WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex health problems

  1. Zoonoses, One Health and complexity: wicked problems and constructive conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltner-Toews, David

    2017-07-19

    Infectious zoonoses emerge from complex interactions among social and ecological systems. Understanding this complexity requires the accommodation of multiple, often conflicting, perspectives and narratives, rooted in different value systems and temporal-spatial scales. Therefore, to be adaptive, successful and sustainable, One Health approaches necessarily entail conflicts among observers, practitioners and scholars. Nevertheless, these integrative approaches have, both implicitly and explicitly, tended to marginalize some perspectives and prioritize others, resulting in a kind of technocratic tyranny. An important function of One Health approaches should be to facilitate and manage those conflicts, rather than to impose solutions.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Level of satisfaction of older persons with their general practitioner and practice: role of complexity of health problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius J Poot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Satisfaction is widely used to evaluate and direct delivery of medical care; a complicated relationship exists between patient satisfaction, morbidity and age. This study investigates the relationships between complexity of health problems and level of patient satisfaction of older persons with their general practitioner (GP and practice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study is embedded in the ISCOPE (Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons study. Enlisted patients aged ≥75 years from 59 practices received a written questionnaire to screen for complex health problems (somatic, functional, psychological and social. For 2664 randomly chosen respondents (median age 82 years; 68% female information was collected on level of satisfaction (satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied with their GP and general practice, and demographic and clinical characteristics including complexity of health problems. Of all participants, 4% was dissatisfied with their GP care, 59% neutral and 37% satisfied. Between these three categories no differences were observed in age, gender, country of birth or education level. The percentage of participants dissatisfied with their GP care increased from 0.4% in those with 0 problem domains to 8% in those with 4 domains, i.e. having complex health problems (p<0.001. Per additional health domain with problems, the risk of being dissatisfied increased 1.7 times (95% CI 1.4-2.14; p<0.001. This was independent of age, gender, and demographic and clinical parameters (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8; p = 0.021. CONCLUSION: In older persons, dissatisfaction with general practice is strongly correlated with rising complexity of health problems, independent of age, demographic and clinical parameters. It remains unclear whether complexity of health problems is a patient characteristic influencing the perception of care, or whether the care is unable to handle the demands of these patients. Prospective studies are needed to

  3. Level of satisfaction of older persons with their general practitioner and practice: role of complexity of health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot, Antonius J; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Blom, Jeanet W; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction is widely used to evaluate and direct delivery of medical care; a complicated relationship exists between patient satisfaction, morbidity and age. This study investigates the relationships between complexity of health problems and level of patient satisfaction of older persons with their general practitioner (GP) and practice. This study is embedded in the ISCOPE (Integrated Systematic Care for Older Persons) study. Enlisted patients aged ≥75 years from 59 practices received a written questionnaire to screen for complex health problems (somatic, functional, psychological and social). For 2664 randomly chosen respondents (median age 82 years; 68% female) information was collected on level of satisfaction (satisfied, neutral, dissatisfied) with their GP and general practice, and demographic and clinical characteristics including complexity of health problems. Of all participants, 4% was dissatisfied with their GP care, 59% neutral and 37% satisfied. Between these three categories no differences were observed in age, gender, country of birth or education level. The percentage of participants dissatisfied with their GP care increased from 0.4% in those with 0 problem domains to 8% in those with 4 domains, i.e. having complex health problems (ppatient characteristic influencing the perception of care, or whether the care is unable to handle the demands of these patients. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the causal associations between care organization, patient characteristics, indicators of quality, and patient perceptions.

  4. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Paul R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion. However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000 experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion, higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment. In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion. Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows

  5. Qubit Complexity of Continuous Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papageorgiou, A; Traub, J. F

    2005-01-01

    .... The authors show how to obtain the classical query complexity for continuous problems. They then establish a simple formula for a lower bound on the qubit complexity in terms of the classical query complexity...

  6. Innovative Use of the Law to Address Complex Global Health Problems Comment on "The Legal Strength of International Health Instruments - What It Brings toGlobal Health Governance?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen L; Ooms, Gorik

    2017-05-20

    Addressing the increasingly globalised determinants of many important problems affecting human health is a complex task requiring collective action. We suggest that part of the solution to addressing intractable global health issues indeed lies with the role of new legal instruments in the form of globally binding treaties, as described in the recent article of Nikogosian and Kickbusch. However, in addition to the use of international law to develop new treaties, another part of the solution may lie in innovative use of existing legal instruments. A 2015 court ruling in The Hague, which ordered the Dutch government to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 25% within five years, complements this perspective, suggesting a way forward for addressing global health problems that critically involves civil society and innovative use of existing domestic legal instruments. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  7. Environmental problems in the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, K.O.

    1989-04-01

    This paper provide the authors' views on the environmental problems facing the Department of Energy. Testimony is based on a large body of work, over 50 reports and testimonies since 1981, on environmental, safety, and health aspects of DOE's nuclear weapons complex. This work has shown that the complex faces a wide variety of serious problem areas including aging facilities, safety concerns which have shut down DOE's production reactors, and environmental cleanup

  8. Wellbeing and resilience: mechanisms of transmission of health and risk in parents with complex mental health problems and their offspring--The WARM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Susanne; Davidsen, Kirstine; MacBeth, Angus; Lange, Theis; Minnis, Helen; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Simonsen, Erik; Lundy, Jenna-Marie; Nyström-Hansen, Maja; Trier, Christopher Høier; Røhder, Katrine; Gumley, Andrew

    2015-12-09

    The WARM study is a longitudinal cohort study following infants of mothers with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and control from pregnancy to infant 1 year of age. Children of parents diagnosed with complex mental health problems including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, are at increased risk of developing mental health problems compared to the general population. Little is known regarding the early developmental trajectories of infants who are at ultra-high risk and in particular the balance of risk and protective factors expressed in the quality of early caregiver-interaction. We are establishing a cohort of pregnant women with a lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and a non-psychiatric control group. Factors in the parents, the infant and the social environment will be evaluated at 1, 4, 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction. The study will provide data on very early risk developmental status and associated psychosocial risk factors, which will be important for developing targeted preventive interventions for infants of parents with severe mental disorder. NCT02306551, date of registration November 12, 2014.

  9. Health Problems at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Fitness Nutrition Puberty School Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Gradeschool > School > Health Problems at School Ages & Stages ...

  10. Complex multiplication and lifting problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chai, Ching-Li; Oort, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Abelian varieties with complex multiplication lie at the origins of class field theory, and they play a central role in the contemporary theory of Shimura varieties. They are special in characteristic 0 and ubiquitous over finite fields. This book explores the relationship between such abelian varieties over finite fields and over arithmetically interesting fields of characteristic 0 via the study of several natural CM lifting problems which had previously been solved only in special cases. In addition to giving complete solutions to such questions, the authors provide numerous examples to illustrate the general theory and present a detailed treatment of many fundamental results and concepts in the arithmetic of abelian varieties, such as the Main Theorem of Complex Multiplication and its generalizations, the finer aspects of Tate's work on abelian varieties over finite fields, and deformation theory. This book provides an ideal illustration of how modern techniques in arithmetic geometry (such as descent the...

  11. SCHOOL VIOLENCE: A COMPLEX PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available School violence is one type of violence that reflects the breakdown of current society. It is impossible to speak of school violence as an isolated phenomenon without establishing nexuses between public and private life, between collective and individual behaviors, between family and community aspects, without making reference to differences in gender and the life stories of those who are the aggressors or the victims, and without considering the patriarchal culture and interpersonal relationships. When all these factor are interrelated, they make the problem of violence a very complex one that requires us to know the different factors in order to understand it and deal with it.

  12. Solving complex problems a handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schönwandt, Walter; Grunau, Jens; Utz, Jürgen; Voermanek, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    When you're planning something big, problems appear rather quickly. We hear of them on a daily basis. The bigger or more complex a task, the more we have to deal with complicated, multidisciplinary task formulations. In many cases it is architecture, including urban and spatial planning, but also politics and all types of organizational forms, irrespective of whether they are public authorities or private enterprises, which are expected to deliver functional solutions for such challenges. This is precisely where this book is helpful. It introduces a methodology for developing target-specific,

  13. A case-based, problem-based learning approach to prepare master of public health candidates for the complexities of global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Juan S; Winskell, Kate; McFarland, Deborah A; del Rio, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Global health is a dynamic, emerging, and interdisciplinary field. To address current and emerging global health challenges, we need a public health workforce with adaptable and collaborative problem-solving skills. In the 2013-2014 academic year, the Hubert Department of Global Health at the Rollins School of Public Health-Emory University launched an innovative required core course for its first-year Master of Public Health students in the global health track. The course uses a case-based, problem-based learning approach to develop global health competencies. Small teams of students propose solutions to these problems by identifying learning issues and critically analyzing and synthesizing new information. We describe the course structure and logistics used to apply this approach in the context of a large class and share lessons learned.

  14. Complex analogues of real problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune

    This thesis will be a mix of different problems in number theory. As such it is split into two natural parts. The rst part focuses on normal numbers and construction of numbers that are normal to a given complex base. It is written in the style of a thorough and introductory paper on that subject....... Certain classical theorems are stated without proof but with a reference instead, though usually a proof is given. This part of the thesis represents the pinnacle of the authors work during the first two years of his PhD study. The work presented is greatly inspired by the work of Madritsch, Thuswaldner...... and Tichy in [Madritsch et al., 2008] and [Madritsch, 2008] and contains a generalisation of the main theorem in [Madritsch, 2008]. The second part of the thesis focuses on Diophantine approximation, mainly on a famous conjecture by Schmidt from the 1980s. This conjecture was solved by Badziahin, Pollington...

  15. Solving complex fisheries management problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2011-01-01

    A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related...

  16. Geological Factors and Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Prieto García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological factors, such as damages, can cause health determinants in people, which were a little-studied and if they have been raised on occasion, usually referred to no communicable diseases. The aim of this work, which is a more or less updated bibliography, has been to develop a holistic idea for a better understanding of a problem and force latent or potential risk that they can carry and consider scientific basis infectious diseases especially complex.  In essence, the focus of ecosystem health that should be considered in terrestrial ecosystems. It also provides the basic elements for the development of new research in this field.

  17. Complex Sequencing Problems and Local Search Heuristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.; Osman, I.H.; Kelly, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many problems can be formulated as complex sequencing problems. We will present problems in flexible manufacturing that have such a formulation and apply local search methods like iterative improvement, simulated annealing and tabu search to solve these problems. Computational results are reported.

  18. Common ground, complex problems and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, P.J.; Boshuizen, H.P.A.; Kirschner, P.A.; Gijselaers, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Organisations increasingly have to deal with complex problems. They often use multidisciplinary teams to cope with such problems where different team members have different perspectives on the problem, different individual knowledge and skills, and different approaches on how to solve the problem.

  19. Education for complex problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Rasmussen, Lone Krogh

    The Problem-Based Learning model as it is practiced at Aalborg University grew out of expectations for future graduates in the 1970s. Many changes and developments have taken place since then in the ways the principles and methodologies are practiced, due to changes in society and governmental...... regulations. However, the basic educational principles and methodologies are still the same and seem to meet expectations from society and academic work places today. This is what surveys and research, done regularly, document. (see for instance Krogh, 2013)....

  20. Health problems in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, E D

    1992-02-22

    Iraq is faced with large scale public health problems that have been caused by the destruction to their infrastructure during the Gulf war. Humanitarian aid is needed in order to avoid a large scale human disaster. In 1988 73% of Iraq's population lived in urban areas. The loss of electrical generating capacity has affected hospitals, water purification and sewage treatment. Iraq had made great strides int he health of their people with an infant mortality rate of 42/1000 in 1990 and 52./1000 for children under 5. The international study team's survey of over 9000 households revealed surprising evidence of widespread chronic malnutrition. Based on accepted mortality as a baseline, data suggests that mortality among Iraqi infants and children under 5 doubled in 1991. The current food ration provides only half of the energy requirement and with rapidly accelerating inflation, the cost of food while only make the situation worse. The UN Disaster Relief Office has received $1.059 billion from donor countries; but, only half of the requested $14 million has been funded through Unicef. This money is needed to meet basic requirements for water, sanitation, antibiotics, and vaccines. The UN Security Council approved resolutions 706 and 712 which would have allowed Iraq to sell $1.6 billion for foodstuffs, medicines, and materials and supplies necessary to civilian needs subject to monitoring and supervision to ensure equitable distribution. The Iraqi government has not met the requirements of 706 and 712 because of the monitoring conditions, so no money has been issued. More money is needed if humanitarian organizations are to do their work. Only $29 million of the $145 million needed for the 1st half of this year has been pledged.

  1. Developing a case mix classification for child and adolescent mental health services: the influence of presenting problems, complexity factors and service providers on number of appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; Davies, Roger; Macdougall, Amy; Ritchie, Benjamin; Vostanis, Panos; Whale, Andy; Wolpert, Miranda

    2017-09-01

    Case-mix classification is a focus of international attention in considering how best to manage and fund services, by providing a basis for fairer comparison of resource utilization. Yet there is little evidence of the best ways to establish case mix for child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). To develop a case mix classification for CAMHS that is clinically meaningful and predictive of number of appointments attended and to investigate the influence of presenting problems, context and complexity factors and provider variation. We analysed 4573 completed episodes of outpatient care from 11 English CAMHS. Cluster analysis, regression trees and a conceptual classification based on clinical best practice guidelines were compared regarding their ability to predict number of appointments, using mixed effects negative binomial regression. The conceptual classification is clinically meaningful and did as well as data-driven classifications in accounting for number of appointments. There was little evidence for effects of complexity or context factors, with the possible exception of school attendance problems. Substantial variation in resource provision between providers was not explained well by case mix. The conceptually-derived classification merits further testing and development in the context of collaborative decision making.

  2. How Health Care Complexity Leads to Cooperation and Affects the Autonomy of Health Care Professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Eric; Broekhuis, Manda; Stoffels, Renee; Jaspers, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Health professionals increasingly face patients with complex health problems and this pressurizes them to cooperate. The authors have analyzed how the complexity of health care problems relates to two types of cooperation: consultation and multidisciplinary teamwork (MTW). Moreover, they have

  3. Radon: A health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, J.; Gaston, S.

    1990-01-01

    Nurses can and should function as effective teachers about the potential hazards to health of radon contamination in the home as well as become activists in the development of health care policy on radon

  4. Nursing care needs and services utilised by home-dwelling elderly with complex health problems: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næss, Gro; Kirkevold, Marit; Hammer, Wenche; Straand, Jørund; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun

    2017-09-12

    In Norway, as in many Western countries, a shift from institutional care to home care is taking place. Our knowledge is limited regarding which needs for nursing interventions patients being cared for in their home have, and how they are met. We aimed at assessing aspects of health and function in a representative sample of the most vulnerable home-dwelling elderly, to identify their needs for nursing interventions and how these needs were met. In this observational study we included patients aged 75+ living in their own homes in Oslo, who received daily home care, had three or more chronic diagnoses, received daily medication, and had been hospitalized during the last year. Focused attention and cognitive processing speed were assessed with the Trail Making Test A (TMT-A), handgrip strength was used as a measure of sarcopenia, mobility was assessed with the "Timed Up-and-Go" test, and independence in primary activities of daily living by the Barthel Index. Diagnoses and medication were collected from electronic medical records. For each diagnosis, medication and functional impairment, a consensus group defined which nursing service that the particular condition necessitated. We then assessed whether these needs were fulfilled for each participant. Of 150 eligible patients, 83 were included (mean age 87 years, 25% men). They had on average 6 diagnoses and used 9 daily medications. Of the 83 patients, 61 (75%) had grip strength indicating sarcopenia, 27 (33%) impaired mobility, and 69 (83%) an impaired TMT-A score. Median amount of home nursing per week was 3.6 h (interquartile range 2.6 to 23.4). Fulfilment of pre-specified needs was >60% for skin and wound care in patients with skin diseases, observation of blood glucose in patients taking antidiabetic drugs, and in supporting food intake in patients with eating difficulties. Most other needs as defined by the consensus group were fulfilled in home-dwelling patients. For this group, resources for home nursing

  5. Mental health problems in deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents : findings on prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical complexities, and implications for prevention, diagnosis and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, Tiejo van

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge of mental health problems with deaf and severely hard of hearing children and adolescents in the following domains: 1. The prevalence of mental health problems; 2. Specific intra- and interpersonal aspects of pathogenesis; 3. characteristics of the

  6. The Process of Solving Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This article is about Complex Problem Solving (CPS), its history in a variety of research domains (e.g., human problem solving, expertise, decision making, and intelligence), a formal definition and a process theory of CPS applicable to the interdisciplinary field. CPS is portrayed as (a) knowledge acquisition and (b) knowledge application…

  7. Oral health problems and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ki Kim

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease—were not related to mortality when sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral factors were considered, and there was no differential pattern between the three conditions. Multiple oral health problems were associated with a higher risk of dying.

  8. Is Disability a Health Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm MacLachlan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We welcome Andrew Haig's critique of our paper, "Disability & Health: A research agenda" in Social Inclusion. Our paper sought to identify research priorities to better understand, provide enhanced services and a better quality of life for people with disabilities, particularly in relation to their health and wellbeing. Haig's critique makes several important points that deserve serious consideration. His comments reflect a view of the relationship between disability and health which is different from the one we have espoused. Specifically, Haig argues that (a disability is a health problem, (b medical rehabilitation should be separated from Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR, and (c the evidence base for medical rehabilitation is much stronger than for CBR. We address each of these points below arguing that while some types of disability clearly result from health problems; often disability is not experienced as a health problem; and sometimes, disability in interaction with restricted access is the cause of health problems.

  9. Quantum complexity of graph and algebraic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is organized as follows: In Chapter 2 we give some basic notations, definitions and facts from linear algebra, graph theory, group theory and quantum computation. In Chapter 3 we describe three important methods for the construction of quantum algorithms. We present the quantum search algorithm by Grover, the quantum amplitude amplification and the quantum walk search technique by Magniez et al. These three tools are the basis for the development of our new quantum algorithms for graph and algebra problems. In Chapter 4 we present two tools for proving quantum query lower bounds. We present the quantum adversary method by Ambainis and the polynomial method introduced by Beals et al. The quantum adversary tool is very useful to prove good lower bounds for many graph and algebra problems. The part of the thesis containing the original results is organized in two parts. In the first part we consider the graph problems. In Chapter 5 we give a short summary of known quantum graph algorithms. In Chapter 6 to 8 we study the complexity of our new algorithms for matching problems, graph traversal and independent set problems on quantum computers. In the second part of our thesis we present new quantum algorithms for algebraic problems. In Chapter 9 to 10 we consider group testing problems and prove quantum complexity bounds for important problems from linear algebra. (orig.)

  10. Quantum complexity of graph and algebraic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doern, Sebastian

    2008-02-04

    This thesis is organized as follows: In Chapter 2 we give some basic notations, definitions and facts from linear algebra, graph theory, group theory and quantum computation. In Chapter 3 we describe three important methods for the construction of quantum algorithms. We present the quantum search algorithm by Grover, the quantum amplitude amplification and the quantum walk search technique by Magniez et al. These three tools are the basis for the development of our new quantum algorithms for graph and algebra problems. In Chapter 4 we present two tools for proving quantum query lower bounds. We present the quantum adversary method by Ambainis and the polynomial method introduced by Beals et al. The quantum adversary tool is very useful to prove good lower bounds for many graph and algebra problems. The part of the thesis containing the original results is organized in two parts. In the first part we consider the graph problems. In Chapter 5 we give a short summary of known quantum graph algorithms. In Chapter 6 to 8 we study the complexity of our new algorithms for matching problems, graph traversal and independent set problems on quantum computers. In the second part of our thesis we present new quantum algorithms for algebraic problems. In Chapter 9 to 10 we consider group testing problems and prove quantum complexity bounds for important problems from linear algebra. (orig.)

  11. Addressing complex design problems through inductive learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimisation and related techniques are well suited to clearly defined problems involving systems that can be accurately simulated, but not to tasks in which the phenomena in question are highly complex or the problem ill-defined. These latter are typical of architecture and particularly creative design tasks, which therefore currently lack viable computational tools. It is argued that as design teams and construction projects of unprecedented scale are increasingly frequent, this is just whe...

  12. Advice Complexity of the Online Search Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemente, Jhoirene; Hromkovič, Juraj; Komm, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    the minimum amount of information needed in order to achieve a certain competitive ratio. We design an algorithm that reads $b$ bits of advice and achieves a competitive ratio of (M/m)^{1/(2^b+1)} where M and m are the maximum and minimum price in the input. We also give a matching lower bound. Furthermore......The online search problem is a fundamental problem in finance. The numerous direct applications include searching for optimal prices for commodity trading and trading foreign currencies. In this paper, we analyze the advice complexity of this problem. In particular, we are interested in identifying......, we compare the power of advice and randomization for this problem....

  13. Dependability problems of complex information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    This monograph presents original research results on selected problems of dependability in contemporary Complex Information Systems (CIS). The ten chapters are concentrated around the following three aspects: methods for modelling of the system and its components, tasks ? or in more generic and more adequate interpretation, functionalities ? accomplished by the system and conditions for their correct realization in the dynamic operational environment. While the main focus is on theoretical advances and roadmaps for implementations of new technologies, a?much needed forum for sharing of the bes

  14. Applications of systems thinking and soft operations research in managing complexity from problem framing to problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book captures current trends and developments in the field of systems thinking and soft operations research which can be applied to solve today's problems of dynamic complexity and interdependency. Such ‘wicked problems’ and messes are seemingly intractable problems characterized as value-laden, ambiguous, and unstable, that resist being tamed by classical problem solving. Actions and interventions associated with this complex problem space can have highly unpredictable and unintended consequences. Examples of such complex problems include health care reform, global climate change, transnational serious and organized crime, terrorism, homeland security, human security, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Moving towards the development of solutions to these complex problem spaces depends on the lens we use to examine them and how we frame the problem. It will be shown that systems thinking and soft operations research has had great success in contributing to the management of complexity. .

  15. Modeling the Structure and Complexity of Engineering Routine Design Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauregui Becker, Juan Manuel; Wits, Wessel Willems; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to structure routine design problems as well as a model of its design complexity. The idea is that having a proper model of the structure of such problems enables understanding its complexity, and likewise, a proper understanding of its complexity enables the development

  16. Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

  17. Using systems thinking and the Intervention Level Framework to analyse public health planning for complex problems: Otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Schubert, Lisa; Vaughan, Lisa; Willis, Cameron D

    2018-01-01

    Middle ear disease (otitis media) is endemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia and represents an important cause of hearing loss. The disease is the result of a mix of biological, environmental and host risk factors that interact in complex, non-linear ways along a dynamic continuum. As such, it is generally recognised that a holistic, systems approach is required to reverse the high rates of otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. The objective of this paper is to examine the alignment between efforts designed to address otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Queensland, Australia and core concepts of systems thinking. This paper's overall purpose is to identify which combination of activities, and at which level, hold the potential to facilitate systems changes to better support ear health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. We began with a review of documents identified in consultation with stakeholders and an online search. In addition, key informants were invited to participate in an online survey and a face-to-face or phone interview. Qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were used to explore survey responses in more depth. We also undertook interviews at the community level to elicit a diverse range of views. Ideas, statements or activities reported in the documents and interviews as being performed under the Intervention Level Framework were identified using qualitative thematic and content analysis. A quantitative descriptive analysis was also undertaken, whereby data was extracted into an Excel spreadsheet and coded under the relevant strategic directions and performance indicators of the Framework. Subsequently, we coded activities against the five-level intervention framework developed by Malhi and colleagues, that is: 1) paradigm; 2) goals; 3) system structure; 4) feedback and delays; and 5) structural elements. Overall, twenty

  18. Automatic Algorithm Selection for Complex Simulation Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ewald, Roland

    2012-01-01

    To select the most suitable simulation algorithm for a given task is often difficult. This is due to intricate interactions between model features, implementation details, and runtime environment, which may strongly affect the overall performance. An automated selection of simulation algorithms supports users in setting up simulation experiments without demanding expert knowledge on simulation. Roland Ewald analyzes and discusses existing approaches to solve the algorithm selection problem in the context of simulation. He introduces a framework for automatic simulation algorithm selection and

  19. Complex Problems in Entrepreneurship Education: Examining Complex Problem-Solving in the Application of Opportunity Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Baggen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI and complex problem-solving (CPS. OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of entrepreneurship research, whereas CPS is a more domain-general skill. On a conceptual level, there are reasons to believe that CPS skills can help individuals to identify potential opportunities in dynamic and nontransparent environments. Therefore, we empirically investigated whether CPS relates to OI among 113 masters students. Data is analyzed using multiple regressions. The results show that CPS predicts the number of concrete ideas that students generate, suggesting that having CPS skills supports the generation of detailed, potential business ideas of good quality. The results of the current study suggest that training CPS, as a more domain-general skill, could be a valuable part of what should be taught in EE.

  20. Workplace bullying and subsequent health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Magerøy, Nils; Gjerstad, Johannes; Einarsen, Ståle

    2014-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies demonstrate that exposure to bullying in the workplace is positively correlated with self-reported health problems. However, these studies do not provide a basis to draw conclusions on the extent to which bullying leads to increased health problems or whether health problems increase the risk of being bullied. To provide better indications of a causal relationship, knowledge from prospective studies on the association between bullying in the workplace and health outcomes is therefore summarised. We conducted a systematic literature review of original articles from central literature databases on longitudinal associations between bullying in the workplace and health. Average associations between bullying and health outcomes are calculated using meta-analysis. A consistent finding across the studies is that exposure to bullying is significantly positively related to mental health problems (OR =1.68; 95% KI 1.35-2.09) and somatic symptoms (OR = 1.77; 95% KI 1.41-2.22) over time. Mental health problems are also associated with subsequent exposure to bullying (OR = 1.74; 95% KI 1.44-2.12). Bullying is positively related to mental health problems and somatic symptoms. The association between mental health problems and subsequent bullying indicates a self-reinforcing process between mental health and bullying. The methodological quality of the studies that were conducted is relatively sound. However, based on the existing knowledge base there are no grounds for conclusions regarding an unambiguous causal relationship between bullying and health.

  1. Explicitly solvable complex Chebyshev approximation problems related to sine polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    Explicitly solvable real Chebyshev approximation problems on the unit interval are typically characterized by simple error curves. A similar principle is presented for complex approximation problems with error curves induced by sine polynomials. As an application, some new explicit formulae for complex best approximations are derived.

  2. Finding practical solutions to complex problems: IDRC's fifth annual ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... English · Français ... Finding practical solutions to complex problems: IDRC's fifth annual ... “IDRC staff share a common goal with the researchers they work with – to find low-cost, down-to-earth solutions to complex problems ...

  3. L.E.A.D.: A Framework for Evidence Gathering and Use for the Prevention of Obesity and Other Complex Public Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Madhabi; Green, Lawrence W.; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes a comprehensive, systems-oriented framework designed to improve the use of a wide variety of evidence sources to address population-wide obesity problems. The L.E.A.D. framework (for "Locate" the evidence, "Evaluate" the evidence, "Assemble" the evidence, and inform "Decisions"),…

  4. Inequalities in South African health care: Part I. The problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This exposition analyses and contextualises the complex problem of structural inequality in South African health care. Socio-econornic conditions, racial divisions and geographical location are isolated as the main determinants of inequality in the provision, allocation and distribution of health care; the prevailing inequalities ...

  5. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SAFEGUARDING HEALTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    observes that problems of safeguarding health values and right to health in ... through organized strategies and new approaches deliberately instituted to ... conceptions of a group about what is bad, undesirable and improper towards their ...

  6. Maternal problem drinking and child mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husky, M.M.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Stragalinou, A.; Pez, O.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Kovess-Masfety, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods:

  7. Modeling Complex Chemical Systems: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas in complex gas mixtures are at the heart of numerous contemporary technologies. They typically contain dozens to hundreds of species, involved in hundreds to thousands of reactions. Chemists and physicists have always been interested in what are now called chemical reduction techniques (CRT's). The idea of such CRT's is that they reduce the number of species that need to be considered explicitly without compromising the validity of the model. This is usually achieved on the basis of an analysis of the reaction time scales of the system under study, which identifies species that are in partial equilibrium after a given time span. The first such CRT that has been widely used in plasma physics was developed in the 1960's and resulted in the concept of effective ionization and recombination rates. It was later generalized to systems in which multiple levels are effected by transport. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in tools for chemical reduction and reaction pathway analysis. An example of the latter is the PumpKin tool. Another trend is that techniques that have previously been developed in other fields of science are adapted as to be able to handle the plasma state of matter. Examples are the Intrinsic Low Dimension Manifold (ILDM) method and its derivatives, which originate from combustion engineering, and the general-purpose Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique. In this contribution we will provide an overview of the most common reduction techniques, then critically assess the pros and cons of the methods that have gained most popularity in recent years. Examples will be provided for plasmas in argon and carbon dioxide.

  8. Solving Complex Problems to Create Charter Extension Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tippmann, Esther; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    undertaken by 29 subsidiary units supports our hypotheses, demonstrating that these activities are a means to systematically reduce inherent problem solving biases. This study contributes to problem solving theory, the literature on headquarters’ roles in complex organizations, as well as the literature......This study examines subsidiary-driven problem solving processes and their potential to create advanced solutions for charter extension options. Problem solving theory suggests that biases in problem formulation and solution search can confine problem solving potential. We thus argue that balanced...... solution search, or activities to reconcile the need for some solution features to be locally-tailored while others can be internationally standardized, mediates the relationships between problem complexity/headquarters involvement and the capacity to create advanced solutions. An analysis of 67 projects...

  9. Making mobility-related disability better: a complex response to a complex problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockwood Kenneth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mobility disability in older adults can arise from single system problems, such as discrete musculoskeletal injury. In frail older adults, however, mobility disability is part of a complex web of problems. The approach to their rehabilitation must take that complexity into account, as is reported by Fairhall et al. First, their overall health state must be assessed, which is achieved by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. The assessment can show how a particular patient came to be disabled, so that an individualized care plan can be worked out. Whether this approach works in general can be evaluated by looking at group differences in mean mobility test scores. Knowing whether it has worked in the individual patient requires an individualized measure. This is because not every patient starts from the same point, and not every patient achieves success by aiming for the same goal. For one patient, walking unassisted for three metres would be a triumph; for another it would be a tragedy. Unless we understand the complexity of the needs of frail older adults, we will neither be able to treat them effectively nor evaluate our efforts sensibly. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/120

  10. Making mobility-related disability better: a complex response to a complex problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, Kenneth

    2012-10-15

    Mobility disability in older adults can arise from single system problems, such as discrete musculoskeletal injury. In frail older adults, however, mobility disability is part of a complex web of problems. The approach to their rehabilitation must take that complexity into account, as is reported by Fairhall et al. First, their overall health state must be assessed, which is achieved by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. The assessment can show how a particular patient came to be disabled, so that an individualized care plan can be worked out. Whether this approach works in general can be evaluated by looking at group differences in mean mobility test scores. Knowing whether it has worked in the individual patient requires an individualized measure. This is because not every patient starts from the same point, and not every patient achieves success by aiming for the same goal. For one patient, walking unassisted for three metres would be a triumph; for another it would be a tragedy. Unless we understand the complexity of the needs of frail older adults, we will neither be able to treat them effectively nor evaluate our efforts sensibly.Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/120.

  11. Knowledge based method for solving complexity in design problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The process of design aircraft systems is becoming more and more complex, due to an increasing amount of requirements. Moreover, the knowledge on how to solve these complex design problems becomes less readily available, because of a decrease in availability of intellectual resources and reduced

  12. Solution of a Complex Least Squares Problem with Constrained Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydder, Mark

    2010-12-30

    The least squares solution of a complex linear equation is in general a complex vector with independent real and imaginary parts. In certain applications in magnetic resonance imaging, a solution is desired such that each element has the same phase. A direct method for obtaining the least squares solution to the phase constrained problem is described.

  13. Structuring and assessing large and complex decision problems using MCDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    This paper presents an approach for the structuring and assessing of large and complex decision problems using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The MCDA problem is structured in a decision tree and assessed using the REMBRANDT technique featuring a procedure for limiting the number of pair...

  14. On the complexity of container stowage planning problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Pacino, Dario; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of container ship and depot operations embeds the kk-shift problem, in which containers must be stowed in stacks such that at most kk containers must be removed in order to reach containers below them. We first solve an open problem introduced by Avriel et al. (2000) by showing...... that changing from uncapacitated to capacitated stacks reduces the complexity of this problem from NP-complete to polynomial. We then examine the complexity of the current state-of-the-art abstraction of container ship stowage planning, wherein containers and slots are grouped together. To do this, we define...... the hatch overstow problem, in which a set of containers are placed on top of the hatches of a container ship such that the number of containers that are stowed on hatches that must be accessed is minimized. We show that this problem is NP-complete by a reduction from the set-covering problem, which means...

  15. Fluid leadership: inviting diverse inputs to address complex problems

    OpenAIRE

    Moir, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited History is replete with examples of misapplied leadership strategies. When singular methods are used to solve multifaceted problems, negative results are often the consequence. Complex issues in a complex environment require complex perspectives; the homeland security enterprise (HSE) needs leaders who can adapt their leadership styles according to emerging environments. Furthermore, the diverse agencies within the HSE must work togeth...

  16. How does maternal oxytocin influence children's mental health problem and maternal mental health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wai S; Siu, Angela F Y; Wong, Tracy K Y

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore the interrelationship among maternal oxytocin (OT) responsiveness, maternal mental health, maternal parenting behavior, and mental health of children under a free-play interaction. 61 mother-child dyads were recruited for the study. Maternal mental health problem and parenting self-efficacy were measured using self-reported questionnaires. The mental health problems of children were also evaluated using a mother-reported questionnaire. Furthermore, salivary OT was collected before and after a standardized 10min free-play interaction. Parenting behaviors, including eye gaze and touch, were measured during the free-play interaction. Maternal OT responsiveness was significantly associated with less maternal mental health problem, touch frequency, and mental health problem of children but not with parenting self-efficacy. In the multivariate linear regression analysis that considers maternal OT responsiveness and maternal and children's mental health problems, maternal OT responsiveness was not associated with the mental health problems of children. This result suggested that maternal mental health problem played a mediational role between maternal OT responsiveness and the mental health problem of children. Results supported the assertion that maternal OT responsiveness contributed to the increased risk of maternal mental health problems and, subsequently, the risk of mental health problems of their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Health Problems of Mentally Disabled Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yildirim Sari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150

  18. [Health and social problems in the aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujić, V; Martinov-Cvejin, M; Ac-Nikolić, E

    1997-01-01

    This study reviews data from a poll conducted in three municipalities of Vojvodina on health and social problems of 60-year old and older people (n = 104). Poverty and illness are the main two problems aged people have to deal with, whereas exhaustion, pains, moving around with difficulty, poor vision, heart and breathing problems, as well as cardiovascular diseases and diseases of the musculoskeletal system are the most frequent health problems. Socializing is poor in the old age. Every third aged person visits nobody, while every fifth aged person is visited by nobody. About 3% of examinees describe their relationships with children as negative. That is why it is necessary to organize a health care of the aged which should maintain health and functional abilities into the old age with adequate social care of both closed and open type as long as possible.

  19. Solving complex band structure problems with the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, S. E.

    2012-08-01

    With straightforward extension, the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm [Polizzi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115112 (2009)] is capable of solving the generalized eigenvalue problems representing traveling-wave problems—as exemplified by the complex band-structure problem—even though the matrices involved are complex, non-Hermitian, and singular, and hence outside the originally stated range of applicability of the algorithm. The obtained eigenvalues/eigenvectors, however, contain spurious solutions which must be detected and removed. The efficiency and parallel structure of the original algorithm are unaltered. The complex band structures of Si layers of varying thicknesses and InAs nanowires of varying radii are computed as test problems.

  20. Correcting environmental problems facing the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses DOE's efforts to correct the environmental problems facing the nuclear weapons complex. It focuses on three main points. First, the weapons complex faces a variety of serious and costly environmental problems. Second, during the past year, DOE has made some important changes to its organization that should help change its management focus from one that emphasizes materials production to one that more clearly focuses on environmental concerns. Third, because resolution of DOE's environmental problems will require considerable resources during a period of budgetary constraints, it is imperative that DOE have internal controls in place to ensure that resources are spent efficiently

  1. Sepsis is a preventable public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempker, Jordan A; Wang, Henry E; Martin, Greg S

    2018-05-06

    There is a paradigm shift happening for sepsis. Sepsis is no longer solely conceptualized as problem of individual patients treated in emergency departments and intensive care units but also as one that is addressed as public health issue with population- and systems-based solutions. We offer a conceptual framework for sepsis as a public health problem by adapting the traditional model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

  2. Hypertension – a public health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos

    2011-12-01

    years(1.The problem related to treatment adhesion is complex. A series of factorsinfluence this process: biological characteristics (sex, age, race/color and familyhistory, social and cultural issues (civil status, years of schooling, income,profession, origin and religion; as well as the experience of the person with thedisease and its treatment; relationship with health care professionals; family support;and access to health care systems linked to updated public health policies(2.The lack of adhesion to treatment is an important challenge for theimplementation of policies for this population, possibly being responsible for theincrease in social costs with work absence, license for health treatment, and earlyretirement. On the other hand, the adhesion to treatment means the decrease oftreatment cost, and the possibility to integrate or reintegrate those in treatmentinto society. In addition, it reduces the morbimortality taxes by cardiovascular andcerebrovascular diseases related to hypertension.The population, mainly the most vulnerable to hypertension, needs to increaseits knowledge regarding hypertension risk factors in order to adhere to treatment andcontrol measures. The intermediation of this process should mainly be done troughhealth education, due its ability to capacitate and transform individuals, turningthem independent, based on informed knowledge regarding their health, in taking their own decisions regarding their body, and undertaking,or not, healthier behaviors.Education is the main action implemented by theprimary care, as it allows health promotion. Like this, it canbe admitted that the follow-up of a person with hypertension,together with family care, and implementation of educationalactions, will allow adhesion to therapeutic conducts in orderto control hypertension, as well as others conducts, whichwill promote health to individuals and families.The idea of health promotion relates itself tothe surrounding reality, as updated healthy policies

  3. Diversity in sexual health: problems and dilemmas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.; Mouthaan, I.; Neef, M. de

    2005-01-01

    The increase in migrant populations in western Europe has led to specific problems and dilemmas in the area of sexual and reproductive health and service provision. In general, these problems and dilemmas can be divided into four categories: (1) epidemiology of diseases and risk factors; (2)

  4. Diversity in sexual health: Problems and dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.; Mouthaan, I.; Neef, M. de

    2005-01-01

    The increase in migrant populations in western Europe has led to specific problems and dilemmas in the area of sexual and reproductive health and service provision. In general, these problems and dilemmas can be divided into four categories: (1) epidemiology of diseases and risk factors; (2)

  5. New complex variable meshless method for advection—diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian-Fei; Cheng Yu-Min

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an improved complex variable meshless method (ICVMM) for two-dimensional advection—diffusion problems is developed based on improved complex variable moving least-square (ICVMLS) approximation. The equivalent functional of two-dimensional advection—diffusion problems is formed, the variation method is used to obtain the equation system, and the penalty method is employed to impose the essential boundary conditions. The difference method for two-point boundary value problems is used to obtain the discrete equations. Then the corresponding formulas of the ICVMM for advection—diffusion problems are presented. Two numerical examples with different node distributions are used to validate and inestigate the accuracy and efficiency of the new method in this paper. It is shown that ICVMM is very effective for advection—diffusion problems, and has a good convergent character, accuracy, and computational efficiency

  6. Child Obesity and Mental Health: A Complex Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Leigh; Aplasca, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    Prevalence rates of childhood obesity have risen steeply over the last 3 decades. Given the increased national focus, the frequency of this clinical problem, and the multiple mental health factors that coexist with it, make obesity a public health concern. The complex relationships between mental health and obesity serve to potentiate the severity and interdependency of each. The purpose of this review is to create a contextual connection for the 2 conditions as outlined by the research literature and consider treatment options that affect both health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Information Technology in Complex Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southon, Frank Charles Gray; Sauer, Chris; Dampney, Christopher Noel Grant (Kit)

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify impediments to the successful transfer and implementation of packaged information systems through large, divisionalized health services. Design: A case analysis of the failure of an implementation of a critical application in the Public Health System of the State of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out. This application had been proven in the United States environment. Measurements: Interviews involving over 60 staff at all levels of the service were undertaken by a team of three. The interviews were recorded and analyzed for key themes, and the results were shared and compared to enable a continuing critical assessment. Results: Two components of the transfer of the system were considered: the transfer from a different environment, and the diffusion throughout a large, divisionalized organization. The analyses were based on the Scott-Morton organizational fit framework. In relation to the first, it was found that there was a lack of fit in the business environments and strategies, organizational structures and strategy-structure pairing as well as the management process-roles pairing. The diffusion process experienced problems because of the lack of fit in the strategy-structure, strategy-structure-management processes, and strategy-structure-role relationships. Conclusion: The large-scale developments of integrated health services present great challenges to the efficient and reliable implementation of information technology, especially in large, divisionalized organizations. There is a need to take a more sophisticated approach to understanding the complexities of organizational factors than has traditionally been the case. PMID:9067877

  8. Particle swarm as optimization tool in complex nuclear engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Jose Antonio Carlos Canedo

    2005-06-01

    Due to its low computational cost, gradient-based search techniques associated to linear programming techniques are being used as optimization tools. These techniques, however, when applied to multimodal search spaces, can lead to local optima. When finding solutions for complex multimodal domains, random search techniques are being used with great efficacy. In this work we exploit the swarm optimization algorithm search power capacity as an optimization tool for the solution of complex high dimension and multimodal search spaces of nuclear problems. Due to its easy and natural representation of high dimension domains, the particle swarm optimization was applied with success for the solution of complex nuclear problems showing its efficacy in the search of solutions in high dimension and complex multimodal spaces. In one of these applications it enabled a natural and trivial solution in a way not obtained with other methods confirming the validity of its application. (author)

  9. Complexity and Health Coaching: Synergies in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail J. Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care professionals are increasingly aware that persons are complex and live in relation with other complex human communities and broader systems. Complex beings and systems are living and evolving in nonlinear ways through a process of mutual influence. Traditional standardized approaches in chronic disease management do not address these non-linear linkages and the meaning and changes that impact day-to-day life and caring for self and family. The RN health coach role described in this paper addresses the complexities and ambiguities for persons living with chronic illness in order to provide person-centered care and support that are unique and responsive to the context of persons’ lives. Informed by complexity thinking and relational inquiry, the RN health coach is an emergent innovation of creative action with community and groups that support persons as they shape their health and patterns of living.

  10. Radon: A health problem and a communication problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is making great efforts to alert the American public to the potential health risks of radon in homes. The news media have widely publicized radon as a problem; state and local governments are responding to public alarms; and hundreds of radon open-quotes expertsclose quotes are now offering radon detection and mitigation services. Apparently, USEPA's communication program is working, and the public is becoming increasingly concerned with radon. But are they concerned with radon as a open-quotes healthclose quotes problem in the way USEPA intended? The answer is yes, partly. More and more, however, the concerns are about home resale values. Many homebuyers are now deciding whether to buy on the basis of a single radon screening measurement, comparing it with USEPA's action guide of 4 pCi L -1 . They often conclude that 3.9 is OK, but 4.1 is not. Here is where the communication problems begin. The public largely misunderstands the significance of USEPA's guidelines and the meaning of screening measurements. Seldom does anyone inquire about the quality of the measurements, or the results of USEPA performance testing? Who asks about the uncertainty of lifetime exposure assessments based on a 1-hour, 1-day, 3-day, or even 30-day measurement? Who asks about the uncertainty of USEPA's risk estimates? Fortunately, an increasing number of radiation protection professions are asking such questions. They find that USEPA's risk projections are based on many assumptions which warrant further evaluation, particularly with regard to the combined risks of radon and cigarette-smoking. This is the next communication problem. What are these radiation professions doing to understand the bases for radon health-risk projections? Who is willing to communicate a balanced perspective to the public? Who is willing to communicate the uncertainty and conservatism in radon measurements and risk estimates?

  11. Modal and Mixed Specifications: Key Decision Problems and their Complexities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonik, Adam; Huth, Michael; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2010-01-01

    , and whether all implementations of one specification are implementations of another one. For each of these decision problems we investigate the worst-case computational complexity for the modal and mixed case. We show that the first decision problem is EXPTIME-complete for modal as well as for mixed......Modal and mixed transition systems are specification formalisms that allow mixing of over- and under-approximation. We discuss three fundamental decision problems for such specifications: whether a set of specifications has a common implementation, whether a sole specification has an implementation...... specifications. We prove that the second decision problem is EXPTIME-complete for mixed specifications (while it is known to be trivial for modal ones). The third decision problem is furthermore demonstrated to be EXPTIME-complete for mixed specifications....

  12. What Do Employers Pay for Employees' Complex Problem Solving Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, Peer; Nedelkoska, Ljubica; Patt, Alexander; Castellazzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the market value that employers assign to the complex problem solving (CPS) skills of their employees, using individual-level Mincer-style wage regressions. For the purpose of the study, we collected new and unique data using psychometric measures of CPS and an extensive background questionnaire on employees' personal and work history.…

  13. [Economic problems in military public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G M; Moretskiĭ, A A

    2000-03-01

    There are discussed the problems of military treatment and prophylactic institution (TPI) functioning under conditions of market reform of Russian public health. Main marketing concepts in military health are determined and some recommendations on work improvement in TPI of the Armed Forces in the system of obligatory medical insurance are presented, granting population paid medical services. It is necessary to form a new type of director--military and medical manager.

  14. Towards a Unified Theory of Health-Disease: I. Health as a complex model-object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomar Almeida-Filho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Theory building is one of the most crucial challenges faced by basic, clinical and population research, which form the scientific foundations of health practices in contemporary societies. The objective of the study is to propose a Unified Theory of Health-Disease as a conceptual tool for modeling health-disease-care in the light of complexity approaches. With this aim, the epistemological basis of theoretical work in the health field and concepts related to complexity theory as concerned to health problems are discussed. Secondly, the concepts of model-object, multi-planes of occurrence, modes of health and disease-illness-sickness complex are introduced and integrated into a unified theoretical framework. Finally, in the light of recent epistemological developments, the concept of Health-Disease-Care Integrals is updated as a complex reference object fit for modeling health-related processes and phenomena.

  15. Problems in creating enviroment and health protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Reznichenko, V.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    The problems in creating environmental and health protection systems are considered with relation to development of nuclear energetics facilities. A problem of transition from the system of detection and observation to the uniform system of environment and health protection and control is set. The objectives and problems of such a system are analyzed and the basic principles of their construction are outlined. A system conception for a fuel energetic complex is described. Usefulness of such systems in solving problems of sites of industrial objects including nuclear power industrial objects, of removal of these objects from service and etc. is shown. New requirements to medical-biological investigations on designing of such a system are discussed [ru

  16. Ordinal optimization and its application to complex deterministic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mike Shang-Yu

    1998-10-01

    We present in this thesis a new perspective to approach a general class of optimization problems characterized by large deterministic complexities. Many problems of real-world concerns today lack analyzable structures and almost always involve high level of difficulties and complexities in the evaluation process. Advances in computer technology allow us to build computer models to simulate the evaluation process through numerical means, but the burden of high complexities remains to tax the simulation with an exorbitant computing cost for each evaluation. Such a resource requirement makes local fine-tuning of a known design difficult under most circumstances, let alone global optimization. Kolmogorov equivalence of complexity and randomness in computation theory is introduced to resolve this difficulty by converting the complex deterministic model to a stochastic pseudo-model composed of a simple deterministic component and a white-noise like stochastic term. The resulting randomness is then dealt with by a noise-robust approach called Ordinal Optimization. Ordinal Optimization utilizes Goal Softening and Ordinal Comparison to achieve an efficient and quantifiable selection of designs in the initial search process. The approach is substantiated by a case study in the turbine blade manufacturing process. The problem involves the optimization of the manufacturing process of the integrally bladed rotor in the turbine engines of U.S. Air Force fighter jets. The intertwining interactions among the material, thermomechanical, and geometrical changes makes the current FEM approach prohibitively uneconomical in the optimization process. The generalized OO approach to complex deterministic problems is applied here with great success. Empirical results indicate a saving of nearly 95% in the computing cost.

  17. Shift work-related health problems in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavaji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.

  18. The Health Problems, Gastrointestinal and Blood Parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The report on the disease conditions in donkeys in most West African countries is scanty in literature. This study was conducted to identify the health related problems including gastrointestinal and blood parasites of donkeys at the Bolgatanga livestock market in the Upper East region of Ghana from July to December, 2012.

  19. Obesity, Complexity, and the Role of the Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Frood, Sarah; Johnston, Lee M.; Matteson, Carrie L.; Finegood, Diane T.

    2013-01-01

    As obesity continues to increase throughout the world, there is still no well-defined solution to the issue. Reducing obesity poses a significant challenge for the health care system because it is a complex problem with numerous interconnections and elements. The complexity of obesity challenges traditional primary care practices that have been structured to address simple or less complicated conditions. Systems thinking provides a way forward for clinicians that are discouraged or overwhelme...

  20. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  1. Advice Complexity of the Online Induced Subgraph Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komm, Dennis; Královič, Rastislav; Královič, Richard

    2016-01-01

    of the input can influence the solution quality. We evaluate the information in a quantitative way by considering the best possible advice of given size that describes the unknown input. Using a result from Boyar et al. we give a tight trade-off relationship stating that, for inputs of length n, roughly n...... subgraph problem, preemption does not significantly help by giving a lower bound of Omega(n/(c^2\\log c)) on the bits of advice that are needed to obtain competitive ratio c, where c is any increasing function bounded from above by \\sqrt{n/\\log n}. We also give a linear lower bound for c close to 1....... these problems by investigating a generalized problem: for an arbitrary but fixed hereditary property, find some maximal induced subgraph having the property. We investigate this problem from the point of view of advice complexity, i.e. we ask how some additional information about the yet unrevealed parts...

  2. An analytical approach to managing complex process problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramstad, Kari; Andersen, Espen; Rohde, Hans Christian; Tydal, Trine

    2006-03-15

    The oil companies are continuously investing time and money to ensure optimum regularity on their production facilities. High regularity increases profitability, reduces workload on the offshore organisation and most important; - reduces discharge to air and sea. There are a number of mechanisms and tools available in order to achieve high regularity. Most of these are related to maintenance, system integrity, well operations and process conditions. However, for all of these tools, they will only be effective if quick and proper analysis of fluids and deposits are carried out. In fact, analytical backup is a powerful tool used to maintain optimised oil production, and should as such be given high priority. The present Operator (Hydro Oil and Energy) and the Chemical Supplier (MI Production Chemicals) have developed a cooperation to ensure that analytical backup is provided efficiently to the offshore installations. The Operator's Research and Development (R and D) departments and the Chemical Supplier have complementary specialties in both personnel and equipment, and this is utilized to give the best possible service when required from production technologists or operations. In order for the Operator's Research departments, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) departments and Operations to approve analytical work performed by the Chemical Supplier, a number of analytical tests are carried out following procedures agreed by both companies. In the present paper, three field case examples of analytical cooperation for managing process problems will be presented. 1) Deposition in a Complex Platform Processing System. 2) Contaminated Production Chemicals. 3) Improved Monitoring of Scale Inhibitor, Suspended Solids and Ions. In each case the Research Centre, Operations and the Chemical Supplier have worked closely together to achieve fast solutions and Best Practice. (author) (tk)

  3. Complex network problems in physics, computer science and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Radu Ionut

    There is a close relation between physics and mathematics and the exchange of ideas between these two sciences are well established. However until few years ago there was no such a close relation between physics and computer science. Even more, only recently biologists started to use methods and tools from statistical physics in order to study the behavior of complex system. In this thesis we concentrate on applying and analyzing several methods borrowed from computer science to biology and also we use methods from statistical physics in solving hard problems from computer science. In recent years physicists have been interested in studying the behavior of complex networks. Physics is an experimental science in which theoretical predictions are compared to experiments. In this definition, the term prediction plays a very important role: although the system is complex, it is still possible to get predictions for its behavior, but these predictions are of a probabilistic nature. Spin glasses, lattice gases or the Potts model are a few examples of complex systems in physics. Spin glasses and many frustrated antiferromagnets map exactly to computer science problems in the NP-hard class defined in Chapter 1. In Chapter 1 we discuss a common result from artificial intelligence (AI) which shows that there are some problems which are NP-complete, with the implication that these problems are difficult to solve. We introduce a few well known hard problems from computer science (Satisfiability, Coloring, Vertex Cover together with Maximum Independent Set and Number Partitioning) and then discuss their mapping to problems from physics. In Chapter 2 we provide a short review of combinatorial optimization algorithms and their applications to ground state problems in disordered systems. We discuss the cavity method initially developed for studying the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. We extend this model to the study of a specific case of spin glass on the Bethe

  4. Bangladesh women report postpartum health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodburn, L

    1994-02-01

    The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee conducted operational research in Bangladesh to examine postpartum health problems. Researchers conducted focus groups, indepth interviews, and observation. More than 40% of the postpartum women had a delivery-related health problem by 2 weeks after delivery. 52% had signs or symptoms of anemia. Body needs after pregnancy, lactation, and blood loss during delivery exacerbate the nutritional anemia common to Bangladeshi women. 17% of the postpartum women had signs of infections. More than 50% had severe malnutrition, worsened by food taboos during the postpartum period. 60% of infant deaths occur in the neonatal period. The mortality risk is elevated in low birth weight (LBW) infants. In this study, more than 50% of the newborns were LBW infants. Many Bangladeshi mothers discard the colostrum and begin breast feeding several days after delivery. 11% of the postpartum women had breast problem (e.g., cracked nipples). Women believed that susceptibility to evil spirits accounted for their being more vulnerable to health problems during the postpartum. They feared leaving the household. These findings show a need for home visits to provide valuable postpartum care.

  5. Health Problems and Health Care Seeking Behaviour of Rohingya Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Masud, Abdullah Al; Ahmed, Md. Shahoriar; Sultana, Mst. Rebeka; Alam, S. M. Iftekhar; Kabir, Russell; Arafat, S. M. Yasir; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rohingya refugees are one of the most vulnerable group due to lack of health care system, personal hygiene, shelter, sanitation and violence. Aim: The present study aims to find out the health problems and health care seeking behavior of rohingya refugee peoples, to identify the socio-demographic information for such exposure group in relation to age, sex, occupation, living areas, to explore the patient's physical, emotional, perceptions, attitudes and environmen...

  6. Complex saddle points and the sign problem in complex Langevin simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayata, Tomoya; Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Tanizaki, Yuya

    2016-01-01

    We show that complex Langevin simulation converges to a wrong result within the semiclassical analysis, by relating it to the Lefschetz-thimble path integral, when the path-integral weight has different phases among dominant complex saddle points. Equilibrium solution of the complex Langevin equation forms local distributions around complex saddle points. Its ensemble average approximately becomes a direct sum of the average in each local distribution, where relative phases among them are dropped. We propose that by taking these phases into account through reweighting, we can solve the wrong convergence problem. However, this prescription may lead to a recurrence of the sign problem in the complex Langevin method for quantum many-body systems.

  7. Data Mining and Complex Problems: Case Study in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Luis; Marin, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.

  8. Fluid Ability (Gf) and Complex Problem Solving (CPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Kyllonen; Cristina Anguiano Carrasco; Harrison J. Kell

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf) both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human pr...

  9. Complexity of hierarchically and 1-dimensional periodically specified problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marathe, M.V.; Hunt, H.B. III; Stearns, R.E.; Radhakrishnan, V.

    1995-08-23

    We study the complexity of various combinatorial and satisfiability problems when instances are specified using one of the following specifications: (1) the 1-dimensional finite periodic narrow specifications of Wanke and Ford et al. (2) the 1-dimensional finite periodic narrow specifications with explicit boundary conditions of Gale (3) the 2-way infinite1-dimensional narrow periodic specifications of Orlin et al. and (4) the hierarchical specifications of Lengauer et al. we obtain three general types of results. First, we prove that there is a polynomial time algorithm that given a 1-FPN- or 1-FPN(BC)specification of a graph (or a C N F formula) constructs a level-restricted L-specification of an isomorphic graph (or formula). This theorem along with the hardness results proved here provides alternative and unified proofs of many hardness results proved in the past either by Lengauer and Wagner or by Orlin. Second, we study the complexity of generalized CNF satisfiability problems of Schaefer. Assuming P {ne} PSPACE, we characterize completely the polynomial time solvability of these problems, when instances are specified as in (1), (2),(3) or (4). As applications of our first two types of results, we obtain a number of new PSPACE-hardness and polynomial time algorithms for problems specified as in (1), (2), (3) or(4). Many of our results also hold for O(log N) bandwidth bounded planar instances.

  10. Is Principled Pragmatism a Viable Framework for Addressing Complex Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Complex water problems are connected with many competing and often conflicting values, interests, and tools. These problems can't be addressed through simply applying dogmatic principles or a deal-making pragmatic approach. Because these problems are interconnected and interdependent, a final solution can't be pre-specified. Any intervention to a complex problem requires attention to both principles and pragmatism. Strict adherence to principles without pragmatism is often not actionable; pure pragmatism exercised without guiding principles is not sustainable. In a colloquial sense, pragmatism is often taken to suggest practical, opportunistic, and expedient approaches at the expense of principles. This perception appears to be rooted in the dichotomy between "being pragmatic" and "being ideological". The notion of principled pragmatism attempts to get away from this duality by focusing on how to make ideas clear and actionable. In other words, how to connect our thoughts to action given the context, constraints, and capacity. Principled pragmatism - rooted in equity and sustainability as guiding principles for water management - approach attempts to synthesize symbolic aspirations with realistic assessment to chart a trajectory of actionable subset of implementable solutions. Case studies from the Ganges Basin will show the utility of principled pragmatism for water management in a changing world.

  11. On duty all the time: Health and quality of life among immigrant parents caring for a child with complex health needs

    OpenAIRE

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Albertini Früh, Elena; Brekke, Idunn; Gardsjord, Ragnhild; Halvorsrud, Liv; Lidén, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To provide knowledge about how immigrant parents of children with complex health needs manage their family lives and how this affects their own health and quality of life. Background: Caregivers of children with complex health needs have additional risk for general health problems and mental health problems and immigrant parents may be more vulnerable to mental distress and failing health and quality of life. Results: Immigrant parents of children with complex health need...

  12. Assessment of Occupational Hazards, Health Problems and Safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    Background: Petrol station attendants encounter several hazards and health problems while working. This study was conducted to determine the occupational hazards, health ..... engineering conference on sustainable ... Industrial Health.

  13. College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many colleges also have a counseling center which students should go to for mental health concerns. How can I get seen at the ... services that I need? The staff at your student health center will know ... gynecologists, and mental health clinicians in the community in case you ...

  14. The Complex Relationship Between Diet And Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Wolfson, Julia A; Zhu, Xiaozhou; Story, Mary

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between food and health is complex. Everyone needs food to live, but too little food, too much food, or the wrong type of food has negative consequences for health. To increase understanding of this relationship, we describe trends and patterns in food-related diseases among both adults and children. Using an ecological framework, we then describe why food intake is complex with a discussion of three broad levels--macro (including policy and social-cultural norms), local community, and individual environments--and their relationship to food consumption. Given the strong relationship between an individual's food choice and his or her surrounding environment, we end with examples of policy responses that aim to help people overcome environmental disincentives toward healthy eating. Finding ways to make eating healthfully easier and affordable for all populations is essential to shifting the average American diet toward one that promotes health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. The Similar Structures and Control Problems of Complex Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the naturally evolving complex systems, such as biotic and social ones, are considered. Focusing on their structures, a feature is noteworthy, i.e., the similarity in structures. The relations between the functions and behaviors of these systems and their similar structures will be studied. Owing to the management of social systems and the course of evolution of biotic systems may be regarded as control processes, the researches will be within the scope of control problems. Moreover, since it is difficult to model for biotic and social systems, it will start with the control problems of complex systems, possessing similar structures, in engineering.The obtained results show that for either linear or nonlinear systems and for a lot of control problemssimilar structures lead to a series of simplifications. In general, the original system may be decomposed into reduced amount of subsystems with lower dimensions and simpler structures. By virtue of such subsystems, the control problems of original system can be solved more simply.At last, it turns round to observe the biotic and social systems and some analyses are given.

  16. Redundant interferometric calibration as a complex optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, T. L.; Bernardi, G.; Kenyon, J. S.; Parsons, A. R.; Smirnov, O. M.

    2018-05-01

    Observations of the redshifted 21 cm line from the epoch of reionization have recently motivated the construction of low-frequency radio arrays with highly redundant configurations. These configurations provide an alternative calibration strategy - `redundant calibration' - and boost sensitivity on specific spatial scales. In this paper, we formulate calibration of redundant interferometric arrays as a complex optimization problem. We solve this optimization problem via the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. This calibration approach is more robust to initial conditions than current algorithms and, by leveraging an approximate matrix inversion, allows for further optimization and an efficient implementation (`redundant STEFCAL'). We also investigated using the preconditioned conjugate gradient method as an alternative to the approximate matrix inverse, but found that its computational performance is not competitive with respect to `redundant STEFCAL'. The efficient implementation of this new algorithm is made publicly available.

  17. Problems of development of Kuzbass fuel power-engineering complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazikin, V.P.; Razumnyak, N.L.; Shatirov, S.V.; Gladyshev, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Problems of Kuzbass fuel and energy complex development, bituminous and brown coal being its main resource, are discussed. Balance reserves of bituminous coal in Kuzbass are estimated as 59 bln. tons, which makes up 29% of the world and nearly 60% of bituminous coal reserves in Russia. Dynamics of price rise in reference to energy-grade coal of Kuzbass is analyzed. The structure of the Kuzbass energy system is considered and characteristics of its major state district electric power plants and heat and power generating plants are provided. Water-coal and water-black oil fuels are od interest for Kuzbass energy production as alternative source of energy. Special attention is paid to environmental problems of coal concentration [ru

  18. Primary health care progress and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favin, M; Parlato, P; Kessler, S

    1984-01-01

    been instrumental in changing government attitudes. Some common implementation problems raise important issues for all PHC projects: provision of support services, project financing, community participation, and appropriate and effective use of community health workers, and balancing the perceived needs of the community with those of health professionals. By identifying some of the obstacles to PHC implementation, this study sets the agenda which the next generation of projects must address.

  19. Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Complex Groundwater Management Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, Emery; Poulton, Mary; Charles, Emmanuel; Dustman, John; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2003-01-01

    As water quantity and quality problems become increasingly severe, accurate prediction and effective management of scarcer water resources will become critical. In this paper, the successful application of artificial neural network (ANN) technology is described for three types of groundwater prediction and management problems. In the first example, an ANN was trained with simulation data from a physically based numerical model to predict head (groundwater elevation) at locations of interest under variable pumping and climate conditions. The ANN achieved a high degree of predictive accuracy, and its derived state-transition equations were embedded into a multiobjective optimization formulation and solved to generate a trade-off curve depicting water supply in relation to contamination risk. In the second and third examples, ANNs were developed with real-world hydrologic and climate data for different hydrogeologic environments. For the second problem, an ANN was developed using data collected for a 5-year, 8-month period to predict heads in a multilayered surficial and limestone aquifer system under variable pumping, state, and climate conditions. Using weekly stress periods, the ANN substantially outperformed a well-calibrated numerical flow model for the 71-day validation period, and provided insights into the effects of climate and pumping on water levels. For the third problem, an ANN was developed with data collected automatically over a 6-week period to predict hourly heads in 11 high-capacity public supply wells tapping a semiconfined bedrock aquifer and subject to large well-interference effects. Using hourly stress periods, the ANN accurately predicted heads for 24-hour periods in all public supply wells. These test cases demonstrate that the ANN technology can solve a variety of complex groundwater management problems and overcome many of the problems and limitations associated with traditional physically based flow models

  20. Complex analysis and dynamical systems new trends and open problems

    CERN Document Server

    Golberg, Anatoly; Jacobzon, Fiana; Shoikhet, David; Zalcman, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    This book focuses on developments in complex dynamical systems and geometric function theory over the past decade, showing strong links with other areas of mathematics and the natural sciences. Traditional methods and approaches surface in physics and in the life and engineering sciences with increasing frequency – the Schramm‐Loewner evolution, Laplacian growth, and quadratic differentials are just a few typical examples. This book provides a representative overview of these processes and collects open problems in the various areas, while at the same time showing where and how each particular topic evolves. This volume is dedicated to the memory of Alexander Vasiliev.

  1. Undocumented migrants have diverse health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehmsen, Boje Kvorning; Biswas, Dan; Jensen, Natasja Koitszch

    2014-01-01

    on the International Classification of Primary Care, 2nd Edition (ICPC-2). RESULTS: A total of 830 patients (39.75% women and 60.25% men) visited the clinic, which led to a total of 2,088 visits and 1,384 ICPC-2 classifications. The patients seen had 94 different nationalities. The most common reasons for medical......INTRODUCTION: In 2008, 1.9-3.8 million undocumented migrants lived in Europe. We aimed to strengthen the evidence base on undocumented migrants' health problems by describing characteristics of undocumented migrant patients in a Danish non-governmental organisation (NGO) health clinic. MATERIAL...... contact correspond well with the pattern seen in general practice and several chronic and severe cases were observed in the NGO clinic. Furthermore, a larger share of pregnant women presented (11.6%) compared with a Danish general practice (5.1%), and these were seen first in a late gestational age...

  2. The spectrosome of occupational health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gaudemaris, Régis; Bicout, Dominique J.

    2018-01-01

    Given the increased prevalence of cancer, respiratory diseases, and reproductive disorders, for which multifactorial origins are strongly suspected, the impact of the environment on the population represents a substantial public health challenge. Surveillance systems have become an essential public health decision-making tool. Networks have been constructed to facilitate the development of analyses of the multifactorial aspects of the relationships between occupational contexts and health. The aim of this study is to develop and present an approach for the optimal exploitation of observational databases to describe and improve the understanding of the (occupational) environment–health relationships, taking into account key multifactorial aspects. We have developed a spectral analysis (SA) approach that takes into account both the multi-exposure and dynamic natures of occupational health problems (OHPs) and related associations. The main results of this paper are to present the construction method of the “spectrum” and “spectrosome” of OHPs (range and structured list of occupational exposures) and describe the information contained therein with an illustrative example. The approach is illustrated using the case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from the French National Occupational Diseases Surveillance and Prevention Network database as a working example of an occupational disease. We found that the NHL spectrum includes 40 sets of occupational exposures characterized by important multi-exposures, especially solvent combinations or pesticide combinations, but also specific exposures such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formaldehyde and ionizing radiation. These findings may be useful for surveillance and the assessment of occupational exposure related to health risks. PMID:29304043

  3. [Chronic wounds as a public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situm, Mirna; Kolić, Maja; Redzepi, Gzim; Antolić, Slavko

    2014-10-01

    Chronic wounds represent a significant burden to patients, health care professionals and the entire health care system. Regarding the healing process, wounds can be classified as acute or chronic wounds. A wound is considered chronic if healing does not occur within the expected period according to the wound etiology and localization. Chronic wounds can be classified as typical and atypical. The majority of wounds (95 percent) are typical ones, which include ischemic, neurotrophic and hypostatic ulcers and two separate entities: diabetic foot and decubital ulcers. Eighty percent of chronic wounds localized on lower leg are the result of chronic venous insufficiency, in 5-10 percent the cause is of arterial etiology, whereas the rest are mostly neuropathic ulcers. Chronic wounds significantly decrease the quality of life of patients by requiring continuous topical treatment, causing immobility and pain in a high percentage of patients. Chronic wounds affect elderly population. Chronic leg ulcers affect 0.6-3 percent of those aged over 60, increasing to over 5 percent of those aged over 80. Emergence of chronic wounds is a substantial socioeconomic problem as 1-2 percent of western population will suffer from it. This estimate is expected to rise due to the increasing proportion of elderly population along with the diabetic and obesity epidemic. It has been proved that chronic wounds account for the large proportion of costs in the health care system, even in rich societies. Socioeconomically, the management of chronic wounds reaches a total of 2-4 percent of the health budget in western countries. Treatment costs for some other diseases are not irrelevant, nor are the method and materials used for treating these wounds. Considering etiologic factors, a chronic wound demands a multidisciplinary approach with great efforts of health care professionals to treat it more efficiently, more simply and more painlessly for the patient, as well as more inexpensively for

  4. Fluid Ability (Gf and Complex Problem Solving (CPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kyllonen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex problem solving (CPS has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human problem solving literature; a more specialized definition from the “German School” emphasizing performance in many-variable microworlds, with high domain-knowledge requirements; and a third definition based on performance in Minimal Complex Systems (MCS, with fewer variables and reduced knowledge requirements. We find a correlation of 0.86 between expert ratings of the importance of CPS and Gf across 691 occupations in the O*NET database. We find evidence that employers value both Gf and CPS skills, but CPS skills more highly, even after controlling for the importance of domain knowledge. We suggest that this may be due to CPS requiring not just cognitive ability but additionally skill in applying that ability in domains. We suggest that a fruitful future direction is to explore the importance of domain knowledge in CPS.

  5. Critical complexity in environmental health practice: simplify and complexify

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keune Hans

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The magic word ‘complexity’ has been buzzing around in science, policy and society for quite some time now. There seems to be a common feel for a ‘new way’ of doing things, for overcoming the limits of tradition. From the combined perspective of critical complexity thinking and environment and health practice we want to contribute to the development of alternative routines that may help overcome the limitations of traditional environment and health science. On the one hand traditional environment and health science is too self-confident with respect to potential scientific insight in environment and health problems: complexity condemns us to limited and ambiguous knowledge and the need for simplification. A more modest attitude would be more realistic from that point of view. On the other hand from a problem solving perspective more boldness is required. Waiting for Godot (perfect undisputed knowledge will not help us with respect to the challenges posed to society by environment and health problems. A sense of urgency is legitimate: the paralysis by traditional analysis should be resolved. Nevertheless this sense of urgency should not withhold us from investing in the problem solving quality of our endeavour; quality takes time, fastness from a quality perspective often leads us to a standstill. We propose the concept of critical complexification of environment and health practice that will enable the integration of relevant actors and factors in a pragmatic manner. We will illustrate this with practical examples and especially draw attention to the practical complexities involved, confronting us not only with fundamental questions, but also with fundamental challenges.

  6. Managing interoperability and complexity in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamrane, M-M; Tao, C; Sarkar, I N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed substantial progress in the use of clinical informatics systems to support clinicians during episodes of care, manage specialised domain knowledge, perform complex clinical data analysis and improve the management of health organisations' resources. However, the vision of fully integrated health information eco-systems, which provide relevant information and useful knowledge at the point-of-care, remains elusive. This journal Focus Theme reviews some of the enduring challenges of interoperability and complexity in clinical informatics systems. Furthermore, a range of approaches are proposed in order to address, harness and resolve some of the many remaining issues towards a greater integration of health information systems and extraction of useful or new knowledge from heterogeneous electronic data repositories.

  7. The problem of motivating teaching staff in a complex amalgamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenrick, M A

    1993-09-01

    This paper addresses some of the problems brought about by the merger of a number of schools of nursing into a new complex amalgamation. A very real concern in the new colleges of nursing and midwifery in the United Kingdom is the effect of amalgamation on management systems and staff morale. The main focus of this paper is the motivation of staff during this time of change. There is currently a lack of security amongst staff and in many instances the personal job satisfaction of nurse teachers and managers of nurse education has been reduced, which has made the task of motivating staff difficult. Hence, two major theories of motivation and the implications of these theories for managers of nurse education are discussed. The criteria used for the selection of managers within the new colleges, leadership styles and organizational structures are reviewed. The amalgamations have brought about affiliation with higher-education institutions. Some problems associated with these mergers and the effects on the motivation of staff both within the higher-education institutions and the nursing colleges are outlined. Strategies for overcoming some of the problems are proposed including job enlargement, job enrichment, potential achievement rewards and the use of individual performance reviews which may be useful for assessing the ability of all staff, including managers, in the new amalgamations.

  8. The exocyst complex in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdanela eMartin-Urdiroz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Exocytosis involves the fusion of intracellular secretory vesicles with the PM, thereby delivering integral membrane proteins to the cell surface and releasing material into the extracellular space. Importantly, exocytosis also provides a source of lipid moieties for membrane extension. The tethering of the secretory vesicle before docking and fusion with the PM is mediated by the exocyst complex, an evolutionary conserved octameric complex of proteins. Recent findings indicate that the exocyst complex also takes part in other intra-cellular processes besides secretion. These various functions seem to converge towards defining a direction of membrane growth in a range of systems from fungi to plants and from neurons to cilia. In this review we summarise the current knowledge of exocyst function in cell polarity, signalling and cell-cell communication and discuss implications for plant and animal health and disease.

  9. LDCs face another kind of health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H

    1977-10-06

    Early childbearing is increasing worldwide, in both the developed and the developing countries. In 1975, 13 million young women became mothers before their 18th birthday. Such early childbearing causes major health, economic, social, and demographic problems. The disadvantages are felt by the young women, their sexual partners, the babies born to these women, and society in general. Reasons why adolescents are engaging in earlier sexual activity and experiencing more early pregnancies are enumerated. The 1st Interhemispheric Conference on Adolescent Fertility, sponsored by the Agency for International Development and other involved organizations, was held in 1976. The Conference participants made recommendations concerned with the legal, educational, and social aspects of early childbearing. Many youth education programs have been established since the Conference. Research projects have been launched to study the social consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Many more family life education and family planning services must be offered. A significant hindrance to such developments is the reluctance of adults around the world to recognize and deal with the problem.

  10. [The dimension of the paradigm of complexity in health systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Ángel; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Olivares-Santos, Roberto Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article presents elements to better understand health systems from the complety paradigm, innovative perspective that offers other ways in the conception of the scientific knowledge prevalent away from linear, characterized by the arise of emerging dissociative and behaviors, based on the intra and trans-disciplinarity concepts such knowledges explain and understand in a different way what happens in the health systems with a view to efficiency and effectiveness. The complexity paradigm means another way of conceptualizing the knowledge, is different from the prevalent epistemology, is still under construction does not separate, not isolated, is not reductionist, or fixed, does not solve the problems, but gives other bases to know them and study them, is a different strategy, a perspective that has basis in the systems theory, informatics and cybernetics beyond traditional knowledge, the positive logics, the newtonian physics and symmetric mathematics, in which everything is centered and balanced, joint the "soft sciences and hard sciences", it has present the Social Determinants of Health and organizational culture. Under the complexity paradigm the health systems are identified with the following concepts: entropy, neguentropy, the thermodynamic second law, attractors, chaos theory, fractals, selfmanagement and self-organization, emerging behaviors, percolation, uncertainty, networks and robusteness; such expressions open new possibilities to improve the management and better understanding of the health systems, giving rise to consider health systems as complex adaptive systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  11. [Insomnia. A severe health care problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cárdenas, Ana Gabriela; Navarro-Gerrard, Christian; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Halabe-Cherem, José

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude which sleep has on personal well-being is similar to the effects of diet and exercise. Sleep deprivation has severe negative effects on an individual's overall health, and this is usually overseen. From 30 to 40 % of the population has presented insomnia at a certain moment of life and from 9 to 15 % have evolved into a chronic and severe insomnia. Recent investigations have related sleep deprivation with obesity, metabolic disorders, heart disease, mental health problems and dementia. Recently, more investigations have focused on the multiple alterations suffered by the immune system in cases of sleep deprivation. In order to make an opportune diagnosis of insomnia, it is vital to obtain a detailed history of the patients' sleep habits. In the physical exam one must search for signs and symptoms which might suggest an organic cause that generates the patient's insomnia. One of the pillars in treatment of these patients consists in acquiring an adequate sleep hygiene based on the optimization of the environment and the behavior that are associated with sleep.

  12. Association between Psychopathology and Physical Health Problems among Youth in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D.; Smith, Tori R.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Epstein, Michael H.; Thompson, Ronald W.; Tonniges, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Youth in residential treatment settings often present with a complex combination of mental and physical health problems. Despite an emerging literature documenting significant associations between mental health and physical health, the relationship between these two areas of functioning has not been systematically examined in youth presenting to…

  13. Low frequency electromagnetic fields and health problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.; Cosic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Electromagnetic fields developed around the electric circuits are considered as magnetic pollution and these fields are produced wherever electric appliances or machinery are used at home as well as at workplace. Electric fields and magnetic fields around the home are produced by anything with electric current flowing through it including: the street power lines, the home wiring system, electric ovens, refrigerators, washing machines, electric clothes dryers, vacuum cleaners, television sets, video cassette recorders, toasters, light bulbs, clock radios, electric blankets, mobile phones, etc. In the workplace they would be produced by: nearby power lines, factory machinery, computers/video display units, lights, photocopiers, electrical cabling etc. As one can see, human life is strongly dependent on using-electric appliance. A large number of studies have been undertaken to find out the correlation between electromagnetic fields and health problems. The following significant results have been reported [Lerner E.J., IEEE Spectrum, 57-67, May 1984]: (a) Induction of chromosomal defects in mice spermatogenetic cells following microwave radiation in the Ghz range; (b) Changes in the calcium balance of living cats' brains exposed to microwaves modulated at extremely low frequencies; (c) Alternation of nerve and bone cells exposed to extremely low frequency fields; (d) Decreased activity of the immune cells of mice exposed to modulated microwaves; (e) Apparent increase in deformed foetuses among miniature swine exposed to intense power-line frequency fields. The mostly investigated effect is the effect of electromagnetic irradiation in particular one produced by power lines, and cancer. More than 100 epidemiological studies have been reported but no conclusive result was achieved. A number of studies with laboratory animals were also inconclusive. However, some of these experiments have shown improvements in immune system and tumour suppression when

  14. [Adolescent pregnancy, a public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel Vicuna, B

    1986-01-01

    Throughout Western civilization the fundamental unit of society is the family. The union of a couple guarantees their responsibility to future children. Prior to the renaissance, when life expectancy was very low, the preservation of the human species required reproduction at a young age. Since the beginning of the 19th century, life expectancy has increased greatly. The extremes of reproductive age have been noted to be times when pregnancy carries increase risks, and the risks of grand multiparity have been noted. The sexual revolution has resulted in the loss of previous principles of conduct. Youth are incited by pornography in the media, and without the controlling influence of the traditional family, become sexually active at a younger age. In Chile, as elsewhere, there have always been out of wedlock births, but in 1970 these reached 18.5% of all births. By 1980, it had reached 27.6% of all births and 45.7% of births to mothers under age 20. Since the family is the basic unit of society, this number of illegitimate births indicates a grave social problem. This also represents a public health risk due to the increased risks of young mothers. Illegitimate children of adolescent mothers have the added problem that the fathers are usually also young, so both parents are still in school and cannot assume full responsibility for the child. These babies have a much higher infant mortality than those of older mothers. The only solution is education, and legislation requiring paternal responsibility. School teachers often have an inadequate knowledge of reproduction and sexuality, and can not serve as sources of information to the students. Without supportive education and legislation requiring both parents to be responsible for their children, we will not be able to solve this situation.

  15. Globalisation, complex humanitarian emergencies and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B

    2006-01-01

    A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored.

  16. [Methamphetamine - just another stimulant or a more complex problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Tania; Massé, Marjolaine

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) has recently become very popular in the media, due in part to its increasing popularity as well as its psychotropic effects and the negative consequences of its use. Is it a stimulant like any other, or does methamphetamine use lead to specific difficulties in its users? The aim of this article is to provide a brief review of the literature by explaining some of the reasons for its popularity in Canada as well as the physical, dental, psychiatric, cognitive and legal problems associated with its use. MA's popularity: Regarding its popularity, MA has benefitted from multiple factors, namely its low cost for users and manufacturers, its quick and intense psychotropic effects (increased energy, sexual arousal, rapid thinking, sleeplessness, lack of appetite), its easy access, as well as its various methods of ingestion (nasal, oral, injection). MA abuse also results in a multitude of negative effects, both physical and mental. MA's physical effects: In terms of negative physical effects, cardiac problems, skin infections, sexually transmitted (and injection-related) diseases as well as meth mouth are described. MA's mental effects: In terms of mental consequences, two recently published Canadian studies revealing high rates of depression symptoms and of sustained psychotic symptoms in a subgroup of MA users are presented. Studies reporting various cognitive deficits in MA user are also reviewed, including reports of high prevalence of childhood attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder diagnoses among adult MA users. Furthermore, MA abusers are documented as having been highly exposed to trauma in their lives, with many presenting with post-traumatic stress disorder criteria. This manuscript also explores the reasons behind the forensic profiles of individuals using MA, particularly the increased tendency toward violent acts, the high incarceration rates of the homeless users and the high percentage of individuals diagnosed with antisocial

  17. Beyond Psychometrics: The Difference between Difficult Problem Solving and Complex Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens F. Beckmann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that a synthesis of findings across the various sub-areas of research in complex problem solving and consequently progress in theory building is hampered by an insufficient differentiation of complexity and difficulty. In the proposed framework of person, task, and situation (PTS, complexity is conceptualized as a quality that is determined by the cognitive demands that the characteristics of the task and the situation impose. Difficulty represents the quantifiable level of a person’s success in dealing with such demands. We use the well-documented “semantic effect” as an exemplar for testing some of the conceptual assumptions derived from the PTS framework. We demonstrate how a differentiation between complexity and difficulty can help take beyond a potentially too narrowly defined psychometric perspective and subsequently gain a better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms behind this effect. In an empirical study a total of 240 university students were randomly allocated to one of four conditions. The four conditions resulted from contrasting the semanticity level of the variable labels used in the CPS system (high vs. low and two instruction conditions for how to explore the CPS system’s causal structure (starting with the assumption that all relationships between variables existed vs. starting with the assumption that none of the relationships existed. The variation in the instruction aimed at inducing knowledge acquisition processes of either (1 systematic elimination of presumptions, or (2 systematic compilation of a mental representation of the causal structure underpinning the system. Results indicate that (a it is more complex to adopt a “blank slate” perspective under high semanticity as it requires processes of inhibiting prior assumptions, and (b it seems more difficult to employ a systematic heuristic when testing against presumptions. In combination, situational characteristics, such as the

  18. [Alcoholism during pregnancy: an underestimated health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos Balboa, Jorge Eduardo; Altúzar González, Marlene; Benítez Castillejos, Fortunato

    2004-10-01

    To identify the frequency of consumption of alcohol in pregnant women who went to a module of prenatal control; to describe the consumption habits and to identify the number of cases in those that the physician of first level identified the addiction, using the institutional instruments. A descriptive and prospective study was carried out, the study population was selected by means of non randomized sampling of the total of pregnant women who went to receive services of prenatal control, in two units of family medicine of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico. The instrument AUDIT (Alcoholism Disorders Identification Test) was used, to identify use-frequency, abuse, dependence and physical/mental damage conditioned by the alcohol. In 132 studied women, it found a frequency of 45.5% of pregnant women with positive consumption and a case of dependence, none of which was identified by the family doctor. The consumption of alcohol in the studied population is high, even bigger than the frequency detected in populations of non pregnant women. The use of detection tests such as the AUDIT and the implementation of measures guided to the training and the personnel's of health sensitization about the magnitude and impact of this problem are recommended.

  19. Is periodontal disease a public health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, P

    2014-10-01

    Clinically defined periodontal disease is highly prevalent, has considerable impacts on individuals and society and is costly to treat; the cost of dental care is the fourth highest costs of all diseases and consuming between 5 and 10% of all healthcare resources. Changes in the epidemiology of clinically defined periodontal diseases suggest that the prevalence of severe periodontal disease is low and rates of progression of periodontal destruction tend to be relatively slow. Current periodontal care modalities have a remarkably weak evidence base, with considerable resources allocated to fund interventions that include oral hygiene instruction, scale and polishes through to surgical interventions. The public health problem lies more in the failure in design of a contract between dental professionals and the state. Such a contract needs to recognise both the wider determinants of disease and the role that dental professionals could play: a contract that concentrated on rewarding outcomes, namely a diminution in treatment need, as opposed to one based simply on the number of interventions would be a major step forward.

  20. Operationalization of biopsychosocial case complexity in general health care : the INTERMED project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, P; Huyse, FJ; Slaets, JPJ; Sollner, W; Stiefel, FC

    Objective: Lack of operationalization of the biopsychosocial model hinders its effective application to the increasingly prevalent problems of comorbidities in clinical presentations. Here, we describe the INTERMED, an instrument to assess biopsychosocial case complexity in general health care, and

  1. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...... pattern and obesity was higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. The associations found in this study remained significant after adjustment for sex, age, educational and cohabiting status as well as other risk factors. Our findings highlight the presence of a potential, public health...... Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy...

  2. How Cognitive Style and Problem Complexity Affect Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Abilities to Solve Problems in Agricultural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of cognitive style and problem complexity on Oklahoma State University preservice agriculture teachers' (N = 56) ability to solve problems in small gasoline engines. Time to solution was operationalized as problem solving ability. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was…

  3. Children's Mental Health: Problems and Services. Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper on children's mental health indicates that less than one-third of the children who have mental health problems receive treatment. Types of mental health problems are discussed, including intellectual, developmental, behavior, emotional, psychophysiological, and adjustment disorders. Enviromental risk factors of poverty and…

  4. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  5. On the complexity of a bundle pricing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, Alexander; van Lohn, Joyce; Uetz, Marc Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of pricing items in order to maximize the revenue obtainable from a set of single minded customers. We relate the tractability of the problem to structural properties of customers' valuations: the problem admits an effcient approximation algorithm, parameterized along the

  6. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  7. The public health aspects of complex emergencies and refugee situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1997-01-01

    Populations affected by armed conflict have experienced severe public health consequences mediated by population displacement, food scarcity, and the collapse of basic health services, giving rise to the term complex humanitarian emergencies. These public health effects have been most severe in underdeveloped countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Refugees and internally displaced persons have experienced high mortality rates during the period immediately following their migration. In Africa, crude mortality rates have been as high as 80 times baseline rates. The most common causes of death have been diarrheal diseases, measles, acute respiratory infections, and malaria. High prevalences of acute malnutrition have contributed to high case fatality rates. In conflict-affected European countries, such as the former Yugoslavia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Chechnya, war-related injuries have been the most common cause of death among civilian populations; however, increased incidence of communicable diseases, neonatal health problems, and nutritional deficiencies (especially among the elderly) have been documented. The most effective measures to prevent mortality and morbidity in complex emergencies include protection from violence; the provision of adequate food rations, clean water and sanitation; diarrheal disease control; measles immunization; maternal and child health care, including the case management of common endemic communicable diseases; and selective feeding programs, when indicated.

  8. Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the

  9. Sexual Problems in Women: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Human Development) Also in Spanish When Sex Is Painful (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) - PDF Videos and Tutorials Sexual Problems (American Society for Reproductive ...

  10. Health physics problems encountered in the Saclay linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsaut, R.

    1979-01-01

    The safety and health physics problems specific to the Saclay linear accelerator are presented: activation (of gases, dust, water, structural materials, targets); individual dosimetry; the safety engineering [fr

  11. Trajectories of mental health problems in children of parents with mental health problems: results of the BELLA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass-Christl, Angela; Otto, Christiane; Klasen, Fionna; Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Barkmann, Claus; Hölling, Heike; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2017-11-24

    Children of parents with mental health problems (CPM) have an increased risk for behavioral and psychological problems. This study investigated the age- and gender-specific course as well as predictors of mental health problems in CPM using the longitudinal data (baseline 1- and 2-year follow-ups) of a German general population sample from the BELLA study. Children and adolescents aged 11-17 years (at baseline) who had a parent with mental health problems (n = 325) were analyzed. The mental health problems of the children were assessed by the self-reported version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). We used individual growth modeling to investigate the age- and gender-specific course, and the effects of risk as well as personal, familial and social protective factors on self-reported mental health problems in CPM. Additionally, data were examined differentiating internalizing and externalizing mental health problems in CPM. Results indicated that female compared to male CPM showed increasing mental health problems with increasing age. Mental health problems in CPM were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and less social competence over time. Internalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, less social competence and more severe parental mental health problems. Externalizing problems were associated with lower self-efficacy, worse family climate and lower social competence. The main limitations of the study are the short time period (2 years) covered and the report of mental health problems by only one parent. Our findings should be considered in the development of treatment and prevention programs for mental health problems in CPM.

  12. Electromagnetic waves in complex systems selected theoretical and applied problems

    CERN Document Server

    Velychko, Lyudmyla

    2016-01-01

    This book gives guidance to solve problems in electromagnetics, providing both examples of solving serious research problems as well as the original results to encourage further investigations. The book contains seven chapters on various aspects of resonant wave scattering, each solving one original problem. All of them are unified by the authors’ desire to show advantages of rigorous approaches at all stages, from the formulation of a problem and the selection of a method to the interpretation of results. The book reveals a range of problems associated with wave propagation and scattering in natural and artificial environments or with the design of antennas elements. The authors invoke both theoretical (analytical and numerical) and experimental techniques for handling the problems. Attention is given to mathematical simulations, computational efficiency, and physical interpretation of the experimental results. The book is written for students, graduate students and young researchers. .

  13. Legionnaires' Disease: a Problem for Health Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clips Legionnaires’ Disease A problem for health care facilities Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... drinking. Many people being treated at health care facilities, including long-term care facilities and hospitals, have ...

  14. The moral problem of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia M

    2010-04-01

    Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis.

  15. Investigating the Effect of Complexity Factors in Stoichiometry Problems Using Logistic Regression and Eye Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Kirk, John; Pienta, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper includes two experiments, one investigating complexity factors in stoichiometry word problems, and the other identifying students' problem-solving protocols by using eye-tracking technology. The word problems used in this study had five different complexity factors, which were randomly assigned by a Web-based tool that we developed. The…

  16. Exploring the role of GIS during community health assessment problem solving: experiences of public health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotch Matthew

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Community health assessment (CHA involves the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS in conjunction with other software to analyze health and population data and perform numerical-spatial problem solving. There has been little research on identifying how public health professionals integrate this software during typical problem solving scenarios. A better understanding of this is needed to answer the "What" and the "How". The "What" identifies the specific software being used and the "How" explains the way they are integrated together during problem solving steps. This level of understanding will highlight the role of GIS utilization during problem solving and suggest to developers how GIS can be enhanced to better support data analysis during community health assessment. Results An online survey was developed to identify the information technology used during CHA analysis. The tasks were broken down into steps and for our analysis these steps were categorized by action: Data Management/Access, Data Navigation, Geographic Comparison, Detection of Spatial Boundaries, Spatial Modelling, and Ranking Analysis. 27 CHA professionals completed the survey, with the majority of participants (14 being from health departments. Statistical software (e.g. SPSS was the most popular software for all but one of the types of steps. For this step (detection of spatial boundaries, GIS was identified as the most popular technology. Conclusion Most CHA professionals indicated they use statistical software in conjunction with GIS. The statistical software appears to drive the analysis, while GIS is used primarily for simple spatial display (and not complex spatial analysis. This purpose of this survey was to thoroughly examine into the process of problem solving during community health assessment data analysis and to gauge how GIS is integrated with other software for this purpose. These findings suggest that GIS is used more for spatial

  17. Asbestos quantification in track ballast, a complex analytical problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Track ballast forms the trackbeb upon which railroad ties are laid. It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate water drainage, and also to keep down vegetation. It is typically made of angular crushed stone, with a grain size between 30 and 60 mm, with good mechanical properties (high compressive strength, freeze - thaw resistance, resistance to fragmentation). The most common rock types are represented by basalts, porphyries, orthogneisses, some carbonatic rocks and "green stones" (serpentinites, prasinites, amphibolites, metagabbros). Especially "green stones" may contain traces, and sometimes appreciable amounts of asbestiform minerals (chrysotile and/or fibrous amphiboles, generally tremolite - actinolite). In Italy, the chrysotile asbestos mine in Balangero (Turin) produced over 5 Mt railroad ballast (crushed serpentinites), which was used for the railways in northern and central Italy, from 1930 up to 1990. In addition to Balangero, several other serpentinite and prasinite quarries (e.g. Emilia Romagna) provided the railways ballast up to the year 2000. The legal threshold for asbestos content in track ballast is established in 1000 ppm: if the value is below this threshold, the material can be reused, otherwise it must be disposed of as hazardous waste, with very high costs. The quantitative asbestos determination in rocks is a very complex analytical issue: although techniques like TEM-SAED and micro-Raman are very effective in the identification of asbestos minerals, a quantitative determination on bulk materials is almost impossible or really expensive and time consuming. Another problem is represented by the discrimination of asbestiform minerals (e.g. chrysotile, asbestiform amphiboles) from the common acicular - pseudo-fibrous varieties (lamellar serpentine minerals, prismatic/acicular amphiboles). In this work, more than 200 samples from the main Italian rail yards were characterized by a combined use of XRD and a special SEM

  18. Potential health benefits and problems associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inhibitors, oligosaccharides and phytoestrogens in food legumes has both health ... of mixtures of these phytochemicals from food legumes, their interaction with ... potentials and utilization in foods and drugs which could be used as frontline ...

  19. Assessment of occupational hazards, health problems and safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Petrol station attendants encounter several hazards and health problems while working. This study was conducted to determine the ... Hazards reported included inhalation of petrol fumes 145 (67.4%), confrontation from customers 112 (52.1%) and noise 98 (45.6%). Health problems reported included ...

  20. Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence and describe the nature of behavioral and mental health problems, as well as child abuse, nutritional problems, gross physical illness and injury among child laborers aged 8 to 15 years in Ethiopia. However, only the behavioral and mental health ...

  1. Some Health Problems Among Working Children In Zagzig City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Children's increased vulnerability puts them at a high risk of work related health problems. Objectives: 1) identifying the characteristics of the child labor, work perceptions and job satisfaction among working children in Zagazig City 2) determining some health problems among them, 3) determining the ...

  2. Health problems among sawmill workers in Abakaliki and workplace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Sawmill workers are exposed to hazards and subsequent health problems. A workplace risk assessment and risk control measures will reduce morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to identify health problems and carry out a workplace risk assessment among sawmill workers in Abakaliki.

  3. Role of physical activity in preventing mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mental health problems are a major concern to employers, employees and occupational health professionals in the Netherlands. Employees developing these problems often have to take long-term leave from work, which may lead to disability. About a third of the total disability inflow is due to

  4. Computational Complexity of Some Problems on Generalized Cellular Automations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the preimage problem of a generalized cellular automation is NP-hard. The results of this work are important for supporting the security of the ciphers based on the cellular automations.

  5. Generalist solutions to complex problems: generating practice-based evidence - the example of managing multi-morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeve, J.; Blakeman, T.; Freeman, G.K.; Green, L.A.; James, P.A.; Lucassen, P.L.; Martin, C.M.; Sturmberg, J.P.; Weel, C. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing proportion of people are living with long term conditions. The majority have more than one. Dealing with multi-morbidity is a complex problem for health systems: for those designing and implementing healthcare as well as for those providing the evidence informing practice. Yet

  6. Contemporary health physics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2009-01-01

    This is the first text specifically designed to train potential health physicists to think and respond like professionals. Written by a former chairman of the American Board of Health Physics Comprehensive Panel of Examiners with more than 20 years of professional and academic experience in the field, it offers a balanced presentation of all the theoretical and practical issues essential for a full working knowledge of radiation exposure assessments. As the only book to cover the entire radiation protection field, it includes detailed coverage of the medical, university, reactor, fuel cycle, e

  7. Noise problems in coal mining complex- a case discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Y.; Mitra, H.; Ghosh, S.; Pal, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Noise monitoring study was conducted at Moonidih mining complex of Jharia coal-field. The study included monitoring and analysis of ambient as well as workplace noise levels. An attempt has been made to critically analyse the noise situation through octave band analysis, thereby identifying alarming noise frequencies for each noise generating equipment having Leq level more than 90 dBA. A noise model has also been developed to draw noise contours of the entire mining complex. Based on these studies, suitable control measures have been suggested. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  8. Problem analysis of geotechnical well drilling in complex environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasenov, A K; Biletskiy, M T; Ratov, B T; Korotchenko, T V

    2015-01-01

    The article examines primary causes of problems occurring during the drilling of geotechnical wells (injection, production and monitoring wells) for in-situ leaching to extract uranium in South Kazakhstan. Such a drilling problem as hole caving which is basically caused by various chemical and physical factors (hydraulic, mechanical, etc.) has been thoroughly investigated. The analysis of packing causes has revealed that this problem usually occurs because of insufficient amount of drilling mud being associated with small cross section downward flow and relatively large cross section upward flow. This is explained by the fact that when spear bores are used to drill clay rocks, cutting size is usually rather big and there is a risk for clay particles to coagulate

  9. Problems of complex automation of process at a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of theoretical investigation in determining the level and quality of NPP automation is discussed. Achievements gained in this direction are briefly reviewed on the example of domestic NPPs. Two models of the problem solution on function distribution between the operator and technical means are outlined. The processes subjected to automation are enumerated. Development of the optimal methods of power automatic control of power units is one of the most important problems of NPP automation. Automation of discrete operations especially during the start-up, shut-down or in imergency situations becomes important [ru

  10. Health Problems and Male Firearm Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when…

  11. Improving the Quality of Home Health Care for Children With Medical Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswaran, Savithri; Golden, Shannon L

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe the quality of home health care services for children with medical complexity, identify barriers to delivering optimal home health care, and discuss potential solutions to improve home health care delivery. In this qualitative study, we conducted 20 semistructured in-depth interviews with primary caregivers of children with medical complexity, and 4 focus groups with 18 home health nurses. During an iterative analysis process, we identified themes related to quality of home health care. There is substantial variability between home health nurses in the delivery of home health care to children. Lack of skills in nurses is common and has serious negative health consequences for children with medical complexity, including hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and need for medical procedures. Inadequate home health care also contributes to caregiver burden. A major barrier to delivering optimal home health care is the lack of training of home health nurses in pediatric care and technology use. Potential solutions for improving care include home health agencies training nurses in the care of children with medical complexity, support for nurses in clinical problem solving, and reimbursement for training nurses in pediatric home care. Caregiver-level interventions includes preparation of caregivers about: providing medical care for their children at home and addressing problems with home health care services. There are problems in the quality of home health care delivered to children with medical complexity. Training nurses in the care of children with medical complexity and preparing caregivers about home care could improve home health care quality. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. E-smoking: Emerging public health problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Jankowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarette use has become increasingly popular, especially among the young. Its long-term influence upon health is unknown. Aim of this review has been to present the current state of knowledge about the impact of e-cigarette use on health, with an emphasis on Central and Eastern Europe. During the preparation of this narrative review, the literature on e-cigarettes available within the network PubMed was retrieved and examined. In the final review, 64 research papers were included. We specifically assessed the construction and operation of the e-cigarette as well as the chemical composition of the e-liquid; the impact that vapor arising from the use of e-cigarette explored in experimental models in vitro; and short-term effects of use of e-cigarettes on users’ health. Among the substances inhaled by the e-smoker, there are several harmful products, such as: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acroleine, propanal, nicotine, acetone, o-methyl-benzaldehyde, carcinogenic nitrosamines. Results from experimental animal studies indicate the negative impact of e-cigarette exposure on test models, such as ascytotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, airway hyper reactivity, airway remodeling, mucin production, apoptosis, and emphysematous changes. The short-term impact of e-cigarettes on human health has been studied mostly in experimental setting. Available evidence shows that the use of e-cigarettes may result in acute lung function responses (e.g., increase in impedance, peripheral airway flow resistance and induce oxidative stress. Based on the current available evidence, e-cigarette use is associated with harmful biologic responses, although it may be less harmful than traditional cigarettes. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3:329–344

  13. E-smoking: Emerging public health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Mateusz; Brożek, Grzegorz; Lawson, Joshua; Skoczyński, Szymon; Zejda, Jan Eugeniusz

    2017-05-08

    E-cigarette use has become increasingly popular, especially among the young. Its long-term influence upon health is unknown. Aim of this review has been to present the current state of knowledge about the impact of e-cigarette use on health, with an emphasis on Central and Eastern Europe. During the preparation of this narrative review, the literature on e-cigarettes available within the network PubMed was retrieved and examined. In the final review, 64 research papers were included. We specifically assessed the construction and operation of the e-cigarette as well as the chemical composition of the e-liquid; the impact that vapor arising from the use of e-cigarette explored in experimental models in vitro; and short-term effects of use of e-cigarettes on users' health. Among the substances inhaled by the e-smoker, there are several harmful products, such as: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acroleine, propanal, nicotine, acetone, o-methyl-benzaldehyde, carcinogenic nitrosamines. Results from experimental animal studies indicate the negative impact of e-cigarette exposure on test models, such as ascytotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, airway hyper reactivity, airway remodeling, mucin production, apoptosis, and emphysematous changes. The short-term impact of e-cigarettes on human health has been studied mostly in experimental setting. Available evidence shows that the use of e-cigarettes may result in acute lung function responses (e.g., increase in impedance, peripheral airway flow resistance) and induce oxidative stress. Based on the current available evidence, e-cigarette use is associated with harmful biologic responses, although it may be less harmful than traditional cigarettes. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3):329-344. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Tourists' mental representations of complex travel decision problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Arentze, T.A.; Horeni, O.

    2014-01-01

    Tourism research has long recognized the complexity of many decisions that tourists make and proposed models to describe and analyze tourist decision processes. This article complements this previous research by proposing a view that moves away from the process of making a decision and instead

  15. Markov Renewal Methods in Restart Problems in Complex Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Lipsky, Lester; Thompson, Stephen

    A task with ideal execution time L such as the execution of a computer program or the transmission of a file on a data link may fail, and the task then needs to be restarted. The task is handled by a complex system with features similar to the ones in classical reliability: failures may...

  16. On the complexity of the balanced vertex ordering problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of finding a balanced ordering of the vertices of a graph. More precisely, we want to minimise the sum, taken over all vertices v, of the difference between the number of neighbours to the left and right of v. This problem, which has applications in graph drawing, was recently introduced by Biedl et al. [Discrete Applied Math. 148:27--48, 2005]. They proved that the problem is solvable in polynomial time for graphs with maximum degree three, but NP-hard for graphs with maximum degree six. One of our main results is to close the gap in these results, by proving NP-hardness for graphs with maximum degree four. Furthermore, we prove that the problem remains NP-hard for planar graphs with maximum degree four and for 5-regular graphs. On the other hand, we introduce a polynomial time algorithm that determines whetherthere is a vertex ordering with total imbalance smaller than a fixed constant, and a polynomial time algorithm that determines whether a given multigraph with even degrees has an `almost balanced' ordering.

  17. Disclosure of minor mental health problems: an exploratory theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B; Healy, D

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore people's experiences, concerns and beliefs about disclosing minor mental health problems by focusing on the ways in which such disclosures are interpreted. Approximately half of people with mental health problems do not seek help. The decision to consult represents just one aspect of the process of revealing one's illness to others. People with mental health problems are known to be reluctant to reveal the existence of those problems through fear of how others might then view them. A qualitative approach was employed. In-depth interviews were carried out with 47 users and nonusers of community mental health services. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed. The data suggest that when people reveal minor mental health problems others interpret these in relation to a number of perceived contextual factors. These include perceptions of the severity and duration of any possible causes, the inner 'strength' of the person, the expected ability of the person to either solve or suppress the experience, and the form and context of the expression itself. The data presented included individuals who were seeking help for relatively 'minor' mental health problems (primarily depression and anxiety) and individuals who had no current mental health problems but routinely managed expressions of their own emotions. Throughout the data there appeared to be no distinct difference between these two groups other than one of the severity of psychological experience. The key elements involved in the interpretation of people's expressions of sadness were essentially the same as those involved in the interpretation of expressions of depression. An appreciation of these contextual factors influencing the interpretation and disclosure of minor mental health problems may aid the development of more person-centred mental health services and inform the content of health education in the mental health field.

  18. Vaccine hesitancy, a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, F; Contratti, C M; Tanzi, E; Grappasonni, I

    2018-01-01

    The phenomenon of "vaccine hesitancy" has only been studied for a few years, and this attitude is becoming a serious threat that can frustrate the efforts of recent years that have led to the achievement of relevant scientific advances to human health. The paper analyzes the possible causes, the scope of the phenomenon and its consequences, trying to identify the most effective actions to resolve this trend.

  19. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.

  20. Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    THABET, ABDEL AZIZ; EL GAMMAL, HOSSAM; VOSTANIS, PANOS

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Palestinian mothers' perceptions of child mental health problems and their understanding of their causes; to determine Palestinian mothers' awareness of existing services and sources of help and support; to identify professionals in the community whom Palestinian mothers would consult if their child had mental health problems; and to establish their views on ways of increasing awareness of child mental health issues and services. Checklists exploring the above issues were completed by 249 Palestinian mothers living in refugee camps in the Gaza Strip. Palestinian mothers equally perceived emotional, behavioural and psychotic symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, parental psychiatric illness and social adversity. A substantial proportion (42.6%) had knowledge of local child mental health care services. Overall, mothers preferred Western over traditional types of treatment, and were keen to increase mental health awareness within their society. Despite a different cultural tradition, Palestinian mothers appear open to a range of services and interventions for child mental health problems. As in other non-Western societies, child mental health service provision should be integrated with existing primary health care, schools, and community structures. PMID:16946953

  1. Solution of problems of automation of elevator complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kudryashov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the solution of automation tasks in the development of the operator's workstation (AWP for controlling the elevator with a capacity of 280 tons per hour as part of the work of LLC "Intelligent Automation Complexes". In the existing elevator complexes, only grain transportation is provided (there are no control systems with automatic grain drying with high accuracy of humidity measurement, automatic generation of grain transportation routes is not provided (for each route, a technical task is required and changes to the control program of the system are required. At the same time, more precise regulation of the flow of grain flows is required (the automatic latches used have only the "open / close" positions. The goal of elevator automation is: to reduce the time of equipment downturn by tracking the operating time of the equipment, the number of accidents and informing the operator about equipment that is susceptible to failure; reduction of the time for setting up and servicing the elevator; improvement of product quality; a decrease in the percentage of rejects, as well as a decrease in the influence of the human factor on the process. The paper provides a brief description of the proposed gate valve control algorithms, the auto-building of the grain drying route, the filtering of the grain moisture readings and the fragments of the operator's workstation program (in indusoft web studio for controlling the elevator complex. The proposed solutions allow: to reduce the time of equipment downtime by 20% and the total service time of the complex; weed out the undried grain for ridding in automatic mode for repeated drying; to improve the quality of products through automatic control of grain overheating; to reduce the production waste by 3%, and also to reduce the influence of the human factor on the process of grain transportation and drying.

  2. A complex approach to the blue-loop problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Jakub; Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2015-08-01

    The problem of the blue loops during the core helium burning, outstanding for almost fifty years, is one of the most difficult and poorly understood problems in stellar astrophysics. Most of the work focused on the blue loops done so far has been performed with old stellar evolution codes and with limited computational resources. In the end the obtained conclusions were based on a small sample of models and could not have taken into account more advanced effects and interactions between them.The emergence of the blue loops depends on many details of the evolution calculations, in particular on chemical composition, opacity, mixing processes etc. The non-linear interactions between these factors contribute to the statement that in most cases it is hard to predict without a precise stellar modeling whether a loop will emerge or not. The high sensitivity of the blue loops to even small changes of the internal structure of a star yields one more issue: a sensitivity to numerical problems, which are common in calculations of stellar models on advanced stages of the evolution.To tackle this problem we used a modern stellar evolution code MESA. We calculated a large grid of evolutionary tracks (about 8000 models) with masses in the range of 3.0 - 25.0 solar masses from the zero age main sequence to the depletion of helium in the core. In order to make a comparative analysis, we varied metallicity, helium abundance and different mixing parameters resulting from convective overshooting, rotation etc.The better understanding of the properties of the blue loops is crucial for our knowledge of the population of blue supergiants or pulsating variables such as Cepheids, α-Cygni or Slowly Pulsating B-type supergiants. In case of more massive models it is also of great importance for studies of the progenitors of supernovae.

  3. PUBLIC HEALTH Health problems flow freely across borders ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 oct. 2010 ... For four decades, IDRC has supported research across the developing world that has saved lives and reduced illness by tackling threats to public health such as infections diseases, tobacco, dilapidated health systems, and degraded environments.

  4. Oral health and menopouse: Problems and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Thahir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the number of life expectancy in worldwide population has increased compared with 1990. In 2014, the mean life expectancy have reached 75 years old, and even above 80 years in several developed countries. The interesting point is women have shown higher increase of live expectancy compared with men, Women have increased 6.6 years compared with men, 5.8 years. Better health welfare, economic  growth, and lifestyle modification suspected to be contributing in higher life expectancy worldwide. Despite the encouraging news that the age of population is increasing, the concern will be whether this longer age come with the better health condition, including oral and dental health. The presence of teeth inside the mouth is one of significant points to support one’s quality of life. This research involved 66 subjects, age between 35–60 years old, divided into two groups, menopause and non-menopause women. The research shown that tooth loss occurred more in non-menopause women than menopause woman, which is 37% woman has lost as many as 12 teeth, compared with post menopausal the toothloss only occurred in 19.6%. The treatment need of non-surgery periodontal care in non-menopausal woman higher by 37.9%, and surgery care is 23.2%, meanwhile in the menopause group, non surgery care is 30.3% and surgery care is only 9.1%. The conclusion is the teeth extractions mostly take place in the period before menopause compared post-menopausal. Treatment need is also higher before menopausal than after menopause. In order to that, the menopausal women need to have adequate dental care by the patient and the dentist as well

  5. Health problems of industrial applications of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrna, J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation hygiene problems of industrial radioisotope applications are discussed. The observance of regulations is emphasised. Radiation protection is based on the principle of preventing early radiation damage and limiting late radiation damage to an acceptable level. The basic requirement is that the cumulated dose should be as low as possible, i.e., as low as is practically feasible in considering economic and social aspects. Notices 59/72 and 65/72, Collection of Laws, rule that if the limit of 3/10 of the maximum permissible dose is likely to be reached, control zones should be defined and marked at places of work where radioisotopes are handled. The characteristics of such a control zone are listed and the measures to be taken in case of accident are outlined. (B.S.)

  6. IONIZING RADIATION AS AN INDUSTRIAL HEALTH PROBLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TREWIN, R B

    1964-01-04

    Ionizing radiation, first as x-rays, later in natural form, was discovered in Europe in the late 1890's. Immediate practical uses were found for these discoveries, particularly in medicine. Unfortunately, because of the crude early equipment and ignorance of the harmful effects of radiation, many people were injured, some fatally. Because of these experiences, committees and regulatory bodies were set up to study the problem. These have built up an impressive fund of knowledge useful in radiation protection.With the recent development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, sources of radioactivity have appeared cheaply and in abundance. A rapidly growing number are finding industrial application. Because of their potential risk to humans, the industrial physician must acquire new knowledge and skills so that he may give proper guidance in this new realm of preventive medicine.The Radiation Protection Program of one such industry, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, is summarized.

  7. Ionizing Radiation as an Industrial Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, R. B.

    1964-01-01

    Ionizing radiation, first as x-rays, later in natural form, was discovered in Europe in the late 1890's. Immediate practical uses were found for these discoveries, particularly in medicine. Unfortunately, because of the crude early equipment and ignorance of the harmful effects of radiation, many people were injured, some fatally. Because of these experiences, committees and regulatory bodies were set up to study the problem. These have built up an impressive fund of knowledge useful in radiation protection. With the recent development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, sources of radioactivity have appeared cheaply and in abundance. A rapidly growing number are finding industrial application. Because of their potential risk to humans, the industrial physician must acquire new knowledge and skills so that he may give proper guidance in this new realm of preventive medicine. The Radiation Protection Program of one such industry, the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, is summarized. PMID:14105012

  8. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder".

  9. Problem-solving with multiple interdependent criteria: better solution to complex problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, C.; Fuller, R.

    1996-01-01

    We consider multiple objective programming (MOP) problems with additive interdependencies, this is when the states of some chosen objective are attained through supportive or inhibitory feed-backs from several other objectives. MOP problems with independent objectives (when the cause-effect relations between the decision variables and the objectives are completely known) will be treated as special cases of the MOP in which we have interdependent objectives. We illustrate our ideas by a simple three-objective real-life problem

  10. Addressing Complex Challenges through Adaptive Leadership: A Promising Approach to Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Tenneisha; Squires, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are faced with solving increasingly complex problems. Addressing these issues requires effective leadership that can facilitate a collaborative problem solving approach where multiple perspectives are leveraged. In this conceptual paper, we critique the effectiveness of earlier leadership models in tackling complex organizational…

  11. Tracing the development of complex problems and the methods of its information support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belenki, A.; Ryjov, A.

    1999-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the development of a technology for information monitoring of complex problems such as IAEA safeguards tasks. The main purpose of this technology is to create human-machine systems for monitoring problems with complex subject areas such as political science, social science, business, ecology and etc. (author)

  12. Managing Madness: Mental Health and Complexity in Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hickie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the concept of collaborative care, particularly in relation to a range of new models of organisation and service that are emerging in response to one of the most problematic areas of public policy – mental health. These emerging models of coordinated mental health care are testing the limits of the evidence supporting coordinated care, and require critical evaluation. Myriad concepts of collaborative or coordinated care in health, including mental health, have created multiple definitions. Once definitional issues have been surmounted, however, the evidence for coordination of health care is reasonably strong. There is considerable research about which treatments and programs are best for people with a mental illness. There are few areas seemingly as complex as mental health, given that responsibility for policy and service lies across all three tiers of Australian government and across multiple jurisdictions. It also engages public, private and non-government sectors. Co-morbidities are commonplace, particularly drug and alcohol problems among younger people. Governments in Australia have traditionally taken responsibility for policy, programs and services, either as direct service providers or through contracting outputs from others. Yet the evidence indicates that for people with a mental illness, the best solutions are often not found in government but in the community and in organisations outside of government. New organisations and new structures are attempting more holistic management approaches, combining clinical care, community support, housing, employment and other services. This paper considers some of these new models in the light of existing evidence. The key challenge facing continued reform in mental health is not uncertainty regarding programs or services, but rather how to drive coordinated care for consumers across departments, governments and providers. This review will highlight the key changes that

  13. Composing complex EXAFS problems with severe information constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravel, B

    2009-01-01

    In recent work, a model for the structural environment of Hg bound to a catalytic DNA sensor was proposed on the basis of EXAFS data analysis. Although severely constrained by limited data quality and scant supporting structural data, a compelling structural model was found which agreed with a similar but less detailed model proposed on the basis on NMR data. I discuss in detail the successes and limitations of the analytical strategy that were implemented in the earlier work. I then speculate on future software requirements needed to make this and similarly complex analytical strategies more available to the wider audience of EXAFS practitioners.

  14. On the problem of constructing a modern, economic radiotelescope complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, A. F.; Sokolov, A. G.; Poperechenko, B. A.; Polyak, V. S.

    1977-01-01

    Criteria for comparing and planning the technical and economic characteristics of large parabolic reflector antenna systems and other types used in radioastronomy and deep space communications are discussed. The experience gained in making and optimizing a series of highly efficient parabolic antennas in the USSR is reviewed. Several ways are indicated for further improving the complex characteristics of antennas similar to the original TNA-1500 64m radio telescope. The suggestions can be applied in planning the characteristics of radiotelescopes which are now being built, in particular, the TNA-8000 with a diameter of 128 m.

  15. Physical health problems in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Margje; Maaskant, Marian A; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; van Nieuwpoort, I Caroline; Drent, Madeleine L; Curfs, Leopold M G; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M

    2011-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding problems in early infancy. In later childhood and adolescence, this is followed by hyperphagia and extreme obesity if the diet is not strictly controlled. Data on physical health problems in adults with PWS are scarce. We report on the prevalence of physical health problems in a Dutch cohort of adults with PWS in relation to age, BMI, and genetic subtype. Participants (n = 102) were retrieved via the Dutch Prader-Willi Parent Association and through physicians specializing in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). Details regarding physical health problem spanning the participants' lifespan were collected from caretakers through semi-structured interviews. Cardiovascular problems included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cerebrovascular accidents. Respiratory infections were frequent in adulthood. In males, cryptorchidism was almost universal, for which 28/48 males had a history of surgery, mostly orchidopexy. None of the women had a regular menstrual cycle. Sixteen individuals had a diagnosis of osteoporosis. Spinal deformation, hip dysplasia, and foot abnormalities were common. Skinpicking, leg edema, and erysipelas were frequent dermatological problems. The findings in our group support the notion that the prevalence of physical health problems is underestimated. This underscores the importance of developing monitoring programs which would help to recognize physical health problems at an early stage. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Case study method and problem-based learning: utilizing the pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Michelle A; Christopher, Kimberly A

    2011-08-19

    As the complexity of health care delivery continues to increase, educators are challenged to determine educational best practices to prepare BSN students for the ambiguous clinical practice setting. Integrative, active, and student-centered curricular methods are encouraged to foster student ability to use clinical judgment for problem solving and informed clinical decision making. The proposed pedagogical model of progressive complexity in nursing education suggests gradually introducing students to complex and multi-contextual clinical scenarios through the utilization of case studies and problem-based learning activities, with the intention to transition nursing students into autonomous learners and well-prepared practitioners at the culmination of a nursing program. Exemplar curricular activities are suggested to potentiate student development of a transferable problem solving skill set and a flexible knowledge base to better prepare students for practice in future novel clinical experiences, which is a mutual goal for both educators and students.

  17. Generalist solutions to complex problems: generating practice-based evidence--the example of managing multi-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne; Blakeman, Tom; Freeman, George K; Green, Larry A; James, Paul A; Lucassen, Peter; Martin, Carmel M; Sturmberg, Joachim P; van Weel, Chris

    2013-08-07

    A growing proportion of people are living with long term conditions. The majority have more than one. Dealing with multi-morbidity is a complex problem for health systems: for those designing and implementing healthcare as well as for those providing the evidence informing practice. Yet the concept of multi-morbidity (the presence of >2 diseases) is a product of the design of health care systems which define health care need on the basis of disease status. So does the solution lie in an alternative model of healthcare? Strengthening generalist practice has been proposed as part of the solution to tackling multi-morbidity. Generalism is a professional philosophy of practice, deeply known to many practitioners, and described as expertise in whole person medicine. But generalism lacks the evidence base needed by policy makers and planners to support service redesign. The challenge is to fill this practice-research gap in order to critically explore if and when generalist care offers a robust alternative to management of this complex problem. We need practice-based evidence to fill this gap. By recognising generalist practice as a 'complex intervention' (intervening in a complex system), we outline an approach to evaluate impact using action-research principles. We highlight the implications for those who both commission and undertake research in order to tackle this problem. Answers to the complex problem of multi-morbidity won't come from doing more of the same. We need to change systems of care, and so the systems for generating evidence to support that care. This paper contributes to that work through outlining a process for generating practice-based evidence of generalist solutions to the complex problem of person-centred care for people with multi-morbidity.

  18. Health professionals' advice for breastfeeding problems: not good enough!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Ingram, Jennifer

    2008-09-11

    Jane Scott and colleagues have recently published a paper in the International Breastfeeding Journal showing that health professionals are still giving harmful advice to women with mastitis. We see the management of mastitis as an illustration of health professionals' management of wider breastfeeding issues. If health professionals don't know how to manage this common problem, how can they be expected to manage less common conditions such as a breast abscess or nipple/breast candidiasis? There is an urgent need for more clinical research into breastfeeding problems and to improve the education of health professionals to enable them to promote breastfeeding and support breastfeeding women.

  19. Health professionals' advice for breastfeeding problems: Not good enough!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jane Scott and colleagues have recently published a paper in the International Breastfeeding Journal showing that health professionals are still giving harmful advice to women with mastitis. We see the management of mastitis as an illustration of health professionals' management of wider breastfeeding issues. If health professionals don't know how to manage this common problem, how can they be expected to manage less common conditions such as a breast abscess or nipple/breast candidiasis? There is an urgent need for more clinical research into breastfeeding problems and to improve the education of health professionals to enable them to promote breastfeeding and support breastfeeding women.

  20. Mental, physical and social health problems of call centre workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhuyar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.

  1. Life satisfaction and mental health problems (18 to 35 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; McLeod, G F H; Horwood, L J; Swain, N R; Chapple, S; Poulton, R

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has found that mental health is strongly associated with life satisfaction. In this study we examine associations between mental health problems and life satisfaction in a birth cohort studied from 18 to 35 years. Data were gathered during the Christchurch Health and Development Study, which is a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1977. Assessments of psychiatric disorder (major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality, alcohol dependence and illicit substance dependence) using DSM diagnostic criteria and life satisfaction were obtained at 18, 21, 25, 30 and 35 years. Significant associations (p life satisfaction and the psychiatric disorders major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality, alcohol dependence and substance dependence. After adjustment for non-observed sources of confounding by fixed effects, statistically significant associations (p life satisfaction and major depression, anxiety disorder, suicidality and substance dependence. Overall, those reporting three or more mental health disorders had mean life satisfaction scores that were nearly 0.60 standard deviations below those without mental health problems. A structural equation model examined the direction of causation between life satisfaction and mental health problems. Statistically significant (p life satisfaction and mental health problems. After adjustment for confounding, robust and reciprocal associations were found between mental health problems and life satisfaction. Overall, this study showed evidence that life satisfaction influences mental disorder, and that mental disorder influences life satisfaction.

  2. Sexual Problems in Men: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Retrograde ejaculation (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Sexual Problems in ... Premature ejaculation Reifenstein syndrome Retrograde ejaculation Related Health Topics Erectile Dysfunction Penis Disorders Prostate Diseases Testicular Disorders ...

  3. Neurocysticercosis, a persisting health problem in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Fleury

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ongoing epidemiological transition in Mexico minimizes the relative impact of neurocysticercosis (NC on public health. However, hard data on the disease frequency are not available. METHODOLOGY: All clinical records from patients admitted in the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN at Mexico City in 1994 and 2004 were revised. The frequencies of hospitalized NC patients in neurology, neurosurgery and psychiatry services, as well as NC mortality from 1995 through 2009, were retrieved. Statistical analyses were made to evaluate possible significant differences in frequencies of NC patients' admission between 1994 and 2004, and in yearly frequencies of NC patients' hospitalization and death between 1995 and 2009. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NC frequency in INNN is not significantly different in 1994 and 2004. Between these two years, clinical severity of the cases diminished and the proportion of patients living in Mexico City increased. Yearly frequencies of hospitalization in neurology and psychiatry services were stable, while frequencies of hospitalization in neurosurgery service and mortality significantly decreased between 1995 and 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show a stable tendency of hospital cases during the last decade that should encourage to redouble efforts to control this ancient disease.

  4. Problems with the electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Hans-Peter; Liaschenko, Joan; Angus, Jan

    2016-01-01

    One of the most significant changes in modern healthcare delivery has been the evolution of the paper record to the electronic health record (EHR). In this paper we argue that the primary change has been a shift in the focus of documentation from monitoring individual patient progress to recording data pertinent to Institutional Priorities (IPs). The specific IPs to which we refer include: finance/reimbursement; risk management/legal considerations; quality improvement/safety initiatives; meeting regulatory and accreditation standards; and patient care delivery/evidence based practice. Following a brief history of the transition from the paper record to the EHR, the authors discuss unintended or contested consequences resulting from this change. These changes primarily reflect changes in the organization and amount of clinician work and clinician-patient relationships. The paper is not a research report but was informed by an institutional ethnography the aim of which was to understand how the EHR impacted clinicians and administrators in a large, urban hospital in the United States. The paper was also informed by other sources, including the philosophies of Jacques Ellul, Don Idhe, and Langdon Winner. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Simple technologies for complex problems: in situ denitrification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clarke, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available has been highlighted (Tredoux et al., XXXX; Maherry et al, 2011). In South Africa, the ideal drinking water guideline (DWAF, 1998) has less than 6 mg/L nitrate (plus nitrite) as N (?blue? or Class 0), while the ?marginal? water quality guideline... is a maximum concentration of 20 mg/L (?yellow? or Class II). This is generally in agreement with the World Health Organization guidelines. However, in many areas of South Africa, nitrate levels exceed the maximum concentration of 40 mg/L of ?poor...

  6. Simulation Gaming as a Social Development Instrument : Dealing with Complex Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, B.; Janssen, M.

    Improving public service delivery is a very complex domain and the complexity is difficult to grasp by stakeholders having various degree of knowledge and involvement. An emergent and promising method for dealing with complex problems is simulation gaming, which can be used to capitalize the

  7. Knowledge to action for solving complex problems: insights from a review of nine international cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, B L; Robinson, K L; Gamble, J; Finegood, D T; Sheppard, D; Penney, T L; Best, A

    2015-05-01

    Solving complex problems such as preventing chronic diseases introduces unique challenges for the creation and application of knowledge, or knowledge to action (KTA). KTA approaches that apply principles of systems thinking are thought to hold promise, but practical strategies for their application are not well understood. In this paper we report the results of a scan of systems approaches to KTA with a goal to identify how to optimize their implementation and impact. A 5-person advisory group purposefully selected 9 initiatives to achieve diversity on issues addressed and organizational forms. Information on each case was gathered from documents and through telephone interviews with primary contacts within each organization. Following verification of case descriptions, an inductive analysis was conducted within and across cases. The cases revealed 5 guidelines for moving from conceiving KTA systems to implementing them: (1) establish and nurture relationships, (2) co-produce and curate knowledge, (3) create feedback loops, (4) frame as systems interventions rather than projects, and (5) consider variations across time and place. Results from the environmental scan are a modest start to translating systems concepts for KTA into practice. Use of the strategies revealed in the scan may improve KTA for solving complex public health problems. The strategies themselves will benefit from the development of a science that aims to understand adaptation and ongoing learning from policy and practice interventions, strengthens enduring relationships, and fills system gaps in addition to evidence gaps. Systems approaches to KTA will also benefit from robust evaluations.

  8. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams PAH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia AH Williams, Andrew J Woodward eHealth Research Group and Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. Keywords: cybersecurity, security, safety, wireless, risk, medical devices

  9. Help-seeking for early childhood mental health problems

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Children's mental health has significant implications for functioning across home, school, and community settings. The infant to preschool years has been found to be a crucial stage in a child’s development. As such, problems that arise during these years are likely to impact a child’s social and emotional development if no treatment is sought. Childhood mental health problems affect up to almost one quarter of children globally (Belfer, 2008; Canino, Bird, Rubio-Stipec, & Bravo, 1995; Egger ...

  10. Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...

  11. Reentry challenges facing women with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visher, Christy A; Bakken, Nicholas W

    2014-01-01

    Women entering the correctional system represent a population at high risk for mental health and the body of research on the mental health needs of women offenders is growing. These mental health problems pose challenges for women at every stage of the criminal justice process, from arrest to incarceration to community reentry and reintegration. In this article, we examined mental health status among a sample of 142 women leaving confinement and the role that mental health problems played in shaping their reentry outcomes using data collected between 2002 and 2005 in Houston, Texas. In the year after leaving prison, women with mental health problems reported poorer health, more hospitalizations, more suicidal thoughts, greater difficulties securing housing and employment, more involvement in criminal behavior, and less financial support from family than women with no indication of mental health problems. However, mental health status did not increase the likelihood of substance use relapse or reincarceration. The article concludes with a discussion of recommendations for improved policy and practice.

  12. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  13. Physical health problems in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinnema, M.; Maaskant, M.A.; Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.M.J. van; Nieuwpoort, I.C. van; Drent, M.L.; Curfs, L.M.G.; Schrander-Stumpel, C.T.R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding problems in early infancy. In later childhood and adolescence, this is followed by hyperphagia and extreme obesity if the diet is not strictly controlled. Data on physical health problems in

  14. Health problems of street children and women in Awassa, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The number of street children and women in major towns of Ethiopia is rapidly increasing. Yet their problems have not been fully studied. Objective: To assess health and related problems in street children and women. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in Awassa town, women southern ...

  15. Mental health problem in HIV/AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camellia, V.

    2018-03-01

    People with HIV positive have risk increased mental health problem than the general population. It associated with psychosocial factors, direct neurological effects of the HIV infection and medication. Overall it can make increased morbidity and mortality in HIV positive patients. The more common mental problem in HIV/AIDS people is dementia, delirium, depression, and mania, suicide, psychotic, sleep problem. Both psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment strategies often indicate.

  16. Bactrocera dorsalis complex and its problem in control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2003-01-01

    Eight species of fifty-two in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are serious pests in the Asia-Pacific region. Of these, all except one are attracted to methyl eugenol. Four of these pests B. carambolae, B. dorsalis, B. papayae and B. philippinesis are polyphagous species and infest 75, 117, 195 and 18 fruit host species respectively. Common names for B. carambalae and B. papayae (sympatric species) have caused confusion. Both species can interbreed and produce viable offspring; and their natural hybrids have been collected. Bactrocera dorsalis and B. papayae can interbreed readily and produce viable offspring in the laboratory as males produce identical booster sex and aggregation pheromonal components after consuming methyl eugenol. The DNA sequences of one of their respective allelic introns of the actin gene are also identical which suggests that they are not distinct genetic species. Protein bait application and male annihilation techniques have been successful in the management of fruit flies in many cases but they have to compete with natural sources of lures. SIT is amenable for non-methyl engenol species; but for methyl eugenol sensitive species, sterile makes should be allowed to consume methyl eugenol before release to have an equal mating competitiveness with wild males. (author)

  17. Algorithms and Complexity Results for Genome Mapping Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Ashok; Zanetti, Joao Paulo Pereira; Manuch, Jan; Chauve, Cedric

    2017-01-01

    Genome mapping algorithms aim at computing an ordering of a set of genomic markers based on local ordering information such as adjacencies and intervals of markers. In most genome mapping models, markers are assumed to occur uniquely in the resulting map. We introduce algorithmic questions that consider repeats, i.e., markers that can have several occurrences in the resulting map. We show that, provided with an upper bound on the copy number of repeated markers and with intervals that span full repeat copies, called repeat spanning intervals, the problem of deciding if a set of adjacencies and repeat spanning intervals admits a genome representation is tractable if the target genome can contain linear and/or circular chromosomal fragments. We also show that extracting a maximum cardinality or weight subset of repeat spanning intervals given a set of adjacencies that admits a genome realization is NP-hard but fixed-parameter tractable in the maximum copy number and the number of adjacent repeats, and tractable if intervals contain a single repeated marker.

  18. Problem analysis: application in the development of market strategies for health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J

    1988-03-01

    The problem analysis technique is an approach to understanding salient customer needs that is especially appropriate under complex market conditions. The author demonstrates the use of the approach in segmenting markets and conducting competitive analysis for positioning strategy decisions in health care.

  19. Complexity or Meaning in Health Professional Education and Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Wendy Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Discourses of complexity have entered health professional education. This paper explores the meaning of complexity by asking how health professionals are educated and some of the consequences of that education. Design: A qualitative study was carried out drawing on reflexivity, discourse analysis and grounded methodology. Setting: Two…

  20. Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution- related Health Problem in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The health effects of air pollution are generally global problems, but they have, since recently become issues of particular concern for developing countries. This review assessed the situation of air pollution and related health effects in the context of Ethiopia. Methods: The materials reviewed in this publication ...

  1. Common Occupational Health Problems In Disease Control In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews some common occupational health problems among health workers due to exposure to hazardous or pathogenic biological, chemical and physical agents in the line of duty. Highlighted biological agents are pathogenic viruses, bacteria etc; chemical agents are laboratory reagents, mercury and ...

  2. Some Mobile Phone Associated Health Problems Among Mobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although mobile telecommunications deliver enormous benefit to society, there are concerns whether its electric and magnetic field emissions are linked with cancer or other health hazards. Objectives: 1) determining some of the mobile phone(Mph) associated health problems. 2) identifying some of the risk ...

  3. Identifying risks for mental health problems in HIV positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mental health problems of adolescents are underserved in low and middle-income countries where they account for a significant proportion of disease burden. Perinatally infected HIV-positive adolescents have a high prevalence of mental health disorders; however, little is known about those retained in care in ...

  4. Health Problems in Pregnancy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control and Prevention) - PDF Also in Spanish Will Stress during Pregnancy Affect My Baby? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Also in Spanish Specifics Blood Clotting and Pregnancy (American Society of Hematology) Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG) (HER Foundation) ...

  5. Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings - a simplistic solution to complex problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving 'leadership'. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts.

  6. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO LUNG PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODCUTION: WHO’s definition of Physical, social and mental well - being is explained below. A positive mental health state indicates that the individual enjoys his routine; there are no undue conflicts. Health reiteration become s more imperative than health maintenanc e, where society’s responsibility is paramount. Health economics enables us to examine the burden caused by illness. In India, 620 million people live in rural area; only 9% of every one billion populatio n is covered under health schemes. Only 2% of GDP is spent on health, where the recommended percentage is 5%. In addition to this only 5% of annual family income is spent on curative health care. In the recent past rapid deterioration in the quality of environment has over - burdened the health problem. Occu pational Health is one of the environmental health sciences, concerned broadly with the health effects of work and of working conditions. Occupational illnesses and injuries have long been a preventable blight to health. A part from occupational diseases t here are some hazards which will impair health of employees in industries. Workers in every Occupation are faced with a multitude of hazards in the work place. Ronald Blake has classified occupational hazards into the following four categories. The most pr essing environmental health problems today, in terms of death and illness worldwide are those associated with poor households and communities in the development countries. According to WHO and the World Bank, environmental improvement at the household and community level would make the greatest difference for global health. This Article also focuses on the lung disease mainly occurring du e to hazards caused by the patient occupation. A good number of diseases like COAD, asthma and pneumoconiosis afflict the concerned population. Discussion has been made in threadbare about these problems in this article

  7. Information Seeking When Problem Solving: Perspectives of Public Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kristine; Dobbins, Maureen; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna

    2017-04-01

    Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings. It also explored their perceptions of collaborative information seeking and the work contexts in which they sought information. Key Canadian contacts at public health organizations helped recruit study participants through their list-servs. An electronic survey was used to gather data about (a) individual information-seeking behaviors, (b) collaborative information-seeking behaviors, (c) use of evidence in practice environments, (d) perceived problem-solving abilities, and (e) demographic characteristics. Fifty-eight public health professionals were recruited, with different roles and representing most Canadian provinces and one territory. A significant relationship was found between perceived problem-solving abilities and collaborative information-seeking behavior (r = -.44, p public health professionals take a shared, active approach to problem solving, maintain personal control, and have confidence, they are more likely collaborate with others in seeking information to complete a work task. Administrators of public health organizations should promote collaboration by implementing effective communication and information-seeking strategies, and by providing information resources and retrieval tools. Public health professionals' perceived problem-solving abilities can influence how they collaborate in seeking information. Educators in public health

  8. Travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kudo, Koichiro

    2009-09-01

    Although the number of Japanese individuals traveling abroad has increased steadily, reaching approximately 17.3 million in 2007, the incidence of various travel-related health problems in Japan remains unknown. The travel-related health problems of Japanese travelers returning to Japan from abroad are analyzed by assessing the records. Data were collected retrospectively on returning travelers who visited the authors' travel clinic during the period from January 2005 through to December 2006 with any health problem acquired overseas. A total of 345 patients were included in this study (200 male, 145 female; average age, 34+/-12.3 years). Reasons for travel included leisure (45.8%); business (39.1%); visiting friends and relatives or accompanying other travelers (8.7%); volunteering (3.8%); and long stays in order to study or live (2.6%). The most visited destination was Asia (n=260), followed by Africa (n=105). The most commonly reported health problems were gastro-intestinal infections (39.1%), followed by respiratory tract infections (16.2%), animal bites (8.1%), and skin problems (5.8%). Together, malaria and dengue accounted for 10% of diagnoses in 125 febrile patients (36.2%). Although the profile of travel-related health problems in Japanese travelers is similar to that of Western travelers, the characteristics of travel were quite different. Therefore Japanese travel advice should be tailored to suit the Japanese traveler.

  9. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.

  10. Health brokers : How can they help deal with the wickedness of public health problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rinsum, C.E.; Gerards, S.M.P.L.; Rutten, G.J.M.; Van De Goor, L.A.M.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    Background The role of health broker is a relatively new one in public health. Health brokers aim to create support for efforts to optimise health promotion in complex or even “wicked” public health contexts by facilitating intersectoral collaborations and by exchanging knowledge with different

  11. Probing problems and priorities in oral health (care) among community dwelling elderly in the Netherlands: a mixed method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaars, B.; Jerković-Ćosić, K.; van der Putten, G.J.; van der Heijden, G.J.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Complex dentitions and decline in adequate oral hygiene in elderly may lead to poor oral health. This may have impact on their general health, wellbeing and quality of life. With increased longevity, the problems and needs in oral health of community dwelling elderly lead to changes in

  12. Analogy as a strategy for supporting complex problem solving under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joel; Paletz, Susannah B F; Schunn, Christian D

    2012-11-01

    Complex problem solving in naturalistic environments is fraught with uncertainty, which has significant impacts on problem-solving behavior. Thus, theories of human problem solving should include accounts of the cognitive strategies people bring to bear to deal with uncertainty during problem solving. In this article, we present evidence that analogy is one such strategy. Using statistical analyses of the temporal dynamics between analogy and expressed uncertainty in the naturalistic problem-solving conversations among scientists on the Mars Rover Mission, we show that spikes in expressed uncertainty reliably predict analogy use (Study 1) and that expressed uncertainty reduces to baseline levels following analogy use (Study 2). In addition, in Study 3, we show with qualitative analyses that this relationship between uncertainty and analogy is not due to miscommunication-related uncertainty but, rather, is primarily concentrated on substantive problem-solving issues. Finally, we discuss a hypothesis about how analogy might serve as an uncertainty reduction strategy in naturalistic complex problem solving.

  13. Parentification, Stress, and Problem Behavior of Adolescents who have a Parent with Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Linda M A; Van de Ven, Monique O M; Van Doesum, Karin T M; Hosman, Clemens M H; Witteman, Cilia L M

    2017-03-01

    When adolescents live with a parent with mental illness, they often partly take over the parental role. Little is known about the consequences of this so-called parentification on the adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. This survey study examined this effect cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of 118 adolescents living with a parent suffering from mental health problems. In addition, the study examined a possible indirect effect via perceived stress. Path analyses were used to examine the direct associations between parentification and problem behavior as well as the indirect relations via perceived stress. The results showed that parentification was associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems cross-sectionally, but it predicted only internalizing problems 1 year later. An indirect effect of parentification on adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems via perceived stress was found, albeit only cross-sectionally. These findings imply that parentification can be stressful for adolescents who live with a parent with mental health problems, and that a greater awareness of parentification is needed to prevent adolescents from developing internalizing problems. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  14. Health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena

    2017-07-01

    The number of migrants and refugees in Europe in the past few years has increased dramatically due to war, violence or prosecutions in their homeland. Migration may affect physical, mental and social health. The objective of this article is to assess migrants and refugees' health problems, and to recommend appropriate interventions. A PubMed search of published articles on health problems of newly arrived migrants and refugees was conducted from 2003 through 2016, focusing on the current refugee crisis in Europe. In addition to communicable diseases, such as respiratory, gastrointestinal and dermatologic infections, non-communicable diseases, including chronic conditions, mental and social problems, account for a significant morbidity burden in newly arrived migrants and refugees. Vaccine-preventable diseases are also of outmost importance. The appropriate management of newly arrived refugees and migrants' health problems is affected by barriers to access to health care including legal, communication, cultural and bureaucratic difficulties. There is diversity and lack of integration regarding health care provision across Europe due to policy differences between health care systems and social services. There is a notable burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases among newly arrived migrants and refugees. Provision of health care at reception and temporary centres should be integrated and provided by a multidisciplinary team Appropriate health care of migrants and refugees could greatly enhance their health and social status which will benefit also the host countries at large. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Health problems of Nepalese migrants working in three Gulf countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescott Gordon J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is one of the largest suppliers of labour to countries where there is a demand for cheap and low skilled workers. In the recent years the Gulf countries have collectively become the main destinations for international migration. This paper aims to explore the health problems and accidents experienced by a sample of Nepalese migrant in three Gulf countries. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 408 Nepalese migrants who had at least one period of work experience of at least six months in any of three Gulf countries: Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE. Face to face questionnaire interviews were conducted applying a convenience technique to select the study participants. Results Nepalese migrants in these Gulf countries were generally young men between 26-35 years of age. Unskilled construction jobs including labourer, scaffolder, plumber and carpenter were the most common jobs. Health problems were widespread and one quarter of study participants reported experiencing injuries or accidents at work within the last 12 months. The rates of health problems and accidents reported were very similar in the three countries. Only one third of the respondents were provided with insurance for health services by their employer. Lack of leave for illness, cost and fear of losing their job were the barriers to accessing health care services. The study found that construction and agricultural workers were more likely to experience accidents at their workplace and health problems than other workers. Conclusion The findings suggest important messages for the migration policy makers in Nepal. There is a lack of adequate information for the migrants making them aware of their health risks and rights in relation to health services in the destination countries and we suggest that the government of Nepal should be responsible for providing this information. Employers should provide orientation on possible health

  16. Amodified probabilistic genetic algorithm for the solution of complex constrained optimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    Vorozheikin, A.; Gonchar, T.; Panfilov, I.; Sopov, E.; Sopov, S.

    2009-01-01

    A new algorithm for the solution of complex constrained optimization problems based on the probabilistic genetic algorithm with optimal solution prediction is proposed. The efficiency investigation results in comparison with standard genetic algorithm are presented.

  17. Mental Health Problems and Related Factors in Ecuadorian College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Torres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador. Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants’ mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.

  18. Mental Health Problems and Related Factors in Ecuadorian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Claudia; Otero, Patricia; Bustamante, Byron; Blanco, Vanessa; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L

    2017-05-15

    Although the mental health problems of college students have been the subject of increasing research, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuadorian college students. The aim of this study was to determine the mental health problems and their associated factors in Ecuadorian freshmen university students. A sample of 1092 students (53.7% women; mean age = 18.3 years) were recruited from the Technical Particular University of Loja (Ecuador). Socio-demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics were gathered, as well as information on the participants' mental health through a number of mental health screens. Prevalence of positive screens was 6.2% for prevalence of major depressive episodes, 0.02% for generalized anxiety disorders, 2.2% for panic disorders, 32.0% for eating disorders, 13.1% for suicidal risk. Mental health problems were significantly associated with sex, area of study, self-esteem, social support, personality and histories of mental health problems. The findings offer a starting point for identifying useful factors to target prevention and intervention strategies aimed at university students.

  19. Children with mental versus physical health problems: differences in perceived disease severity, health care service utilization and parental health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Michelle; Wang, Jen; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2015-03-01

    To compare children with mental and physical health problems regarding (1) perceived disease severity; (2) the impact of their condition on their families; (3) their utilization of health care services (including satisfaction with care); and (4) parents' health literacy about their child's condition and its treatment. Furthermore, we examined whether parents' health literacy differs between types of mental health condition. Parental reports about their 9- to 14-year-old children with mental (n = 785) or physical health problems (n = 475) were analyzed from the population-based National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs in Switzerland. Mental health problems were perceived as being more severe (p mental health problem mentioned having a particular person or place to contact if they needed information or advice regarding the child's condition (p = 0.004) and were satisfied with the health care services their child received (p mental health problems vs. parents of children with physical health problems (OR in the adjusted model = 1.92; 95 % CI 1.47-2.50; p mental health problem (although only a trend was observable for internalizing problems). The large impact of children's mental health conditions on themselves and their families might be reduced by adapting the provision of health care and by increasing parents' health literacy.

  20. Complexity: a potential paradigm for a health promotion discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie

    2014-06-01

    Health promotion underpins a distancing from narrow, simplifying health approaches associated with the biomedical model. However, it has not yet succeeded in formally establishing its theoretical, epistemological and methodological foundations on a single paradigm. The complexity paradigm, which it has yet to broach head-on, might provide it with a disciplinary matrix in line with its implicit stances and basic values. This article seeks to establish complexity's relevance as a paradigm that can contribute to the development of a health promotion discipline. The relevance of complexity is justified primarily by its matching with several implicit epistemological and methodological/theoretical stances found in the cardinal concepts and principles of health promotion. The transcendence of ontological realism and determinism as well as receptiveness in respect of the reflexivity that complexity encompasses are congruent with the values of social justice, participation, empowerment and the concept of positive health that the field promotes. Moreover, from a methodological and theoretical standpoint, complexity assumes a holistic, contextual and transdisciplinary approach, toward which health promotion is tending through its emphasis on ecology and interdisciplinary action. In a quest to illustrate our position, developmental evaluation is presented as an example of practice stemming from a complexity paradigm that can be useful in the evaluation of health promotion initiatives. In short, we argue that it would be advantageous for health promotion to integrate this paradigm, which would provide it with a formal framework appropriate to its purposes and concerns.

  1. The stigma of mental health problems in the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene-Shortridge, Tiffany M; Britt, Thomas W; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2007-02-01

    The present review addresses the perceived stigma associated with admitting a mental health problem and seeking help for that problem in the military. Evidence regarding the public stigma associated with mental disorders is reviewed, indicating that the public generally holds negative stereotypes toward individuals with psychological problems, leading to potential discrimination toward these individuals. The internalization of these negative beliefs results in self-stigma, leading to reduced self-esteem and motivation to seek help. Even if soldiers form an intention to seek help for their psychological difficulty, barriers to mental health care may prevent the soldier from receiving the help they need. An overall model is proposed to illustrate how the stigma associated with psychological problems can prevent soldiers getting needed help for psychological difficulties and proposed interventions for reducing stigma in a civilian context are considered for military personnel.

  2. Separate and combined effects of anxiety, depression and problem drinking on subjective health among black, hispanic and non-hispanic white men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although separate effects of anxiety and problem drinking were similar among race and ethnic groups, race and ethnicity seemed to modify the combined effects of different mental health problems. These results warrant further exploration of these complex links.

  3. Anxiety and health problems related to air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, I B; Swanson, V; Power, K G; Raeside, F; Dempster, C

    1998-12-01

    A significant proportion of air travelers experience situational anxiety and physical health problems. Take-off and landing are assumed to be stressful, but anxiety related to other aspects of the air travel process, anxiety coping strategies, and in-flight health problems have not previously been investigated. We aimed to investigate frequency of perceived anxiety at procedural stages of air travel, individual strategies used to reduce such anxiety, and frequency of health problems on short-haul and long-haul flights. A questionnaire measuring the occurrence and frequency of the above was administered to two samples of intending travelers during a 3 month period to: (a) 138 travel agency clients, and (b) 100 individuals attending a hospital travel clinic. Of the 238 respondents, two thirds were women. Take-off and landing were a perceived source of anxiety for about 40% of respondents, flight delays for over 50%, and customs and baggage reclaim for a third of individuals. Most frequent anxiety-reduction methods included alcohol and cigarette use, and distraction or relaxation techniques. Physical health problems related to air travel were common, and there was a strong relationship between such problems and frequency of anxiety. Travel agency clients reported more anxiety but not more physical health symptoms overall than travel clinic clients. Women reported greater air-travel anxiety, and more somatic symptoms than men. Significant numbers of air travelers report perceived anxiety related to aspects of travel, and this is associated with health problems during flights. Airlines and travel companies could institute specific measures, including improved information and communication, to reassure clients and thereby diminish anxiety during stages of air-travel. Medical practitioners and travel agencies should also be aware of the potential stresses of air travel and the need for additional information and advice.

  4. [Health problems and illness of female workers in textile industries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthorndhada, K

    1989-07-01

    This paper examines 3 major health-related issues: 1) existing health problems and illnesses resulting from physical environmental conditions at workplaces; 2) female workers' perception on illness and health protection; and 3) the relationship between illness and risk factors. The study area is textile factories in Bangkok and its peripheries. Data are drawn from the 1987 Survey of Occupational Health and Textile Industrial Development in Thailand: Effect on Health and Socioeconomics of Female Migrant Workers. This study shows that about 20% of female workers have ill-health problems and illness after a period of working mainly due to high levels of dust and noise, and inadequate light. These conditions are hazardous to the respiratory system (resulting in cough and chest tightness), the hearing system (pains as well as impaired and hearing loss), eye systems (irritation, reduced visual capacity) and skin allergy. Such illnesses are intensified in the long- run. The analysis of variances reveals that education, section of work, perception (particularly mask and ear plug) significantly affect these illnesses. This study concludes that health education and occupational health should be provided in factories with emphasis on health prevention and promotion.

  5. Systems thinking and complexity: considerations for health promoting schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Scott R

    2017-04-01

    The health promoting schools concept reflects a comprehensive and integrated philosophy to improving student and personnel health and well-being. Conceptualized as a configuration of interacting, interdependent parts connected through a web of relationships that form a whole greater than the sum of its parts, school health promotion initiatives often target several levels (e.g. individual, professional, procedural and policy) simultaneously. Health promoting initiatives, such as those operationalized under the whole school approach, include several interconnected components that are coordinated to improve health outcomes in complex settings. These complex systems interventions are embedded in intricate arrangements of physical, biological, ecological, social, political and organizational relationships. Systems thinking and characteristics of complex adaptive systems are introduced in this article to provide a perspective that emphasizes the patterns of inter-relationships associated with the nonlinear, dynamic and adaptive nature of complex hierarchical systems. Four systems thinking areas: knowledge, networks, models and organizing are explored as a means to further manage the complex nature of the development and sustainability of health promoting schools. Applying systems thinking and insights about complex adaptive systems can illuminate how to address challenges found in settings with both complicated (i.e. multi-level and multisite) and complex aspects (i.e. synergistic processes and emergent outcomes). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The simplicity complex: exploring simplified health messages in a complex world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcadoolas, Christina

    2011-09-01

    A challenge in individual and public health at the start of the 21st century is to effectively communicate health and science information about disease and complex emergencies. The low health literacy of millions of adults in the USA has been referred to as a 'silent killer'. A popular approach to improving health communication and health promotion to low health literate consumers has been to simplify the language of health information. The expected result has been that individuals and groups will better understand information and will then make informed decisions about their health and behaviors. This expectation has grown to include the belief that the public will be better prepared to take appropriate action in complex natural and man-made emergencies. Demonstrating the efficacy of this approach remains, in large part, uninvestigated. And it is becoming more evident that health literacy itself is complex and multifaceted. This article applies linguistic and sociolinguistic models in order to better articulate the role of simplification in health communication and health promotion. Focusing on two models from sociolinguistics-pragmatics and text theory-the article discusses their usefulness in rethinking message simplification. The discussion proposes that a richer, more theory-based understanding of text structures and functions, along with other powerful constructs, including cultural appropriateness, relevancy and context, are needed to close the gaps between health messages, health messengers and patients/the public. The article concludes by making recommendations for future study to empirically test the strengths and limitations of these models and constructs.

  7. Individual Differences in Students' Complex Problem Solving Skills: How They Evolve and What They Imply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the demands posed by increasingly complex workplaces in the 21st century have raised the importance of nonroutine skills such as complex problem solving (CPS). However, little is known about the antecedents and outcomes of CPS, especially with regard to malleable external factors such as classroom climate. To investigate the relations…

  8. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....

  9. Recruitment strategies for caregivers of children with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruche, Ukamaka M; Gerkensmeyer, Janis E; Austin, Joan K; Perkins, Susan M; Scott, Eric; Lindsey, Laura M; Mullins, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe strategies for recruiting participants into an intervention study that focused on improving problem-solving skills in caregivers of children with mental health problems. Caregivers of children with mental health problems report feeling physically and psychologically overwhelmed and have high rates of depression because of the demands of caregiving. Research on the needs of these caregivers and interventions to ameliorate their stress is needed. However, recruiting this population can be particularly difficult because of the stigma of mental illness. Available literature on recruitment of caregivers of persons with physical illness cannot be transferred to caregivers of children with mental health problems because of the different caregiving situations. There is a need to identify effective recruitment strategies to reduce cost and answer research questions. Clinical nurse specialists have the skills to facilitate the recruitment of research participants. We revised and expanded health system referrals, community outreach, and recruiting advertisement (ads). When these strategies did not increase recruitment, radio ads were used. The Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization was selected as a guiding framework. Radio ads were the most effective strategy for recruiting caregivers of children with mental health problems for this study. Recruitment was ultimately successful because we were flexible and made decisions consistent with the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization. Clinical nurse specialists who study this population of caregivers should really consider the use of radio ads and systematically track which recruitment strategies lead to the greatest number of participants screened, eligible, and enrolled into studies.

  10. The Streaming Complexity of Cycle Counting, Sorting by Reversals, and Other Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbin, Elad; Yu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    -way. By designing reductions from BHH, we prove lower bounds for the streaming complexity of approximating the sorting by reversal distance, of approximately counting the number of cycles in a 2-regular graph, and of other problems. For example, here is one lower bound that we prove, for a cycle-counting problem...

  11. Upper estimates of complexity of algorithms for multi-peg Tower of Hanoi problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Novikov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available There are proved upper explicit estimates of complexity of lgorithms: for multi-peg Tower of Hanoi problem with the limited number of disks, for Reve's puzzle and for $5$-peg Tower of Hanoi problem with the free number of disks.

  12. Identification of effective visual problem solving strategies in a complex visual domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Students in complex visual domains must acquire visual problem solving strategies that allow them to make fast decisions and come up with good solutions to real-time problems. In this study, 31 air traffic controllers at different levels of expertise (novice, intermediate, expert) were confronted

  13. A Real-Life Case Study of Audit Interactions--Resolving Messy, Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Vivien; Fearnley, Stella; Hines, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Real-life accounting and auditing problems are often complex and messy, requiring the synthesis of technical knowledge in addition to the application of generic skills. To help students acquire the necessary skills to deal with these problems effectively, educators have called for the use of case-based methods. Cases based on real situations (such…

  14. Child outcomes of home-visiting for families with complex and multiple problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assen, Arend; Dickscheit, Jana; Post, Wendy; Grietens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Families with complex and multiple problems are faced with an accumulation of problems across multiple areas of life. Furthermore, these families are often considered to be ‘difficult to treat’. Children and teenagers growing up in these families are exposed to an accumulation of risks

  15. The language of mental health problems in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Hubbard, Tim; Dobson, Richard JB; Liakata, Maria; Velupillai, Sumithra; Dutta, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Online social media, such as Reddit, has become an important resource to share personal experiences and communicate with others. Among other personal information, some social media users communicate about mental health problems they are experiencing, with the intention of getting advice, support or empathy from other users. Here, we investigate the language of Reddit posts specific to mental health, to define linguistic characteristics that could be helpful for further applications. The latte...

  16. Non-commutative cryptography and complexity of group-theoretic problems

    CERN Document Server

    Myasnikov, Alexei; Ushakov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This book is about relations between three different areas of mathematics and theoretical computer science: combinatorial group theory, cryptography, and complexity theory. It explores how non-commutative (infinite) groups, which are typically studied in combinatorial group theory, can be used in public-key cryptography. It also shows that there is remarkable feedback from cryptography to combinatorial group theory because some of the problems motivated by cryptography appear to be new to group theory, and they open many interesting research avenues within group theory. In particular, a lot of emphasis in the book is put on studying search problems, as compared to decision problems traditionally studied in combinatorial group theory. Then, complexity theory, notably generic-case complexity of algorithms, is employed for cryptanalysis of various cryptographic protocols based on infinite groups, and the ideas and machinery from the theory of generic-case complexity are used to study asymptotically dominant prop...

  17. Implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines to solve atomic and molecular collision problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C William; MartIn, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    B-spline methods are now well established as widely applicable tools for the evaluation of atomic and molecular continuum states. The mathematical technique of exterior complex scaling has been shown, in a variety of other implementations, to be a powerful method with which to solve atomic and molecular scattering problems, because it allows the correct imposition of continuum boundary conditions without their explicit analytic application. In this paper, an implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines is described that can bring the well-developed technology of B-splines to bear on new problems, including multiple ionization and breakup problems, in a straightforward way. The approach is demonstrated for examples involving the continuum motion of nuclei in diatomic molecules as well as electronic continua. For problems involving electrons, a method based on Poisson's equation is presented for computing two-electron integrals over B-splines under exterior complex scaling

  18. Using mHealth technologies to improve the identification of behavioral health problems in urban primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staeheli, Martha; Aseltine, Robert H; Schilling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Daren; Gould, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral health disorders remain under recognized and under diagnosed among urban primary care patients. Screening patients for such problems is widely recommended, yet is challenging to do in a brief primary care encounter, particularly for this socially and medically complex patient population. In 2013, intervention patients at an urban Connecticut primary clinic were screened for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and risky drinking (n = 146) using an electronic tablet-based screening tool. Screening data were compared to electronic health record data from control patients (n = 129) to assess differences in the prevalence of behavioral health problems, rates of follow-up care, and the rate of newly identified cases in the intervention group. Results from logistic regressions indicated that both groups had similar rates of disorder at baseline. Patients in the intervention group were five times more likely to be identified with depression (p Post-traumatic stress disorder was virtually unrecognized among controls but was observed in 23% of the intervention group (p behavioral health problems identified in the intervention group were new cases. Follow-up rates were significantly higher in the intervention group relative to controls, but were low overall. This tablet-based electronic screening tool identified significantly higher rates of behavioral health disorders than have been previously reported for this patient population. Electronic risk screening using patient-reported outcome measures offers an efficient approach to improving the identification of behavioral health problems and improving rates of follow-up care.

  19. College Students: Mental Health Problems and Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Yeung, Albert; Zulauf, Courtney; Wilens, Timothy

    2015-10-01

    Attending college can be a stressful time for many students. In addition to coping with academic pressure, some students have to deal with the stressful tasks of separation and individuation from their family of origin while some may have to attend to numerous work and family responsibilities. In this context, many college students experience the first onset of mental health and substance use problems or an exacerbation of their symptoms. Given the uniqueness of college students, there is a need to outline critical issues to consider when working with this population. In this commentary, first, the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use problems in college students and the significance of assessing age of onset of current psychopathology are described. Then, the concerning persistent nature of mental health problems among college students and its implications are summarized. Finally, important aspects of treatment to consider when treating college students with mental health problems are outlined, such as the importance of including parents in the treatment, communicating with other providers, and employing of technology to increase adherence. It is concluded that, by becoming familiar with the unique problems characteristic of the developmental stage and environment college students are in, practitioners will be able to better serve them.

  20. Involving young people with mental health problems in improving healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Milnes, Linda; Kendal, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Latif et al’s (2017) paper is a valuable addition to knowledge in this field. It highlights the need to improve the education of registered children’s nurses in the care of children and young people (CYP) with physical health problems related to self-harm.

  1. Sociodemographic and health correlates of sleep problems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate sleeping problems, sleep duration and associated factors in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) in 2008. Methods. In 2008 I conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3 840 ...

  2. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  3. The Management of NASA Employee Health Problem; Status 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldi, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A system for assessing employee health problems is introduced. The automated billing system is based on an input format including cost of medical services by user and measures in dollars, that portion of resources spent on preventive techniques versus therapeutic techniques. The system is capable of printing long term medical histories of any employee.

  4. Continuous admission to primary school and mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen); C.H. Wiefferink (Carin); E. Brugman (Emily); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); S.P. Verloove-Vanhorick; A.D.C. Paulussen (Aimée)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Younger children in a school class have higher rates of mental health problems if admission to primary school occurs once a year. This study examines whether this relative age effect also occurs if children are admitted to school continuously throughout the year. Methods: We

  5. Continuous admission to primary school and mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Wiefferink, C.H.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Paulussen, T.G.W.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Younger children in a school class have higher rates of mental health problems if admission to primary school occurs once a year. This study examines whether this relative age effect also occurs if children are admitted to school continuously throughout the year. Methods: We assessed

  6. Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…

  7. Childhood constipation as an emerging public health problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Crispus Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is a significant health problem in children and contrary to common belief, has serious ramifications on the lives of children and their families. It is defined by the Rome criteria which encourage the use of multiple clinical features for diagnosis. FC in children has a

  8. Mental Health Problems in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, Chris; Elison, Sarah; Howlin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Although many researchers have investigated emotional and behavioral difficulties in individuals with Williams syndrome, few have used standardized diagnostic assessments. We examined mental health problems in 92 adults with Williams syndrome using the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities--PAS-ADD (Moss,…

  9. EDITORIAL Road traffic accident: A major public health problem in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Damen Haile Mariam1. One of the articles in this issue demonstrates how road traffic accident is a serious, but neglected, health problem in Ethiopia using secondary data collected by the Amhara National Regional State. Police Commission from 2007-2011 (1). Fatalities due to traffic accidents are reported to be among.

  10. Complication amoebic liver abscess still a significant health problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amoebic liver abscess still poses a serious clinical problem in tropical countries. Here we describe three complicated cases to illustrate the magnitude this disease condition could assume in the tropics. Limited access to health facilities as well as poverty and ignorance result in patients presenting late, often with ...

  11. Assessment on major livestock health problems in southern zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted to identify the major livestock health problems in southern zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia from July 2014 to June 2016. Questionnaire survey and case observational study were employed for data collection. A total of 120 respondents were interviewed for the questionnaire survey.

  12. Methodological innovations in public health education: transdisciplinary problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Edward F; Kreuter, Matthew W; Sebert-Kuhlmann, Anne K; McBride, Timothy D

    2015-03-01

    In 2008, the faculty of the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis designed a Master of Public Health program centered on transdisciplinary problem solving in public health. We have described the rationale for our approach, guiding principles and pedagogy for the program, and specific transdisciplinary competencies students acquire. We have explained how transdisciplinary content has been organized and delivered, how the program is being evaluated, and how we have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for a Master of Public Health degree.

  13. Performance of community health workers:situating their intermediary position within complex adaptive health systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Maryse. C; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W; Theobald, Sally; Ormel, Hermen; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Health systems are social institutions, in which health worker performance is shaped by transactional processes between different actors. This analytical assessment unravels the complex web of factors that influence the performance of community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income countries. It examines their unique intermediary position between the communities they serve and actors in the health sector, and the complexity of the health systems in which they operate. The assessment...

  14. Childhood constipation as an emerging public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Crispus Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri; Benninga, Marc Alexander

    2016-08-14

    Functional constipation (FC) is a significant health problem in children and contrary to common belief, has serious ramifications on the lives of children and their families. It is defined by the Rome criteria which encourage the use of multiple clinical features for diagnosis. FC in children has a high prevalence (0.7%-29%) worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. Biopsychosocial risk factors such as psychological stress, poor dietary habits, obesity and child maltreatment are commonly identified predisposing factors for FC. FC poses a significant healthcare burden on the already overstretched health budgets of many countries in terms of out-patient care, in-patient care, expenditure for investigations and prescriptions. Complications are common and range from minor psychological disturbances, to lower health-related quality of life. FC in children also has a significant impact on families. Many paediatric clinical trials have poor methodological quality, and drugs proved to be useful in adults, are not effective in relieving symptoms in children. A significant proportion of inadequately treated children have similar symptoms as adults. These factors show that constipation is an increasing public health problem across the world with a significant medical, social and economic impact. This article highlights the potential public health impact of FC and the possibility of overcoming this problem by concentrating on modifiable risk factors rather than expending resources on high cost investigations and therapeutic modalities.

  15. Using mHealth technologies to improve the identification of behavioral health problems in urban primary care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Staeheli, Martha; Aseltine, Robert H; Schilling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Daren; Gould, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioral health disorders remain under recognized and under diagnosed among urban primary care patients. Screening patients for such problems is widely recommended, yet is challenging to do in a brief primary care encounter, particularly for this socially and medically complex patient population. Methods: In 2013, intervention patients at an urban Connecticut primary clinic were screened for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and risky drinking (n?=?146) using an elec...

  16. Mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants: Peer problems persist after controlling for additional handicaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eHuber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs in comparison to normal hearing (NH peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years, their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as risk cases due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ in the versions Self, Parent, and Teacher. The CI group showed significantly more Peer Problems than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a risk-group (35 risk cases and 11 non-classifiable persons and a non-risk group (n = 94, increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI-risk group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI-risk group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI adolescents without additional handicaps

  17. Violence in Mexico: A social or public health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra; Salazar Morales, Mario Rodolfo

    2016-03-08

    This article seeks to explain the importance of violence as a social phenomenon and public health, trying to envision this issue not only from a curative approach to health, but from the social determinants of health, such as economics, politics and the administration of justice. Here, the younger population lacks real opportunities with an “absent State” that fails to provide structure. These frameworks play a fundamental role in the manifestation of violence. Thus, the debate for addressing and resolving violence opens the way to new perspectives regarding social factors as part of a public health, which cannot be oblivious to the state of the collective. Thus, the analysis of this situation shows that we cannot keep overlooking the whole picture of the real problem in the social health of our world instead of focusing on its discordant parts.

  18. [Work days lost due to health problems in industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Sylvia Regina Trindade; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2012-05-01

    This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence of work days lost due to health problems and associated factors among industrial workers. The study population was a simple random cluster sample of 3,403 workers from 16 to 65 years of age in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Data were collected with individual home interviews. Among industrial workers, one-year prevalence of work days lost to health problems was 12.5%, of which 5.5% were directly work-related and 4.1% aggravated by work. There were no statistically significant differences when compared to other worker categories. Self-perceived workplace hazards, history of work-related injury, and poor self-rated health were associated with work days lost due to work-related injuries/diseases. The findings showed that work days lost are common among both industrial and non-industrial workers, thereby affecting productivity and requiring prevention programs.

  19. DOE's efforts to correct environmental problems of the nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1990-03-01

    This report focuses on four main issues: the environmental problems at DOE's nuclear weapons complex, recent changes in DOE's organizational structure, DOE's 1991 budget request, and the need for effective management systems. This report concludes that the environmental problems are enormous and will take decades to resolve. Widespread contamination can be found at many DOE sites, and the full extent of the environmental problems is unknown. DOE has taken several steps during the past year to better deal with these problems, including making organizational improvements and requesting additional funds for environmental restoration and waste management activities

  20. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  1. Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer's Response to Health Information Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2013-01-01

    This study develops and empirically tests a model for understanding food consumers' health information seeking behaviour. Data were collected from 504 food consumers using a nationally representative consumer panel. The obtained Lisrel results suggest that consumers' product-specific health...... information seeking is positively affected by general food involvement and by usability of product-specific health information. Moreover, product-specific health information seeking and product-specific health information complexity are both positively related to post-purchase health-related dissonance....... This link between information complexity and post-purchase dissonance has implications for marketers of food products since our results suggest that consumers might avoid purchasing the same food item again if post-purchase dissonance is experienced....

  2. Conceptual and procedural knowledge community college students use when solving a complex science problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen-Eibensteiner, Janice Lee

    2006-07-01

    A strong science knowledge base and problem solving skills have always been highly valued for employment in the science industry. Skills currently needed for employment include being able to problem solve (Overtoom, 2000). Academia also recognizes the need for effectively teaching students to apply problem solving skills in clinical settings. This thesis investigates how students solve complex science problems in an academic setting in order to inform the development of problem solving skills for the workplace. Students' use of problem solving skills in the form of learned concepts and procedural knowledge was studied as students completed a problem that might come up in real life. Students were taking a community college sophomore biology course, Human Anatomy & Physiology II. The problem topic was negative feedback inhibition of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The research questions answered were (1) How well do community college students use a complex of conceptual knowledge when solving a complex science problem? (2) What conceptual knowledge are community college students using correctly, incorrectly, or not using when solving a complex science problem? (3) What problem solving procedural knowledge are community college students using successfully, unsuccessfully, or not using when solving a complex science problem? From the whole class the high academic level participants performed at a mean of 72% correct on chapter test questions which was a low average to fair grade of C-. The middle and low academic participants both failed (F) the test questions (37% and 30% respectively); 29% (9/31) of the students show only a fair performance while 71% (22/31) fail. From the subset sample population of 2 students each from the high, middle, and low academic levels selected from the whole class 35% (8/23) of the concepts were used effectively, 22% (5/23) marginally, and 43% (10/23) poorly. Only 1 concept was used incorrectly by 3/6 of the students and identified as

  3. Condition of Health Problems in The District Health Offi ce Parigi Moutong Central Sulawesi Province, Efforts in Response of Health Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Erlan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: District Parigi Moutong, Central Sulawesi Province is one of the Regional District Health Problems. Ranking Public Health Development Index Parigi Moutong to the level of Central Sulawesi was ranked 6 out of 9 districts/cities, while at the national level comes out to 320 of 440 districts/cities in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to provide a picture of the health problems in Parigi Moutong. In more detail the objectives are observed after the implementation of such interventions and Booster Kalakarya prevention efforts in the area of health problems. Methods: The study is qualitative observational study of participatory design. Samples were taken by using purposive sampling to conduct in-depth interviews and document searches. Results: The results of in-depth interviews obtained information of some constraints inthe implementation of health programs, ie no actions/movements that were signifi cant in the response to the problem. Infant mortality in 2012, registered 7 cases. Substitution head of the health center too fast. This happens because the head of the health center has held PTT doctor working period of one year, which resulted in problems in sustainability programs in health centers. Internal monthly meeting at the Department of Health and the District Health Offi ce with the entire health center no. Effort or movement to address the problems associated Regional Health Problems has not be percieved. Conclusions: Implementation of Regional Booster Kalakarya and Health Troubled make changes to the head of health policy by forming groups Conscious Movement IHC and revitalization partnership TBA and midwives who are increasing numbers toddlersweighing scope and aid delivery by health personnel.

  4. Developing an agent-based model on how different individuals solve complex problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Bozkurt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Research that focuses on the emotional, mental, behavioral and cognitive capabilities of individuals has been abundant within disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and anthropology, among others. However, when facing complex problems, a new perspective to understand individuals is necessary. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an agent-based model and simulation to gain understanding on the decision-making and problem-solving abilities of individuals. Design/Methodology/approach: The micro-level analysis modeling and simulation paradigm Agent-Based Modeling Through the use of Agent-Based Modeling, insight is gained on how different individuals with different profiles deal with complex problems. Using previous literature from different bodies of knowledge, established theories and certain assumptions as input parameters, a model is built and executed through a computer simulation. Findings: The results indicate that individuals with certain profiles have better capabilities to deal with complex problems. Moderate profiles could solve the entire complex problem, whereas profiles within extreme conditions could not. This indicates that having a strong predisposition is not the ideal way when approaching complex problems, and there should always be a component from the other perspective. The probability that an individual may use these capabilities provided by the opposite predisposition provides to be a useful option. Originality/value: The originality of the present research stems from how individuals are profiled, and the model and simulation that is built to understand how they solve complex problems. The development of the agent-based model adds value to the existing body of knowledge within both social sciences, and modeling and simulation.

  5. Preparing new nurses with complexity science and problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Helen F

    2011-01-01

    Successful nurses function effectively with adaptability, improvability, and interconnectedness, and can see emerging and unpredictable complex problems. Preparing new nurses for complexity requires a significant change in prevalent but dated nursing education models for rising graduates. The science of complexity coupled with problem-based learning and peer review contributes a feasible framework for a constructivist learning environment to examine real-time systems data; explore uncertainty, inherent patterns, and ambiguity; and develop skills for unstructured problem solving. This article describes a pilot study of a problem-based learning strategy guided by principles of complexity science in a community clinical nursing course. Thirty-five senior nursing students participated during a 3-year period. Assessments included peer review, a final project paper, reflection, and a satisfaction survey. Results were higher than expected levels of student satisfaction, increased breadth and analysis of complex data, acknowledgment of community as complex adaptive systems, and overall higher level thinking skills than in previous years. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Understanding global health governance as a complex adaptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    The transition from international to global health reflects the rapid growth in the numbers and nature of stakeholders in health, as well as the constant change embodied in the process of globalisation itself. This paper argues that global health governance shares the characteristics of complex adaptive systems, with its multiple and diverse players, and their polyvalent and constantly evolving relationships, and rich and dynamic interactions. The sheer quantum of initiatives, the multiple networks through which stakeholders (re)configure their influence, the range of contexts in which development for health is played out - all compound the complexity of this system. This paper maps out the characteristics of complex adaptive systems as they apply to global health governance, linking them to developments in the past two decades, and the multiple responses to these changes. Examining global health governance through the frame of complexity theory offers insight into the current dynamics of governance, and while providing a framework for making meaning of the whole, opens up ways of accessing this complexity through local points of engagement.

  7. Who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems? A critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Megan A; Malla, Ashok K; Iyer, Srividya N

    2018-05-01

    Individuals with mental health problems have many support needs that are often inadequately met; however, perceptions of who should be responsible for meeting these needs have been largely unexplored. Varying perceptions may influence whether, how, and to what extent relevant stakeholders support individuals with mental health problems. To critically evaluate the literature to determine who different stakeholders believe should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems, what factors shape these perceptions, and how they relate to one another. A critical literature review was undertaken. Following an extensive literature search, the conceptual contributions of relevant works were critically evaluated. A concept map was created to build a conceptual framework of the topic. Views of individual versus societal responsibility for need provision and health; the morality of caring; and attributions of responsibility for mental illness offered valuable understandings of the review questions. Creating a concept map revealed that various interrelated factors may influence perceptions of responsibility. Varying perceptions of who should be responsible for supporting individuals with mental health problems may contribute to unmet support needs among this group. Our critical review helps build a much-needed conceptual framework of factors influencing perceptions of responsibility. Such a framework is essential as these views iteratively shape and reflect the complex divisions of mental healthcare roles and responsibilities. Understanding these perceptions can help define relevant stakeholders' roles more clearly, which can improve mental health services and strengthen stakeholder accountability.

  8. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.

  9. Social comparison as a mediator between health problems and subjective health evaluations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.I.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Sanderman, R.

    The role of social comparison in mediating the relation between 'objective' health status and subjective health evaluations was examined. In a random population sample (N = 361) it was shown that health problems were related to psychological distress, which in turn induced a downward comparison

  10. arXiv Spin models in complex magnetic fields: a hard sign problem

    CERN Document Server

    de Forcrand, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Coupling spin models to complex external fields can give rise to interesting phenomena like zeroes of the partition function (Lee-Yang zeroes, edge singularities) or oscillating propagators. Unfortunately, it usually also leads to a severe sign problem that can be overcome only in special cases; if the partition function has zeroes, the sign problem is even representation-independent at these points. In this study, we couple the N-state Potts model in different ways to a complex external magnetic field and discuss the above mentioned phenomena and their relations based on analytic calculations (1D) and results obtained using a modified cluster algorithm (general D) that in many cases either cures or at least drastically reduces the sign-problem induced by the complex external field.

  11. Oral health and oral health risk behaviour in children with and without externalising behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staberg, M; Norén, J G; Gahnberg, L; Ghaderi, A; Kadesjö, C; Robertson, A

    2018-05-15

    This was to study children with early detected externalising behaviour problems compared to matched controls regarding oral health, oral health risk behaviour and the parental evaluation of the child's oral health and dental care. Children aged 10-13 years and with externalising behaviour problems, were compared to matched controls. Behavioural characteristics were based on the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The children and their parents completed questionnaires regarding dental fear, tooth brushing, dietary habits and evaluation of oral health and dental care. Data on dental caries risk assessments, caries, behaviour management problems and dental trauma were obtained from dental files. There were no differences in caries prevalence in children with early detected externalising behaviour problems, compared to controls. However, the former group consumed more sweet drinks when thirsty and brushed their teeth fewer than twice daily; they also had more dental trauma in both dentitions and a higher risk range for dental fear, compared to controls. This study points out potential oral health risk factors in children with early-detected externalising behaviour problems. Although no difference in caries prevalence was observed, externalising behaviour may affect oral health. Therefore, dental professionals should support the families and the children to preserve dental health by offering increased prophylactic measures. There were no differences between children with externalising behaviour problems, compared with controls, regarding the parent evaluation of their child's dental health. However, more parents in the study group evaluated the dental care as poor or not functioning.

  12. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58) or low (n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  13. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes), the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high ( n = 58) or low ( n = 58) collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes such as

  14. Complex Problem Solving in Teams: The Impact of Collective Orientation on Team Process Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hagemann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex problem solving is challenging and a high-level cognitive process for individuals. When analyzing complex problem solving in teams, an additional, new dimension has to be considered, as teamwork processes increase the requirements already put on individual team members. After introducing an idealized teamwork process model, that complex problem solving teams pass through, and integrating the relevant teamwork skills for interdependently working teams into the model and combining it with the four kinds of team processes (transition, action, interpersonal, and learning processes, the paper demonstrates the importance of fulfilling team process demands for successful complex problem solving within teams. Therefore, results from a controlled team study within complex situations are presented. The study focused on factors that influence action processes, like coordination, such as emergent states like collective orientation, cohesion, and trust and that dynamically enable effective teamwork in complex situations. Before conducting the experiments, participants were divided by median split into two-person teams with either high (n = 58 or low (n = 58 collective orientation values. The study was conducted with the microworld C3Fire, simulating dynamic decision making, and acting in complex situations within a teamwork context. The microworld includes interdependent tasks such as extinguishing forest fires or protecting houses. Two firefighting scenarios had been developed, which takes a maximum of 15 min each. All teams worked on these two scenarios. Coordination within the team and the resulting team performance were calculated based on a log-file analysis. The results show that no relationships between trust and action processes and team performance exist. Likewise, no relationships were found for cohesion. Only collective orientation of team members positively influences team performance in complex environments mediated by action processes

  15. Medicines counterfeiting is a complex problem: a review of key challenges across the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The paper begins by asking why there is a market for counterfeit medicines, which in effect creates the problem of counterfeiting itself. Contributing factors include supply chain complexity and the lack of whole-systems thinking. These two underpin the author's view that counterfeiting is a complex (i.e. wicked) problem, and that corporate, public policy and regulatory actions need to be mindful of how their actions may be causal. The paper offers a problem-based review of key components of this complexity, viz., the knowledge end-users/consumers have of medicines; whether restrictive information policies may hamper information provision to patients; the internet's direct access to consumers; internet-enabled distribution of unsafe and counterfeit medicines; whether the internet is a parallel and competitive supply chain to legitimate routes; organised crime as an emerging medicines manufacturer and supplier and whether substandard medicines is really the bigger problem. Solutions respect the perceived complexity of the supply chain challenges. The paper identifies the need to avoid technologically-driven solutions, calling for 'technological agnosticism'. Both regulation and public policy need to reflect the dynamic nature of the problem and avoid creating perverse incentives; it may be, for instance, that medicines pricing and reimbursement policies, which affect consumer/patient access may act as market signals to counterfeiters, since this creates a cash market in cheaper drugs.

  16. An approach to tackle visual display unit user health problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, H.M.; Heaton, B.

    1992-01-01

    Reported health hazards from video display units (VDUs) vary from headaches to miscarriage and there is some concern that health problems experienced by VDU users could be associated with extra-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field emissions. While investigating an individual case of 'VDU Syndrome' a procedure was developed which could be used to investigate and evaluate other complaints of a similar type. A relationship between the number of hours monitor work and severity of symptoms was observed along with a cyclic nature to the operator's sensitivity to VDU work. (author)

  17. Problems in evaluating health effects of occupational and environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The assessment of health effects from low-level exposure to radiation is a matter of considerable controversy. Existing standards for exposure are based primarily on estimates of health effects obtained by extrapolation from effects of high-level exposures such as those experienced at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Occupational and environmental exposures provide one source of data for this task. A number of studies of populations exposed in this manner have attracted recent attention. Because of the size of most of the groups and the magnitude of the exposures received, the amount that can be learned from such populations is severely limited. A number of the problems involved in analyzing and interpreting such data are addressed. Many of these problems are illustrated by a current study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to radiation at the Hanford plant

  18. Needs and Problems of Posbindu Program: Community Health Volunteers Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, S. T.; Andriyani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Posbindu is a form of public participation to conduct early detection and monitoring of risk factors for non-communicable diseases(NCD), and where it was carried out in as an integrated manner, routine and periodic event. This paper aims to investigates the needs and problems on Posbindu Program based on community health volunteers(CHVs) perspective. This study used descriptive qualitative method by open ended questions. Content analysis using to explicating the result. There are 3 theme finding about elderly needs in Posbindu; medical care, support group community, and health education. We found four theme problems which in Posbindu program: low motivation from elderly, Inadequate of facilities, physical disability, failed communication. To be effective in Posbindu program, all the stakeholders have reached consensus on the Posbindu program as elderly need. CHVs need given wide knowledge about early detection, daily care, control disease continuously so that the elderly keep feeling the advantages of coming to the Posbindu.

  19. Problem-based learning in a health sciences librarianship course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroff, A; Ancona, A M; Beman, S B; Dodge, A M; Hutchinson, K L; LaBonte, M J; Mays, T L; Simon, D T

    1998-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been adopted by many medical schools in North America. Because problem solving, information seeking, and lifelong learning skills are central to the PBL curriculum, health sciences librarians have been actively involved in the PBL process at these medical schools. The introduction of PBL in a library and information science curriculum may be appropriate to consider at this time. PBL techniques have been incorporated into a health sciences librarianship course at the School of Library and Information Science (LIS) at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee to explore the use of this method in an advanced Library and Information Science course. After completion of the course, the use of PBL has been evaluated by the students and the instructor. The modified PBL course design is presented and the perceptions of the students and the instructor are discussed. PMID:9681169

  20. [Patient expectations about decision-making for various health problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana; López-Fernández, Luis Andrés; de Dios Luna, Juan; Saletti Cuesta, Lorena; Gil Garrido, Natalia; Puga González, Almudena

    2010-01-01

    To identify patient expectations of clinical decision-making at consultations with their general practitioners for distinct health problems and to determine the patient and general practitioner characteristics related to these expectations, with special focus on gender. We performed a multicenter cross-sectional study in 360 patients who were interviewed at home. Data on patients' sociodemographic, clinical characteristics and satisfaction were gathered. General practitioners supplied information on their gender and postgraduate training in family medicine. A questionnaire was used to collect data on patients' expectations that their general practitioner account of their opinion and on expectations of clinical decision making> at consultations with their general practitioner for five problems or hypothetical clinical scenarios (strong chest pain/cold with fever/abnormal discharge/depression or sadness/severe family problem). Patients were asked to indicate their preference that decisions on diagnosis and treatment be taken by: a) the general practitioner alone; b) the general practitioner, taking account of the patient's opinion; c) the patient, taking account of the general practitioner's opinion and d) the patient alone. A logistic regression was performed for clinical decision-making. The response rate was 90%. The mean age was 47.3 + or - 16.5 years and 51% were female. Patients' expectations that their general practitioner listen, explain and take account of their opinions were higher than their expectations of participating in decision-making, depending on the problem in question: 32% wished to participate in chest pain and 49% in family problems. Women had lower expectations of participating in depression and family problems. Patients with female general practitioners had higher expectations of participating in family problems and colds. Most patients wished to be listened to, informed and taken into account by their general practitioners and, to a lesser

  1. INTRODUCTION OF UNIVERSAL HEALTH PROGRAM IN GEORGIA: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verulava, T; Jorbenadze, R; Barkalaia, T

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, Georgia enacted Universal Healthcare (UHC) program. Inclusion of uninsured population in the UHC program will have a positive impact on their financial accessibility to the health services. The study aims to analyze the referral rate of the beneficiaries to the health service providers before introduction and after application of the UHC program, particularly, how much it increased the recently uninsured population referral to primary health care units, and also to study the level of satisfaction with the UHC program. Research was conducted by qualitative and quantitative methods. The target groups' (program beneficiaries, physicians, personnel of the Social Service Agency) opinions were identified by means of face-to-face interviews. Enactment of the UHC programs significantly raised the population refferal to the family physicians, and the specialists. Insignificantly, but also increased the frequency of laboratory and diagnostic services. Despite the serious positive changes caused by UHC program implementation there still remain the problems in the primary healthcare system. Also, it is desirable to raise the financial availability of those medical services, which may cause catastrophic costs. In this respect, such medical services must be involved in the universal healthcare program and been expanded their scale. For the purpose of effective usage of the limited funds allocated for health care services provision, the private health insurance companies should be involved in UHC programs. This, together with the reduction of health care costs will increase a competition in the medical market, and enhance the quality of health service.

  2. [Health system in Afghanistan: problems and institutional perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejars, M

    2008-10-01

    Afghanistan has been ravaged by years of conflict. To provide emergency services and restore access health services, the Public Health Ministry with the assistance of partners developed first a package of basic health services delivered by NGO contractors and second a package of essential hospital services. The Ministry's role consists of providing guidance. To reduce the many issues and problems affecting this role, reforms are now being undertaken and a new national health care strategy is being developed within the framework of the National Development Strategy. An institution-building project has been initiated with European Union funding to allow the Health Ministry to carry out its stewardship and management functions with greater effectiveness and transparency. This project is essential for the successful outcome of all future strategies and programs planned by the Health Ministry to enhance its institutional effectiveness. The objectives of this project are to strengthen planning and auditing activities, promote quality assurance, implement funding mechanisms for health-related activities, organize management of human resources, maintain ongoing efforts to reform the administration and fight against corruption, and lay the foundations for managing finances and procurement. The scope of this project underlines the importance of its outcome. However the institution-building process will be long and constantly threatened by political instability and insecurity.

  3. The problem-based learning (PBL and health education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Moraes Vignochi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Problem-Based Learning (Problem-Based Learning - PBL has been recognized worldwide as an approach to promote the acquisition of knowledge by students at the same time that helps them develop skills and professional attitudes desirable. Unlike the conventional methods of teaching that use of application problems after the theory was presented, the PBL uses a problem to start, focus and motivate the learning of new concepts 13. In this approach, the student uses different mental processes, such as ability to raise hypotheses, compare, analyze, interpret, and evaluate and develop the ability to take responsibility for their education 11.12. The methodology of PBL has been a valuable tool in shaping the health care professional, with advantages over the traditional method of teaching. However, for its deployment there is a need for considerable institutional effort. Are necessary adjustments, including changes in the way of evaluation, for changes in mindset about the role of teachers in the process teaching / learning, investment in infrastructure, adaptations of the environment, improvement of libraries and other 19,20,21, 22. The process of change in education will bring many challenges, such as a break with traditional models of education and train health professionals with skills to recover the essential dimension of care: the relationship between humans.

  4. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Janice; Brazier, John; O'Cathain, Alicia; Lloyd-Jones, Myfanwy; Paisley, Suzy

    2012-11-22

    To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or 'ill-being' were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms), autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  5. Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connell Janice

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms, autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

  6. What are the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Australia? A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcharavongvan, Pasitpon; Hepworth, Julie; Lim, Joanne; Marley, John

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Brisbane, Australia. Five focus groups with Thai migrants were conducted. The qualitative data were examined using thematic content analysis that is specifically designed for focus group analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) positive experiences in Australia, (2) physical health problems, (3) mental health problems, and (4) familial and social health problems. This study revealed key health needs related to chronic disease and mental health, major barriers to health service use, such as language skills, and facilitating factors, such as the Thai Temple. We concluded that because the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants were complex and culture bound, the development of health and community services for Thai migrants needs to take account of the ways in which Thai culture both negatively impacts health and offer positive solutions to problems.

  7. Prisoners' assessments of mental health problems among their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Melinda; Turanovic, Jillian J; White, Clair; Rodriguez, Nancy

    2014-02-01

    High rates of imprisonment among American men and women have motivated recent research on the well-being of children of incarcerated parents. Despite advances in the literature, little is known regarding the mental health status of children who experience maternal relative to paternal incarceration. Accordingly, we examine whether there are differences in mental health needs among children of incarcerated parents. Specifically, we assess whether incarcerated mothers are more likely than incarcerated fathers to report that their children suffer from mental health problems. Using cross-sectional data on children (N = 1,221) compiled from a sample of parents confined in the Arizona Department of Corrections, we find that children of incarcerated mothers are significantly more likely to be identified as suffering from mental health problems. This effect remained even after controlling for additional parent stressors and child risk factors such as exposure to violence, in utero exposure to drugs/alcohol, and parental mental illness. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Modern social life and never-married women's health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrapan Tamdee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the health problems of never-married women as they relate to modern social life. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 45 never-married women aged 30–50 working or living in Bangkok and having health problems. It was found that never-married women in this modern era have experienced a variety of illnesses, such as “office syndrome” symptoms, chronic illnesses, and psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Their social life resulted from the response to the context of modernity and was made through careful thought and deliberation. Whichever choice of social life they make, the consequences may lead them to a state of illness, distress, anxiety, and paranoia. These choices involve work, living conditions/environments, and intimacy aspects of their modern social life. This is the result of procuring by “husky modernity” which seems to be merely a “husk” or superficial modernization and changes so rapidly, but there is no core and it is full of double standards of traditional and new norms that have mixed together and fight against each other. Supporting health-related knowledge and information exchange within the network coupled with experience sharing essential for living in the modern society will enable them to sensibly decide on a path to good health.

  9. Management of common behaviour and mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Radhi, A Sahib

    Behavioural problems are usually influenced by both biological and environmental factors. Disruptive behavioural problems such temper tantrums or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are displayed during the first years of childhood. Breath-holding attacks are relatively common and are an important problem. Although the attacks are not serious and the prognosis is usually good, parents often fear that their child may die during an attack. Parents therefore require explanation and reassurance from health professionals. Conduct disorders (often referred to as antisocial behaviours), such as aggression to others or theft, are more serious as they tend to be repetitive and persistent behaviours where the basic rights of others are violated. Emotional problems, such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder tend to occur in later childhood, and are often unrecognised because young children often find it difficult to express their emotions, or it may go unnoticed by the child's parents. This article briefly discusses the most common behavioural problems, including autism, that affect children of all ages.

  10. Self-complexity and health promotion: promising but premature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P J

    1990-06-01

    Self-complexity, the number of nonredundant aspects by which the self is cognitively represented, was reported in 1987 by Linville to function as a buffer against the adverse consequences of stress under conditions of high stress. An attempt was made to increase the self-complexity of 110 undergraduates through the use of psychoeducational interventions, with the goal of decreasing physical symptoms. None of four interventions produced an increase in self-complexity or a decrease in physical symptoms. Using multiple regression, the previously reported buffering interaction was evident only among those experiencing the strongest intervention, and Linville's results were not replicated when the entire data set was analyzed. The hypothesis of a relationship between self-complexity and individuals' sense of meaning and purpose in life was not corroborated by correlational analysis. It is concluded that the relationship between self-complexity and health remains intriguing but inadequately tested.

  11. Health expectancy and the problem of substitute morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Water, H P

    1997-12-29

    During the past century, the developed world has not only witnessed a dramatic increase in life expectancy (ageing), but also a concomitant rise in chronic disease and disability. Consequently, the tension between 'living longer' on the one hand and health-related 'quality of life' on the other has become an increasingly important health policy problem. The paper deals with two consequences of this so-called epidemiological transition in population health. The first one concerns the question of how--given the impressive changes--population health can be measured in an adequate and policy relevant present-day fashion. The second one is the so-called phenomenon of 'substitute morbidity and mortality': more and more acute fatal diseases are replaced by non-fatal delayed degenerative diseases like dementia and arthritis. How the phenomenon of substitute morbidity and mortality affects the development of population health is illustrated with the epidemiological transitions, worldwide shifts in the main causes of death, assumptions used in models, adverse consequences of medical technologies and some results from intervention trials. Substitute morbidity and mortality may thwart our disease-specific expectations of interventions and asks for a shift to a 'total population health' perspective when judging potential health gains of interventions. Better understanding of the dynamics that underly the changes in population health is necessary. Implications for data collections are more emphasis on morbidity data and their relation with mortality, more longitudinal studies, stricter requirements for intervention trials and more use of modelling as a tool. A final recommendation is the promotion of integrative measures of population health. For the latter several results are presented suggesting that, although the amount of morbidity and disability is growing with an increasing life expectancy, this is mild unhealthiness in particular. This finding supports the 'dynamic

  12. Ethical problems in the relationship between health and work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G; Falzi, G; Figa-Talamanca, I

    1996-01-01

    Throughout history, the relationship between employers and workers has been subject to the equilibrium of power, to legislative norms, to ethical considerations, and more recently to scientific knowledge. The authors examine the ethical conflicts that arise from the application of scientific knowledge to preventive health policies in the workplace. In particular, they discuss the ethical conflicts in the application of screening practices, in the setting of "allowable limits" of harmful work exposures, and in the right of workers to be informed about work hazards. Ethical problems are also created by conflicting interests in the protection of the environment, the health of the general public, and the health of the working population, and by conflicting interests among workers, and even within the individual worker, as in the case of "fetal protection" policies. The authors emphasize the positive use of scientific information and respect for human dignity in resolving these conflicts.

  13. Sleep disturbance in mental health problems and neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson KN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirstie N Anderson1 Andrew J Bradley2,3 1Department of Neurology, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Trust, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company Limited, Lilly House, Basingstoke, UK; 3Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Sleep has been described as being of the brain, by the brain, and for the brain. This fundamental neurobiological behavior is controlled by homeostatic and circadian (24-hour processes and is vital for normal brain function. This review will outline the normal sleep–wake cycle, the changes that occur during aging, and the specific patterns of sleep disturbance that occur in association with both mental health disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. The role of primary sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and REM sleep behavior disorder as potential causes or risk factors for particular mental health or neurodegenerative problems will also be discussed. Keywords: sleep, mental health, neurodegenerative disorders, cognition

  14. Migrant differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2014-01-01

    the odds to 1.93 (1.32-2.81) for descendants and to 1.30 (0.81-2.07) for immigrants. When simultaneously controlling for the clustering effect of school, feeling safe at school and specific symptoms, the risk of using medicine for stomach-ache was still higher for descendant boys 1.90 (1...... differences in adolescents’ medicine use for common health problems, and if feeling safe at school, as a non-exposure to discrimination, explained these differences. Methods: Data derived from the 2006 Danish contribution to the World Health Organization collaborative study Health Behaviour in School......-aged Children (HBSC). Medicine use for headache, stomach-ache, difficulties getting to sleep and nervousness and feeling safe at school were self-reported. The population included boys and girls from ages 11 to 15 who were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Included were 8480 ethnic Danes, 508 descendants...

  15. Ethnographic methods for process evaluations of complex health behaviour interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Trimmer, Sarah; Wood, Fiona

    2016-05-04

    This article outlines the contribution that ethnography could make to process evaluations for trials of complex health-behaviour interventions. Process evaluations are increasingly used to examine how health-behaviour interventions operate to produce outcomes and often employ qualitative methods to do this. Ethnography shares commonalities with the qualitative methods currently used in health-behaviour evaluations but has a distinctive approach over and above these methods. It is an overlooked methodology in trials of complex health-behaviour interventions that has much to contribute to the understanding of how interventions work. These benefits are discussed here with respect to three strengths of ethnographic methodology: (1) producing valid data, (2) understanding data within social contexts, and (3) building theory productively. The limitations of ethnography within the context of process evaluations are also discussed.

  16. The Development of Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischkorn, Gidon T.; Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Complex problem solving (CPS) as a cross-curricular competence has recently attracted more attention in educational psychology as indicated by its implementation in international educational large-scale assessments such as the Programme for International Student Assessment. However, research on the development of CPS is scarce, and the few…

  17. The Relationship between Students' Performance on Conventional Standardized Mathematics Assessments and Complex Mathematical Modeling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Ozgul; Dunya, Beyza Aksu; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Zawojewski, Judith S.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) career paths is mathematical modeling--specifically, the creation and adaptation of mathematical models to solve problems in complex settings. Conventional standardized measures of mathematics achievement are not structured to directly assess this type of mathematical…

  18. Learning about Complex Multi-Stakeholder Issues: Assessing the Visual Problem Appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, L.M.; Put, M.; Leeuwis, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the visual problem appraisal (VPA) learning environment in higher education. The VPA has been designed for the training of competences that are required in complex stakeholder settings in relation to sustainability issues. The design of VPA incorporates a

  19. A method for evaluating the problem complex of choosing the ventilation system for a new building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for evaluat...

  20. Quantum trajectories in complex space: One-dimensional stationary scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.-C.; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional time-independent scattering problems are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The equation for the local approximate quantum trajectories near the stagnation point of the quantum momentum function is derived, and the first derivative of the quantum momentum function is related to the local structure of quantum trajectories. Exact complex quantum trajectories are determined for two examples by numerically integrating the equations of motion. For the soft potential step, some particles penetrate into the nonclassical region, and then turn back to the reflection region. For the barrier scattering problem, quantum trajectories may spiral into the attractors or from the repellers in the barrier region. Although the classical potentials extended to complex space show different pole structures for each problem, the quantum potentials present the same second-order pole structure in the reflection region. This paper not only analyzes complex quantum trajectories and the total potentials for these examples but also demonstrates general properties and similar structures of the complex quantum trajectories and the quantum potentials for one-dimensional time-independent scattering problems

  1. Conceptual and Developmental Analysis of Mental Models: An Example with Complex Change Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Louise

    Defining better implicit models of children's actions in a series of situations is of paramount importance to understanding how knowledge is constructed. The objective of this study was to analyze the implicit mental models used by children in complex change problems to understand the stability of the models and their evolution with the child's…

  2. Application of NASA management approach to solve complex problems on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potate, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    The application of NASA management approach to solving complex problems on earth is discussed. The management of the Apollo program is presented as an example of effective management techniques. Four key elements of effective management are analyzed. Photographs of the Cape Kennedy launch sites and supporting equipment are included to support the discussions.

  3. Awareness of nutrition problems among Vietnamese health and education professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Hai Quynh; Worsley, Anthony; Lawrence, Mark; Marshall, Bernie

    2017-10-01

    Professionals who provide nutrition education and consulting to the public are encouraged to take into account the health, environmental and social contexts that influence health-related attitudes and behaviours in the population. This paper examined the awareness of shifts in population health outcomes associated with the nutrition transition in Vietnam among university nutrition lecturers, health professionals and school education professionals. Most of these professionals held accurate views of the current population health issues in Vietnam. However, they differed in their awareness of the seriousness of overweight and obesity. Although the majority indicated that the prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) had increased, nearly half believed that the government should complete its attempts to control undernutrition before trying to control obesity. More health professionals believed that food marketing was responsible for the growing prevalence of children's obesity, and more of them disapproved of the marketing of less healthy food to children. In contrast, the university nutrition lecturers were least aware of food marketing and the seriousness of obesity. Of the three groups, the university nutrition lecturers held less accurate perceptions of nutrition transition problems and their likely drivers. There is an urgent need for greater provision of public nutrition education for all three groups of professionals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Postgraduate studies in public health: the problem of efficiency evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkowski, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The satisfaction of customer is the main measure and the most important, generally recognized criterion for evaluating the quality of products and services. In the case of education and training, the quality is frequently understood as effectiveness, i.e., the degree to what educational objectives of a training institution are met; the objectives previously formulated on the basis of analyzed and defined demands and expectations of customers (clients). In the first part of the paper: (1) the problems related to the question who in fact is the customer in the context of an institution providing education in public health are discussed; (2) a proposal for resolving these problems is presented; and (3) the main directions of evaluation activities, which should be undertaken under monitoring and effectiveness assessment of postgraduate training in public health are pointed out. In the years 1998-2002, the students' assessment data on educational programs, curriculum contents and subject teachers in the field of postgraduate studies in the School of Public Health, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, were collected with the help of specially-designed evaluation questionnaires. The data on the students' self-assessment of gained professional competencies were also collected. All students who completed the School of Public Health in these years were subjected to the evaluation inquiries. The data collected were analyzed. Due to the analysis it was possible to define: the quality of the curriculum contents, as well as the professional and didactic skills of the teaching staff as perceived by the students; the degree to what particular curriculum in public health contributed to the increase in professional competence as perceived by the students; the degree to what particular teaching subjects influenced the students' knowledge of and skills in Public Health. The results obtained provided information very useful in the teaching process, designing of

  5. Understanding the determinants of problem-solving behavior in a complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    It is often argued that problem-solving behavior in a complex environment is determined as much by the features of the environment as by the goals of the problem solver. This article explores a technique to determine the extent to which measured features of a complex environment influence problem-solving behavior observed within that environment. In this study, the technique is used to determine how complex flight deck and air traffic control environment influences the strategies used by airline pilots when controlling the flight path of a modern jetliner. Data collected aboard 16 commercial flights are used to measure selected features of the task environment. A record of the pilots' problem-solving behavior is analyzed to determine to what extent behavior is adapted to the environmental features that were measured. The results suggest that the measured features of the environment account for as much as half of the variability in the pilots' problem-solving behavior and provide estimates on the probable effects of each environmental feature.

  6. Immigrants' use of primary health care services for mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2014-08-13

    Equity in health care across all social groups is a major goal in health care policy. Immigrants may experience more mental health problems than natives, but we do not know the extent to which they seek help from primary health care services. This study aimed to determine a) the rate immigrants use primary health care services for mental health problems compared with Norwegians and b) the association between length of stay, reason for immigration and service use among immigrants. National register data covering all residents in Norway and all consultations with primary health care services were used. We conducted logistic regression analyses to compare Norwegians' with Polish, Swedish, German, Pakistani and Iraqi immigrants' odds of having had a consultation for a mental health problem (P-consultation). After accounting for background variables, all immigrants groups, except Iraqi men had lower odds of a P-consultation than their Norwegian counterparts. A shorter length of stay was associated with lower odds of a P-consultation. Service use varies by country of origin and patterns are different for men and women. There was some evidence of a possible 'healthy migrant worker' effect among the European groups. Together with previous research, our findings however, suggest that Iraqi women and Pakistanis in particular, may experience barriers in accessing care for mental health problems.

  7. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Hyun Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82 and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74, respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58 for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40. However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults.

  8. On duty all the time: health and quality of life among immigrant parents caring for a child with complex health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravdal Kvarme, Lisbeth; Albertini-Früh, Elena; Brekke, Idunn; Gardsjord, Ragnhild; Halvorsrud, Liv; Liden, Hilde

    2016-02-01

    To provide knowledge about how immigrant parents of children with complex health needs manage their family lives and how this affects their own health and quality of life. Caregivers of children with complex health needs have additional risk for general health problems and mental health problems and immigrant parents may be more vulnerable to mental distress and failing health and quality of life. This qualitative study used an exploratory design with individual and focus group interviews. Data collection and analysis followed phenomenological hermeneutic guidelines. Individual and group interviews with 27 parents: 18 mothers and 9 fathers from Pakistan, Poland and Vietnam. Immigrant parents of children with complex health needs experience their own health and quality of life challenges. They described the burden of dealing with their child's needs and special care, which affects their sleep and physical and mental health. Single mothers are particularly vulnerable. Parents reported positive and negative effects of their caregiving experience that may affect their health and quality of life. Mothers were the primary caregivers and reported more health problems than did fathers. The lack of respite care, social networks and support impacted maternal health. Immigrant parents struggle to access resources for their child with complex health needs. Hospital nurses, schools and community health care can play a valuable role in supporting the parents of children with complex health needs. It is important that parents are informed about their rights and receive a coordinator and interdisciplinary group to ensure that their needs are met with assistance and respite care. That maternal health was worse in this sample implies that health care professionals should pay more attention to reducing stress among these caregivers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A Different Trolley Problem: The Limits of Environmental Justice and the Promise of Complex Moral Assessments for Transportation Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Shane

    2016-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure tremendously affects the quality of life for urban residents, influences public and mental health, and shapes social relations. Historically, the topic is rich with social and political controversy and the resultant transit systems in the United States cause problems for minority residents and issues for the public. Environmental justice frameworks provide a means to identify and address harms that affect marginalized groups, but environmental justice has limits that cannot account for the mainstream population. To account for this condition, I employ a complex moral assessment measure that provides a way to talk about harms that affect the public.

  10. Problem-solving intervention for caregivers of children with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkensmeyer, Janis E; Johnson, Cynthia S; Scott, Eric L; Oruche, Ukamaka M; Lindsey, Laura M; Austin, Joan K; Perkins, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Building Our Solutions and Connections (BOSC) focused on enhancing problem-solving skills (PSS) of primary caregivers of children with mental health problems. Aims were determining feasibility, acceptability, and effect size (ES) estimates for depression, burden, personal control, and PSS. Caregivers were randomized to BOSC (n=30) or wait-list control (WLC) groups (n=31). Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Three-months post-intervention, ES for burden and personal control were .07 and .08, respectively. ES for depressed caregivers for burden and personal control were 0.14 and 0.19, respectively. Evidence indicates that the intervention had desired effects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Complex health service needs for people who are homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gaye; Manias, Elizabeth; Gerdtz, Marie Frances

    2011-11-01

    Homeless people face many challenges in accessing and utilising health services to obtain psychosocial supports offered in hospital and community settings. The complex nature of health issues is compounded by lack of accessibility to services and lack of appropriate and safe housing. To examine the perceptions and experiences of homeless people in relation to their health service needs as well as those of service providers involved with their care. A purposive sampling approach was undertaken with a thematic framework analysis of semi-structured interviews. Participants. Interviews were undertaken with 20 homeless people who accessed the emergency department in an acute hospital in Melbourne, Australia and 27 service providers involved in hospital and community care. Six key themes were identified from interviews: complexity of care needs, respect for homeless people and co-workers, engagement as a key strategy in continued care, lack of after-hour services, lack of appropriate accommodation and complexity of services. Findings revealed the complex and diverse nature of health concerns in homeless people. The demand on hospital services continues to increase and unless government policies take into consideration the psychosocial demands of the communities most vulnerable people efforts to divert hospital demand will continue to fail.

  12. Caregiver perceptions of mental health problems and treatment utilisation in siblings of children with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nylanda; Furber, Gareth; Roberts, Rachel; Winefield, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Siblings of children with mental health problems (MHPs) have been found to have higher rates of psychopathology and impaired psychosocial functioning compared to control children. It is not yet known how these siblings are managed within the clinical service context (e.g., are they assessed for mental health problems? Do they receive appropriate psychological treatment?). The following brief report describes a pilot study which aimed to explore (a) the rate of caregiver-identified MHPs in siblings and (b) the proportion of siblings receiving psychiatric or psychosocial treatment or support (i.e., treatment utilisation). Eighty-five caregivers of children receiving treatment at CAMHS were interviewed about the mental health and treatment utilisation of their siblings. The findings revealed a high rate of caregiver-identified MHPs in siblings (34.1%) and a high rate of treatment utilisation (85.7%). The findings suggest that, for the vast majority, when siblings of children with MHPs are identified by their caregivers as having MHPs, they are receiving some kind of support and treatment. Implications for mental health service costs are discussed and recommendations for future research are outlined.

  13. Shift Work and Health: Current Problems and Preventive Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the problems to be tackled nowadays by occupational health with regards to shift work as well as the main guidelines at organizational and medical levels on how to protect workers’ health and well-being. Working time organization is becoming a key factor on account of new technologies, market globalization, economic competition, and extension of social services to general populations, all of which involve more and more people in continuous assistance and control of work processes over the 24 hours in a day. The large increase of epidemiological and clinical studies on this issue document the severity of this risk factor on human health and well being, at both social and psychophysical levels, starting from a disruption of biological circadian rhythms and sleep/wake cycle and ending in several psychosomatic troubles and disorders, likely also including cancer, and extending to impairment of performance efficiency as well as family and social life. Appropriate interventions on the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria and careful health surveillance and social support for shift workers are important preventive and corrective measures that allow people to keep working without significant health impairment.

  14. Vision problems are a leading source of modifiable health expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B

    2013-12-13

    According to recent studies, visual problems represent one of the top contributors to economic health burden in the United States. This burden is divided nearly equally between direct expenditures for the care and treatment of visual problems, and the indirect costs of outcomes caused by low vision, including productivity losses, the cost of care, and incremental nursing home placements. A large amount of academic research is devoted to visual science, the biology of the visual system, and the medical treatment of visual disorders. Compared to the burden, a disproportionate share of this research is devoted to the study of retinal disorders and glaucoma. This is understandable, as research into the retina and optic nerve has the potential to unlock fundamental insights into the nature of sight and visual cognition. However, population visual health and the functionality that depends upon it also may benefit greatly from additional research into areas of prevention, rehabilitation, and adaptation. In addition, comparative research into the benefits of resource allocation across prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative resources could lead to improvements in population health.

  15. Violence towards women is a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetikcok, Ramazan; Ozer, Erdal; Cakir, Lutfullah; Enginyurt, Ozgur; İscanli, M Dogan; Cankaya, Soner; Ozer, Filiz

    2016-11-01

    Violence within the family is a significant health problem which threatens the health of the community. The global rates of domestic violence directed at women have been reported as 10%-69% and in Turkey as 25%-30%. The data of our study were obtained from the database of the official internet website of the Turkish Statistics Institute as the data related to violence between 2007 and 2012. In the evaluation of the data, SPSS 11.0 statistics software was used. Although it was determined that women from all groups experienced sexual, physical and emotional violence, higher rates were observed in those living in rural areas compared to those in urban areas, in the eastern region compared to all other regions, in the 45-59 years age group, those with low level of income and with a low level of education. When physicians encounter women who have experienced violence, by evaluating the violence in the context of a legal case, violence is identified and not allowed to become a cycle passed from generation to generation, and in addition to the medical intervention, without forgetting that violence is a public health problem, it is necessary to find a way to provide psychosocial and legal support for the victim. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Human health risk assessment of trichloroethylene from industrial complex a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Saemi; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the human health risks of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A. The excessive carcinogenic risks for central tendency exposure were 1.40 × 10(?5) for male and female residents in the vicinity of Industrial Complex A. The excessive cancers risk for reasonable maximum exposure were 2.88 × 10(?5) and 1.97 × 10(?5) for males and females, respectively. These values indicate that there are potential cancer risks for exposure to these concentrations. The hazard index for central tendency exposure to trichloroethylene was 1.71 for male and female residents. The hazard indexes for reasonable maximum exposure were 3.27 and 2.41 for males and females, respectively. These values were over one, which is equivalent to the threshold value. This result showed that adverse cancer and non-cancer health effects may occur and that some risk management of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A was needed.

  17. A tool to guide the process of integrating health system responses to public health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Nigatu Haregu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated model of health system responses to public health problems is considered to be the most preferable approach. Accordingly, there are several models that stipulate what an integrated architecture should look like. However, tools that can guide the overall process of integration are lacking. This tool is designed to guide the entire process of integration of health system responses to major public health problems. It is developed by taking into account the contexts of health systems of developing countries and the emergence of double-burden of chronic diseases in these settings. Chronic diseases – HIV/AIDS and NCDs – represented the evidence base for the development of the model. System level horizontal integration of health system responses were considered in the development of this tool.

  18. The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2002-01-01

    The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...

  19. Responding to families with complex needs: a national survey of child and family health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Chris; Schmied, Virginia; Kemp, Lynn; Fowler, Cathrine; Kruske, Sue; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which Australian child and family health nurses work with families with complex needs and how their practice responds to the needs of these families. Many families with young children face challenges to their parenting capacity, potentially placing their children at risk of poorer developmental outcomes. Nurses increasingly work with families with mental health problems, trauma histories and/or substance dependence. Universal child health services must respond effectively to these challenges, to address health inequalities and to promote the best outcomes for all children and families. The descriptive study used cross-sectional data from the first national survey of child and family health nurses in Australia, conducted during 2011. Survey data reported how often, where and how child and family health nurses worked with families with complex needs and their confidence in nursing tasks. Many, but not all, of the 679 respondents saw families with complex needs in their regular weekly caseload. Child and family health nurses with diverse and complex caseloads reported using varied approaches to support their clients. They often undertook additional professional development and leadership roles compared with nurses who reported less complex caseloads. Most respondents reported high levels of professional confidence. For health services providing universal support and early intervention for families at risk, the findings underscore the importance of appropriate education, training and support for child and family health professionals. The findings can inform the organization and delivery of services for families in Australia and internationally. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    sunmi cho; yunmi shin

    2013-01-01

    Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10&am...

  1. Performance of community health workers : situating their intermediary position within complex adaptive health systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Maryse C; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Theobald, Sally; Ormel, Hermen; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Health systems are social institutions, in which health worker performance is shaped by transactional processes between different actors.This analytical assessment unravels the complex web of factors that influence the performance of community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income

  2. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  3. Human fascioliasis: a parasitic health problem in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Shazly, A M; Handousa, A E; Youssef, M E; Rizk, H; Hamouda, M M

    1991-08-01

    Fascioliasis has a cosmopolitan distribution and is prevalent in sheep-raising countries. Now, it is an increasingly important parasite of man in the Mediterranean countries. In Dakahlia G., human fascioliasis has imposed itself as a parasitic health problem. In this paper, 23 human cases were selected to throw some light on the signs, symptoms and diagnosis of the disease. It was concluded that painful hepatomegaly, fever, anaemia and marked eosinophilia are tetrad suggesting fascioliasis in patient who has consumed watercress as green salade. Data concerning treatment and follow up will be published later.

  4. Determining the Effects of Cognitive Style, Problem Complexity, and Hypothesis Generation on the Problem Solving Ability of School-Based Agricultural Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to assess the effects of cognitive style, problem complexity, and hypothesis generation on the problem solving ability of school-based agricultural education students. Problem solving ability was defined as time to solution. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was employed to assess students' cognitive…

  5. Medication management and practices in prison for people with mental health problems: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Robert A; Rogers, Anne; Shaw, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Common mental health problems are prevalent in prison and the quality of prison health care provision for prisoners with mental health problems has been a focus of critical scrutiny. Currently, health policy aims to align and integrate prison health services and practices with those of the National Health Service (NHS). Medication management is a key aspect of treatment for patients with a mental health problem. The medication practices of patients and staff are therefore ...

  6. Implementing primary health care: some problems of creating national programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J P; Walt, G

    1984-07-01

    While there is a great deal of agreement about the principles underlying Primary Health Care (PHC), there exist many problems, political, planning and management, involved in putting the approach into effect. Some of these difficulties are discussed. It is clear that the PHC approach is essentially political; the way it is implemented in each country will reflect the political priorities and systems of that country. Moreover, ministries of health are not known for their strong position in the ministerial pecking order. Finance and planning ministeries would have to be won over to the importance of the concept of PHC to try to eexpand the health budget and to change the emphasis of existing resource allocation patterns. Costs incurred by a PHC approach ( e.g., expensive transport and communication systems), and resources needed to finance it may be available; however, they may not be channelled to the politically less articulate groups in rural areas. Political implications are not limited to national levels; considerable conflict may exist between different status groups and classes at the village level, thus sabotaging PHC plans. Professional politics will also be played at all levels. It is equally essential to recognize the historical context in which PHC is being introduced. Many countries have inherited colonial infrastructures. Changing the values, perceptions, expectations, administration and organization that accompany such systems is extremely hard, and to put PHC into effect demands radical changes. The planning difficulties which beset PHC are related to the still large private provision of social services like health, and to a flourishing traditional private sector in many developing countries. These may limit the implementation of a national health policy and PHC may thus result in a very patchy service throughout the country. The level of centralized planning will also affect resource allocation and therefore the policy, planning and implementation

  7. Health problems of nursing workers in a public educational institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Luiza Bernardes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the issues occurred with nursing workers through a Health Monitoring System for Nursing Workers (SIMOSTE and to describe the consequences of those problems. Method: This is a quantitative, exploratory and descriptive study realized in a teaching hospital in the west region of the city of São Paulo. Results: From the SIMOSTE, 1.847 occurrences were registered in a six month period. Within the main occurrences, medical licenses, work related accidents with and without removals; psychiatric consultations and psychotherapy were highlighted. Conclusion: The data points out to the need for the development of new health vigilance actions to notify accidents and illness related to work, besides the prevention of issues.

  8. A mismatch between population health literacy and the complexity of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne; Winkley, John

    2015-01-01

    skills in relation to these. DESIGN AND SETTING: An English observational study comparing health materials with national working-age population skills. METHOD: Health materials were sampled using a health literacy framework. Competency thresholds to understand and use the materials were identified......BACKGROUND: Low health literacy is associated with poorer health and higher mortality. Complex health materials are a barrier to health. AIM: To assess the literacy and numeracy skills required to understand and use commonly used English health information materials, and to describe population...... of health materials and the skills of the English adult working-age population. Those most in need of health information have the least access to it. Efficacious strategies are building population skills, improving health professionals' communication, and improving written health information....

  9. Australian health system restructuring - what problem is being solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Judith M

    2004-11-19

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, Australian state and territory governments have reviewed and restructured the health systems they lead and regulate. This paper examines the outcomes of the most recent official published reviews of systems and structures; identifies the common themes; and addresses two questions: what problems are being addressed? And how would we know if the changes were successful? RESULTS: In all the broad, systemic reviews, the main health system problems identified were money, hospital utilisation and a weak primary health care system. The solutions are various, but there is a common trend towards centralisation of governance, often at state health authority level, and stronger accountability measures. Other common themes are hospital substitution (services to avoid the need for admission); calls for cooperation across the Commonwealth:state divide, or for its abolition; and the expected range of current efficiency and effectiveness measures (eg amalgamate pathology and support services) and ideas in good currency (eg call centres). The top-down nature of the public review process is noted, along with the political nature of the immediate catalysts for calling on a review. CONCLUSION: The long-standing tension between the pull to centralisation of authority and the need for innovation in care models is heightened by recent changes, which may be counterproductive in an era dominated by the burden of chronic disease. I argue that the current reforms will not succeed in achieving the stated goals unless they make a difference for people with chronic illness. And if this is correct, the most useful focus for evaluation of the success of the reforms may be their impact on the system's ability to develop and deliver better models of care for this growing group of patients.

  10. Understanding the complexity of biopsychosocial factors in the public health epidemic of overweight and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Diane L; White, Kamila S

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifaceted public health problem. This commentary reflects on a new theoretical model of obesity (i.e. Homeostatic Theory of Obesity proposed by Marks), and calls for additional research to examine biopsychosocial factors that may be of importance in developing interventions that promote long-term maintenance of weight loss and in developing obesity prevention programs. Furthermore, we discuss the role of socioeconomic factors in obesity and call for interdisciplina...

  11. Numerical nonlinear complex geometrical optics algorithm for the 3D Calderón problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delbary, Fabrice; Knudsen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    to the generalized Laplace equation. The 3D problem was solved in theory in late 1980s using complex geometrical optics solutions and a scattering transform. Several approximations to the reconstruction method have been suggested and implemented numerically in the literature, but here, for the first time, a complete...... computer implementation of the full nonlinear algorithm is given. First a boundary integral equation is solved by a Nystrom method for the traces of the complex geometrical optics solutions, second the scattering transform is computed and inverted using fast Fourier transform, and finally a boundary value...

  12. Unmasking the health problems faced by the police personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Jahnavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the health problems of the police personnel under Vijayawada police commisionerate 2. To make the health check ups regular and 3. To make the physical fitness programme mandatory for them.Study design: cross sectional study Methodology: Health check up was done for 617 police personnel from 12.11.09 to 4.12.09. In the morning hours, a group of junior doctors, paramedical staff and technicians visited the police dispensary to do the general check up, take blood samples and ECG. The following afternoon a group of specialists visited to check the same patients along with their reports to make the final diagnosis. Results: Out of 617 police personnel 259 (42% were overweight/obese, lack of physical activity was found in 397 (64% of them, alcohol consumption was present in 148 (24% and smoking in 136 (22% of the police personnel. Diabetes was diagnosed in 229 (37% and hypertension in 203 (33%. Anemia was detected in 154 (25%, visual abnormalities in 59 (10%, lipid abnormalities in 185 (30%, liver function test abnormalities in 31 (5%, ECG abnormalities in 25 (4%, renal function abnormalities in 6 (1%. Conclusion: A Physical fitness Schedule along with Stress alleviation techniques to be made mandatory for the police personnel to keep them physically and mentally fit, to perform critical job functions, to alleviate stress, and to improve their quality of life. Routine health checkups should be done to detect lurking dangers.

  13. Utilization of health services in relation to mental health problems in adolescents: A population based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D; Rödje, Kjetil; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2006-01-01

    Background Only a minority of adolescents reporting symptoms above case-levels on screenings for mental health seeks and receives help from specialist health services. The objective of this study was to a) examine help-seeking for symptoms of anxiety and depression in relation to symptom load dimensionally, b) identify the level of specialization in mental health among service-providers, and c) identify associations between mental health problems and contact with different types of health services. Methods This cross-sectional school-based study (response-rate 88%, n = 11154) is based on Norwegian health surveys among 15 and 16 year olds. Results We found a dose-response association between symptom-load and help seeking. Only 34% of individuals with mental symptom-load above 99th percentile reported help-seeking in the last 12 months. Forty percent of help seekers were in contact with specialists (psychiatrists or psychologists), the remaining were mainly in contact with GPs. Mental health problems increased help seeking to all twelve service providers examined. Conclusion It might not be reasonable to argue that all adolescents with case-level mental health problems are in need of treatment. However, concerning the 99th percentile, claiming treatment need is less controversial. Even in the Norwegian context where mental health services are relatively available and free of charge, help-seeking in individuals with the highest symptom-loads is still low. Most help seekers achieved contact with health care providers, half of them at a non specialized level. Our results suggest that adolescents' recognition of mental health problems or intention to seek help for these are the major "filters" restricting treatment. PMID:16480522

  14. Perceived risk of mental health problems in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança ePaúl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the face of limited resources and an ageing population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalisation, hospitalisation and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care. We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders from 1 (mild to 3 (Severe. The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (sd=7.3 and 2645 (58.8% were female. According to the primary care team 1616 (35.9% were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4% were mild, 559 (34.6% were moderate and 210 (13% were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR=2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalisation; OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalisation; OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death. These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  15. Perceived risk of mental health problems in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  16. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Adolescent Offenders with Mental Health Problems in Custody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Paul; Smedley, Kirsty; Kenning, Cassandra; McKee, Amy; Woods, Debbie; Rennie, Charlotte E.; Bell, Rachel V.; Aryamanesh, Mitra; Dolan, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have identified high levels of mental health problems among adolescents in custody and there is increasing evidence that mental health problems in this population are associated with further offending and mental health problems into adulthood. Despite recent improvements in mental health provision within custodial settings there is…

  17. Worker Attitudes towards Mental Health Problems and Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS Dewa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a significant proportion of workers with mental disorders who either are struggling at work or who are trying to return to work from a disability leave. Objective: Using a population-based survey of working adults in Ontario, Canada, this paper examines the perceptions of workers towards mental disorders in the workplace. Methods: Data are from a sample of 2219 working adults identified through random digit dialing who either completed a telephone questionnaire administered by professional interviewers or a web-based survey. Results: A third of workers would not tell their managers if they experienced mental health problems. Rather than a single factor, workers more often identified a combination of factors that would encourage disclosure to their managers. One of the most identified disincentives was the fear of damaging their careers. The most pervasive reasons for concerns about a colleague with a mental health problem included safety and the colleague's reliability. Conclusion: Although critical for workers who experience a mental disorder and who find work challenging, a significant proportion do not seek support. One barrier is fear of negative repercussions. Organizations' policies can create safe environments and the provision of resources and training to managers that enable them to implement them. By making disclosure safe, stigma and the burden of mental disorders in the workplace can be decreased.

  18. Side effects of problem-solving strategies in large-scale nutrition science: towards a diversification of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Bart; Vos, Rein; Horstman, Klasien

    2009-11-01

    Solving complex problems in large-scale research programmes requires cooperation and division of labour. Simultaneously, large-scale problem solving also gives rise to unintended side effects. Based upon 5 years of researching two large-scale nutrigenomic research programmes, we argue that problems are fragmented in order to be solved. These sub-problems are given priority for practical reasons and in the process of solving them, various changes are introduced in each sub-problem. Combined with additional diversity as a result of interdisciplinarity, this makes reassembling the original and overall goal of the research programme less likely. In the case of nutrigenomics and health, this produces a diversification of health. As a result, the public health goal of contemporary nutrition science is not reached in the large-scale research programmes we studied. Large-scale research programmes are very successful in producing scientific publications and new knowledge; however, in reaching their political goals they often are less successful.

  19. Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Emily C; Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2012-05-01

    The use of addictive substances-tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs-during adolescence interferes with brain development and increases the risk of serious health and mental health conditions, including addiction. Yet, adolescents live in a culture in which family, social, community, and media influences regularly bombard them with pro-substance use messages, creating an environment in which substance use is considered an expected behavior, rather than a considerable health risk. To prevent the significant harm that falls to teens and young adults because of substance use, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA Columbia) undertook a study to explore how adolescent brain development relates to the risk of substance use and addiction; the cultural influences that create an environment in which substance use is considered normative behavior; individual factors that make some teens more disposed to substance use and addiction; and evidence-based prevention and treatment strategies for addressing this problem. The recently published report Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem concludes that risky substance use is a major public health problem that can be ameliorated through evidence-based public health measures, including education about the disease and its risk factors, screenings, and clinical interventions, and that addiction can be treated and managed effectively within routine health care practice and specialty care. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Human Health Risk Assessment of Trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, Saemi; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the human health risks of trichloroethylene from Industrial Complex A. The excessive carcinogenic risks for central tendency exposure were 1.40 ? 10?5 for male and female residents in the vicinity of Industrial Complex A. The excessive cancers risk for reasonable maximum exposure were 2.88 ? 10?5 and 1.97 ? 10?5 for males and females, respectively. These values indicate that there are potential cancer risks for exposure to these concentrations. The hazard index for cen...

  1. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia Ah; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat.

  2. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia AH; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513

  3. Stigma as a barrier to seeking health care among military personnel with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Marie-Louise; Fear, Nicola T; Rona, Roberto J; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil; Jones, Norman; Goodwin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 60% of military personnel who experience mental health problems do not seek help, yet many of them could benefit from professional treatment. Across military studies, one of the most frequently reported barriers to help-seeking for mental health problems is concerns about stigma. It is, however, less clear how stigma influences mental health service utilization. This review will synthesize existing research on stigma, focusing on those in the military with mental health problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies between 2001 and 2014 to examine the prevalence of stigma for seeking help for a mental health problem and its association with help-seeking intentions/mental health service utilization. Twenty papers met the search criteria. Weighted prevalence estimates for the 2 most endorsed stigma concerns were 44.2% (95% confidence interval: 37.1, 51.4) for "My unit leadership might treat me differently" and 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 36.8, 49.0) for "I would be seen as weak." Nine studies found no association between anticipated stigma and help-seeking intentions/mental health service use and 4 studies found a positive association. One study found a negative association between self-stigma and intentions to seek help. Counterintuitively, those that endorsed high anticipated stigma still utilized mental health services or were interested in seeking help. We propose that these findings may be related to intention-behavior gaps or methodological issues in the measurement of stigma. Positive associations may be influenced by modified labeling theory. Additionally, other factors such as self-stigma and negative attitudes toward mental health care may be worth further attention in future investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Gonzalez, Lilliana

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide in all age groups, even in those residing in countries with low latitude, where it was generally assumed that UV radiation was adequate enough to prevent this deficiency, and in industrialized countries, where vitamin D fortification has been implemented now for years. However, most countries are still lacking data, particularly population representative data, with very limited information in infants, children, adolescents and pregnant women. Since the number of recent publications is escalating, with a broadening of the geographic diversity, the objective of the present report was to conduct a more recent systematic review of global vitamin D status, with particular emphasis in at risk groups. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed/Medline in April-June 2013 to identify articles on vitamin D status worldwide published in the last 10 years in apparently healthy individuals. Only studies with vitamin D status prevalence were included. If available, the first source selected was population-based or representative samples studies. Clinical trials, case-control studies, case reports or series, reviews, validation studies, letters, editorials, or qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 103 articles were eligible and included in the present report. Maps were created for each age group, providing an updated overview of global vitamin D status. In areas with available data, the prevalence of low vitamin D status is a global problem in all age groups, in particular in girls and women from the Middle East. These maps also evidenced the regions with missing data for each specific population groups. There is striking lack of data in infants, children and adolescents worldwide, and in most countries of South America and Africa. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a global public health problem in all age groups, particularly in those from the Middle East. This article is part of a Special Issue

  5. Numerical sensitivity computation for discontinuous gradient-only optimization problems using the complex-step method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wilke, DN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available problems that utilise remeshing (i.e. the mesh topology is allowed to change) between design updates. Here, changes in mesh topology result in abrupt changes in the discretization error of the computed response. These abrupt changes in turn manifests... in shape optimization but may be present whenever (partial) differential equations are ap- proximated numerically with non-constant discretization methods e.g. remeshing of spatial domains or automatic time stepping in temporal domains. Keywords: Complex...

  6. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  7. Setting up problems raised by construction of the EDF-Eurodif complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, J.P.; Roux, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    After presentation of the Tricastin site and the nuclear complex to be built there, the main problems of social, economical or administrative order arising from the establishment of the site are analyzed and the solutions applied in order to overcome them are described. In conclusion they note that the largest site in Europe should be carried out up to completion in the best interests of local collectivities, of the Engineers and the populations concerned [fr

  8. Divide et impera: subgoaling reduces the complexity of probabilistic inference and problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisto, Domenico; Donnarumma, Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-03-06

    It has long been recognized that humans (and possibly other animals) usually break problems down into smaller and more manageable problems using subgoals. Despite a general consensus that subgoaling helps problem solving, it is still unclear what the mechanisms guiding online subgoal selection are during the solution of novel problems for which predefined solutions are not available. Under which conditions does subgoaling lead to optimal behaviour? When is subgoaling better than solving a problem from start to finish? Which is the best number and sequence of subgoals to solve a given problem? How are these subgoals selected during online inference? Here, we present a computational account of subgoaling in problem solving. Following Occam's razor, we propose that good subgoals are those that permit planning solutions and controlling behaviour using less information resources, thus yielding parsimony in inference and control. We implement this principle using approximate probabilistic inference: subgoals are selected using a sampling method that considers the descriptive complexity of the resulting sub-problems. We validate the proposed method using a standard reinforcement learning benchmark (four-rooms scenario) and show that the proposed method requires less inferential steps and permits selecting more compact control programs compared to an equivalent procedure without subgoaling. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method offers a mechanistic explanation of the neuronal dynamics found in the prefrontal cortex of monkeys that solve planning problems. Our computational framework provides a novel integrative perspective on subgoaling and its adaptive advantages for planning, control and learning, such as for example lowering cognitive effort and working memory load. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Yarsagumba Fungus: Health Problems in the Himalayan Gold Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Pranawa; Pandit, Bidur; Phuyal, Pratibha; Zafren, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus. They had paid high prices for permits, hoping to recoup the cost and make a profit by selling specimens of Yarsagumba, but the fungus seemed scarce in 2016, resulting in a bleak economic forecast. Most collectors were living in austere conditions, walking long hours to the collection areas early in the morning and returning in the late afternoon. Most were subsisting on 1 daily meal. Health problems, including acute mountain sickness as well as respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses, were common. Yarsagumba has become harder to find in recent years, increasing hardships and risk of injury. Medical care was almost nonexistent. As abundance decreases and demand increases, there is increasing pressure on collectors to find Yarsagumba. The collectors are an economically disadvantaged population who live in austere conditions at high altitude with poor shelter and sanitation, strenuous work, and limited availability of food. Health care resources are very limited. There are significant risks of illness, injury, and death. Targeted efforts by government entities and nongovernmental organizations might be beneficial in meeting the health needs. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Putting the puzzle together: the role of 'problem definition' in complex clinical judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sayra; Lingard, Lorelei; Forbes, Thomas; Ott, Michael; Novick, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We teach judgement in pieces; that is, we talk about each aspect separately (patient, plan, resources, technique, etc.). We also let trainees figure out how to put the pieces together. In complex situations, this might be problematic. Using data from a drawing-based study on surgeons' experiences with complex situations, we explore the notion of 'problem definition' in real-world clinical judgement using the theoretical lens of systems engineering. 'Emergence', the sensitising concept for analysis, is rooted in two key systems premises: that person and context are inseparable and that what emerges is an act of choice. Via a 'gallery walk' we used these premises to perform analysis on individual drawings as well as cross-comparisons of multiple drawings. Our focus was to understand similarities and differences among the vantage points used by multiple surgeons. In this paper we challenge two assumptions from current models of clinical judgement: that experts hold a fixed and static definition of the problem and that consequently the focus of the expert's work is on solving the problem. Each situation described by our participants revealed different but complementary perspectives of what a surgical problem might come to be: from concerns about ensuring standard of care, to balancing personal emotions versus care choices, to coordinating resources, and to maintaining control while in the midst of personality clashes. We suggest that it is only at the situation and system level, not at the individual level, that we are able to appreciate the nuances of defining the problem when experts make judgements during real-world complex situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  11. [Teenage fecundity rates in Chile: a serious public health problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina C, Ramiro; Molina G, Temístocles; González A, Electra

    2007-01-01

    Teenage fecundity rates are an indicator of epidemiological discrimination in developing countries. To study fertility rates of girls under 14 years of age in Chile from 1993 to 2003. Information of children born alive from mothers aged 10 to 15 years, was obtained from the Chilean National Institute of Statistics. Age segmented population data was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Trends were analyzed by regions and single ages. The rates in communities of the Metropolitan Region were compared. Between 1993 and 2003, there was an increasing trend in fecundity rates, ratios and crude numbers. These rates duplicate from 14 to 15 years of age. In the Metropolitan Region, the fecundity ratios of communities with lower economical incomes is seven times greater than those with higher incomes. During 2003, the fecundity rates in Chile were 100 and 10 higher than those of Holland and Sweden in 1981. In developing countries with very low infant mortality rates such as Chile, the high fecundity rates of young girls is an indicator of a deficient human and social development. Sexual Education and Health Services for adolescents are essential to prevent this public health problem.

  12. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P; Nel, R [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  13. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  14. Molecular computing towards a novel computing architecture for complex problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Weng-Long

    2014-01-01

    This textbook introduces a concise approach to the design of molecular algorithms for students or researchers who are interested in dealing with complex problems. Through numerous examples and exercises, you will understand the main difference of molecular circuits and traditional digital circuits to manipulate the same problem and you will also learn how to design a molecular algorithm of solving any a problem from start to finish. The book starts with an introduction to computational aspects of digital computers and molecular computing, data representation of molecular computing, molecular operations of molecular computing and number representation of molecular computing, and provides many molecular algorithm to construct the parity generator and the parity checker of error-detection codes on digital communication, to encode integers of different formats, single precision and double precision of floating-point numbers, to implement addition and subtraction of unsigned integers, to construct logic operations...

  15. Cross-national comparisons of complex problem-solving strategies in two microworlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güss, C Dominik; Tuason, Ma Teresa; Gerhard, Christiane

    2010-04-01

    Research in the fields of complex problem solving (CPS) and dynamic decision making using microworlds has been mainly conducted in Western industrialized countries. This study analyzes the CPS process by investigating thinking-aloud protocols in five countries. Participants were 511 students from Brazil, Germany, India, the Philippines, and the United States who worked on two microworlds. On the basis of cultural-psychological theories, specific cross-national differences in CPS strategies were hypothesized. Following theories of situatedness of cognition, hypotheses about the specific frequency of problem-solving strategies in the two microworlds were developed. Results of the verbal protocols showed (a) modification of the theoretical CPS model, (b) task dependence of CPS strategies, and (c) cross-national differences in CPS strategies. Participants' CPS processes were particularly influenced by country-specific problem-solving strategies. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. General health workers' description of mental health problems and treatment approaches used in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Betty E; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey Cb; Lambert, Gordon

    2014-11-01

    Papua New Guinea is a developing country with limited resources for specialist mental health services. Little is known about the mental health and treatment services of Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to clarify the presenting mental health problems encountered by Papua New Guinean health workers and the common treatment approaches used. A total of 203 Papua New Guinean health workers completed a retrospective quantitative survey about their three most recent mental health patients. The survey asked about presenting symptomatology, diagnoses (including culture-bound diagnoses) and treatment approaches. The major presenting mental health problems for males included schizophrenia, substance use disorder, sorcery and spirit possession. Depression was the most common diagnoses for women, followed by sorcery and somatisation. Over 65% of patients were prescribed psychotropic medication, over 50% received some form of psychological intervention and 28% were receiving traditional treatments. Somatic symptoms are common among both male and female Papua New Guineans; however, males may be more likely to present with psychotic symptoms and females with mood-related problems. Schizophrenia and depression are commonly identified with substance use disorder more problematic among males. Culture-specific explanations and treatment are commonly used. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Health Brokers: How Can They Help Deal with the Wickedness of Public Health Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste E. van Rinsum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of health broker is a relatively new one in public health. Health brokers aim to create support for efforts to optimise health promotion in complex or even “wicked” public health contexts by facilitating intersectoral collaborations and by exchanging knowledge with different stakeholders. The current study aimed to explore the role of health brokers, by examining the motivational, contextual, and behaviour-related factors they have to deal with. Methods. Fifteen professionals from various backgrounds and from various policy and practice organisations were recruited for a semistructured interview. To structure the interviews, we developed the “Health Broker Wheel” (HBW, a framework we then specified with more details derived from the interviews. Results. We identified seven primary types of behaviour that health brokers need to engage in: recognizing opportunities, agenda setting, implementing, network formation, intersectoral collaboration, adaptive managing, and leadership. Determinants of health brokers’ behaviours were identified and categorised as capability, opportunities, motivation, and local or national contextual factors. Conclusion. The health brokers’ role can be seen as an operational approach and is visualised in the HBW. This framework can assist further research to monitor and evaluate this role, and health promotion practitioners can use it as a tool to implement the health brokers’ role and to facilitate intersectoral collaboration.

  18. Health Brokers: How Can They Help Deal with the Wickedness of Public Health Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rinsum, Celeste E; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Rutten, Geert M; van de Goor, Ien A M; Kremers, Stef P J

    2017-01-01

    The role of health broker is a relatively new one in public health. Health brokers aim to create support for efforts to optimise health promotion in complex or even "wicked" public health contexts by facilitating intersectoral collaborations and by exchanging knowledge with different stakeholders. The current study aimed to explore the role of health brokers, by examining the motivational, contextual, and behaviour-related factors they have to deal with. Fifteen professionals from various backgrounds and from various policy and practice organisations were recruited for a semistructured interview. To structure the interviews, we developed the "Health Broker Wheel" (HBW), a framework we then specified with more details derived from the interviews. We identified seven primary types of behaviour that health brokers need to engage in: recognizing opportunities, agenda setting, implementing, network formation, intersectoral collaboration, adaptive managing, and leadership. Determinants of health brokers' behaviours were identified and categorised as capability, opportunities, motivation, and local or national contextual factors. The health brokers' role can be seen as an operational approach and is visualised in the HBW. This framework can assist further research to monitor and evaluate this role, and health promotion practitioners can use it as a tool to implement the health brokers' role and to facilitate intersectoral collaboration.

  19. Embedding research in health systems: lessons from complexity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Louise; Wolfe, Charles; McKevitt, Christopher

    2016-07-22

    Internationally, there has been increasing focus on creating health research systems. This article aims to investigate the challenges of implementing apparently simple strategies to support the development of a health research system. We focus on a case study of an English National Health Service Hospital Trust that sought to implement the national recommendation that health organisations should introduce a statement about research on all patient admission letters. We apply core concepts from complexity theory to the case study and undertake a documentary analysis of the email dialogue between staff involved in implementing this initiative. The process of implementing a research statement in patient admission letters in one clinical service took 1 year and 21 days. The length of time needed was influenced firstly by adaptive self-organisation, underpinned by competing interests. Secondly, it was influenced by the relationship between systems, rather than simply being a product of issues within those systems. The relationship between the health system and the research system was weaker than might have been expected. Responsibilities were unclear, leading to confusion and delayed action. Conventional ways of thinking about organisations suggest that change happens when leaders and managers change the strategic vision, structure or procedures in an organisation and then persuade others to rationally implement the strategy. However, health research systems are complex adaptive systems characterised by high levels of unpredictability due to self-organisation and systemic interactions, which give rise to 'emergent' properties. We argue for the need to study how micro-processes of organisational dynamics may give rise to macro patterns of behaviour and strategic organisational direction and for the use of systems approaches to investigate the emergent properties of health research systems.

  20. Relationships between interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and other mental health problems in girls in compulsory residential care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationships (using structural equation modeling) between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of complex PTSD, and other mental health problems. The participants were 92 girls recruited from

  1. Associations between physical and mental health problems and sexual dysfunctions in sexually active Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Birgitte Schütt; Grønbaek, Morten; Osler, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems.......Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems....

  2. Health behaviour changes and onset of chronic health problems in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Veenstra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess five-year changes in health behaviours in later life and associations with onset of chronic health problems. The results may inform policy and interventions to promote healthy life years in ageing populations.Methods: Data are derived from the Norwegian study on Life-course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG, a five-year (2002-2007 panel survey comprising a nation wide community sample. The present analyses include a sample of 1,019 respondents aged 60 years and older. Five-year changes in smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise and Body Mass Index (BMI are assessed according to prevalent and incident chronic health problems. Multivariate logistic analyses of “healthy” behavioural changes are conducted.Results: A total of 453 respondents (45% reported at least one chronic condition and 13% (N=133 reported onset of chronic conditions in the course of the past five years. Over a five-year period, there was an overall reduction in smoking rates and a decrease in regular physical activity. Alcohol consumption in older people slightly increased over time, but the incidence of chronic health problems tended to reduce alcohol intake. Older persons experiencing chronic health problems were less likely to initiate physical activity.Conclusions: The results provide limited support for the assumption that the onset of a chronic health condition triggers improved health behaviours. This suggests that the health care system could do more in targeting a potential “window of opportunity” for individuals to adopt new healthy behaviours in later life.

  3. Online Information Search Performance and Search Strategies in a Health Problem-Solving Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharit, Joseph; Taha, Jessica; Berkowsky, Ronald W; Profita, Halley; Czaja, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Although access to Internet health information can be beneficial, solving complex health-related problems online is challenging for many individuals. In this study, we investigated the performance of a sample of 60 adults ages 18 to 85 years in using the Internet to resolve a relatively complex health information problem. The impact of age, Internet experience, and cognitive abilities on measures of search time, amount of search, and search accuracy was examined, and a model of Internet information seeking was developed to guide the characterization of participants' search strategies. Internet experience was found to have no impact on performance measures. Older participants exhibited longer search times and lower amounts of search but similar search accuracy performance as their younger counterparts. Overall, greater search accuracy was related to an increased amount of search but not to increased search duration and was primarily attributable to higher cognitive abilities, such as processing speed, reasoning ability, and executive function. There was a tendency for those who were younger, had greater Internet experience, and had higher cognitive abilities to use a bottom-up (i.e., analytic) search strategy, although use of a top-down (i.e., browsing) strategy was not necessarily unsuccessful. Implications of the findings for future studies and design interventions are discussed.

  4. The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sunmi cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10&#8211;20% of children and adolescents worldwide. Despite their relevance as a leading cause of health-related disability and their long lasting consequences, the mental health needs of children and adolescents are neglected. Early intervention can help reduce the significant impacts that children and adolescents with serious mental health problems may experience. Screening is the first step in early intervention, recognizing emotional and behavioral problems and providing help at an early stage. It is essential to implement early intervention in a sensitive and ethical manner to avoid any of the negative outcomes.

  5. Software Usability: Concepts, Attributes and Associated Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grīnberga Sabīne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have opened a large set of opportunities for new electronic services (e-commerce, e-health, e-studies etc.. There are many considerations that need to be made when programmers are building new application software or system software. The software needs to be attractive enough that people want to look at it. It also needs to contain all necessary information that developers want to share with their readers (customers, users in order to help them achieve the objective for which they came to their website, use their software, or interact with their teaching packages. The oversupply of e-services products has created a need for usability research and development. “Usability means making products and systems easier to use, and matching them more closely to user needs and requirements”. Usability is a key concept of the human-computer interface and is concerned with making computer systems easy to learn and easy to use through a user-centered design process. The in-depth understanding of usability concepts and processes are critical for large-scale acceptance of new e-services and knowledge productivity. Poorly designed software can be extremely annoying to users. Smith and Mayes state that „usability is now recognised as a vital determining factor in the success of any new computer system or computer-based service”. Studies have shown that the main health problems of computer users are repetitive strain injuries, visual discomfort and stress-related disorders. Beside other risk factors, such as poor workstation design, uncomfortable work postures, long hours of computer use every day, stress, etc., also poor design and usability of the computer systems, as well as computer technical problems, add to the pressure felt by the user, which may in turn cause stress-related disorders.

  6. Non-ionizing radiation and health protection problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, Henri.

    1979-01-01

    Wavelength and frequency are two closely related properties which determine the characteristics of any particular type of electromagnetic radiation and which can be used interchangeably to describe it. For protection purposes the determination of the energy absorbed (absorbed dose) and of its distribution within living systems, whatever the radiation concerned, is still one of the chief problems to be solved. Therefore, although thermal effects are often prevailing, no appropriate dose-effect relationships could be established in most cases and more particularly as far as non-thermal effects are concerned. The problems associated with the different types of NIR are briefly reviewed. An increasing number of countries is promulgating regulatory measures for limiting exposure to NIR of occupationally exposed individuals and of the general population. Harmonization of basic concepts and internationally acceptable protection standards are therefore urgently needed. IRPA is probably the only international, non-governmental scientific organization able to promote wide international and interdisciplinary cooperation in the field of health protection against NIR. Therefore, after having carefully considered the situation, IRPA felt that it was its responsibility to produce guidance on basic protection criteria and standards and created the International NIR-Committee with the objective of developing background documents and internationally accepted recommendations

  7. The problem of application: aesthetics in creativity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Camus, Roberto

    2009-12-01

    The Problem of Application investigates the multiple viewpoints in defining a critical aesthetic in applied arts practice. Amongst organisations, participants, and facilitators there are varying wants and needs in any creative project with an educational agenda. The product of arts based health initiatives often seek to inform and educate, whereby an aesthetic standard may seem contrary to this participatory approach. This research maintains that an aesthetic approach is a lively portion of the collaborative dialogue, which requires interrogation and consideration for a successful outcome. Through the analysis of a participatory arts project completed in West Africa addressing youth issues and HIV/AIDS, The Problem of Application seeks to uncover the multiple facets surrounding the defining of aesthetics in applied practice. The project entitled Youth Visions: Transforming our Futures Together worked with students aged 17-21 to develop an outdoor mural and a live performance inspired by the traditions of local festivals. With an anthropological approach to aesthetic criticism, Youth Visions revealed the multiple layers that define our focus of appreciation.

  8. Thinking about complexity in health: A systematic review of the key systems thinking and complexity ideas in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusoja, Evan; Haynie, Deson; Sievers, Jessica; Mustafee, Navonil; Nelson, Fred; Reynolds, Martin; Sarriot, Eric; Swanson, Robert Chad; Williams, Bob

    2018-01-30

    As the Sustainable Development Goals are rolled out worldwide, development leaders will be looking to the experiences of the past to improve implementation in the future. Systems thinking and complexity science (ST/CS) propose that health and the health system are composed of dynamic actors constantly evolving in response to each other and their context. While offering practical guidance for steering the next development agenda, there is no consensus as to how these important ideas are discussed in relation to health. This systematic review sought to identify and describe some of the key terms, concepts, and methods in recent ST/CS literature. Using the search terms "systems thinkin * AND health OR complexity theor* AND health OR complex adaptive system* AND health," we identified 516 relevant full texts out of 3982 titles across the search period (2002-2015). The peak number of articles were published in 2014 (83) with journals specifically focused on medicine/healthcare (265) and particularly the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice (37) representing the largest number by volume. Dynamic/dynamical systems (n = 332), emergence (n = 294), complex adaptive system(s) (n = 270), and interdependent/interconnected (n = 263) were the most common terms with systems dynamic modelling (58) and agent-based modelling (43) as the most common methods. The review offered several important conclusions. First, while there was no core ST/CS "canon," certain terms appeared frequently across the reviewed texts. Second, even as these ideas are gaining traction in academic and practitioner communities, most are concentrated in a few journals. Finally, articles on ST/CS remain largely theoretical illustrating the need for further study and practical application. Given the challenge posed by the next phase of development, gaining a better understanding of ST/CS ideas and their use may lead to improvements in the implementation and practice of the Sustainable Development

  9. The Meaning and Predictive Value of Self-rated Mental Health among Persons with a Mental Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Donna D; McCreedy, Ellen; Alang, Sirry

    2018-06-01

    Self-rated health is a valid measure of health that predicts quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Its predictive value reflects a conceptualization of health that goes beyond a traditional medical model. However, less is known about self-rated mental health (SRMH). Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ( N = 2,547), we examine how rating your mental health as good-despite meeting criteria for a mental health problem-predicts outcomes. We found that 62% of people with a mental health problem rated their mental health positively. Persons who rated their mental health as good (compared to poor) had 30% lower odds of having a mental health problem at follow-up. Even without treatment, persons with a mental health problem did better if they perceived their mental health positively. SRMH might comprise information beyond the experience of symptoms. Understanding the unobserved information individuals incorporate into SRMH will help us improve screening and treatment interventions.

  10. Stillbirths: What Can Be Done To Confront An Invisible Public Health Problem In Pakistan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hafeez, Assad; Hamid, Saima

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan has been ranked highest and appears worst in stillbirths' rate according to the recent global estimates. Reasons could be manifold; socio-cultural, health system related country specific, and some of these of course déjà vu, i.e., the biomedical causes. Yet, a fresh stocktaking is necessary to understand the complex phenomenon in a country, awfully affected by this menace. Maternal, neonatal and child health program needs to be informed and geared up toward addressing the actual reasons behind this heavy toll of stillbirths in Pakistan. Maternal health indicators would never be improved, if the issue of stillbirths is not stalled at the earliest. Besides known medical reasons, this account attempts to document the health systems related factors, and more so the social determinants behind the whole scenario, so that appropriate and customized interventions could be suggested, developed and implemented. This paper will be a piece of evidence for policy corridors, program managers, development partners, non-governmental organizations, public health institutions, students, and researchers to enhance their understanding of a major public health problem, and to recognize the strengths and opportunities in the health system of Pakistan to cope with this challenge.

  11. Understanding and quantifying cognitive complexity level in mathematical problem solving items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAN E. EMBRETSON

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The linear logistic test model (LLTM; Fischer, 1973 has been applied to a wide variety of new tests. When the LLTM application involves item complexity variables that are both theoretically interesting and empirically supported, several advantages can result. These advantages include elaborating construct validity at the item level, defining variables for test design, predicting parameters of new items, item banking by sources of complexity and providing a basis for item design and item generation. However, despite the many advantages of applying LLTM to test items, it has been applied less often to understand the sources of complexity for large-scale operational test items. Instead, previously calibrated item parameters are modeled using regression techniques because raw item response data often cannot be made available. In the current study, both LLTM and regression modeling are applied to mathematical problem solving items from a widely used test. The findings from the two methods are compared and contrasted for their implications for continued development of ability and achievement tests based on mathematical problem solving items.

  12. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Bekturganov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  13. Sleep Deficiency and Sleep Health Problems in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of sleep schedules, sleep health, and the impact on school performance was conducted in 585 adolescents in a high school in China. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Significantly shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported ( P < 0.0001. Older teenagers slept significantly less than the younger teenagers ( P < 0.0001. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays were prevalent. Night awakenings were reported in 32.2% of students. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours, complaint of inadequate sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness during weekdays were more likely to report an adverse effect of poor sleep on performance. The present observations are qualitatively similar to those reported in our study in American adolescents, particularly with respect to Chinese adolescents exhibiting a similar sleep deficiency on weekdays. We concluded that sleep deficiency and sleep health problems were prevalent in the participating adolescents in China, and were perceived to adversely affect school performance.

  14. Inverse problems in complex material design: Applications to non-crystalline solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Parthapratim; Drabold, David; Elliott, Stephen

    The design of complex amorphous materials is one of the fundamental problems in disordered condensed-matter science. While impressive developments of ab-initio simulation methods during the past several decades have brought tremendous success in understanding materials property from micro- to mesoscopic length scales, a major drawback is that they fail to incorporate existing knowledge of the materials in simulation methodologies. Since an essential feature of materials design is the synergy between experiment and theory, a properly developed approach to design materials should be able to exploit all available knowledge of the materials from measured experimental data. In this talk, we will address the design of complex disordered materials as an inverse problem involving experimental data and available empirical information. We show that the problem can be posed as a multi-objective non-convex optimization program, which can be addressed using a number of recently-developed bio-inspired global optimization techniques. In particular, we will discuss how a population-based stochastic search procedure can be used to determine the structure of non-crystalline solids (e.g. a-SiH, a-SiO2, amorphous graphene, and Fe and Ni clusters). The work is partially supported by NSF under Grant Nos. DMR 1507166 and 1507670.

  15. Conceptualising population health: from mechanistic thinking to complexity science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasinghe Saroj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanistic interpretation of reality can be traced to the influential work by René Descartes and Sir Isaac Newton. Their theories were able to accurately predict most physical phenomena relating to motion, optics and gravity. This paradigm had at least three principles and approaches: reductionism, linearity and hierarchy. These ideas appear to have influenced social scientists and the discourse on population health. In contrast, Complexity Science takes a more holistic view of systems. It views natural systems as being 'open', with fuzzy borders, constantly adapting to cope with pressures from the environment. These are called Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. The sub-systems within it lack stable hierarchies, and the roles of agency keep changing. The interactions with the environment and among sub-systems are non-linear interactions and lead to self-organisation and emergent properties. Theoretical frameworks such as epi+demos+cracy and the ecosocial approach to health have implicitly used some of these concepts of interacting dynamic sub-systems. Using Complexity Science we can view population health outcomes as an emergent property of CAS, which has numerous dynamic non-linear interactions among its interconnected sub-systems or agents. In order to appreciate these sub-systems and determinants, one should acquire a basic knowledge of diverse disciplines and interact with experts from different disciplines. Strategies to improve health should be multi-pronged, and take into account the diversity of actors, determinants and contexts. The dynamic nature of the system requires that the interventions are constantly monitored to provide early feedback to a flexible system that takes quick corrections.

  16. Conceptualising population health: from mechanistic thinking to complexity science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2011-01-20

    The mechanistic interpretation of reality can be traced to the influential work by René Descartes and Sir Isaac Newton. Their theories were able to accurately predict most physical phenomena relating to motion, optics and gravity. This paradigm had at least three principles and approaches: reductionism, linearity and hierarchy. These ideas appear to have influenced social scientists and the discourse on population health. In contrast, Complexity Science takes a more holistic view of systems. It views natural systems as being 'open', with fuzzy borders, constantly adapting to cope with pressures from the environment. These are called Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). The sub-systems within it lack stable hierarchies, and the roles of agency keep changing. The interactions with the environment and among sub-systems are non-linear interactions and lead to self-organisation and emergent properties. Theoretical frameworks such as epi+demos+cracy and the ecosocial approach to health have implicitly used some of these concepts of interacting dynamic sub-systems. Using Complexity Science we can view population health outcomes as an emergent property of CAS, which has numerous dynamic non-linear interactions among its interconnected sub-systems or agents. In order to appreciate these sub-systems and determinants, one should acquire a basic knowledge of diverse disciplines and interact with experts from different disciplines. Strategies to improve health should be multi-pronged, and take into account the diversity of actors, determinants and contexts. The dynamic nature of the system requires that the interventions are constantly monitored to provide early feedback to a flexible system that takes quick corrections.

  17. [The approach of sciences of complexity in health services administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Historically, health services administration has been managed under a Taylorist, Fayolist, humanist and bureaucratic focus approach. However, today dynamic and competitive behaviors that require others approaches in management are developing. Because of the social, scientific and technological changes that are occurring, it is necessary to abandon hierarchical and authoritarian schemes, "up and down" lines, prescriptive rules and order line up must be left behind. Health services administration is an adapted complex system that is not proportional, neither predictable in direction or magnitude. A new proposal is to focus on the sciences of complexity, where the social factors, materials, economics, human and ethics coincide with order and disorder, reason and unreason, and in which we must accept that the phenomenon that emerges creates different organizing different structures from the addition or subtraction of components. There is distance in the process of cause and direct effect. The mirage from the sciences of complexity are trans-disciplinary and we have accepted this in others branches of knowledge, such as quantum physics, non-linear mathematics and cybernetics, so we have to accept the influence of entropy, non-entropy, attractors, the theory of chaos and fractals.

  18. System sight at a problem of efficiency of enterprises’s operaton of the Russian chemical complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svyatoslav Arkadyevich Nikitin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry plays an important role in the development of the domestic economy as one of the basic facilities of Russia's economy, laying the foundation for its long-term and stable development. As a major supplier of raw materials, intermediates, and products of various materials (plastics, chemical fibers, tires, paints and varnishes, dyes, fertilizers, feed additives, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment etc. in almost all sectors of industry, agriculture, health care, human services, commerce, science, culture and education, defense industry, chemical complex has direct impact on the efficiency of their operation and development in these new directions. Therefore, the condition and development of domestic chemistry determines the level of national competitiveness, economic growth and Russia's wealth. However, like most industries in Russia today, chemical industry is going through a difficult period. The presence of a set of common economic problems (identified by technological backwardness and high depreciation, low innovation activity of domestic enterprises of the chemical complex, a lack of effectiveness of the investment process, infrastructure and resource constraints etc., as well as internal management problems causes the rapid growth of interest of uncompetitive Russian chemical products on the world market. Under these conditions, not only a radical adjustment of the internal control systems and chemical plants, but also a significant organizational and economic change is required. Thus, unless we take measures to improve the domestic chemical industry in the coming years, almost all of it grow back and may get into the situation of struggle for survival.

  19. FOCUS, Neutron Transport System for Complex Geometry Reactor Core and Shielding Problems by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FOCUS enables the calculation of any quantity related to neutron transport in reactor or shielding problems, but was especially designed to calculate differential quantities, such as point values at one or more of the space, energy, direction and time variables of quantities like neutron flux, detector response, reaction rate, etc. or averages of such quantities over a small volume of the phase space. Different types of problems can be treated: systems with a fixed neutron source which may be a mono-directional source located out- side the system, and Eigen function problems in which the neutron source distribution is given by the (unknown) fundamental mode Eigen function distribution. Using Monte Carlo methods complex 3- dimensional geometries and detailed cross section information can be treated. Cross section data are derived from ENDF/B, with anisotropic scattering and discrete or continuous inelastic scattering taken into account. Energy is treated as a continuous variable and time dependence may also be included. 2 - Method of solution: A transformed form of the adjoint Boltzmann equation in integral representation is solved for the space, energy, direction and time variables by Monte Carlo methods. Adjoint particles are defined with properties in some respects contrary to those of neutrons. Adjoint particle histories are constructed from which estimates are obtained of the desired quantity. Adjoint cross sections are defined with which the nuclide and reaction type are selected in a collision. The energy after a collision is selected from adjoint energy distributions calculated together with the adjoint cross sections in advance of the actual Monte Carlo calculation. For multiplying systems successive generations of adjoint particles are obtained which will die out for subcritical systems with a fixed neutron source and will be kept approximately stationary for Eigen function problems. Completely arbitrary problems can

  20. The meaning and experience of work in the context of severe and enduring mental health problems: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Alison; Harries, Priscilla; Reynolds, Frances

    2013-01-01

    Research into mental health and employment has indicated that work holds multiple meanings for people with mental health problems. This paper reports findings from a phenomenological study which aimed to understand the complexity of these meanings by exploration of the perspectives of one individual who was considering returning to work. Data were gathered through a series of three interviews carried out over a period of 18 months. Three themes were identified - Beliefs and Values about Work, Working with a Mental Health Problem, and Planning for the Future. Analysis and interpretation facilitated understandings of what work represented for the participant. What this study has contributed to the evidence base is a deeper understanding of the multiple meanings of work, and the varied roles that work may play in contributing to meaning and quality of life for people with mental health problems.

  1. Building University Capacity to Visualize Solutions to Complex Problems in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderson, D.; Veazey, P.; Raymond, V. L.; Kowalski, K.; Prakash, A.; Signor, B.

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly changing environments are creating complex problems across the globe, which are particular magnified in the Arctic. These worldwide challenges can best be addressed through diverse and interdisciplinary research teams. It is incumbent on such teams to promote co-production of knowledge and data-driven decision-making by identifying effective methods to communicate their findings and to engage with the public. Decision Theater North (DTN) is a new semi-immersive visualization system that provides a space for teams to collaborate and develop solutions to complex problems, relying on diverse sets of skills and knowledge. It provides a venue to synthesize the talents of scientists, who gather information (data); modelers, who create models of complex systems; artists, who develop visualizations; communicators, who connect and bridge populations; and policymakers, who can use the visualizations to develop sustainable solutions to pressing problems. The mission of Decision Theater North is to provide a cutting-edge visual environment to facilitate dialogue and decision-making by stakeholders including government, industry, communities and academia. We achieve this mission by adopting a multi-faceted approach reflected in the theater's design, technology, networking capabilities, user support, community relationship building, and strategic partnerships. DTN is a joint project of Alaska's National Science Foundation Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (NSF EPSCoR) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), who have brought the facility up to full operational status and are now expanding its development space to support larger team science efforts. Based in Fairbanks, Alaska, DTN is uniquely poised to address changes taking place in the Arctic and subarctic, and is connected with a larger network of decision theaters that include the Arizona State University Decision Theater Network and the McCain Institute in Washington, DC.

  2. Two-Level Solutions to Exponentially Complex Problems in Glass Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauro, John C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    Glass poses an especially challenging problem for physicists. The key to making progress in theoretical glass science is to extract the key physics governing properties of practical interest. In this spirit, we discuss several two-level solutions to exponentially complex problems in glass science....... Topological constraint theory, originally developed by J.C. Phillips, is based on a two-level description of rigid and floppy modes in a glass network and can be used to derive quantitatively accurate and analytically solvable models for a variety of macroscopic properties. The temperature dependence...... that captures both primary and secondary relaxation modes. Such a model also offers the ability to calculate the distinguishability of particles during glass transition and relaxation processes. Two-level models can also be used to capture the distribution of various network-forming species in mixed...

  3. An Experimental Analysis on Dispatching Rules for the Train Platforming Problem in Busy Complex Passenger Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongfang Zeng

    2017-09-01

    platforming problem (TPP by using mixed integer linear programming and job shop scheduling theory. First, the operation procedures and scheduled time adjustment costs of different train types specific to busy complex passenger stations are explicitly represented. Second, a multi-criteria scheduling model (MCS for TPP without earliness and tardiness time window (ETTW and a time window scheduling model (TWS with ETTW for TPP are proposed. Third, various dispatching rules were designed by incorporating the dispatcher experiences with modern scheduling theory and a rule-based metaheuristic to solve the above model is presented. With solution improvement strategies analogous to those used in practice by dispatchers, the realistic size problems in acceptable time can be solved.

  4. Solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems using stochastic simulation and multi-criteria fuzzy decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvili, Sahar; Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei; Biteus, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation

  5. Solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems using stochastic simulation and multi-criteria fuzzy decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvili, Sahar [Mälardalen University (Sweden); Österberg, Jonas; Silvestrov, Sergei [Division of Applied Mathematics, Mälardalen University (Sweden); Biteus, Jonas [Scania CV (Sweden)

    2014-12-10

    One of the most important factors in the operations of many cooperations today is to maximize profit and one important tool to that effect is the optimization of maintenance activities. Maintenance activities is at the largest level divided into two major areas, corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). When optimizing maintenance activities, by a maintenance plan or policy, we seek to find the best activities to perform at each point in time, be it PM or CM. We explore the use of stochastic simulation, genetic algorithms and other tools for solving complex maintenance planning optimization problems in terms of a suggested framework model based on discrete event simulation.

  6. Building diversity in a complex academic health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South-Paul, Jeannette E; Roth, Loren; Davis, Paula K; Chen, Terence; Roman, Anna; Murrell, Audrey; Pettigrew, Chenits; Castleberry-Singleton, Candi; Schuman, Joel

    2013-09-01

    For 30 years, the many diversity-related health sciences programs targeting the University of Pittsburgh undergraduate campus, school of medicine, schools of the health sciences, clinical practice plan, and medical center were run independently and remained separate within the academic health center (AHC). This lack of coordination hampered their overall effectiveness in promoting diversity and inclusion. In 2007, a group of faculty and administrators from the university and the medical center recognized the need to improve institutional diversity and to better address local health disparities. In this article, the authors describe the process of linking the efforts of these institutions in a way that would be successful locally and applicable to other academic environments. First, they engaged an independent consultant to conduct a study of the AHC's diversity climate, interviewing current and former faculty and trainees to define the problem and identify areas for improvement. Next, they created the Physician Inclusion Council to address the findings of this study and to coordinate future efforts with institutional leaders. Finally, they formed four working committees to address (1) communications and outreach, (2) cultural competency, (3) recruitment, and (4) mentoring and retention. These committees oversaw the strategic development and implementation of all diversity and inclusion efforts. Together these steps led to structural changes within the AHC and the improved allocation of resources that have positioned the University of Pittsburgh to achieve not only diversity but also inclusion and to continue to address the health disparities in the Pittsburgh community.

  7. Proposing a health promotion framework to address gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Marisa; Coalter, Nicola; Gordon, Ashley; Breen, Helen

    2018-02-01

    Gambling impacts affect Australian Indigenous families and communities in diverse and complex ways. Indigenous people throughout Australia engage in a broad range of regulated and unregulated gambling activities. Challenges in this area include the complexities that come with delivering services and programmes between the most remote regions, to highly populated towns and cities of Australia. There is little knowledge transfer between states and territories in Australia and no conceptual understanding or analysis of what constitutes 'best practice' in gambling service delivery for Indigenous people, families and communities. This article reviews health promotion approaches used in Australia, with a particular focus on Indigenous and gambling-based initiatives. Contributing to this review is an examination of health promotion strategies used in Indigenous gambling service delivery in the Northern Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia, demonstrating diversity and innovation in approaches. The article concludes by emphasizing the potential value of adopting health promotion strategies to underpin programme and service delivery for addressing gambling problems in Australian Indigenous communities. However, success is contingent on robust, evidence-based programme design, implementation and evaluation that adhere to health promotion principles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiek, Arnim, E-mail: arnim.wiek@asu.edu; Foley, Rider W. [Arizona State University, School of Sustainability (United States); Guston, David H. [Arizona State University, Center for Nanotechnology in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology's contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  9. Nanotechnology for sustainability: what does nanotechnology offer to address complex sustainability problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiek, Arnim; Foley, Rider W.; Guston, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is widely associated with the promise of positively contributing to sustainability. However, this view often focuses on end-of-pipe applications, for instance, for water purification or energy efficiency, and relies on a narrow concept of sustainability. Approaching sustainability problems and solution options from a comprehensive and systemic perspective instead may yield quite different conclusions about the contribution of nanotechnology to sustainability. This study conceptualizes sustainability problems as complex constellations with several potential intervention points and amenable to different solution options. The study presents results from interdisciplinary workshops and literature reviews that appraise the contribution of the selected nanotechnologies to mitigate such problems. The study focuses exemplarily on the urban context to make the appraisals tangible and relevant. The solution potential of nanotechnology is explored not only for well-known urban sustainability problems such as water contamination and energy use but also for less obvious ones such as childhood obesity. Results indicate not only potentials but also limitations of nanotechnology’s contribution to sustainability and can inform anticipatory governance of nanotechnology in general, and in the urban context in particular.

  10. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  11. A mismatch between population health literacy and the complexity of health information: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne; Winkley, John; Richardson, Marty; Seed, Paul T; Rudd, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poorer health and higher mortality. Complex health materials are a barrier to health. To assess the literacy and numeracy skills required to understand and use commonly used English health information materials, and to describe population skills in relation to these. An English observational study comparing health materials with national working-age population skills. Health materials were sampled using a health literacy framework. Competency thresholds to understand and use the materials were identified. The proportion of the population above and below these thresholds, and the sociodemographic variables associated with a greater risk of being below the thresholds, were described. Sixty-four health materials were sampled. Two competency thresholds were identified: text (literacy) only, and text + numeracy; 2515/5795 participants (43%) were below the text-only threshold, while 2905/4767 (61%) were below the text + numeracy threshold. Univariable analyses of social determinants of health showed that those groups more at risk of socioeconomic deprivation had higher odds of being below the health literacy competency threshold than those at lower risk of deprivation. Multivariable analysis resulted in some variables becoming non-significant or reduced in effect. Levels of low health literacy mirror those found in other industrialised countries, with a mismatch between the complexity of health materials and the skills of the English adult working-age population. Those most in need of health information have the least access to it. Efficacious strategies are building population skills, improving health professionals' communication, and improving written health information. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  12. Guidelines and Recommendations for Developing Interactive eHealth Apps for Complex Messaging in Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Kayla Joanne; Chang, Shanton; Maclean, Skye Tamara; Callegari, Emma Teresa; Garland, Suzanne Marie; Reavley, Nicola Jane; Varigos, George Andrew; Wark, John Dennis

    2016-02-09

    The now ubiquitous catchphrase, "There's an app for that," rings true owing to the growing number of mobile phone apps. In excess of 97,000 eHealth apps are available in major app stores. Yet the effectiveness of these apps varies greatly. While a minority of apps are developed grounded in theory and in conjunction with health care experts, the vast majority are not. This is concerning given the Hippocratic notion of "do no harm." There is currently no unified formal theory for developing interactive eHealth apps, and development is especially difficult when complex messaging is required, such as in health promotion and prevention. This paper aims to provide insight into the creation of interactive eHealth apps for complex messaging, by leveraging the Safe-D case study, which involved complex messaging required to guide safe but sufficient UV exposure for vitamin D synthesis in users. We aim to create recommendations for developing interactive eHealth apps for complex messages based on the lessons learned during Safe-D app development. For this case study we developed an Apple and Android app, both named Safe-D, to safely improve vitamin D status in young women through encouraging safe ultraviolet radiation exposure. The app was developed through participatory action research involving medical and human computer interaction researchers, subject matter expert clinicians, external developers, and target users. The recommendations for development were created from analysis of the development process. By working with clinicians and implementing disparate design examples from the literature, we developed the Safe-D app. From this development process, recommendations for developing interactive eHealth apps for complex messaging were created: (1) involve a multidisciplinary team in the development process, (2) manage complex messages to engage users, and (3) design for interactivity (tailor recommendations, remove barriers to use, design for simplicity). This research has

  13. GERIATRIC HEALTH PROBLEMS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Ahmed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in some rural communities of Sreepur Thana during the month of April 2007. The study population included those aged 50 years or more and residing in the study areas. A total of 226 respondents were selected purposively and were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. The objective of this study was to assess their socio economic condition and identify their health problems. The mean age of the respondents was found to be 62 years. Mean family size and monthly family income was estimated to be 5.31 and Taka 5857.52 respectively. More than half (64.2% of the respondents were illiterate. Fifty eight percent of them were unemployed and 67.3% were found to be dependent on their family members. Most of them (65.5% were found to be suffering from joint pains. Some cardio-respiratory problems like palpitation, dyspnea and chest pain was found to be significantly higher among the female respondents (p<0.03. ECG was done on 22 of them. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 22.7% and ischemic heart disease in 27.27% of them. Systolic hypertension was significantly higher in the females (p<0.01. Majority of the respondents (64.5% were found to have a normal fasting blood sugar level. Symptoms of prostatic enlargement like frequency, urgency, hesitation and post void dribbling of urine was respectively found to be present among 15.9, 62.8, 10.7 and 24.8% of the male respondents. In 11.4% of the female respondents, urinary dribbling was found. The mean age of menopause was estimated to be 48.46 years. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2007; 1(2: 17-20

  14. Salud: un sistema complejo adaptativo Health: an adaptive complex system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Toro-Palacio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo destaca la enorme distancia existente entre el pensamiento complejo de índole intelectual, difundido en nuestro medio, y el pensamiento complejo de índole experimental, que ha permitido lograr los desarrollos científico-tecnológicos que han cambiado radicalmente el mundo. Invita a considerar como sistemas complejos adaptativos entidades tales como la vida, el ser humano, la sociedad global y todo aquello que se llama salud, para lo cual resulta prioritario adoptar un enfoque diferente que amplíe su conocimiento. Al reconocer esta racionalidad, se sustentan las principales características y propiedades emergentes de la salud como sistema complejo adaptativo, siguiendo un modelo de prestación de cuidados y servicios. Finalmente, se plantean algunas preguntas de investigación pertinentes desde esta perspectiva, y se expresan una serie de apreciaciones que se espera sirvan para comprender todo lo que como individuos y como especie hemos llegado a ser. Se propone en este trabajo que la salud y la prestación de servicios de asistencia sanitaria se consideren como sistemas complejos adaptativos.This article points out the enormous gap that exists between complex thinking of an intellectual nature currently present in our environment, and complex experimental thinking that has facilitated the scientific and technological advances that have radically changed the world. The article suggests that life, human beings, global society, and all that constitutes health be considered as adaptive complex systems. This idea, in turn, prioritizes the adoption of a different approach that seeks to expand understanding. When this rationale is recognized, the principal characteristics and emerging properties of health as an adaptive complex system are sustained, following a care and services delivery model. Finally, some pertinent questions from this perspective are put forward in terms of research, and a series of appraisals are expressed that

  15. Mental Health Problems in Children and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…

  16. Do On-Site Mental Health Professionals Change Pediatricians' Responses to Children's Mental Health Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue Horwitz, Sarah; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew S; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Green, Cori M; Foy, Jane M; Stein, Ruth E K

    2016-01-01

    To assess the availability of on-site mental health professionals (MHPs) in primary care; to examine practice/pediatrician characteristics associated with on-site MHPs; and to determine whether the presence of on-site MHPs is related to pediatricians' comanaging or more frequently identifying, treating/managing, or referring mental health (MH) problems. Analyses included American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) members who participated in an AAP Periodic Survey in 2013 and who practiced general pediatrics (n = 321). Measures included sociodemographics, practice characteristics, questions about on-site MHPs, comanagement of MH problems, and pediatricians' behaviors in response to 5 prevalent MH problems. Weighted univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were performed. Thirty-five percent reported on-site MHPs. Practice characteristics (medical schools, universities, health maintenance organizations, managed, or referred 5 common child MH problems. Among the subset of pediatricians who reported comanaging, there was an association with comanagement when the on-site MHP was a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. On-site MHPs are more frequent in settings where low-income children are served and where pediatricians train. Pediatricians who comanage MH problems are more likely to do so when the on-site MHP is a child psychiatrist, substance abuse counselor, or social worker. Overall, on-site MHPs were not associated with comanagement or increased likelihood of pediatricians identifying, treating/managing, or referring children with 5 common child MH problems. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening of Visually Impaired Children for Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilay Açıl, MSN

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These findings showed the important role of school health nurses in performing health screenings directed at visually impaired children who constitute a special group for school health services. Health screening for height, weight, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis is suggested for visually impaired children.

  18. The problem of sustainability within the complexity of agricultural production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotes Torres, Alejandro; Cotes Torres, Jose Miguel

    2005-01-01

    The problem of sustainability is a topic that since the end of the XX century has been worrying more the different sectors of society; becoming one of the topics of greatest interest for managers, consumers, academics and investigators that conform the different agricultural food chains of the world. This paper presents from the general systems theory point of view some elements of critical reflection, approaching the problem of sustainability from the complexity of agricultural production systems, beginning with the original philosophical conception of agricultural and ending by outlining some considerations that should be kept in mind for the development of scientific and technological advances concordant with the agricultural food chain needs of the XX century; which permit an orientation of not only work by profession is who lead the processes of animal and vegetable production, but also creates a sense of pertinence in all of the participants in the chain, highlighting the importance of studying by means of systemic thought, agronomy and animal science, as disciplines that approach to complexities of agriculture which is the angular stone of civilization, such as we know it at the moment

  19. Befriending for mental health problems: processes of helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gemma; Pistrang, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    One avenue for addressing the social consequences of mental health problems is through befriending, a supportive relationship in which one-to-one companionship is provided on a regular basis. Although there is some evidence that befriending can improve psychological and social functioning, little is known about how it works. This qualitative study aimed to understand the helping processes occurring in befriending relationships, from the perspectives of both befriendees and befrienders. Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually and jointly with eight befriendees and their corresponding befrienders. Thematic analysis was carried out on the data set of 23 interviews. The analysis generated nine themes concerning qualities of the relationship valued by befriendees and befrienders (e.g., empathy and mutuality), processes of making meaning (e.g., considering alternative perspectives), and how change was effected in befriendees' lives (e.g., learning how to have healthier relationships with others). The accounts emphasized the importance of the quality of the relationship itself, and highlighted aspects of the relationship that were sometimes difficult to negotiate. The findings suggest that befriending shares commonalities with other types of psychological help. However, it is also characterized by some particular challenges, such as establishing an empathic relationship and managing boundaries and endings. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Recycling Biowaste – Human and Animal Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albihn Ann

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Biowaste from the food chain is of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients. However, the quality concerning hygiene and soil contaminants must be assured. This recycling has to be regulated in a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented. The problems with heavy metals and organic contaminants have been focused on. Still, maximum threshold values are continuously discussed to avoid an increase of soil concentrations. The effect on the ecosystems of residues from use of medicines needs further attention. There is also a risk for a spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the environment and then to animals and man. Infectious diseases may be spread from biowaste and new routes of disease transmission between animals and humans can be created. Zoonotic diseases in this context play a central role. Pathogens recently introduced to a country may be further spread when biowaste is recycled. The very good health status of domestic animals in the Nordic countries may then quickly change. The quality of biowaste is of enormous importance if biowaste is to gain general acceptance for agricultural use, especially for organic production. A balance needs to be maintained between risk and advantage for its use.

  1. Health status transitions in community-living elderly with complex care needs: a latent class approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Louise; Béland, François; Bergman, Howard; Ankri, Joël

    2009-02-03

    For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164), we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles) based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability) Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical information for the planning of longitudinal studies of aging

  2. Health status transitions in community-living elderly with complex care needs: a latent class approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béland François

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Methods Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164, we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. Results We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Conclusion Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical

  3. occupational health problems studied among the workers of lime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAMGANES

    In present study, an extensive health survey of 573 lime kiln workers of Maihar and Jhukehi region of ... Among the observed health anomalies, ..... Health benefits of air pollution control in ... “Association of Indoor and Outdoor Particulate.

  4. Influence of Child Factors on Health-Care Professionals' Recognition of Common Childhood Mental-Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, Delia A; Koot, Hans M; de Wilde, Amber; Begeer, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Early recognition of childhood mental-health problems can help minimise long-term negative outcomes. Recognition of mental-health problems, needed for referral and diagnostic evaluation, is largely dependent on health-care professionals' (HCPs) judgement of symptoms presented by the child. This

  5. Interdisciplinary approach for bilateral maxillary canine: First premolar transposition with complex problems in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivakar Selvaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult patients seeking orthodontic care were increased nowadays not only on esthetic need but also on functional demand. But problems with adult patients were not only malocclusions but also dental caries, pulpal pathology, missing teeth, muco-gingival problems and loss of supporting structures. We report here a case of 35-year-old female with complete transposition referred as a positional interchange of two permanent teeth within the same quadrant of the dental arch along with gingival recession of the lower anteriors and missing molars. Gingival health was improved by free gingival graft in lower anteriors followed by fixed orthodontic procedure to correct transposition. Based on transposition crown recontouring and restoration was done along with replacement of missing molars with fixed prosthesis. Thus, proper treatment planning with interdisciplinary management improves not only the esthetics and occlusal relationship but also with stable results.

  6. School nurses' perspectives on managing mental health problems in children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    Pryjmachuk, S.; Graham, T.; Haddad, M.; Tylee, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To explore the views of school nurses regarding mental health problems in young people and their potential for engaging in mental health work with this client group.\\ud \\ud Background: Mental health problems in children and young people are an important public health issue. Universal children’s services play a key role in identifying and managing these problems and, while school nurses have an important function in this work, little is known about their views on this aspe...

  7. The effect of high and low assertiveness on locus of control and health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J M; Stout, J K

    1985-03-01

    The effect of high and low assertiveness on locus of control and health problems was examined with 78 direct-service workers in mental health and mental retardation settings in northeastern Pennsylvania. The direct-service workers completed the Rathus (1973) Assertiveness Schedule, the Rotter (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, and a health-problems inventory. Highly assertive individuals were found to be more internally controlled and to experience fewer health problems than were individuals low in assertiveness.

  8. Influence of Child Factors on Health-Care Professionals' Recognition of Common Childhood Mental-Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Delia A; Koot, Hans M; de Wilde, Amber; Begeer, Sander

    Early recognition of childhood mental-health problems can help minimise long-term negative outcomes. Recognition of mental-health problems, needed for referral and diagnostic evaluation, is largely dependent on health-care professionals' (HCPs) judgement of symptoms presented by the child. This study aimed to establish whether HCPs recognition of mental-health problems varies as a function of three child-related factors (type of problem, number of symptoms, and demographic characteristics). In an online survey, HCPs ( n  = 431) evaluated a series of vignettes describing children with symptoms of mental-health problems. Vignettes varied by problem type (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Major Depressive Disorder), number of symptoms presented (few and many), and child demographic characteristics (ethnicity, gender, age and socio-economic status (SES)). Results show that recognition of mental-health problems varies by problem type, with ADHD best recognised and GAD worst. Furthermore, recognition varies by the number of symptoms presented. Unexpectedly, a child's gender, ethnicity and family SES did not influence likelihood of problem recognition. These results are the first to reveal differences in HCPs' recognition of various common childhood mental-health problems. HCPs in practice should be advised about poor recognition of GAD, and superior recognition of ADHD, if recognition of all childhood mental-health problems is to be equal.

  9. On the road to a stronger public health workforce: visual tools to address complex challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehobl, Patricia; Stover, Beth H; Koo, Denise

    2014-11-01

    The public health workforce is vital to protecting the health and safety of the public, yet for years, state and local governmental public health agencies have reported substantial workforce losses and other challenges to the workforce that threaten the public's health. These challenges are complex, often involve multiple influencing or related causal factors, and demand comprehensive solutions. However, proposed solutions often focus on selected factors and might be fragmented rather than comprehensive. This paper describes approaches to characterizing the situation more comprehensively and includes two visual tools: (1) a fishbone, or Ishikawa, diagram that depicts multiple factors affecting the public health workforce; and (2) a roadmap that displays key elements-goals and strategies-to strengthen the public health workforce, thus moving from the problems depicted in the fishbone toward solutions. The visual tools aid thinking about ways to strengthen the public health workforce through collective solutions and to help leverage resources and build on each other's work. The strategic roadmap is intended to serve as a dynamic tool for partnership, prioritization, and gap assessment. These tools reflect and support CDC's commitment to working with partners on the highest priorities for strengthening the workforce to improve the public's health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Home treatment for mental health problems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T; Knapp, M; Catty, J; Healey, A; Henderson, J; Watt, H; Wright, C

    2001-01-01

    This review investigates the effectiveness of 'home treatment' for mental health problems in terms of hospitalisation and cost-effectiveness. For the purposes of this review, 'home treatment' is defined as a service that enables the patient to be treated outside hospital as far as possible and remain in their usual place of residence. METHODS - SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE SEARCH: 'Home treatment' excluded studies focused on day, residential and foster care. The review was based on Cochrane methodology, but non-randomised studies were included if they compared two services; these were only analysed if they provided evidence of the groups' baseline clinical comparability. METHODS - REVIEW OF ECONOMIC EVALUATIONS: Economic evaluations among the studies found were reviewed against established criteria. METHODS - IDENTIFICATION OF SERVICE COMPONENTS: A three-round Delphi exercise ascertained the degree of consensus among expert psychiatrists concerning the important components of community-based services that enable them to treat patients outside hospital. The identified components were used to construct the follow-up questionnaire. METHODS - FOLLOW-UP OF AUTHORS: As a supplement to the information available in the papers, authors of all the studies were followed up for data on service components, sustainability of programmes and service utilisation. METHODS - DATA ANALYSIS: The outcome measure was mean days in hospital per patient per month over the follow-up period. (1) Comparative analysis - compared experimental to control services. It analysed all studies with available data, divided into 'inpatient-control' and 'community-control' studies, and tested for associations between service components and difference in hospital days. (2) Experimental services analysis - analysed only experimental service data and tested for associations between service components and hospital days. RESULTS - SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE SEARCH: A total of 91 studies were found, conducted over a 30

  11. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  12. Using expanded individualized health care plans to assist teachers of students with complex health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Tumlin, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    As special education teachers have increasing numbers of students requiring health care procedures in their classrooms, school nurses need to help these teachers maintain a safe, healthy environment for their students. Part of this consists of having teachers know the steps to take should certain problems arise. This article examines the receptivity of using an expanded version of an individualized health care plan (IHP) to provide critical information to address health care problems, as well as having individualized education program (IEP) objectives for instructional targets identified in the IHP. The findings of this study indicate that a high percentage of school nurses and special education teachers were in favor of an expanded version of the IHP. There was also support for teaching students to independently or partially participate in performing their own health care procedures and having this instruction formalized as IEP objectives.

  13. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  14. Violence Against Health Care Workers: A Silent Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Ghorbani sani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Considering the importance of process improvement and support system,we tried to take a step to clarify logistics processes and initiate quality improvement in health and nutrition faculty of Tabriz Medical Science University using process mapping and decision making matrix. Material and Methods: This study is qualitative and was done in 2012. The data were gathered by interview with those involving in the process and direct observation. In this study we clarified logistics processes of financial and administration deputy using block diagram and detailed flowchart. After clarifying the process, research team analyzed the data and proposed an improved way for process as a suggestive detailed flowchart. At the next stage we compared the processes in decision making matrix and finally the best option for intervention was chose between 10 worst functioned processes in decision making matrix of prioritization. Results: In this study we documented 35 processes using process mapping in general affairs, personnel affairs, secretariat, archive deputy, storage department, accounting, properties, services, supply and financial department. The accounting documenting process had the worst function according to comparison matrix and the purchase and supply process was selected as the best option of intervention. Conclusion: The research's results showed that most of the processes in this deputy have problems in theory and practice, and system improvement is in need of reforming which will improve quality and prevent organization sources to be wasted. Due to the multi department function of processes, the unity of departments and a qualified management is required for better reform.

  15. 'Health should not have to be a problem': talking health and accountability in an internet forum on veganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneijder, Petra; te Molder, Hedwig F M

    2004-07-01

    This article draws upon insights from discursive psychology to examine how participants in an Internet forum on veganism orient to the relationship between food choice, health and accountability. First, we explore the ways in which participants ascribe responsibility for health problems like vitamin deficiency to individual recipients. By suggesting individual practices as a cause for problems, speakers undermine the notion that problems arise through veganism as a matter of principle. Second, we show how participants construct solutions to individual health problems as involving mundane and simple actions. Both discursive procedures enable speakers to resist negative assumptions about the potentially complicated nature of veganism in relation to health protection.

  16. Problem-Posing in Education: Transformation of the Practice of the Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, L. D. R.; Caron-Ruffino, M.; Rodrigues, R. A. P.; Vendrusculo, D. M. S.; Takayanagui, A. M. M.; Zago, M. M. F.; Mendes, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Studied the use of a problem-posing model in health education. The model based on the ideas of Paulo Freire is presented. Four innovative experiences of teaching-learning in environmental and occupational health and patient education are reported. Notes that the problem-posing model has the capability to transform health-education practice.…

  17. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success.

  18. Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Complex problems made easy; Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Complexe vraagstukken behapbaar maken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oeffelen, E.C.M.; Van Zundert, K.; Westerlaekn, A.C. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    The existing housing stock needs to become smarter and more sustainable in its energy use. From a technical viewpoint, renovations can usually be realized successfully, but the multitude of preconditions such as phasing and the degree of inconvenience for residents often turn renovation into a complex matter. The MCDM method can be a suitable instrument in handling complex renovation issues. [Dutch] In de bestaande woningvoorraad moet slimmer en vooral duurzamer met energie worden omgegaan. Technisch gezien is een renovatie vaak goed realiseerbaar, maar vele randvoorwaarden, zoals fasering en mate van overlast voor bewoners, maken renovatievraagstukken vaak complex. De MCDM-methodiek kan een geschikt hulpmiddel zijn bij het aanpakken van complexe renovatievraagstukken.

  19. Integrated health management and control of complex dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolani, Devendra K.

    2005-11-01

    A comprehensive control and health management strategy for human-engineered complex dynamical systems is formulated for achieving high performance and reliability over a wide range of operation. Results from diverse research areas such as Probabilistic Robust Control (PRC), Damage Mitigating/Life Extending Control (DMC), Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) Control, Symbolic Time Series Analysis (STSA) and Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) have been employed to achieve this goal. Continuous-domain control modules at the lower level are synthesized by PRC and DMC theories, whereas the upper-level supervision is based on DES control theory. In the PRC approach, by allowing different levels of risk under different flight conditions, the control system can achieve the desired trade off between stability robustness and nominal performance. In the DMC approach, component damage is incorporated in the control law to reduce the damage rate for enhanced structural durability. The DES controller monitors the system performance and, based on the mission requirements (e.g., performance metrics and level of damage mitigation), switches among various lower-level controllers. The core idea is to design a framework where the DES controller at the upper-level, mimics human intelligence and makes appropriate decisions to satisfy mission requirements, enhance system performance and structural durability. Recently developed tools in STSA have been used for anomaly detection and failure prognosis. The DMC deals with the usage monitoring or operational control part of health management, where as the issue of health monitoring is addressed by the anomaly detection tools. The proposed decision and control architecture has been validated on two test-beds, simulating the operations of rotorcraft dynamics and aircraft propulsion.

  20. Survey of Applications of Complex Event Processing (CEP in Health Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Mahmood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is always difficult to manipulate the production of huge amount of data which comes from multiple sources and to extract meaningful information to make appropriate decisions. When data comes from various input resources, to get required streams of events form this complex input network, the one of the strong functionality of Business Intelligence (BI the Complex Event Processing (CEP is the appropriate solution for the above mention problems. Real time processing, pattern matching, stream processing, big data management, sensor data processing and many more are the application areas of CEP. Health domain itself is a multi-dimension domain such as hospital supply chain, OPD management, disease diagnostic, In-patient, out-patient management, and emergency care etc. In this paper, the main focus is to discuss the application areas of Complex Event Processing (CEP in health domain by using sensor device, such that how CEP manipulate health data set events coming from sensor devices such as blood pressure, heart rate, fall detection, sugar level, temperature or any other vital signs and how this systems respond to these events as quickly as possible. Different existing models and application using CEP are discussed and summarized according to different characteristics.

  1. Population Problem In Egypt As One of The Priority Health Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In last decades, Egypt had suffered major socioeconomic consequences of population problem. This had resulted from the high levels of birth rates and the steady decline in death rates and so, a widened demographic gap. Management of population problem of Egypt included: Economic development, developing new ...

  2. Health and psychosocial problems of school adolescents in Jimma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Conclusion: Adolescent concerns about their emotional, sexual, social outlook ... and design relevant strategies such as special adolescent/youth health services to address the adolescent needs.

  3. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2011-01-01

    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of...

  4. Climate change and health ? what?s the problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Anstey, Matthew HR

    2013-01-01

    The scientific consensus is that global warming is occurring and is largely the result of greenhouse gas emissions from human activity. This paper examines the health implications of global warming, the current socio-political attitudes towards action on climate change and highlight the health co-benefits of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, policy development for climate change and health should embrace health systems strengthening, commencing by incorporating climate change ta...

  5. General Introduction to Administrative/Legal Problems of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of health institutions, like many other endeavours, is regulated by law. There is therefore the need for health managers to familiarise themselves with the laws affecting their institutions. The health manager must know the functions, powers and limitations of different statutory or established organs within his ...

  6. The problems and prospects of public health care development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abysmal failure of public health care system in Nigeria has attracted comments and criticisms from local and national levels. The provision of adequate health care services to the citizens, particularly those residing at the rural areas has left much to be desired. In spite of media propaganda and the current health sector ...

  7. The ethics of complex relationships in primary care behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Jeff; Runyan, Christine

    2013-03-01

    Primary care settings are particularly prone to complex relationships that can be ethically challenging. This is due in part to three of the distinctive attributes of primary care: a whole family orientation; team-based care; and a longitudinal care delivery model. In addition, the high patient volume of primary care means that the likelihood of encountering ethically challenging relationships is probably greater than in a specialty setting. This article argues that one ethical standard of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010, Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct, www.apa.org/ethics/code) (10.02, Therapy Involving Couples or Families) should be revised to better accommodate the work of psychologists in primary care. The corresponding Principles of Medical Ethics from the American Medical Association (AMA, 2012, Code of medical ethics: Current opinions with annotations, 2012-2013, Washington, DC: Author), most notably the principle regarding a physician's duty to "respect the rights of patients, colleagues, and other health professionals as well as safeguard privacy" are also noted. In addition, the article details how the three attributes of primary care often result in complex relationships, and provides suggestions for handling such relationships ethically. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Perception of primary school teachers to school children's mental health problems in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerebih, Habtamu; Abrha, Hailay; Frank, Reiner; Abera, Mubarek

    2016-11-12

    Teachers perception of child mental health problems and their attitude to school-based mental health services helps in designing early intervention strategies aimed at promoting the service. However, little is known in this regard among primary school teachers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study assessed perceptions and attitude of primary school teachers to child mental health problem and school-based mental health programs in Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia in 2013. A cross-sectional study design was implemented among 568 primary school teachers in Jimma town, from 1 to 30 October 2013. Perceptions and attitude of teachers to children with mental health problems and school mental health related information were assessed using a structured self- administered questionnaire. About 40% of teachers recognized the list of psychopathology items presented to them as child mental health problems while 54.4% of them rated child mental health problem as severe. Externalizing behaviors were perceived as the most severe problems. Teaching experience and teaching in public schools were significantly associated with the perception of severe type of child mental health problems. About 95% of teachers acknowledged that school-based mental health programs are important but limited availability was reported. Despite the high problem severity ratings, teachers' perception of the psychopathology as a mental health problem in children was low. There was also a favorable attitude on the importance and the need of school-based child mental health programs. Thus, creating mental health awareness for teachers and establishing school mental health services to intervene in child mental health problem is crucial.

  9. One Problem, Many Solutions : Simple Statistical Approaches Help Unravel the Complexity of the Immune System in an Ecological Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, Deborah M.; Versteegh, Maaike A.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The immune system is a complex collection of interrelated and overlapping solutions to the problem of disease. To deal with this complexity, researchers have devised multiple ways to measure immune function and to analyze the resulting data. In this way both organisms and researchers employ many

  10. One problem, many solutions: simple statistical approaches help unravel the complexity of th eimmune system in an ecological context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, D.M.; Versteegh, M.A.; Matson, K.D.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2011-01-01

    The immune system is a complex collection of interrelated and overlapping solutions to the problem of disease. To deal with this complexity, researchers have devised multiple ways to measure immune function and to analyze the resulting data. In this way both organisms and researchers employ many

  11. Using Educational Data Mining Methods to Assess Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Learners' Complex Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the problem-solving performance of 101 university students and their interactions with a computer modeling tool in order to solve a complex problem. Based on their performance on the hidden figures test, students were assigned to three groups of field-dependent (FD), field-mixed (FM), and field-independent (FI)…

  12. Student Learning of Complex Earth Systems: A Model to Guide Development of Student Expertise in Problem-Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Lauren N.; Scherer, Hannah H.; Herbert, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging students in problem-solving concerning environmental issues in near-surface complex Earth systems involves developing student conceptualization of the Earth as a system and applying that scientific knowledge to the problems using practices that model those used by professionals. In this article, we review geoscience education research…

  13. Performance of community health workers: situating their intermediary position within complex adaptive health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maryse C; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Theobald, Sally; Ormel, Hermen; Dieleman, Marjolein; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2017-09-02

    Health systems are social institutions, in which health worker performance is shaped by transactional processes between different actors.This analytical assessment unravels the complex web of factors that influence the performance of community health workers (CHWs) in low- and middle-income countries. It examines their unique intermediary position between the communities they serve and actors in the health sector, and the complexity of the health systems in which they operate. The assessment combines evidence from the international literature on CHW programmes with research outcomes from the 5-year REACHOUT consortium, undertaking implementation research to improve CHW performance in six contexts (two in Asia and four in Africa). A conceptual framework on CHW performance, which explicitly conceptualizes the interface role of CHWs, is presented. Various categories of factors influencing CHW performance are distinguished in the framework: the context, the health system and intervention hardware and the health system and intervention software. Hardware elements of CHW interventions comprise the supervision systems, training, accountability and communication structures, incentives, supplies and logistics. Software elements relate to the ideas, interests, relationships, power, values and norms of the health system actors. They influence CHWs' feelings of connectedness, familiarity, self-fulfilment and serving the same goals and CHWs' perceptions of support received, respect, competence, honesty, fairness and recognition.The framework shines a spotlight on the need for programmes to pay more attention to ideas, interests, relationships, power, values and norms of CHWs, communities, health professionals and other actors in the health system, if CHW performance is to improve.

  14. Diagnostic practice and its impacts on parental health and child behaviour problems in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A

    2012-10-01

    Obtaining a diagnosis is a key point in developing a treatment plan for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little attention has been paid to the impacts of diagnostic practices on families, and the consequent impact on child outcomes. Parents' experiences during ASD diagnosis for their child can be stressful, and such stress can lead to parental ill health, child-behaviour problems, and poorer child outcomes following treatment. Thus, the conduct of diagnosis may be of particular importance for subsequent child outcomes and parental health. A lack of knowledge regarding best diagnostic practice may ultimately impair treatment efficacy and lead to increased health- and economic-burdens. Given this, the current article examines recent work concerning: parental experiences of ASD diagnoses; general health and psychological functioning of parents of newly-diagnosed children with ASD; aspects of the diagnostic process impacting on parental functioning; and the relationship of parental functioning to child outcomes. These are placed into the context of diagnostic best practice for ASD, and understanding the complex relationship between ASD and family variables.

  15. Health-related quality of life among children with mental health problems: a population-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with mental health problems have been neglected in health-related quality of life (HRQOL studies. Therefore, the aims of the current study were 1 to assess the influence of the presence of mental or physical health problems on HRQOL; and 2 to analyze the effects of item overlap between mental health problems and HRQOL-measurements. Methods Proxy- and self-rated HRQOL (KIDSCREEN-27 of children 9–14 years old was assessed across children with mental health problems (n = 535, children with physical health problems (n = 327, and healthy controls (n = 744. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with health status, severity of symptoms, status of medication use, gender and nationality as independent, and HRQOL scores as dependent variables. The effects of item overlap were analyzed by repeating regression analyses while excluding those HRQOL items that contextually overlapped the most frequently-occurring mental health problem (attention deficits. Results Severity of symptoms was the strongest predictor of reduced HRQOL. However, all other predictors (except for the status of medication use also contributed to the prediction of some HRQOL scores. Controlling for item overlap did not meaningfully alter the results. Conclusions When children with different health constraints are compared, the severity of their particular health problems should be considered. Furthermore, item overlap seems not to be a major problem when the HRQOL of children with mental health problems is studied. Hence, HRQOL assessments are useful to gather information that goes beyond the clinical symptoms of a health problem. This information can, for instance, be used to improve clinical practice.

  16. [European health systems and the integration problem of modern societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüschen, G

    2000-04-01

    With reference to the national health systems in Germany and the UK we must acknowledge that it was in particular Bismarck's Reform, originally directed toward a solidarity among the socially weak, which entailed in its development a marked redistribution via progressive health fees and standardized health services. In view of Alfred Marshall's original expectations this has resulted in a specific integration of the socially weak and with some difference for nationally tax-financed and social security financed health systems to a genuine contribution towards integration of modern society. An open research question is whether as a consequence of solidarity and integration through health systems there is a decline of social inequality for health. Equally open is the question as to the socio-structural and economic consequences the expansion of modern health systems has.

  17. The problem of reproductive health from the perspective of perinatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Sokolovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The federal reporting forms over 1986–1995 and the official statistics over 2009–2014 were analyzed using the methods of descriptive statistics and correlation analysis to identify the relationship of neonatal health status to reproductive problems in adulthood. The investigation showed that at the end of the 20th century, the overall structure of newborns showed a larger proportion of very low (1000–1499 g and low (1500–2499 g birth weight babies from 0,42% in 1986 to 0,47% in 1995 and from 4,9 to 5,46%, respectively. Moreover, the common neonatal abnormalities were birth trauma, intrauterine hypoxia, birth asphyxia, congenital abnormalities, growth retardation, and malnutrition. Further, there was a decline in the number of people coming of active reproductive age, men and women alike (24,77% in 2009 and 23,77% in 2014. With this, in 2009–2014, the adult population exhibited increases in the incidence of newly diagnosed cases of diseases of the endocrine, circulatory, and urinary systems (by 6,61, 15,07, and 4,14%, respectively, and female infertility (by 21,25%. Correlation analysis indicated that there was a negative relationship between neonatal hemolytic disease and adult-onset circulatory diseases and anemia (r =–0,45; p<0,05 and r =–0,48; p<0,05; infections specific to the perinatal period, salpingitis and oophoritis (r =–0,30; p<0,05; there was a direct correlation between congenital pneumonia in the newborn and diabetes mellitus, diseases characterized by high blood pressure in adults (r =0,31; p<0,05 and r =0,36; p<0,05; respiratory distress syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (r =0,38; p<0,05. Pathological processes result in a vicious circle: a neonatal patient — a female and/or male patient — pregnancy and/or labor pathology — a sick child.

  18. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Mridula

    2011-11-25

    The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people's social and cultural lives. I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health.

  19. Association between school bullying levels/types and mental health problems among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Tang, Tze-Chun

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have compared the risks of mental health problems among the adolescents with different levels and different types of bullying involvement experiences. Bullying involvement in 6,406 adolescents was determined through use of the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. Data were collected regarding the mental health problems, including depression, suicidality, insomnia, general anxiety, social phobia, alcohol abuse, inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The association between experiences of bullying involvement and mental health problems was examined. The risk of mental health problems was compared among those with different levels/types of bullying involvement. The results found that being a victim of any type of bullying and being a perpetrator of passive bullying were significantly associated with all kinds of mental health problems, and being a perpetrator of active bullying was significantly associated with all kinds of mental health problems except for general anxiety. Victims or perpetrators of both passive and active bullying had a greater risk of some dimensions of mental health problems than those involved in only passive or active bullying. Differences in the risk of mental health problems were also found among adolescents involved in different types of bullying. This difference in comorbid mental health problems should be taken into consideration when assessing adolescents involved in different levels/types of bullying. © 2014.

  20. Public health implications of complex emergencies and natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Amanda; Rochat, Roger; Cookson, Susan T

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, conflict or natural disasters have displaced unprecedented numbers of persons. This leads to conditions prone to outbreaks that imperil the health of displaced persons and threaten global health security. Past literature has minimally examined the association of communicable disease outbreaks with complex emergencies (CEs) and natural disasters (NDs). To examine this association, we identified CEs and NDs using publicly available datasets from the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters and United Nations Flash and Consolidated Appeals archive for 2005-2014. We identified outbreaks from World Health Organization archives. We compared findings to identify overlap of outbreaks, including their types (whether or not of a vaccine-preventable disease), and emergency event types (CE, ND, or Both) by country and year using descriptive statistics and measure of association. There were 167 CEs, 912 NDs, 118 events linked to 'Both' types of emergencies, and 384 outbreaks. Of CEs, 43% were associated with an outbreak; 24% NDs were associated with an outbreak; and 36% of 'Both' types of emergencies were associated with an outbreak. Africa was disproportionately affected, where 67% of total CEs, 67% of 'Both' events (CE and ND), and 46% of all outbreaks occurred for the study period. The odds ratio of a vaccine-preventable outbreak occurring in a CE versus an ND was 4.14 (95% confidence limits 1.9, 9.4). CEs had greater odds of being associated with outbreaks compared with NDs. Moreover, CEs had high odds of a vaccine-preventable disease causing that outbreak. Focusing on better vaccine coverage could reduce CE-associated morbidity and mortality by preventing outbreaks from spreading.

  1. [Problems and ethical challenges in public health communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2009-05-01

    Health communication, e.g., mass media campaigns, patient information leaflets or websites, plays an important role in public health. It contributes to citizen empowerment and helps them make informed decisions in health matters. However, public health communication can lead to adverse effects on both individual and societal level, e.g., by inaccurate or partial information, discriminatory messages, scandalizing coverage or inadequate tailoring to relevant target groups. It seems important to suggest ethical criteria for health information, e.g., (1) accuracy, completeness and balance, (2) transparency, (3) participation of the target group, (4) respect for human dignity, (5) social justice and equity, (6) appropriateness. Thoughtfulness is important in order not to stigmatize population subgroups. In addition, it is laborious to comprehensively and correctly present benefits and risks of a certain health behavior. Marketing principles guide how to 'sell' a certain health behavior, but health campaigns should not manipulate target persons for the sake of a population health aim. It remains unclear, however, how the different providers of health information can be held ethically responsible.

  2. Design problems of social-administrative complexes on the example of the Morcinek mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielski, M.; Trojanowski, S.

    1987-01-01

    Buildings at the Morcinek mine head are designed as four complexes: the lamp room of 28,850 m/sup 3/ for 6,440 lamps; the washing room block of 92,491 m/sup 3/ for 7,623 miners (including mine operation offices, control room, mine rescue station, laundry and canteen); administration and social services block of 47,645 m/sup 3/ (mine management, telephone exchange, dispatcher room, health services, rooms for training and social organizations, snack bar); shaft landing and waiting room block of 12,080 m/sup 3/ (transportation, bus depot, parking). The buildings are built as frame type structures. Reinforced concrete is used for frames up to 6 m and steel for the larger ones. Prefabricated reinforced concrete floors and skirt type walls of glass panels, bricks or prefabricated materials are incorporated. The multi-storey buildings are built on 'Franki' type piles.

  3. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2011-01-01

    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of death in men are non-communicable diseases and injuries. Risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviour, smoking and hypertension, are prevalent and amenable to early interventions. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and prostate disorders are also prevalent. However, many of these morbidities go unreported and are not diagnosed early; therefore, opportunities for early intervention are missed. This reflects poor health knowledge and inadequate health-care utilisation among Malaysian men. Their health-seeking behaviour has been shown to be strongly influenced by family members and friends. However, more research is needed to identify men's unmet health-care needs and to develop optimal strategies for addressing them. Because the Malaysian population is aging and there is an increase in sedentary lifestyles, optimizing men's health will remain a challenge unless effective measures are implemented. The existing male-unfriendly health-care system and the negative influence of masculinity on men's health behaviour must be addressed. A national men's health policy based on a male-friendly approach to health-care delivery is urgently needed to provide a framework for addressing these challenges. PMID:21358664

  4. Profile of men's health in Malaysia: problems and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Seng Fah; Low, Wah Yun; Ng, Chirk Jenn

    2011-07-01

    Men's health concerns have evolved from the traditional andrology and male sexual health to a more holistic approach that encompasses male psychological, social and physical health. The poor state of health in men compared to their female counterparts is well documented. A review of the epidemiological data from Malaysia noted a similar trend in which men die at higher rates in under 1 and above 15 years old groups and most disease categories compared to women. In Malaysia, the main causes of death in men are non-communicable diseases and injuries. Risk factors, such as risk-taking behaviour, smoking and hypertension, are prevalent and amenable to early interventions. Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation and prostate disorders are also prevalent. However, many of these morbidities go unreported and are not diagnosed early; therefore, opportunities for early intervention are missed. This reflects poor health knowledge and inadequate health-care utilisation among Malaysian men. Their health-seeking behaviour has been shown to be strongly influenced by family members and friends. However, more research is needed to identify men's unmet health-care needs and to develop optimal strategies for addressing them. Because the Malaysian population is aging and there is an increase in sedentary lifestyles, optimizing men's health will remain a challenge unless effective measures are implemented. The existing male-unfriendly health-care system and the negative influence of masculinity on men's health behaviour must be addressed. A national men's health policy based on a male-friendly approach to health-care delivery is urgently needed to provide a framework for addressing these challenges.

  5. New public management in Iran's health complex: a management framework for primary health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; HaghGoshayie, Elaheh; Doshmangir, Leila; Yousefi, Mahmood

    2018-05-01

    New public management (NPM) was developed as a management reform to improve the efficiency and effectiveness in public organizations, especially in health sector. Using the features of private sector management, the managers of health organizations may try to implement the elements of NPM with the hope to improve the performance of their systems.AimsOur aim in the present study was to identify the elements and infrastructures suitable for implementing NPM in the Iranian health complex. In this qualitative study with conventional content analysis approach, we tried to explore the NPM elements and infrastructures in Iranian public health sector. A series of semi-structured interviews (n=48) were conducted in 2016 with a managers in public and private health complex. Three focus group discussions with nine faculty members were also conducted. A data collection form was used to collect the demographic characteristics and perspectives of the participants.FindingsFrom the perspective of managers, managerialism, decentralization, using market mechanism, performance management, customer orientation and performance budgeting were the main elements of NPM in the Iranian context. The most important infrastructures for implementing this reform were as follows: education and training, information technology, the proper use of human resources, decision support systems, top management commitment, organizational culture, flexibility of rules, rehabilitating of the aging infrastructures, and expanding the coverage of services. The NPM was generally identified to be an effective replacement for the traditional administration method. These reforms may be helpful in strengthening the public health complex and the management capacity, as well. NPM also seems to be useful in interacting the public health sector with the private sector in terms of personnel and resources, performance, reward structure, and methods of doing business.

  6. The development of the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) : a measure of best practice for facilities for people with longer term mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Killaspy, Helen; White, Sarah; Wright, Christine; Taylor, Tatiana L.; Turton, Penny; Schuetzwohl, Matthias; Schuster, Mirjam; Cervilla, Jorge A.; Brangier, Paulette; Raboch, Jiri; Kalisova, Lucie; Onchev, Georgi; Alexiev, Spiridon; Mezzina, Roberto; Ridente, Pina; Wiersma, Durk; Visser, Ellen; Kiejna, Andrzej; Adamowski, Tomasz; Ploumpidis, Dimitri; Gonidakis, Fragiskos; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose; Cardoso, Graca; King, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the progress over recent decades in developing community mental health services internationally, many people still receive treatment and care in institutional settings. Those most likely to reside longest in these facilities have the most complex mental health problems and are at

  7. Prevalence of work-related health problems among providers of car ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of work-related health problems among providers of car battery ... the use of personal protective devices and safety measures should be promoted. Keywords: Prevalence, work-related, battery chargers, occupational health, Nigeria ...

  8. SOCIAL MEASUREMENT OF YOUTH’S HEALTH: DESIGNING OF INDICATORS OF COMPLEX SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Valeriyevich Kulish

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to solving the problem of social measurement of modern youth’s health. The subject of the analysis is the content of the concept, characteristics and indicators of the social health of young people, which enable using sociological research’ methods to measure a given status of the younger generation in contemporary Russian society. The purpose of this work is to define the theoretical and methodological foundations of the sociological analysis of the young people social health and to substantiate its main indicators in the tools of complex sociological research. Methodology of the study. The basis of the research is formed by the system approach, the complex approach, the logical-conceptual method and general scientific methods of research: comparative analysis, system analysis, construction of social indicators, modeling. Results. The social health of young people is defined through the category “status” and is considered as an integrated indicator of the social quality of the younger generation. It is substantiated that the social health of youth is a status of socio-demographic community in which it is able not only to adapt to the changing conditions of the social environment but is also ready to transform actively the surrounding reality, having the potential to resist destructive social phenomena and processes. The main indicators that allow measuring the social health of young people by sociological methods are determined: adaptability in the social environment, social activity in all spheres of public life, social orientation and significance of activity, behavior regulativity by social norms and universal values, creativity of thinking and behavior, readiness for social integration and self-development. A system of social indicators and indicators for conducting a sociological study of social health in historical memory, value orientations and everyday practices of young people has been developed.

  9. The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Susser, Ezra; Pilowsky, Daniel J; Hamilton, Ava; Bitfoi, Adina; Goelitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Kovess, Viviane

    2014-10-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR=1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2-1.9), teacher report (OR=1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR=1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR=1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1-2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR=1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1-1.9). Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent-child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring the success of specific health problem consultations in cats and dogs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corah, Louise; Mossop, Liz; Cobb, Kate; Dean, Rachel

    2018-03-15

    Consultations are complex interactions, are central to achieving optimal outcomes for all stakeholders, yet what constitutes a successful consultation has not been defined. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the scope of the literature available on specific health problem consultations and appraise their identified success measures. Searches of CAB Abstracts and MEDLINE were performed in May 2016 using species and consultation terms. Systematic sorting of the results allowed identification of consultation 'success factors' cited in peer-reviewed veterinary literature which were appraised using an appropriate critical appraisal tool (AXIS). Searches returned 11 330 results with a total of 17 publications meeting the inclusion criteria, of which four measured consultation success. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association was the most common journal of publication (9 of 17) and the majority of included papers had been published since 2010 (12 of 17). Success factors measured were compliance, client satisfaction and veterinary surgeon satisfaction, and publications primarily used communication analysis tools to measure success. The review highlights the paucity of peer-reviewed literature examining small animal, health problem veterinary consultations. The available evidence is of variable quality and provides weak evidence as to which factors contribute to a successful consultation. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Identifying problems and generating recommendations for enhancing complex systems: applying the abstraction hierarchy framework as an analytical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2007-12-01

    This study adopts J. Rasmussen's (1985) abstraction hierarchy (AH) framework as an analytical tool to identify problems and pinpoint opportunities to enhance complex systems. The process of identifying problems and generating recommendations for complex systems using conventional methods is usually conducted based on incompletely defined work requirements. As the complexity of systems rises, the sheer mass of data generated from these methods becomes unwieldy to manage in a coherent, systematic form for analysis. There is little known work on adopting a broader perspective to fill these gaps. AH was used to analyze an aircraft-automation system in order to further identify breakdowns in pilot-automation interactions. Four steps follow: developing an AH model for the system, mapping the data generated by various methods onto the AH, identifying problems based on the mapped data, and presenting recommendations. The breakdowns lay primarily with automation operations that were more goal directed. Identified root causes include incomplete knowledge content and ineffective knowledge structure in pilots' mental models, lack of effective higher-order functional domain information displayed in the interface, and lack of sufficient automation procedures for pilots to effectively cope with unfamiliar situations. The AH is a valuable analytical tool to systematically identify problems and suggest opportunities for enhancing complex systems. It helps further examine the automation awareness problems and identify improvement areas from a work domain perspective. Applications include the identification of problems and generation of recommendations for complex systems as well as specific recommendations regarding pilot training, flight deck interfaces, and automation procedures.

  12. Obstructed labour: A public health problem in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Nwobodo

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : Obstructed labour is relatively common in the health institution and is associated with higy maternal and perinatal mortality. Measures to reduce the its incidence will include health education of th% populace on the importance of prenatal care/ hospital delivery and utilization of available family planning services. In addition, the primary health care providers and traditional birth attendants should be educated on need for prompt referral of abnormal labour.

  13. Lithuanian health care in transitional state: ethical problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žekas Romualdas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the economic and political reforms in post-communist countries, significant changes have also occurred in public morality. One of the tasks of the Lithuanian health policy is to create mechanisms for strengthening the significance of ethical considerations in the decision-making processes concerning health care of individuals and groups of individuals, as well as considering the positions of physicians and the health care system itself in a general way. Thus, health care ethics could be analyzed at two levels: the micro level (the ethics of doctor-patient relationships and the macro level (the ethics of health policy-making, which can be realized by applying the principles of equal access, reasonable quality, affordable care and shared responsibilities. To date, the first level remains dominant, but the need arises for our attention to refocus now from the micro level to the patterns of managing and delivering care, managing the health care resources, and conducting business practices. Discussion In attempting to increase the efficiency of health services in Lithuania, a common strategy has been in place for the last fifteen years. Decentralization and privatization have been implemented as part of its policy to achieve greater efficiency. Although decentralization in theory is supposed to improve efficiency, in practice the reform of decentralization has still to be completely implemented in Lithuania. Debates on health policy in Lithuania also include the issue of private versus public health care. Although the approach of private health care is changing in a positive way, it is obvious that reduced access to health services is the most vulnerable aspect. In the Lithuanian Health Program adopted in July 1998, the target of equity was stressed, stating that by 2010, differences in health and health care between various socio-economic groups should be reduced by 25%. Summary The restructuring of health care system

  14. Lithuanian health care in transitional state: ethical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakusovaite, Irayda; Darulis, Zilvinas; Zekas, Romualdas

    2005-11-09

    Throughout the economic and political reforms in post-communist countries, significant changes have also occurred in public morality. One of the tasks of the Lithuanian health policy is to create mechanisms for strengthening the significance of ethical considerations in the decision-making processes concerning health care of individuals and groups of individuals, as well as considering the positions of physicians and the health care system itself in a general way. Thus, health care ethics could be analyzed at two levels: the micro level (the ethics of doctor-patient relationships) and the macro level (the ethics of health policy-making, which can be realized by applying the principles of equal access, reasonable quality, affordable care and shared responsibilities). To date, the first level remains dominant, but the need arises for our attention to refocus now from the micro level to the patterns of managing and delivering care, managing the health care resources, and conducting business practices. In attempting to increase the efficiency of health services in Lithuania, a common strategy has been in place for the last fifteen years. Decentralization and privatization have been implemented as part of its policy to achieve greater efficiency. Although decentralization in theory is supposed to improve efficiency, in practice the reform of decentralization has still to be completely implemented in Lithuania. Debates on health policy in Lithuania also include the issue of private versus public health care. Although the approach of private health care is changing in a positive way, it is obvious that reduced access to health services is the most vulnerable aspect. In the Lithuanian Health Program adopted in July 1998, the target of equity was stressed, stating that by 2010, differences in health and health care between various socio-economic groups should be reduced by 25%. The restructuring of health care system in Lithuania should be based on a balance between

  15. Health problems associated with international business travel. A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H L; Reilly, S M

    2000-08-01

    1. Few studies examine the travel related health problems of international business travelers (IBTs). Research exists for other travelers, such as tourists, which begins to help clinicians understand the potential health problems faced by IBTs. 2. A review of the literature reveals 36% to 54% of travelers experience physical health problems such as traveler's diarrhea, insomnia, respiratory problems, and skin problems; 6% to 18% report accidents and injuries while abroad. 3. Psychosocial data are equally limited, but support the idea that IBTs may experience stress, anxiety, culture shock, and adjustment problems while overseas. 4. Multiple factors likely contribute to the physical and psychosocial health experiences of IBTs. The historical lack of data for this population of workers combined with the trend towards globalization confirm the need for further study from an occupational health perspective.

  16. Mental health problems in a regional population of Australian adolescents: association with socio-demographic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth; Hodder, Rebecca K.; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Population level data regarding the general mental health status, and the socio-demographic factors associated with the mental health status of adolescents in Australia aged 12?16?years is limited. This study assessed prevalence of mental health problems in a regional population of Australian students in Grades 7?10, and investigated associations between mental health problems and socio-demographic factors. Methods A web-based survey was conducted in 21 secondary schools located in...

  17. Associations between work-related stress in late midlife, educational attainment, and serious health problems in old age: a longitudinal study with over 20 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Charlotta; Andel, Ross; Fors, Stefan; Meinow, Bettina; Darin Mattsson, Alexander; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2014-08-27

    People spend a considerable amount of time at work over the course of their lives, which makes the workplace important to health and aging. However, little is known about the potential long-term effects of work-related stress on late-life health. This study aims to examine work-related stress in late midlife and educational attainment in relation to serious health problems in old age. Data from nationally representative Swedish surveys were used in the analyses (n = 1,502). Follow-up time was 20-24 years. Logistic regressions were used to examine work-related stress (self-reported job demands, job control, and job strain) in relation to serious health problems measured as none, serious problems in one health domain, and serious problems in two or three health domains (complex health problems). While not all results were statistically significant, high job demands were associated with higher odds of serious health problems among women but lower odds of serious health problems among men. Job control was negatively associated with serious health problems. The strongest association in this study was between high job strain and complex health problems. After adjustment for educational attainment some of the associations became statistically nonsignificant. However, high job demands, remained related to lower odds of serious problems in one health domain among men, and low job control remained associated with higher odds of complex health problems among men. High job demands were associated with lower odds of complex health problems among men with low education, but not among men with high education, or among women regardless of level of education. The results underscore the importance of work-related stress for long-term health. Modification to work environment to reduce work stress (e.g., providing opportunities for self-direction/monitoring levels of psychological job demands) may serve as a springboard for the development of preventive strategies to improve public

  18. Home care assistants’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among community-dwelling seniors with multimorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundberg, Åke; Hansson, Anna; Religa, Dorota; Hillerås, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elderly people with multiple chronic conditions, or multimorbidity, are at risk of developing poor mental health. These seniors often remain in their homes with support from home care assistants (HCAs). Mental health promotion by HCAs needs to be studied further because they may be among the first to observe changes in clients’ mental health status. Aim To describe HCAs’ perspectives on detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health among homebound seniors with multimorbidity. Methods We applied a descriptive qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews. Content analyses were performed on five focus group interviews conducted in 2014 with 26 HCAs. Results Most HCAs stated that they were experienced in caring for clients with mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, sleep problems, and high alcohol consumption. The HCAs mentioned as causes, or risk factors, multiple chronic conditions, feelings of loneliness, and social isolation. The findings reveal that continuity of care and seniors’ own thoughts and perceptions were essential to detecting mental health problems. Observation, collaboration, and social support emerged as important means of detecting mental health problems and promoting mental health. Conclusion The HCAs had knowledge of risk factors, but they seemed insecure about which health professionals had the primary responsibility for mental health. They also seemed to have detected early signs of mental health problems, even though good personal knowledge of the client and continuity in home visits were crucial to do so. When it came to mental health promotion, the suggestions related to the aim of ending social isolation, decreasing feelings of loneliness, and increasing physical activity. The results indicate that the HCAs seemed dependent on supervision by district nurses and on care managers’ decisions to support the needed care, to schedule assignments related to the detection of mental health

  19. The social aspects in the identification of children’s mental health problems in two health services in Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s mental health problems were analyzed from a sociological approach addressing two questions: what are the main children’s behaviors identified and considered to be mental health problems, and what are the consequences of this classification for the debate on children’s problems in contemporary societies. This quantitative and qualitative study analyzed 275 patients’ records from two child mental health services (CMHS in the northeast area of Paris, France. The majority of children were boys from six to 11 years old; requests were presented mainly by schools and parents; the main problems were behavioural problems, cognitive difficulties and relational problems (boys, and affective or emotional problems (girls. There is an interdependence of a great number of actors who worry about children’s behavior and a system of expectations seems to be collectively woven by them as social classifications.

  20. Perceived school safety is strongly associated with adolescent mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Miesje M; Bun, Clothilde J E; Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Wit, Niek J; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M; Boks, Marco P M

    2014-02-01

    School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems.

  1. Current environmental health problems and initiatives in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugunan Pillay, M.; Debbie Siru

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the various environmental changes that have taken place and the change health status of the people in Malaysia. This includes water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, solid waste pollution, urbanisation and initiatives in environmental health protection via water resources, air quality, solid and toxic and hazardous waste , and urban management

  2. Management of perceived mental health problems by spiritual healers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerians in time of mental health crisis.The study aimed at examining the ... aspect of patients' pathway to mental health care with about. 13-68% of patients ..... He is an engineer employed by a private construction company in. Lagos. He was ...

  3. Health problems of children with disabilities with special reference to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Conclusion: Majority of CWDs were not enjoying the health care provisions available in the study area because of the .... justice offices, the health office, the labor and social .... reasons (25.4 %), accidents (16.2%), hereditary (1.7%) and other ...

  4. Opportunities, Problems and Pitfalls of Nutrition and Health Claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The provision of reliable food information, for instance by printing an authorised nutrition or health claim on a package of food, makes credence dimensions of a food transparent to the consumer. In Europe, prior-to-use authorisation of nutrition and health claims are mandatory and governed by

  5. Current environmental health problems and initiatives in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugunan Pillay, M; Siru, Debbie [Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Engineering Div.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the various environmental changes that have taken place and the change health status of the people in Malaysia. This includes water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, solid waste pollution, urbanisation and initiatives in environmental health protection via water resources, air quality, solid and toxic and hazardous waste , and urban management.

  6. Obesity and health problems among South African healthcare workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-08

    Jan 8, 2011 ... prevalence of certain health risk behaviours, like smoking and not seeking ..... These findings may explain (or at least partly explain) the very high prevalence of obesity ... health, and preventing diseases and illnesses. However, ... could also affect the sizes to which they aspire.24 A study among rural South ...

  7. Occupational Health Problems of Welders in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average level of use of protective devices was generally low (35.9%) when compared to the levels of awareness of the workplace hazards (91.6%) and the work-related health complaints (96.4%). The most prevalent health complaints were arc eye injuries (75.7%) followed by foreign bodies in the eyes (70.0%), ...

  8. Solving a Health Information Management Problem. An international success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    The management of health care delivery requires the availability of effective 'information management' tools based on e-technologies [eHealth]. In developed economies many of these 'tools' are readily available whereas in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) there is limited access to eHealth technologies and this has been defined as the "digital divide". This paper provides a short introduction to the fundamental understanding of what is meant by information management in health care and how it applies to all social economies. The core of the paper describes the successful implementation of appropriate information management tools in a resource poor environment to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other disease states, in sub-Saharan Africa and how the system has evolved to become the largest open source eHealth project in the world and become the health information infrastructure for several national eHealth economies. The system is known as Open MRS [www.openmrs.org). The continuing successful evolution of the OpenMRS project has permitted its key implementers to define core factors that are the foundations for successful eHealth projects.

  9. Longitudinal associations between cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and problem behavior and mental health problems in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Heerde, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate associations between Grade 9 and 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization and Grade 11 problem behavior and mental health problems after controlling for risk factors for these outcomes in the analyses. The sample comprised 927 students from Victoria, Australia who completed a modified version of the self-report Communities That Care Youth Survey in Grades 9-11 to report on risk factors, traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, problem behavior, and mental health. Complete data on over 650 participants were analyzed. Five per cent of Grade 9 and 10 students reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 6-8% reported victimization only, and 8-9% both cyber-bullied others and were cyber-bullied. Results showed that cyber-bullying others in Grade 10 was associated with theft in Grade 11, cyber-victimization in Grade 10 was linked with Grade 11 depressive symptoms, and Grade 10 cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization combined predicted Grade 11 school suspension and binge drinking. Prevention approaches that target traditional and cyber-bullying, and established risk factors are necessary. Such multi-faceted programs may also reduce problem behavior and mental health problems.

  10. Accurate gradient approximation for complex interface problems in 3D by an improved coupling interface method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Yu-Chen, E-mail: ycshu@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mathematics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Mathematics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences (South), Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chern, I-Liang, E-mail: chern@math.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin Chu 300, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Mathematics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences (Taipei Office), Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chien C., E-mail: mechang@iam.ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Most elliptic interface solvers become complicated for complex interface problems at those “exceptional points” where there are not enough neighboring interior points for high order interpolation. Such complication increases especially in three dimensions. Usually, the solvers are thus reduced to low order accuracy. In this paper, we classify these exceptional points and propose two recipes to maintain order of accuracy there, aiming at improving the previous coupling interface method [26]. Yet the idea is also applicable to other interface solvers. The main idea is to have at least first order approximations for second order derivatives at those exceptional points. Recipe 1 is to use the finite difference approximation for the second order derivatives at a nearby interior grid point, whenever this is possible. Recipe 2 is to flip domain signatures and introduce a ghost state so that a second-order method can be applied. This ghost state is a smooth extension of the solution at the exceptional point from the other side of the interface. The original state is recovered by a post-processing using nearby states and jump conditions. The choice of recipes is determined by a classification scheme of the exceptional points. The method renders the solution and its gradient uniformly second-order accurate in the entire computed domain. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the second order accuracy of the presently proposed method in approximating the gradients of the original states for some complex interfaces which we had tested previous in two and three dimensions, and a real molecule ( (1D63)) which is double-helix shape and composed of hundreds of atoms.

  11. Co-occurrence of substance use related and mental health problems in the Finnish social and health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuussaari, Kristiina; Hirschovits-Gerz, Tanja

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have noted that substance abuse and mental health problems often occur simultaneously. The aim of the work reported here was to study the co-occurrence of mental health problems and problems related to substance use in a sample of clients visiting the Finnish social and health care services for issues related to substance use. We collected background information on the clients and considered the parts of the treatment system in which these clients were treated. Survey data on intoxicant-related cases in the Finnish health care and social services were gathered on a single day in 2011. During the 24 hours of data collection, all intoxicant-related cases were reported and data were obtained for 11,738 intoxicant-related cases. In this analysis we took into account the clients' background variables, mental health variables, information on the treatment type and the main reasons for the client being in treatment. The χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Half of the visiting clients had both substance use related and mental health problems. The strongest factors associated with the co-occurrence of substance use related and mental health problems were female sex, younger age and single marital status. Clients with co-occurring problems were more often treated in the health care services, whereas clients with only substance use related problems were primarily treated in specialized services for the treatment of substance abuse. It is important to identify clients with co-occurring substance use related and mental health problems. In this study, half of the clients presenting to the Finnish social and health care treatment system had both these problems. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Application of the random phase approximation to complex problems in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimka, L.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the assessment and application of the random phase approximation (RPA) in the adiabatic-connection fluctuation-dissipation (ACFD) framework in solid state physics. The first part presents a review of density functional theory (DFT) and the ACFD theorem in the RPA. This includes an introduction to the many-body problem as well as a description of the implementation of the RPA in the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP). In the results part, the quality of the RPA is assessed and its performance compared to three (beyond) DFT functionals. The experimental values are corrected for the effect of phonon zero-point vibrational energies which were calculated at the DFT level from ab-initio. We find that the RPA describes all bonding situations very accurately, making it a promising candidate for more complex problems in solid state physics. In light of these findings, we investigate the carbon-water interaction in two specific cases: the adsorption of water on benzene and the adsorption of water on a graphene layer. We compare our results to a different correlated method: diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC). We find very good agreement and thus believe that our values can serve as a benchmark for the development of other DFT functionals to treat water-carbon interfaces. The highlight of this thesis is the successful application of the RPA to the long-standing and (at DFT level) unsolved CO adsorption puzzle. We show results for CO adsorption on Cu, late 4d metals and Pt. RPA is at present the only ab-initio method that describes adsorption and surface energies accurately at the same time and predicts the correct adsorption site in every single case. (author) [de

  13. Computational issues in complex water-energy optimization problems: Time scales, parameterizations, objectives and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panayiotis; Karavokiros, George; Christofides, Antonis; Siskos, Alexandros; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2015-04-01

    Modelling of large-scale hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) is a challenging task, for which several open computational issues exist. HRES comprise typical components of hydrosystems (reservoirs, boreholes, conveyance networks, hydropower stations, pumps, water demand nodes, etc.), which are dynamically linked with renewables (e.g., wind turbines, solar parks) and energy demand nodes. In such systems, apart from the well-known shortcomings of water resources modelling (nonlinear dynamics, unknown future inflows, large number of variables and constraints, conflicting criteria, etc.), additional complexities and uncertainties arise due to the introduction of energy components and associated fluxes. A major difficulty is the need for coupling two different temporal scales, given that in hydrosystem modeling, monthly simulation steps are typically adopted, yet for a faithful representation of the energy balance (i.e. energy production vs. demand) a much finer resolution (e.g. hourly) is required. Another drawback is the increase of control variables, constraints and objectives, due to the simultaneous modelling of the two parallel fluxes (i.e. water and energy) and their interactions. Finally, since the driving hydrometeorological processes of the integrated system are inherently uncertain, it is often essential to use synthetically generated input time series of large length, in order to assess the system performance in terms of reliability and risk, with satisfactory accuracy. To address these issues, we propose an effective and efficient modeling framework, key objectives of which are: (a) the substantial reduction of control variables, through parsimonious yet consistent parameterizations; (b) the substantial decrease of computational burden of simulation, by linearizing the combined water and energy allocation problem of each individual time step, and solve each local sub-problem through very fast linear network programming algorithms, and (c) the substantial

  14. Assessing correlations between geological hazards and health outcomes: Addressing complexity in medical geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola Ann; Le Blond, Jennifer Susan

    2015-11-01

    The field of medical geology addresses the relationships between exposure to specific geological characteristics and the development of a range of health problems: for example, long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water can result in the development of skin conditions and cancers. While these relationships are well characterised for some examples, in others there is a lack of understanding of the specific geological component(s) triggering disease onset, necessitating further research. This paper aims to highlight several important complexities in geological exposures and the development of related diseases that can create difficulties in the linkage of exposure and health outcome data. Several suggested approaches to deal with these complexities are also suggested. Long-term exposure and lengthy latent periods are common characteristics of many diseases related to geological hazards. In combination with long- or short-distance migrations over an individual's life, daily or weekly movement patterns and small-scale spatial heterogeneity in geological characteristics, it becomes problematic to appropriately assign exposure measurements to individuals. The inclusion of supplementary methods, such as questionnaires, movement diaries or Global Positioning System (GPS) trackers can support medical geology studies by providing evidence for the most appropriate exposure measurement locations. The complex and lengthy exposure-response pathways involved, small-distance spatial heterogeneity in environmental components and a range of other issues mean that interdisciplinary approaches to medical geology studies are necessary to provide robust evidence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Workaholism and mental health problems among municipal middle managers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midje, Hilde H; Nafstad, Ingunn T; Syse, Jonn; Torp, Steffen

    2014-10-01

    To provide empirical knowledge about the antecedents and outcomes of workaholism among municipal middle managers within the framework of the job demands-resources model. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect cross-sectional data (n = 118) on job demands, job resources, work engagement, workaholism, and mental health problems. Workaholism correlated positively with both work engagement and mental health problems. Job demands affected workaholism and mental health problems more strongly than did job resources. The results indicate that workaholism does not mediate the effects of certain work characteristics on mental health problems, but rather that workaholics create excessive job demands that harm their health. Preventing workaholism should be a central concern of municipal stakeholders because workaholic behavior among middle managers may harm organizational performance and employee health and middle managers' own health.

  16. A Problem Assisted Course Delivery for Occupational Health Students' Improved Learning: An Experience of Using Problems and Real Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Negar Assadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Problem based medical education had been useful in education of medical sciences students. The objective is the determination of effects of problem based medical education on occupational health students' learning.Methods: This study was a semi-experimental study. By using the curriculum of Ministry of Health, occupational toxicology course had been taught based on a problem based plan for group A, then students' grades or data had been analyzed by SPSS 16, mean, standard deviation, t-test with P<0.05.Results: The total grade of occupational toxicology in group A (with problem based medical education was 18.03±1.84 and in group B (regular education, it was 17.60±1.72 with t=0.852 and P=0.398 had not significant differences. The specific lessons such as cadmium and allergic disorders were promoted and its mean grades were more in group A than B.Conclusions: Problem based medical education was helpful in learning of some chapters of occupational toxicology.Keywords: PROBLEM BASED MEDICAL EDUCATION, OCCUPATIONAL TOXICOLOGY, MEDICAL SCIENCES EDUCATION, OCCUPATIONAL HEALT

  17. Environmental Health Problems and Indicators in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghanbari Ghozikali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental Health Indicators (EHIs are the most im¬portant criteria for evaluation of effi¬ciency and effectiveness of the activi¬ties of the health sector. The operations and situation of the health sys¬tem can be analyzed through surveying the indicators and comparing them during different times. The present study aimed to study the EHIs of Ta¬briz, using the common environmental health processes and national EHIs of the Ministry of Health. Method: The required information for determination of EHIs was col¬lected from different sources, including mainly the Environmental Health De¬partment of the Health Center of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran and other organizations. Results: We found some important desirable and undesirable EHIs in Ta¬briz, including high percentage of households with access to safe and reliable drinking water, high safety in microbiological and chemical quality of drink¬ing water, acceptable level of BOD5 and COD in the effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WTP, lack of complete municipal wastewa¬ter collection and treatment, relatively poor sanitation and health of food markets and public places, undesirable collection, transportation and dis¬posal of munici¬pal solid waste, low EHIs of some school classrooms, un¬acceptable disposal of medical waste in some hospitals, and finally high level of noise pollution in the city.Conclusion: Considering the poor condition of some EHIs of Tabriz, im-plementing proper actions for pro¬motion of the indicators especially devel¬opment of municipal wastewater collection, improvement of solid waste management, environmental health of some schools and mosques, and fi¬nally the noise pollution level of the city is recommended.

  18. Adverse health problems among municipality workers in alexandria (egypt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W; Eassa, Safaa M; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2014-05-01

    Solid waste management has emerged as an important human and environmental health issue. Municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) are potentially exposed to a variety of occupational biohazards and safety risks. The aim of this study was to describe health practices and safety measures adopted by workers in the main municipal company in Alexandria (Egypt) as well as the pattern of the encountered work related ill health. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013. We interviewed and evaluated 346 workers serving in about 15 different solid waste management activities regarding personal hygiene, the practice of security and health care measures and the impact of solid waste management. Poor personal hygiene and self-care, inadequate protective and safety measures for potentially hazardous exposure were described. Impact of solid waste management on health of MSWWs entailed high prevalence of gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and musculoskeletal morbidities. Occurrence of accidents and needle stick injuries amounted to 46.5% and 32.7% respectively. The risk of work related health disorders was notably higher among workers directly exposed to solid waste when compared by a group of low exposure potential particularly for diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.8), vomiting (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.6), abdominal colic (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2), dysentery (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10), dyspepsia (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3), low back/sciatic pain (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.8-7), tinnitus (OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 0.3-122) and needle stick injury (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.1-5.5). Workers exposed to solid waste exhibit significant increase in risk of ill health. Physician role and health education could be the key to assure the MSWWs health safety.

  19. A numerical approach of thermal problems coupling fluid solid and radiation in complex geometries; Approche numerique de problemes thermiques couplant fluides, solides et rayonnement en geometries complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peniguel, C; Rupp, I

    1995-11-01

    In many industrial problems, heat transfer does play an important part. Quite often, radiation, convection and radiation are present simultaneously. This paper presents the numerical tool handling simultaneously these phenomena. Fluid is tackled by the finite element code N3S, radiation (restricted to a non participating medium) and conduction are handled with SYRTHES respectively by a radiosity method and a finite element method. The main originality of the product is that meshes used to solve each phenomenon are completely independent. This allows users to choose the most appropriate spatial discretization for each part or phenomenon. This flexibility requires of course robust and fast data exchange procedures (temperature, convective flux, radiative flux) between the independent grids. This operation is done automatically by the code SYRTHES. One simple problem illustrating the interest of this development is presented at the end of the paper. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Health Problems among Sawmill Workers in Abakaliki and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Unawareness of PPE (29.8%), non-availability (21.1%) and cost (17.5%) were the commonest reasons for .... consent. Smokers were not excluded ... demographics, smoking history, occupational ..... Environmental Health Perspectives 1995;.

  1. Discourse Analysis of Navy Leaders' Attitudes About Mental Health Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westphal, Richard J

    2004-01-01

    .... Semi-structured interviews and military policies were used as data sources to analyze the language, knowledge, and attitudes of Navy surface fleet leaders about mental illness and mental health...

  2. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  3. Does neuroticism explain variations in care service use for mental health problems in the general population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Have, M; Oldehinkel, A; Vollebergh, W; Ormel, J

    Little is known about the role of personality characteristics in service utilisation for mental health problems. We investigate whether neuroticism: 1) predicts the use of primary and specialised care services for mental health problems, independently of whether a person has an emotional disorder;

  4. Perspectives of unemployed workers with mental health problems: barriers to and solutions for return to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audhoe, Selwin S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Hoving, Jan L.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the barriers to and solutions for return to work (RTW) from the perspective of unemployed workers who were sick-listed due to mental health problems. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 sick-listed unemployed workers with mental health problems. Qualitative data analysis was

  5. A life course perspective on mental health problems, employment, and work outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Verhulst, Frank C; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Bültmann, Ute

    Objectives Little is known about how employment and work outcomes among young adults are influenced by their life-course history of mental health problems. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (i) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (ii)

  6. Early Childhood Aetiology of Mental Health Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jordana K.; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Price, Anna; Wake, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems comprise an international public health issue affecting up to 20% of children and show considerable stability. We aimed to identify child, parenting, and family predictors from infancy in the development of externalising and internalising behaviour problems by age 3 years. Methods: "Design"…

  7. Consultations for women's health problems: factors influencing women's choice of sex of general practitioner.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bakker, D.H. de; Bensing, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    AIM. This study set out to examine the degree to which women choose to visit a woman doctor for women's health problems and the determinants of this choice. The differences between women and men doctors with regard to treating women's health problems were also studied. METHOD. Data from the Dutch

  8. Mental health problems in children with intellectual disability : use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, S.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Vogels, A. G. C.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    Background The assessment of mental health problems in children with intellectual disability (ID) mostly occurs by filling out long questionnaires that are not always validated for children without ID. The aim of this study is to assess the differences in mental health problems between children with

  9. Mental health problems in children with intellectual disability: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, S.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The assessment of mental health problems in children with intellectual disability (ID) mostly occurs by filling out long questionnaires that are not always validated for children without ID. The aim of this study is to assess the differences in mental health problems between children

  10. Do work factors modify the association between chronic health problems and sickness absence among older employees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.M. Leijten (Fenna); S.G. van den Heuvel (Swenneke); J.F. Ybema (Jan Fekke); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives The aim of this study was to (i) assess how common chronic health problems and work-related factors predict sickness absence and (ii) explore whether work-related factors modify the effects of health problems on sickness absence. Methods A one-year longitudinal study was

  11. Health problems of victims before and after disaster: a longitudinal study in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzermans, C.J.; Donker, G.A.; Kerssens, J.J.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Soeteman, R.J.H.; Veen, P.M.H. ten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify the health problems and to assess the possible risk factors for developing health problems in persons affected by the explosion of a firework depot at Enschede, The Netherlands, on May 13, 2000. The explosion considerably damaged buildings in the local neighbourhood

  12. Health problems in the short term: Casualty management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf, A.

    1987-01-01

    The most extensive and detailed study of the health effects of a nuclear attack on a major urban centre has been recently made of London. Not only hospitals, physicians, nurses, all other health professionals and technicians would be in short supply, but antibiotics, parenteral fluids, bandages, surgical equipment and all the sophisticated medical technology would be similarly lacking. Disrupting of communications, locally and nationally, would contribute to the general chaos following a nuclear attack. 13 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Predictability problems of global change as seen through natural systems complexity description. 2. Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kozoderov

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing the general statements of the proposed global change theory, outlined in Part 1 of the publication, Kolmogorov's probability space is used to study properties of information measures (unconditional, joint and conditional entropies, information divergence, mutual information, etc.. Sets of elementary events, the specified algebra of their sub-sets and probability measures for the algebra are composite parts of the space. The information measures are analyzed using the mathematical expectance operator and the adequacy between an additive function of sets and their equivalents in the form of the measures. As a result, explanations are given to multispectral satellite imagery visualization procedures using Markov's chains of random variables represented by pixels of the imagery. The proposed formalism of the information measures application enables to describe the natural targets complexity by syntactically governing probabilities. Asserted as that of signal/noise ratios finding for anomalies of natural processes, the predictability problem is solved by analyses of temporal data sets of related measurements for key regions and their background within contextually coherent structures of natural targets and between particular boundaries of the structures.

  14. Bioarcheology has a "health" problem: conceptualizing "stress" and "health" in bioarcheological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Daniel H; Goodman, Alan H

    2014-10-01

    This article provides a critical historical overview of the stress concept in bioarcheological research and critically evaluates the term "health" in reference to skeletal samples. Stress has a considerable history in 20th century physiological research, and the term has reached a critical capacity of meaning. Stress was operationalized around a series of generalized physiological responses that were associated with a deviation from homeostasis. The term was incorporated into anthropological research during the mid-20th century, and further defined in bioarcheological context around a series of skeletal indicators of physiological disruption and disease. Emphases on stress became a predominate area of research in bioarcheology, and eventually, many studies utilized the terms "health" and "stress" interchangeably as part of a broader, problem-oriented approach to evaluating prehistoric population dynamics. Use of the term "health" in relation to skeletal samples is associated with the intellectual history of bioarcheological research, specifically influences from cultural ecology and processualist archeology and remains problematic for two reasons. First, health represents a comprehensive state of well-being that includes physiological status and individual perception, factors that cannot be readily observed in skeletal samples. Second, the categorization of populations into relative levels of health represents a typological approach, however unintentional. This article advocates for the integration of methodological and theoretical advances from human biology and primatology, while simultaneously incorporating the theoretical constructs associated with social epidemiology into bioarcheological research. Such an approach will significantly increase the applicability of bioarcheological findings to anthropological and evolutionary research, and help realize the goal of a truly relevant bioarcheological paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nutrition as a public health problem (1900-1947)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Sathyamala (Christina)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis working paper examines the construction of a ‘native’ diet in India by the British from the early 1900s to mid 1900s when the country gained Independence. It was not until the 1920s that malnutrition was ‘discovered’ and constructed as an imperial problem worthy of systematic

  16. Managing the Complexity of Design Problems through Studio-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, Katherine; Brandt, Carol; Scott, Brigitte; Douglas, Sarah; McGrath, Margarita; Reimer, Yolanda; Vernon, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    The ill-structured nature of design problems makes them particularly challenging for problem-based learning. Studio-based learning (SBL), however, has much in common with problem-based learning and indeed has a long history of use in teaching students to solve design problems. The purpose of this ethnographic study of an industrial design class,…

  17. The complexity of the matching-cut problem for planar graphs and other graph classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsma, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The Matching-Cut problem is the problem to decide whether a graph has an edge cut that is also a matching. Previously this problem was studied under the name of the Decomposable Graph Recognition problem, and proved to be -complete when restricted to graphs with maximum degree four. In this paper it

  18. Daily Fantasy Sports Players: Gambling, Addiction, and Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nower, Lia; Caler, Kyle R; Pickering, Dylan; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2018-01-19

    Studies point to a relationship between fantasy sports/daily fantasy sports (DFS) play and gambling behavior. However, little is known about the nature of those relationships, particularly regarding the development of gambling problems. This study investigates the nature, frequency, and preferences of gambling behavior as well as problem gambling severity and comorbid conditions among DFS players. Data were collected from an epidemiologic survey of 3634 New Jersey residents on gambling and leisure activities. Participants were contacted by phone (land-line and cell) and online to obtain a representative, cross-sectional sample of non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or older. Excluding non-gamblers, the remaining 2146 participants, included in these analyses, indicated they had either played DFS (n = 299) or had gambled but not played DFS (1847) in the past year. Univariate comparisons and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the most significant characteristics and predictors of DFS players. Overall, a higher number of gambling activities, high frequency gambling, male gender, and reports of suicidal thoughts in the past year were most predictive of DFS players. Being Hispanic (vs. Caucasian) and/or single (vs. married or living with a partner) also doubled the odds of DFS play. Findings suggest that DFS players are characterized by high gambling frequency and problem severity and comorbid problems, notably suicidal ideation. Future research should examine the motivations and possible etiological sub-types of DFS players and the nature and course of DFS play, particularly in relation to gambling behavior and the development of gambling and other problems.

  19. Does the Association with Psychosomatic Health Problems Differ between Cyberbullying and Traditional Bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt; Hellstrom, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The association between mental health problems and traditional bullying is well known, whereas the strength of the association in cyberbullying is less known. This study aimed to compare the association between mutually exclusive groups of bullying involvement and psychosomatic problems as measured by the PsychoSomatic Problems scale. The sample…

  20. Assessment of computer-related health problems among post-graduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shaheen Akhtar; Sharma, Veena

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess computer-related health problems among post-graduate nursing students and to develop a Self Instructional Module for prevention of computer-related health problems in a selected university situated in Delhi. A descriptive survey with co-relational design was adopted. A total of 97 samples were selected from different faculties of Jamia Hamdard by multi stage sampling with systematic random sampling technique. Among post-graduate students, majority of sample subjects had average compliance with computer-related ergonomics principles. As regards computer related health problems, majority of post graduate students had moderate computer-related health problems, Self Instructional Module developed for prevention of computer-related health problems was found to be acceptable by the post-graduate students.