered veneer, 0.6 mm monolithic zirconia, 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia with hand-layered veneer, and 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia with milled veneer (dimension represents thickness at the occlusal pit). Crowns were cemented to identical milled resin dies with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Cemented crowns were stored at 37°C for 24 hours and load cycled for 200,000 cycles at 25 N at a rate of 40 cycles/minute. The ultimate fracture load for each specimen was measured in a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference post hoc analysis (α=.05). Mean ±SD fracture load values were 1465 ±330 N for monolithic lithium disilicate (1.2-mm thickness) and 2027 ±365 N (1.5-mm thickness) and 1732 ±315 N for bilayered hand-veneered lithium disilicate (1.5-mm thickness). Fracture loads were 1669 ±311 N for monolithic zirconia crowns (0.6mm thickness), 2625 ±300 N for zirconia milled-veneered (1.2-mm thickness), and 2655 ±590N for zirconia hand-veneered crowns (1.2mm thickness). One-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference among the groups (PVeneered zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture strength, 1.2-mm hand veneered zirconia was similar to that of 1.5-mm monolithic zirconia, and all other groups were not statistically different. Crowns of 1.2-mm bilayered zirconia had higher fracture loads than 0.6-mm zirconia or 1.2-mm lithium disilicate

  18. Structure and Function of Iron-Loaded Synthetic Melanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yiwen; Xie, Yijun; Wang, Zhao; Zang, Nanzhi; Carniato, Fabio; Huang, Yuran; Andolina, Christopher M.; Parent, Lucas R.; Ditri, Treffly B.; Walter, Eric D.; Botta, Mauro; Rinehart, Jeffrey D.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.


    We describe a synthetic method for increasing and controlling the iron loading of synthetic melanin nanoparticles and use the resulting materials to perform a systematic quantitative investigation on their structure- property relationship. A comprehensive analysis by magnetometry, electron paramagnetic resonance, and nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion reveals the complexities of their magnetic behavior and how these intraparticle magnetic interactions manifest in useful material properties such as their performance as MRI contrast agents. This analysis allows predictions of the optimal iron loading through a quantitative modeling of antiferromagnetic coupling that arises from proximal iron ions. This study provides a detailed understanding of this complex class of synthetic biomaterials and gives insight into interactions and structures prevalent in naturally occurring melanins.

  19. Load Balancing Strategies for Multiphase Flows on Structured Grids (United States)

    Olshefski, Kristopher; Owkes, Mark


    The computation time required to perform large simulations of complex systems is currently one of the leading bottlenecks of computational research. Parallelization allows multiple processing cores to perform calculations simultaneously and reduces computational times. However, load imbalances between processors waste computing resources as processors wait for others to complete imbalanced tasks. In multiphase flows, these imbalances arise due to the additional computational effort required at the gas-liquid interface. However, many current load balancing schemes are only designed for unstructured grid applications. The purpose of this research is to develop a load balancing strategy while maintaining the simplicity of a structured grid. Several approaches are investigated including brute force oversubscription, node oversubscription through Message Passing Interface (MPI) commands, and shared memory load balancing using OpenMP. Each of these strategies are tested with a simple one-dimensional model prior to implementation into the three-dimensional NGA code. Current results show load balancing will reduce computational time by at least 30%.

  20. Load Prediction in District Heating Systems; Lastprognoser foer fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvarnstroem, Johan; Dotzauer, Erik; Gollvik, Lena; Andersson, Cari


    To produce heat and power is costly. Therefore it is important for the district heating companies to plan and optimize the production. The principal procedure is to first construct a prediction of the heat demand, and then, given the demand prediction, plan the production. Due to the complexity of the problem, the need for mathematical models is obvious. The common way to predict the heat demand is to use one single load curve for the whole district heating network. This has obvious drawbacks. With only one curve it is difficult to consider e.g. restrictions in distribution capacity and the dynamics in the network. The standard approach is also to base the predictions on delivered heat from the production plants. During the last few years it has become more common to measure the load directly at the consumer sites. This gives new opportunities for the construction of load predictions. Another type of information that is not exploited today is the fact that the consumption patterns differ for different categories of consumers. For example, the load profiles for a residential house and an office diverge. An alternative approach is then to consider this in the load prediction algorithm. The aim with current project is to investigate alternative methods for prediction of district heating demand. Focus is on how to exploit measurements from the consumer sites. Also the possibility to make predictions using physical models is discussed. Numerical results based on data from the district heating systems in Stockholm owned by Fortum are presented