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Sample records for complex fragments emitted

  1. Observation of different isoscaling behavior between emitted fragments and residues

    Youngs, M., E-mail: mdyoungs@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); McIntosh, A.B.; Hagel, K. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Heilborn, L. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chemistry Department, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Huang, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Jedele, A.; Kohley, Z.; May, L.W. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chemistry Department, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); McCleskey, E. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S.J. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chemistry Department, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The traditional isoscaling technique has been used to analyze all isotopically identified particles from {sup 70}Zn+{sup 70}Zn and {sup 64}Zn+{sup 64}Zn collisions at 35 MeV/u. Two additional techniques, using an energy-averaged ratio and using the data present in the tail of energy spectra, are compared to the traditional method and show similar results. Isoscaling fit parameters α and β are found both globally and for each individual series of constant Z and N. The data are then split up between emitted fragments and projectile-like fragments. Isoscaling values for the two different types of fragments are shown to be different, emphasizing the importance of experimentally distinguishing between projectile-like fragments and emitted fragments in order to achieve accurate isoscaling parameters.

  2. Complex fragment emission at low and high excitation energy

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-08-01

    Complex fragment emission has been certified as a compound nucleus process at low energies. An extension of the measurements to heavy ion reactions up to 50 MeV/u shows that most complex fragments are emitted by highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion reactions. 12 refs., 26 figs

  3. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs

  4. Light particles emitted with the fission fragments of thorium

    San-Tsiang, T; Faraggi, H

    1947-01-01

    The traces produced by the fission of thorium with fast neutrons have been recorded photographically and studied. The formation of a light fragment of long range by either quadripartition or tripartition was not observed. The release of a short-range light fragment by bipartition was observed about one hundred times more frequently than was the release of such a fragment by tripartition. The ratio of the range of the two heavy fragments produced by tripartition was 1:2; this compares with a ratio of 1:3 for the heavy fragments produced by bipartition.

  5. Populations of excited states and reaction mechanisms in the emission of complex fragments

    Gomez del Campo, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cross sections for emission of complex fragments (Z>2) in their ground and excited states are presented for several heavy-ion reactions at bombarding energies above 10 MeV/nucleon. Data presented are mostly on the cross sections extracted by γ-ray techniques. It is shown that a simple statistical approach to associate the ratio, of cross sections for excited states and ground states, to the temperature of the emitter fails to give the expected temperatures. However, it is shown that this is mostly due to the fact that the fragments that γ decay are secondary fragments, produced by the particle decay of the primary emitted complex fragments. A Hauser-Feshbach analysis accounts well for the cross sections and extracted temperatures. 22 refs., 6 figs

  6. Emission of complex fragments in the reaction Ar+Au at 44 and 77 A.MeV

    Sokolov, A.; Guerreau, D.; Jiang, D.X.; Cramer, B.; Ingold, G.; Gatty, B.; Lott, B.; Piasecki, E.

    1992-01-01

    Complex fragment emission from the 44 and 77 A.MeV 40 Ar + 197 Au reaction was investigated, and complex fragments have been detected, together with the associated neutron multiplicity distributions, and are seen to be preferentially emitted in violent collisions. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium components were identified which are discussed in terms of statistical emission from the hot target-like fragment and of a possible persistence of a deep-inelastic process. (R.P.) 45 refs.; 16 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Complexity of Some Language Fragments of Fuzzy Logics

    Haniková, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2017), s. 69-77 ISSN 1432-7643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1632 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : fuzzy logic * propositional logic * language fragment * implicational fragment * commutative semigroup * equational theory * computational complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 2.472, year: 2016

  8. Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes Implementing Platinum Complexes

    Ecton, Jeremy Exton

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are a promising approach for display and solid state lighting applications. However, further work is needed in establishing the availability of efficient and stable materials for OLEDs with high external quantum efficiency's (EQE) and high operational lifetimes. Recently, significant improvements in the internal quantum efficiency or ratio of generated photons to injected electrons have been achieved with the advent of phosphorescent complexes with the ability to harvest both singlet and triplet excitons. Since then, a variety of phosphorescent complexes containing heavy metal centers including Os, Ni, Ir, Pd, and Pt have been developed. Thus far, the majority of the work in the field has focused on iridium based complexes. Platinum based complexes, however, have received considerably less attention despite demonstrating efficiency's equal to or better than their iridium analogs. In this study, a series of OLEDs implementing newly developed platinum based complexes were demonstrated with efficiency's or operational lifetimes equal to or better than their iridium analogs for select cases. In addition to demonstrating excellent device performance in OLEDs, platinum based complexes exhibit unique photophysical properties including the ability to form excimer emission capable of generating broad white light emission from a single emitter and the ability to form narrow band emission from a rigid, tetradentate molecular structure for select cases. These unique photophysical properties were exploited and their optical and electrical properties in a device setting were elucidated. Utilizing the unique properties of a tridentate Pt complex, Pt-16, a highly efficient white device employing a single emissive layer exhibited a peak EQE of over 20% and high color quality with a CRI of 80 and color coordinates CIE(x=0.33, y=0.33). Furthermore, by employing a rigid, tetradentate platinum complex, PtN1N, with a narrow band emission into a

  9. Statistical emission of complex fragments from highly excited compound nucleus

    Matsuse, T.

    1991-01-01

    A full statistical analysis has been given in terms of the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method. The charge and kinetic energy distributions of 35 Cl+ 12 C reaction at E lab = 180, 200 MeV and 23 Na+ 24 Mg reaction at E lab = 89 MeV which form the 47 V compound nucleus are investigated as a prototype of the light mass system. The measured kinetic energy distributions of the complex fragments are shown to be well reproduced by the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method, so the observed complex fragment production is understood as the statistical binary decay from the compound nucleus induced by heavy-ion reaction. Next, this method is applied to the study of the complex production from the 111 In compound nucleus which is formed by the 84 Kr+ 27 Al reaction at E lab = 890 MeV. (K.A.) 18 refs., 10 figs

  10. Fabrication of White Organic Light Emitting Diode Using Two Types of Zn-Complexes as an Emitting Layer.

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Kwon, Young-Soo; Shin, Hoon-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    We have studied white OLED using two types of Zn-complexes as an emitting layer. We synthesized brand new two emissive materials, Zn(HPQ)2 as a yellow emitting material and Zn(HPB)2 as a blue emitting material. The Zn-complexes are low-molecular compounds and stable thermally. The fundamental structures of the fabricated OLED was ITO/NPB (40 nm)/Zn(HPB)2 (30 nm)/Zn(HPQ)2/LiF/Al. We varied the thickness of the Zn(HPQ)2 layer by 20, 30, and 40 nm. When the thickness of the Zn(HPQ)2 layer was 20 nm, the white emission was achieved. The maximum luminance was 12,000 cd/m2 at a current density of 800 mA/cm2. The CIE coordinates of the white emission were (0.319, 0.338) at an applied voltage of 10 V.

  11. Structures of endothiapepsin-fragment complexes from crystallographic fragment screening using a novel, diverse and affordable 96-compound fragment library.

    Huschmann, Franziska U; Linnik, Janina; Sparta, Karine; Ühlein, Monika; Wang, Xiaojie; Metz, Alexander; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Weiss, Manfred S; Mueller, Uwe

    2016-05-01

    Crystallographic screening of the binding of small organic compounds (termed fragments) to proteins is increasingly important for medicinal chemistry-oriented drug discovery. To enable such experiments in a widespread manner, an affordable 96-compound library has been assembled for fragment screening in both academia and industry. The library is selected from already existing protein-ligand structures and is characterized by a broad ligand diversity, including buffer ingredients, carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, peptide-like fragments and various drug-like organic compounds. When applied to the model protease endothiapepsin in a crystallographic screening experiment, a hit rate of nearly 10% was obtained. In comparison to other fragment libraries and considering that no pre-screening was performed, this hit rate is remarkably high. This demonstrates the general suitability of the selected compounds for an initial fragment-screening campaign. The library composition, experimental considerations and time requirements for a complete crystallographic fragment-screening campaign are discussed as well as the nine fully refined obtained endothiapepsin-fragment structures. While most of the fragments bind close to the catalytic centre of endothiapepsin in poses that have been observed previously, two fragments address new sites on the protein surface. ITC measurements show that the fragments bind to endothiapepsin with millimolar affinity.

  12. Structures of endothiapepsin–fragment complexes from crystallographic fragment screening using a novel, diverse and affordable 96-compound fragment library

    Huschmann, Franziska U.; Linnik, Janina; Sparta, Karine; Ühlein, Monika; Wang, Xiaojie; Metz, Alexander; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Weiss, Manfred S.; Mueller, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Crystallographic screening of the binding of small organic compounds (termed fragments) to proteins is increasingly important for medicinal chemistry-oriented drug discovery. To enable such experiments in a widespread manner, an affordable 96-compound library has been assembled for fragment screening in both academia and industry. The library is selected from already existing protein–ligand structures and is characterized by a broad ligand diversity, including buffer ingredients, carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, peptide-like fragments and various drug-like organic compounds. When applied to the model protease endothiapepsin in a crystallographic screening experiment, a hit rate of nearly 10% was obtained. In comparison to other fragment libraries and considering that no pre-screening was performed, this hit rate is remarkably high. This demonstrates the general suitability of the selected compounds for an initial fragment-screening campaign. The library composition, experimental considerations and time requirements for a complete crystallographic fragment-screening campaign are discussed as well as the nine fully refined obtained endothiapepsin–fragment structures. While most of the fragments bind close to the catalytic centre of endothiapepsin in poses that have been observed previously, two fragments address new sites on the protein surface. ITC measurements show that the fragments bind to endothiapepsin with millimolar affinity. PMID:27139825

  13. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The study of intermediate-energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions is reported. This work has two foci: the properties of nuclear matter under abnormal conditions, in this energy domain, predominately low densities and the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. Nuclear matter properties, such as phase transitions, are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. The process leads to an understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. The program has the following objectives: to study energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition by studying incomplete fusion reactions; to gain confidence in the understanding of how highly excited systems decompose by studying all emissions from the highly excited systems; to push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain (where intermediate mass fragment emission is not improbable) with excitation function studies; and to learn about the dynamics of the decays using particle-particle correlations. The last effort focuses on simple systems, where definitive statements are possible. These avenues of research share a common theme, large complex fragment production. It is this feature, more than any other, which distinguishes the intermediate energy domain

  14. Production study of light fragments emitted at low angle in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Bastid, N.

    1987-03-01

    The Diogene plastic wall was built in order to study fragment production in a 0 O -6 O angular range. After generalities on heavy ion collisions and a description of the Diogene detector, methods used for data analysis allowing identification of charged particles and measurement of their energy and emission angle are presented. From correlation studies between the Diogene events and the plastic wall events, we can have an information on the centrality of collisions. On the other hand, the study of differential cross sections shows two existing sources: one formed by the projectile remnant, at a velocity close to beam velocity and a source of intermediary rapidity formed by the participants. We have shown that even for very central collisions and heavy targets, the target nucleus remains partially transparent. In order to explain projectile fragmentation mechanism, we have used two models: a coalescence model and a thermal model. The first model gives the value of the coalescence radius. It seems that this model does not apply to angles nearing 0 O . With the thermal model, we have been able to sort out apparent temperature values which confirm the weak excitation energy of the projectile remnant [fr

  15. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions

    Sobotka, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The production of large fragments, fragments with mass between light particles and fission fragments, in intermediate and high energy nuclear reactions has fostered the proposal of a number of novel reaction mechanisms. These include liquid-vapor equilibrium and nuclear shattering. Temporarily left in the wake of these exciting proposed mechanisms was the old standard, statistical decay of compound nuclei. To be sure, the standard treatment of compound nucleus decay did not deal with large fragment production. However, this omission was not due to any fundamental deficiency of statistical models, but rather an uncertainty concerning exactly how to splice large fragment emission into statistical models. A large portion of our program deals with this problem. Specifically, by studying the yields of large fragments produced in sufficiently low energy reactions we are attempting to deduce the asymmetry and l-wave dependence of large fragment emission from compound nuclear intermediates. This, however, is only half of the problem. Since the novel mechanisms proposed for large fragment emission were spawned by intermediate and high energy reaction data, we must also realize the relevance of the compound nucleus mechanisms at high energies. It is not unreasonable to suspect that compound nucleus-like objects are formed with less than complete momentum transfer and perhaps less than complete mass transfer. Therefore the study of energy, mass, and angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion and non-compound reactions. This thread joins the apparently divergent subjects covered in this report

  16. Light particles emitted with very forward quasi-projectiles and the mechanism in the fragmentation of 44 MeV/a.m.u. 40Ar

    Roussel, P.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Borrel, V.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Beaumel, D.; Bernas, M.; Clapier, F.; Mirea, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of projectile fragmentation in the Fermi-energy region has been investigated for fragments emitted in the incident beam direction by detecting fast protons and neutrons evaporated by the projectile-like fragments. The proton coincidence rate is shown to increase with fragment velocity loss. This increase is also correlated to the decrease of the fragment yield, with the coincident rate doubling when the yield decreases by a factor of 10. The coincidence rate is found to be also proportional to the fragment mass loss for fragments with the beam velocity. A two-step mechanism is sketched out to interpret these results. For fragments with the beam velocity, the projectile nucleon removal is equally shared between a first fast step and the second evaporative step, while for fragments at the tenth of the maximum yield, the nucleons are removed by evaporation. Finally, the experimental observation that the most probable velocity for forward fragments is very close to that of the beam may be the result of a strong forward/backward momentum asymmetry in a Goldhaber-type analysis. (author)

  17. White organic light-emitting diodes with Zn-complexes.

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Shin, Hoon-Kyu; Kim, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Burm-Jong; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2014-02-01

    This paper reviews OLEDs fabricated using Zn-complexes. Zn(HPB)2, Zn(HPB)q, and Zn(phen)q were synthesized as new electroluminescence materials. The electron affinity (EA) and ionization potential (IP) of Zn complexes were also determined and devices were characterized. Zn complexes such as Zn(HPB)2, Zn(HPB)q, and Zn(phen)q were found to exhibit blue and yellow emissions with wavelengths of 455, 532, and 535 nm, respectively. On the other hand, Zn(HPB)2 and Zn(HPB)q were applied as hole-blocking materials. As a result, the OLED efficiency by using Zn(HPB)2 as a hole-blocking material was improved. In particular, the OLED property of Zn(HPB)2 was found to be better than that of Zn(HPB)q. Moreover, Zn(phen)q was used as an electron-transporting material and compared with Alq3. The performance of the device with Zn(phen)q as an electron-transporting material was improved compared with Alq3-based devices. The Zn complexes can possibly be used as hole-blocking and electron-transporting materials in OLED devices. A white emission was ultimately realized from the OLED devices using Zn-complexes as inter-layer components.

  18. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    Our work involves the study of intermediate energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions. This work has two foci. On the one hand, we desire to learn about the properties of nuclear matter under abnormal conditions, in this energy domain, predominately low densities. This purpose runs abreast of the second, which is the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. The two objectives are inexorably linked because our experimental laboratory for studying nuclear matter properties is a dynamic one. We are forced to ask how nuclear matter properties, such as phase transitions, are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. It may be that irrefutable information about nuclear matter will not be extracted from the reaction work. Nevertheless, we are compelled to undertake this effort not only because it is the only game in town and as yet we do not know that information cannot be extracted, but also because of our second objective. The process leads to an understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. Our program has been: To study energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition by studying incomplete fusion reactions. To gain confidence that we understand how highly excited systems decompose by studying all emissions from the highly excited systems. To push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain, with excitation function studies. And attempt to learn about the dynamics of the decays using particle-particle correlations. In the last effort, we have decided to focus on simple systems, where we believe, definitive statements are possible. These avenues of research share a common theme, large complex fragment production

  19. Green-emitting MADF complex for OLED applications

    Klimes, Kody; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Holloway, Sean; Li, Jian

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we demonstrated an exceptional palladium complex that exhibits both phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence for use as an efficient emitter in OLEDs. Devices employing PdN3N achieved external quantum efficiencies in excess of 22% and remarkable device operational lifetime to 90% initial luminance estimated at over 30,000 h at a practical luminance of 100 cd/m2. Further tuning of the phosphorescent and delayed fluorescent emission should have a great impact in the development of efficient and stable emitters for deep blue or white OLEDs.

  20. Angular distributions of intermediate mass fragments emitted in 30 MeV/u 40Ar induced reactions

    Gou Quanbu; Zhu Yongtai; Xu Hushan; Wei Zhiyong; Lu Jun; Zhang Yuhu; Wang Qi; Li Songlin; Wu Zhongli

    1999-01-01

    The angular distributions of intermediate mass fragments with charge numbers from 3 to 24 emitted in 30 MeV/u 40 Ar + 58,64 Ni and 115 In reactions over an angular range of 5 degree-140 degree have been measured. In different angular region an exponential distribution function dσ/dΩ = N exp(-θ/α) was used to fit the measured angular distributions. The decay factor α which can be connected with the interaction time τ and the factor N which is related to the intensity of the emission sources have been extracted. The relationship of α(Z) and N(Z) with Z for different reaction systems and different angular regions has been discussed. The different behavior of dσ/dΩ, α(Z), and N(Z) for the three studied reaction systems exists mainly in the middle and backward angular regions. The dependencies of angular distributions on isospin and the size of reaction systems have also been discussed

  1. The angular momentum dependence of complex fragment emission

    Sobtka, L.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Li, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Large fragment (A > 4) production at high angular momentum is studied via the reaction, 200 MeV 45 Sc + 65 Cu. Comparisons of the fragment yields from this reaction (high angular momentum) to those from 93 Nb + Be (low angular momentum) are used to verify the strong angular momentum dependence of large fragment production predicted by equilibrium models. Details of the coincident γ-ray distributions not only confirm a rigidly rotating intermediate but also indicate that the widths of the primary L-wave distributions decrease with increasing symmetry in the decay channel. These data are used to test the asymmetry and L-wave dependence of emission barriers calculated from a rotating, finite range corrected, liquid drop model. 21 refs., 10 figs

  2. Complex fragments from excited actinide nuclei. A new test of the finite range model

    Sarantities, D.G.; Bowman, D.R.; Wozniak, G.J.; Charity, R.J.; Liu, Z.H.; McDonald, R.J.; McMahan, M.A.; Moretto, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Complex fragments ranging in charge from 7 ≤ Z ≤ 45 have been detected in binary coincidence following the reaction of 8.4 MeV/u 232 Th+ 12 C, and are shown to arise from the binary decay of a 244 Cm compound nucleus. This work confirms earlier radiochemical observations of very light fragments in the fission fragment mass distribution, establishes their binary character, and interprets their yield in terms of finite range potential energy barriers. (orig.)

  3. Complex fragments from excited actinide nuclei: A new test of the finite range model

    Sarantities, D.G.; Bowman, D.R.; Wozniak, G.J.; Charity, R.J.; Liu, Z.H.; McDonald, R.J.; McMahan, M.A.; Moretto, L.G.

    1988-05-01

    Complex fragments ranging in charge from 7≤Z≤45 have been detected in binary coincidence following the reaction of 8.4 MeV/u 232 Th+ 12 C, and are shown to arise from the binary decay of a 244 Cm compound nucleus. This work confirms earlier radiochemical observations of very light fragments in the fission fragment mass distribution, establishes their binary character, and interprets their yield in terms of finite range potential energy barriers. 15 refs., 3 figs

  4. Presence of Fragmented QRS Complexes in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Muhammet Rasit Sayin

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In our study fragmented QRS frequency and QRS duration were found to increase in OSAS patients. Both parameters are related with increased cardiovascular mortality. Considering the prognostic importance of ECG parameters, it may be reasonable to recommend more detailed evaluation of OSAS patients with fragmented or prolonged QRS complexes with respect to presence of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Screening of a Novel Fragment Library with Functional Complexity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA.

    Prati, Federica; Zuccotto, Fabio; Fletcher, Daniel; Convery, Maire A; Fernandez-Menendez, Raquel; Bates, Robert; Encinas, Lourdes; Zeng, Jingkun; Chung, Chun-Wa; De Dios Anton, Paco; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Mackenzie, Claire; Green, Simon R; Huggett, Margaret; Barros, David; Wyatt, Paul G; Ray, Peter C

    2018-04-06

    Our findings reported herein provide support for the benefits of including functional group complexity (FGC) within fragments when screening against protein targets such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA. We show that InhA fragment actives with FGC maintained their binding pose during elaboration. Furthermore, weak fragment hits with functional group handles also allowed for facile fragment elaboration to afford novel and potent InhA inhibitors with good ligand efficiency metrics for optimization. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. AMPLIFIED FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM ANALYSIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX ISOLATES RECOVERED FROM SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    Fine-scale genotyping methods are necessary in order to identify possible sources of human exposure to opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was evaluated for fingerprintin...

  7. Efficient organic light-emitting devices with platinum-complex emissive layer

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-01-18

    We report efficient organic light-emitting devices having a platinum-complex emissive layer with the peak external quantum efficiency of 17.5% and power efficiency of 45 lm W−1. Variation in the device performance with platinum-complex layer thickness can be attributed to the interplay between carrier recombination and intermolecular interactions in the layer. Efficient white devices using double platinum-complex layers show the external quantum efficiency of 10%, the Commission Internationale d’Énclairage coordinates of (0.42, 0.41), and color rendering index of 84 at 1000 cd m−2.

  8. Efficient organic light-emitting devices with platinum-complex emissive layer

    Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Fang-Iy; Haverinen, Hanna; Li, Jian; Cheng, Chien-Hong; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2011-01-01

    We report efficient organic light-emitting devices having a platinum-complex emissive layer with the peak external quantum efficiency of 17.5% and power efficiency of 45 lm W−1. Variation in the device performance with platinum-complex layer thickness can be attributed to the interplay between carrier recombination and intermolecular interactions in the layer. Efficient white devices using double platinum-complex layers show the external quantum efficiency of 10%, the Commission Internationale d’Énclairage coordinates of (0.42, 0.41), and color rendering index of 84 at 1000 cd m−2.

  9. Automated building of organometallic complexes from 3D fragments.

    Foscato, Marco; Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Alsberg, Bjørn K; Jensen, Vidar R

    2014-07-28

    A method for the automated construction of three-dimensional (3D) molecular models of organometallic species in design studies is described. Molecular structure fragments derived from crystallographic structures and accurate molecular-level calculations are used as 3D building blocks in the construction of multiple molecular models of analogous compounds. The method allows for precise control of stereochemistry and geometrical features that may otherwise be very challenging, or even impossible, to achieve with commonly available generators of 3D chemical structures. The new method was tested in the construction of three sets of active or metastable organometallic species of catalytic reactions in the homogeneous phase. The performance of the method was compared with those of commonly available methods for automated generation of 3D models, demonstrating higher accuracy of the prepared 3D models in general, and, in particular, a much wider range with respect to the kind of chemical structures that can be built automatically, with capabilities far beyond standard organic and main-group chemistry.

  10. Phosphorescent cyclometalated complexes for efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes

    Suzuri, Yoshiyuki; Oshiyama, Tomohiro; Ito, Hiroto; Hiyama, Kunihisa; Kita, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Phosphorescent emitters are extremely important for efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which attract significant attention. Phosphorescent emitters, which have a high phosphorescence quantum yield at room temperature, typically contain a heavy metal such as iridium and have been reported to emit blue, green and red light. In particular, the blue cyclometalated complexes with high efficiency and high stability are being developed. In this review, we focus on blue cyclometalated complexes. Recent progress of computational analysis necessary to design a cyclometalated complex is introduced. The prediction of the radiative transition is indispensable to get an emissive cyclometalated complex. We summarize four methods to control phosphorescence peak of the cyclometalated complex: (i) substituent effect on ligands, (ii) effects of ancillary ligands on heteroleptic complexes, (iii) design of the ligand skeleton, and (iv) selection of the central metal. It is considered that novel ligand skeletons would be important to achieve both a high efficiency and long lifetime in the blue OLEDs. Moreover, the combination of an emitter and a host is important as well as the emitter itself. According to the dependences on the combination of an emitter and a host, the control of exciton density of the triplet is necessary to achieve both a high efficiency and a long lifetime, because the annihilations of the triplet state cause exciton quenching and material deterioration.

  11. Losing the boxes: fragmentation as a source of system complexity

    Baumbach, J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available . This paper, which looks at systems containing people, argues that the use of transdisciplinary approaches will aid in the insight and comprehension of complex problems. It will also be shown that the inclusion of subjective and inter-subjective system aspects...

  12. New Route to Synthesize Surface Organometallic Complexes (SOMC): An Approach by Alkylating Halogenated Surface Organometallic Fragments

    Hamieh, Ali Imad

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore new simpler and efficient routes for the preparation of surface organometallic complexes (SOMC) for the transformation of small organic molecules to valuable products. The key element in this new route relies on surface alkylation of various halogenated surface coordination complexes or organometallic fragments (SOMF).

  13. New Route to Synthesize Surface Organometallic Complexes (SOMC): An Approach by Alkylating Halogenated Surface Organometallic Fragments

    Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore new simpler and efficient routes for the preparation of surface organometallic complexes (SOMC) for the transformation of small organic molecules to valuable products. The key element in this new route relies on surface alkylation of various halogenated surface coordination complexes or organometallic fragments (SOMF).

  14. Generating "fragment-based virtual library" using pocket similarity search of ligand-receptor complexes.

    Khashan, Raed S

    2015-01-01

    As the number of available ligand-receptor complexes is increasing, researchers are becoming more dedicated to mine these complexes to aid in the drug design and development process. We present free software which is developed as a tool for performing similarity search across ligand-receptor complexes for identifying binding pockets which are similar to that of a target receptor. The search is based on 3D-geometric and chemical similarity of the atoms forming the binding pocket. For each match identified, the ligand's fragment(s) corresponding to that binding pocket are extracted, thus forming a virtual library of fragments (FragVLib) that is useful for structure-based drug design. The program provides a very useful tool to explore available databases.

  15. Efficient light-emitting devices based on platinum-complexes-anchored polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane materials

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2010-08-24

    The synthesis, photophysical, and electrochemical characterization of macromolecules, consisting of an emissive platinum complex and carbazole moieties covalently attached to a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core, is reported. Organic light-emitting devices based on these POSS materials exhibit a peak external quantum efficiency of ca. 8%, which is significantly higher than that of the analogous devices with a physical blend of the platinum complexes and a polymer matrix, and they represent noticeable improvement in the device efficiency of solution-processable phosphorescent excimer devices. Furthermore, the ratio of monomer and excimer/aggregate electroluminescent emission intensity, as well as the device efficiency, increases as the platinum complex moiety presence on the POSS macromolecules decreases. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. White OLED using {beta}-diketones rare earth binuclear complex as emitting layer

    Quirino, W.G. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Legnani, C. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil); Cremona, M. [LOEM, Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, P.O.Box 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22453-970 (Brazil)]. E-mail: cremona@fis.puc-rio.br; Lima, P.P. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Junior, S.A. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil); Malta, O.L. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, UFPE-CCEN, Recife, PE, 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2006-01-03

    In this work, the fabrication and the characterization of a white triple-layer OLED using a {beta}-diketones binuclear complex [Eu(btfa){sub 3}phenterpyTb(acac){sub 3}] as the emitting layer is reported. The devices were assembled using a heterojunction between three organic molecular materials: the N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) as hole-transporting layer, the {beta}-diketones binuclear complex and the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq{sub 3}) as the electron transporting layer. All the organic layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO substrates and without breaking vacuum. Continuous electroluminescence emission was obtained varying the applied bias voltage from 10 to 22 V showing a wide emission band from 400 to 700 nm with about 100 cd/m{sup 2} of luminance. The white emission results from a combined action between the binuclear complex, acting as hole blocking and emitting layer, blue from NPB and the typical Alq{sub 3} green emission. The intensity ratio of the peaks is determined by the layer thickness and by the bias voltage applied to the OLED, allowing us to obtain a color tunable light source.

  17. White OLED using β-diketones rare earth binuclear complex as emitting layer

    Quirino, W.G.; Legnani, C.; Cremona, M.; Lima, P.P.; Junior, S.A.; Malta, O.L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the fabrication and the characterization of a white triple-layer OLED using a β-diketones binuclear complex [Eu(btfa) 3 phenterpyTb(acac) 3 ] as the emitting layer is reported. The devices were assembled using a heterojunction between three organic molecular materials: the N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) as hole-transporting layer, the β-diketones binuclear complex and the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum) (Alq 3 ) as the electron transporting layer. All the organic layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO substrates and without breaking vacuum. Continuous electroluminescence emission was obtained varying the applied bias voltage from 10 to 22 V showing a wide emission band from 400 to 700 nm with about 100 cd/m 2 of luminance. The white emission results from a combined action between the binuclear complex, acting as hole blocking and emitting layer, blue from NPB and the typical Alq 3 green emission. The intensity ratio of the peaks is determined by the layer thickness and by the bias voltage applied to the OLED, allowing us to obtain a color tunable light source

  18. Restriction fragment polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex of diabetic BB rats

    Kastern, W.; Dyrberg, T.; Scholler, J.

    1984-01-01

    DNA isolated from diabetic BB (BB/Hagedorn) rats was examined for restriction fragment length differences within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as compared with nondiabetic (W-subline) BB rats. Polymorphisms were detected using a mouse class I MHC gene as probe. Specifically, a 2-kb Bam......HI fragment was present in all the nondiabetic rats examined, but absent in the diabetic rats. Similar polymorphisms were observed with various other restriction enzymes, particularly XbaI, HindII, and SacI. There were no polymorphisms detected using either a human DR-alpha (class II antigen heavy chain...

  19. Efficiency Control in Iridium Complex-Based Phosphorescent Light-Emitting Diodes

    Boucar Diouf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors to control the efficiency in iridium doped red and green phosphorescent light emitting diodes (PhOLEDs are discussed in this review: exciton confinement, charge trapping, dopant concentration and dopant molecular structure. They are not independent from each other but we attempt to present each of them in a situation where its specific effects are predominant. A good efficiency in PhOLEDs requires the triplet energy of host molecules to be sufficiently high to confine the triplet excitons within the emitting layer (EML. Furthermore, triplet excitons must be retained within the EML and should not drift into the nonradiative levels of the electron or hole transport layer (resp., ETL or HTL; this is achieved by carefully choosing the EML’s adjacent layers. We prove how reducing charge trapping results in higher efficiency in PhOLEDs. We show that there is an ideal concentration for a maximum efficiency of PhOLEDs. Finally, we present the effects of molecular structure on the efficiency of PhOLEDs using red iridium complex dopant with different modifications on the ligand to tune its highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO energies.

  20. Synthesis and green electrophosphorescence of a novel cyclometalated iridium complex in polymer light-emitting diodes

    Wu Lilan [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101 (China); Tsai Sunghao [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101 (China); Guo Tzungfang [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101 (China); Yang Chenghsien [Carbon Nanocapsules Research Department, Nano-Powder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Tainan, Taiwan 709 (China)]. E-mail: jasonyang0606@yahoo.com.tw; Sun, I-W. [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101 (China)]. E-mail: iwsun@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2007-10-15

    Abstact: In this paper, we synthesized a new complex bis(dibenzo[f,h]quinolinato-N,C {sup 2'}) iridium(III) acetylactonate ((DBQ){sub 2}Ir(acac)) having a longer conjugate system than bis(2-phenylpyridinato-N,C {sup 2'}) iridium(III) acetylacetonate ((PPY){sub 2}Ir(acac)). Interestingly (DBQ){sub 2}Ir(acac) emits at the same wavelength as (photoluminescence of 530 nm) (PPY){sub 2}Ir(acac). A high-efficiency electrophosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes was constructed by using (DBQ){sub 2}Ir(acac) as the dopant, and a blend of poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK) with 2-tert-butylphenyl-5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol (PBD) as the host material. The electroluminescence efficiency of 9.5 cd/A is reported for the device doped with 3 wt% of (DBQ){sub 2}Ir(acac). In this device, the emission from the PVK or PBD host was effectively inhibited with the using (DBQ){sub 2}Ir(acac) . Emission from the dopant molecules in such devices involve localization of the injected electron and hole on the metal-organic center. This can occur by a variety of mechanisms, including Foerster and Dexter energy transfer from the host transport material to the dopant, and direct trapping of both electrons and holes on the metal-organic center.

  1. Fabrication of an Organic Light-Emitting Diode from New Host π Electron Rich Zinc Complex

    Jafari, Mohammad Reza; Janghouri, Mohammad; Shahedi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    A new π electron rich zinc complex was used as a fluorescent material in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Devices with a structure of indium tin oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedi-oxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) (50 nm)/polyvinylcarbazole (60 nm)/Zn: %2 porphyrin derivatives (45 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. Porphyrin derivatives accounting for 2 wt.% in the π electron rich zinc complex were used as a host. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of porphyrin derivatives indicated a red shift, as π electron rich zinc complex EL spectra. The device (4) has also a luminance of 3420 cd/m2 and maximum efficiency of 1.58 cd/A at 15 V, which are the highest values among four devices. The result of Commission International del'Eclairage (CIE) (X, Y) coordinate and EL spectrum of device (3) indicated that it is more red shifted compared to other devices. Results of this work indicate that π electron rich zinc complex is a promising host material for high efficiency red OLEDs and has a simple structure compared to Alq3-based devices.

  2. Congenital deficiency of two polypeptide subunits of the iron-protein fragment of mitochondrial complex I.

    Moreadith, R W; Cleeter, M W; Ragan, C I; Batshaw, M L; Lehninger, A L

    1987-02-01

    Recently, we described a patient with severe lactic acidosis due to congenital complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) deficiency. We now report further enzymatic and immunological characterizations. Both NADH and ferricyanide titrations of complex I activity (measured as NADH-ferricyanide reductase) were distinctly altered in the mitochondria from the patient's tissues. In addition, antisera against complex I immunoprecipitated NADH-ferricyanide reductase from the control but not the patient's mitochondria. However, immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of complex I polypeptides demonstrated that the majority of the 25 polypeptides comprising complex I were present in the affected mitochondria. A more detailed analysis using subunit selective antisera against the main polypeptides of the iron-protein fragments of complex I revealed a selective absence of the 75- and 13-kD polypeptides. These findings suggest that the underlying basis for this patient's disease was a congenital deficiency of at least two polypeptides comprising the iron-protein fragment of complex I, which resulted in the inability to correctly assemble a functional enzyme complex.

  3. Design of a multi-purpose fragment screening library using molecular complexity and orthogonal diversity metrics

    Lau, Wan F.; Withka, Jane M.; Hepworth, David; Magee, Thomas V.; Du, Yuhua J.; Bakken, Gregory A.; Miller, Michael D.; Hendsch, Zachary S.; Thanabal, Venkataraman; Kolodziej, Steve A.; Xing, Li; Hu, Qiyue; Narasimhan, Lakshmi S.; Love, Robert; Charlton, Maura E.; Hughes, Samantha; van Hoorn, Willem P.; Mills, James E.

    2011-07-01

    Fragment Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) continues to advance as an efficient and alternative screening paradigm for the identification and optimization of novel chemical matter. To enable FBDD across a wide range of pharmaceutical targets, a fragment screening library is required to be chemically diverse and synthetically expandable to enable critical decision making for chemical follow-up and assessing new target druggability. In this manuscript, the Pfizer fragment library design strategy which utilized multiple and orthogonal metrics to incorporate structure, pharmacophore and pharmacological space diversity is described. Appropriate measures of molecular complexity were also employed to maximize the probability of detection of fragment hits using a variety of biophysical and biochemical screening methods. In addition, structural integrity, purity, solubility, fragment and analog availability as well as cost were important considerations in the selection process. Preliminary analysis of primary screening results for 13 targets using NMR Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) indicates the identification of uM-mM hits and the uniqueness of hits at weak binding affinities for these targets.

  4. Tunable blue organic light emitting diode based on aluminum calixarene supramolecular complex

    Legnani, C.; Reyes, R.; Cremona, M.; Bagatin, I. A.; Toma, H. E.

    2004-07-01

    In this letter, the results of supramolecular organic light emitting diodes using a calix[4] arene complex thin film as emitter and electron transporting layer are presented. The devices were grown onto glass substrates coated with indium-tin-oxide layer and aluminum thick (150nm) cathode. By applying a dc voltage between the device electrodes in forward bias condition, a blue light emission in the active area of the device was observed. It was found that the electroluminescent emission peak can be tuned between 470 and 510nm changing the applied voltage bias from 4.3 to 5.4V. The observed tunable emission can be associated with an energy transfer from the calixarene compound.

  5. Improved efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes based on a europium complex by fluorescent dye

    You Han [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Fang Junfeng [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Gao Jia [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ma Dongge [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)]. E-mail: mdg1014@ciac.jl.cn

    2007-01-15

    Improved efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on europium complexes have been realized by using a fluorescent dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6 (1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl))-4H-pyran (DCJTB) doping .The luminous efficiency of the devices with a fluorescent dye in the emissive layer was found to improve two times of that in devices without fluorescent dye. The devices showed pure red light, which is the characteristic emission of trivalent europium ion with a full-width at half-maximum of 3 nm.The maximum brightness and luminous efficiency reached 1200 cd/m{sup 2} at 23 V and 7.3 cd/A (2.0 lm/w), respectively, at a current density of 0.35 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  6. A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model for pollutants emitted by complex source areas.

    Teggi, Sergio; Costanzini, Sofia; Ghermandi, Grazia; Malagoli, Carlotta; Vinceti, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Gaussian dispersion models are widely used to simulate the concentrations and deposition fluxes of pollutants emitted by source areas. Very often, the calculation time limits the number of sources and receptors and the geometry of the sources must be simple and without holes. This paper presents CAREA, a new GIS-based Gaussian model for complex source areas. CAREA was coded in the Python language, and is largely based on a simplified formulation of the very popular and recognized AERMOD model. The model allows users to define in a GIS environment thousands of gridded or scattered receptors and thousands of complex sources with hundreds of vertices and holes. CAREA computes ground level, or near ground level, concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of pollutants. The input/output and the runs of the model can be completely managed in GIS environment (e.g. inside a GIS project). The paper presents the CAREA formulation and its applications to very complex test cases. The tests shows that the processing time are satisfactory and that the definition of sources and receptors and the output retrieval are quite easy in a GIS environment. CAREA and AERMOD are compared using simple and reproducible test cases. The comparison shows that CAREA satisfactorily reproduces AERMOD simulations and is considerably faster than AERMOD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nicked apomyoglobin: a noncovalent complex of two polypeptide fragments comprising the entire protein chain.

    Musi, Valeria; Spolaore, Barbara; Picotti, Paola; Zambonin, Marcello; De Filippis, Vincenzo; Fontana, Angelo

    2004-05-25

    Limited proteolysis of the 153-residue chain of horse apomyoglobin (apoMb) by thermolysin results in the selective cleavage of the peptide bond Pro88-Leu89. The N-terminal (residues 1-88) and C-terminal (residues 89-153) fragments of apoMb were isolated to homogeneity and their conformational and association properties investigated in detail. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) measurements revealed that both fragments in isolation acquire a high content of helical secondary structure, while near-UV CD indicated the absence of tertiary structure. A 1:1 mixture of the fragments leads to a tight noncovalent protein complex (1-88/89-153, nicked apoMb), characterized by secondary and tertiary structures similar to those of intact apoMb. The apoMb complex binds heme in a nativelike manner, as given by CD measurements in the Soret region. Second-derivative absorption spectra in the 250-300 nm region provided evidence that the degree of exposure of Tyr residues in the nicked species is similar to that of the intact protein at neutral pH. Also, the microenvironment of Trp residues, located in positions 7 and 14 of the 153-residue chain of the protein, is similar in both protein species, as given by fluorescence emission data. Moreover, in analogy to intact apoMb, the nicked protein binds the hydrophobic dye 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS). Taken together, our results indicate that the two proteolytic fragments 1-88 and 89-153 of apoMb adopt partly folded states characterized by sufficiently nativelike conformational features that promote their specific association and mutual stabilization into a nicked protein species much resembling in its structural features intact apoMb. It is suggested that the formation of a noncovalent complex upon fragment complementation can mimic the protein folding process of the entire protein chain, with the difference that the folding of the complementary fragments is an intermolecular process. In particular, this study emphasizes the

  8. Sources and characteristics of complex fragments in La-induced reactions

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Charity, R.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, N.; Libby, B.; Hanold, K.; Moretto, L.; Peaslee, G.; Wozniak, G.

    1991-01-01

    Complex fragment emission has been studied for a variety of reactions at intermediate energies. Multifragment events are shown to be associated with specific sources characterized by their mass and excitation energy through the incomplete fusion model. Excitation functions for the different multifragment decay channels are found to be almost independent of the system and the incident energy. Preliminary comparisons of the data with dynamical calculations followed by statistical decay calculations are discussed. 11 refs., 7 figs

  9. Experimental study of the light charged particles emitted in coincidence with the main fragments from D.I.C. in the 40Ar (280 MeV) + 58Ni system

    Agarwal, S.; Babinet, R.; Cauvin, B.; Girard, J.; Auger, P.; Chiang, T.; Galin, J.; Gatty, B.; Guerreau, D.; Tarrago, X.

    1979-01-01

    The light charged particles emitted in coincidence with the main fragments from deep inelastic collisions in the 40 Ar (280 MeV) + 58 Ni have been studied. Both radial (in the reaction plane) and azimuthal angular distributions have been measured. For very asymmetric splitting, the radial angular distribution of the α particles shows two components one of which could be attributed to statistical evaporation by the heavy partner of the detected light fragment. The azimuthal distribution of that component clearly indicates a strong alignment of the spin of the emitting fragment with the orbital angular momentum and a preference for the 'sticking' limit. For symmetric splitting, some α particle energy spectra could not be explained in terms of statistical evaporation by either of the two main fragments. (orig.)

  10. Fragmentation of deuteronated aromatic derivatives: The role of ion-neutral complexes

    Harrison, Alex G.; Wang, Jian-Yao

    1997-01-01

    The low-energy collision-induced dissociation reactions of the MD+ ions of a number of alkyl phenyl ethers, alkylbenzenes, acetophenones and benzaldehyde have been studied as a function of collision energy to establish qualitatively the dependence of the fragmentation reactions observed on internal energy. Deuteronated alkyl phenyl ethers (ROC6H5·D+, R = C3H7, C4H9) fragment at low collision energies to form C6H5OHD+ + (R-H), the thermochemically favoured products; with increasing collision energy (and, hence, internal energy) formation of the alkyl ion R+ increases significantly in importance. Deuteronated alkylbenzenes (RC6H5, RC6H4R', R = C2H5, C3H7) similarly form the deuteronated benzene (the thermochemically favoured product) at low collision energies with formation of the alkyl ion R+ being observed at higher collision energies. The results for both systems are consistent with a fragmentation mechanism involving initial formation of an R+/aromatic ion/neutral complex. At low internal energies proton transfer occurs within this complex to form an ion/neutral complex consisting of the deuteronated aromatic and a neutral olefin; this complex fragments to the thermochemically favoured products. Since the transition state leading to these products is a "tight" transition state involving loss of rotational degrees of freedom, the proton transfer reaction is unfavourable entropically with respect to simple dissociation of the R+/aromatic complex to R+ + ArD. Consequently, these products increase in importance as the internal energy is increased. The fragmentation of deuteronated aromatic carbonyl compounds can also be rationalized by similar mechanisms involving the intermediacy of ion/neutral complexes. Deuteronated acetophenone forms only CH3CO+ at all collision energies; this is both the thermochemically and entropically favoured product. However, deuteronated p-aminoacetophenone forms deuteronated aniline, the thermochemically favoured product at low collision

  11. Fragment emission in reactions of 18.5-GeV 12C ions with complex nuclei

    Porile, N.T.; Cole, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    The emission of fragments ranging from 24 Na to 52 Mn in reactions of 18.5 GeV 12 C ions with Cu, Ag, Gd, Ta, Au, and U targets has been studied by means of activation techniques. The experiments involved determination of the fragment production cross sections and thick-target recoil properties. The latter were used to obtain mean fragment kinetic energies and values of β/sub parallel to/, the forward velocity component of the struck nucleus (in units of c). The results are compared with similar data for incident protons of the same total kinetic energy. The data may be used to assess the importance of central collisions in fragment production. Such collisions lead to the near total destruction of both interacting nuclei and the resulting fragments are emitted by a system of intermediate rapidity. In such a process, the factorization hypothesis, which has been shown to be valid for target and projectile fragmentation reactions, should not be obeyed. A test for factorization is performed by means of a relation which states that the ratio of the cross sections for producing fragment /sup A/Z in 12 C reactions to that for producing the same fragment in proton reactions with the same target is unity, provided both cross sections are reduced by the values of the corresponding total reaction cross sections sigma/sub R/, and evaluated for the same total kinetic energy of the projectile. The results of this comparison for the targets studied are presented and discussed

  12. Protein kinase A governs oxidative phosphorylation kinetics and oxidant emitting potential at complex I

    Daniel Stephen Lark

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS is responsible for setting and maintaining both the energy and redox charges throughout the cell. Reversible phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins, particularly via the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC/cyclic AMP (cAMP/Protein kinase A (PKA axis, has recently been revealed as a potential mechanism regulating the ETS. However, the governance of cAMP/PKA signaling and its implications on ETS function are incompletely understood. In contrast to prior reports using exogenous bicarbonate, we provide evidence that endogenous CO2 produced by increased tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle flux is insufficient to increase mitochondrial cAMP levels, and that exogenous addition of membrane permeant 8Br-cAMP does not enhance mitochondrial respiratory capacity. We also report important non-specific effects of commonly used inhibitors of sAC which preclude their use in studies of mitochondrial function. In isolated liver mitochondria, inhibition of PKA reduces complex I-, but not complex II-supported respiratory capacity. In permeabilized myofibers, inhibition of PKA lowers both the Km and Vmax for complex I-supported respiration as well as succinate-supported H2O2 emitting potential. In summary, the data provided here improve our understanding of how mitochondrial cAMP production is regulated, illustrate a need for better tools to examine the impact of sAC activity on mitochondrial biology, and suggest that cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the governance of electron flow through complex I of the ETS.

  13. New cyclometalated iridium(III) complex as a phosphorescent dopant in organic light emitting devices

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Petkov, I.

    2014-05-01

    A new cyclometalated iridium (III) bis[2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2]-acetylacetonate, (Cl-bt)2Ir(acac), was synthesized and identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The application was studied of the new compound as a dopant in the hole transporting layer (HTL) of the following organic light emitting diode (OLED) structure: HTL/EL/ETL, where HTL was 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) or N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), incorporated in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix; EL was an electroluminescent layer of bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylpheno-xy) aluminum (BAlq); and ETL was an electron-transporting layer of bis[2-(2-benzothiazoly) phenolato]zinc(II) (Zn(btz)2). We established that the electroluminescence spectra of the OLEDs at different dopant concentrations were basically the sum of the greenish-blue emission of BAlq and the yellowish-green emission of the Ir complex. It was also found that increasing the dopant concentration resulted in an increase in the relative electroluminescent intensity of the Ir complex emission, while that of BAlq decreased, thus a fine tuning of the OLED color was observed.

  14. Influence of intensive light exposure on the complex impedance of polymer light-emitting diodes

    Fábio Rogério Cury

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the effect of visible radiation on the electrical properties of poly[(2-methoxy-5-hexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene]- MH-PPV films and light emitting diodes. Complex impedance measurements of (Au or ITO/MH-PPV/(Au or Al samples were carried out at room temperature and exposed to white light. Over the frequency range from 100 mHz to 2 MHz, the electrical results of Au/MH-PPV/Au was dominated by the Cole-Cole approach, where the electrode influence is negligible. However, some additional influence of the interface was observed to occur when Al was used as electrode. These effects were observed under both dark and visible-light illumination conditions. A simple model based on resistor-capacitor parallel circuits was developed to represent the complex impedance of the samples, thereby separating bulk and interface contributions. We observed that the polymer electrical resistivity decreased while the dielectric constant of the polymer and the thickness of the Al/MH-PPV layer were almost constant with increasing light intensity. The decrease of the polymer layer resistance comes from a better charge injection due to a light induced dissociation of positive charge carriers at the electrode.

  15. Using In Silico Fragmentation to Improve Routine Residue Screening in Complex Matrices

    Kaufmann, Anton; Butcher, Patrick; Maden, Kathryn; Walker, Stephan; Widmer, Mirjam

    2017-12-01

    Targeted residue screening requires the use of reference substances in order to identify potential residues. This becomes a difficult issue when using multi-residue methods capable of analyzing several hundreds of analytes. Therefore, the capability of in silico fragmentation based on a structure database ("suspect screening") instead of physical reference substances for routine targeted residue screening was investigated. The detection of fragment ions that can be predicted or explained by in silico software was utilized to reduce the number of false positives. These "proof of principle" experiments were done with a tool that is integrated into a commercial MS vendor instrument operating software (UNIFI) as well as with a platform-independent MS tool (Mass Frontier). A total of 97 analytes belonging to different chemical families were separated by reversed phase liquid chromatography and detected in a data-independent acquisition (DIA) mode using ion mobility hyphenated with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry. The instrument was operated in the MSE mode with alternating low and high energy traces. The fragments observed from product ion spectra were investigated using a "chopping" bond disconnection algorithm and a rule-based algorithm. The bond disconnection algorithm clearly explained more analyte product ions and a greater percentage of the spectral abundance than the rule-based software (92 out of the 97 compounds produced ≥1 explainable fragment ions). On the other hand, tests with a complex blank matrix (bovine liver extract) indicated that the chopping algorithm reports significantly more false positive fragments than the rule based software. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Warm White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on a Novel Orange Cationic Iridium(III) Complex.

    Tang, Huaijun; Meng, Guoyun; Chen, Zeyu; Wang, Kaimin; Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Zhengliang

    2017-06-16

    A novel orange cationic iridium(III) complex [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ (TPTA: 3,4,5-triphenyl-4 H -1,2,4-triazole, dPPOA: N,N-diphenyl-4-(5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)aniline) was synthesized and used as a phosphor in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ has high thermal stability with a decomposition temperature ( T d ) of 375 °C, and its relative emission intensity at 100 °C is 88.8% of that at 25°C. When only [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ was used as a phosphor at 6.0 wt % in silicone and excited by a blue GaN (GaN: gallium nitride) chip (450 nm), an orange LED was obtained. A white LED fabricated by a blue GaN chip (450 nm) and only yellow phosphor Y₃Al₅O 12 :Ce 3+ (YAG:Ce) (1.0 wt % in silicone) emitted cold white light, its CIE (CIE: Commission International de I'Eclairage ) value was (0.32, 0.33), color rendering index (CRI) was 72.2, correlated color temperature (CCT) was 6877 K, and luminous efficiency ( η L ) was 128.5 lm∙W -1 . Such a cold white LED became a neutral white LED when [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ was added at 0.5 wt %; its corresponding CIE value was (0.35, 0.33), CRI was 78.4, CCT was 4896 K, and η L was 85.2 lm∙W -1 . It further became a warm white LED when [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ was added at 1.0 wt %; its corresponding CIE value was (0.39, 0.36), CRI was 80.2, CCT was 3473 K, and η L was 46.1 lm∙W -1 . The results show that [(TPTA)₂Ir(dPPOA)]PF₆ is a promising phosphor candidate for fabricating warm white LEDs.

  17. Origin of a counterintuitive yellow light-emitting electrochemical cell based on a blue-emitting heteroleptic copper(i) complex.

    Weber, Michael D; Garino, Claudio; Volpi, Giorgio; Casamassa, Enrico; Milanesio, Marco; Barolo, Claudia; Costa, Rubén D

    2016-06-07

    This work provides the synthesis, structural characterization, electrochemical and photophysical features, as well as the application in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) of a novel heteroleptic copper(i) complex - [Cu(impy)(POP)][PF6], where impy is 3-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-(pyridine-2-yl)imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine and POP is bis{2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl}ether. This compound shows blue photoluminescence (PL, λ = 450 nm) in solution and solid-state and excellent redox stability. Despite these excellent features, the electroluminescence (EL) response is located at ∼550 nm. Although the EL spectrum of LECs is typically red-shifted compared to the PL of the electroluminescent material, a shift of ca. 100 nm represents the largest one reported in LECs. To date, the large shift phenomena have been attributed to (i) a change in the nature of the lowest emitting state due to a concentration effect of the films, (ii) a reversible substitution of the ligands due to the weak coordination to the Cu(i), and (iii) a change in the distribution of the excited states due to polarization effects. After having discarded these along with others like the irreversible degradation of the emitter during device fabrication and/or under operation conditions, driving conditions, active layer composition, and changes in the excited states under different external electrical stimuli, we attribute the origin of this unexpected shift to a lack of a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) process due to the solely ligand-centered character of the excited states. As such, the lack of a charge transfer character in the excited states leads to a blue-fluorescence and yellow-phosphorescence photo- and electro-responses, respectively. This corroborates recent studies focused on the design of TADF for heteroleptic copper(i) complexes. Overall, this work is a clear insight into the design of new copper(i) complexes towards the preparation of blue LECs, which are still unexplored.

  18. Complex nuclear-structure phenomena revealed from the nuclide production in fragmentation reactions

    Ricciardi, M.V.; Kelic, A.; Napolitani, P.; Schmidt, K.H.; Yordanov, O.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Rejmund, F.

    2003-12-01

    Complex structural effects in the nuclide production from the projectile fragmentation of 1 A GeV 238 U nuclei in a titanium target are reported. The structure seems to be insensitive to the excitation energy induced in the reaction. This is in contrast to the prominent structural features found in nuclear fission and in transfer reactions, which gradually disappear with increasing excitation energy. Using the statistical model of nuclear reactions, relations to structural effects in nuclear binding and in the nuclear level density are demonstrated. (orig.)

  19. Macroscopic model description of heavy-ion induced complex-fragment emission

    Carjan, N.

    1988-01-01

    The Yukawa-plus-exponential finite-range model and the standard liquid-drop model are shortly reviewed and compared. The dependence of the barrier heights and of the saddle-point shapes on mass-asymmetry and on angular momentum is studied for the compound nuclei 110 Sn, 149 Tb and 194 Hg. The predicted asymmetric-fission barriers, charge yields and total kinetic energies are compared with experimental data obtained from the deexcitation of compound nuclei by complex-fragment emission

  20. Yellow emitting Iridium (III) phenyl-benzothiazole complexes with different β-diketone ancillary ligands as dopants in white organic light-emitting diodes

    Ivanov, P.; Petrova, P.; Tomova, R.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the influence of the type of β-diketone ancillary ligand in Iridium (III) bis phenyl-benzothiazole complexes ((bt)2Ir(β-diketone)) on their photophysical and electroluminescent properties when they are used as dopants in white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLED). For this purpose, we investigated four novel yellow cyclometalated complexes: (bt)2Ir(dbm), (bt)2Ir(fmtdbm), (bt)2Ir(tta) and (bt)2Ir(bsm), where dbm = 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dionate; fmtdbm = 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propane-1,3-dionate; tta = 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(thiophene-2-yl)butane-1,3-dionate; and bsm = 1-phenylicosane-1,3-dionate). To obtain white light by mixing emissions of two complementary colors (yellow emitted by the dopant and blue, by another emitter), we chose the following OLED structure: ITO/doped HTL/ElL/ETL/M, where ITO was a transparent anode of In2O3:SnO2; M, a metallic Al cathode; HTL, 4,4’-Bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) involved in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix; ElL, an electroluminescent layer of aluminum(III)bis(2-methyl-8-quninolinato)-4-phenylphenolate (BAlq); and ETL, an electron-transporting layer of zinc(II)bis(2-2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole. We found that all complexes are suitable candidates for fabrication of WOLED. The best results were demonstrated by the device doped with 2 wt % of (bt)2Ir(bsm), which had twice as high luminescence (1100 cd/m2) and one-and-a-half as high current efficiency (5 cd/A) as the device doped with 1.25 wt % of the known (bt)2Ir(acac), with its 580 cd/m2 and 3.4 cd/A at approximately the same CIE (Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage) (x/y) coordinates of the warm white light emitted by the two devices.

  1. Complex fragment emission in the reaction 197Au → 197Au at an incident energy of 15 MeV/u

    Schmoll, R.

    1988-07-01

    For the study of the dominant decay processes in the reaction 15 MeV/u 197 Au → 197 Au in one-particle inclusive experiments the emission characteristics of all ejectiles in the mass range 24 ≤ A ≤ 197 were studied. The deflection function of the projectile-like fragments is for all energy losses at the grazing angle Θ cm gr =27.5 degrees peaked and in fact even for scattering events in which the whole available kinetic energy was dissipated in the collisions. The systematic analysis of the velocity spectra shows that the lightest fragments are formed in double-sequential fission of the highly excited gold-like fragments from the first deep inelastic reaction stage before reaching of a global equilibrium. On the other side symmetrical fission products, which are part of the narrow branch of the mass distribution, are emitted in simple-sequential non-equilibrium fission. This simple-sequential breakup is very closely limited to excitation energies of 75 ≤ E * ≤ 275 MeV of the primary, gold-like fragments, while the probability for double-sequential fission above E * ≅ 200 MeV increases very strongly. Contrarily to equilibrated compound-nucleus fission these processes are characterized by a in the source system strongly anisotropic angular distribution with distinct foreward/backward asymmetry and by an extremely asymmetric mass split. The study of the mass distribution shows that non-equilibrium fission at 15 MeV/u is both in view of the reaction cross section and regarding the creation of the complex fragments is the dominant decay process. The integral cross section of the broad four-body distribution corresponds to 60% of the total reaction cross section; the integral cross section of the narrow three-body distribution corresponds to 10%. (orig./HSI) [de

  2. Red polymer light-emitting devices based on an oxadiazole-functionalized europium(III) complex

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Yafei; Li, Chun; Huang, Ying; Dang, Dongfeng; Zhu, Meixiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Cao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    A novel tris(dibenzoylmethanato)[5-(2-(4-tert-butylbenzenyl)-5-benzenyl-1,3, 4-oxadiazole-4′)-1,10-phenanthroline]europium(III) [Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen)] containing an electron-transporting oxadiazole-functionalized phenanthroline ligand was synthesized and characterized. Its UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL), as well as the electroluminescence (EL) in polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs) were investigated. The double-layer PLEDs with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/PVK (40 nm)/PFO:PBD (30%):Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) (1–8 wt %) (80 nm)/Ba (4 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. Saturated red Eu 3+ ion emission, based on the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition, is centered at a wavelength of 614 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The highest external quantum efficiency (QE ext ) of 1.26% at current density of 1.65 mA cm −2 , with a maximum brightness of 568 cd m −2 at 137.8 mA cm −2 was achieved from the device at 1 wt % dopant concentration. - Highlights: • An oxadiazole-functionalized europium(III) complex of Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) was presented. • The optophysical properties of Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) were investigated. • Saturated red emission was observed in the PLEDs. • An external quantum efficiency of 1.26% was obtained in these devices

  3. Phosphorescent light-emitting iridium complexes serve as a hypoxia-sensing probe for tumor imaging in living animals

    Takeuchi, Toshiyuki; Zhang, Shaojuan; Negishi, Kazuya; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Hosaka, Masahiro; Tobita, Seiji

    2010-02-01

    Iridium complex, a promising organic light-emitting diode material for next generation television and computer displays, emits phosphorescence. Phosphorescence is quenched by oxygen. We used this oxygen-quenching feature for imaging tumor hypoxia. Red light-emitting iridium complex Ir(btp)2(acac) (BTP) presented hypoxia-dependent light emission in culture cell lines, whose intensity was in parallel with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 expression. BTP was further applied to imaging five nude mouse-transplanted tumors. All tumors presented a bright BTP-emitting image as early as 5 min after the injection. The BTP-dependent tumor image peaked at 1 to 2 h after the injection, and was then removed from tumors within 24 h. The minimal BTP image recognition size was at least 2 mm in diameter. By morphological examination and phosphorescence lifetime measurement, BTP is presumed to localize to the tumor cells, not to stay in the tumor microvessels by binding to albumin. The primary problem on suse of luminescent probe for tumor imaging is its weak penetrance to deep tissues from the skin surface. Since BTP is easily modifiable, we made BTP analogues with a longer excitation/emission wavelength to improve the tissue penetrance. One of them, BTPHSA, displayed 560/720 wavelength, and depicted its clear imaging from tumors transplanted over 6-7 mm deep from the skin surface. We suggest that BTP analogues have a vast potential for imaging hypoxic lesions such as tumor tissues.

  4. Synthesis, Photoluminescence Behavior of Green Light Emitting Tb(III) Complexes and Mechanistic Investigation of Energy Transfer Process.

    Bala, Manju; Kumar, Satish; Devi, Rekha; Khatkar, Avni; Taxak, V B; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, S P

    2018-06-04

    A series of five new terbium(III) ion complexes with 4,4-difluoro-1-phenylbutane-1,3-dione (HDPBD) and anciliary ligands was synthesized. The composition and properties of complexes were analyzed by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, powder X-ray diffaraction, TG-DTG and photoluminescence spectroscopy. These complexes exhibited ligand sensitized green emission at 546 nm associated with 5 D 4  →  7 F 5 transitions of terbium ion in the emission spectra. The photoluminescence study manifested that the organic ligands act as antenna and facilitate the absorbed energy to emitting levels of Tb(III) ion efficiently. The enhanced luminescence intensity and decay time of ternary C2-C5 complexes observed due to synergistic effect of anciliary ligands. The CIE color coordinates of complexes came under the green region of chromaticity diagram. The mechanistic investigation of intramolecular energy transfer in the complexes was discussed in detail. These terbium(III) complexes can be thrivingly used as one of the green component in light emitting material and in display devices. Graphical Abstract Illustrate the sensitization process of the Tb ion and intramolecular energy transfer process in the Tb 3+ complex.

  5. Integrated versus fragmented implementation of complex innovations in acute health care

    Woiceshyn, Jaana; Blades, Kenneth; Pendharkar, Sachin R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Increased demand and escalating costs necessitate innovation in health care. The challenge is to implement complex innovations—those that require coordinated use across the adopting organization to have the intended benefits. Purpose: We wanted to understand why and how two of five similar hospitals associated with the same health care authority made more progress with implementing a complex inpatient discharge innovation whereas the other three experienced more difficulties in doing so. Methodology: We conducted a qualitative comparative case study of the implementation process at five comparable urban hospitals adopting the same inpatient discharge innovation mandated by their health care authority. We analyzed documents and conducted 39 interviews of the health care authority and hospital executives and frontline managers across the five sites over a 1-year period while the implementation was ongoing. Findings: In two and a half years, two of the participating hospitals had made significant progress with implementing the innovation and had begun to realize benefits; they exemplified an integrated implementation mode. Three sites had made minimal progress, following a fragmented implementation mode. In the former mode, a semiautonomous health care organization developed a clear overall purpose and chose one umbrella initiative to implement it. The integrative initiative subsumed the rest and guided resource allocation and the practices of hospital executives, frontline managers, and staff who had bought into it. In contrast, in the fragmented implementation mode, the health care authority had several overlapping, competing innovations that overwhelmed the sites and impeded their implementation. Practice Implications: Implementing a complex innovation across hospital sites required (a) early prioritization of one initiative as integrative, (b) the commitment of additional (traded off or new) human resources, (c) deliberate upfront planning and

  6. Intermetallic Competition in the Fragmentation of Trimetallic Au-Zn-Alkali Complexes.

    Lang, Johannes; Cayir, Merve; Walg, Simon P; Di Martino-Fumo, Patrick; Thiel, Werner R; Niedner-Schatteburg, Gereon

    2016-02-12

    Cationization is a valuable tool to enable mass spectrometric studies on neutral transition-metal complexes (e.g., homogenous catalysts). However, knowledge of potential impacts on the molecular structure and catalytic reactivity induced by the cationization is indispensable to extract information about the neutral complex. In this study, we cationize a bimetallic complex [AuZnCl3 ] with alkali metal ions (M(+) ) and investigate the charged adducts [AuZnCl3 M](+) by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IR-MPD) in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal a μ(3) binding motif of all alkali ions to the three chlorido ligands. The cationization induces a reorientation of the organic backbone. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) studies reveal switches of fragmentation channels by the alkali ion and by the CID amplitude. The Li(+) and Na(+) adducts prefer the sole loss of ZnCl2 , whereas the K(+) , Rb(+) , and Cs(+) adducts preferably split off MCl2 ZnCl. Calculated energetics along the fragmentation coordinate profiles allow us to interpret the experimental findings to a level of subtle details. The Zn(2+) cation wins the competition for the nitrogen coordination sites against K(+) , Rb(+) , and Cs(+) , but it loses against Li(+) and Na(+) in a remarkable deviation from a naive hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) concept. The computations indicate expulsion of MCl2 ZnCl rather than of MCl and ZnCl2 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The role of compound nuclei and deep-inelastic scattering in complex fragment production at intermediate energies

    Wozniak, G.J.; Colonna, N.; Charity, R.J.; Moretto, L.G.

    1989-02-01

    The dependence of complex fragment production on the asymmetry of the entrance channel has been investigated with the 18 A MeV 139 La + 12 C, 27 Al, 64 Ni reactions. Invariant cross section plots show a very simple pattern for the two lighter targets and a more complex one for the heavier 64 Ni target. The observed complex fragments are shown to result from quasi-elastic/deep-inelastic reactions and from compound nuclei formed in complete/incomplete fusion processes. 9 refs., 10 figs

  8. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex of the dog.

    Sarmiento, U M; Storb, R F

    1988-01-01

    Human major histocompatibility complex (HLA) cDNA probes were used to analyze the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the DLA-D region in dogs. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leucocytes of 23 unrelated DLA-D-homozygous dogs representing nine DLA-D types (defined by mixed leucocyte reaction) was digested with restriction enzymes (Bam HI, Eco RI, Hind III, Pvu II, Taq I, Rsa I, Msp I, Pst I, and Bgl II), separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, and transferred onto Biotrace membrane. The Southern blots were successively hybridized with radiolabeled HLA cDNA probes corresponding to DR, DQ, DP, and DO beta genes. The autoradiograms for all nine enzyme digests displayed multiple bands with the DRb, DQb, and DPb probes while the DOb probe hybridized with one to two bands. The RFLP patterns were highly polymorphic but consistent within each DLA-D type. Standard RFLP patterns were established for nine DLA-D types which could be discriminated from each other by using two enzymes (Rsa I and Pst I) and the HLA-DPb probe. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic restriction fragments detected by the DRb probe revealed four closely related supertypic groups or DLA-DR families: Dw3 + Dw4 + D1, Dw8 + D10, D7 + D16 + D9, and Dw1. This study provides the basis for DLA-D genotyping at a population level by RFLP analysis. These results also suggest that the genetic organization of the DLA-D region may closely resemble that of the HLA complex.

  9. The dynamic behavior of thin-film ionic transition metal complex-based light-emitting electrochemical cells

    Meier, Sebastian B., E-mail: sebastian.meier@belectric.com, E-mail: wiebke.sarfert@siemens.com [Department of Materials Science VI: Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT IEC-DE, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Hartmann, David; Sarfert, Wiebke, E-mail: sebastian.meier@belectric.com, E-mail: wiebke.sarfert@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT IEC-DE, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI: Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-09-14

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have received increasing attention during recent years due to their simple architecture, based on solely air-stabile materials, and ease of manufacture in ambient atmosphere, using solution-based technologies. The LEC's active layer offers semiconducting, luminescent as well as ionic functionality resulting in device physical processes fundamentally different as compared with organic light-emitting diodes. During operation, electrical double layers (EDLs) form at the electrode interfaces as a consequence of ion accumulation and electrochemical doping sets in leading to the in situ development of a light-emitting p-i-n junction. In this paper, we comment on the use of impedance spectroscopy in combination with complex nonlinear squares fitting to derive key information about the latter events in thin-film ionic transition metal complex-based light-emitting electrochemical cells based on the model compound bis-2-phenylpyridine 6-phenyl-2,2´-bipyridine iridium(III) hexafluoridophosphate ([Ir(ppy)₂(pbpy)][PF₆]). At operating voltages below the bandgap potential of the ionic complex used, we obtain the dielectric constant of the active layer, the conductivity of mobile ions, the transference numbers of electrons and ions, and the thickness of the EDLs, whereas the transient thickness of the p-i-n junction is determined at voltages above the bandgap potential. Most importantly, we find that charge transport is dominated by the ions when carrier injection from the electrodes is prohibited, that ion movement is limited by the presence of transverse internal interfaces and that the width of the intrinsic region constitutes almost 60% of the total active layer thickness in steady state at a low operating voltage.

  10. Origin of complex fragments from 32S + natAg reaction at 37.5 A.MeV

    Benchekroun, D.; Cheynis, B.; Demeyer, A.; Gerlic, E.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Lebreton, L.; Magda, M.T.; Stern, M.; Chabane, A.; Desesquelles, P.; Giorni, A.; Heuer, D.; Lleres, A.; Viano, J.B.

    1996-08-01

    Fragment emission from collisions of 32 S with nat Ag at 37.5 A.MeV has been studied with the 4π multidetector AMPHORA. Production of intermediate mass and heavy fragments as well as of light charged particles has been measured. The total charged particle multiplicity and polar angular distributions have been used to select various classes of collisions. Analysis of angular and energy distributions of fragments and light particles in central collisions indicates the formation of a hot source (excitation energy of ∼ 4.4 A.MeV) with an additional contribution from a preequilibrium process at more forward angles. Azimuthal angle correlations of He - Li, Li - Li, B - B, and C - C pairs have been used as a tool to study the origin of complex fragments. Data at backward angles are well described by considering a thermalized emitter with an angular momentum around 70 h and a fragment emission time of the order of 200 fm/c. A microscopic approach of BNV type confirms these emission times and angular momenta indicating the persistence of an incomplete fusion process responsible for the emission of complex fragments at backward angles

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of transportin 1 in complex with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and nuclear localization fragments

    Imasaki, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Hidaka, Yuji; Yamada, Michiyuki; Sato, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    Transportin 1 was cocrystallized with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling fragments of JKTBP and hnRNP D and a nuclear localization fragment of TAP. X-ray diffraction data were collected using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins with molar masses of larger than 60 000 is mediated by transport receptors. The transport receptor transportin1 (Trn1) transports various kinds of RNA-binding proteins such as JKTBP, hnRNP D and TAP. Trn1 was successfully cocrystallized with nucleocytoplasmic shuttling fragments of JKTBP and hnRNP D and a nuclear localization fragment of TAP. The crystal of the Trn1–JKTBP fragment complex belongs to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 131.5, b =171.5, c = 68.2 Å. The crystals of Trn1 in complex with hnRNP D and TAP fragments are orthorhombic, space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 69.1, b = 119.1, c = 151.1 Å and a = 69.0, b = 119.1, c = 146.0 Å, respectively. The crystals diffracted to beyond 3.0, 3.2 and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8

  12. Systematics of complex fragment emission from La induced reactions at E/A = 47 MeV

    Kehoe, W.L.; Mignerey, A.C.; Bradley, S.

    1989-03-01

    Complex fragment (Z > 2) emission was studied in the reverse kinematics reactions of 139 La on 27 Al and /sup nat./Cu at a bombarding energy of E/A = 47 MeV. Experimental results from inclusive and coincidence measurements for two- and three-fold complex fragments events are presented. Measured cross sections and Z 1 -Z 2 correlations show a predominately binary-decay process for the La + Al reaction, while the La + Cu reaction is dominated by multi-body decay. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex.

    Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Ekblom, Robert; Völker, Martin; Westerdahl, Helena; Godinez, Ricardo; Kotkiewicz, Holly; Burt, David W; Graves, Tina; Griffin, Darren K; Warren, Wesley C; Edwards, Scott V

    2010-04-01

    Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH) evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving chromosomal fission, gene duplication and translocation in the

  14. Clinical significance of fragmented QRS complexes or J waves in patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias.

    Seong, Choong Sil; Gwag, Hye Bin; Hwang, Jin Kyung; Park, Seung Jung; Park, Kyoung-Min; Kim, June Soo; On, Young Keun

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) can cause sudden cardiac death. Previous studies have reported that J waves and fragmented QRS complexes (f-QRS) are arrhythmogenic markers and predictors of cardiac events. We evaluated the prevalence and clinical significance of J waves and f-QRS in patients with IVF. We studied 81 patients who received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) due to IVF between October 1999 and June 2015. We assessed the prevalence of J waves and f-QRS using electrocardiograms (ECGs). Patients were classified into three groups: J wave group (n = 35), f-QRS group (n = 20), or normal ECG group (n = 26). The control group included 81 subjects without heart disease who were matched for age, sex, and race. We compared syncope, sudden cardiac arrest, and appropriate ICD shock between the three groups. The follow-up duration was 4.1 years. J waves and f-QRS were more frequent in patients with IVF than in control subjects (43.2%, 21% vs. 24.7%, 19.7%, P J wave and f-QRS versus the normal ECG group revealed that the combined group had a higher frequency of clinical cardiac events than the normal ECG group (47.3% vs. 11.5%, respectively, P = 0.009). Patients with IVF had higher prevalence of f-QRS or J waves. And patients with f-QRS or J waves were at higher risk of recurrent ventricular fibrillation.

  15. The geography of malaria genetics in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A complex and fragmented landscape

    Carrel, Margaret; Patel, Jaymin; Taylor, Steve M.; Janko, Mark; Mwandagalirwa, Melchior Kashamuka; Tshefu, Antoinette K.; Escalante, Ananias A.; McCollum, Andrea; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Meshnick, Steven; Emch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how malaria parasites move between populations is important, particularly given the potential for malaria to be reintroduced into areas where it was previously eliminated. We examine the distribution of malaria genetics across seven sites within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and two nearby countries, Ghana and Kenya, in order to understand how the relatedness of malaria parasites varies across space, and whether there are barriers to the flow of malaria parasites within the DRC or across borders. Parasite DNA was retrieved from dried blood spots from 7 Demographic and Health Survey sample clusters in the DRC. Malaria genetic characteristics of parasites from Ghana and Kenya were also obtained. For each of 9 geographic sites (7 DRC, 1 Ghana and 1 Kenya), a pair-wise RST statistic was calculated, indicating the genetic distance between malaria parasites found in those locations. Mapping genetics across the spatial extent of the study area indicates a complex genetic landscape, where relatedness between two proximal sites may be relatively high (RST > 0.64) or low (RST < 0.05), and where distal sites also exhibit both high and low genetic similarity. Mantel’s tests suggest that malaria genetics differ as geographic distances increase. Principal Coordinate Analysis suggests that genetically related samples are not co-located. Barrier analysis reveals no significant barriers to gene flow between locations. Malaria genetics in the DRC have a complex and fragmented landscape. Limited exchange of genes across space is reflected in greater genetic distance between malaria parasites isolated at greater geographic distances. There is, however, evidence for close genetic ties between distally located sample locations, indicating that movement of malaria parasites and flow of genes is being driven by factors other than distance decay. This research demonstrates the contributions that spatial disease ecology and landscape genetics can make to

  16. Fabrication and characterization of organic light-emitting diodes using zinc complexes as hole-blocking layer.

    Kim, Won Sam; You, Jung Min; Lee, Burm-Jong; Jang, Yoon-Ki; Kim, Dong-Eun; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2006-11-01

    2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HPB) was employed as organic ligand and the corresponding zinc complexes (Zn(HPB)2 and Zn(HPB)q) were synthesized. And their EL properties were characterized. The structures of zinc complexes were determined with FT-NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, and XPS. The thermal stability showed up to about 300 degrees C under nitrogen flow, which was measured by TGA. The photoluminescence (PL) of zinc complexes were measured from the DMF solution. The PL emitted in blue and yellow region, respectively. The EL devices were fabricated by the vacuum deposition. Two kinds of OLEDs devices were fabricated; ITO/NPB (40 nm)/Zn complexes (60 nm)/LiF/Al and ITO/NPB (40 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/Zn complexes (5 nm)/LiF/Al. Both of the EL properties as the emitting and the hole-blocking layer were investigated. The EL emission of Zn(HPB)q exhibited green light centered at 532 nm. The device showed a turn-on voltage at 5 V and a luminance of 6073 cd/m2 at 10 V. Meanwhile, the maximum EL the emission of the Zn(HPB)2 device was found to be at 447 nm. And the device showed a luminance of 2813 cd/m2 at 10 V. The ITO/NPB (40 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/Zn(HPB)2 (5 nm)/LiF/Al device showed increased luminance of L=17000 cd/m2 compared to L=12000 cd/m2 for similar device fabricated without the hole-blocking layer. And the turn-on voltage was significantly affected by the existence of the hole-blocking layer.

  17. Non-equilibrium versus equilibrium emission of complex fragments from hot nuclei

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Yennello, S.; Fields, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The relative contributions of equilibrium and non-equilibrium mechanisms for intermediate-mass fragment emission have been deduced for Z=3-14 fragments formed in 3 He- and 14 N-induced reactions on Ag and Au targets. Complete inclusive excitation function measurements have been performed for 3 He projectiles from E/A=67 to 1,200 MeV and for 14 N from E/A=20 to 50 MeV. The data are consistent with a picture in which equilibrated emission is important at the lowest energies, but with increasing bombarding energy the cross sections are increasingly dominated by non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium emission is also shown to be favored for light fragments relative to heavy fragments. These results are supported by coincidence studies of intermediate-mass fragments tagged by linear momentum transfer measurements

  18. Red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) based on a heteroleptic cyclometalated Iridium (III) complex

    Lepeltier, Marc [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180 CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Dumur, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.dumur@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, F-13397 Marseille (France); Wantz, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.wantz@ims-bordeaux.fr [University of Bordeaux, IMS, UMR 5218, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, IMS, UMR 5218, F-33400 Talence (France); Vila, Neus; Mbomekallé, Israel [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles, UMR 8180 CNRS, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles Cedex (France); Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, ICR, UMR 7273, F-13397 Marseille (France); Mayer, Cédric R., E-mail: cmayer@lisv.uvsq.fr [Laboratoire d’Ingénierie des Systèmes de Versailles LISV – EA 4048, Université de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 10/12 avenue de l’Europe, 78140 Vélizy (France)

    2013-11-15

    Highly efficient red-emitting Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs) based on a neutral vacuum-sublimatable heteroleptic iridium (III) complex have been designed and studied. Heteroleptic complex Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) was prepared in one step with acetylacetone (acac) as the ancillary ligand. Electronic and spectroscopic properties of Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) were investigated by UV–visible absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Electrophosphorescent devices comprising Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac) as dopant of TCTA exhibited outstanding electroluminescence performance with a current efficiency of 10.0 cd A{sup −1}, a maximum power efficiency of 7.2 lm W{sup −1} and a maximal brightness of 3540 cd m{sup −2} was reached at 8.0 V. CIE coordinates close to the standard red of the national television system committee were obtained (0.67, 0.33). -- Highlights: • A saturated red OLED has been prepared. • High power efficiency and brightness were obtained. • Thickness of the device was determined as a parameter determining the overall performance. • CIE coordinates close to the standard red of the national television system committee were obtained.

  19. Gene duplication and fragmentation in the zebra finch major histocompatibility complex

    Burt David W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its high polymorphism and importance for disease resistance, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC has been an important focus of many vertebrate genome projects. Avian MHC organization is of particular interest because the chicken Gallus gallus, the avian species with the best characterized MHC, possesses a highly streamlined minimal essential MHC, which is linked to resistance against specific pathogens. It remains unclear the extent to which this organization describes the situation in other birds and whether it represents a derived or ancestral condition. The sequencing of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata genome, in combination with targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC sequencing, has allowed us to characterize an MHC from a highly divergent and diverse avian lineage, the passerines. Results The zebra finch MHC exhibits a complex structure and history involving gene duplication and fragmentation. The zebra finch MHC includes multiple Class I and Class II genes, some of which appear to be pseudogenes, and spans a much more extensive genomic region than the chicken MHC, as evidenced by the presence of MHC genes on each of seven BACs spanning 739 kb. Cytogenetic (FISH evidence and the genome assembly itself place core MHC genes on as many as four chromosomes with TAP and Class I genes mapping to different chromosomes. MHC Class II regions are further characterized by high endogenous retroviral content. Lastly, we find strong evidence of selection acting on sites within passerine MHC Class I and Class II genes. Conclusion The zebra finch MHC differs markedly from that of the chicken, the only other bird species with a complete genome sequence. The apparent lack of synteny between TAP and the expressed MHC Class I locus is in fact reminiscent of a pattern seen in some mammalian lineages and may represent convergent evolution. Our analyses of the zebra finch MHC suggest a complex history involving

  20. The Complex Stratigraphy of the Highland Crust in the Serenitatis Region of the Moon Inferred from Mineral Fragment Chemistry

    Ryder, Graham; Norman, Marc D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    rocks do not contribute significantly to the fragment population. Nor do ferroan anorthosites contribute more than a tiny part of even the plagiociase fragment population. A few mineral fragments that are consistent with the cryptic low-K Fra Mauro chemical component were found, and these appear to be from gabbroic sources. The mineral fragment populations cannot be mixed in their observed proportions to produce the whole rock composition, because the fragments are more refractory and deficient in Ti, P, and alkalis. A preferential contribution to the melt from a rock similar to sodic ferrogabbro can partly resolve the discrepancy. The population of mineral fragments requires a very diverse population of igenous rocks that are not all related to each other, demonstrating the existence of a complex crust built of numerous separate igneous plutons. Many of these plutons may have crystallized at shallow depths. The chemical composition of the melt breccias, in combination with the mineral fragment data and an understanding of the cratering process, suggests that the deepest crust sampled by the Serenitatis impace (not necessarily the deepest crust) was basaltic in composition, including KREEP and gabbroic rocks like sodic ferrogabbro, and lacking abundant olivine-rich material. These were overlain by Mg-suite rocks of varied types, including norites and troctolites that supplied most of the olivine mineral fragments. Granulities, which are metamorphosed and more feldspathic breccias, were abundant near the surface. Remote sensing indicates that the entire Serenitatis region lacks ferroan anorthosite, consistent with the results of our study.

  1. Sky-blue emitting bridged diiridium complexes: beneficial effects of intramolecular π-π stacking.

    Congrave, Daniel G; Hsu, Yu-Ting; Batsanov, Andrei S; Beeby, Andrew; Bryce, Martin R

    2018-02-06

    The potential of intramolecular π-π interactions to influence the photophysical properties of diiridium complexes is an unexplored topic, and provides the motivation for the present study. A series of diarylhydrazide-bridged diiridium complexes functionalised with phenylpyridine (ppy)-based cyclometalating ligands is reported. It is shown by NMR studies in solution and single crystal X-ray analysis that intramolecular π-π interactions between the bridging and cyclometalating ligands rigidify the complexes leading to high luminescence quantum efficiencies in solution and in doped films. Fluorine substituents on the phenyl rings of the bridge promote the intramolecular π-π interactions. Notably, these non-covalent interactions are harnessed in the rational design and synthesis of the first examples of highly emissive sky-blue diiridium complexes featuring conjugated bridging ligands, for which they play a vital role in the structural and photophysical properties. Experimental results are supported by computational studies.

  2. Highly efficient and heavily-doped organic light-emitting devices based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex

    Zhou, Shunliang; Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Heavily doped and highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) had been fabricated by utilizing an orange iridium complex, bis[2-(3′,5′-di-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2'}]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)], as a phosphor. When the doping concentration of [(tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] reached as high as 15 wt%, the PhOLEDs exhibited a power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 24.5 lm/W, 32.1 cd/A, 15.7%, respectively, implying a promising quenching-resistant characteristics of this novel phosphor. Furthermore, the efficient white PhOLEDs had been obtained by employing (tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) as a self-host orange emitter, indicating that (tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) could serve as a promising phosphor to fabricate white organic light-emitting devices with simplified manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Efficient phosphorescent devices were fabricated. • Optimized phosphor doping ratio reached as high as 15 wt%. • The results proved a promising quench-resistant property of the phosphor. • Efficient white devices based on this phosphor as self-host layer had been realized.

  3. Highly efficient and heavily-doped organic light-emitting devices based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex

    Zhou, Shunliang; Wang, Qi; Li, Ming; Lu, Zhiyun; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    Heavily doped and highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) had been fabricated by utilizing an orange iridium complex, bis[2-(3′,5′-di-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazolato-N,C 2' ]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac)], as a phosphor. When the doping concentration of [(tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac)] reached as high as 15 wt%, the PhOLEDs exhibited a power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 24.5 lm/W, 32.1 cd/A, 15.7%, respectively, implying a promising quenching-resistant characteristics of this novel phosphor. Furthermore, the efficient white PhOLEDs had been obtained by employing (tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac) as a self-host orange emitter, indicating that (tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac) could serve as a promising phosphor to fabricate white organic light-emitting devices with simplified manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Efficient phosphorescent devices were fabricated. • Optimized phosphor doping ratio reached as high as 15 wt%. • The results proved a promising quench-resistant property of the phosphor. • Efficient white devices based on this phosphor as self-host layer had been realized

  4. [Molecular dynamics of immune complex of photoadduct-containing DNA with Fab-Anti-DNA antibody fragment].

    Akberova, N I; Zhmurov, A A; Nevzorova, T A; Litvinov, R I

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies to DNA play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The elucidation of structural mechanisms of both the antigen recognition and the interaction of anti-DNA antibodies with DNA will help to understand the role of DNA-containing immune complexes in various pathologies and can provide a basis for new treatment modalities. Moreover, the DNA-antibody complex is an analog of specific intracellular DNA-protein interactions. In this work, we used in silico molecular dynamic simulations of bimolecular complexes of the dsDNA segment containing the Fab fragment of an anti-DNA antibody to obtain the detailed thermodynamic and structural characteristics of dynamic intermolecular interactions. Using computationally modified crystal structure of the Fab-DNA complex (PDB ID: 3VW3), we studied the equilibrium molecular dynamics of the 64M-5 antibody Fab fragment associated with the dsDNA fragment containing the thymine dimer, the product of DNA photodamage. Amino acid residues that constitute paratopes and the complementary nucleotide epitopes for the Fab-DNA construct were identified. Stacking and electrostatic interactions were found to play the main role in mediating the most specific antibody-dsDNA contacts, while hydrogen bonds were less significant. These findings may shed light on the formation and properties of pathogenic anti-DNA antibodies in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus associated with skin photosensitivity and DNA photodamage.

  5. Organic light-emitting devices based on solution-processible quinolato-complex supramolecules

    Cheng, J.-A.; Chen, Chin H.; Shieh, H.-P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a new type of supramolecular material tris{5-N-[3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)propyl]-N-(4-methylphenyl) aminesulfonyl-8-hydroxyquinolato} aluminum(III), Al(SCarq) 3 , which we synthesized using three 5-N-[3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)propyl]-N-(4-methylphenyl) aminesulfonyl-8-hydroxyquinoline as bidentate ligands. The peak photoluminescence in the solid phase appears at 488 nm. In cyclic voltammetric measurement, two oxidation peaks, which were obtained at -5.6 and -5.9 eV, correspond to HOMO sites of carbazoyl and aluminum quinolates, respectively. In the investigation of solid morphological thin film, the flat surface was investigated using an atomic force microscope. The root mean square (rms) and mean roughness (R a ) were respectively measured to be 0.427 and 0.343 nm. For the fabrication of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using spin-coating techniques, the turn-on voltage and maximum luminescence of the optimized electroluminescence device, glass/ITO (20 nm)/PEDOT:PSS (75 nm)/Al(SCarq) 3 (85 nm)/BCP (8 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm), were respectively 9.6 V and 35.0 cd m -2 . Due to the electroplex formation between the carbazole (electron-donor) and the aluminum quinolates (electron-acceptor) moieties under an applied DC bias, the chromaticity of electroluminescence shifted to green-yellow with 1931 CIE x,y (0.40, 0.47)

  6. Organic light-emitting devices based on solution-processible quinolato-complex supramolecules

    Cheng, J.-A. [Department of Photonics and Display Institute, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jacheng.ac89g@nctu.edu.tw; Chen, Chin H. [Microelectronics and Information System Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Shieh, H.-P.D. [Department of Photonics and Display Institute, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2009-02-15

    This paper discusses a new type of supramolecular material tris{l_brace}5-N-[3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)propyl]-N-(4-methylphenyl) aminesulfonyl-8-hydroxyquinolato{r_brace} aluminum(III), Al(SCarq){sub 3}, which we synthesized using three 5-N-[3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)propyl]-N-(4-methylphenyl) aminesulfonyl-8-hydroxyquinoline as bidentate ligands. The peak photoluminescence in the solid phase appears at 488 nm. In cyclic voltammetric measurement, two oxidation peaks, which were obtained at -5.6 and -5.9 eV, correspond to HOMO sites of carbazoyl and aluminum quinolates, respectively. In the investigation of solid morphological thin film, the flat surface was investigated using an atomic force microscope. The root mean square (rms) and mean roughness (R{sub a}) were respectively measured to be 0.427 and 0.343 nm. For the fabrication of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using spin-coating techniques, the turn-on voltage and maximum luminescence of the optimized electroluminescence device, glass/ITO (20 nm)/PEDOT:PSS (75 nm)/Al(SCarq){sub 3} (85 nm)/BCP (8 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm), were respectively 9.6 V and 35.0 cd m{sup -2}. Due to the electroplex formation between the carbazole (electron-donor) and the aluminum quinolates (electron-acceptor) moieties under an applied DC bias, the chromaticity of electroluminescence shifted to green-yellow with 1931 CIE{sub x,y} (0.40, 0.47)

  7. IgG Fab Fragments Forming Bivalent Complexes by a Conformational Mechanism That Is Reversible by Osmolytes*

    Nelson, Alfreda D.; Hoffmann, Michele M.; Parks, Christopher A.; Dasari, Surendra; Schrum, Adam G.; Gil, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Generated by proteolytic cleavage of immunoglobulin, Fab fragments possess great promise as blocking reagents, able to bind receptors or other targets without inducing cross-linking. However, aggregation of Fab preparations is a common occurrence, which generates intrinsic stimulatory capacity and thwarts signal blockade strategies. Using a panel of biochemical approaches, including size exclusion chromatography, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry, and cell stimulation followed by flow cytometry, we have measured the oligomerization and acquisition of stimulatory capacity that occurs in four monoclonal IgG Fabs specific for TCR/CD3. Unexpectedly, we observed that all Fabs spontaneously formed complexes that were precisely bivalent, and these bivalent complexes possessed most of the stimulatory activity of each Fab preparation. Fabs composing bivalent complexes were more susceptible to proteolysis than monovalent Fabs, indicating a difference in conformation between the Fabs involved in these two different states of valency. Because osmolytes represent a class of compounds that stabilize protein folding and conformation, we sought to determine the extent to which the amino acid osmolyte l-proline might impact bivalent Fab complexation. We found that l-proline (i) inhibited the adoption of the conformation associated with bivalent complexation, (ii) preserved Fab monovalency, (iii) reversed the conformation of preformed bivalent Fabs to that of monovalent Fabs, and (iv) separated a significant percentage of preformed bivalent complexes into monovalent species. Thus, Fab fragments can adopt a conformation that is compatible with folding or packing of a bivalent complex in a process that can be inhibited by osmolytes. PMID:23109335

  8. Ligand effect on the performance of organic light-emitting diodes based on europium complexes

    Fang Junfeng; You Han; Gao Jia; Lu Wu; Ma Dongge

    2007-01-01

    A series of europium complexes were synthesized and their electroluminescent (EL) characteristics were studied. It was found by comparison that the different substituted groups, such as methyl, chlorine, and nitryl, on ligand 1,10-phenanthroline affect significantly the EL performance of devices based on these complexes. The more methyl-substituted groups on ligand 1,10-phenanthroline led to higher device efficiency. A chlorine-substituted group showed the approximate EL performance as two methyl-substituted groups, whereas a nitryl substituent reduced significantly the EL luminous efficiency. However, β-diketonate ligand TTA and DBM exhibited similar EL performance. The improved EL luminous efficiency by proper substituted groups on the 1,10-phenanthroline was attributed to the reduction of the energy loss caused by light hydrogen atom vibration, as well as concentration quenching caused by intermolecular interaction, and the match of energy level between the ligand and Eu 3+

  9. Creation of near-infrared emitting optical center related to nickel–silicon impurity complex in nanodiamond grains

    Tóth, S.; Himics, L.; Koós, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamond grains having intensive light emission in the near-infrared region even at room temperature carry an important application potential. Advantages of light emitting optical centers formed in nanodiamond grains are the emission concentrated into a narrow band and that they are mostly single photon emitter. Transition metal related impurity centers formed in nanodiamond grains exhibit these favorable properties. In this work we report on the creation of Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center in nanodiamond grains under microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW CVD) growth process. This complex center accounts for the previously undocumented fluorescence system with zero phonon line (ZPL) emission at 865 nm (1.433 eV) and band width of 1.5 nm (2.4 meV) at room temperature. By varying deposition conditions the Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center was formed in nanodiamond grains of 80–200 nm average sizes. Some variation of ZPL peak position and line width have been detected in nanodiamond grains prepared at different conditions, as well as in numerous nanodiamond grains prepared at the same conditions. The variations of local stress field may explain the spread of ZPL spectral parameters.

  10. Effect of carbazole-oxadiazole excited-state complexes on the efficiency of dye-doped light-emitting diodes

    Jiang, Xuezhong; Register, Richard A.; Killeen, Kelly A.; Thompson, Mark E.; Pschenitzka, Florian; Hebner, Thomas R.; Sturm, James C.

    2002-05-01

    Interactions between hole-transporting carbazole groups and electron-transporting 1,3,4-oxadiazole groups were studied by photoluminescence and electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopy, in blends of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with 2-tert-butylphenyl-5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PVK:PBD) and in random copolymers with carbazole and oxadiazole groups attached as side chains. Different excited-state complexes form in the blends, which exhibit exciplexes, and in the copolymers, which manifest electroplexes, due to topological constraints on the position of carbazole and oxadiazole units in the polymer. Both types of complex red-shift the EL spectra of the matrices compared with pure PVK homopolymer, although the shift is significantly greater for the electroplex. The presence of these complexes has a profound effect on the external quantum efficiency of dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes employing the blends or copolymers as matrices, as it strongly affects the efficiency of Förster energy transfer from the matrix to the dye. Single-layer devices doped with either coumarin 47 (C47), coumarin 6 (C6), or nile red (NR) were compared. Among the three dye-doped PVK:PBD devices, C6 doping yields the highest efficiency, while NR doping produced the most efficient copolymer devices, consistent with the degree of overlap between the EL spectrum of the matrix material and the absorption spectrum of the dye.

  11. Creation of near-infrared emitting optical center related to nickel–silicon impurity complex in nanodiamond grains

    Tóth, S., E-mail: toth.sara@wigner.mta.hu; Himics, L.; Koós, M.

    2016-08-15

    Nanodiamond grains having intensive light emission in the near-infrared region even at room temperature carry an important application potential. Advantages of light emitting optical centers formed in nanodiamond grains are the emission concentrated into a narrow band and that they are mostly single photon emitter. Transition metal related impurity centers formed in nanodiamond grains exhibit these favorable properties. In this work we report on the creation of Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center in nanodiamond grains under microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MW CVD) growth process. This complex center accounts for the previously undocumented fluorescence system with zero phonon line (ZPL) emission at 865 nm (1.433 eV) and band width of 1.5 nm (2.4 meV) at room temperature. By varying deposition conditions the Ni–Si impurity related complex defect center was formed in nanodiamond grains of 80–200 nm average sizes. Some variation of ZPL peak position and line width have been detected in nanodiamond grains prepared at different conditions, as well as in numerous nanodiamond grains prepared at the same conditions. The variations of local stress field may explain the spread of ZPL spectral parameters.

  12. Instrumentation measurement and testing complex for detection and identification of radioactive materials using the emitted radiation

    Samossadny, V.T.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Kadlin, V.V.; Kolesnikov, S.V.; Ulin, S.E.; Grachev, V.M.; Vlasik, K.F.; Dedenko, G.L.; Novikov, D.V.; Uteshev, Z.M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma radiation is a very usefull method for effective nuclear materials identification and control. The gamma-ray-neutron complex described in the paper is based on two multi-layer 3 He neutrons detectors and two High Pressure Xenon gamma-ray spectrometers assembled in one unit. All these detectors were callibrated on neutron and gamma-ray sources. The main characteristics of the instrumentation , its testing results and gamma-ray and neutron radiation parameters, which have been measured are represented in the paper. The gamma-neutron sources and fissile materials reliable detection and identification capability was demonstrated

  13. Synthesis of a red electrophosphorescent heteroleptic iridium complex and its application in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes

    Zhang Xiuju; Xu Yunhua; Sun Yiheng; Shi Huahong; Zhu Xuhui; Cao Yong

    2007-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of a heteroleptic iridium complex [2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridine]Ir(III)[2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl) pyridine] [(Btp) 2 Ir(PZ)] were reported (2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridine = Btp; 2-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine = PZ). Electrophosphorescence was investigated in the device structure [indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/poly(ethlenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/poly(vinylcarbazole)(PVK)/Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) end capped with dimethylphenyl (PFO): (Btp) 2 Ir(PZ)/Ba/Al] by using this iridium complex as guest and PFO as host. The red electrophosphorescent devices showed a peak emission at approximately 604 nm and shoulder at 654 nm with the Commission International de'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.64, 0.35) and external quantum efficiency of 7.7% at a doping concentration of 8 wt.% without an electron-transporting material in the emitting layer

  14. New cyclometalated Iridium(III) beta-dicetone complex as phosphorescent dopant in Organic light emitting devices

    Ivanov, P.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Tomova, R.

    2017-01-01

    A new Bis[4-(benzothiazolato-N,C2‧-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylaniline]Iridium(III) acetylacetonate (Me2N-bt) 2Ir(acac) was synthesized and identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The application of the new compound as a dopant in the hole transporting layer (HTL) of Organic light emitting diode (OLED) structure: HTL/EL/ETL, where HTL was N,N’-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), incorporated in Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix, EL - electroluminescent layer of Bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylpheno-xy)aluminum (BAlq) and ETL - electron-transporting layer of Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) or Bis[2-(2-benzothiazoly) phenolato]zinc (Zn(btz)2). We established that the electroluminescent spectra of OLEDs at different concentrations of the dopant were basically the sum of the greenish-blue emission of BAlq and yellowish-green emission of Ir complex. It was found that with increasing of the dopant concentration the relative electroluminescent intensity of Iridium complex emission increased and this of BAlq decreased and as a result the fine tuning of OLED color was observed.

  15. Identification of specific sources of airborne particles emitted from within a complex industrial (steelworks) site

    Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2018-06-01

    A case study is provided of the development and application of methods to identify and quantify specific sources of emissions from within a large complex industrial site. Methods include directional analysis of concentrations, chemical source tracers and correlations with gaseous emissions. Extensive measurements of PM10, PM2.5, trace gases, particulate elements and single particle mass spectra were made at sites around the Port Talbot steelworks in 2012. By using wind direction data in conjunction with real-time or hourly-average pollutant concentration measurements, it has been possible to locate areas within the steelworks associated with enhanced pollutant emissions. Directional analysis highlights the Slag Handling area of the works as the most substantial source of elevated PM10 concentrations during the measurement period. Chemical analyses of air sampled from relevant wind directions is consistent with the anticipated composition of slags, as are single particle mass spectra. Elevated concentrations of PM10 are related to inverse distance from the Slag Handling area, and concentrations increase with increased wind speed, consistent with a wind-driven resuspension source. There also appears to be a lesser source associated with Sinter Plant emissions affecting PM10 concentrations at the Fire Station monitoring site. The results are compared with a ME2 study using some of the same data, and shown to give a clearer view of the location and characteristics of emission sources, including fugitive dusts.

  16. Automated NMR fragment based screening identified a novel interface blocker to the LARG/RhoA complex.

    Jia Gao

    Full Text Available The small GTPase cycles between the inactive GDP form and the activated GTP form, catalyzed by the upstream guanine exchange factors. The modulation of such process by small molecules has been proven to be a fruitful route for therapeutic intervention to prevent the over-activation of the small GTPase. The fragment based approach emerging in the past decade has demonstrated its paramount potential in the discovery of inhibitors targeting such novel and challenging protein-protein interactions. The details regarding the procedure of NMR fragment screening from scratch have been rarely disclosed comprehensively, thus restricts its wider applications. To achieve a consistent screening applicable to a number of targets, we developed a highly automated protocol to cover every aspect of NMR fragment screening as possible, including the construction of small but diverse libray, determination of the aqueous solubility by NMR, grouping compounds with mutual dispersity to a cocktail, and the automated processing and visualization of the ligand based screening spectra. We exemplified our streamlined screening in RhoA alone and the complex of the small GTPase RhoA and its upstream guanine exchange factor LARG. Two hits were confirmed from the primary screening in cocktail and secondary screening over individual hits for LARG/RhoA complex, while one of them was also identified from the screening for RhoA alone. HSQC titration of the two hits over RhoA and LARG alone, respectively, identified one compound binding to RhoA.GDP at a 0.11 mM affinity, and perturbed the residues at the switch II region of RhoA. This hit blocked the formation of the LARG/RhoA complex, validated by the native gel electrophoresis, and the titration of RhoA to ¹⁵N labeled LARG in the absence and presence the compound, respectively. It therefore provides us a starting point toward a more potent inhibitor to RhoA activation catalyzed by LARG.

  17. Replication-Coupled PCNA Unloading by the Elg1 Complex Occurs Genome-wide and Requires Okazaki Fragment Ligation

    Takashi Kubota

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The sliding clamp PCNA is a crucial component of the DNA replication machinery. Timely PCNA loading and unloading are central for genome integrity and must be strictly coordinated with other DNA processing steps during replication. Here, we show that the S. cerevisiae Elg1 replication factor C-like complex (Elg1-RLC unloads PCNA genome-wide following Okazaki fragment ligation. In the absence of Elg1, PCNA is retained on chromosomes in the wake of replication forks, rather than at specific sites. Degradation of the Okazaki fragment ligase Cdc9 leads to PCNA accumulation on chromatin, similar to the accumulation caused by lack of Elg1. We demonstrate that Okazaki fragment ligation is the critical prerequisite for PCNA unloading, since Chlorella virus DNA ligase can substitute for Cdc9 in yeast and simultaneously promotes PCNA unloading. Our results suggest that Elg1-RLC acts as a general PCNA unloader and is dependent upon DNA ligation during chromosome replication.

  18. Diagnostic value of fragmented QRS complex in myocardial scar detection: systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

    Sadeghi, Ramin; Dabbagh, Vahid-Reza; Tayyebi, Mohammad; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Ayati, Narjess

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of fragmented QRS complex (fQRS) on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) for myocardial scar detection, and presented the results in a systematic review and meta-analysis format. Medline, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched electronically with "Fragmented QRS" or "fQRS" as key words. All related studies that had evaluated the accuracy of fQRS for myocardial scar diagnosis were included. Eight studies (2560 patients) were finally included in the systematic review. Specificity assessment could be evaluated only by five out of these eight articles. Overall pooled sensitivity of fQRS, Q wave, and mixed Q-fQRS was 68% (65-71), 51% (47-55), and 74% (69-79) and the pooled specificity was 80% (79-81), 97% (97-98) and 92% (91-93), respectively. Fragmented QRS is a novel ECG marker with more sensitivity and less specificity than Q wave. A combination of fQRS with Q wave in a 12-lead ECG results in up to 74% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Additional studies are needed to assess the significance of this ECG parameter for regional myocardial scar detection.

  19. High-efficiency and heavily doped organic light-emitting devices based on quench-resistant red iridium complex

    Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices had been fabricated using a new iridium complex, bis[2-(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl) benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2'}]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] as phosphor. With a high doping concentration of 15 wt%, the device exhibited a maximum luminance efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 35.2 cd/A, 21.3 lm/W, 18.2%, respectively, indicating an excellent quench-resistant property of (fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac). The results are appealing towards the development of 'easy-to-make' OLEDs. It has been demonstrated that the high efficiency arises from more balanced charge carriers in the emissive layer. - Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained efficient OLEDs based on newly synthesized quench-resistant phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak performance was obtained with 15 wt% (fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) doped device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our devices gave one of the best performance among heavily-doped red devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Balanced carrier transport is crucial for the high performance of our devices.

  20. Genome-wide macrosynteny among Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Lieschen De Vos

    Full Text Available The Gibberella fujikuroi complex includes many Fusarium species that cause significant losses in yield and quality of agricultural and forestry crops. Due to their economic importance, whole-genome sequence information has rapidly become available for species including Fusarium circinatum, Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium verticillioides, each of which represent one of the three main clades known in this complex. However, no previous studies have explored the genomic commonalities and differences among these fungi. In this study, a previously completed genetic linkage map for an interspecific cross between Fusarium temperatum and F. circinatum, together with genomic sequence data, was utilized to consider the level of synteny between the three Fusarium genomes. Regions that are homologous amongst the Fusarium genomes examined were identified using in silico and pyrosequenced amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP fragment analyses. Homology was determined using BLAST analysis of the sequences, with 777 homologous regions aligned to F. fujikuroi and F. verticillioides. This also made it possible to assign the linkage groups from the interspecific cross to their corresponding chromosomes in F. verticillioides and F. fujikuroi, as well as to assign two previously unmapped supercontigs of F. verticillioides to probable chromosomal locations. We further found evidence of a reciprocal translocation between the distal ends of chromosome 8 and 11, which apparently originated before the divergence of F. circinatum and F. temperatum. Overall, a remarkable level of macrosynteny was observed among the three Fusarium genomes, when comparing AFLP fragments. This study not only demonstrates how in silico AFLPs can aid in the integration of a genetic linkage map to the physical genome, but it also highlights the benefits of using this tool to study genomic synteny and architecture.

  1. Purification and crystallization of Vibrio fischeri CcdB and its complexes with fragments of gyrase and CcdA

    De Jonge, Natalie, E-mail: ndejonge@vub.ac.be; Buts, Lieven; Vangelooven, Joris [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mine, Natacha; Van Melderen, Laurence [Laboratoire de Génétique des Procaryotes, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Gosselies (Belgium); Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-04-01

    A CcdB homologue from V. fischeri was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. The free protein was crystallized, as were its complexes with fragments of E. coli and V. fischeri gyrase and with the F-plasmid CcdA C-terminal domain. The ccd toxin–antitoxin module from the Escherichia coli F plasmid has a homologue on the Vibrio fischeri integron. The homologue of the toxin (CcdB{sub Vfi}) was crystallized in two different crystal forms. The first form belongs to space group I23 or I2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameter a = 84.5 Å, and diffracts to 1.5 Å resolution. The second crystal form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.5, b = 43.6, c = 37.5 Å, β = 110.0°, and diffracts to 1.7 Å resolution. The complex of CcdB{sub Vfi} with the GyrA14{sub Vfi} fragment of V. fischeri gyrase crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.5, b = 94.6, c = 58.1 Å, and diffracts to 2.2 Å resolution. The corresponding mixed complex with E. coli GyrA14{sub Ec} crystallizes in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 130.1, b = 90.8, c = 58.1 Å, β = 102.6°, and diffracts to 1.95 Å. Finally, a complex between CcdB{sub Vfi} and part of the F-plasmid antitoxin CcdA{sub F} crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.9, b = 62.6, c = 82.0 Å, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution.

  2. Purification and crystallization of Vibrio fischeri CcdB and its complexes with fragments of gyrase and CcdA

    De Jonge, Natalie; Buts, Lieven; Vangelooven, Joris; Mine, Natacha; Van Melderen, Laurence; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy

    2007-01-01

    A CcdB homologue from V. fischeri was overexpressed in E. coli and purified. The free protein was crystallized, as were its complexes with fragments of E. coli and V. fischeri gyrase and with the F-plasmid CcdA C-terminal domain. The ccd toxin–antitoxin module from the Escherichia coli F plasmid has a homologue on the Vibrio fischeri integron. The homologue of the toxin (CcdB Vfi ) was crystallized in two different crystal forms. The first form belongs to space group I23 or I2 1 3, with unit-cell parameter a = 84.5 Å, and diffracts to 1.5 Å resolution. The second crystal form belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.5, b = 43.6, c = 37.5 Å, β = 110.0°, and diffracts to 1.7 Å resolution. The complex of CcdB Vfi with the GyrA14 Vfi fragment of V. fischeri gyrase crystallizes in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 53.5, b = 94.6, c = 58.1 Å, and diffracts to 2.2 Å resolution. The corresponding mixed complex with E. coli GyrA14 Ec crystallizes in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 130.1, b = 90.8, c = 58.1 Å, β = 102.6°, and diffracts to 1.95 Å. Finally, a complex between CcdB Vfi and part of the F-plasmid antitoxin CcdA F crystallizes in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 46.9, b = 62.6, c = 82.0 Å, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution

  3. Restriction fragment length polymorphism within the class I gene loci of the equine major histocompatibility complex

    Alexander, A.J.; Bailey, E.; Woodward, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen standard bred horses were serotyped as homozygous for 1 of 6 Equine Leukocyte Antigen (ELA) specificities. DNA was purified from peripheral leukocytes and digested with Hind III or Pvu II. Southern blot hybridization analysis was carried out using a 32 P-labeled mouse cDNA probe (PH2IIa) specific for class I MHC genes. Both enzymes generated blots that contained a large number of bands (23 to 30) per horse. Significant polymorphism existed among most fragment sizes, while a dozen highly conserved band sizes suggested the presence of Qa/tla - like genes. Only 2 animals (both W6's) showed identical band patterns. Polymorphism was greatest between horses of different serotypes and was significantly decreased within serotypes. Unique bands were present on both blots for both W1's and W6's and may account for the serologic specificity seen in ELA W1 and W6 horses. This study is consistent with the findings in other higher vertebrates and implies that the MHC of the horse includes a highly polymorphic class I multigene family

  4. Synthesis of unsymmetric bipyridine-Pt(II) -alkynyl complexes through post-click reaction with emission enhancement characteristics and their applications as phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

    Li, Yongguang; Tsang, Daniel Ping-Kuen; Chan, Carmen Ka-Man; Wong, Keith Man-Chung; Chan, Mei-Yee; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-10-13

    Two unsymmetric bipyridine-platinum(II)-alkynyl complexes have been synthesised by a post-click reaction. These metal complexes are found to exhibit emission enhancement properties. The photoluminescence quantum yield can be significantly increased from 0.03 in solution to 0.72 in solid-state thin films. Efficient solution-processable organic light-emitting diodes have been fabricated by utilizing these complexes as phosphorescent dopants. A high external quantum efficiency of up to 5.8% has been achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Luminescent zinc(ii) and copper(i) complexes for high-performance solution-processed monochromic and white organic light-emitting devices.

    Cheng, Gang; So, Gary Kwok-Ming; To, Wai-Pong; Chen, Yong; Kwok, Chi-Chung; Ma, Chensheng; Guan, Xiangguo; Chang, Xiaoyong; Kwok, Wai-Ming; Che, Chi-Ming

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic properties of luminescent tetranuclear zinc(ii) complexes of substituted 7-azaindoles and a series of luminescent copper(i) complexes containing 7,8-bis(diphenylphosphino)-7,8-dicarba- nido -undecaborate ligand are described. These complexes are stable towards air and moisture. Thin film samples of the luminescent copper(i) complexes in 2,6-dicarbazolo-1,5-pyridine and zinc(ii) complexes in poly(methyl methacrylate) showed emission quantum yields of up to 0.60 (for Cu-3 ) and 0.96 (for Zn-1 ), respectively. Their photophysical properties were examined by ultrafast time-resolved emission spectroscopy, temperature dependent emission lifetime measurements and density functional theory calculations. Monochromic blue and orange solution-processed OLEDs with these Zn(ii) and Cu(i) complexes as light-emitting dopants have been fabricated, respectively. Maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 5.55% and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.16, 0.19) were accomplished with the optimized Zn-1 -OLED while these values were, respectively 15.64% and (0.48, 0.51) for the optimized Cu-3 -OLED. Solution-processed white OLEDs having maximum EQE of 6.88%, CIE coordinates of (0.42, 0.44), and colour rendering index of 81 were fabricated by using these luminescent Zn(ii) and Cu(i) complexes as blue and orange light-emitting dopant materials, respectively.

  6. From ground state to fission fragments: A complex, multi-dimensional multi-path problem

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental results on the fission properties of nuclei close to 264 Fm show sudden and large changes with a change of only one or two neutrons or protons. The nucleus 258 Fm, for instance, undergoes symmetric fission with a half-life of about 0.4 ms and a kinetic-energy distribution peaked at about 235 MeV whereas 256 Fm undergoes asymmetric fission with a half-life of about 3 h and a kinetic-energy distribution peaked at about 200 MeV. Qualitatively, these sudden changes have been postulated to be due to the emergence of fragment shells in symmetric-fission products close to 132 Sn. Here we present a quantitative calculation that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fusion occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. We base our study on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. We use the three-quadratic-surface parameterization to generate the shapes for which the potential-energy surfaces are calculated. The use of this parameterization and the use of the finite-range macroscopic model allows for the study of two touching spheres and similar shapes. Since these shapes are thought to correspond to the scission shapes for the high-kinetic-energy events it is of crucial importance that a continuous sequence of shapes leading from the nuclear ground state to these configurations can be studied within the framework of the model. We present the results of the calculations in terms of potential-energy surfaces and fission half-lives for heavy even nuclei. The surfaces are displayed in the form of contour diagrams as functions of two moments of the shape. They clearly show the appearance of a second fission valley, which leads to scission configurations close to tow touching spheres, for fissioning systems in the vicinity of 264 Fm

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 in complex with a murine monoclonal IgG Fab' fragment

    Spangfort, M D; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Gajhede, M

    1999-01-01

    of the clinical symptoms of allergy. In order to study the structural basis of allergen-antibody interaction, a complex between the major birch-pollen allergen Bet v 1 and a Fab' fragment isolated from the murine monoclonal Bet v 1 antibody BV16 has been crystallized. Complex crystals belong to space group P1...

  8. Haplotyping the human T-cell receptor β-chain gene complex by use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms

    Charmley, P.; Chao, A.; Gatti, R.A.; Concannon, P.; Hood, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have studied the genetic segregation of human T-cell receptor β-chain (TCRβ) genes on chromosome 7q in 40 CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) families by using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). They constructed haplotypes from eight RFLPs by using variable- and constant-region cDNA probes, which detect polymorphisms that span more than 600 kilobases of the TCRβ gene complex. Analysis of allele distributions between TCRβ genes revealed significant linkage disequilibrium between only 6 of the 28 different pairs of RFLPs. This linkage disequilibrium strongly influences the most efficient order to proceed for typing of these RFLPs in order to achieve maximum genetic informativeness, which in this study revealed a 97.3% level of heterozygosity within the TCRβ gene complex. The results should provide new insight into recent reports of disease associations with the TCRβ gene complex and should assist in designing future experiments to detect or confirm the existence of disease-susceptibility loci in this region of the human genome

  9. Structure of a WW domain-containing fragment of dystrophin complexed with {beta}-dystroglycan.

    Huang, X.; Poy, F.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Sudol, M.; Eck, M. J.; Biosciences Division; Dana Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Mount Sinai School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    Dystrophin and {beta}-dystroglycan are components of the dystrophin--glycoprotein complex (DGC), a multimolecular assembly that spans the cell membrane and links the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular basal lamina. Defects in the dystrophin gene are the cause of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. The C-terminal region of dystrophin binds the cytoplasmic tail of {beta}-dystroglycan, in part through the interaction of its WW domain with a proline-rich motif in the tail of {beta}-dystroglycan. Here we report the crystal structure of this portion of dystrophin in complex with the proline-rich binding site in {beta}-dystroglycan. The structure shows that the dystrophin WW domain is embedded in an adjacent helical region that contains two EF-hand-like domains. The {beta}-dystroglycan peptide binds a composite surface formed by the WW domain and one of these EF-hands. Additionally, the structure reveals striking similarities in the mechanisms of proline recognition employed by WW domains and SH3 domains.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of pure and Li⁺ activated Alq₃ complexes for green and blue organic light emitting diodes and display devices.

    Bhagat, S A; Borghate, S V; Kalyani, N Thejo; Dhoble, S J

    2014-08-01

    Pure and Li(+)-doped Alq3 complexes were synthesized by simple precipitation method at room temperature, maintaining the stoichiometric ratio. These complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption and Fourier transform infrared and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the molecular structure, the completion of quinoline ring formation and presence of quinoline structure in the metal complex. Ultraviolet-visible and PL spectra revealed that Li(+) activated Alq3 complexes exhibit the highest intensity in comparison to pure Alq3 phosphor. Thus, Li(+) enhances PL emission intensity when doped into Alq3 phosphor. The excitation spectra lie in the range of 383-456 nm. All the synthesized complexes other than Liq give green emission, while Liq gives blue emission with enhanced intensity. Thus, he synthesized phosphors are the best suitable candidates for green- and blue-emitting organic light emitting diode, PL liquid-crystal display and solid-state lighting applications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Land Cover Classification in Complex and Fragmented Agricultural Landscapes of the Ethiopian Highlands

    Michael Eggen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is a largely agrarian country with nearly 85% of its employment coming from agriculture. Nevertheless, it is not known how much land is under cultivation. Mapping land cover at finer resolution and global scales has been particularly difficult in Ethiopia. The study area falls in a region of high mapping complexity with environmental challenges which require higher quality maps. Here, remote sensing is used to classify a large area of the central and northwestern highlands into eight broad land cover classes that comprise agriculture, grassland, woodland/shrub, forest, bare ground, urban/impervious surfaces, water, and seasonal water/marsh areas. We use data from Landsat spectral bands from 2000 to 2011, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and its temporal mean and variance, together with a digital elevation model, all at 30-m spatial resolution, as inputs to a supervised classifier. A Support Vector Machines algorithm (SVM was chosen to deal with the size, variability and non-parametric nature of these data stacks. In post-processing, an image segmentation algorithm with a minimum mapping unit of about 0.5 hectares was used to convert per pixel classification results into an object based final map. Although the reliability of the map is modest, its overall accuracy is 55%—encouraging results for the accuracy of agricultural uses at 85% suggest that these methods do offer great utility. Confusion among grassland, woodland and barren categories reflects the difficulty of classifying savannah landscapes, especially in east central Africa with monsoonal-driven rainfall patterns where the ground is obstructed by clouds for significant periods of time. Our analysis also points out the need for high quality reference data. Further, topographic analysis of the agriculture class suggests there is a significant amount of sloping land under cultivation. These results are important for future research and environmental monitoring in

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the single-chain variable fragment of antibody chA21 in complex with an N-terminal fragment of ErbB2

    Liu, Yang; Zhou, Huihao; Zhu, Juanjuan; Gao, Yongxiang; Niu, Liwen; Liu, Jing; Teng, Maikun

    2009-01-01

    An antibody–antigen complex consisting of a single-chain variable fragment of the potential therapeutic antibody chA21 and an N-terminal fragment (residues 1–192) of the human ErbB2 extracellular domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.45 Å resolution. ErbB2 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase, the overexpression of which causes abnormality and disorder in cell signalling and leads to cell transformation. Previously, an anti-ErbB2 single-chain chimeric antibody chA21 that specifically inhibits the growth of ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo was developed. Here, an antibody–antigen complex consisting of the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of chA21 and an N-terminal fragment (residues 1–192, named EP I) of the ErbB2 extracellular domain was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.45 Å resolution from a single flash-cooled crystal; the crystal belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1

  13. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Multifunctional Phosphorescent Dendrimers with Iridium-Complex Core and Charge-Transporting Dendrons

    Tsuzuki, Toshimitsu; Shirasawa, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Tokito, Shizuo

    2005-06-01

    We report a novel class of light-emitting materials for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): multifunctional phosphorescent dendrimers that have a phosphorescent core and dendrons based on charge-transporting building blocks. We synthesized first-generation and second-generation dendrimers consisting of a fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium [Ir(ppy)3] core and hole-transporting phenylcarbazole-based dendrons. Smooth amorphous films of these dendrimers were formed by spin-coating them from solutions. The OLEDs using the dendrimer exhibited bright green or yellowish-green emission from the Ir(ppy)3 core. The OLEDs using the film containing a mixture of the dendrimer and an electron-transporting material exhibited higher efficiency than those using the neat dendrimer film. The external quantum efficiency of OLEDs using the film containing a mixture of the first-generation dendrimer and an electron-transporting material was as high as 7.6%.

  14. Crystallization of the two-domain N-terminal fragment of the archaeal ribosomal protein L10(P0) in complex with a specific fragment of 23S rRNA

    Kravchenko, O. V.; Mitroshin, I. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Nikonov, S. V.; Garber, M. B.

    2011-07-01

    Lateral L12-stalk (P1-stalk in Archaea, P1/P2-stalk in eukaryotes) is an obligatory morphological element of large ribosomal subunits in all organisms studied. This stalk is composed of the complex of ribosomal proteins L10(P0) and L12(P1) and interacts with 23S rRNA through the protein L10(P0). L12(P1)-stalk is involved in the formation of GTPase center of the ribosome and plays an important role in the ribosome interaction with translation factors. High mobility of this stalk puts obstacles in determination of its structure within the intact ribosome. Crystals of a two-domain N-terminal fragment of ribosomal protein L10(P0) from the archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii in complex with a specific fragment of rRNA from the same organism have been obtained. The crystals diffract X-rays at 3.2 Å resolution.

  15. Crystallization of the two-domain N-terminal fragment of the archaeal ribosomal protein L10(P0) in complex with a specific fragment of 23S rRNA

    Kravchenko, O. V.; Mitroshin, I. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Nikonov, S. V.; Garber, M. B., E-mail: garber@vega.protres.ru [Institute of Protein Research RAS (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Lateral L12-stalk (P1-stalk in Archaea, P1/P2-stalk in eukaryotes) is an obligatory morphological element of large ribosomal subunits in all organisms studied. This stalk is composed of the complex of ribosomal proteins L10(P0) and L12(P1) and interacts with 23S rRNA through the protein L10(P0). L12(P1)-stalk is involved in the formation of GTPase center of the ribosome and plays an important role in the ribosome interaction with translation factors. High mobility of this stalk puts obstacles in determination of its structure within the intact ribosome. Crystals of a two-domain N-terminal fragment of ribosomal protein L10(P0) from the archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii in complex with a specific fragment of rRNA from the same organism have been obtained. The crystals diffract X-rays at 3.2 Angstrom-Sign resolution.

  16. The Photoluminescent Properties of New Cationic Iridium(III Complexes Using Different Anions and Their Applications in White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Hui Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three cationic iridium(III complexes [Ir(ppy2(phen][PF6] (C1, [Ir(ppy2(phen]2SiF6 (C2 and [Ir(ppy2(phen]2TiF6 (C3 (ppy: 2-phenylpyridine, phen: 1, 10-phenanthroline using different anions were synthesized and characterized by 1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR, mass spectra (MS, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra and element analysis (EA. After the ultraviolet visible (UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescent (PL properties and thermal properties of the complexes were investigated, complex C1 and C3 with good optical properties and high thermal stability were used in white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs as luminescence conversion materials by incorporation with 460 nm-emitting blue GaN chips. The integrative performances of the WLEDs fabricated with complex C1 and C3 are better than those fabricated with the widely used yellow phosphor Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG. The color rendering indexes of the WLEDs with C1 and C3 are 82.0 and 82.6, the color temperatures of them are 5912 K and 3717 K, and the maximum power efficiencies of them are 10.61 Lm·W−1 and 11.41 Lm·W−1, respectively.

  17. Synthesis, photoluminescence and forensic applications of blue light emitting azomethine-zinc (II complexes of bis(salicylidenecyclohexyl-1,2-diamino based organic ligands

    M. Srinivas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various azomethine-zinc(II complexes (3a-c of bis(salicylidenecyclohexyl-1,2-diamino organic ligands were synthesized by one pot reaction of salicylaldehydes/2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (2 eq, cyclohexyl-1,2-diamine (1 eq and zinc acetate (1 eq in methanol solvent at reflux temperature. The synthesized complexes were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and SEM. Their photophysical properties such as Photoluminescence (PL and Diffused Reflectance Spectra (DRS were studied. PL studies revealed that the emission peaks of the complexes in both solution and solid states appeared to occur at 395–600 nm and emitted blue light. The band gap energies determined from DRS were 2.98 eV (3a, 2.91 eV (3b, and 2.73 eV (3c. Based on these results, we ascertain that these Zn(II complexes can serve as a suitable non-dopant blue light emitting compound for flat panel display applications. Latent fingerprint detection study indicated that the powder compounds show good adhesion and finger ridge details without background staining. The demonstrated method can be applied to detect fingerprints on all types of smooth surfaces.

  18. The Photoluminescent Properties of New Cationic Iridium(III) Complexes Using Different Anions and Their Applications in White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Yang, Hui; Meng, Guoyun; Zhou, Yayun; Tang, Huaijun; Zhao, Jishou; Wang, Zhengliang

    2015-09-14

    Three cationic iridium(III) complexes [Ir(ppy)₂(phen)][PF₆] (C1), [Ir(ppy)₂(phen)]₂SiF₆ (C2) and [Ir(ppy)₂(phen)]₂TiF₆ (C3) (ppy: 2-phenylpyridine, phen: 1, 10-phenanthroline) using different anions were synthesized and characterized by ¹H Nuclear magnetic resonance (¹HNMR), mass spectra (MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and element analysis (EA). After the ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, photoluminescent (PL) properties and thermal properties of the complexes were investigated, complex C1 and C3 with good optical properties and high thermal stability were used in white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) as luminescence conversion materials by incorporation with 460 nm-emitting blue GaN chips. The integrative performances of the WLEDs fabricated with complex C1 and C3 are better than those fabricated with the widely used yellow phosphor Y₃Al₅O 12 :Ce 3+ (YAG). The color rendering indexes of the WLEDs with C1 and C3 are 82.0 and 82.6, the color temperatures of them are 5912 K and 3717 K, and the maximum power efficiencies of them are 10.61 Lm·W -1 and 11.41 Lm·W -1 , respectively.

  19. High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting.

    Pérez-Bolívar, César; Takizawa, Shin-ya; Nishimura, Go; Montes, Victor A; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2011-08-08

    Combinations of electron-withdrawing and -donating substituents on the 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand of the tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq(3)) complexes allow for control of the HOMO and LUMO energies and the HOMO-LUMO gap responsible for emission from the complexes. Here, we present a systematic study on tuning the emission and electroluminescence (EL) from Alq(3) complexes from the green to blue region. In this study, we explored the combination of electron-donating substituents on C4 and C6. Compounds 1-6 displayed the emission tuning between 478 and 526 nm, and fluorescence quantum yield between 0.15 and 0.57. The compounds 2-6 were used as emitters and hosts in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The highest OLED external quantum efficiency (EQE) observed was 4.6%, which is among the highest observed for Alq(3) complexes. Also, the compounds 3-5 were used as hosts for red phosphorescent dopants to obtain white light-emitting diodes (WOLED). The WOLEDs displayed high efficiency (EQE up to 19%) and high white color purity (color rendering index (CRI≈85). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Fragments of deeper parts of the hanging wall mantle preserved as orogenic peridotites in the central belt of the Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden

    Clos, F.; Gilio, M.; van Roermund, H.L.M.

    Formation conditions of olivine microstructures are investigated in the Kittelfjäll spinel peridotite (KSP), a fragment of lithospheric mantle which occurs as an isolated body within high grade metamorphic crustal rocks of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), southern Västerbotten, central Sweden. The KSP

  1. Architectural fragments

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  2. Basic-level categorization of intermediate complexity fragments reveals top-down effects of expertise in visual perception.

    Harel, Assaf; Ullman, Shimon; Harari, Danny; Bentin, Shlomo

    2011-07-28

    Visual expertise is usually defined as the superior ability to distinguish between exemplars of a homogeneous category. Here, we ask how real-world expertise manifests at basic-level categorization and assess the contribution of stimulus-driven and top-down knowledge-based factors to this manifestation. Car experts and novices categorized computer-selected image fragments of cars, airplanes, and faces. Within each category, the fragments varied in their mutual information (MI), an objective quantifiable measure of feature diagnosticity. Categorization of face and airplane fragments was similar within and between groups, showing better performance with increasing MI levels. Novices categorized car fragments more slowly than face and airplane fragments, while experts categorized car fragments as fast as face and airplane fragments. The experts' advantage with car fragments was similar across MI levels, with similar functions relating RT with MI level for both groups. Accuracy was equal between groups for cars as well as faces and airplanes, but experts' response criteria were biased toward cars. These findings suggest that expertise does not entail only specific perceptual strategies. Rather, at the basic level, expertise manifests as a general processing advantage arguably involving application of top-down mechanisms, such as knowledge and attention, which helps experts to distinguish between object categories. © ARVO

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescence study of green light emitting bis(1[(4-butylphenylimino]methyl naphthalen-2-ol Ni(II complex

    M. Srinivas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetically feasible and cost effective Ni(II complex phosphor (4 as green organic light emitting diode (OLED was prepared by using Schiff base 1-[(4-butylphenylimino]methyl naphthalen-2-ol (3. The single crystals of Ni(II complex were grown from chloroform and hexane (1:1 v/v solution. The green crystals of the complex were characterized by using single crystal XRD studies and were evaluated for their photophysical properties. From the Diffused Reflectance Spectrum of the complex, the measured band gap energy was found to be 1.83 eV and the PL spectrum of the complex showed emission peak at 519 nm. The excitation peaks at 519 nm were appeared at 394 nm and 465 nm. The Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE chromaticity diagram indicated that, the complex exhibit green color. Hence, Ni(II complex (4 could be a promising green OLED for developing strong electroluminescent materials for flat panel display applications.

  4. Characterization of crystals of an antibody-recognition fragment of the cancer differentiation antigen mesothelin in complex with the therapeutic antibody MORAb-009

    Ma, Jichun; Tang, Wai Kwan; Esser, Lothar; Pastan, Ira; Xia, Di

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic antibody MORAb-009 disrupts the interaction of mesothelin and the ovarian cancer antigen CA-125. Crystals have been grown of the Fab fragment derived from MORAb-009 and of its complex with an N-terminal fragment of mesothelin. The mesothelin-specific monoclonal antibody MORAb-009 is capable of blocking the binding of mesothelin to CA-125 and displays promising anticancer potential. It is currently undergoing clinical trials. In order to understand the basis of the interaction between MORAb-009 and mesothelin at atomic resolution, both the Fab fragment of MORAb-009 and the complex between the Fab and an N-terminal fragment of mesothelin (residues 7–64) were crystallized. The crystals of the Fab diffracted X-rays to 1.75 Å resolution and had the symmetry of space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 140.6, c = 282.0 Å. The crystals of the mesothelin–Fab complex diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 4 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 146.2, c = 80.9 Å. Structural analyses of these molecules are in progress

  5. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions: Progress report, September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1987

    Sobotka, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    The production of large fragments, fragments with mass between light particles and fission fragments, in intermediate and high energy nuclear reactions has fostered the proposal of a number of novel reaction mechanisms. These include liquid-vapor equilibrium and nuclear shattering. Temporarily left in the wake of these exciting proposed mechanisms was the old standard, statistical decay of compound nuclei. To be sure, the standard treatment of compound nucleus decay did not deal with large fragment production. However, this omission was not due to any fundamental deficiency of statistical models, but rather an uncertainty concerning exactly how to splice large fragment emission into statistical models. A large portion of our program deals with this problem. Specifically, by studying the yields of large fragments produced in sufficiently low energy reactions we are attempting to deduce the asymmetry and l-wave dependence of large fragment emission from compound nuclear intermediates. This, however, is only half of the problem. Since the novel mechanisms proposed for large fragment emission were spawned by intermediate and high energy reaction data, we must also realize the relevance of the compound nucleus mechanisms at high energies. It is not unreasonable to suspect that compound nucleus-like objects are formed with less than complete momentum transfer and perhaps less than complete mass transfer. Therefore the study of large fragment production in low energy reactions should go hand in hand with the study of energy, mass, and angular momentum transfer in non-compound reactions. This thread joins the apparently divergent subjects covered in this report. 39 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions: Progress report, September 1, 1987--August 31, 1988

    Sobotka, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    The production of large fragments, fragments with mass between light particles and fission fragments, in intermediate and high energy nuclear reactions has fostered the proposal of a number of novel reaction mechanisms. These include liquid-vapor equilibrium and nuclear shattering. Temporarily left in the wake of these exciting proposed mechanisms was the old standard, statistical decay of compound nuclei. To be sure, the standard treatment of compound nucleus decay did not deal with large fragment production. However, this emission was not due to any fundamental deficiency of statistical models, but rather an uncertainty concerning exactly how to splice large fragment emission into statistical models. A large portion of our program deals with this problem. Specifically, by studying the yields of large fragments produced in sufficiently low energy reactions we are attempting to deduce the asymmetry and l-wave dependence of large fragment emission from compound nuclear intermediates. This, however, is only half of the problem. Since the novel mechanisms proposed for large fragment emission were spawned by intermediate and high energy reaction data, we must also realize the relevance of the compound nucleus mechanisms at high energies. It is not unreasonable to suspect that compound nucleus-like objects are formed with less than complete momentum transfer and perhaps less than complete mass transfer. Therefore the study of large fragment production in low energy reactions should go hand in hand with the study of energy, mass, and angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion and non-compound reactions. This thread joins the apparently divergent subjects covered in this report

  7. Differentiation in a geographical mosaic of plants coevolving with ants: phylogeny of the Leonardoxa africana complex (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.

    Brouat, C; McKey, D; Douzery, E J P

    2004-05-01

    Comprising four allopatric subspecies that exhibit various grades of ant-plant interactions, from diffuse to obligate and symbiotic associations, the Leonardoxa africana complex (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) provides a good opportunity to investigate the evolutionary history of ant-plant mutualisms. A previous study of the L. africana complex based on chloroplast DNA noncoding sequences revealed a lack of congruence between clades suggested by morphological and plastid characters. In this study, we analysed phylogenetic relationships within the L. africana complex using a Bayesian probability approach on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. The results reported permit partial validation of the four subspecies of L. africana previously defined by morphological and ecological markers. Incongruences between phylogenies based on chloroplast DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers are discussed in the light of morphological and ecological data, and confronted with hypotheses of convergence, lineage sorting and introgression.

  8. 3' fragment of miR173-programmed RISC-cleaved RNA is protected from degradation in a complex with RISC and SGS3.

    Yoshikawa, Manabu; Iki, Taichiro; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Kyoko; Poethig, R Scott; Habu, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-05

    trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are plant-specific endogenous siRNAs produced via a unique pathway whose first step is the microRNA (miRNA)-programmed RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-mediated cleavage of tasiRNA gene (TAS) transcripts. One of the products is subsequently transformed into tasiRNAs by a pathway that requires several factors including SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6. Here, using in vitro assembled ARGONAUTE (AGO)1-RISCs, we show that SGS3 is recruited onto RISCs only when they bind target RNA. Following cleavage by miRNA173 (miR173)-programmed RISC, SGS3 was found in complexes containing cleaved TAS2 RNA and RISC. The 3' cleavage fragment (the source of tasiRNAs) was protected from degradation in this complex. Depletion of SGS3 did not affect TAS2 RNA cleavage by miR173-programmed RISC, but did affect the stability of the 3' cleavage fragment. When the 3' nucleotide of 22-nt miR173 was deleted or the corresponding nucleotide in TAS2 RNA was mutated, the complex was not observed and the 3' cleavage fragment was degraded. Importantly, these changes in miR173 or TAS2 RNA are known to lead to a loss of tasiRNA production in vivo. These results suggest that (i) SGS3 associates with AGO1-RISC via the double-stranded RNA formed by the 3'-terminal nucleotides of 22-nt miR173 and corresponding target RNA, which probably protrudes from the AGO1-RISC molecular surface, (ii) SGS3 protects the 3' cleavage fragment of TAS2 RNA from degradation, and (iii) the observed SGS3-dependent stabilization of the 3' fragment of TAS2 RNA is key to tasiRNA production.

  9. Toward The Reconstitution of the Maturation of Okazaki Fragments Multiprotein Complex in Human At The Single Molecule Level

    Joudeh, Luay

    2017-01-01

    The maturation of Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand in eukaryotes is mediated by a highly coordinated multistep process involving several proteins that ensure the accurate and efficient replication of genomic DNA. Human proliferating cell

  10. Azimuthal Anisotropies in Nuclear Fragmentation

    Dabrowska, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.

    2002-01-01

    The directed and elliptic flow of fragments emitted from the excited projectile nuclei has been observed for 158 AGeV Pb collisions with the lead and plastic targets. For comparison the flow analysis has been performed for 10.6 AGeV Au collisions with the emulsion target. The strong directed flow of heaviest fragments is found. Light fragments exhibit directed flow opposite to that of heavy fragments. The elliptic flow for all multiply charged fragments is positive and increases with the charge of the fragment. The observed flow patterns in the fragmentation of the projectile nucleus are practically independent of the mass of the target nucleus and the collision energy. Emission of fragments in nuclear multifragmentation shows similar, although weaker, flow effects. (author)

  11. Synthesis and luminescent properties of a novel green-emitting Tb (Ⅲ) complex based on amino-modified fluorine silicone oil and isophorone diisocyanate

    Hao, Haixia; Chu, Yang; Yu, Zhenjiang; Xie, Hongde; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2017-10-01

    The novel luminescent polymer-rare earth complexes, denoted as (PFSi-IPDI)-Tb(Ⅲ)-Phen, have been successfully synthesized and can be made into flexible films. Amino-modified fluorine silicone oil-isophorone diisocyanate (PFSi-IPDI) was used as the host macromolecular ligand, and 1, 10-Phenanthroline (Phen) as the secondary small-molecular co-ligand. The luminescent lanthanide complexes were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FITR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The luminescent properties were investigated through photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. FTIR analysis verifies the successful preparation and integration of PFSi-IPDI to Tb3+. The comparatively uniform morphological structure can be observed in the images of SEM. The polymer-rare earth complexes display the typical luminescence emission peaks under the excitation wavelength of 330 nm. From the decay curve, the short lifetime (about 0.89 ms) is observed for (PFSi-IPDI)-Tb(Ⅲ)-Phen (0.6 mol/L). Moreover, these luminescent polymer-rare earth complexes possess superior thermal stability (T5 > 195 °C). All the interesting results suggest the potential application of the luminescent polymer-rare earth complexes in green-emitting luminescent materials under high temperature.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of an RNA aptamer in complex with the human IgG Fc fragment

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Nomura, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kitatani, Tomoya; Kobayashi, Asako; Miyakawa, Shin; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

    2008-01-01

    An RNA aptamer in complex with the human IgG Fc fragment have been crystallized. The stirring technique with a rotary shaker was used to improve the crystals and to ensure that they were of high quality and single, resulting in crystals that diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. Aptamers, which are folded DNA or RNA molecules, bind to target molecules with high affinity and specificity. An RNA aptamer specific for the Fc fragment of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) has recently been identified and it has been demonstrated that an optimized 24-nucleotide RNA aptamer binds to the Fc fragment of human IgG and not to other species. In order to clarify the structural basis of the high specificity of the RNA aptamer, it was crystallized in complex with the Fc fragment of human IgG1. Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.7, b = 107.2, c = 79.0 Å. A data set has been collected to 2.2 Å resolution

  13. Complexity Reduction in Large Quantum Systems: Fragment Identification and Population Analysis via a Local Optimized Minimal Basis

    Mohr, Stephan; Masella, Michel; Ratcliff, Laura E.; Genovese, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    We present, within Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory calculations, a quantitative method to identify and assess the partitioning of a large quantum mechanical system into fragments. We then introduce a simple and efficient formalism (which can be written as generalization of other well-known population analyses) to extract, from first principles, electrostatic multipoles for these fragments. The corresponding fragment multipoles can in this way be seen as reliable (pseudo-) observables. By applying our formalism within the code BigDFT, we show that the usage of a minimal set of in-situ optimized basis functions is of utmost importance for having at the same time a proper fragment definition and an accurate description of the electronic structure. With this approach it becomes possible to simplify the modeling of environmental fragments by a set of multipoles, without notable loss of precision in the description of the active quantum mechanical region. Furthermore, this leads to a considerable reduction of the degrees of freedom by an effective coarsegraining approach, eventually also paving the way towards efficient QM/QM and QM/MM methods coupling together different levels of accuracy.

  14. Blue-emitting dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complex featuring a nearly unit quantum yield

    Baron, Marco

    2012-02-06

    Dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complexes of general formula [Au 2(RIm-Y-ImR) 2](PF 6) 2 (R = Me, Cy; Y = (CH 2) 1-4, o-xylylene, m-xylylene) have been synthesized and screened for their luminescence properties. All the complexes are weakly emissive in solution whereas in the solid state some of them show significant luminescence intensities. In particular, crystals or powders of the complex with R = Me, Y = (CH 2) 3 exhibit an intense blue emission (λ max = 450 nm) with a high quantum yield (Φ em = 0.96). The X-ray crystal structure of this complex is characterized by a rather short intramolecular Au•••Au distance (3.272 Ǻ). Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been used to calculate the UV/vis properties of the ground state as well as of the first excited state of the complex, the latter featuring a significantly shorter Au•••Au distance. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Blue-emitting dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complex featuring a nearly unit quantum yield

    Baron, Marco; Tubaro, Cristina; Biffis, Andrea; Basato, Marino; Graiff, Claudia; Poater, Albert; Cavallo, Luigi; Armaroli, Nicola; Accorsi, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    Dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complexes of general formula [Au 2(RIm-Y-ImR) 2](PF 6) 2 (R = Me, Cy; Y = (CH 2) 1-4, o-xylylene, m-xylylene) have been synthesized and screened for their luminescence properties. All the complexes are weakly emissive in solution whereas in the solid state some of them show significant luminescence intensities. In particular, crystals or powders of the complex with R = Me, Y = (CH 2) 3 exhibit an intense blue emission (λ max = 450 nm) with a high quantum yield (Φ em = 0.96). The X-ray crystal structure of this complex is characterized by a rather short intramolecular Au•••Au distance (3.272 Ǻ). Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been used to calculate the UV/vis properties of the ground state as well as of the first excited state of the complex, the latter featuring a significantly shorter Au•••Au distance. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Investigation on Al(III) and Zn(II) complexes containing a calix[4]arene bearing two 8-oxyquinoline pendant arms used as emitting materials for OLEDs

    Bagatin, Izilda A.; Legnani, Cristiano; Cremona, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A comparison between [Al·1] 3+ and [Zn·1] 2+ complexes (1 = 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis[(quinoline-8-oxy)propyloxy]-26, 28-dihydroxy-calix[4]arene) has been made using electrochemical techniques and the experimental results obtained in the fabrication of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The electrochemically determined values of the ionization potential I p and electron affinity E a parameters for the [Al·1] 3+ (I p = 5.82eV, E a = 2.80eV) and [Zn·1] 2+ (I p = 5.67eV, E a = 2.32eV) evidenced that the [Al·1] 3+ complex is a better electron transporting layer with respect to the Zn complex one. The fabricated OLEDs based on these supramolecular complexes show a superior quality with the [Al·1] 3+ systems expected from the energy level diagrams

  17. Hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes combining blue-fluorescent polymer and red phosphorescent Pt(II) complexes as active layer

    Germino, Jose Carlos; Faleiros, Marcelo Meira; Moraes, Emmanuel Santos; Atvars, Teresa Dib Zambon, E-mail: kakagermino@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Domingues, Raquel Aparecida [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Quites, Fernando Junior [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Freitas, Jilian Nei de [Centro de Tecnologia da Informacao Renato Archer, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work we proposed a PFO composite with two salicylidene based Pt(II) coordination compounds, the [Pt(salophen)] and [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] (red emitters), as emissive layer (EML) for Organic Light-emitting Diodes (OLEDs), combining a blue-fluorescent polymer (PFO) with red-phosphorescent Pt(II) coordination complexes in order to obtain an efficient white electroluminescent EML for WOLEDs application. Firstly, [Pt(salophen)] and [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] were synthesized, purified and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, yielding their respective expected molecular structures. The photoluminescence properties of the devices were evaluated by steady-state (electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies) and transient (fluorescence decays and TRES) measurements. It was observed the presence of non-radiative energy transfer processes between the PFO derivative and Pt(II) complexes. Posteriorly, the Pt(II) complexes were blended with PVK at 1% mol:mol ratio and OLEDs were made, leading to red-emitting devices with high color purity for the two coordination compounds. However, the two devices present low current efficiency values. In order to improve the electroluminescence properties of Pt(II) complexes PhOLEDs, PVK host was substituted by PFO at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5% mol:mol ratios of complex and it was observed a great improvement of their optical-electronic properties in terms of luminance, voltage, current density and current efficiency in comparison to PVK composites or pure PFO devices. At 2.5% concentration, predominant bands of Pt(II) complexes were observed at low and high voltages. For the other concentrations, a different behavior was observed: the emission bands and device color were function of applied electrical field, exhibiting a red color at lower voltages (5 to 9V) and the PFO characteristic emission between 9 and 13V, leading to a white light emission at 13V. The best results were obtained for [Pt(sal-3,4-ben)] coordination compound

  18. Fragmentation processes in nuclear reactions

    Legrain, R.

    1984-08-01

    Projectile and nuclear fragmentation are defined and processes referred to are recalled. The two different aspects of fragmentation are considered but the emphasis is also put on heavy ion induced reactions. The preliminary results of an experiment performed at GANIL to study peripheral heavy ions induced reactions at intermediate energy are presented. The results of this experiment will illustrate the characteristics of projectile fragmentation and this will also give the opportunity to study projectile fragmentation in the transition region. Then nuclear fragmentation is considered which is associated with more central collisions in the case of heavy ion induced reactions. This aspect of fragmentation is also ilustrated with two heavy ion experiments in which fragments emitted at large angle have been observed

  19. Highly luminescent pure-red-emitting fluorinated β-diketonate europium(III) complex for full solution-processed OLEDs

    Martins, Joao P. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra P-3004-516 (Portugal); Serviço de Medicina Nuclear, SESARAM E.P.E., Avenida Luís de Camões 57, Funchal 9004-514, Madeira (Portugal); Martín-Ramos, Pablo [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra P-3004-516 (Portugal); Higher Technical School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belén 15, Valladolid 47011 (Spain); Coya, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.coya@urjc.es [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (ESCET), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid 28933 (Spain); Silva, Manuela Ramos [CEMDRX, Physics Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra P-3004-516 (Portugal); Eusebio, M. Ermelinda S. [Chemistry Department, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra P-3004-535 (Portugal); Andrés, Alicia de [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Álvarez, Ángel L. [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (ESCET), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid 28933 (Spain); Martín-Gil, Jesús [Advanced Materials Laboratory, ETSIIAA, Universidad de Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, Palencia 34004 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Current manufacturing technologies for OLEDs involve the use of expensive high vacuum techniques and call for thermal stability requirements which are not fulfilled by many materials. These problems disappear when the OLED films are deposited directly from solution. In this study, we have designed, synthesized and characterized a novel octacoordinated complex, Tris(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4,4-trifluoro-1, 3-butanedionate)mono(bathophenanthroline) europium(III), to be used as a “complex-only” emissive layer in wet-processed OLEDs. Upon excitation in the UV region, very efficient energy transfer from the ligands to Eu{sup 3+} takes place, giving rise to intense red emission with very high monochromaticity (R=19), both in powder and as a thin film. The decay times of 754 µs (powder) and 620 µs (thin film) are comparable to those of the most efficient Eu{sup 3+} β-diketonate complexes reported to date. The same energy transfer leading to saturated red and narrow emission is also observed in the OLED device (glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/[Eu(cbtfa){sub 3}(bath)]/Ca/Al) when biased at >5.2 V. Its high quantum efficiency (∼60%), good thermal stability up to 200 °C and adequate thin film forming properties make this material a promising chromophore for cost-effective OLEDs. - Highlights: • A highly fluorinated europium(III) octacoordinated complex, [Eu(cbtfa)3(bath)], has been synthesized and its structure elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. • The chosen coordination environment is well-suited for sensitizing the luminescence of the Eu{sup 3+} ion, achieving very efficient energy transfer from the organic ligands (excited in the UV region) to the rare earth ion, leading to highly efficient (Q∼60% in crystalline powder and Q∼50% in thin film) and saturated red photoluminescence. • The material has also been integrated into a single active layer, full solution-processed OLED, with ITO/PEDOT:PSS/[Eu(cbtfa)3(bath)]/ Ca/Al structure.

  20. 3′ fragment of miR173-programmed RISC-cleaved RNA is protected from degradation in a complex with RISC and SGS3

    Yoshikawa, Manabu; Iki, Taichiro; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Kyoko; Poethig, R. Scott; Habu, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are plant-specific endogenous siRNAs produced via a unique pathway whose first step is the microRNA (miRNA)-programmed RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)–mediated cleavage of tasiRNA gene (TAS) transcripts. One of the products is subsequently transformed into tasiRNAs by a pathway that requires several factors including SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6. Here, using in vitro assembled ARGONAUTE (AGO)1–RISCs, we show that SGS3 is recruited onto RISCs only when they bind target RNA. Following cleavage by miRNA173 (miR173)-programmed RISC, SGS3 was found in complexes containing cleaved TAS2 RNA and RISC. The 3′ cleavage fragment (the source of tasiRNAs) was protected from degradation in this complex. Depletion of SGS3 did not affect TAS2 RNA cleavage by miR173-programmed RISC, but did affect the stability of the 3′ cleavage fragment. When the 3′ nucleotide of 22-nt miR173 was deleted or the corresponding nucleotide in TAS2 RNA was mutated, the complex was not observed and the 3′ cleavage fragment was degraded. Importantly, these changes in miR173 or TAS2 RNA are known to lead to a loss of tasiRNA production in vivo. These results suggest that (i) SGS3 associates with AGO1–RISC via the double-stranded RNA formed by the 3′-terminal nucleotides of 22-nt miR173 and corresponding target RNA, which probably protrudes from the AGO1–RISC molecular surface, (ii) SGS3 protects the 3′ cleavage fragment of TAS2 RNA from degradation, and (iii) the observed SGS3-dependent stabilization of the 3′ fragment of TAS2 RNA is key to tasiRNA production. PMID:23417299

  1. A highly luminescent dinuclear Eu(III) complex based on 4,4'-bis (4'',4'',4''-trifluoro-1'',3''-dioxobutyl)-o-terphenyl for light-emitting diodes

    Liu Shenggui; He Pei; Wang Huihui; Shi Jianxin; Gong Menglian

    2009-01-01

    A dinuclear Eu(III) complex Eu 2 (btbt) 3 .4H 2 O.CH 3 CH 2 OH.N(CH 2 CH 3 ) 3 was synthesized, where H 2 (btbt) was 4,4'-bis (4'',4'',4'',-trifluoro-1'',3''-dioxobutyl)-o-terphenyl. The composition and structure of the complex were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis and FAB-MS spectroscopy. The complex emits the characteristic red luminescence of Eu 3+ ion due to the 5 D 0 → 7 F J (J = 0-4) transitions under ∼395 nm-light excitation with good luminescent quantum efficiency (32%) and exhibits high thermal stability (337 deg. C). Bright red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by coating the complex onto a ∼395 nm-emitting InGaN chip. When the mass ratio of the red phosphor to the silicone is 1:30, the efficiency of the fabricated LEDs with the europium complex is 0.98 lm w -1 . The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the LEDs are x = 0.6057 and y = 0.3137, which are close to the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC) standard values for red color. The results indicate that the complex may act as a red component in the fabrication of near UV InGaN-based white light-emitting diodes with high color-rendering index.

  2. Efficient blue-green and green electroluminescent devices obtained by doping iridium complexes into hole-block material as supplementary light-emitting layer

    Zhou, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zheng, Youxuan, E-mail: yxzheng@mail.nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Deng, Ruiping; Feng, Jing; Song, Mingxing; Hao, Zhaomin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zuo, Jinglin; You, Xiaozeng [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this work, organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with dominant and supplementary light-emitting layers (EMLs) were designed to further improve the EL performances of two iridium{sup III}-based phosphorescent complexes, which have been reported to provide EL devices with slow EL efficiency roll-off. The widely used hole-block material 2,2′,2''-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi) was selected as host material to construct the supplementary EML. Compared with single-EML devices, double-EMLs devices showed higher EL efficiencies, higher brightness, and lower operation voltage attributed to wider recombination zone and better balance of carriers. In addition, the insertion of supplementary EML is instrumental in facilitating carriers trapping, thus improving the color purity. Finally, high performance blue-green and green EL devices with maximum current efficiencies of 35.22 and 90.68 cd/A, maximum power efficiencies of 26.36 and 98.18 lm/W, and maximum brightness of 56,678 and 112,352 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, were obtained by optimizing the doping concentrations. Such a device design strategy extends the application of a double EML device structure and provides a chance to simplify device fabrication processes. -- Highlights: • Electroluminescent devices with supplementary light-emitting layer were fabricated. • Doping concentrations and thicknesses were optimized. • Better balance of holes and electrons causes the enhanced efficiency. • Improved carrier trapping suppresses the emission of host material.

  3. Influence of Green, Red and Blue Light Emitting Diodes on Multiprotein Complex Proteins and Photosynthetic Activity under Different Light Intensities in Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L.

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the response of light emitting diodes (LEDs at different light intensities (70 and 80 for green LEDs, 88 and 238 for red LEDs and 80 and 238 μmol m−2 s−1 for blue LEDs at three wavelengths in lettuce leaves. Lettuce leaves were exposed to (522 nm, red (639 nm and blue (470 nm LEDs of different light intensities. Thylakoid multiprotein complex proteins and photosynthetic metabolism were then investigated. Biomass and photosynthetic parameters increased with an increasing light intensity under blue LED illumination and decreased when illuminated with red and green LEDs with decreased light intensity. The expression of multiprotein complex proteins including PSII-core dimer and PSII-core monomer using blue LEDs illumination was higher at higher light intensity (238 μmol m−2 s−1 and was lowered with decreased light intensity (70–80 μmol m−2 s−1. The responses of chloroplast sub-compartment proteins, including those active in stomatal opening and closing, and leaf physiological responses at different light intensities, indicated induced growth enhancement upon illumination with blue LEDs. High intensity blue LEDs promote plant growth by controlling the integrity of chloroplast proteins that optimize photosynthetic performance in the natural environment.

  4. Complex-enhanced chaotic signals with time-delay signature suppression based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to chaotic optical injection

    Chen, Jianjun; Duan, Yingni; Zhong, Zhuqiang

    2018-03-01

    A chaotic system is constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), where a slave VCSEL subject to chaotic optical injection (COI) from a master VCSEL with the external feedback. The complex degree (CD) and time-delay signature (TDS) of chaotic signals generated by this chaotic system are investigated numerically via permutation entropy (PE) and self-correlation function (SF) methods, respectively. The results show that, compared with master VCSEL subject to optical feedback, complex-enhanced chaotic signals with TDS suppression can be achieved for S-VCSEL subject to COI. Meanwhile, the influences of several controllable parameters on the evolution maps of CD of chaotic signals are carefully considered. It is shown that the CD of chaotic signals for S-VCSEL is always higher than that for M-VCSEL due to the CIO effect. The TDS of chaotic signals can be significantly suppressed by choosing the reasonable parameters in this system. Furthermore, TDS suppression and high CD chaos can be obtained simultaneously in the specific parameter ranges. The results confirm that this chaotic system may effectively improve the security of a chaos-based communication scheme.

  5. Jet fragmentation

    Saxon, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)

  6. Toward The Reconstitution of the Maturation of Okazaki Fragments Multiprotein Complex in Human At The Single Molecule Level

    Joudeh, Luay

    2017-04-01

    The maturation of Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand in eukaryotes is mediated by a highly coordinated multistep process involving several proteins that ensure the accurate and efficient replication of genomic DNA. Human proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) that slides on double-stranded DNA is the key player that coordinates the access of various proteins to the different intermediary steps in this process. In this study, I am focusing on characterizing how PCNA recruits and stimulates the structure specific flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) to process the aberrant double flap (DF) structures that are produced during maturation of Okazaki fragments. FEN1 distorts the DF structures into a bent conformer to place the scissile phosphate into the active site for cleavage. The product is a nick substrate that can be sealed by DNA ligase I whose recruitment is also mediated by its interaction with PCNA. Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements that simultaneously monitored bending and cleavage of various DF substrates by FEN1 alone or in the presence of PCNA, we found that FEN1 and PCNA bends cognate and non-cognate substrates but display remarkable selectivity to stabilize the bent conformer in cognate substrate while promoting the dissociation of non-cognate substrates. This mechanism provides efficiency and accuracy for FEN1 and PCNA to cleave the correct substrate while avoiding the deleterious cleavage of incorrect substrates. This work provides a true molecular level understanding of the key step during the maturation of Okazaki fragment and contributes towards the reconstitution of its entire activity at the single molecule level.

  7. Complex fragment emission from the 3He+natAg system between 0.48 and 3.6 GeV

    Yennello, S.J.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Fields, D.E.; Planeta, R.; Viola, V.E.; Indiana Univ., Bloomington; Pollacco, E.C.; Volant, C.; Dayras, R.; Legrain, R.; Casssagnou, Y.; Harar, S.; Hourani, E.

    1990-01-01

    The emission of complex fragments (3≤Z≤12) from reactions of 3 He with nat Ag has been studied at bombarding energies of E=480, 900, 1800, 2700 and 3600 MeV. Between 900 and 1800 MeV slopes of the fragment kinetic energy spectra at backward angles undergo a change in character, becoming much flatter; in addition, the Coulomb peak is found to broaden significantly and shift to lower energies. Power-law fits to the fragment charge distributions result in decreasing values of the exponent τ up to a bombarding energy of 1800 MeV; at this value and beyond, a constant value of τ=2.1±0.1 is observed. Elemental cross sections at the highest energy are found to increase by approximately two orders of magnitude relative to data near 100 MeV. The data suggest a change in reaction mechanism between incident energies of 900 and 1800 MeV. (orig.)

  8. Structure of calmodulin complexed with an olfactory CNG channel fragment and role of the central linker: Residual dipolar couplings to evaluate calmodulin binding modes outside the kinase family

    Contessa, Gian Marco; Orsale, Maria; Melino, Sonia; Torre, Vincent; Paci, Maurizio; Desideri, Alessandro; Cicero, Daniel O.

    2005-01-01

    The NMR high-resolution structure of calmodulin complexed with a fragment of the olfactory cyclic-nucleotide gated channel is described. This structure shows features that are unique for this complex, including an active role of the linker connecting the N- and C-lobes of calmodulin upon binding of the peptide. Such linker is not only involved in the formation of an hydrophobic pocket to accommodate a bulky peptide residue, but it also provides a positively charged region complementary to a negative charge of the target. This complex of calmodulin with a target not belonging to the kinase family was used to test the residual dipolar coupling (RDC) approach for the determination of calmodulin binding modes to peptides. Although the complex here characterized belongs to the (1--14) family, high Q values were obtained with all the 1:1 complexes for which crystalline structures are available. Reduction of the RDC data set used for the correlation analysis to structured regions of the complex allowed a clear identification of the binding mode. Excluded regions comprise calcium binding loops and loops connecting the EF-hand motifs

  9. Estimation of environmental mobility of heavy metals using a sequential leaching of particulate material emitted from an opencast chrome mine complex

    Poeykioe, R. [Meri-Lappi Institute, Centre for Environmental Technology, University of Oulu, Kemi (Finland); Peraemaeki, P.; Kuokkanen, T. [University of Oulu, Department of Chemistry, Oulu (Finland); Vaelimaeki, I. [Suomen Ympaeristoepalvelu Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    A four-stage sequential leaching procedure was applied to assess the bioavailability and environmental mobility of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni and Cd) in total suspended particulate (TSP) material emitted from an opencast chrome mine complex (Kemi, Northern Finland). TSP material was collected on glass fibre filters by a high-volume sampler, and a sequential leaching procedure was used to determine the distribution of heavy metals between the water-soluble fraction (H{sub 2}O), environmentally mobile fraction (CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}), the fraction bound to carbonate and oxides (HONH{sub 3}Cl + CH{sub 3}COOH), and the fraction bound to silicates and organic matter, that is the environmentally immobile fraction (HNO{sub 3} + HF + HCl). The sequential leaching procedure was also applied to the certified reference materials VKI (QC Loam Soil A) and PACS-2 (Marine Sediment) to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of the leaching procedure. The heavy metals were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentrations of metals in the water-soluble fraction (H{sub 2}O) decreased in the order Fe >Cu >Cr >Ni >Cd, and in the environmentally mobile fraction (CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}) in the order Cu >Fe >Ni >Cr >Cd. (orig.)

  10. Highly efficient and concentration-insensitive organic light-emitting devices based on self-quenching-resistant orange–red iridium complex

    Qi, Yige; Wang, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Orange–red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PHOLEDs) with high efficiency and concentration insensitivity based on a novel iridium complex, bis[2-(biphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazole-N,C{sup 2}′]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)], were fabricated. With the heavily doped emissive layer (EML) of 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazolylbiphenyl (CBP): (4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) in a wide and easily controlled dopant concentration range from 12 wt% to 24 wt%, a maximum power efficiency of 29 lm/W and an external quantum efficiency of >16% of the PHOLEDs were obtained, implying the insensitivity of electroluminescence (EL) properties to doping concentration. Meanwhile, a maximum power efficiency of 5.0 lm/W was achieved from a non-doped device with neat (4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) as the EML, indicating a superior property of self-quenching resistance. The mechanism of direct exciton formation, in which exciton-formation regions are distributed throughout the EML, is responsible for the significant alleviation of triplet–triplet annihilation and superior EL performance. - Highlights: • Highly efficient and concentration-insensitive PHOLEDs were obtained. • The high efficiency of non-doped PHOLEDs indicated a quenching-resistant property. • The independence of EL spectra on doping concentration was observed. • The heavily doped devices were dominated by mechanism of direct exciton formation.

  11. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions. Progress report, January 1, 1993 - September 1, 1995

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1995-01-01

    This work involves the study of low and intermediate energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions. This work has two foci. First, the authors desired to learn about the properties of both nuclei and nuclear matter under abnormal conditions. Their efforts towards this end run abreast of those for their second focus which is the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. The two objectives are inexorably linked because their experimental laboratory for studying nuclear properties is a dynamic one. Their task is to answer the questions of how nuclear and nuclear matter properties are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. The second objective also has great intrinsic value in that they can anticipate improving upon their understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. The program has been: to study the dynamics of fusion reactions, specifically the dynamics of energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition. This work includes reactions near the Coulomb barrier, where fusion dominates the reaction cross section as well as higher energies where incomplete fusion reactions are the primary reactions. This includes the dynamics of fission, still the premier example of collective nuclear motion, as a function of excitation, spin, mass, and mass asymmetry. The authors push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain, and where novel reaction scenarios are predicted. They have studied very central and peripheral collisions between very massive nuclei, and simplified projectile fragmentation reactions utilizing medium to light mass projectiles. The study of central collisions has shown us the importance of collective expansion. The study of peripheral collisions between very heavy nuclei has demonstrated the importance of dynamical production of fragments from the neck region

  12. Significance of fragmented QRS complexes for identifying culprit lesions in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a single-center, retrospective analysis of 183 cases

    Guo Rong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragmented QRS (fQRS complexes are novel electrocardiographic signals, which reflect myocardial conduction delays in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The importance of fQRS complexes in identifying culprit vessels was evaluated in this retrospective study. Methods A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram was obtained in 183 patients who had non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and subsequently underwent coronary angiography (CAG. On the basis of the frequency of fQRS complexes, indices such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratio were evaluated to determine the ability of fQRS complexes to identify the culprit vessels. Results Among the patients studied, elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years and those with diabetes had a significantly higher frequency of fQRS complexes (p = 0.005, p = 0.003, respectively. The fQRS complexes recorded in the 4 precordial leads had the highest specificity (81.8% for indentifying the culprit vessel (left anterior descending artery. However, the specificity of fQRS complexes to identify lesions in the left circumflex and right coronary arteries was lower for the inferior and lateral leads than for the limb leads (65.5% versus 71.7%; however, the limb leads had higher sensitivity (92.3% versus 89.4%. And the total sensitivity and specificity of fQRS (77.1% and 71.5% were higher than those values for ischemic T-waves. Conclusions The frequency of fQRS complexes was higher in elderly and diabetic patients with NSTEMI. The frequency of fQRS complexes recorded in each of the ECG leads can be used to identify culprit vessels in patients with NSTEMI.

  13. Complexes prepared from protein A and human serum, IgG, or Fc gamma fragments: characterization by immunochemical analysis of ultracentrifugation fractions and studies on their interconversion.

    Langone, J J; Das, C; Mainwaring, R; Shearer, W T

    1985-01-01

    Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus is an Fc receptor for IgG that has been used as a therapeutic reagent to treat cancer in humans and experimental animals. We used ultracentrifugation combined with analysis of isolated fractions by radioimmunoprecipitation and competitive radioimmunoassay with chicken antibodies that bind free protein A or protein A in complexes but do bind free immunoglobulin reagents to localize and characterize the types of complexes formed with different molar ratios of 125I-protein A and human 131I-IgG alone or in serum, and 131I-Fc gamma fragments. This approach offers a distinct advantage over direct counting of radioactivity in the fractions because resolution of complexes and free reagents is much improved. With excess 131I-IgG or 131I-Fc, all the 125I-protein A is present only in complexes that contained 4 molecules of immunoglobulin reagent and 2 molecules of protein A (4:2 complexes), whereas with excess 125I-protein A the stoichiometry of the complexes was 1:1. We have also shown the preformed 4:2 and 1:1 complexes will interconvert in the presence of added excess protein A or IgG, respectively, and that fresh IgG will exchange with IgG or Fc gamma in preformed complexes. Because protein A has been found to elute from an immobilized reagent used in serotherapy of human cancer and is present in a large excess of IgG, the 4:2 complexes may play an active role in the tumoricidal or toxic reactions observed.

  14. Fission fragment spins and spectroscopy

    Durell, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray coincidence experiments have been carried out on γ-rays emitted from post-neutron emission fission fragments produced by the aup 19F + 197 Au and 18 O + 232 Th reactions. Decay schemes have been established for even-even nuclei ranging from 78 Se to 148 Nd. Many new states with spin up to ∼ 12h have been observed. Apart from providing a wealth of new information on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, the data have been analyzed to determine the average spin of primary fission fragments as a function of fragment mass. The results suggest that the fragment spins are determined by the temperature and shape of the primary fragments at or near to scission

  15. «Prometheus’ complex» and «Empedocles’ complex» as fragments of «Fire poetics» by G. Bachelard

    O. O. Osetrova

    2017-07-01

    The position of G. Bachelard, complex of Empedocles is cosmic death, which marks the death is not easy in solitude, and the transition to a different quality. Availability and development of people (more – in humanity of both complexes – Prometheus and Empedocles – show human desire to upgrade that its characteristic feature is transcendent light.

  16. Nuclear fragmentation

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  17. Systematic metabolite annotation and identification in complex biological extracts : combining robust mass spectrometry fragmentation and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Hooft, van der J.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the chemical content of organisms, organs, tissues, and cells is needed to fully characterize complex biological systems. The high chemical variety of compounds present in biological systems is illustrated by the presence of a large variety of compounds, ranging from apolar

  18. Novel Fragmentation Pathways of Anionic Adducts of Steroids Formed by Electrospray Anion Attachment Involving Regioselective Attachment, Regiospecific Decompositions, Charge-Induced Pathways, and Ion-Dipole Complex Intermediates

    Rannulu, Nalaka S.; Cole, Richard B.

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of several bifunctional neutral steroids, 5-α-pregnane diol (5-α-pregnane-3α-20βdiol), estradiol (3,17α-dihydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratriene), progesterone (4-pregnene-3,20-dione), lupeol (3β-hydroxy-20(29)-lupene), pregnenolone (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one), and pregnenolone acetate (5-pregnen-3β-ol-20-one acetate) was accomplished by negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) employing adduct formation with various anions: fluoride, bicarbonate, acetate, and chloride. Fluoride yielded higher abundances of anionic adducts and more substantial abundances of deprotonated molecules compared with other investigated anions. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of precursor [M + anion]- adducts of these steroids revealed that fluoride adduct [M + F]- precursors first lose HF to produce [M - H]- and then undergo consecutive decompositions to yield higher abundances of structurally-informative product ions than the other tested anions. In addition to charge-remote fragmentations, the majority of CID pathways of estradiol are deduced to occur via charge-induced fragmentation. Most interestingly, certain anions exhibit preferential attachment to a specific site on these bifunctional steroid molecules, which we are calling "regioselective anion attachment." Regioselective anion attachment is evidenced by subsequent regiospecific decomposition. Regioselective attachment of fluoride (and acetate) anions to low (and moderate) acidity functional groups of pregnenolone, respectively, is demonstrated using deuterated compounds. Moreover, the formation of unique intermediate ion-dipole complexes leading to novel fragmentation pathways of fluoride adducts of pregnenolone acetate, and bicarbonate adducts of d4-pregnenolone, are also discussed.

  19. Fragmentation of neck-like structures

    Montoya, C.; Bowman, D.R.; Peaslee, G.F.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for intermediate mass fragment emission from neck-like structures joining projectile- and target-like residues has been observed for peripheral 129 Xe+ nat Cu collisions at E/A=50 MeV. These framents are emitted primarily at velocities intermediate between those of the projectile and the target. Relative to the charge distribution for fragments evaporated from the projectile-like residue, the distribution for ''neck'' emission shows an enhanced emission for fragments with 4 f < 8. (orig.)

  20. Roles of Bridging Ligand Topology and Conformation in Controlling Exchange Interactions between Paramagnetic Molybdenum Fragments in Dinuclear and Trinuclear Complexes.

    Ung VÂ, V&acaron;n Ân; Cargill Thompson, Alexander M. W.; Bardwell, David A.; Gatteschi, Dante; Jeffery, John C.; McCleverty, Jon A.; Totti, Federico; Ward, Michael D.

    1997-07-30

    The magnetic properties of two series of dinuclear complexes, and one trinuclear complex, have been examined as a function of the bridging pathway between the metal centers. The first series of dinuclear complexes is [{Mo(V)(O)(Tp)Cl}(2)(&mgr;-OO)], where "OO" is [1,4-O(C(6)H(4))(n)O](2)(-) (n = 1, 1; n = 2, 3), [4,4'-O(C(6)H(3)-2-Me)(2)O](2)(-) (4), or [1,3-OC(6)H(4)O](2)(-) (2) [Tp = tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)hydroborate]. The second series of dinuclear complexes is [{Mo(I)(NO)(Tp)Cl}(2)(&mgr;-NN)], where "NN" is 4,4'-bipyridyl (5), 3,3'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridine (6), 3,8-phenanthroline (7), or 2,7-diazapyrene (8). The trinuclear complex is [{Mo(V)(O)(Tp)Cl}(3)(1,3,5-C(6)H(3)O(3))] (9), whose crystal structure was determined [9.5CH(2)Cl(2): C(56)H(81)B(3)Cl(13)Mo(3)N(18)O(6); monoclinic, P2(1)/n; a = 13.443, b = 41.46(2), c = 14.314(6) Å; beta = 93.21(3) degrees; V = 7995(5) Å(3); Z = 4; R(1) = 0.106]. In these complexes, the sign and magnitude of the exchange coupling constant J is clearly related to both the topology and the conformation of the bridging ligand [where J is derived from H = -JS(1)().S(2)() for 1-8 and H = -J(S(1)().S(2)() + S(2)().S(3)() + S(1)().S(3)()) for 9]. The values are as follows: 1, -80 cm(-)(1); 2, +9.8 cm(-)(1); 3, -13.2 cm(-)(1); 4, -2.8 cm(-)(1); 5, -33 cm(-)(1); 6, -3.5 cm(-)(1); 7, -35.6 cm(-)(1); 8, -35.0 cm(-)(1); 9, +14.4 cm(-)(1). In particular the following holds: (1) J is negative (antiferromagnetic exchange) across the para-substituted bridges ligands of 1 and 3-8 but positive (ferromagnetic exchange) across the meta-substituted bridging ligands of 2 and 9. (2) J decreases in magnitude dramatically as the bridging ligand conformation changes from planar to twisted (compare 3 and 4, or 6 and 8). These observations are consistent with a spin-polarization mechanism for the exchange interaction, propagated across the pi-system of the bridging ligand by via overlap of bridging ligand p(pi) orbitals with the d(pi) magnetic

  1. Structure of the N-terminal Gyrase B fragment in complex with ADP⋅Pi reveals rigid-body motion induced by ATP hydrolysis.

    Frédéric V Stanger

    Full Text Available Type II DNA topoisomerases are essential enzymes that catalyze topological rearrangement of double-stranded DNA using the free energy generated by ATP hydrolysis. Bacterial DNA gyrase is a prototype of this family and is composed of two subunits (GyrA, GyrB that form a GyrA2GyrB2 heterotetramer. The N-terminal 43-kDa fragment of GyrB (GyrB43 from E. coli comprising the ATPase and the transducer domains has been studied extensively. The dimeric fragment is competent for ATP hydrolysis and its structure in complex with the substrate analog AMPPNP is known. Here, we have determined the remaining conformational states of the enzyme along the ATP hydrolysis reaction path by solving crystal structures of GyrB43 in complex with ADP⋅BeF3, ADP⋅Pi, and ADP. Upon hydrolysis, the enzyme undergoes an obligatory 12° domain rearrangement to accommodate the 1.5 Å increase in distance between the γ- and β-phosphate of the nucleotide within the sealed binding site at the domain interface. Conserved residues from the QTK loop of the transducer domain (also part of the domain interface couple the small structural change within the binding site with the rigid body motion. The domain reorientation is reflected in a significant 7 Å increase in the separation of the two transducer domains of the dimer that would embrace one of the DNA segments in full-length gyrase. The observed conformational change is likely to be relevant for the allosteric coordination of ATP hydrolysis with DNA binding, cleavage/re-ligation and/or strand passage.

  2. DNA fragmentation and cell death mediated by T cell antigen receptor/CD3 complex on a leukemia T cell line.

    Takahashi, S; Maecker, H T; Levy, R

    1989-10-01

    An anti-T cell receptor (TcR) monoclonal antibody (mAb), LC4, directed against a human leukemic T cell line, SUP-T13, caused DNA fragmentation ("apoptosis") and cell death upon binding to this cell line. Cross-linking of receptor molecules was necessary for this effect since F(ab')2, but not Fab', fragments of LC4 could induce cell death. Five anti-CD3 mAb tested also caused apoptosis, but only when they were presented on a solid phase. Interestingly, soluble anti-CD3 mAb induced calcium flux and had an additive effect on the calcium flux and interleukin 2 receptor expression induced by LC4, but these anti-CD3 mAb reversed the growth inhibition and apoptosis caused by LC4. The calcium ionophore A23187, but not the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), also induced apoptosis, suggesting that protein kinase C activation alone does not cause apoptosis, although PMA is growth inhibitory. These results suggest that two distinct biological phenomena can accompany stimulation of the TcR/CD3 complex. In both cases, calcium flux and interleukin 2 receptor expression is induced, but only in one case is apoptosis and cell death seen. The signal initiating apoptosis can be selectively prevented by binding CD3 portion of the receptor in this cell line. This difference in signals mediated by the TcR/CD3 complex may be important in explaining the process of thymic selection, as well as in choosing anti-TcR mAb for therapeutic use.

  3. Gas-phase fragmentation of coordination compounds: loss of CO(2) from inorganic carbonato complexes to give metal oxide ions

    Dalgaard; McKenzie

    1999-10-01

    Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, novel transition metal oxide coordination complex ions are proposed as the products of the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of some carbonato complex ions through the loss of a mass equivalent to CO(2). CID spectra of [(tpa)CoCO(3)](+) (tpa = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)methylamine), [(bispicMe(2)en)Fe(&mgr;-O)(&mgr;-CO(3))Fe(bispicMe(2)en)]2+ (bispicMe(2)en = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethy)eth- ane-1, 2-diamine) and [(bpbp)Cu(2)CO(3)](+) (bpbp(-) = bis[(bis-(2-pyridylmethyl)amino)methyl]-4-tertbutylpheno-lato(1-)), show peaks assigned to the mono- and dinuclear oxide cations, [(tpa)CoO](+), [(bispicMe(2)en)(2)Fe(2)(O)(2)]2+ and [(bpbp)Cu(2)O](+), as the dominant species. These results can be likened to the reverse of typical synthetic reactions in which metal hydroxide compounds react with CO(2) to give metal carbonato compounds. Because of the lack of available protons in the gas phase, novel oxide species rather than the more common hydroxide ions are generated. These oxide ions are relevant to the highly oxidizing species proposed in oxygenation reactions catalysed by metal oxides and metalloenzymes. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Nucleolin forms a specific complex with a fragment of the viral (minus) strand of minute virus of mice DNA.

    Barrijal, S; Perros, M; Gu, Z; Avalosse, B L; Belenguer, P; Amalric, F; Rommelaere, J

    1992-01-01

    Nucleolin, a major nucleolar protein, forms a specific complex with the genome (a single-stranded DNA molecule of minus polarity) of parvovirus MVMp in vitro. By means of South-western blotting experiments, we mapped the binding site to a 222-nucleotide motif within the non-structural transcription unit, referred to as NUBE (nucleolin-binding element). The specificity of the interaction was confirmed by competitive gel retardation assays. DNaseI and nuclease S1 probing showed that NUBE folds into a secondary structure, in agreement with a computer-assisted conformational prediction. The whole NUBE may be necessary for the interaction with nucleolin, as suggested by the failure of NUBE subfragments to bind the protein and by the nuclease footprinting experiments. The present work extends the previously reported ability of nucleolin to form a specific complex with ribosomal RNA, to a defined DNA substrate. Considering the tropism of MVMp DNA replication for host cell nucleoli, these data raise the possibility that nucleolin may contribute to the regulation of the parvoviral life-cycle. Images PMID:1408821

  5. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  6. Production of complex particles in low energy spallation and in fragmentation reactions by in-medium random clusterization

    Lacroix, D.; Durand, D.

    2005-09-01

    Rules for in-medium complex particle production in nuclear reactions are proposed. These rules have been implemented in two models to simulate nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions around the Fermi energy. Our work emphasizes the effect of randomness in cluster formation, the importance of the nucleonic Fermi motion as well as the role of conservation laws. The concepts of total available phase-space and explored phase-space under constraint imposed by the reaction are clarified. The compatibility of experimental observations with a random clusterization is illustrated in a schematic scenario of a proton-nucleus collision. The role of randomness under constraint is also illustrated in the nucleus-nucleus case. (authors)

  7. Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) arc magmatism in the Lützow-Holm Complex, East Antarctica: Implications for crustal growth and terrane assembly in erstwhile Gondwana fragments

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Takamura, Yusuke; Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu

    2018-05-01

    lithological data from the region, suggest that the LHC can be divided into three units: Neoarchean (ca. 2.5 Ga) unit in the southern LHC (Shirase Orthogneiss or "Shirase microcontinent"), Neoproterozoic (ca. 1.0 Ga) unit in the northern LHC, and supracrustal unit in the central LHC with fragments of Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.8 Ga) and minor Neoarchean (ca. 2.5 Ga) and Neoproterozoic (ca. 1.0 Ga) magmatic arcs. The 1.8 Ga arc magmatism inferred in this study has also been reported from adjacent Gondwana fragments such as the Highland Complex in Sri Lanka, and the Trivandrum and Nagercoil Blocks in southern India. Although the ca. 1.8 Ga arc-magmatic event is coeval in these regions, the Paleoproterozoic supracrustal unit in the central LHC may not be contiguous with those in the Highland Complex of Sri Lanka because recent studies have shown that the Vijayan Complex in Sri Lanka and the ca. 1.0 Ga northern LHC possibly were part of a single crustal unit (northern Lützow-Holm-Vijayan Complex) within the Kalahari Block. The supracrustal unit possibly marks part of a discrete suture formed by the collision of the ca. 2.5 Ga southern LHC (Shirase microcontinent) and the ca. 1.0 Ga northern Lützow-Holm-Vijayan Complex during the latest Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Gondwana amalgamation, which might be coeval with the collision of the Vijayan and Wanni Complexes and the formation of the Highland Complex in Sri Lanka. Our study provides new insights on crustal growth and terrane assembly in the ancient continental blocks of Gondwana.

  8. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kerby, Leslie Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  9. Controlled fragmentation

    Arnold, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to natural fragmentation, controlled fragmentation offers the possibility to adapt fragment parameters like size and mass to the performance requirements in a very flexible way. Known mechanisms like grooves inside the casing, weaken the structure. This is, however, excluded for applications with high accelerations during launch or piercing requirements for example on a semi armor piercing penetrator. Another method to achieve controlled fragmentation with an additional grid layer is presented with which the required grooves are produced 'just in time' inside the casing during detonation of the high explosive. The process of generating the grooves aided by the grid layer was studied using the hydrocode HULL with respect to varying grid designs and material combinations. Subsequent to this, a large range of these theoretically investigated combinations was contemplated in substantial experimental tests. With an optimised grid design and a suitable material selection, the controlled fragment admits a very flexible adaptation to the set requirements. Additional advantages like the increase of perforation performance or incendiary amplification can be realized with the grid layer

  10. Gas-phase behaviour of Ru(II) cyclopentadienyl-derived complexes with N-coordinated ligands by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: fragmentation pathways and energetics.

    Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Morais, Tânia S; Silva, Tiago J L; Florindo, Pedro; Garcia, M Helena

    2012-08-15

    The gas-phase behaviour of six Ru(II) cyclopentadienyl-derived complexes with N-coordinated ligands, compounds with antitumor activities against several cancer lines, was studied. This was performed with the intent of establishing fragmentation pathways and to determine the Ru-L(N) and Ru-L(P) ligand bond dissociation energies. Such knowledge can be an important tool for the postulation of the mechanisms of action of these anticancer drugs. Two types of instruments equipped with electrospray ionisation were used (ion trap and a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer). The dissociation energies were determined using energy-variable collision-induced dissociation measurements in the ion trap. The FTICR instrument was used to perform MS(n) experiments on one of the compounds and to obtain accurate mass measurements. Theoretical calculations were performed at the density functional theory (DFT) level using two different functionals (B3LYP and M06L) to estimate the dissociation energies of the complexes under study. The influence of the L(N) on the bond dissociation energy (D) of RuCp compounds with different nitrogen ligands was studied. The lability order of L(N) was: imidazole<1-butylimidazole<5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole<1-benzylimidazole. Both the functionals used gave the following ligand lability order: imidazole<1-benzylimidazole<5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole<1-butylimidazole. It is clear that there is an inversion between 1-benzylimidazole and 1-butylimidazole for the experimental and theoretical lability orders. The M06L functional afforded values of D closer to the experimental values. The type of phosphane (L(P) ) influenced the dissociation energies, with values of D being higher for Ru-L(N) with 1-butylimidazole when the phosphane was 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane. The Ru-L(P) bond dissociation energy for triphenylphosphane was independent of the type of complex. The D values of Ru-L(N) and Ru-L(P) were determined for all six compounds and

  11. Genotyping of major histocompatibility complex Class II DRB gene in Rohilkhandi goats by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing

    Kush Shrivastava

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the major histocompatibility complex (MHC Class II DRB1 gene polymorphism in Rohilkhandi goat using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequencing techniques. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from 127 Rohilkhandi goats maintained at sheep and goat farm, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly. A 284 bp fragment of exon 2 of DRB1 gene was amplified and digested using BsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Population genetic parameters were calculated using Popgene v 1.32 and SAS 9.0. The genotypes were then sequenced using Sanger dideoxy chain termination method and were compared with related breeds/species using MEGA 6.0 and Megalign (DNASTAR software. Results: TaqI locus showed three and BsaI locus showed two genotypes. Both the loci were found to be in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, however, population genetic parameters suggest that heterozygosity is still maintained in the population at both loci. Percent diversity and divergence matrix, as well as phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MHC Class II DRB1 gene of Rohilkhandi goats was found to be in close cluster with Garole and Scottish blackface sheep breeds as compared to other goat breeds included in the sequence comparison. Conclusion: The PCR-RFLP patterns showed population to be in HWE and absence of one genotype at one locus (BsaI, both the loci showed excess of one or the other homozygote genotype, however, effective number of alleles showed that allelic diversity is present in the population. Sequence comparison of DRB1 gene of Rohilkhandi goat with other sheep and goat breed assigned Rohilkhandi goat in divergence with Jamanupari and Angora goats.

  12. Chameleon fragmentation

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Upadhye, Amol, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: aupadhye@anl.gov [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha University, International Education, Building #601, 11-1, Daehyun-Dong Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ{sup 4} and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments.

  13. Chameleon fragmentation

    Brax, Philippe; Upadhye, Amol

    2014-01-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ 4 and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments

  14. The role of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and 2 (CR2, CD21) in promoting C3 fragment deposition and membrane attack complex formation on normal peripheral human B cells

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Pedersen, Morten Løbner; Marquart, Hanne Vibeke Hansen

    2002-01-01

    Normal human B lymphocytes are known to activate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement, leading to C3-fragment deposition and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. The process is mediated via complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21), with complement receptor type 1 (CR1, CD35) playing...... a subsidiary role. In this study, we examine the relative contributions of CR1 and CR2 to the deposition of C3 fragments and MAC on B lymphocytes under circumstances where all complement pathways are operational. C3-fragment deposition and MAC formation were assessed on human peripheral B lymphocytes...... in the presence of 30% autologous serum. Blocking the CR2 ligand-binding site with monoclonal antibody (mAb) FE8 resulted in significant reduction (37.9+/-11.9%) in C3-fragment deposition, whereas MAC formation was only marginally affected (12.1+/-22.2% reduction). Blocking the CR1 binding-site resulted...

  15. Bespoke Fragments

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The PhD project Bespoke Fragments is investigating the space emerging in the exploration of the relationship between digital drawing and fabrication, and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Through a series of different experiments, the project situates itself in a shuttli...

  16. Rock fragmentation

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  17. Virtual fragment preparation for computational fragment-based drug design.

    Ludington, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an important component of the drug discovery process. The use of fragments can accelerate both the search for a hit molecule and the development of that hit into a lead molecule for clinical testing. In addition to experimental methodologies for FBDD such as NMR and X-ray Crystallography screens, computational techniques are playing an increasingly important role. The success of the computational simulations is due in large part to how the database of virtual fragments is prepared. In order to prepare the fragments appropriately it is necessary to understand how FBDD differs from other approaches and the issues inherent in building up molecules from smaller fragment pieces. The ultimate goal of these calculations is to link two or more simulated fragments into a molecule that has an experimental binding affinity consistent with the additive predicted binding affinities of the virtual fragments. Computationally predicting binding affinities is a complex process, with many opportunities for introducing error. Therefore, care should be taken with the fragment preparation procedure to avoid introducing additional inaccuracies.This chapter is focused on the preparation process used to create a virtual fragment database. Several key issues of fragment preparation which affect the accuracy of binding affinity predictions are discussed. The first issue is the selection of the two-dimensional atomic structure of the virtual fragment. Although the particular usage of the fragment can affect this choice (i.e., whether the fragment will be used for calibration, binding site characterization, hit identification, or lead optimization), general factors such as synthetic accessibility, size, and flexibility are major considerations in selecting the 2D structure. Other aspects of preparing the virtual fragments for simulation are the generation of three-dimensional conformations and the assignment of the associated atomic point charges.

  18. Structural and biophysical characterization of an epitope-specific engineered Fab fragment and complexation with membrane proteins: implications for co-crystallization.

    Johnson, Jennifer L; Entzminger, Kevin C; Hyun, Jeongmin; Kalyoncu, Sibel; Heaner, David P; Morales, Ivan A; Sheppard, Aly; Gumbart, James C; Maynard, Jennifer A; Lieberman, Raquel L

    2015-04-01

    Crystallization chaperones are attracting increasing interest as a route to crystal growth and structure elucidation of difficult targets such as membrane proteins. While strategies to date have typically employed protein-specific chaperones, a peptide-specific chaperone to crystallize multiple cognate peptide epitope-containing client proteins is envisioned. This would eliminate the target-specific chaperone-production step and streamline the co-crystallization process. Previously, protein engineering and directed evolution were used to generate a single-chain variable (scFv) antibody fragment with affinity for the peptide sequence EYMPME (scFv/EE). This report details the conversion of scFv/EE to an anti-EE Fab format (Fab/EE) followed by its biophysical characterization. The addition of constant chains increased the overall stability and had a negligible impact on the antigen affinity. The 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of Fab/EE reveals contacts with larger surface areas than those of scFv/EE. Surface plasmon resonance, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and size-exclusion chromatography were used to assess Fab/EE binding to EE-tagged soluble and membrane test proteins: namely, the β-barrel outer membrane protein intimin and α-helical A2a G protein-coupled receptor (A2aR). Molecular-dynamics simulation of the intimin constructs with and without Fab/EE provides insight into the energetic complexities of the co-crystallization approach.

  19. Intermediate Fragment

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  20. Fragmentation based

    Shashank Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Gaining the understanding of mobile agent architecture and the security concerns, in this paper, we proposed a security protocol which addresses security with mitigated computational cost. The protocol is a combination of self decryption, co-operation and obfuscation technique. To circumvent the risk of malicious code execution in attacking environment, we have proposed fragmentation based encryption technique. Our encryption technique suits the general mobile agent size and provides hard and thorny obfuscation increasing attacker’s challenge on the same plane providing better performance with respect to computational cost as compared to existing AES encryption.

  1. Bespoke Fragments

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , investigating levels of control and uncertainty encountering with these. Through tangible experiments, the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect's digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion as an opportunity to connect...... architectural designs, tectonics and aesthetics. In this Ph.D.-project a series a physical, but conceptual, experiment plays the central role in the knowledge production. The experiments result in materialised architectural fragments and tangible experiences. However, these creations also become the driving...

  2. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC DRB exon 2 and DRA exon 3 fragments in a primary terrestrial rabies vector (Procyon lotor.

    Sarrah Castillo

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC presents a unique system to explore links between genetic diversity and pathogens, as diversity within MHC is maintained in part by pathogen driven selection. While the majority of wildlife MHC studies have investigated species that are of conservation concern, here we characterize MHC variation in a common and broadly distributed species, the North American raccoon (Procyon lotor. Raccoons host an array of broadly distributed wildlife diseases (e.g., canine distemper, parvovirus and raccoon rabies virus and present important human health risks as they persist in high densities and in close proximity to humans and livestock. To further explore how genetic variation influences the spread and maintenance of disease in raccoons we characterized a fragment of MHC class II DRA exon 3 (250 bp and DRB exon 2 (228 bp. MHC DRA was found to be functionally monomorphic in the 32 individuals screened; whereas DRB exon 2 revealed 66 unique alleles among the 246 individuals screened. Between two and four alleles were observed in each individual suggesting we were amplifying a duplicated DRB locus. Nucleotide differences between DRB alleles ranged from 1 to 36 bp (0.4-15.8% divergence and translated into 1 to 21 (1.3-27.6% divergence amino acid differences. We detected a significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions at the peptide binding region (P = 0.005, indicating that DRB exon 2 in raccoons has been influenced by positive selection. These data will form the basis of continued analyses into the spatial and temporal relationship of the raccoon rabies virus and the immunogenetic response in its primary host.

  3. MCNP6 fragmentation of light nuclei at intermediate energies

    Mashnik, Stepan G., E-mail: mashnik@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kerby, Leslie M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)

    2014-11-11

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the latest Los Alamos Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6 and with its cascade-exciton model (CEM) and Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM) event generators, version 03.03, used as stand-alone codes. Such reactions are involved in different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU's), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, among others; therefore, it is important that MCNP6 simulates them as well as possible. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. Both CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to {sup 4}He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  4. Framing Fragmentation

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary industrialized architecture based on advanced information technology and highly technological production processes, implies a radically different approach to architecture than what we have experienced in the past. Works of architecture composed of prefabricated building components......, contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... tries to develop a strategy for the architect dealing with industrially based architecture; a strategy which exploits architectural potentials in industrial building, which recognizes the rules of mass production and which redefines the architect’s position among the agents of building. If recent...

  5. The light-harvesting complexes of higher plant Photosystem I: Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3 form two red-emitting heterodimers

    Wientjes, I.E.; Croce, R.

    2011-01-01

    The outer antenna of higher-plant PSI (Photosystem I) is composed of four complexes [Lhc (light-harvesting complex) a1-Lhca4] belonging to the light-harvesting protein family. Difficulties in their purification have so far prevented the determination of their properties and most of the knowledge

  6. The light-harvesting complexes of higher-plant Photosystem I : Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3 form two red-emitting heterodimers

    Wientjes, Emilie; Croce, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The outer antenna of higher-plant PSI (Photosystem I) is composed of four complexes [Lhc (light-harvesting complex) al-Lhca4] belonging to the light-harvesting protein family. Difficulties in their purification have so far prevented the determination of their properties and most of the knowledge

  7. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pzooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pzooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (P0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pzooxanthellae are the most sensitive element in the coral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly Luminescent 2D-Type Slab Crystals Based on a Molecular Charge-Transfer Complex as Promising Organic Light-Emitting Transistor Materials.

    Park, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jin Hong; Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Yamada, Ryo; Jones, Andrew O F; Whang, Dong Ryeol; Cho, Illhun; Oh, Sangyoon; Hong, Seung Hwa; Kwon, Ji Eon; Kim, Jong H; Olivier, Yoann; Fischer, Roland; Resel, Roland; Gierschner, Johannes; Tada, Hirokazu; Park, Soo Young

    2017-09-01

    A new 2:1 donor (D):acceptor (A) mixed-stacked charge-transfer (CT) cocrystal comprising isometrically structured dicyanodistyrylbenzene-based D and A molecules is designed and synthesized. Uniform 2D-type morphology is manifested by the exquisite interplay of intermolecular interactions. In addition to its appealing structural features, unique optoelectronic properties are unveiled. Exceptionally high photoluminescence quantum yield (Φ F ≈ 60%) is realized by non-negligible oscillator strength of the S 1 transition, and rigidified 2D-type structure. Moreover, this luminescent 2D-type CT crystal exhibits balanced ambipolar transport (µ h and µ e of ≈10 -4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ). As a consequence of such unique optoelectronic characteristics, the first CT electroluminescence is demonstrated in a single active-layered organic light-emitting transistor (OLET) device. The external quantum efficiency of this OLET is as high as 1.5% to suggest a promising potential of luminescent mixed-stacked CT cocrystals in OLET applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Excited-States Interactions of Complexes between Some Visible Light-Emitting Lanthanide Ions and Cyclophanes Containing Spirobiindanol Phosphonates

    M. S. Attia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of excited-states interactions between lanthanide ions Tb3+ and Eu3+ and some new cyclophanes (I, II, and III has been studied in different media. High luminescence quantum yield values for terbium and europium complexes in DMSO and PMMA were obtained. The photophysical properties of the green and red emissive Tb3+ and Eu3+ complexes have been elucidated, respectively.

  10. Fragments of deeper parts of the hanging wall mantle preserved as orogenic peridotites in the central belt of the Seve Nappe Complex, Sweden

    Clos, Frediano; Gilio, Mattia; van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2014-04-01

    Formation conditions of olivine microstructures are investigated in the Kittelfjäll spinel peridotite (KSP), a fragment of lithospheric mantle which occurs as an isolated body within high grade metamorphic crustal rocks of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC), southern Västerbotten, central Sweden. The KSP is an orogenic peridotite containing a well developed penetrative compositional layering, defined by highly depleted dunite with olivine Mg# (100 × Mg/Mg + Fe) of 92.0-93.5 and harzburgite with lower Mg# (91.0-92.5). Dunite is characterized by three contrasting olivine microstructures formed in response to different tectonometamorphic events: Coarse-grained, highly strained olivine porphyroclasts (M1) up to 20 cm long are surrounded by dynamically recrystallized olivine grains (M2) defining a characteristic olivine "foam" microstructure (grain size: 200-2000 μm). An olivine "mortar" (M3) microstructure (10-50 μm) forms a penetrative fabric element only in strongly localized, cm-to-m sized shear zones that crosscut earlier structures/foliations. Olivine fabric analysis in synergy, with mineralogical and chemical analyses, reveals that the KSP body represents old, possibly Archean, sub-continental lithospheric mantle that was crustally emplaced into the Caledonian tectonic edifice from the hanging wall mantle during exhumation of the subducted Seve Nappe Complex (Jämtlandian orogeny ~ 454 Ma). Olivine porphyroclasts (M1) grew at high temperature during dominant isobaric cooling after extensive polybaric melt extraction (> 40%) and subsequent refertilization. The onset of the early Caledonian deformation is interpreted to be related to the crustal emplacement of the KSP during eduction of the SNC. This phase is characterized by the development of the olivine M2 foam microstructure, formed at 650-830 °C/1-2 GPa by dislocation creep processes producing an E-type CPO's by the operation of the [100](001) and subordinate [001](100) slip systems with operating flow stress

  11. Near-infrared-emitting heteroleptic cationic iridium complexes derived from 2,3-diphenylbenzo[g]quinoxaline as in vitro theranostic photodynamic therapy agents

    Wang, Li; Yin, Huimin; Cui, Peng; Hetu, Marc; Wang, Chengzhe; Monro, Susan; Schaller, Richard D.; Cameron, Colin G.; Liu, Bingqing; Kilina, Svetlana; McFarland, Sherri A.; Sun, Wenfang

    2017-05-19

    Five heteroleptic cationic iridium complexes with a π-expansive cyclometalating 2,3-diphenylbenzo[g] quinoxaline (dpbq) ligand (C^N ligand) and different diimine ligands (N^N ligands) (i.e. 2,2’-bipyridine (bpy, 1), phenanthroline (phen, 2), 2-(2-pyridinyl)quinoline (pqu, 3), 2,2’-bisquinoline (bqu, 4), and 2-(quinolin-2-yl)quinoxaline (quqo, 5)) were synthesized and characterized. The lowest-energy singlet electronic transitions (S1 states) were mainly dpbq ligand-centred 1ILCT (intraligand charge transfer)/1MLCT (metal to ligand charge transfer) transitions mixed with some 1π,π* transitions for complexes 1–4 with increased contributions from 1LLCT (ligand to ligand charge transfer) in 3 and 4. For complex 5, the S1 state was switched to the 1LLCT/1MLCT transitions. All five complexes displayed weak near-infrared (NIR) phosphorescence, with maximal emission output spanning 700–1400 nm and quantum yields being on the order of 10-3. The triplet state absorptions of 1–4 all resembled that of the [Ir(dpbq)2Cl]2 dimer with lifetimes of ca. 400 ns, while the TA spectrum of 5 possessed the characteristics of both the quqo ligand and the [Ir(dpbq)2Cl]2 dimer with a bi-exponential decay of ca. 5 μs and 400 ns. While the photophysics of these complexes differ slightly, their theranostic photodynamic therapy (PDT) effects varied drastically. All of the complexes were biologically active toward melanoma cells. Complexes 2 and 3 were the most cytotoxic, with 230–340 nM activity and selectivity factors for melanoma cells over normal skin fibroblasts of 34 to 40 fold. Complexes 2, 3, and 5 became very potent cytotoxins with light activation, with EC50 values as low as 12–18 nM. This potent nanomolar light-triggered activity combined with a lower dark toxicity resulted in 5 having a phototherapeutic index (PI) margin of almost 275. The bpy coligand led to the least amount of dark toxicity of 1, while phen and pqu produced cytotoxic but selective complexes 2 and

  12. [The Postero-Lateral Approach--An Alternative to Closed Anterior-Posterior Screw Fixation of a Dislocated Postero-Lateral Fragment of the Distal Tibia in Complex Ankle Fractures].

    von Rüden, C; Hackl, S; Woltmann, A; Friederichs, J; Bühren, V; Hierholzer, C

    2015-06-01

    The dislocated posterolateral fragment of the distal tibia is considered as a key fragment for the successful reduction of comminuted ankle fractures. The reduction of this fragment can either be achieved indirectly by joint reduction using the technique of closed anterior-posterior screw fixation, or directly using the open posterolateral approach followed by plate fixation. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome after stabilization of the dislocated posterolateral tibia fragment using either closed reduction and screw fixation, or open reduction and plate fixation via the posterolateral approach in complex ankle fractures. In a prospective study between 01/2010 and 12/2012, all mono-injured patients with closed ankle fractures and dislocated posterolateral tibia fragments were assessed 12 months after osteosynthesis. Parameters included: size of the posterolateral tibia fragment relative to the tibial joint surface (CT scan, in %) as an indicator of injury severity, unreduced area of tibial joint surface postoperatively, treatment outcome assessed by using the "Ankle Fracture Scoring System" (AFSS), as well as epidemiological data and duration of the initial hospital treatment. In 11 patients (10 female, 1 male; age 51.6 ± 2.6 years [mean ± SEM], size of tibia fragment 42.1 ± 2.5 %) the fragment fixation was performed using a posterolateral approach. Impaired postoperative wound healing occurred in 2 patients of this group. In the comparison group, 12 patients were treated using the technique of closed anterior-posterior screw fixation (10 female, 2 male; age 59.5 ± 6.7 years, size of tibia fragment 45.9 ± 1.5 %). One patient of this group suffered an incomplete lesion of the superficial peroneal nerve. Radiological evaluation of the joint surface using CT scan imaging demonstrated significantly less dislocation of the tibial joint surface following the open posterolateral approach (0.60 ± 0.20 mm) compared to the closed

  13. Differentiation of pulmonary bacterial pathogens in cystic fibrosis by volatile metabolites emitted by their in vitro cultures: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and the Burkholderia cepacia complex

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Sovová, Kristýna; Nemec, A.; Španěl, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, AUG 2016 (2016), s. 037102 ISSN 1752-7155 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-14534S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Burkholderia cepacia complex * Pseudomonas aeruginosa * cystic fibrosis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.318, year: 2016

  14. Radiation emitting devices act

    1970-01-01

    This Act, entitled the Radiation Emitting Devices Act, is concerned with the sale and importation of radiation emitting devices. Laws relating to the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of these devices are listed as well as penalties for any person who is convicted of breaking these laws

  15. Fragmentation of Relativistic 56Fe Nuclei in Emulsion

    Chernov, G.M.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gulyamov, U.G.; Navotny, V.Sh.; Petrov, N.V.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Jakobsson, B.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.

    1983-03-01

    Experimental data on general characteristics of projectile fragments in inelastic interactions of relativistic 56 Fe nuclei in emulsion (multiplicities, transverse momentum distributions, azimuthal correlations) are presented and discussed. A strong dependence on the mass number of the projectile nucleus is observed for the transverse momenta of the emitted projectile fragments. These fragments exhibit an azimuthal asymmetry caused by the transverse motion of the fragmenting residue, but it is shown that this motion can be responsible only for a part of the increase in the average transverse momentum of the fragments with increasing mass of the projectile. (author)

  16. Efficient near-infrared emission of π-extended cyclometalated iridium complexes based on pyrene in solution-processed polymer light-emitting diode

    Liu, Yu; Hao, Zhaoran; Meng, Fanyuan; Wang, Pu; Yang, Liang; Wang, Yafei; Pei, Yong; Su, Shijian

    2018-05-01

    A novel iridium complex grafting hole-transporting triphenylamine (TPA) unit onto cyclometalated ligand, namely t-BuPyrPyTPA)2Ir(acac), was successfully synthesized and characterized. The photophysical, electrochemical and DFT/TD-DFT calculation, as well as electroluminescence properties of this iridium complex were fully investigated. Meanwhile, the PLEDs employing (t-BuPyrPyTPA)2Ir(acac) as dopant presented stable NIR emission peaked at 697 nm and a shoulder at 764 nm with a highest external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.56% at 4 wt% dopant concentration. These results demonstrate that expanding the conjugation length of the ligand is an effective way to achieve NIR emission.

  17. Highly efficient red phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes for organic light- emitting diodes based on aryl(6-arylpyridin-3-yl)methanone ligands

    Kang, Hyun Ju; Lee, Kum Hee [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seok Jae; Seo, Ji Hyun [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@wow.hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-29

    A series of phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes 1-4 were synthesized based on aryl(6-arylpyridin-3-yl)methanone ligands, and their photophysical and electroluminescent properties were characterized. Multilayer devices with the configuration, Indium tin oxide/4,4',4''-tris(N-(naphthalene-2-yl)-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (60 nm)/4,4'-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl (20 nm)/Ir(III) complexes doped in N,N'-dicarbazolyl-4,4'-biphenyl (30 nm, 8%)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-phenathroline (10 nm)/tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (20 nm)/lithium quinolate (2 nm)/ Al (100 nm), were fabricated. Among these, the device employing complex 2 as a dopant exhibited efficient red emission with a maximum luminance, luminous efficiency, power efficiency and quantum efficiency of 16200 cd/m{sup 2} at 14.0 V, 12.20 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, 4.26 lm/W and 9.26% at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively, with Commission Internationale de l'Enclairage coordinates of (0.63, 0.37) at 12.0 V.

  18. Theoretical study on photophysical properties of angular-shaped mercury(II) bis(acetylide) complexes as light-emitting materials

    Ran Xueqin; Feng Jikang; Wong, Wai-Yeung; Ren Aimin; Poon, Suk-Yue; Sun Chiachung

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth investigation on the optical and electronic properties of a series of mercury-containing and metal-free arylacetylenes with bridged heteroatoms was provided here. The geometric and electronic structures of the complexes in the ground state are studied with density functional theory and Hartree-Fock, whereas the lowest singlet and triplet excited states are optimized by singles configuration interaction (CIS) methods. At the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) level, molecular absorptions and emission properties were calculated on the basis of optimized ground- and excited-state geometries, respectively. The calculated lowest-lying absorptions of the investigated complexes are attributed to ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (LLCT), intraligand (IL) and ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT). The results show that the optoelectronic properties for the complexes are affected by the transition-metal atom, various bridge heteroatoms and different end-group substituents. Moreover, the calculated data reveal that the studied molecules have improved charge-transfer rate, especially for designed molecules.

  19. Synthesis and Study of Chemical and Photo-physical Properties of Quinolinate Aluminum and Zinc Complexes in Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    Rawat, Madhu; Prakash, Sattey; Singh, C.; Anand, R. S.

    2011-10-01

    Two well known electroluminescent (EL) compounds, aluminum and zinc metallo-8-hydroxyquinolates have been synthesized. Their chemical and physical properties like NMR, FTIR, Cyclic Voltammetry, absorption and EL are studied. Organic LEDs are fabricated using both the material as emissive layers. Electroluminescence spectra of the complexes are measured. 2Alq3 and Znq2 give peak emission in yellow-green region at wavelengths 527nm and 540nm respectively. Znq2 is slightly red shifted compared to Alq3 because metal to ligand charge transfer is more in Znq2. A study of ON voltage, luminance efficiency and stability of OLEDs using both materials is made.

  20. Synthesis, structures, and electroluminescent properties of scandium N,O-chelated complexes toward near-white organic light-emitting diodes.

    Katkova, Marina A; Balashova, Tatyana V; Ilichev, Vasilii A; Konev, Alexey N; Isachenkov, Nikolai A; Fukin, Georgy K; Ketkov, Sergey Yu; Bochkarev, Mikhail N

    2010-06-07

    Three members of a new class of electroluminescent, neutral, and monomeric scandium N,O-chelate complexes, namely, Sc(III)-tris-2-(2-benzoimidazol-2-yl)phenolate (1), Sc(III)-tris-2-(2-benzoxyazol-2-yl)phenolate (2), and Sc(III)-tris-2-(2-benzothiazol-2-yl)phenolate (3), have been prepared and X-ray characterized. DFT calculations have been performed. In contrast to the most frequently applied dual or multiple dopants in multilayer white OLED devices, all our simpler devices with the configuration of indium tin oxide/N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine/neat scandium complex/Yb exhibit close to near-white emission with a blue hue (CIE(x,y) = 0.2147, 0.2379) in the case of 1, a cyan hue (0.2702, 0.3524) in the case of 2, and a yellowish hue (0.3468; 0.4284) in the case of 3.

  1. Top emitting white OLEDs

    Freitag, Patricia; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, George-Baehr-Strasse 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs) provide a number of interesting opportunities for new applications, such as the opportunity to fabricate ITO-free devices by using opaque substrates. This makes it possible to manufacture low cost OLEDs for signage and lighting applications. A general top emitting device consists of highly reflecting metal contacts as anode and semitransparent cathode, the latter one for better outcouling reasons. In between several organic materials are deposited as charge transporting, blocking, and emission layers. Here, we show a top emitting white organic light emitting diode with silver electrodes arranged in a p-i-n structure with p- and n-doped charge transport layers. The centrical emission layer consists of two phosphorescent (red and green) and one fluorescent (blue) emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. By adding an additional dielectric capping layer on top of the device stack, we achieve a reduction of the strong microcavity effects which appear due to the high reflection of both metal electrodes. Therefore, the outcoupled light shows broad and nearly angle-independent emission spectra, which is essential for white light emitting diodes.

  2. A fragment separator at LBL for beta-NMR experiment

    Matsuta, K.; Ozawa, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Minamisono, T.; Fukuda, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Ohtsubo, T.; Momota, S.; Fukuda, S.; Matsuo, Y.; Takechi, H.; Minami, I.; Sugimoto, K.; Tanihata, I.; Omata, K.; Alonso, J.R.; Krebs, G.F.; Symons, T.J.M.

    1992-03-01

    The Beam 44 fragment separator was built at the Bevalac of LBL for NMR studies of beta emitting nuclei. 37 K, 39 Ca, and 43 Ti fragments originating from 40 Ca and 46 Ti primary beams were separated by the separator for NMR studies on these nuclei. Nuclear spin polarization was created in 39 Ca and 43 Ti using the tilted foil technique (TFT), and the magnetic moment of 43 Ti was deduced. Fragment polarization was measured for 37 K and 39 Ca emitted to finite deflection angles. The Beam 44 fragment separator in combination with a proper polarization technique, such as TFT or fragment polarization, has been very effective for such NMR studies

  3. Stacking reactions of the borole complex Cp*Rh(η5-C4H4BPh) with the dicationic fragments [Cp*M]2+ (M = Rh or Ir)

    Loginov, D.A.; Muratov, D.V.; Starikova, Z.A.; Petrovskij, P.V.; Kudinov, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of the (borole)rhodium iodide complex [(η-C 4 H 4 BPh)RhI] 4 with Cp*Li afforded the sandwich compound Cp*Rh(η-C 4 H 4 BPh) (1). The reactions of compound 1 with the solvated complexes [Cp*M(MeNO 2 ) 3 ] 2+ (BF 4 - ) 2 gave triple-decker cationic complexes with the central borole ligand [Cp*Rh(μ-η 5 :η 5 -C 4 H 4 BPh)MCp*] 2+ (BF 4 - ) 2 (M = Rh or Ir). The structure of complex 1 was established by X-ray diffraction [ru

  4. Intermittency in 197Au fragmentation

    Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Cherry, M.L.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jones, W.V.; Sengupta, K.; Wefel, B.

    1995-07-01

    The concept of factorial moments was applied to an analysis of the dynamical fluctuations in the charge distributions of the fragments emitted from gold nuclei with energies 10.6 and < 1.0 GeV/n interacting with emulsion nuclei. Clear evidence for intermittent fluctuations has been found in an analysis using all the particles released from the gold projectile, with a stronger effect observed below 1 GeV/n than at 10.6 GeV/n. For the full data sets, however, the intermittency effect was found to be very sensitive to the singly charged particles, and neglecting these particles strongly reduces the intermittency signal. When the analysis is restricted to the multiply charged fragments, an intermittency effect is revealed only for multifragmentation events, although one that is enhanced as compared to the analysis of all, singly and multiply charged, particles. The properties of the anomalous fractal dimensions suggest a sequential decay mechanism, rather than the existence of possible critical behaviour in the process of nuclear fragmentation. The likely influence of the charge conservation effects and the finite size of decaying systems on the observed intermittency signals was pointed out. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    1970-01-01

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  6. Investigation of some approximation used in promptly emitted particle models

    Leray, S.; La Rana, G.; Lucas, R.; Ngo, C.; Barranco, M.; Pi, M.; Vinas, X.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate three effects which can be taken into account in a model for promptly emitted particles: the Pauli blocking, the velocity of the window separating the two ions with respect to each of the fragments and the spatial extension of the window

  7. [Sensitive Determination of Chondroitin Sulfate by Fluorescence Recovery of an Anionic Aluminum Phthalocyanine-Cationic Surfactant Ion-Association Complex Used as a Fluorescent Probe Emitting at Red Region].

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Ping; Yang, Hui-qing; Deng, Ya-bin; Guo, Meng-lin; Li, Dong-hui

    2015-08-01

    Determination of chondroitin sulfate in the biomedical field has an important value. The conventional methods for the assay of chondroitin sulfate are still unsatisfactory in sensitivity, selectivity or simplicity. This work aimed at developing a novel method for sensitive and selective determination of chondroitin sulfate by fluorimetry. We found that some kinds of cationic surfactants have the ability to quench the fluorescence of tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS4Pc), a strongly fluorescent compound which emits at red region, with high efficiency. But, the fluorescence of the above-mentioned fluorescence quenching system recovered significantly when chondroitin sulfate (CS) exits. Tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride(TDBAC) which was screened from all of the candidates of cationic surfactants was chosen as the quencher because it shows the most efficient quenching effect. It was found that the fluorescence of AlS4Pc was extremely quenched by TDBAC because of the formation of association complex between AlS4Pc and TDBAC. Fluorescence of the association complex recovered dramatically after the addition of chondroitin sulfate (CS) due to the ability of chondroitin sulfate to shift the association equilibrium of the association, leading to the release of AlS4Pc, thus resulting in an increase in the fluorescence of the reaction system. Based on this phenomenon, a novel method with simplicity, accuracy and sensitivity was developed for quantitative determination of CS. Factors including the reaction time, influencing factors and the effect of coexisting substances were investigated and discussed. Under optimum conditions the linear range of the calibration curve was 0.20~10.0 μg · mL(-1). The detection limit for CS was 0.070 μg · mL(-1). The method has been applied to the analysis of practical samples with satisfied results. This work expands the applications of AlS4Pc in biomedical area.

  8. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  9. Knowledge-based Fragment Binding Prediction

    Tang, Grace W.; Altman, Russ B.

    2014-01-01

    Target-based drug discovery must assess many drug-like compounds for potential activity. Focusing on low-molecular-weight compounds (fragments) can dramatically reduce the chemical search space. However, approaches for determining protein-fragment interactions have limitations. Experimental assays are time-consuming, expensive, and not always applicable. At the same time, computational approaches using physics-based methods have limited accuracy. With increasing high-resolution structural data for protein-ligand complexes, there is now an opportunity for data-driven approaches to fragment binding prediction. We present FragFEATURE, a machine learning approach to predict small molecule fragments preferred by a target protein structure. We first create a knowledge base of protein structural environments annotated with the small molecule substructures they bind. These substructures have low-molecular weight and serve as a proxy for fragments. FragFEATURE then compares the structural environments within a target protein to those in the knowledge base to retrieve statistically preferred fragments. It merges information across diverse ligands with shared substructures to generate predictions. Our results demonstrate FragFEATURE's ability to rediscover fragments corresponding to the ligand bound with 74% precision and 82% recall on average. For many protein targets, it identifies high scoring fragments that are substructures of known inhibitors. FragFEATURE thus predicts fragments that can serve as inputs to fragment-based drug design or serve as refinement criteria for creating target-specific compound libraries for experimental or computational screening. PMID:24762971

  10. Universal elements of fragmentation

    Yanovsky, V. V.; Tur, A. V.; Kuklina, O. V.

    2010-01-01

    A fragmentation theory is proposed that explains the universal asymptotic behavior of the fragment-size distribution in the large-size range, based on simple physical principles. The basic principles of the theory are the total mass conservation in a fragmentation process and a balance condition for the energy expended in increasing the surface of fragments during their breakup. A flux-based approach is used that makes it possible to supplement the basic principles and develop a minimal theory of fragmentation. Such a supplementary principle is that of decreasing fragment-volume flux with increasing energy expended in fragmentation. It is shown that the behavior of the decreasing flux is directly related to the form of a power-law fragment-size distribution. The minimal theory is used to find universal asymptotic fragment-size distributions and to develop a natural physical classification of fragmentation models. A more general, nonlinear theory of strong fragmentation is also developed. It is demonstrated that solutions to a nonlinear kinetic equation consistent with both basic principles approach a universal asymptotic size distribution. Agreement between the predicted asymptotic fragment-size distributions and experimental observations is discussed.

  11. Fragmentation in central collisions of heavy systems

    Claesson, G.; Doss, K.G.R.; Ferguson, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the goals of heavy ion reaction studies is to understand the fragmentation of hot nuclei. The LBL/GSI Plastic Ball detector system has been used to achieve a very high solid angle for detection of light and medium-heavy fragments emitted in 200 Mev/A Au + Au and Au + Fe reactions. The simultaneous measurement of almost all of the nucleons and nuclei resulting from each collision allows an estimation of the total charged particle multiplicity and hence the impact parameter. By choosing subsets of the data corresponding to a peripheral or central collision, the assumptions inherent in various models of nuclear fragmentation can be tested. 3 refs., 3 figs

  12. A highly luminescent dinuclear Eu(III) complex based on 4,4'-bis (4'',4'',4''-trifluoro-1'',3''-dioxobutyl)-o-terphenyl for light-emitting diodes

    Liu Shenggui [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Ministry of Education Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); School of Chemistry Science and Technology, Zhanjiang Normal University, New Materials Engineering and Technology Development Center of University in Guangdong, Zhanjiang 524048 (China); He Pei; Wang Huihui; Shi Jianxin [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Ministry of Education Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Gong Menglian, E-mail: cesgml@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Ministry of Education Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-08-15

    A dinuclear Eu(III) complex Eu{sub 2}(btbt){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O.CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH.N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3} was synthesized, where H{sub 2}(btbt) was 4,4'-bis (4'',4'',4'',-trifluoro-1'',3''-dioxobutyl)-o-terphenyl. The composition and structure of the complex were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis and FAB-MS spectroscopy. The complex emits the characteristic red luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} ion due to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub J} (J = 0-4) transitions under {approx}395 nm-light excitation with good luminescent quantum efficiency (32%) and exhibits high thermal stability (337 deg. C). Bright red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by coating the complex onto a {approx}395 nm-emitting InGaN chip. When the mass ratio of the red phosphor to the silicone is 1:30, the efficiency of the fabricated LEDs with the europium complex is 0.98 lm w{sup -1}. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the LEDs are x = 0.6057 and y = 0.3137, which are close to the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC) standard values for red color. The results indicate that the complex may act as a red component in the fabrication of near UV InGaN-based white light-emitting diodes with high color-rendering index.

  13. The Selvester QRS Score is more accurate than Q waves and fragmented QRS complexes using the Mason-Likar configuration in estimating infarct volume in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Carey, Mary G; Luisi, Andrew J; Baldwa, Sunil; Al-Zaiti, Salah; Veneziano, Marc J; deKemp, Robert A; Canty, John M; Fallavollita, James A

    2010-01-01

    Infarct volume independently predicts cardiovascular events. Fragmented QRS complexes (fQRS) may complement Q waves for identifying infarction; however, their utility in advanced coronary disease is unknown. We tested whether fQRS could improve the electrocardiographic prediction of infarct volume by positron emission tomography in 138 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction, 0.27 +/- 0.09). Indices of infarction (pathologic Q waves, fQRS, and Selvester QRS Score) were analyzed by blinded observers. In patients with QRS duration less than 120 milliseconds, number of leads with pathologic Q waves (mean, 1.6 +/- 1.7) correlated weakly with infarct volume (r = 0.30, P wave prediction of infarct volume; but Selvester Score was more accurate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. On the nuclear fragmentation mechanisms in nuclear collisions at intermediate and high energies

    Jipa, Al.; Besliu, C.; Felea, D.; Iliescu, B.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, M.; Calin, C.; Horbuniev, A.; Arsene, I.; Esanu, T.; Ochesanu, S.; Caramarcu, C.; Bordeianu, C.; Rosu, I.; Grossu, V.; Zgura, I.S.; Stan, E.; Mitu, C.; Potlog, M.; Cherciu, M.; Stefan, I.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear fragmentation mechanisms can be discussed taking into account different scales. These scales are related to the fragment sizes. Taking into account the possible different fragmentation mechanisms of the nuclei at the same incident energy an analysis of the experimental results obtained in different experiments performed at the JINR Dubna (Russia), KEK Tsukuba (Japan), GSI Darmstadt (Germany) is done. Results on apparent temperatures, angular distributions, fragment momentum spectra, multiplicities of the intermediate mass fragments are used to analyse the competition between two possible nuclear fragmentation mechanisms, namely: a sudden fragmentation by explosive mechanisms, like shock waves, and a slow fragmentation by the 'fission' of the spectator regions, mainly, because of the interactions with the particles or fragments emitted from the participant region at transverse angles on the incident nucleus, in CMS.Some connections with chaos dynamics and fractal structure of the fragmentation patterns are included. (authors)

  15. Structures of the APC–ARM domain in complexes with discrete Amer1/WTX fragments reveal that it uses a consensus mode to recognize its binding partners

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Akyildiz, Senem; Xiao, Yafei; Gai, Zhongchao; An, Ying; Behrens, Jürgen; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor APC employs its conserved armadillo repeat (ARM) domain to recognize many of its binding partners, including Amer1/WTX, which is mutated in Wilms' tumor and bone overgrowth syndrome. The APC–Amer1 complex has important roles in regulating Wnt signaling and cell adhesion. Three sites A1, A2, and A3 of Amer1 have been reported to mediate its interaction with APC-ARM. In this study, crystal structures of APC–ARM in complexes with Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, which is newly identified in this work, were determined. Combined with our GST pull-down, yeast two-hybrid, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay results using mutants of APC and Amer1 interface residues, our structures demonstrate that Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, as well as other APC-binding proteins such as Asef and Sam68, all employ a common recognition pattern to associate with APC–ARM. In contrast, Amer1-A3 binds to the C-terminal side of APC–ARM through a bipartite interaction mode. Composite mutations on either APC or Amer1 disrupting all four interfaces abrogated their association in cultured cells and impaired the membrane recruitment of APC by Amer1. Our study thus comprehensively elucidated the recognition mechanism between APC and Amer1, and revealed a consensus recognition sequence employed by various APC–ARM binding partners. PMID:27462415

  16. Structures of the APC-ARM domain in complexes with discrete Amer1/WTX fragments reveal that it uses a consensus mode to recognize its binding partners.

    Zhang, Zhenyi; Akyildiz, Senem; Xiao, Yafei; Gai, Zhongchao; An, Ying; Behrens, Jürgen; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor APC employs its conserved armadillo repeat (ARM) domain to recognize many of its binding partners, including Amer1/WTX, which is mutated in Wilms' tumor and bone overgrowth syndrome. The APC-Amer1 complex has important roles in regulating Wnt signaling and cell adhesion. Three sites A1, A2, and A3 of Amer1 have been reported to mediate its interaction with APC-ARM. In this study, crystal structures of APC-ARM in complexes with Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, which is newly identified in this work, were determined. Combined with our GST pull-down, yeast two-hybrid, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) assay results using mutants of APC and Amer1 interface residues, our structures demonstrate that Amer1-A1, -A2, and -A4, as well as other APC-binding proteins such as Asef and Sam68, all employ a common recognition pattern to associate with APC-ARM. In contrast, Amer1-A3 binds to the C-terminal side of APC-ARM through a bipartite interaction mode. Composite mutations on either APC or Amer1 disrupting all four interfaces abrogated their association in cultured cells and impaired the membrane recruitment of APC by Amer1. Our study thus comprehensively elucidated the recognition mechanism between APC and Amer1, and revealed a consensus recognition sequence employed by various APC-ARM binding partners.

  17. Fragmented medial coronoid process

    Juhasz, Cs.; Juhasz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process: (FCP) is often considered to be part of the osteochondrosis dissecans complex, but trauma and growth discrepancies between the radius and ulna are proposed as causes. There is little to clinically differentiate FCP, from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow. Pain on, flexion-extension of the elbow and lateral rotation of the paw is a little more consistent in FCP. Radiographic examination of the elbow is important despite the, fact that radiographic signs of the FCP are often nonspecific. Excessive osteoarthrosis and superimposition of the radial head and coronoid process make identification of the FCP difficult. Craniocaudal, flexed mediolateral and 25 degree craniocaudal-lateromedial views are necessary for diagnosis. Osteophyte production is more dramatic with FCP than with OCD and suggests therefore the occurrence of OCP in many cases. Although the detached process may be seen on any view, the oblique projection offers the least obstructed view. Exposure of the joint is identical to that for OCD, that means a medial approach with osteotomy of the epicondyle. In most cases the process is loose enough to be readily apparent, but in some it is necessary to exert force on the process in order to find the cleavage plane. It is necessary to remove the osteophytes as well and to inspect and irrigate the joint carefully to remove cartilage fragments before closure. Confinement is advisable for 4 weeks before returning the dog to normal activity. The outlook for function is good if the FCP is removed before secondary degenerative joint disease is well established

  18. Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes.

    Hofmann, Simone; Thomschke, Michael; Lüssem, Björn; Leo, Karl

    2011-11-07

    We review top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are beneficial for lighting and display applications, where non-transparent substrates are used. The optical effects of the microcavity structure as well as the loss mechanisms are discussed. Outcoupling techniques and the work on white top-emitting OLEDs are summarized. We discuss the power dissipation spectra for a monochrome and a white top-emitting OLED and give quantitative reports on the loss channels. Furthermore, the development of inverted top-emitting OLEDs is described.

  19. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Ziauddin

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m) PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp), C. orthopsilosis (109 bp), C. metapsilosis (217 bp) and L. elongisporus (258 bp) were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380) by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study) was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361), C. orthopsilosis (n = 15), C. metapsilosis (n = 1) and L. elongisporus (n = 3) by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1) comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10 patients. A

  20. Universality of fragment shapes.

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-16

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  1. Studying multifragmentation dynamics at intermediate energies using two-fragment correlations

    Sangster, T.C.; Britt, H.C.; Namboodiri, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most challenging topics in Nuclear Physics is the multifragmentation at moderate excitation energies in large nuclear systems. Although the idea that multifragmentation is analogous to a liquid-gas like phase transition is not new, it has only been recently that highly exclusive experimental measurements have been coupled with sophisticated theoretical models like QMD and BUU/VUU to explore reaction dynamics and the process of fragment formation. Indeed, much of what is known about multifragmentation has resulted from the study of complex correlations present in both the experimental data and theoretical calculations. One of the most crucial questions in the ongoing debate concerning the liquid-gas analogy is the differentiation between simultaneous and sequential fragment emission. Clearly, the phase transition analogy breaks down if fragments are emitted sequentially as in an evaporative process. There have been a number of two-fragment correlation results published recently (including those presented in this paper) which attempt to put limits on the emission timescale using three-body Coulomb trajectory calculations with explicit emission times for sequential decays from a fixed source density. These results have been generally consistent and indicate that intermediate mass fragment (IMF) emission is nearly simultaneous in medium energy heavy ion collisions. Only very recently have calculations been performed which approach this question from the other extreme: simultaneous emission from a variable density source. When considered together, these results argue favorably for a simultaneous multifragmentation. In this paper the authors present comprehensive results on two-fragment correlations for heavy systems at intermediate energies

  2. Search for ternary fragmentation in the reaction 856 MeV 98Mo + 51V: Kinematic probing of intermediate-mass-fragment emissions

    Vardaci, Emanuele; Kaplan, Morton; Parker, Winifred E.; Moses, David J.; Boger, J.T.; Gilfoyle, G.T.; McMahan, M.A.; Montoya, M.

    2000-05-01

    A new technique has been applied to coincidence measurements between fission fragments (FF) and intermediate mass fragments (IMF) emitted from the composite system 149 65 Tb at an excitation energy of 224 MeV. The method permits simultaneous observation of IMF emissions along and normal to the FF separation axes. For the integrated total of 0.10 +-0.02 IMF emitted per fission, we find no significant correlation with FF direction, suggesting that IMFs associated with fission reactions are predominantly emitted from the system prior to fission

  3. Imaging instrument for positron emitting heavy ion beam injection

    Llacer, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Jackson, H.C.; Lin, J.C.; Zunzunegui, M.V.

    1978-10-01

    The design and performance of an instrument for the imaging of coincidence annihilation gamma rays emitted from the end point of the trajectories of radioactive high-energy heavy ions is described. The positron-emitting heavy ions are the result of nuclear fragmentation of accelerated heavy ions used in cancer therapy or diagnostic medicine. The instrument constructed is capable of locating the ion beam trajectory end point within 1 mm for an injected activity of 200 nanoCi in a measurement time of 1 sec in some favorable conditions. Limited imaging in three dimensions is also demonstrated

  4. Anomalous nuclear fragments

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data are given, the status of anomalon problem is discussed, theoretical approaches to this problem are outlined. Anomalons are exotic objects formed following fragmentation of nuclei-targets under the effect of nuclei - a beam at the energy of several GeV/nucleon. These nuclear fragments have an anomalously large cross section of interaction and respectively, small free path, considerably shorter than primary nuclei have. The experimental daa are obtained in accelerators following irradiation of nuclear emulsions by 16 O, 56 Fe, 40 Ar beams, as well as propane by 12 C beams. The experimental data testify to dependence of fragment free path on the distance L from the point of the fragment formation. A decrease in the fragment free path is established more reliably than its dependence on L. The problem of the anomalon existence cannot be yet considered resolved. Theoretical models suggested for explanation of anomalously large cross sections of nuclear fragment interaction are variable and rather speculative

  5. The preferred substrates for transglutaminase 2 in a complex wheat gluten digest are Peptide fragments harboring celiac disease T-cell epitopes.

    Siri Dørum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that is induced by dietary exposure to gluten proteins. CD4+ T cells of the intestinal lesion recognize gluten peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ8 and the gluten derived peptides become better T-cell antigens after deamidation catalyzed by the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2. In this study we aimed to identify the preferred peptide substrates of TG2 in a heterogeneous proteolytic digest of whole wheat gluten. METHODS: A method was established to enrich for preferred TG2 substrates in a complex gluten peptide mixture by tagging with 5-biotinamido-pentylamine. Tagged peptides were isolated and then identified by nano-liquid chromatography online-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, database searching and final manual data validation. RESULTS: We identified 31 different peptides as preferred substrates of TG2. Strikingly, the majority of these peptides were harboring known gluten T-cell epitopes. Five TG2 peptide substrates that were predicted to bind to HLA-DQ2.5 did not contain previously characterized sequences of T-cell epitopes. Two of these peptides elicited T-cell responses when tested for recognition by intestinal T-cell lines of celiac disease patients, and thus they contain novel candidate T-cell epitopes. We also found that the intact 9mer core sequences of the respective epitopes were not present in all peptide substrates. Interestingly, those epitopes that were represented by intact forms were frequently recognized by T cells in celiac disease patients, whereas those that were present in truncated versions were infrequently recognized. CONCLUSION: TG2 as well as gastrointestinal proteolysis play important roles in the selection of gluten T-cell epitopes in celiac disease.

  6. The Preferred Substrates for Transglutaminase 2 in a Complex Wheat Gluten Digest Are Peptide Fragments Harboring Celiac Disease T-Cell Epitopes

    Dørum, Siri; Arntzen, Magnus Ø.; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Holm, Anders; Koehler, Christian J.; Thiede, Bernd; Sollid, Ludvig M.; Fleckenstein, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    Background Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut that is induced by dietary exposure to gluten proteins. CD4+ T cells of the intestinal lesion recognize gluten peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2.5 or HLA-DQ8 and the gluten derived peptides become better T-cell antigens after deamidation catalyzed by the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2). In this study we aimed to identify the preferred peptide substrates of TG2 in a heterogeneous proteolytic digest of whole wheat gluten. Methods A method was established to enrich for preferred TG2 substrates in a complex gluten peptide mixture by tagging with 5-biotinamido-pentylamine. Tagged peptides were isolated and then identified by nano-liquid chromatography online-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, database searching and final manual data validation. Results We identified 31 different peptides as preferred substrates of TG2. Strikingly, the majority of these peptides were harboring known gluten T-cell epitopes. Five TG2 peptide substrates that were predicted to bind to HLA-DQ2.5 did not contain previously characterized sequences of T-cell epitopes. Two of these peptides elicited T-cell responses when tested for recognition by intestinal T-cell lines of celiac disease patients, and thus they contain novel candidate T-cell epitopes. We also found that the intact 9mer core sequences of the respective epitopes were not present in all peptide substrates. Interestingly, those epitopes that were represented by intact forms were frequently recognized by T cells in celiac disease patients, whereas those that were present in truncated versions were infrequently recognized. Conclusion TG2 as well as gastrointestinal proteolysis play important roles in the selection of gluten T-cell epitopes in celiac disease. PMID:21124911

  7. Fission fragment angular momentum

    Frenne, D. De

    1991-01-01

    Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Structural mechanisms of photoeffect in polyimide structures containing heterocyclic fragments

    Aleksandrova, E. L.

    2006-01-01

    Trends in the variation in the quantum yields of charge-carrier photogeneration in polyimide structures containing heterocyclic fragments are studied. It is shown that the efficiency of sensitization of polyimides depends on the donor and acceptor properties of the fragments of monomeric units of the polyimide. It is established that the range of spectral sensitivity for heterocyclic fragments representing intramolecular complexes with charge transport is wider than that for heterocycles that do not represent such complexes

  9. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  10. String fragmentation; La fragmentation des cordes

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1997-10-01

    The classical string model is used in VENUS as a fragmentation model. For the soft domain simple 2-parton strings were sufficient, whereas for higher energies up to LHC, the perturbative regime of the QCD gives additional soft gluons, which are mapped on the string as so called kinks, energy singularities between the leading partons. The kinky string model is chosen to handle fragmentation of these strings by application of the Lorentz invariant area law. The `kinky strings` model, corresponding to the perturbative gluons coming from pQCD, takes into consideration this effect by treating the partons and gluons on the same footing. The decay law is always the Artru-Menessier area law which is the most realistic since it is invariant to the Lorentz and gauge transformations. For low mass strings a manipulation of the rupture point is necessary if the string corresponds already to an elementary particle determined by the mass and the flavor content. By means of the fragmentation model it will be possible to simulate the data from future experiments at LHC and RHIC 3 refs.

  11. Dimensional crossover in fragmentation

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez, Arezky H.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-11-01

    Experiments in which thick clay plates and glass rods are fractured have revealed different behavior of fragment mass distribution function in the small and large fragment regions. In this paper we explain this behavior using non-extensive Tsallis statistics and show how the crossover between the two regions is caused by the change in the fragments’ dimensionality during the fracture process. We obtain a physical criterion for the position of this crossover and an expression for the change in the power-law exponent between the small and large fragment regions. These predictions are in good agreement with the experiments on thick clay plates.

  12. Crystal structure of snake venom acetylcholinesterase in complex with inhibitory antibody fragment Fab410 bound at the peripheral site: evidence for open and closed states of a back door channel.

    Bourne, Yves; Renault, Ludovic; Marchot, Pascale

    2015-01-16

    The acetylcholinesterase found in the venom of Bungarus fasciatus (BfAChE) is produced as a soluble, non-amphiphilic monomer with a canonical catalytic domain but a distinct C terminus compared with the other vertebrate enzymes. Moreover, the peripheral anionic site of BfAChE, a surface site located at the active site gorge entrance, bears two substitutions altering sensitivity to cationic inhibitors. Antibody Elec410, generated against Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase (EeAChE), inhibits EeAChE and BfAChE by binding to their peripheral sites. However, both complexes retain significant residual catalytic activity, suggesting incomplete gorge occlusion by bound antibody and/or high frequency back door opening. To explore a novel acetylcholinesterase species, ascertain the molecular bases of inhibition by Elec410, and document the determinants and mechanisms for back door opening, we solved a 2.7-Å resolution crystal structure of natural BfAChE in complex with antibody fragment Fab410. Crystalline BfAChE forms the canonical dimer found in all acetylcholinesterase structures. Equally represented open and closed states of a back door channel, associated with alternate positions of a tyrosine phenol ring at the active site base, coexist in each subunit. At the BfAChE molecular surface, Fab410 is seated on the long Ω-loop between two N-glycan chains and partially occludes the gorge entrance, a position that fully reflects the available mutagenesis and biochemical data. Experimentally based flexible molecular docking supports a similar Fab410 binding mode onto the EeAChE antigen. These data document the molecular and dynamic peculiarities of BfAChE with high frequency back door opening, and the mode of action of Elec410 as one of the largest peptidic inhibitors targeting the acetylcholinesterase peripheral site. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Resonant Auger electron-photoion coincidence study of the fragmentation dynamics of an acrylonitrile molecule

    Kooser, K; Ha, D T; Granroth, S; Itaelae, E; Nommiste, E; Kukk, E [Department of Physics, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Partanen, L; Aksela, H, E-mail: kunkoo@utu.f [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2010-12-14

    Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to promote K-shell electrons of nitrogen and carbon from the cyano group (C {identical_to} N) of gaseous acrylonitrile (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}-CN) to the unoccupied antibonding {pi}*{sub C} {sub {identical_to} N} orbital. Photofragmentation of acrylonitrile molecules following selective resonant core excitations of carbon and nitrogen core electrons to the {pi}*{sub C} {sub {identical_to} N} orbital was investigated using the electron-energy-resolved photoelecton-photoion coincidence technique. The fragment ion mass spectra were recorded in coincidence with the resonant Auger electrons, emitted in the decay process of the core-excited states. Singly and triply deuterated samples were used for fragment identification. The results showed the initial core-hole localization to be of minor importance in determining the dissociation pattern of the molecular cation. The participator and spectator Auger transitions produce entirely different fragmentation patterns and the latter indicates that complex nuclear rearrangements take place. It is suggested that the calculated kinetic energy releases are caused by the existence of metastable states, which appear with the opening of the spectator Auger channels.

  14. Embedded Fragments Registry (EFR)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — In 2009, the Department of Defense estimated that approximately 40,000 service members who served in OEF/OIF may have embedded fragment wounds as the result of small...

  15. Physics of projectile fragments

    Minamisono, Tadanori

    1982-01-01

    This is a study report on the polarization phenomena of the projectile fragments produced by heavy ion reactions, and the beta decay of fragments. The experimental project by using heavy ions with the energy from 50 MeV/amu to 250 MeV/amu was designed. Construction of an angle-dispersion spectrograph for projectile fragments was proposed. This is a two-stage spectrograph. The first stage is a QQDQQ type separator, and the second stage is QDQD type. Estimation shows that Co-66 may be separated from the nuclei with mass of 65 and 67. The orientation of fragments can be measured by detecting beta-ray. The apparatus consists of a uniform field magnet, an energy absorber, a stopper, a RF coil and a beta-ray hodoscope. This system can be used for not only this purpose but also for the measurement of hyperfine structure. (Kato, T.)

  16. Fragmentation Main Model

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The fragmentation model combines patch size and patch continuity with diversity of vegetation types per patch and rarity of vegetation types per patch. A patch was...

  17. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  18. Fragment capture device

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  19. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  20. Polymer light emitting diodes

    Gautier-Thianche, Emmmanuelle

    1998-01-01

    We study sandwich type semiconducting polymer light emitting diodes; anode/polymer/cathode. ITO is selected as anode, this polymer is a blend of a commercially available polymer with a high hole transport ability: polyvinyl-carbazole and a laser dye: coumarin-515. Magnesium covered with silver is chosen for the anode. We study the influence of polymer thickness and coumarin doping ratio on electroluminescence spectrum, electric characteristics and quantum efficiency. An important drawback is that diodes lifetime remains low. In the second part of our study we determine degradations causes with X-Ray reflectivity experiments. It may be due to ITO very high roughness. We realize a new type of planar electroluminescent device: a channel type electroluminescent device in which polymer layer is inserted into an aluminium channel. Such a device is by far more stable than using classical sandwich structures with the same polymer composition: indeed, charges are generated by internal-field ionization and there is no injection from the electrode to the polymer. This avoids electrochemical reactions at electrodes, thus reducing degradations routes. (author) [fr

  1. Complejo Ojosmin: fragment of ophiolite transamazonian

    Bossi, J.; Pineyro, D. . Email geologia@fagro.edu.uy

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary geological survey of a previously unknown basic igneous complex in the Padre Alta Terrane (Pat) is presented. We report petrographic, geochemical and stratigraphic data for more than 200 outcrops. Geological evolution of the complex can be described in terms of four main events: (1) formation Pat units around 2000 Ma; (2) granodiorite thrusting onto possible ophiolite ca 1900 Ma ; (3) granophyric magmatism around 1700 Ma(4) intrusion of trachyte dykes. Data available suggest thrusting onto fragment of oceanic crust. Since the described structure presupposes the existence of pre transamazonian continental fragments in the TPA, it is very important to study the area in detail in the future [es

  2. Principles of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices.

    Minaev, Boris; Baryshnikov, Gleb; Agren, Hans

    2014-02-07

    Organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology has found numerous applications in the development of solid state lighting, flat panel displays and flexible screens. These applications are already commercialized in mobile phones and TV sets. White OLEDs are of especial importance for lighting; they now use multilayer combinations of organic and elementoorganic dyes which emit various colors in the red, green and blue parts of the visible spectrum. At the same time the stability of phosphorescent blue emitters is still a major challenge for OLED applications. In this review we highlight the basic principles and the main mechanisms behind phosphorescent light emission of various classes of photofunctional OLED materials, like organic polymers and oligomers, electron and hole transport molecules, elementoorganic complexes with heavy metal central ions, and clarify connections between the main features of electronic structure and the photo-physical properties of the phosphorescent OLED materials.

  3. Prompt neutron emission from fragments in spontaneous fission of {sup 244,248}Cm and {sup 252}Cf

    Vorobyev, A. S.; Shcherbakov, O. A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad district, 188300 (Russian Federation); Dushin, V. N.; Jakovlev, V. A.; Kalinin, V. A.; Petrov, B. F. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Hambsch, F.J [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Laptev, A. B. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad district, 188300 (Russian Federation); Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Neutrons emitted in fission were measured separately for each complementary fragment in correlation with fission fragment energies. Two high efficiency Gd-loaded liquid scintillator tanks were used for neutron registration. Fission fragment energies were measured using a twin Frisch gridded ionization chamber with a pin-hole collimator. The neutron multiplicity distributions were obtained for each value of the fission fragment mass and energy and corrected for neutron registration efficiency, background and pile-up. The dependencies of these distributions on fragment mass and energy for different energy and mass bins, as well as the mass and energy distribution of the fission fragments are presented and discussed. (authors)

  4. Positron emitting pharmaceuticals

    Rajan, M.G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of physiology at the molecular level bridges the gap between laboratory science and clinical medicine by providing the most specific and sensitive means for imaging molecular pathways and interactions in tissues of man. PET-imaging requires the use Positron Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals (PRPs), which are radioactively labeled 'true metabolites' i.e., sugars, amino acids, fatty acids etc., essentially made of H, C, N and O which the cells in the body can metabolize. The PET-isotopes: 11 C, 15 O, 13 N and 18 F (instead of H) are cyclotron produced and are short-lived, which places several constraints on the synthesis time for the PRPs, quality control and their clinical use as compared to the conventional 99m Tc- and other SPECT-RPs widely used in nuclear medicine. There are large number of published reports showing the utility of several PRPs labeled with 18 F (T 1/2 = 110 min) and 11 C (T 1/2 = 20 min). A few PRPs have been labeled with 13 N (T 1/2 = 10 min). 15 O (T 1/2 = 2min) is used mostly as H 2 15 O, C 15 or C 15 O 2 . 18 F-radiopharmaceuticals can be made at a medical cyclotron facility and sent to PET -imaging centres, which can be reached in a couple of hours. The sensitivity of PET -imaging has encouraged R and D in several other PRPs, labeled with viz., 68 Ga (generator produced, T 1/2 68 min), 124 I (cyclotron, T 1/2 4.2 d), 82 Rb (generator, T 1/2 75s), 64 Cu (cyclotron, T 1/2 12h), and 94m Tc (cyclotron, T 1/2 52 min). Due to its relevance in several diseases, particularly cancer, PET-imaging has made major scientific contribution to drug development, particularly for neurological diseases and cancer treatment. (author)

  5. Fragmentation of relativistic nuclei

    Cork, B.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclei with energies of several GeV/n interact with hadrons and produce fragments that encompass the fields of nuclear physics, meson physics, and particle physics. Experimental results are now available to explore problems in nuclear physics such as the validity of the shell model to explain the momentum distribution of fragments, the contribution of giant dipole resonances to fragment production cross sections, the effective Coulomb barrier, and nuclear temperatures. A new approach to meson physics is possible by exploring the nucleon charge-exchange process. Particle physics problems are explored by measuring the energy and target dependence of isotope production cross sections, thus determining if limiting fragmentation and target factorization are valid, and measuring total cross sections to determine if the factorization relation, sigma/sub AB/ 2 = sigma/sub AA/ . sigma/sub BB/, is violated. Also, new experiments have been done to measure the angular distribution of fragments that could be explained as nuclear shock waves, and to explore for ultradense matter produced by very heavy ions incident on heavy atoms. (12 figures, 2 tables)

  6. Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from non-tubercular mycobacteria by nested multiplex PCR targeting IS6110, MTP40 and 32kD alpha antigen encoding gene fragments.

    Sinha, Pallavi; Gupta, Anamika; Prakash, Pradyot; Anupurba, Shampa; Tripathi, Rajneesh; Srivastava, G N

    2016-03-12

    Control of the global burden of tuberculosis is obstructed due to lack of simple, rapid and cost effective diagnostic techniques that can be used in resource poor-settings. To facilitate the early diagnosis of TB directly from clinical specimens, we have standardized and validated the use of nested multiplex PCR, targeting gene fragments IS6110, MTP40 and 32kD α-antigen encoding genes specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non-tubercular mycobacteria (NTM), in comparison to smear microscopy, solid culture and single step multiplex PCR. The results were evaluated in comparison to a composite reference standard (CRS) comprising of microbiological results (smear and culture), clinical, radiological and cytopathological findings, clinical treatment and response to anti-tubercular therapy. The nested multiplex PCR (nMPCR) assay was evaluated to test its utility in 600 (535 pulmonary and 65 extra-pulmonary specimens) clinically suspected TB cases. All specimens were processed for smear, culture, single step multiplex PCR and nested multiplex PCR testing. Out of 535 screened pulmonary and 65 extra-pulmonary specimens, 329 (61.5%) and 19 (29.2%) cases were culture positive for M. tuberculosis. Based on CRS, 450 patients had "clinical TB" (definitive-TB, probable-TB and possible-TB). Remaining 150 were confirmed "non-TB" cases. For culture, the sensitivity was low, 79.3% for pulmonary and 54.3% for extra-pulmonary cases. The sensitivity and specificity results for nMPCR test were evaluated taken composite reference standard as a gold standard. The sensitivity of the nMPCR assay was 97.1% for pulmonary and 91.4% for extra-pulmonary TB cases with specificity of 100% and 93.3% respectively. Nested multiplex PCR using three gene primers is a rapid, reliable and highly sensitive and specific diagnostic technique for the detection and differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex from NTM genome and will be useful in diagnosing paucibacillary samples. Nested multiplex

  7. High efficiency orange-red phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes based on a Pt(II)-pyridyltriazolate complex from a structure optimized for charge balance and reduced efficiency roll-off

    Li, Minghang; Lin, Ming-Te; Shepherd, Nigel D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas (United States); Chen, Wei-Hsuan; McDougald, Roy Jr.; Arvapally, Ravi; Omary, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We report a high power efficiency (PE) of 44.7 {+-} 0.5 lm/W, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 19.7 {+-} 0.1% at 500 Cd/m{sup 2}, and efficiency roll-off of only 4% of the peak value at a useful brightness of 1000 Cd/m{sup 2} from orange-red emitting, organic light emitting diodes featuring 1,1-bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) as the hole transport layer/electron blocking layer, an emissive layer consisting of 65% bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II) (Pt(ptp){sub 2}) doped into 4,4'-bis(carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine (CBP), and 1,3,5-tris(phenyl-2-benzimidazolyl)-benzene (TPBI) as the electron transport layer (ETL). Based on a comparison of these structures with devices that did not incorporate an electron/exciton blocker and devices featuring N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) as the electron/exciton blocking layer, we ascribe the high efficiency and low efficiency roll-off to better charge balance, and enhanced confinement of excitons and the recombination zone to the emissive layer. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light

  9. Land fragmentation and production diversification

    Ciaian, Pavel; Guri, Fatmir; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Paloma, Sergio Gomez Y.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the impact of land fragmentation on production diversification in rural Albania. Albania represents a particularly interesting case for studying land fragmentation as the fragmentation is a direct outcome of land reforms. The results indicate that land fragmentation is an important driver

  10. Heavy fragment radioactivity

    Silisteanu, I.

    1991-06-01

    The effect of collective mode excitation in heavy fragment radioactivity (HFR) is explored and discussed in the light of current experimental data. It is found that the coupling and resonance effects in fragment interaction and also the proper angular momentum effects may lead to an important enhancing of the emission process. New useful procedures are proposed for the study of nuclear decay properties. The relations between different decay processes are investigated in detail. We are also trying to understand and explain in a unified way the reaction mechanisms in decay phenomena. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Coordination Chemistry of Linear Oligopyrrolic Fragments Inspired by Heme Metabolites

    Gautam, Ritika

    Linear oligopyrroles are degradation products of heme, which is converted in the presence of heme oxygenase to bile pigments, such as biliverdin and bilirubin. These tetrapyrrolic oligopyrroles are ubiquitously present in biological systems and find applications in the fields of catalysis and sensing. These linear tetrapyrrolic scaffolds are further degraded into linear tripyrrolic and dipyrrolic fragments. Although these lower oligopyrroles are abundantly present, their coordination chemistry requires further characterization. This dissertation focuses mainly on two classes of bioinspired linear oligopyrroles, propentdyopent and tripyrrindione, and their transition metal complexes, which present a rich ligand-based redox chemistry. Chapter 1 offers an overview of heme degradation to different classes of linear oligopyrroles and properties of their transition metal complexes. Chapter 2 is focused on the tripyrrin-1,14-dione scaffold of the urinary pigment uroerythrin, which coordinates divalent transition metals palladium and copper with square planar geometry. Specifically, the tripyrrin-1, 14-dione ligand binds Cu(II) and Pd(II) as a dianionic organic radical under ambient conditions. The electrochemical study confirms the presence of ligand based redox chemistry, and one electron oxidation or reduction reactions do not alter the planar geometry around the metal center. The X-Ray analysis and the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of the complexes in the solid and solution phase reveals intermolecular interactions between the ligand based unpaired electrons and therefore formation of neutral pi-pi dimers. In Chapter 3, the antioxidant activity and the fluorescence sensor properties of the tripyrrin-1,14-dione ligand in the presence of superoxide are described. We found that the tripyrrindione ligand undergoes one-electron reduction in the presence of the superoxide radical anion (O2•- ) to form highly fluorescent H3TD1•- radical anion, which emits

  12. Study of fragmentation reactions of light nucleus

    Toneli, David Arruda; Carlson, Brett Vern

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The decay of the compound nucleus is traditionally calculated using a sequential emission model, such as the Weisskopf-Ewing or Hauser-Feshbach ones, in which the compound nucleus decays through a series of residual nuclei by emitting one particle at a time until there is no longer sufficient energy for further emission. In light compound nucleus, however, the excitation energy necessary to fully disintegrate the system is relatively easy to attain. In such cases, decay by simultaneous emission of two or more particles becomes important. A model which takes into account all these decay is the Fermi fragmentation model. Recently, the equivalence between the Fermi fragmentation model and statistical multifragmentation model used to describe the decay for highly excited fragments for reactions of heavy ions was demonstrated. Due the simplicity of the thermodynamic treatment used in the multifragmentation model, we have adapted it to the calculation of Fermi breakup of light nuclei. The ultimate goal of this study is to calculate the distribution of isotopes produced in proton-induced reactions on light nuclei of biological interest, such as C, O e Ca. Although most of these residual nuclei possess extremely short half-lives and thus represent little long-term danger, they tend to be deficient in neutrons and to decay by positron emission, which allows the monitoring of proton radiotherapy by PET (Positron Emission Tomography). (author)

  13. Intermittency in {sup 197}Au fragmentation

    Dabrowska, A; Holynski, R; Olszewski, A; Szarska, M; Wilczynska, B; Wolter, W; Wosiek, B [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Cherry, M L; Deines-Jones, P; Jones, W V; Sengupta, K; Wefel, B [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Waddington, C J [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy; Pozharova, E A; Skorodko, T Yu [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); KLMM Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    The concept of factorial moments was applied to an analysis of the dynamical fluctuations in the charge distributions of the fragments emitted from gold nuclei with energies 10.6 and < 1.0 GeV/n interacting with emulsion nuclei. Clear evidence for intermittent fluctuations has been found in an analysis using all the particles released from the gold projectile, with a stronger effect observed below 1 GeV/n than at 10.6 GeV/n. For the full data sets, however, the intermittency effect was found to be very sensitive to the singly charged particles, and neglecting these particles strongly reduces the intermittency signal. When the analysis is restricted to the multiply charged fragments, an intermittency effect is revealed only for multifragmentation events, although one that is enhanced as compared to the analysis of all, singly and multiply charged, particles. The properties of the anomalous fractal dimensions suggest a sequential decay mechanism, rather than the existence of possible critical behaviour in the process of nuclear fragmentation. The likely influence of the charge conservation effects and the finite size of decaying systems on the observed intermittency signals was pointed out. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs.

  14. PELE fragmentation dynamics

    Verreault, J.; Hinsberg, N.P. van; Abadjieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    An analytical model that describes the PELE fragmentation dynamics is presented and compared with experimental results from literature. The model accounts for strong shock effects and detailed interactions taking place between the filling – the inner core of the ammunition – and the target

  15. Fragments of the Past

    Peter Szende; Annie Holcombe

    2016-01-01

    With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  16. Synthesis of arabinoxylan fragments

    Underlin, Emilie Nørmølle; Böhm, Maximilian F.; Madsen, Robert

    , or production of commercial chemicals which are mainly obtained from fossil fuels today.The arbinoxylan fragments have a backbone of β-1,4-linked xylans with α-L-arabinose units attached at specific positions. The synthesis ultilises an efficient synthetic route, where all the xylan units can be derived from D...

  17. Fragmented Work Stories

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    stories. We argue that meaning by story making is not always created by coherence and causality; meaning is created by different types of fragmentation: discontinuities, tensions and editing. The objective of this article is to develop and advance antenarrative practice analysis of work stories...

  18. Fragments of the Past

    Peter Szende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  19. Fragmentation and bond strength of airborne diesel soot agglomerates

    Messerer Armin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of diesel soot aerosol particles to break up into smaller units under mechanical stress was investigated by a direct impaction technique which measures the degree of fragmentation of individual agglomerates vs. impact energy. Diesel aerosol was generated by an idling diesel engine used for passenger vehicles. Both the aerosol emitted directly and aerosol that had undergone additional growth by Brownian coagulation ("aging" was investigated. Optionally a thermo-desoption technique at 280°C was used to remove all high-volatility and the majority of low-volatility HC adsorbates from the aerosol before aging. Results It was found that the primary soot agglomerates emitted directly from the engine could not be fragmented at all. Soot agglomerates permitted to grow additionally by Brownian coagulation of the primary emitted particles could be fragmented to a maximum of 75% and 60% respectively, depending on whether adsorbates were removed from their surface prior to aging or not. At most, these aged agglomerates could be broken down to roughly the size of the agglomerates from the primary emission. The energy required for a 50% fragmentation probability of all bonds within an agglomerate was reduced by roughly a factor of 2 when aging "dry" agglomerates. Average bond energies derived from the data were 0.52*10-16 and 1.2*10-16 J, respectively. This is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than estimates for pure van-der-Waals agglomerates, but agrees quite well with other observations. Conclusion Although direct conclusions regarding the behavior of inhaled diesel aerosol in contact with body fluids cannot be drawn from such measurements, the results imply that highly agglomerated soot aerosol particles are unlikely to break up into units smaller than roughly the size distribution emitted as tail pipe soot.

  20. Fragmentation and bond strength of airborne diesel soot agglomerates

    Rothenbacher, Sonja; Messerer, Armin; Kasper, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background The potential of diesel soot aerosol particles to break up into smaller units under mechanical stress was investigated by a direct impaction technique which measures the degree of fragmentation of individual agglomerates vs. impact energy. Diesel aerosol was generated by an idling diesel engine used for passenger vehicles. Both the aerosol emitted directly and aerosol that had undergone additional growth by Brownian coagulation ("aging") was investigated. Optionally a thermo-desoption technique at 280°C was used to remove all high-volatility and the majority of low-volatility HC adsorbates from the aerosol before aging. Results It was found that the primary soot agglomerates emitted directly from the engine could not be fragmented at all. Soot agglomerates permitted to grow additionally by Brownian coagulation of the primary emitted particles could be fragmented to a maximum of 75% and 60% respectively, depending on whether adsorbates were removed from their surface prior to aging or not. At most, these aged agglomerates could be broken down to roughly the size of the agglomerates from the primary emission. The energy required for a 50% fragmentation probability of all bonds within an agglomerate was reduced by roughly a factor of 2 when aging "dry" agglomerates. Average bond energies derived from the data were 0.52*10-16 and 1.2*10-16 J, respectively. This is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than estimates for pure van-der-Waals agglomerates, but agrees quite well with other observations. Conclusion Although direct conclusions regarding the behavior of inhaled diesel aerosol in contact with body fluids cannot be drawn from such measurements, the results imply that highly agglomerated soot aerosol particles are unlikely to break up into units smaller than roughly the size distribution emitted as tail pipe soot. PMID:18533015

  1. Fragmentation induced in nuclei by protons and pions

    Cassagnou, Y.; Dalmas, J.; Jackson, H.E.; Julien, J.; Palmeri, A.; Legrain, R.; Roussel, L.

    1977-01-01

    Data from in-beam γ spectroscopy and from detection of charged particles in p-nucleus and π-nucleus interaction at intermediate energies are reviewed. Preliminary data from coincidence experiments are presented showing the apparent weak component of fragmentation in p-nucleus interaction and the primary role of absorption in π-nucleus interaction. In these experiments the energy spectra of emitted particles were found strongly dependent on exit channels giving a powerful tool to test reaction mechanism models [fr

  2. Blue and white phosphorescent organic light emitting diode performance improvement by confining electrons and holes inside double emitting layers

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Hong, Lin-Ann; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Chen, Cheng-Yin

    2014-09-15

    In this research, complex emitting layers (EML) were fabricated using TCTA doping hole-transport material in the front half of a bipolar 26DCzPPy as well as PPT doping electron-transport material in the back half of 26DCzPPy. Blue dopant FIrpic was also mixed inside the complex emitting layer to produce a highly efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (OLED). The hole and electron injection and carrier recombination rate were effectively increased. The fabricated complex emitting layers exhibited current efficiency of 42 cd/A and power efficiency of 30 lm/W when the luminance was 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, driving voltage was 4.4 V, and current density was 2.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. A white OLED component was then manufactured by doping red dopant [Os(bpftz){sub 2}(PPh{sub 2}Me){sub 2}] (Os) in proper locations. When the Os dopant was doped in between the complex emitting layers, excitons were effectively confined within, increasing the recombination rate and therefore reducing the color shift. The resulting Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates shifted from 4 to 10 V is (Δx=−0.04, Δy=+0.01). The component had a current efficiency of 35.7 cd/A, a power efficiency of 24 lm/W, driving voltage of 4.6 V and a CIE{sub x,y} of (0.31,0.35) at a luminance of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, with a maximum luminance of 15,600 cd/m{sup 2} at 10 V. Attaching an outcoupling enhancement film was applied to increase the luminance efficiency to 30 lm/W. - Highlights: • Used the complex double emitting layers. • Respectively doped hole and electron transport material in the bipolar host. • Electrons and holes are effectively confined within EMLs to produce excitons.

  3. Blue and white phosphorescent organic light emitting diode performance improvement by confining electrons and holes inside double emitting layers

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Hong, Lin-Ann; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Chen, Cheng-Yin

    2014-01-01

    In this research, complex emitting layers (EML) were fabricated using TCTA doping hole-transport material in the front half of a bipolar 26DCzPPy as well as PPT doping electron-transport material in the back half of 26DCzPPy. Blue dopant FIrpic was also mixed inside the complex emitting layer to produce a highly efficient blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (OLED). The hole and electron injection and carrier recombination rate were effectively increased. The fabricated complex emitting layers exhibited current efficiency of 42 cd/A and power efficiency of 30 lm/W when the luminance was 1000 cd/m 2 , driving voltage was 4.4 V, and current density was 2.4 mA/cm 2 . A white OLED component was then manufactured by doping red dopant [Os(bpftz) 2 (PPh 2 Me) 2 ] (Os) in proper locations. When the Os dopant was doped in between the complex emitting layers, excitons were effectively confined within, increasing the recombination rate and therefore reducing the color shift. The resulting Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates shifted from 4 to 10 V is (Δx=−0.04, Δy=+0.01). The component had a current efficiency of 35.7 cd/A, a power efficiency of 24 lm/W, driving voltage of 4.6 V and a CIE x,y of (0.31,0.35) at a luminance of 1000 cd/m 2 , with a maximum luminance of 15,600 cd/m 2 at 10 V. Attaching an outcoupling enhancement film was applied to increase the luminance efficiency to 30 lm/W. - Highlights: • Used the complex double emitting layers. • Respectively doped hole and electron transport material in the bipolar host. • Electrons and holes are effectively confined within EMLs to produce excitons

  4. Fragments of Time

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Time travel films necessarily fragment linear narratives, as scenes are revisited with differences from the first time we saw it. Popular films such as Back to the Future mine comedy from these visitations, but there are many different approaches. One extreme is Chris Marker's La Jetée - a film...... made almost completely of still images, recounting the end of the world. These stills can be viewed as fragments that have survived the end of the world and now provide the only access to the events that occured. Shane Carruth's Primer has a different approach to time travel, the narrative diegesis...... that is presented; how do we understand such films and to what extent is it even possible to make sense of a film that has no real beginning, middle or end?...

  5. Fragmentation of atomic systems

    Bohn, J.L.; Fano, U.

    1996-01-01

    We report recent progress toward a nonperturbative formulation of many-body quantum dynamics that treats all constituent particles on an equal footing. This formulation is capable of detailing the evolution of a system toward the diverse fragments into which it can break up. We illustrate the general concept with the simple example of the simultaneous excitation of both electrons in a helium atom. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Modelling the fragmentation mechanisms

    Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of high amplitude collective motion in the nuclear fragmentation by using semi-classical macroscopic, as well as, microscopic simulations (BUU). These studies are motivated by the search of instabilities responsible for nuclear fragmentation. Two cases were examined: the bubble formation following the collective expansion of the compressed nucleus in case of very central reactions and, in the case of the semi-central collisions, the fast fission of the two partners issued from a binary reaction, in their corresponding Coulomb field. In the two cases the fragmentation channel is dominated by the inter-relation between the Coulomb and nuclear fields, and it is possible to obtain semi-quantitative predictions as functions of interaction parameters. The transport equations of BUU type predicts for central reactions formation of a high density transient state. Of much interest is the mechanism subsequent to de-excitation. It seems reasonable to conceive that the pressure stocked in the compressional mode manifests itself as a collective expansion of the system. As the pressure is a increasing function of the available energy one can conceive a variety of energy depending exit channels, starting from the fragmentation due the amplification of fluctuations interior to the spinodal zone up to the complete vaporization of the highly excited system. If the reached pressure is sufficiently high the reaction final state may preserve the memory of the entrance channel as a collective radial energy superimposed to the thermal disordered motion. Distributions of particles in the configuration space for both central and semi-central reactions for the Pb+Au system are presented. The rupture time is estimated to the order of 300 fm/c, and is strongly dependent on the initial temperature. The study of dependence of the rupture time on the interaction parameters is under way

  7. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    Guerreau, D.

    1993-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  8. Excited nuclei fragmentation

    Ngo, C.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental indications leading to the thought of a very excited nucleus fragmentation are resumed. Theoretical approaches are briefly described; they are used to explain the phenomenon in showing off they are based on a minimum information principle. This model is based on time dependent Thomas-Fermi calculation which allows the mean field effect description, and with a site-bound percolation model which allows the fluctuation description [fr

  9. Impact fragmentation of a brittle metal compact

    Tang, Megan; Hooper, Joseph P.

    2018-05-01

    The fragmentation behavior of a metal powder compact which is ductile in compression but brittle in tension is studied via impact experiments and analytical models. Consolidated metal compacts were prepared via cold-isostatic pressing of powder at 380 MPa followed by moderate annealing at 365 °C. The resulting zinc material is ductile and strain-hardening in high-rate uniaxial compression like a traditional metal, but is elastic-brittle in tension with a fracture toughness comparable to a ceramic. Cylindrical samples were launched up to 800 m/s in a gas gun into thin aluminum perforation targets, subjecting the projectile to a complex multiaxial and time-dependent stress state that leads to catastrophic fracture. A soft-catch mechanism using low-density artificial snow was developed to recover the impact debris, and collected fragments were analyzed to determine their size distribution down to 30 μm. Though brittle fracture occurs along original particle boundaries, no power-law fragmentation behavior was observed as is seen in other low-toughness materials. An analytical theory is developed to predict the characteristic fragment size accounting for both the sharp onset of fragmentation and the effect of increasing impact velocity.

  10. Universality of projectile fragmentation model

    Chaudhuri, G.; Mallik, S.; Das Gupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Presently projectile fragmentation reaction is an important area of research as it is used for the production of radioactive ion beams. In this work, the recently developed projectile fragmentation model with an universal temperature profile is used for studying the charge distributions of different projectile fragmentation reactions with different projectile target combinations at different incident energies. The model for projectile fragmentation consists of three stages: (i) abrasion, (ii) multifragmentation and (iii) evaporation

  11. Light emitting structures porous silicon-silicon substrate

    Monastyrskii, L.S.; Olenych, I.B.; Panasjuk, M.R.; Savchyn, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The research of spectroscopic properties of porous silicon has been done. Complex of photoluminescence, electroluminescence, cathodoluminescence, thermostimulated depolarisation current analyte methods have been applied to study of geterostructures and free layers of porous silicon. Light emitting processes had tendency to decrease. The character of decay for all kinds of luminescence were different

  12. Study of fission fragments produced by 14N + 235U reaction

    Yalcinkaya, M.; Erduran, M.N.; Ganioglu, E.; Akkus, B.; Bostan, M.; Gurdal, G.; Erturk, S.; Balabanski, D.; Minkova, A.; Danchev, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work was performed to understand the structure of neutron rich fission fragments around ∼ 130 region. A thin metallic 235 U target was bombarded by 14 N beam with 10 MeV/A from the Separated Sector Cyclotron at the National Accelerator Centre, Cape Town, South Africa. The main goal to detect and identify fission fragments and to obtain their mass distribution was achieved by using Solar Cell detectors in the AFRODITE (African Omnipurpose Detector for Innovative Techniques and Experiments) spectrometer. The X-rays emitted from fission fragments were detected by LEP detectors and γ rays emitted from excited states of the fission fragments were detected by CLOVER detectors in the spectrometer. (author)

  13. Luminescent zinc(ii) and copper(i) complexes for high-performance solution-processed monochromic and white organic light-emitting devices† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, device performances, and computational details. CCDC 1054456, 1400003 and 1400004. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03161j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Cheng, Gang; So, Gary Kwok-Ming; To, Wai-Pong; Chen, Yong; Kwok, Chi-Chung; Ma, Chensheng; Guan, Xiangguo; Chang, Xiaoyong; Kwok, Wai-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic properties of luminescent tetranuclear zinc(ii) complexes of substituted 7-azaindoles and a series of luminescent copper(i) complexes containing 7,8-bis(diphenylphosphino)-7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaborate ligand are described. These complexes are stable towards air and moisture. Thin film samples of the luminescent copper(i) complexes in 2,6-dicarbazolo-1,5-pyridine and zinc(ii) complexes in poly(methyl methacrylate) showed emission quantum yields of up to 0.60 (for Cu-3) and 0.96 (for Zn-1), respectively. Their photophysical properties were examined by ultrafast time-resolved emission spectroscopy, temperature dependent emission lifetime measurements and density functional theory calculations. Monochromic blue and orange solution-processed OLEDs with these Zn(ii) and Cu(i) complexes as light-emitting dopants have been fabricated, respectively. Maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 5.55% and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.16, 0.19) were accomplished with the optimized Zn-1-OLED while these values were, respectively 15.64% and (0.48, 0.51) for the optimized Cu-3-OLED. Solution-processed white OLEDs having maximum EQE of 6.88%, CIE coordinates of (0.42, 0.44), and colour rendering index of 81 were fabricated by using these luminescent Zn(ii) and Cu(i) complexes as blue and orange light-emitting dopant materials, respectively. PMID:29142704

  14. Plasminogen fragments K 1-3 and K 5 bind to different sites in fibrin fragment DD.

    Grinenko, T V; Kapustianenko, L G; Yatsenko, T A; Yusova, O I; Rybachuk, V N

    2016-01-01

    Specific plasminogen-binding sites of fibrin molecule are located in Аα148-160 regions of C-terminal domains. Plasminogen interaction with these sites initiates the activation process of proenzyme and subsequent fibrin lysis. In this study we investigated the binding of plasminogen fragments K 1-3 and K 5 with fibrin fragment DD and their effect on Glu-plasminogen interaction with DD. It was shown that the level of Glu-plasminogen binding to fibrin fragment DD is decreased by 50-60% in the presence of K 1-3 and K 5. Fragments K 1-3 and K 5 have high affinity to fibrin fragment DD (Kd is 0.02 for K 1-3 and 0.054 μМ for K 5). K 5 interaction is independent and K 1-3 is partly dependent on C-terminal lysine residues. K 1-3 interacts with complex of fragment DD-immobilized K 5 as well as K 5 with complex of fragment DD-immobilized K 1-3. The plasminogen fragments do not displace each other from binding sites located in fibrin fragment DD, but can compete for the interaction. The results indicate that fibrin fragment DD contains different binding sites for plasminogen kringle fragments K 1-3 and K 5, which can be located close to each other. The role of amino acid residues of fibrin molecule Аα148-160 region in interaction with fragments K 1-3 and K 5 is discussed.

  15. An Archeology of Fragments

    Gerald L. Bruns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a short (fragmentary history of fragmentary writing from the German Romantics (F. W. Schlegel, Friedrich Hölderlin to modern and contemporary concrete or visual poetry. Such writing is (often deliberately a critique of the logic of subsumption that tries to assimilate whatever is singular and irreducible into totalities of various categorical or systematic sorts. Arguably, the fragment (parataxis is the distinctive feature of literary Modernism, which is a rejection, not of what precedes it, but of what Max Weber called “the rationalization of the world” (or Modernity whose aim is to keep everything, including all that is written, under surveillance and control.

  16. SOFIA: An innovative setup to measure complete isotopic yield of fission fragments

    Pellereau E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed an experiment dedicated to the accurate isotopic yield measurement of fission fragments over the whole range. SOFIA exploits the inverse kinematics technique: using heavy ion beams at relativistic energies, fission is induced by Coulomb excitation in a high-Z target. The fragments are emitted forward and both of them are identified in charge and mass. The setup will be presented, as well as preliminary spectra.

  17. The formation and deexcitation of hot nuclei in 40Ar + 197Au collisions at 44 and 77 MeV/A. Neutrons emission light charged particles and complex fragments

    Sokolov, A.

    1990-05-01

    This work is a contribution to the study of the formation and decay of hot nuclei produced in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. By studying the system Ar + Au and Ar + Th at 44 MeV/u and 77 MeV/u we first show how to classify events in two groups: peripheral and very dissipative collisions, measuring the number of evaporated neutrons, which depend directly on the violence of the collision. Associated with these neutrons, different deexcitation channels were observed (heavy residues, fission fragments, light charged particles, intermediate mass fragments). The ratio between peripheral and very dissipative collisions was found independent of the system and the same as the one observed at lower incident energy. The most probable neutron multiplicity for very dissipative collisions is not very different at 44 MeV/u and 77 MeV/u. A measurement of the angular distribution of fission fragments and heavy residues was performed. Detected products are essentially associated with large neutron multiplicity and have a cross section close to the one for the very dissipative collisions. The total mass of the fission fragments is close to the mass of the target, while the mass of the heavy residue is much smaller. The backward evaporated light charged particles are also produced in very dissipative collisions. The characteristics of their energy spectra as well as their multiplicities are very similar at 44 MeV/u 77 MeV/u. From the number of evaporated light charged particles, the estimation of the quasi-target excitation energy was done and found to be close to 600 MeV at 44 MeV/u and 77 MeV/u [fr

  18. Hybrid Structure White Organic Light Emitting Diode for Enhanced Efficiency by Varied Doping Rate.

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Kang, Min-Jae; Park, Gwang-Ryeol; Kim, Nam-Kyu; Lee, Burm-Jong; Kwon, Young-Soo; Shin, Hoon-Kyu

    2016-03-01

    Novel materials based on Zn(HPB)2 and Ir-complexes were synthesized as blue or red emitters, respectively. White organic light emitting diodes were fabricated using the Zn(HPB)2 as a blue emitting layer, Ir-complexes as a red emitting layer and Alq3 as a green emitting layer. The obtained experimental results, were based on white OLEDs fabricated using double emission layers of Zn(HPB)2 and Alq3:Ir-complexes. The doping rate of the Ir-complexes was varied at 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0%. When the doping rate of the Alq3:Ir-complexes was 0.6%, a white emission was achieved. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of the device's white emission were (0.316, 0.331) at an applied voltage of 10.75 V.

  19. Fragmentation of random trees

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  20. Fragment-based lead generation: identification of seed fragments by a highly efficient fragment screening technology

    Neumann, Lars; Ritscher, Allegra; Müller, Gerhard; Hafenbradl, Doris

    2009-08-01

    For the detection of the precise and unambiguous binding of fragments to a specific binding site on the target protein, we have developed a novel reporter displacement binding assay technology. The application of this technology for the fragment screening as well as the fragment evolution process with a specific modelling based design strategy is demonstrated for inhibitors of the protein kinase p38alpha. In a fragment screening approach seed fragments were identified which were then used to build compounds from the deep-pocket towards the hinge binding area of the protein kinase p38alpha based on a modelling approach. BIRB796 was used as a blueprint for the alignment of the fragments. The fragment evolution of these deep-pocket binding fragments towards the fully optimized inhibitor BIRB796 included the modulation of the residence time as well as the affinity. The goal of our study was to evaluate the robustness and efficiency of our novel fragment screening technology at high fragment concentrations, compare the screening data with biochemical activity data and to demonstrate the evolution of the hit fragments with fast kinetics, into slow kinetic inhibitors in an in silico approach.

  1. On the nuclear fragmentation mechanisms in nuclear collisions at intermediate and high energies

    Jipa, Al; Besliu, C.; Felea, D.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear fragmentation mechanisms can be discussed by taking into account different scales related to the fragment sizes. Considering two fragmentation mechanisms of the nuclei at the same incident energy an analysis of the experimental results obtained was done. Goldhaber formula was improved by analyzing the discrepancies between data and theories concerning the projectile fragmentation. We implied that the projectile fragmentation process would be governed by the distribution of nucleon momenta in the projectile after the collision occurred. We used in our analysis protons from the 4 He + 7 Li at 4.5 GeV/c per nucleon incident momentum, as well as from 40 Ar + 12 C at 213 AMeV bombarding energy. We proved that in order to proceed in analyzing the projectile fragmentation process at intermediate and high energies one has to consider the dependence σ 0 on the apparent temperature of projectile nucleus after the collision took place. The generalized Bertsch correction for light projectile nuclei and fragments was used and the number of spatial correlations between identical nucleons having anticorrelated momenta was found. Thus we found apparent temperature values close to the separation energies of the considered fragments per number of fragments. The temperatures associated to kinetic energy spectra of the projectile fragments were calculated following two methods. The results from Bauer's method were compared with those obtained by fitting the kinetic energy distributions of the projectile fragments in the rest frame of the projectile with a Maxwellian curve. We also accomplished the comparison of the experimental results with similar events simulated with RQMD 2.4. All the results obtained suggested two nuclear fragmentation mechanisms: a sudden fragmentation by explosive mechanisms, like shock waves and a slow fragmentation by the 'fission' of the spectator regions, mainly because of the interactions with the particles or fragments emitted from the

  2. Angular correlation between the heavy fragments and the light charged particles in tripartition of 236U and 252Cf

    Sowinski, M.

    1975-05-01

    The energy distributions and relative intensities of protons, deuterons, tritons and alpha-particles emitted along the fission axis during thermal neutron fission of 236 U are measured simultaneously with the energies of the two fission fragments. The mass distributions of the fragments, the total kinetic energy (TKE), the dependence of the mean TKE on the fragment mass, as well as the mean kinetic energy dependence of polar particles on the fragment mass and energy are deduced from these data. Although some experimental results agree remarkably well with the hypothesis that polar particles are evaporated in-flight from fission fragments, the general conclusion is that these particles are emitted according to some other mechanism

  3. Binning of shallowly sampled metagenomic sequence fragments reveals that low abundance bacteria play important roles in sulfur cycling and degradation of complex organic polymers in an acid mine drainage community

    Dick, G. J.; Andersson, A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Our understanding of environmental microbiology has been greatly enhanced by community genome sequencing of DNA recovered directly the environment. Community genomics provides insights into the diversity, community structure, metabolic function, and evolution of natural populations of uncultivated microbes, thereby revealing dynamics of how microorganisms interact with each other and their environment. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for reconstructing near-complete genomes from natural environments while highlighting the challenges of analyzing community genomic sequence, especially from diverse environments. A major challenge of shotgun community genome sequencing is identification of DNA fragments from minor community members for which only low coverage of genomic sequence is present. We analyzed community genome sequence retrieved from biofilms in an acid mine drainage (AMD) system in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA, with an emphasis on identification and assembly of DNA fragments from low-abundance community members. The Richmond mine hosts an extensive, relatively low diversity subterranean chemolithoautotrophic community that is sustained entirely by oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The activity of these microorganisms greatly accelerates the generation of AMD. Previous and ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on reconstrucing genomes of dominant community members, including several bacteria and archaea. We binned contigs from several samples (including one new sample and two that had been previously analyzed) by tetranucleotide frequency with clustering by Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The binning, evaluated by comparison with information from the manually curated assembly of the dominant organisms, was found to be very effective: fragments were correctly assigned with 95% accuracy. Improperly assigned fragments often contained sequences that are either evolutionarily constrained (e.g. 16S rRNA genes) or mobile elements that are

  4. High Intensity Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    Qi, Xiangfei

    This thesis is dedicated to the fabrication, modeling, and characterization to achieve high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) for illumination applications. Compared to conventional lighting sources, OLEDs enabled the direct conversion of electrical energy into light emission and have intrigued the world's lighting designers with the long-lasting, highly efficient illumination. We begin with a brief overview of organic technology, from basic organic semiconductor physics, to its application in optoelectronics, i.e. light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodetectors and thin-film transistors. Due to the importance of phosphorescent materials, we will focus on the photophysics of metal complexes that is central to high efficiency OLED technology, followed by a transient study to examine the radiative decay dynamics in a series of phosphorescent platinum binuclear complexes. The major theme of this thesis is the design and optimization of a novel architecture where individual red, green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are vertically stacked and electrically interconnected by the compound charge generation layers. We modeled carrier generation from the metal-oxide/doped organic interface based on a thermally assisted tunneling mechanism. The model provides insights to the optimization of a stacked OLED from both electrical and optical point of view. To realize the high intensity white lighting source, the efficient removal of heat is of a particular concern, especially in large-area devices. A fundamental transfer matrix analysis is introduced to predict the thermal properties in the devices. The analysis employs Laplace transforms to determine the response of the system to the combined effects of conduction, convection, and radiation. This perspective of constructing transmission matrices greatly facilitates the calculation of transient coupled heat transfer in a general multi-layer composite. It converts differential equations to algebraic forms, and

  5. Fractal statistics of brittle fragmentation

    M. Davydova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of fragmentation statistics of brittle materials that includes four types of experiments is presented. Data processing of the fragmentation of glass plates under quasi-static loading and the fragmentation of quartz cylindrical rods under dynamic loading shows that the size distribution of fragments (spatial quantity is fractal and can be described by a power law. The original experimental technique allows us to measure, apart from the spatial quantity, the temporal quantity - the size of time interval between the impulses of the light reflected from the newly created surfaces. The analysis of distributions of spatial (fragment size and temporal (time interval quantities provides evidence of obeying scaling laws, which suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmentation.

  6. Efficient clustering aggregation based on data fragments.

    Wu, Ou; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen J; Zhu, Mingliang; Li, Bing

    2012-06-01

    Clustering aggregation, known as clustering ensembles, has emerged as a powerful technique for combining different clustering results to obtain a single better clustering. Existing clustering aggregation algorithms are applied directly to data points, in what is referred to as the point-based approach. The algorithms are inefficient if the number of data points is large. We define an efficient approach for clustering aggregation based on data fragments. In this fragment-based approach, a data fragment is any subset of the data that is not split by any of the clustering results. To establish the theoretical bases of the proposed approach, we prove that clustering aggregation can be performed directly on data fragments under two widely used goodness measures for clustering aggregation taken from the literature. Three new clustering aggregation algorithms are described. The experimental results obtained using several public data sets show that the new algorithms have lower computational complexity than three well-known existing point-based clustering aggregation algorithms (Agglomerative, Furthest, and LocalSearch); nevertheless, the new algorithms do not sacrifice the accuracy.

  7. Fluctuations in the fragmentation process

    Botet, R.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1993-01-01

    Some general framework of sequential fragmentation is presented, as provided by the newly proposed Fragmentation - Inactivation - Binary model, and to study briefly its basic and universal features. This model includes as particular cases most of the previous kinetic fragmentation models. In particular it is discussed how one arrives in this framework to the critical behaviour, called the shattering transition. This model is then compared to recent data on gold multifragmentation at 600 MeV/nucl. (authors) 20 refs., 5 figs

  8. Flexible Photonics: Polymer LEDs Made from Monochromatic Red Emitting Lanthanide/Polymer Blends. Phase 1

    O'Regan, Marie

    1999-01-01

    .... Spectrally pure, red emitting flexible LEDs have been fabricated. Close to a four-fold increase in device efficiency is obtained when a suitable lanthanide complex is blended with the semi-conducting host polymer...

  9. Experimental determination of fragment excitation energies in multifragmentation events

    Marie, N.; Natowitz, J.B.; Assenard, M.; Bacri, Ch.O.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 MeV/nucleon 129 Xe + nat Sn multifragmentation events, by means of correlation techniques, the multiplicities of the hydrogen and helium isotopes which were emitted by the hot primary excited fragments produced at the stage of the disassembly of an equilibrated hot source are determined. The relative kinetic energy distributions between the primary clusters and the light charged particles that they evaporate are also derived. From the comparison between the secondary multiplicities observed experimentally and the multiplicities predicted by the GEMINI model, it is concluded that the source breaks into primary fragments which are characterized by the same N/Z ratio as the combined system. Knowing the secondary light charged particle multiplicities and kinetic energies, the average charges of the hot fragments and are reconstructed their mean excitation energies are estimated. The fragment excitation energies are equal to 3.0 MeV/nucleon for the full range of intermediate mass fragment atomic number. This global constancy indicates that, on the average, thermodynamical equilibrium was achieved at the disassembly stage of the source. (author)

  10. Experimental determination of fragment excitation energies in multifragmentation events

    Marie, N.; Natowitz, J.B. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Cyclotron Inst.; Chbihi, A.; Le Fevre, A.; Salou, S.; Wieleczko, J.P.; Gingras, L.; Auger, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds, 14 - Caen (France); Assenard, M. [Nantes Univ., 44 (France); Bacri, Ch.O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France)] [and others

    1998-03-17

    For 50 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe + {sup nat}Sn multifragmentation events, by means of correlation techniques, the multiplicities of the hydrogen and helium isotopes which were emitted by the hot primary excited fragments produced at the stage of the disassembly of an equilibrated hot source are determined. The relative kinetic energy distributions between the primary clusters and the light charged particles that they evaporate are also derived. From the comparison between the secondary multiplicities observed experimentally and the multiplicities predicted by the GEMINI model, it is concluded that the source breaks into primary fragments which are characterized by the same N/Z ratio as the combined system. Knowing the secondary light charged particle multiplicities and kinetic energies, the average charges of the hot fragments and are reconstructed their mean excitation energies are estimated. The fragment excitation energies are equal to 3.0 MeV/nucleon for the full range of intermediate mass fragment atomic number. This global constancy indicates that, on the average, thermodynamical equilibrium was achieved at the disassembly stage of the source. (author) 25 refs.

  11. FIRST experiment: Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy

    Agodi, C.; Abou-Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Aumann, T.; Balestra, F.; Battistoni, G.; Bocci, A.; Bohlen, T. T.; Bondì, M.; Boudard, A.; Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Carbone, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cortes-Giraldo, M. A.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Durante, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Finck, C.; Foti, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Golosio, B.; Iarocci, E.; Iazzi, F.; Ickert, G.; Introzzi, R.; Juliani, D.; Krimmer, J.; Kurz, N.; Labalme, M.; Lavagno, A.; Leifels, Y.; Le Fevre, A.; Leray, S.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Oliva, P.; Paoloni, A.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pleskac, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Rossi, D.; Rosso, V.; Rousseau, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sala, P.; Sarti, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schuy, C.; Sciubba, A.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sipala, V.; Spiriti, E.; Stuttge, L.; Tropea, S.; Younis, H.

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in different fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, has been designed for the measurement of different ions fragmentation cross sections at different energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. The experiment is performed by an international collaboration made of institutions from Germany, France, Italy and Spain. The experimental apparatus is partly based on an already existing setup made of the ALADIN magnet, the MUSIC IV TPC, the LAND2 neutron detector and the TOFWALL scintillator TOF system, integrated with newly designed detectors in the interaction Region (IR) around the carbon removable target: a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger for detection of light fragments emitted at large angles (KENTROS). The scientific program of the FIRST experiment started on summer 2011 with the study of the 400 MeV/nucleon 12C beam fragmentation on thin (8mm) carbon target.

  12. FIRST experiment: Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy

    Agodi, C; Bondì, M; Cavallaro, M; Carbone, D; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Abou-Haidar, Z; Alvarez, M A G; Bocci, A; Aumann, T; Durante, M; Balestra, F; Battistoni, G; Bohlen, T T; Boudard, A; Brunetti, A; Carpinelli, M; Cappuzzello, F; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Napoli, M De

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in different fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, has been designed for the measurement of different ions fragmentation cross sections at different energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. The experiment is performed by an international collaboration made of institutions from Germany, France, Italy and Spain. The experimental apparatus is partly based on an already existing setup made of the ALADIN magnet, the MUSIC IV TPC, the LAND2 neutron detector and the TOFWALL scintillator TOF system, integrated with newly designed detectors in the interaction Region (IR) around the carbon removable target: a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger for detection of light fragments emitted at large angles (KENTROS). The scientific program of the FIRST experiment started on summer 2011 with the study of the 400 MeV/nucleon 12C beam fragmentation on thin (8 mm) carbon target.

  13. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  14. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  15. Quantitative experimental modelling of fragmentation during explosive volcanism

    Thordén Haug, Ø.; Galland, O.; Gisler, G.

    2012-04-01

    exponents D. This procedure allows, for the first time, to determine the scaling laws that govern the number of fragments (N), the average size of the fragments (A) and D. We show that (1) N scales with P^(1/2), (2) A scales with P^(-2/3), (3) D scales with P^(1/5). Our experimental procedure thus appears as a unique tool to unravel the complex physics of fragmentation during phreatomagmatic explosions.

  16. Study of the neutron-photon competition during fission fragment de-excitation

    Min, Dong Pil.

    1976-01-01

    A program was developed to study in detail the competition between neutron and photon emissions during the different stages of the nucleus de-excitation. The main conclusions of this work are the following: the neutron-photon competition fairly depends of the initial spin of the primary fragment. It has a strong effect on the mean number of emitted neutrons, on the photon energy, and to a lower degree, on the mean energy per neutron. A relation between the mean initial spin of the heavy fragment for the almost symmetrical fission, the mean initial spin of the heavy fragment for a very asymmetric fission and the corresponding values of the mean number of emitted neutrons is given. The mean initial excitation energy must increase of about 9MeV for the nucleus to emit one more neutron. Two reasons are given to explain the fact that the measured neutron multiplicity variance is higher for the heavy fragment than for the light one: either the existence of a covariance between spin and excitation energy distribution, or a dispersion of the values of the mean number of emitted neutrons due to the mass and charge distribution resulting from experimental incertitudes. The mean energy per neutron calculated with the program is in good agreement with measured values [fr

  17. Angular momenta of fission fragments in the {alpha}-accompanied fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Krupa, L.; Morhac, M. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Physics, Bratislava (Slovakia); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Dubna (Russian Federation); Hamilton, J.H.; Kormicki, J.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hwang, J.K.; Luo, Y.X.; Fong, D.; Gore, P. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics, Nashville, TN (United States); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Rodin, A.M.; Fomichev, A.S.; Popeko, G.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Dubna (Russian Federation); Daniel, A.V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rasmussen, J.O.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Donangelo, R.; Cole, J.D.

    2005-06-01

    For the first time, average angular momenta of the ternary fission fragments {sup 100,102}Zr, {sup 106}Mo, {sup 144,146}Ba and {sup 138,140,142}Xe from the {alpha}-accompanied fission of {sup 252}Cf were obtained from relative intensities of prompt {gamma}-ray transitions with the use of the statistical model calculation. Average values of the angular momenta were compared with the corresponding values for the same fission fragments from the binary fission of {sup 252}Cf. Results indicate the presence of a decreasing trend in the average values of angular momenta induced in ternary fission fragments compared to the same binary fission fragments. On the average, the total angular momentum extracted for ternary fission fragments is {proportional_to}1.4{Dirac_h} lower than in binary fission. Consequently, results indicate that the mechanism of the ternary {alpha}-particles emission may directly effect an induction of angular momenta of fission fragments, and possible scenarios of such mechanisms are discussed. Further, the dependence of the angular momenta of {sup 106}Mo and {sup 140}Xe on the number of emitted neutrons from correlated pairs of primary fragments was obtained also showing a decreasing dependence of average angular momenta with increasing number of emitted neutrons. Consequences are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  18. Efficient light emitting devices based on phosphorescent partially doped emissive layers

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-05-29

    We report efficient organic light emitting devices employing an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer. The electroluminescent spectra of these devices can be tuned by introducing a low-energy emitting phosphor layer into the emission zone. Devices with the emissive layer consisting of multiple platinum-complex/spacer layer cells show a peak external quantum efficiency of 18.1%, which is among the best EQE values for platinum-complex based light emitting devices. Devices with an ultrathin phosphor emissive layer show stronger luminance decay with the operating time compared to the counterpart devices having a host-guest emissive layer.

  19. Alpha-emitting 'hot particles' in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, Cumbria

    Whittall, A.J.; Tossell, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In a survey of environmental samples in the vicinity of BNFL Sellafield, two alpha-emitting radioactive particles were found in samples of grass. One particle appears to be of mineral origin, the other was not definitively identified, but may be a fragment of fuel cladding. Conservative estimates of the activities of these particles are very low. The abundance of radioactive particles in the terrestrial food chain appears to be low, with no evidence for any alpha-emitting hot particles in foodstuffs for consumption by humans. Results suggest that there is no significant dose to man through inhalation or ingestion pathways. (author)

  20. Energy-weighted moments in the problems of fragmentation

    Kuz'min, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of fragmentation of simple nuclear states on the complex ones is reduced to real symmetrical matrix eigenvectors and eigenvalue problem. Based on spectral decomposition of this matrix the simple and economical from computing point of view algorithm to calculate energetically-weighted strength function moments is obtained. This permitted one to investigate the sensitivity of solving the fragmentation problem to reducing the basis of complex states. It is shown that the full width of strength function is determined only by the complex states connected directly with the simple ones

  1. The crystal structure of the complex of Zea mays alpha subunit with a fragment of human beta subunit provides the clue to the architecture of protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme

    Battistutta, R; Sarno, S; De Moliner, E

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic alpha subunit of Zea mays CK2 and a 23-mer peptide corresponding the C-terminal sequence 181-203 of the human CK2 regulatory beta subunit has been determined at 3.16-A resolution. The complex, composed of two alpha chains and two peptides, ...

  2. Thermodynamical string fragmentation

    Fischer, Nadine [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Sjöstrand, Torbjörn [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden)

    2017-01-31

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from the LHC. While some improvements can be noted, it turns out to be nontrivial to obtain effects as big as required, and further work is called for.

  3. Experimental modelling of fragmentation applied to volcanic explosions

    Haug, Øystein Thordén; Galland, Olivier; Gisler, Galen R.

    2013-12-01

    Explosions during volcanic eruptions cause fragmentation of magma and host rock, resulting in fragments with sizes ranging from boulders to fine ash. The products can be described by fragment size distributions (FSD), which commonly follow power laws with exponent D. The processes that lead to power-law distributions and the physical parameters that control D remain unknown. We developed a quantitative experimental procedure to study the physics of the fragmentation process through time. The apparatus consists of a Hele-Shaw cell containing a layer of cohesive silica flour that is fragmented by a rapid injection of pressurized air. The evolving fragmentation of the flour is monitored with a high-speed camera, and the images are analysed to obtain the evolution of the number of fragments (N), their average size (A), and the FSD. Using the results from our image-analysis procedure, we find transient empirical laws for N, A and the exponent D of the power-law FSD as functions of the initial air pressure. We show that our experimental procedure is a promising tool for unravelling the complex physics of fragmentation during phreatomagmatic and phreatic eruptions.

  4. Cloning, bacterial expression and crystallization of Fv antibody fragments

    E´, Jean-Luc; Boulot, Ginette; Chitarra, V´ronique; Riottot, Marie-Madeleine; Souchon, H´le`ne; Houdusse, Anne; Bentley, Graham A.; Narayana Bhat, T.; Spinelli, Silvia; Poljak, Roberto J.

    1992-08-01

    The variable Fv fragments of antibodies, cloned in recombinant plasmids, can be expressed in bacteria as functional proteins having immunochemical properties which are very similar or identical with those of the corresponding parts of the parent eukaryotic antibodies. They offer new possibilities for the study of antibody-antigen interactions since the crystals of Fv fragments and of their complexes with antigen reported here diffract X-rays to a higher resolution that those obtained with the cognate Fab fragments. The Fv approach should facilitate the structural study of the combining site of antibodies and the further characterization of antigen-antibody interactions by site-directed mutagenesis experiments.

  5. Polymer fragmentation in extensional flow

    Maroja, Armando M.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Ciesla, Michal; Longa, Lech

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of fragmentation of dilute polymer solutions in extensional flow. The transition rate is investigated both from theoretical and computational approaches, where the existence of a Gaussian distribution for the breaking bonds has been controversial. We give as well an explanation for the low fragmentation frequency found in DNA experiments.

  6. An Algebra for Program Fragments

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1985-01-01

    Program fragments are described either by strings in the concrete syntax or by constructor applications in the abstract syntax. By defining conversions between these forms, both may be intermixed. Program fragments are constructed by terminal and nonterminal symbols from the grammar and by variab...

  7. Fracture mechanics model of fragmentation

    Glenn, L.A.; Gommerstadt, B.Y.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    A model of the fragmentation process is developed, based on the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, which predicts the average fragment size as a function of strain rate and material properties. This approach permits a unification of previous results, yielding Griffith's solution in the low-strain-rate limit and Grady's solution at high strain rates

  8. Residue preference mapping of ligand fragments in the Protein Data Bank.

    Wang, Lirong; Xie, Zhaojun; Wipf, Peter; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2011-04-25

    The interaction between small molecules and proteins is one of the major concerns for structure-based drug design because the principles of protein-ligand interactions and molecular recognition are not thoroughly understood. Fortunately, the analysis of protein-ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) enables unprecedented possibilities for new insights. Herein, we applied molecule-fragmentation algorithms to split the ligands extracted from PDB crystal structures into small fragments. Subsequently, we have developed a ligand fragment and residue preference mapping (LigFrag-RPM) algorithm to map the profiles of the interactions between these fragments and the 20 proteinogenic amino acid residues. A total of 4032 fragments were generated from 71 798 PDB ligands by a ring cleavage (RC) algorithm. Among these ligand fragments, 315 unique fragments were characterized with the corresponding fragment-residue interaction profiles by counting residues close to these fragments. The interaction profiles revealed that these fragments have specific preferences for certain types of residues. The applications of these interaction profiles were also explored and evaluated in case studies, showing great potential for the study of protein-ligand interactions and drug design. Our studies demonstrated that the fragment-residue interaction profiles generated from the PDB ligand fragments can be used to detect whether these fragments are in their favorable or unfavorable environments. The algorithm for a ligand fragment and residue preference mapping (LigFrag-RPM) developed here also has the potential to guide lead chemistry modifications as well as binding residues predictions.

  9. BARNARD 59: NO EVIDENCE FOR FURTHER FRAGMENTATION

    Roman-Zuniga, C. G. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada BC 22860 (Mexico); Frau, P.; Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5p, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Alves, Joao F., E-mail: croman@astrosen.unam.mx [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-10

    The dense molecular clump at the center of the Barnard 59 (B59) complex is the only region in the Pipe Nebula that has formed a small, stellar cluster. The previous analysis of a high-resolution near-IR dust extinction map revealed that the nuclear region in B59 is a massive, mostly quiescent clump of 18.9 M{sub Sun }. The clump shows a monolithic profile, possibly indicating that the clump is on the way to collapse, with no evident fragmentation that could lead to another group of star systems. In this paper, we present new analysis that compares the dust extinction map with a new dust emission radio-continuum map of higher spatial resolution. We confirm that the clump does not show any significant evidence for prestellar fragmentation at scales smaller than those probed previously.

  10. BARNARD 59: NO EVIDENCE FOR FURTHER FRAGMENTATION

    Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Alves, João F.

    2012-01-01

    The dense molecular clump at the center of the Barnard 59 (B59) complex is the only region in the Pipe Nebula that has formed a small, stellar cluster. The previous analysis of a high-resolution near-IR dust extinction map revealed that the nuclear region in B59 is a massive, mostly quiescent clump of 18.9 M ☉ . The clump shows a monolithic profile, possibly indicating that the clump is on the way to collapse, with no evident fragmentation that could lead to another group of star systems. In this paper, we present new analysis that compares the dust extinction map with a new dust emission radio-continuum map of higher spatial resolution. We confirm that the clump does not show any significant evidence for prestellar fragmentation at scales smaller than those probed previously.

  11. Mass spectrometry for fragment screening.

    Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2017-11-08

    Fragment-based approaches in chemical biology and drug discovery have been widely adopted worldwide in both academia and industry. Fragment hits tend to interact weakly with their targets, necessitating the use of sensitive biophysical techniques to detect their binding. Common fragment screening techniques include differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and ligand-observed NMR. Validation and characterization of hits is usually performed using a combination of protein-observed NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography. In this context, MS is a relatively underutilized technique in fragment screening for drug discovery. MS-based techniques have the advantage of high sensitivity, low sample consumption and being label-free. This review highlights recent examples of the emerging use of MS-based techniques in fragment screening. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Fragment-based drug design.

    Feyfant, Eric; Cross, Jason B; Paris, Kevin; Tsao, Désirée H H

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD), which is comprised of both fragment screening and the use of fragment hits to design leads, began more than 15 years ago and has been steadily gaining in popularity and utility. Its origin lies on the fact that the coverage of chemical space and the binding efficiency of hits are directly related to the size of the compounds screened. Nevertheless, FBDD still faces challenges, among them developing fragment screening libraries that ensure optimal coverage of chemical space, physical properties and chemical tractability. Fragment screening also requires sensitive assays, often biophysical in nature, to detect weak binders. In this chapter we will introduce the technologies used to address these challenges and outline the experimental advantages that make FBDD one of the most popular new hit-to-lead process.

  13. Fragmentation cross sections outside the limiting-fragmentation regime

    Sümmerer, K

    2003-01-01

    The empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, has been successfully applied to estimate fragment production cross sections in reactions of heavy ions at high incident energies. It is checked whether a similar parametrization can be found for proton-induced spallation around 1 GeV, the range of interest for ISOL-type RIB facilities. The validity of EPAX for medium-energy heavy-ion induced reactions is also checked. Only a few datasets are available, but in general EPAX predicts the cross sections rather well, except for fragments close to the projectile, where the experimental cross sections are found to be larger.

  14. Characteristics of spectators in 4He nuclei fragmentation processes

    Bano, M.; Braun, H.; Futo, A.

    1984-10-01

    Characteristics were studieO of deuteron, 3 H and 3 He spectators emitted in 4 He-p interactions at 8.6 GeV/c incident momentum. A model using the Monte Carlo procedure is proposed which predicts the momentum distribution for a nucleon or a group of nucleons (d, 3 H, 3 He) in the 4 He nucleus and describes some properties of reaction channels with spectator emission. The predictions are compared with experimental data. Good agreement is obtained taking into account the influence of the experimental errors and of the binding energy between the fragments. (author)

  15. Metabolism and biological effects of alpha-emitting radionuclides

    Bair, W. J.

    1979-05-01

    The emphasis of much of the current and planned research on the toxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides is directed toward the complexities of actual and potential conditions of occupational environmental exposures of human beings. These, as well as the more limited studies on mechanisms of biological transport and effects, should increase our ability to predict health risks more accurately and to deal more confidently with human exposures, if and when they occur.

  16. Fragmentation of Pb-Projectiles at SPS Energies

    2002-01-01

    % EMU17 \\\\ \\\\ We have exposed stacks consisting of solid state nuclear track detectors (CR-39 plastic and BP-1 glass) and different target materials at the SPS to beams of Pb projectiles. Our detectors record tracks of relativistic nuclei with charge numbers of Z~$\\geq$~6 for CR-39 and Z~$\\geq$75 for BP-1. After development of the tracks by etching they are detected and measured using completely automated microscope systems. Thus experiments with high statistics are possible. \\\\ \\\\BP-1 detectors were exposed to measure total charge changing cross sections and elemental production cross sections for heavy projectile fragments. These experiments were performed for different targets CH$ _{2} $, C, Al, Cu, Ag and Pb. Comparison of the results for different targets allows to investigate contributions to charge changing reactions by electromagnetic dissociation. Multifragmentation events in which several intermediate mass fragments are emitted from the heavy Pb projectile are studied using stacks containing CR-39 d...

  17. Fragmentation functions approach in pQCD fragmentation phenomena

    Rolli, S.

    1996-07-01

    Next-to-leading order parton fragmentation functions into light mesons are presented. They have been extracted from real and simulated e + e - data and used to predict inclusive single particle distributions at different machines

  18. A model for projectile fragmentation

    Chaudhuri, G; Mallik, S; Gupta, S Das

    2013-01-01

    A model for projectile fragmentation is developed whose origin can be traced back to the Bevalac era. The model positions itself between the phenomenological EPAX parametrization and transport models like 'Heavy Ion Phase Space Exploration' (HIPSE) model and antisymmetrised molecular dynamics (AMD) model. A very simple impact parameter dependence of input temperature is incorporated in the model which helps to analyze the more peripheral collisions. The model is applied to calculate the charge, isotopic distributions, average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of largest cluster at different Z bound of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies.

  19. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-01

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10 -10 sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass

  20. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-15

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10{sup -10} sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass.

  1. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Phillips, W.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution measurements on {gamma} rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Phillips, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution measurements on γ rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author)

  3. Fluorescent deep-blue and hybrid white emitting devices based on a naphthalene-benzofuran compound

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, photophysics and electrochemical properties of naphthalene-benzofuran compound 1 and its application in organic light emitting devices. Fluorescent deep-blue emitting devices employing 1 as the emitting dopant embedded in 4-4′-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2′-biphenyl (CBP) host show the peak external quantum efficiency of 4.5% and Commission Internationale d\\'Énclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.07). Hybrid white devices using fluorescent blue emitting layer with 1 and a phosphorescent orange emitting layer based on an iridium-complex show the peak external quantum efficiency above 10% and CIE coordinates of (0.31, 0.37). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Comparison of midvelocity fragment formation with projectilelike decay

    Hudan, S.; Alfaro, R.; Davin, B.; Larochelle, Y.; Xu, H.; Beaulieu, L.; Lefort, T.; Yanez, R.; Souza, R.T. de; Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.; Liu, T.X.; Liu, X.D.; Lynch, W.G.; Shomin, R.; Tan, W.P.; Tsang, M.B.; Molen, A. van der; Wagner, A.; Xi, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs: 3≤ Z≤ 20) produced in midperipheral and central collisions are compared. We compare IMFs detected at midvelocity with those evaporated from the excited projectilelike fragment (PLF*). On average, the IMFs produced at midvelocity are larger in atomic number, exhibit broader transverse velocity distributions, and are more neutron rich as compared to IMFs evaporated from the PLF*. These characteristics of midvelocity fragments are consistent with the low-density formation of the fragments. We present in the different kinematical regions studied, the perpendicular > for isotopically identified IMFs. For a given Z, perpendicular > is either constant or decreases slightly with increasing A, in contradiction with a mass-dependent collective expansion in which all IMFs are emitted on average at the same time. Neutron-deficient isotopes of even Z elements manifest higher kinetic energies than heavier isotopes of the same element for both PLF* and midvelocity emission. This result may be because of the charged-particle decay of long-lived excited states

  5. Integrated delivery systems: the cure for fragmentation.

    Enthoven, Alain C

    2009-12-01

    Our healthcare system is fragmented, with a misalignment of incentives, or lack of coordination, that spawns inefficient allocation of resources. Fragmentation adversely impacts quality, cost, and outcomes. Eliminating waste from unnecessary, unsafe care is crucial for improving quality and reducing costs--and making the system financially sustainable. Many believe this can be achieved through greater integration of healthcare delivery, more specifically via integrated delivery systems (IDSs). An IDS is an organized, coordinated, and collaborative network that links various healthcare providers to provide a coordinated, vertical continuum of services to a particular patient population or community. It is also accountable, both clinically and fiscally, for the clinical outcomes and health status of the population or community served, and has systems in place to manage and improve them. The marketplace already contains numerous styles and degrees of integration, ranging from Kaiser Permanente-style full integration, to more loosely organized individual practice associations, to public-private partnerships. Evidence suggests that IDSs can improve healthcare quality, improve outcomes, and reduce costs--especially for patients with complex needs--if properly implemented and coordinated. No single approach or public policy will fix the fragmented healthcare system, but IDSs represent an important step in the right direction.

  6. The dynamics of fragment formation

    Keane, D.

    1994-09-01

    We demonstrate that in the Quantum Molecular Dynamics model, dynamical correlations can result in the production rate for final state nucleon clusters (and hence composite fragments) being higher than would be expected if statistics and the available phase space were dominant in determining composite formation. An intranuclear cascade or a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model, combined with a statistical approach in the late stage of the collision to determine composites, provides an equivalent description only under limited conditions of centrality and beam energy. We use data on participant fragment production in Au + Au collisions in the Bevalac's BOS time projection chamber to map out the parameter space where statistical clustering provides a good description. In particular, we investigate momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4 He as a function of fragment transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity and beam energy

  7. Chemical Production using Fission Fragments

    Dawson, J. K.; Moseley, F.

    1960-01-01

    Some reactor design considerations of the use of fission recoil fragment energy for the production of chemicals of industrial importance have been discussed previously in a paper given at the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy [A/Conf. 15/P.76]. The present paper summarizes more recent progress made on this topic at AERE, Harwell. The range-energy relationship for fission fragments is discussed in the context of the choice of fuel system for a chemical production reactor, and the experimental observation of a variation of chemical effect along the length of a fission fragment track is described for the irradiation of nitrogen-oxygen mixtures. Recent results are given on the effect of fission fragments on carbon monoxide-hydrogen gas mixtures and on water vapour. No system investigated to date shows any outstanding promise for large-scale chemical production. (author) [fr

  8. Analysis of the binding of pro-urokinase and urokinase-plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein using a Fab fragment selected from a phage-displayed Fab library

    Horn, I. R.; Moestrup, S. K.; van den Berg, B. M.; Pannekoek, H.; Nielsen, M. S.; van Zonneveld, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor (LRP) mediates endocytosis of a number of structurally unrelated ligands, including complexes of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) or urokinase plasminogen

  9. Fragmentation under the Scaling Symmetry and Turbulent Cascade with Intermittency

    Gorokhovski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Fragmentation plays an important role in a variety of physical, chemical, and geological processes. Examples include atomization in sprays, crushing of rocks, explosion and impact of solids, polymer degradation, etc. Although each individual action of fragmentation is a complex process, the number of these elementary actions is large. It is natural to abstract a simple 'effective' scenario of fragmentation and to represent its essential features. One of the models is the fragmentation under the scaling symmetry: each breakup action reduces the typical length of fragments, r (right arrow) alpha r, by an independent random multiplier alpha (0 Saveliev, the fragmentation under the scaling symmetry has been reviewed as a continuous evolution process with new features established. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, the paper synthesizes and completes theoretical part of Gorokhovski & Saveliev. Second, the paper shows a new application of the fragmentation theory under the scale invariance. This application concerns the turbulent cascade with intermittency. We formulate here a model describing the evolution of the velocity increment distribution along the progressively decreasing length scale. The model shows that when the turbulent length scale gets smaller, the velocity increment distribution has central growing peak and develops stretched tails. The intermittency in turbulence is manifested in the same way: large fluctuations of velocity provoke highest strain in narrow (dissipative) regions of flow.

  10. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-01-01

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed

  11. Robust Object Tracking Using Valid Fragments Selection.

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Bo; Tian, Peng; Luo, Gang

    Local features are widely used in visual tracking to improve robustness in cases of partial occlusion, deformation and rotation. This paper proposes a local fragment-based object tracking algorithm. Unlike many existing fragment-based algorithms that allocate the weights to each fragment, this method firstly defines discrimination and uniqueness for local fragment, and builds an automatic pre-selection of useful fragments for tracking. Then, a Harris-SIFT filter is used to choose the current valid fragments, excluding occluded or highly deformed fragments. Based on those valid fragments, fragment-based color histogram provides a structured and effective description for the object. Finally, the object is tracked using a valid fragment template combining the displacement constraint and similarity of each valid fragment. The object template is updated by fusing feature similarity and valid fragments, which is scale-adaptive and robust to partial occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and robust in challenging scenarios.

  12. Efficient white organic light emitting devices with dual emitting layers

    Wu Yaoshan; Hwang Shiaowen; Chen Hsianhung; Lee Mengting; Shen Wenjian; Chen, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new white organic light-emitting device (OLED) with the structure of indium tin oxide / CF x / 1,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) (30 nm)/NPB: 2,8-di(t-butyl)-5,11-di[4-(t-butyl)phenyl]-6,12-diphenylnaphthacene (20 nm; 1.6 %) / 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene: p-bis(p-N,N-di-phenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (40 nm, 3%) / aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (20 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (200 nm) has been investigated. The device showed white emission with a high-luminous yield of 9.75 cd/A at 20 mA/cm 2 , but its Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates appeared to change from (0.34, 0.42) at 6 mA/cm2 to (0.27, 0.37) at 200 mA/cm 2 due to the shift of recombination zone. The change of color with drive current was suppressed by introduction of an electron-blocking layer of NPB along with a hole-blocking layer of aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolato to the white OLED which successfully confined the recombination site and achieved a luminous yield of 9.9 cd/A at 20 mA/cm 2

  13. Efficient white organic light emitting devices with dual emitting layers

    Wu Yaoshan [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Hwang Shiaowen [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China)]. E-mail: jesse@faculty.nctu.edu.tw; Chen Hsianhung [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Lee Mengting [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Shen Wenjian [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China); Chen, C.H. [Display Institute, Microelectronics and Information Systems Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 30050 (China)

    2005-09-22

    In this paper, a new white organic light-emitting device (OLED) with the structure of indium tin oxide / CF {sub x} / 1,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) (30 nm)/NPB: 2,8-di(t-butyl)-5,11-di[4-(t-butyl)phenyl]-6,12-diphenylnaphthacene (20 nm; 1.6 %) / 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene: p-bis(p-N,N-di-phenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (40 nm, 3%) / aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (20 nm) / LiF (1 nm) / Al (200 nm) has been investigated. The device showed white emission with a high-luminous yield of 9.75 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, but its Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates appeared to change from (0.34, 0.42) at 6 mA/cm2 to (0.27, 0.37) at 200 mA/cm{sup 2} due to the shift of recombination zone. The change of color with drive current was suppressed by introduction of an electron-blocking layer of NPB along with a hole-blocking layer of aluminum (III) bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolato to the white OLED which successfully confined the recombination site and achieved a luminous yield of 9.9 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  14. Recent progress on perturbative QCD fragmentation functions

    Cheung, K.

    1995-05-01

    The recent development of perturbative QCD (PQCD) fragmentation functions has strong impact on quarkonium production. I shall summarize B c meson production based on these PQCD fragmentation functions, as well as, the highlights of some recent activities on applying these PQCD fragmentation functions to explain anomalous J/ψ and ψ' production at the Tevatron. Finally, I discuss a fragmentation model based on the PQCD fragmentation functions for heavy quarks fragmenting into heavy-light mesons

  15. Highly efficient silicon light emitting diode

    Le Minh, P.; Holleman, J.; Wallinga, Hans

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, using standard silicon processing techniques, of silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap. The improved efficiency had been explained by the spatial confinement of charge carriers due to a

  16. Prompt Gamma Radiation from Fragments in the Thermal Fission of 235U

    Albinsson, H.; Lindow, L.

    1970-06-01

    Measurements were made on the gamma radiation emitted from fission fragments in slow neutron induced fission of 235 U. The fragments were detected with solid state detectors of the surface barrier type and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. Mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. In this way a decay curve was obtained from which the life-time of one of the gamma-emitting states could be estimated. The relative yield of the gamma-rays was determined as a function of mass for different gamma-ray energy portions and two specific time intervals after the fission events. Comparisons were made with data obtained from 252 Cf-fission. Attention is drawn to some features which seem to be the same in 235 U and 252 Cf-fission

  17. Prompt Gamma Radiation from Fragments in the Thermal Fission of {sup 235}U

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg (Sweden); Lindow, L [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1970-06-15

    Measurements were made on the gamma radiation emitted from fission fragments in slow neutron induced fission of {sup 235}U. The fragments were detected with solid state detectors of the surface barrier type and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. Mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. In this way a decay curve was obtained from which the life-time of one of the gamma-emitting states could be estimated. The relative yield of the gamma-rays was determined as a function of mass for different gamma-ray energy portions and two specific time intervals after the fission events. Comparisons were made with data obtained from {sup 252} Cf-fission. Attention is drawn to some features which seem to be the same in {sup 235}U and {sup 252} Cf-fission.

  18. Simultaneous investigation of fission fragments and neutrons in 252Cf(s,f)

    Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Knitter, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The gridded twin ion chamber developed at CBNM is used to measure the kinetic energy-, mass- and angular distributions of the fission fragments of 252 Cf in an advantageous 4π-geometry. Together with a neutron time-of-flight detector this experimental arrangement permits to measure the correlation between neutron emission, fragment angle, mass and energy in the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. With the present experimental set-up a mass resolution for fission fragments of 0.5 a.m.u., an angular resolution of Δcosθ = 0.05 and a timing resolution of 0.7 ns FWHM were observed. Preliminary evaluations of the raw experimental data are presented for the fission fragment mass distribution, the average total kinetic energy and their variance as function of mass, the angular distribution between fragments and neutrons, the number of neutrons emitted per fragment as function of fragment mass, the average neutron emission energies as function of mass, and the prompt fission neutron spectrum averaged over all fragments. (author)

  19. Recent developments in white light emitting diodes

    Lohe, P. P.; Nandanwar, D. V.; Belsare, P. D.; Moharil, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    In the recent years solid state lighting based on LEDs has revolutionized lighting technology. LEDs have many advantages over the conventional lighting based on fluorescent and incandescent lamps such as mercury free, high conversion efficiency of electrical energy into light, long lifetime reliability and ability to use with many types of devices. LEDs have emerged as a new potentially revolutionary technology that could save up to half of energy used for lighting applications. White LEDs would be the most important light source in the future, so much so that this aspect had been highlighted by the Nobel committee during the award of 2014 Nobel Prize for Physics. Recent advancement in the fabrication of GaN chip capable of emitting in blue and near UV region paved way for fabrication of white LED lamps. Mainly there are two approaches used for preparing white emitting solid state lamp. In the first approach blue light (λ=450 nm) emitted from the InGaN LED chip is partially absorbed by the YAG:Ce3+ phosphor coated on it and re-emitted as yellow fluorescence. A white light can be generated by the combination of blue + yellow emission bands. These lamps are already available. But they are suffering from major drawback that their Colour Rendering Index (CRI) is low. In the second approach, white LEDs are made by coating near ultraviolet emitting (360 to 410nm) LED with a mixture of high efficiency red, green and blue emitting phosphors, analogous to the fluorescent lamp. This method yields lamps with better color rendition. Addition of a yellow emitting phosphor improves CRI further. However conversion efficiency is compromised to some extent. Further the cost of near UV emitting chip is very high compared to blue emitting chips. Thus cost and light output wise, near UV chips are much inferior to blue chips. Recently some rare earth activated oxynitrides, silicates, fluorides have emerged as an important family of luminescent materials for white LED application

  20. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  1. Syntheses, structures and redox properties of some complexes containing the Os(dppe)Cp* fragment, including [{Os(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C triple bondCC triple bond C)].

    Bruce, Michael I; Costuas, Karine; Davin, Thomas; Halet, Jean-François; Kramarczuk, Kathy A; Low, Paul J; Nicholson, Brian K; Perkins, Gary J; Roberts, Rachel L; Skelton, Brian W; Smith, Mark E; White, Allan H

    2007-12-14

    The sequential conversion of [OsBr(cod)Cp*] (9) to [OsBr(dppe)Cp*] (10), [Os([=C=CH2)(dppe)Cp*]PF6 ([11]PF6), [Os(C triple bond CH)(dppe)Cp*] (12), [{Os(dppe)Cp*}2{mu-(=C=CH-CH=C=)}][PF6]2 ([13](PF6)2) and finally [{Os(dppe)Cp*}(2)(mu-C triple bond CC triple bond C)] (14) has been used to make the third member of the triad [{M(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C triple bond CC triple bond C)] (M = Fe, Ru, Os). The molecular structures of []PF6, 12 and 14, together with those of the related osmium complexes [Os(NCMe)(dppe)Cp*]PF6 ([15]PF6) and [Os(C triple bond CPh)(dppe)Cp*] (16), have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Comparison of the redox properties of 14 with those of its iron and ruthenium congeners shows that the first oxidation potential E1 varies as: Fe approximately Os < Ru. Whereas the Fe complex has been shown to undergo three sequential 1-electron oxidation processes within conventional electrochemical solvent windows, the Ru and Os compounds undergo no fewer than four sequential oxidation events giving rise to a five-membered series of redox related complexes [{M(dppe)Cp*}2(mu-C4)]n+ (n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4), the osmium derivatives being obtained at considerably lower potentials than the ruthenium analogues. These results are complimented by DFT and DT DFT calculations.

  2. Fragmentation of rotating protostellar clouds

    Tohline, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    We examine, with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code, the behavior of rotating, isothermal gas clouds as they collapse from Jeans unstable configurations, in order to determine whether they are susceptible to fragmentation during the initial dynamic collapse phase of their evolution. We find that a gas cloud will not fragment unless (a) it begins collapsing from a radius much smaller than the Jeans radius (i.e., the cloud initially encloses many Jeans masses) and (b) irregularities in the cloud's initial structure (specifically, density inhomogeneities) enclose more than one Jeans mass of material. Gas pressure smooths out features that are not initially Jeans unstable while rotation plays no direct role in damping inhomogeneities. Instead of fragmenting, most of our models collapse to a ring configuration (as has been observed by other investigators in two-dimensional, axisymmetric models). The rings appear to be less susceptible to gragmentation from arbitrary perturbations in their structure than has previously been indicated in other work. Because our models, which include the effects of gas pressure, do not readily fragment during a phase of dynamic collapse, we suggest that gas clouds in the galactic disk undergo fragmentation only during quasi-equilibrium phases of their evolution

  3. The complex metal-rich boride Ti{sub 1+x}Rh{sub 2-x+y}Ir{sub 3-y}B{sub 3} (x=0.68, y=1.06) with a new structure type containing B{sub 4} zigzag fragments: Synthesis, crystal chemistry and theoretical calculations

    Goerens, Christian [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52064 Aachen (Germany); Fokwa, Boniface P.T., E-mail: boniface.fokwa@ac.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52064 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Polycrystalline samples and single crystals of the new complex boride Ti{sub 1+x}Rh{sub 2-x+y}Ir{sub 3-y}B{sub 3} (x=0.68; y=1.06) were synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled copper crucible under an argon atmosphere and characterized by X-Ray diffraction as well as EDX measurements. The crystal structure was refined on the basis of single crystal data. The new phase, which represents a new structure type containing trans zigzag B{sub 4} fragments as well as isolated boron atoms crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbam (Nr. 55) with the lattice parameters a=8.620(1) A, b=14.995(2) A and c=3.234(1) A. First-principles density functional theory calculations using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) were performed on an appropriate structural model (using a supercell approach) and the experimental crystallographic data could be reproduced accurately. Based on this model, the density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population (for bonding analysis) were calculated, using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA) method. According to these calculations, this metal-rich compound should be metallic, as expected. Furthermore, very strong boron-boron interactions are observed in the trans zigzag B{sub 4} fragment, which induce a clear differentiation of two types of metal-boron contacts with different strength. The observed three-dimensional metal-metal interaction is in good agreement with the predicted metallic behavior. - graphical abstract: The structure of Ti{sub 1.68(2)}Rh{sub 2.38(6)}Ir{sub 1.94(4)} B{sub 3}, a new structure type containing planar trans zigzag B{sub 4} units, is another example which illustrates the tendency of metal-rich borides to form B-B bonds with increasing boron content. Beside the B{sub 4} fragment it exhibits one-dimensional chains of titanium atoms and hold one-dimensional strings of face-sharing empty tetrahedral and square pyramidal clusters (see figure). Highlights

  4. Analyzing Internal Fragmentation of Electrosprayed Ubiquitin Ions During Beam-Type Collisional Dissociation

    Durbin, Kenneth R.; Skinner, Owen S.; Fellers, Ryan T.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2015-05-01

    Gaseous fragmentation of intact proteins is multifaceted and can be unpredictable by current theories in the field. Contributing to the complexity is the multitude of precursor ion states and fragmentation channels. Terminal fragment ions can be re-fragmented, yielding product ions containing neither terminus, termed internal fragment ions. In an effort to better understand and capitalize upon this fragmentation process, we collisionally dissociated the high (13+), middle (10+), and low (7+) charge states of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions. Both terminal and internal fragmentation processes were quantified through step-wise increases of voltage potential in the collision cell. An isotope fitting algorithm matched observed product ions to theoretical terminal and internal fragment ions. At optimal energies for internal fragmentation of the 10+, nearly 200 internal fragments were observed; on average each of the 76 residues in ubiquitin was covered by 24.1 internal fragments. A pertinent finding was that formation of internal ions occurs at similar energy thresholds as terminal b- and y-ion types in beam-type activation. This large amount of internal fragmentation is frequently overlooked during top-down mass spectrometry. As such, we present several new approaches to visualize internal fragments through modified graphical fragment maps. With the presented advances of internal fragment ion accounting and visualization, the total percentage of matched fragment ions increased from approximately 40% to over 75% in a typical beam-type MS/MS spectrum. These sequence coverage improvements offer greater characterization potential for whole proteins with no needed experimental changes and could be of large benefit for future high-throughput intact protein analysis.

  5. White organic light emitting diodes

    Rosenow, Thomas Conrad

    2011-03-22

    Three approaches were taken in order to achieve reproducible and highly efficient white OLEDs with excellent colour quality. The first approach is based on the triplet harvesting concept. Otherwise unused triplet excitons are transferred from a fluorescent to a phosphorescent emitter with a smaller triplet energy. Because a blue emitter allowing for triplet transfer to a phosphorescent green emitter was not available, a model system for a three-colour white OLED was developed and investigated. This model device consists of the fluorescent blue emitter 4P-NPD and the phosphorescent emitters Ir(dhfpy){sub 2}acac and Ir(MDQ){sub 2}acac emitting in the yellow and red region, respectively. Here, it was shown that both phosphorescent emitters are excited by triplet diffusion and not by direct charge carrier recombination. The second approach is based on a hybrid white OLED with a single emission layer. This layer is a combination of a fluorescent blue and two phosphorescent emitters in a common matrix material. Because of the above mentioned lack of a blue emitter, which allows for triplet transfer to a green phosphorescent emitter, the concentrations of all emitters were chosen in a way that exciton transfer between the emitters was suppressed. The result is a non-radiative recombination of triplet excitons on the fluorescent blue emitter and an accordingly low quantum efficiency. However, a remarkable colour stability against varying brightness was achieved with this OLED. The most successful approach is based on a stacked OLED. Here, the concept of triplet harvesting is limited to triplet transfer between a fluorescent blue and a phosphorescent red emitter. The resulting spectral gap is filled by a full phosphorescent unit comprising the emission of a green and a yellow emitter, which is stacked on top of the triplet harvesting OLED. By individually optimising both units, it was possible to reach lighting relevant luminous efficacies up to {eta}{sub {nu}}=33 lm/W at

  6. Memory effects in nuclear fragmentation?

    Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Guarnera, A.

    1994-01-01

    A general procedure to identify instability regions which lead to multifragmentation events is presented. The dominant mode at the instability point is determined from the knowledge of the mean properties (density and temperature) of the system at that point. For spinodal instabilities the dependence of fragment structures on the dynamical conditions is studied changing the beam energy and the considered equation of state. An important competition between two dynamical effects, expansion of the system and growth of fluctuations, is revealed. It is shown that in heavy-ion central collisions at medium energies memory effects of the configuration formed at the instability time could be observed in the final fragmentation pattern. Some hints towards a fully dynamical picture of fragmentation processes are finally suggested. ((orig.))

  7. Fragmentation properties of 6Li

    Lovas, R.G.; Kruppa, A.T.; Beck, R.; Dickmann, F.

    1987-01-01

    The α+d and t+τ cluster structure of 6 Li is described in a microscopic α+d cluster model through quantities that enter into the description of cluster fragmentation processes. The states of the separate clusters α, d, t and τ are described as superpositions of Os Slater determinants belonging to different potential size parameters. To describe both the 6 Li and fragment state realistically, nucleon-nucleon forces optimized for the used model state spaces were constructed. The fragmentation properties predicted by them slightly differ from those calculated with some forces of common use provided the latter are modified so as to reproduce the α, d and 6 Li energies. (author) 61 refs.; 9 figs

  8. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  9. Fragmentation processes in nuclear reactions

    Baur, G.; Roesel, F.; Trautmann, D.; Shyam, R.

    1983-10-01

    Fragmentation processes in nuclear collisions are reviewed. The main emphasis is put on light ion breakup at nonrelativistic energies. The post- and prior-form DWBA theories are discussed. The post-form DWBA, appropriate for the ''spectator breakup'' describes elastic as well as inelastic breakup modes. This theory can also account for the stripping to unbound states. The theoretical models are compared to typical experimental results to illustrate the various possible mechanisms. It is discussed, how breakup reactions can be used to study high-lying single particle strength in the continuum; how it can yield information about momentum distributions of fragments in the nucleus. (orig.)

  10. Refolding Technologies for Antibody Fragments

    Tsutomu Arakawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Refolding is one of the production technologies for pharmaceutical grade antibody fragments. Detergents and denaturants are primarily used to solubilize the insoluble proteins. The solubilized and denatured proteins are refolded by reducing the concentration of the denaturants or detergents. Several refolding technologies have been used for antibody fragments, comprising dilution, dialysis, solid phase solvent exchange and size exclusion chromatography, as reviewed here. Aggregation suppressor or folding-assisting agents, including arginine hydrochloride, ionic liquids and detergents or denaturants at low concentrations, are included in the refolding solvent to enhance refolding yield.

  11. Fragmentation of atomic clusters: A theoretical study

    Lopez, M.J.; Jellinek, J.

    1994-01-01

    Collisionless fragmentation of nonrotating model n-atom metal clusters (n=12, 13, and 14) is studied using isoergic molecular-dynamics simulations. Minimum-energy paths for fragmentation are mapped out as functions of the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments. These paths provide information on the fragmentation energies for the different fragmentation channels. Fragmentation patterns (distributions of the fragmentation channel probabilities) and global and channel-specific fragmentation rate constants are computed and analyzed as functions of the internal energy and of the size of the clusters. The trends derived from the dynamics are compared with those obtained using the RRK and TST statistical approaches. The dynamics of the fragmentation process is analyzed in terms of characteristic quantities such as the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments, their relative translational energy, and their interaction energy, all considered as functions of time

  12. Fragment-based drug discovery using rational design.

    Jhoti, H

    2007-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is established as an alternative approach to high-throughput screening for generating novel small molecule drug candidates. In FBDD, relatively small libraries of low molecular weight compounds (or fragments) are screened using sensitive biophysical techniques to detect their binding to the target protein. A lower absolute affinity of binding is expected from fragments, compared to much higher molecular weight hits detected by high-throughput screening, due to their reduced size and complexity. Through the use of iterative cycles of medicinal chemistry, ideally guided by three-dimensional structural data, it is often then relatively straightforward to optimize these weak binding fragment hits into potent and selective lead compounds. As with most other lead discovery methods there are two key components of FBDD; the detection technology and the compound library. In this review I outline the two main approaches used for detecting the binding of low affinity fragments and also some of the key principles that are used to generate a fragment library. In addition, I describe an example of how FBDD has led to the generation of a drug candidate that is now being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer.

  13. Extracellular matrix fragmentation in young, healthy cartilaginous tissues.

    Craddock, R J; Hodson, N W; Ozols, M; Shearer, T; Hoyland, J A; Sherratt, M J

    2018-02-09

    Although the composition and structure of cartilaginous tissues is complex, collagen II fibrils and aggrecan are the most abundant assemblies in both articular cartilage (AC) and the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Whilst structural heterogeneity of intact aggrecan ( containing three globular domains) is well characterised, the extent of aggrecan fragmentation in healthy tissues is poorly defined. Using young, yet skeletally mature (18-30 months), bovine AC and NP tissues, it was shown that, whilst the ultrastructure of intact aggrecan was tissue-dependent, most molecules (AC: 95 %; NP: 99.5 %) were fragmented (lacking one or more globular domains). Fragments were significantly smaller and more structurally heterogeneous in the NP compared with the AC (molecular area; AC: 8543 nm2; NP: 4625 nm2; p tissue-invariant. Molecular fragmentation is considered indicative of a pathology; however, these young, skeletally mature tissues were histologically and mechanically (reduced modulus: AC: ≈ 500 kPa; NP: ≈ 80 kPa) comparable to healthy tissues and devoid of notable gelatinase activity (compared with rat dermis). As aggrecan fragmentation was prevalent in neonatal bovine AC (99.5 % fragmented, molecular area: 5137 nm2) as compared with mature AC (95.0 % fragmented, molecular area: 8667 nm2), it was hypothesised that targeted proteolysis might be an adaptive process that modified aggrecan packing (as simulated computationally) and, hence, tissue charge density, mechanical properties and porosity. These observations provided a baseline against which pathological and/or age-related fragmentation of aggrecan could be assessed and suggested that new strategies might be required to engineer constructs that mimic the mechanical properties of native cartilaginous tissues.

  14. Extracellular matrix fragmentation in young, healthy cartilaginous tissues

    RJ Craddock

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the composition and structure of cartilaginous tissues is complex, collagen II fibrils and aggrecan are the most abundant assemblies in both articular cartilage (AC and the nucleus pulposus (NP of the intervertebral disc (IVD. Whilst structural heterogeneity of intact aggrecan ( containing three globular domains is well characterised, the extent of aggrecan fragmentation in healthy tissues is poorly defined. Using young, yet skeletally mature (18-30 months, bovine AC and NP tissues, it was shown that, whilst the ultrastructure of intact aggrecan was tissue-dependent, most molecules (AC: 95 %; NP: 99.5 % were fragmented (lacking one or more globular domains. Fragments were significantly smaller and more structurally heterogeneous in the NP compared with the AC (molecular area; AC: 8543 nm2; NP: 4625 nm2; p < 0.0001. In contrast, fibrillar collagen appeared structurally intact and tissue-invariant. Molecular fragmentation is considered indicative of a pathology; however, these young, skeletally mature tissues were histologically and mechanically (reduced modulus: AC: ≈ 500 kPa; NP: ≈ 80 kPa comparable to healthy tissues and devoid of notable gelatinase activity (compared with rat dermis. As aggrecan fragmentation was prevalent in neonatal bovine AC (99.5 % fragmented, molecular area: 5137 nm2 as compared with mature AC (95.0 % fragmented, molecular area: 8667 nm2, it was hypothesised that targeted proteolysis might be an adaptive process that modified aggrecan packing (as simulated computationally and, hence, tissue charge density, mechanical properties and porosity. These observations provided a baseline against which pathological and/or age-related fragmentation of aggrecan could be assessed and suggested that new strategies might be required to engineer constructs that mimic the mechanical properties of native cartilaginous tissues.

  15. Anisotropy in angular distributions of 238U fission fragments by photons, produced in high energy electron interaction with Si monocrystal

    Kasilov, V.I.; Lapin, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    An enhancement is detected under the angle of 90 deg in the fission fragment yield from 238 U nuclei produced by photons emitted by high-energy electrons passing through a silicon monocrystal. The results enable one to select the most optimal conditions to obtain maximal yields of nuclear particles [ru

  16. Production of nuclear fragments from the interactions of 24 GeV/c protons in a gold target

    Herz, A J; O'Sullivan, D; Thompson, A

    1976-01-01

    Lexan polycarbonate track detectors have been used to determine the charge and energy spectra of nuclear fragments with Z>or=6 and with kinetic energies as low as approximately=1.0 MeV/nucleon emitted from a thin gold target bombarded with 24 GeV/c protons. (8 refs).

  17. The temperature of fission fragments from spontaneous fission of 252Cf measured by time-of-flight spectrometer

    Popkiewicz, M.; Osuch, S.; Szeflinski, Z.; Sztampke, A.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Wolinska, M.; Zaganczyk, R.

    1997-01-01

    The detection system MONA (Modular Neutron Array) consisting of eight large BC-501A liquid scintillators, was applied to determine the temperature of fission fragments emitted in spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. The determination of the temperature was based on the measurement of the neutron spectra

  18. The temperature of fission fragments from spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf measured by time-of-flight spectrometer

    Popkiewicz, M.; Osuch, S.; Szeflinski, Z.; Sztampke, A.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Wolinska, M.; Zaganczyk, R. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Nuclear Physics Div., Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The detection system MONA (Modular Neutron Array) consisting of eight large BC-501A liquid scintillators, was applied to determine the temperature of fission fragments emitted in spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. The determination of the temperature was based on the measurement of the neutron spectra. 5 refs, 2 figs.

  19. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Li, Cheng [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsang, M.B. [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U are around 0.7–0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  20. Fission fragment driven neutron source

    Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.; Brugger, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    Fissionable uranium formed into a foil is bombarded with thermal neutrons in the presence of deuterium-tritium gas. The resulting fission fragments impart energy to accelerate deuterium and tritium particles which in turn provide approximately 14 MeV neutrons by the reactions t(d,n).sup.4 He and d(t,n).sup.4 He.

  1. Developments in SPR Fragment Screening.

    Chavanieu, Alain; Pugnière, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Fragment-based approaches have played an increasing role alongside high-throughput screening in drug discovery for 15 years. The label-free biosensor technology based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is now sensitive and informative enough to serve during primary screens and validation steps. In this review, the authors discuss the role of SPR in fragment screening. After a brief description of the underlying principles of the technique and main device developments, they evaluate the advantages and adaptations of SPR for fragment-based drug discovery. SPR can also be applied to challenging targets such as membrane receptors and enzymes. The high-level of immobilization of the protein target and its stability are key points for a relevant screening that can be optimized using oriented immobilized proteins and regenerable sensors. Furthermore, to decrease the rate of false negatives, a selectivity test may be performed in parallel on the main target bearing the binding site mutated or blocked with a low-off-rate ligand. Fragment-based drug design, integrated in a rational workflow led by SPR, will thus have a predominant role for the next wave of drug discovery which could be greatly enhanced by new improvements in SPR devices.

  2. Nuclear fragmentation by nucleation approach

    Chung, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    The nucleation model is used to simulate nuclear fragmentation processes. The critical value of the effective interaction radius is shown to vary linearly with the expansion factor α. The calculated mass and charge distributions are compared with some experimental data. (author)

  3. Neutron multiplicity of fission fragments

    Abdelrahman, Y S [Physics department, mu` rah university Al-Karak, (Jordan)

    1995-10-01

    The total average neutron multiplicity of the fission fragments produced by the spontaneous fission of {sup 248} Cm has been measured. This measurement has been done by using a new experimental technique. This technique mainly depends on {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence using a very high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. 2 figs.

  4. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    Olff, H.; Ritchie, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  5. Fragmented nature : consequences for biodiversity

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  6. Research of nuclear fragmentation characteristics

    Richert, J.

    1989-01-01

    Motivations for the study of nuclear fragmentation are presented. Different models and methods which were developed in the past are reviewed, critically discussed and confronted in connection with the experimental information gathered over the past years. Specific aspects related to the onset of the process, its characteristics and the mechanism which governs it are discussed [fr

  7. FRAGMENTED IDENTITIES: THE CULTURAL COLLISION ...

    User

    Born in the former French and German colony of. Togo, Komla-Ebri ... of how cultural barriers not only lead to isolation and fragmented identities, but also ..... and, in recreating bits of Italy, in the form of music, cinema and food, absorbs parts of ...

  8. Phthalocyanides sensitized fragmentation of proteins

    Klementová, S.; Tothová, D.; Revaková, R.; Kasková, M.; Wagnerová, Dana Marie

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2001), s. 13-18 ISSN 0972-0626 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/96/1322 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : phthalocyanides * photosensitied fragmentation of proteins Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  9. Emission of projectile helium fragments in 14N interactions at 2.1 GeV/nucleon

    Bhanja, R.; Devi, N.A.L.; Joseph, R.R.; Ojha, I.D.; Shyam, M.; Tuli, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of projectile helium fragments has been performed from the point of view of testing the factorization and limiting fragmentation hypothesis. An event-by-event examination of 923 interactions of 14 N in emulsion at 2.1 GeV per nucleon has been made for target identification. Events with projectile fragments have been divided into various reaction channels according to the multiplicity of He nuclei. The multiplicity distribution, angular structure and other properties of the projectile He fragments have been investigated to see the dependence on different targets and target excitation. The properties of He fragments emitted from the projectile have been found to remain independent of target in peripheral collision processes. The target and projectile breakup properties have been analysed in terms of the collision geometry. Gaussian distributions have been fitted to the projected angular distribution data for He fragments at various intervals of impact parameter and in different reaction channels. The properties of emitted He nuclei exhibit characteristic features of factorization and limiting fragmentation. (orig.)

  10. Radiation Emitting Product Corrective Actions and Recalls

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...

  11. Radiation-emitting Electronic Product Codes

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains product names and associated information developed by the Center for all products, both medical and non-medical, which emit radiation. It...

  12. Emissive Ion Thruster -EMIT, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A propulsion system is proposed that is based on acceleration of ions emitted from a thin, solid-state electrochemical ceramic membrane. This technology would...

  13. Pyridine Based Polymer Light-Emitting Devices

    Wang, Y

    1997-01-01

    ...) as a hole transporting/electron blocking layer. This improves the device efficiency and brightness significantly due to the charge confinement and exciplex emission at the PVK/emitting polymer interface...

  14. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Frégeau M.O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  15. A white organic light emitting diode with improved stability

    Zhang Zhilin; Jiang Xueyin; Zhu Wenqing; Zhang Buxin; Xu Shaohong

    2001-01-01

    A white organic light emitting diode (OLED) has been constructed by employing a new blue material and a red dye directly doped in the blue emitting layer. For comparison, another white cell with a blocking layer has also been made. The configurations of the devices are ITO/CuPc/NPB/JBEM(P):DCJT/Alq/MgAg (device 1) and ITO/CuPc/NPB/TPBi:DCJT/Alq/MgAg (device 2) where copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is the buffer layer, N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1.1'bipheny1-4-4'-diamine (NPB) is the hole transporting layer, 9,10-bis(3'5'-diaryl)phenyl anthracene doped with perylene (JBEM(P)) is the new blue emitting material, N,arylbenzimidazoles (TPBi) is the hole blocking layer, tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminium complex (Alq) is the electron transporting layer, and DCJT is a red dye. A stable and current independent white OLED has been obtained in device 1, which has a maximum luminance of 14 850 cd m -2 , an efficiency of 2.88 Lm W -1 , Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of x=0.32, y=0.38 between 4-200 mA cm -2 , and a half lifetime of 2860 h at the starting luminance of 100 cd m -2 . Device 1 has a stability more than 50 times better than that of device 2. (author)

  16. Fragmentation alters stream fish community structure in dendritic ecological networks.

    Perkin, Joshuah S; Gido, Keith B

    2012-12-01

    Effects of fragmentation on the ecology of organisms occupying dendritic ecological networks (DENs) have recently been described through both conceptual and mathematical models, but few hypotheses have been tested in complex, real-world ecosystems. Stream fishes provide a model system for assessing effects of fragmentation on the structure of communities occurring within DENs, including how fragmentation alters metacommunity dynamics and biodiversity. A recently developed habitat-availability measure, the "dendritic connectivity index" (DCI), allows for assigning quantitative measures of connectivity in DENs regardless of network extent or complexity, and might be used to predict fish community response to fragmentation. We characterized stream fish community structure in 12 DENs in the Great Plains, USA, during periods of dynamic (summer) and muted (fall) discharge regimes to test the DCI as a predictive model of fish community response to fragmentation imposed by road crossings. Results indicated that fish communities in stream segments isolated by road crossings had reduced species richness (alpha diversity) relative to communities that maintained connectivity with the surrounding DEN during summer and fall. Furthermore, isolated communities had greater dissimilarity (beta diversity) to downstream sites notisolated by road crossings during summer and fall. Finally, dissimilarity among communities within DENs decreased as a function of increased habitat connectivity (measured using the DCI) for summer and fall, suggesting that communities within highly connected DENs tend to be more homogeneous. Our results indicate that the DCI is sensitive to community effects of fragmentation in riverscapes and might be used by managers to predict ecological responses to changes in habitat connectivity. Moreover, our findings illustrate that relating structural connectivity of riverscapes to functional connectivity among communities might aid in maintaining metacommunity

  17. The complex metal-rich boride Ti1+xRh2-x+yIr3-yB3 (x=0.68, y=1.06) with a new structure type containing B4 zigzag fragments: Synthesis, crystal chemistry and theoretical calculations

    Goerens, Christian; Fokwa, Boniface P. T.

    2012-08-01

    Polycrystalline samples and single crystals of the new complex boride Ti1+xRh2-x+yIr3-yB3 (x=0.68; y=1.06) were synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled copper crucible under an argon atmosphere and characterized by X-Ray diffraction as well as EDX measurements. The crystal structure was refined on the basis of single crystal data. The new phase, which represents a new structure type containing trans zigzag B4 fragments as well as isolated boron atoms crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbam (Nr. 55) with the lattice parameters a=8.620(1) Å, b=14.995(2) Å and c=3.234(1) Å. First-principles density functional theory calculations using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package (VASP) were performed on an appropriate structural model (using a supercell approach) and the experimental crystallographic data could be reproduced accurately. Based on this model, the density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population (for bonding analysis) were calculated, using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA) method. According to these calculations, this metal-rich compound should be metallic, as expected. Furthermore, very strong boron-boron interactions are observed in the trans zigzag B4 fragment, which induce a clear differentiation of two types of metal-boron contacts with different strength. The observed three-dimensional metal-metal interaction is in good agreement with the predicted metallic behavior.

  18. Oxadiazole-carbazole polymer (POC)-Ir(ppy)3 tunable emitting composites

    Bruno, Annalisa; Borriello, Carmela; Di Luccio, Tiziana; Sessa, Lucia; Concilio, Simona; Haque, Saif A.; Minarini, Carla

    2017-04-01

    POC polymer is an oxadiazole-carbazole copolymer we have previously synthetized and established as light emitting material in Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs), although POC quantum yield emission efficiency and color purity still need to be enhanced. On the other hand, tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III) (Ir(ppy)3) complexes, namely Ir(ppy)3 are among the brightest luminophores employed in green light emitting devices. Our aim, in this work, is to take advantage of Ir(ppy)3 bright emission by combining the Ir complex with blue emitting POC to obtain tunable light emitting composites over a wide range of the visible spectrum. Here we have investigated the optical proprieties POC based nanocomposites with different concentrations of Ir(ppy)3, ranging from 1 to 10 wt%. Both spectral and time resolved fluorescence measurements show an efficient energy transfer from the polymer to the dopants, resulting in white-emitting composites. The most intense and stable emission has been found when POC was doped with about 5 wt% concentration of Ir(ppy)3.

  19. Binary projectile fragmentation of 12C at an incident energy of 33.3 MeV/nucleon

    Förtsch, S V; Gadioli, E; Bassini, R; Buthelezi, E Z; Cerutti, F; Connell, S H; Cowley, A A; Fujita, H; Mabiala, J; Mairani, A; Mira, J; Papka, P; Neveling, R; Smit, F D

    2010-01-01

    Direct binary projectile fragmentation is being investigated for the case where a 400 MeV 12C projectile breaks up into an particle and a 8Be fragment in the interaction with a thin 93Nb and 197Au target. While the 8Be fragments were measured at 9 , the correlated particles were detected in an angular range between 16 and 30 on the opposite side of the beam. From the preliminary results presented here one may obtain information on the amount of quasi-elastic fragmentation (both fragments do not suffer any further interactions after they are produced). These experimental results indicate that the quasi-elastic break-up process is the dominant contribution to the measured correlation spectra. As was also observed in earlier work, the most forward quasi-elastically emitted particles have energies exceeding the beam velocity.

  20. Percutaneous transhepatic fragmentation of gall stones and extraction of fragments

    Guenther, R.; Klose, K.; Schmidt, H.D.; Staritz, M.; Mainz Univ.; Mainz Univ.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts at percutaneous removal have been made in 13 patients with solitary and multiple intra- and extra-hepatic biliary duct stones measuring 5 to 30 mm. The stones were fragmented with a Dormia basket and the fragments removed transhepatically. In ten patients the procedure was successful, including one patient with multiple intra-hepatic stones. The procedure can be recommended for cases of calculous obstruction of biliary anastomoses or of stones which could not be removed by endoscopy, or where there is already biliary drainage being carried out, or in patients with a high opertive risk. In two patients, dilatation of the papilla was also carried out, in four patients a stenosis was dilated and in a further two patients, electro-incision of a stenosis was performed. (orig.) [de

  1. Study of compounds emitted during thermo-oxidative decomposition of polyester fabrics

    Dzięcioł Małgorzata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Compounds emitted during thermo-oxidative decomposition of three commercial polyester fabrics for indoor outfit and decorations (upholstery, curtains were studied. The experiments were carried out in a flow tubular furnace at 600°C in an air atmosphere. During decomposition process the complex mixtures of volatile and solid compounds were emitted. The main volatile products were carbon oxides, benzene, acetaldehyde, vinyl benzoate and acetophe-none. The emitted solid compounds consisted mainly of aromatic carboxylic acids and its derivatives, among which the greatest part took terephthalic acid, monovinyl terephthalate and benzoic acid. The small amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were also emitted. The emission profiles of the tested polyester fabrics were similar. The presence of toxic compounds indicates the possibility of serious hazard for people during fire.

  2. Energies and Yields of Prompt Gamma Rays from Fragments in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-04-15

    Measurements were made on the gamma radiation emitted from fission fragments in slow-neutron induced fission of 235U. The fragments were detected with solid state detectors of the surface barrier type and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. Mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. In this way it was possible to select various collimator settings and let gamma radiation of different half-lives be enhanced. Gamma-ray energy spectra from these time components were then recorded as function of mass. The spectrum shape differed greatly depending on the half-life of the radiation and the fragment from which it was emitted. The results of the present measurements were discussed in the light of existing fission models, and comparisons were made with prompt gamma-ray and neutron data from other fission experiments

  3. Energies and Yields of Prompt Gamma Rays from Fragments in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U

    Albinsson, H.

    1971-04-01

    Measurements were made on the gamma radiation emitted from fission fragments in slow-neutron induced fission of 235 U. The fragments were detected with solid state detectors of the surface barrier type and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. Mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. In this way it was possible to select various collimator settings and let gamma radiation of different half-lives be enhanced. Gamma-ray energy spectra from these time components were then recorded as function of mass. The spectrum shape differed greatly depending on the half-life of the radiation and the fragment from which it was emitted. The results of the present measurements were discussed in the light of existing fission models, and comparisons were made with prompt gamma-ray and neutron data from other fission experiments

  4. Fragments

    Moreira, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    This performance autoethnography shows the author's struggle in finding his place, scholarship, voice, and body, into the academic setting. Mixing together memories of his lived experience with sugar cane workers, notes, and leftovers of different fieldworks, plus 6 years of life as grad student at the University of Illinois, the author looks for…

  5. Fragmentation

    K.H. Riitters

    2009-01-01

    Effective resource management takes into account the administrative and biophysical settings within which natural resources occur. A setting may be described in many ways; for example, by forest land ownership, by reserved and roadless designation, or by the distribution of human populations in relation to forest (chapter 3). The physical arrangement of forest in a...

  6. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Emission of light charged particles from fragments produced on fission of uranium nuclei by 153 MeV protons and 1700 MeV negative pions

    Belovitzky, G.E.; Shteingrad, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the emission of light charged particles (LCP) with Z = 1, 2 from fragments produced in fission of uranium nuclei by 153 MeV protons and 1700 MeV negative pions was studied. It was found that LCP accompanying the fission by pions are emitted from non-accelerated fragments immediately after the fission, whereas in the case of 153 MeV protons, the LCP are emitted from the accelerated heavy fragments. The number of LCP emitted in the course of pion-induced fission is 0.7 per fission event, which exceeds by a factor of 30 the corresponding number for 153 MeV protons [ru

  8. Energy distribution of projectile fragment particles in heavy ion therapeutic beam

    Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Tomura, Hiromi; Futami, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Production of fragment particles in a patient`s body is one of important problems for heavy charged particle therapy. It is required to know the yield and the energy spectrum for each fragment element - so called `beam quality` to understand the effect of therapeutic beam precisely. In this study, fragment particles produced by practical therapeutic beam of HIMAC were investigated with using tissue-equivalent material and a detector complex. From the results, fragment particles were well identified by difference of their atomic numbers and the beam quality was derived. Responses of the detectors in this energy region were also researched. (author)

  9. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion

  10. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  11. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  12. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    Kaur, Manpreet [Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib-140406, Punjab (India); Kaur, Varinderjit, E-mail: drvarinderjit@gmail.com [Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib-140406, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping At{sub otal} fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of {sup 197}Au+{sup 27}Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  13. Fragmentation of percolation cluster perimeters

    Debierre, Jean-Marc; Bradley, R. Mark

    1996-05-01

    We introduce a model for the fragmentation of porous random solids under the action of an external agent. In our model, the solid is represented by a bond percolation cluster on the square lattice and bonds are removed only at the external perimeter (or `hull') of the cluster. This model is shown to be related to the self-avoiding walk on the Manhattan lattice and to the disconnection events at a diffusion front. These correspondences are used to predict the leading and the first correction-to-scaling exponents for several quantities defined for hull fragmentation. Our numerical results support these predictions. In addition, the algorithm used to construct the perimeters reveals itself to be a very efficient tool for detecting subtle correlations in the pseudo-random number generator used. We present a quantitative test of two generators which supports recent results reported in more systematic studies.

  14. Coincidence measurement between α-particles and projectile-like fragments in the reaction of 82.7 MeV 16O on 27Al

    Shen Wenqing; Zhan Wenlong; Zhu Yongtai

    1988-01-01

    In a coincidence measurement between α-particles and projectile-like fragments in the reaction of 82.7 MeV 16 O on 27 Al, the contour plot of Galilean-invariant cross section of the coincidence between C-fragments and α-particles in the velocity plane, and the coincident angular correlation have been obtained. The correlated α-particles measured at positive angles (on the same side of the beam as the projectile-like fragments) were emitted mainly from the projectile-like fragments;the α-particles at large negative angles were emitted from the target-like fragments;the α-particles at small negative angles came from the fragmentation of the 16 O projectile. A possible reaction mechanism in which the residue produced in the fragmentation of the projectile continues the dissipation process during the interaction with the target has been discussed. It is also pointed out that in the large yield of C-fragments observed in the inclusive experiment, the contribution of C-fragments produced by the excited 16 O of DIC product via α-emission is quite small

  15. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species with different size and mobility can be regulated by different processes at the same spatial scale, a principle that may contribute to diversity. Differences in species richness between local commu...

  16. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis.

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al. , 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al. , 1990; Ouellette et al. , 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  17. Cumulative protons in 12C fragmentation at intermediate energy

    Abramov, B.M.; Alekseev, P.N.; Borodin, Y.A.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Dukhovskoi, I.A.; Khanov, A.I.; Krutenkova, A.P.; Kulikov, V.V.; Martemianov, M.A.; Matsuk, M.A.; Turdakina, E.N.

    2014-01-01

    In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5 degrees have been measured in fragmentation of carbon ions at T 0 equals 0.3, 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable x in the range 0.9 < x < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quark- gluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8 - 12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2 - 0.6% for nine- quark clusters. (authors)

  18. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  19. Fragmentation measurement using image processing

    Farhang Sereshki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, first of all, the existing problems in fragmentation measurement are reviewed for the sake of its fast and reliable evaluation. Then, the available methods used for evaluation of blast results are mentioned. The produced errors especially in recognizing the rock fragments in computer-aided methods, and also, the importance of determination of their sizes in the image analysis methods are described. After reviewing the previous work done, an algorithm is proposed for the automated determination of rock particles’ boundary in the Matlab software. This method can determinate automatically the particles boundary in the minimum time. The results of proposed method are compared with those of Split Desktop and GoldSize software in two automated and manual states. Comparing the curves extracted from different methods reveals that the proposed approach is accurately applicable in measuring the size distribution of laboratory samples, while the manual determination of boundaries in the conventional software is very time-consuming, and the results of automated netting of fragments are very different with the real value due to the error in separation of the objects.

  20. White emission from nano-structured top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes based on a blue emitting layer

    Hyun, Woo Jin; Park, Jung Jin; Park, O Ok; Im, Sang Hyuk; Chin, Byung Doo

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrated that white emission can be obtained from nano-structured top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (TEOLEDs) based on a blue emitting layer (EML). The nano-structured TEOLEDs were fabricated on nano-patterned substrates, in which both optical micro-cavity and scattering effects occur simultaneously. Due to the combination of these two effects, the electroluminescence spectra of the nano-structured device with a blue EML exhibited not only blue but also yellow colours, which corresponded to the intrinsic emission of the EML and the resonant emission of the micro-cavity effect. Consequently, it was possible to produce white emission from nano-structured TEOLEDs without employing a multimode micro-cavity. The intrinsic emission wavelength can be varied by altering the dopant used for the EML. Furthermore, the emissive characteristics turned out to be strongly dependent on the nano-pattern sizes of the nano-structured devices. (paper)

  1. Implantation of cultured thymic fragments in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Danner, S. A.; Schuurman, H. J.; Lange, J. M.; Gmelig Meyling, F. H.; Schellekens, P. T.; Huber, J.; Kater, L.

    1986-01-01

    Cultured thymic fragments were implanted in one patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complex (ARC) and in eight AIDS patients with opportunistic infections (OIs, four patients), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, two patients), or both (two patients). Thereafter, objective clinical

  2. Light emitting fabric technologies for photodynamic therapy.

    Mordon, Serge; Cochrane, Cédric; Tylcz, Jean Baptiste; Betrouni, Nacim; Mortier, Laurent; Koncar, Vladan

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is considered to be a promising method for treating various types of cancer. A homogeneous and reproducible illumination during clinical PDT plays a determinant role in preventing under- or over-treatment. The development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of optical fiber into flexible structures could offer an interesting alternative. This paper aims to describe different methods proposed to develop Side Emitting Optical Fibers (SEOF), and how these SEOF can be integrated in a flexible structure to improve light illumination of the skin during PDT. Four main techniques can be described: (i) light blanket integrating side-glowing optical fibers, (ii) light emitting panel composed of SEOF obtained by micro-perforations of the cladding, (iii) embroidery-based light emitting fabric, and (iv) woven-based light emitting fabric. Woven-based light emitting fabrics give the best performances: higher fluence rate, best homogeneity of light delivery, good flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    Weiss, Jonathan D [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  4. Geometrical scaling of jet fragmentation photons

    Hattori, Koichi, E-mail: koichi.hattori@riken.jp [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); McLerran, Larry, E-mail: mclerran@bnl.gov [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States); Physics Dept., China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China); Schenke, Björn, E-mail: bschenke@bnl.gov [Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss jet fragmentation photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We argue that, if the jet distribution satisfies geometrical scaling and an anisotropic spectrum, these properties are transferred to photons during the jet fragmentation.

  5. Identification of genes affecting vacuole membrane fragmentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Lydie Michaillat

    Full Text Available The equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission influences the volume and copy number of organelles. Fusion of yeast vacuoles has been well characterized but their fission and the mechanisms determining vacuole size and abundance remain poorly understood. We therefore attempted to systematically characterize factors necessary for vacuole fission. Here, we present results of an in vivo screening for deficiencies in vacuolar fragmentation activity of an ordered collection deletion mutants, representing 4881 non-essential genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen identified 133 mutants with strong defects in vacuole fragmentation. These comprise numerous known fragmentation factors, such as the Fab1p complex, Tor1p, Sit4p and the V-ATPase, thus validating the approach. The screen identified many novel factors promoting vacuole fragmentation. Among those are 22 open reading frames of unknown function and three conspicuous clusters of proteins with known function. The clusters concern the ESCRT machinery, adaptins, and lipases, which influence the production of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. A common feature of these factors of known function is their capacity to change membrane curvature, suggesting that they might promote vacuole fragmentation via this property.

  6. Isomeric signatures in the fragmentation of pyridazine and pyrimidine induced by fast ion impact

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-28

    We present fast proton impact induced fragmentations of pyrimidine and pyridazine as an experimental resource to investigate isomeric signatures. Major isomeric imprints are identified for few fragment ions and differences of more than an order of magnitude for the cross sections of fragments of the same mass were measured. The observation of the molecular structure of these isomers gives no apparent indication for the reasons for such substantial differences. It is verified that the simple displacement of the position of one nitrogen atom strongly inhibits or favors the production of some ionic fragment species. The dependency of the fragmentation cross sections on the proton impact energy, investigated by means of time of flight mass spectroscopy and of a model calculation based in first order perturbation theory, allows us to disentangle the complex collision dynamics of the ionic fragments. The proton-induced fragmentation discriminates rather directly the association between a molecular orbital ionization and the fragment-ions creation and abundance, as well as how the redistribution of the energy imparted to the molecules takes place, triggering not only single but also double vacancy and leads to specific fragmentation pathways.

  7. Evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions

    Ceccopieri, F.A.; Bacchetta, A.

    2007-03-01

    We consider dihadron fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a parton in two unpolarized hadrons, and in particular extended dihadron fragmentation functions, explicitly dependent on the invariant mass, M h , of the hadron pair. We first rederive the known results on M h -integrated functions using Jet Calculus techniques, and then we present the evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions. Our results are relevant for the analysis of experimental measurements of two-particle-inclusive processes at different energies. (orig.)

  8. Polarization and alignment of nucleus fission fragments

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation of fragment orientation with orientation axis of fissile nucleus and with n-vector f vector of fragment divergence is considered. Estimations of polarization and alignment of fission fragments of preliminarily oriented nuclei in correlation (with n-vector f recording) and integral (with n-vector f averaging) experiments were conducted. It is shown that high sensitivity of polarization and fragment alignment to the character of nucleus movement at the stage of descent from barrier to rupture point exists

  9. Decay Curves and Half-Lives of Gamma-Emitting States from a Study of Prompt Fission Gamma Radiation

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-04-15

    Measurements were made on the time distributions of the prompt gamma radiation emitted from fragments in the thermal-neutron induced fission of 235U. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fragments. In this way decay curves were obtained from which half-lives could be estimated. Time components with half-lives of 7.5, 18 and 60 ps were found and their relative intensities were calculated. Half-lives and associated intensities are in good agreement with earlier data from uranium and californium fission. Problems involved in this type of study are discussed. The collimator technique has proved to be effective for determination of half lives down to less than 10 ps

  10. Assessment of Dengue virus helicase and methyltransferase as targets for fragment-based drug discovery.

    Coutard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne; Li, Changqing; Sharff, Andrew; Lescar, Julien; Bricogne, Gérard; Barral, Karine

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal and pandemic flaviviruses continue to be leading global health concerns. With the view to help drug discovery against Dengue virus (DENV), a fragment-based experimental approach was applied to identify small molecule ligands targeting two main components of the flavivirus replication complex: the NS3 helicase (Hel) and the NS5 mRNA methyltransferase (MTase) domains. A library of 500 drug-like fragments was first screened by thermal-shift assay (TSA) leading to the identification of 36 and 32 fragment hits binding Hel and MTase from DENV, respectively. In a second stage, we set up a fragment-based X-ray crystallographic screening (FBS-X) in order to provide both validated fragment hits and structural binding information. No fragment hit was confirmed for DENV Hel. In contrast, a total of seven fragments were identified as DENV MTase binders and structures of MTase-fragment hit complexes were solved at resolution at least 2.0Å or better. All fragment hits identified contain either a five- or six-membered aromatic ring or both, and three novel binding sites were located on the MTase. To further characterize the fragment hits identified by TSA and FBS-X, we performed enzymatic assays to assess their inhibition effect on the N7- and 2'-O-MTase enzymatic activities: five of these fragment hits inhibit at least one of the two activities with IC50 ranging from 180μM to 9mM. This work validates the FBS-X strategy for identifying new anti-flaviviral hits targeting MTase, while Hel might not be an amenable target for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). This approach proved to be a fast and efficient screening method for FBDD target validation and discovery of starting hits for the development of higher affinity molecules that bind to novel allosteric sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Photon-hadron fragmentation: theoretical situation

    Peschanski, R.

    1983-07-01

    Using a selection of new experimental results models of hadronic fragmentation and their phenomenological comparison are presented. Indeed a convenient theory of hadronic fragmentation -for instance based on Q.C.D.- does not exist: low transverse momentum fragmentation involves the badly known hadronic long-range forces. Models should clarify the situation in the prospect of an eventual future theory

  12. Scaling and critical behaviour in nuclear fragmentation

    Campi, X.

    1990-09-01

    These notes review recent results on nuclear fragmentation. An analysis of experimental data from exclusive experiments is made in the framework of modern theories of fragmentation of finite size objects. We discuss the existence of a critical regime of fragmentation and the relevance of scaling and finite size scaling

  13. Remarks about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Remarks are made about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. In particular, the concept of favored and disfavored fragment distribution is introduced. Also, a sum rule is proved leading to a useful quantity called energy-fragmentation fraction. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Quark fragmentation in e+e- collisions

    Oddone, P.

    1984-12-01

    This brief review of new results in quark and gluon fragmentation observed in e + e - collisions concentrates mostly on PEP results and, within PEP, mostly on TPC results. The new PETRA results have been reported at this conference by M. Davier. It is restricted to results on light quark fragmentation since the results on heavy quark fragmentation have been reported by J. Chapman

  15. Self-organized criticality in fragmenting

    Oddershede, L.; Dimon, P.; Bohr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured mass distributions of fragments from 26 fractured objects of gypsum, soap, stearic paraffin, and potato show evidence of obeying scaling laws; this suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmenting. The probability of finding a fragment scales inversely to a power...

  16. Neighbouring charge fragmentations in low energy fission

    Montoya, M.

    1986-10-01

    Shell and odd-even effects in fission have been largely studied until now. The structure in fragment mass, charge and kinetic energy distributions of fragments were interpreted as shell and even-odd effects. In this paper, we want to show that the discret change of fragment charge symmetry should produce also structures in those distribution. 19 refs

  17. Fragmentation of 12C nuclei in emulsion at 50 GeV/c

    El-Naghy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 852 12 C-emulsion interactions at 4.2 GeV/nucleon was investigated. In 86% of these events, at least one projectile fragment was oberserved in each. The angular distributions of Z = 1,2, and >= 3 projectile fragments are narrow, and the dispersion of the distribution decreases with the increasing of Z. The production cross section of the reaction 12 C + Em → Li (from the projectile) + anything is about 6 x 10 -3 sigmasub(in). Only the projectile-fragmentation events, nsub(h) = O, were studied in detail; the percentage of these events is 10% of the total inelastic events. The events with the maximum probability are those in which α-fragment is the maximum-charged projectile fragment emitted. This indicates that the projectile nuclear structure plays an important role in the fragmentation process. In 1.2% of the total events, 12 C has been dissociated into 3 α-particles. (orig.)

  18. Correlated spins of complementary fragment pairs in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    Smith, A. G.; Simpson, G. S.; Billowes, J.; Dagnall, P. J.; Durell, J. L.; Freeman, S. J.; Leddy, M.; Phillips, W. R.; Roach, A. A.; Smith, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the γ-ray decay of low-lying excited states in fragments produced in the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf has revealed a significant correlation between the angles of emission of the 2 1 + →0 1 + transitions of complementary fragment pairs. Calculations of the amount of dealignment that is needed to reproduce the measured a 2 values, and a comparison with the results of previous fragment-γ angular distribution measurements, suggests that at scission there may be significant population of m≠0 substates associated with the projection of the fragment spin vector on the fission axis. Fragments from the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm emit 2 1 + →0 1 + γ rays that show markedly reduced interfragment correlations, suggesting that either a larger role is played by the relative angular momentum of the fragments, or that the dealignment introduced by the neutron emission and statistical γ decay to the 2 1 + state is larger in 248 Cm than 252 Cf fission. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  19. Isotopic dependence of the fragments' internal temperatures determined from multifragment emission

    Souza, S. R.; Donangelo, R.

    2018-05-01

    The internal temperatures of fragments produced by an excited nuclear source are investigated by using the microcanonical version of the statistical multifragmentation model, with discrete energy. We focus on the fragments' properties at the breakup stage, before they have time to deexcite by particle emission. Since the adopted model provides the excitation energy distribution of these primordial fragments, it allows one to calculate the temperatures of different isotope families and to make inferences about the sensitivity to their isospin composition. It is found that, due to the functional form of the nuclear density of states and the excitation energy distribution of the fragments, proton-rich isotopes are hotter than neutron-rich isotopes. This property has been taken to be an indication of earlier emission of the former from a source that cools down as it expands and emits fragments. Although this scenario is incompatible with the prompt breakup of a thermally equilibrated source, our results reveal that the latter framework also provides the same qualitative features just mentioned. Therefore they suggest that this property cannot be taken as evidence for nonequilibrium emission. We also found that this sensitivity to the isotopic composition of the fragments depends on the isospin composition of the source, and that it is weakened as the excitation energy of the source increases.

  20. Goodness of isospin in neutron rich systems from the fission fragment distribution

    Garg, Swati; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of our calculations for the relative yields of neutron-rich fission fragments emitted in 208Pb (18O, fission) reaction by using the concept of the conservation of isospin and compare with the experimental data. We take into account a range of isospin values allowed by the isospin algebra and assume that the fission fragments are formed in isobaric analog states. We also take into account the neutron multiplicity data for various neutron-emission channels in each partition, and use them to obtain the weight factors in calculating the yields. We then calculate the relative yields of the fission fragments. Our calculated results are able to reproduce the experimental trends reasonably well. This is the first direct evidence of the isospin conservation in neutron-rich systems and may prove a very useful tool in their studies.

  1. Observed mass distribution of spontaneous fission fragments from samples of lime - an SSNTD study

    Paul, D; Ghose, D; Sastri, R C

    1999-01-01

    SSNTD is one of the most commonly used detectors in the studies involving nuclear phenomena. The ease of registration of the presence of alpha particles and fission fragments has made it particularly suitable in studies where stable long exposures are needed to extract reliable information. Studies on the presence of alpha emitting nuclides in the environment assume importance since they are found to be carcinogenic. Lime samples from Silchar in Assam of Eastern India have shown the presence of spontaneous fission fragments besides alphas. In the present study we look at the ratio of the average mass distribution of these fission fragments, that gives us an indication of the presence of the traces of transuranic elements.

  2. Collagenolytic fragments and active gelatinase complexes in periodontitis.

    Bildt, M.M.; Bloemen, M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontal tissues remodel rapidly, which enables quick adaptation to mechanical changes. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in these remodeling processes under control of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). In periodontitis, overactivity of MMPs results in

  3. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: High energy photon production in a HI collision; the mechanism for the disassembly of excited 16 O projectiles into four alpha particles; the disassembly of excited 28 Si projectiles; large pre-fission multiplicities from temperature; dependent friction and fission barriers; multiplicity correlations; molecular beam induced fusion; dwarf ball and wall; mini wall; and computer and local data acquisition systems

  4. Calorimetric measurement of strong γ emitting sources

    Brangier, B.; Herczeg, C.; Henry, R.

    1968-01-01

    This publication gives the principle and a description of an adiabatic calorimeter for measuring the real activity of strong gamma-emitting sources by absorbing the emitted energy in a mass of copper. Because of the difficulty of evaluating the amount self- absorption, we have built a calorimeter for measuring the self- absorption, and a description of it is given.The results of these three measurements are fairly satisfactory. The calibration and the actual measurements obtained are given with a few corrections made necessary by the design of the apparatus. The correlation of the various results is discussed. (author) [fr

  5. Multi-fragmentation of C60 induced by 4He2+ impact (E<60 keV/amu) and investigated by a multi-correlation technique

    Rentenier, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this communication, the C 60 multi-fragmentation induced by 4 He 2+ ion impact in the 20-240 keV energy range, is investigated. Using a multi-stop time-of-flight technique, it becomes possible to measure partial spectra corresponding to the simultaneous emission of 2-5 light charged fragments; small charged fragments are found to be accompanied by the emission of at least another one. The fragment size distribution depends on the collisional energy and the multiplicity of emitted charged fragments. It is more peaked on small sizes when the collision velocity or the multiplicity increases. Corresponding relative cross sections are also measured; processes with emission of 2 and 3 charged fragments are always dominant but their relative weights decrease slowly when the collision energy increases

  6. Fission fragment excited laser system

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  7. Fragment emission from modestly excited nuclear systems

    Lou, Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Souza, R.T. de [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Chen, S.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Cornell, E.W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Davin, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Fox, D. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Hamilton, T.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Mcdonald, K. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Tsang, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Glasmacher, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Dinius, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Gelbke, C.K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Handzy, D.O. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Hsi, W.C.

    1996-07-08

    Fragment emission patterns occurring in nuclear systems of modest excitation are studied. Exclusive measurement of fragment emission in {sup 14}N+{sup 197}Au reactions at E/A=100, 130 and 156 MeV allows selection of central collisions where a single source dominates the decay. Low threshold measurement of IMF emission for these events allows investigation of the influence of detector threshold effects. The time scale of fragment emission is deduced using fragment-fragment velocity correlations. Comparisons are made to the predictions of a statistical decay model. (orig.).

  8. Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts

    Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.

  9. Models of fragmentation with composite power laws

    Tavassoli, Z.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1999-06-01

    Some models for binary fragmentation are introduced in which a time dependent transition size produces two regions of fragment sizes above and below the transition size. In the first model we assume a fixed rate of fragmentation for the largest fragment and two different rates of fragmentation in the two regions of sizes above and below the transition size. The model is solved exactly in the long time limit to reveal stable time-invariant solutions for the fragment size and mass distributions. These solutions exhibit composite power law behaviours; power laws with two different exponents for fragments in smaller and larger regions. A special case of the model with no fragmentation in the smaller size region is also examined. Another model is also introduced which have three regions of fragment sizes with different rates of fragmentation. The similarities between the stable distributions in our models and composite power law distributions from experimental work on shock fragmentation of long thin glass rods and thick clay plates are discussed.

  10. Extraction of 16th Century Calender Fragments

    Holck, Jakob Povl; Etheridge, Christian

    at the Cultural Heritage & Archaeometric Research Team, SDU. Upon finding medieval manuscript fragments in the university library’s special collections, scholars at the Centre for Medieval Literature are consulted. In most cases, digital pictures of the finds will circulate in the international community...... fragments may require extensive use of Big Data and other forms of analysis in order to be identified. Usually, the university library prefers not to remove the fragments from their “fragment carriers”. In order to read fragments that are only partially visible or invisible, x-ray technology may be deployed...... of medieval scholars. Thousands of 16th and 17th Century books are stored in the University Library of Southern Denmark. One out of five of these books is expected to contain medieval manuscript fragments or fragments of rare prints, e.g. incunabula....

  11. The formation of planets by disc fragmentation

    Stamatellos Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the role that disc fragmentation plays in the formation of gas giant and terrestrial planets, and how this relates to the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars, and ultimately to the process of star formation. Protostellar discs may fragment, if they are massive enough and can cool fast enough, but most of the objects that form by fragmentation are brown dwarfs. It may be possible that planets also form, if the mass growth of a proto-fragment is stopped (e.g. if this fragment is ejected from the disc, or suppressed and even reversed (e.g by tidal stripping. I will discuss if it is possible to distinguish whether a planet has formed by disc fragmentation or core accretion, and mention of a few examples of observed exoplanets that are suggestive of formation by disc fragmentation.

  12. Reframing landscape fragmentation's effects on ecosystem services.

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Suarez-Castro, Andrés F; Martinez-Harms, Maria; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive; Gaston, Kevin J; Johansen, Kasper; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Landscape structure and fragmentation have important effects on ecosystem services, with a common assumption being that fragmentation reduces service provision. This is based on fragmentation's expected effects on ecosystem service supply, but ignores how fragmentation influences the flow of services to people. Here we develop a new conceptual framework that explicitly considers the links between landscape fragmentation, the supply of services, and the flow of services to people. We argue that fragmentation's effects on ecosystem service flow can be positive or negative, and use our framework to construct testable hypotheses about the effects of fragmentation on final ecosystem service provision. Empirical efforts to apply and test this framework are critical to improving landscape management for multiple ecosystem services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Revisiting the Lund Fragmentation Model

    Andersson, B.; Nilsson, A.

    1992-10-01

    We present a new method to implement the Lund Model fragmentation distributions for multi-gluon situations. The method of Sjoestrand, implemented in the well-known Monte Carlo simulation program JETSET, is robust and direct and according to his findings there are no observable differences between different ways to implement his scheme. His method can be described as a space-time method because the breakup proper time plays a major role. The method described in this paper is built on energy-momentum space methods. We make use of the χ-curve, which is defined directly from the energy momentum vectors of the partons. We have shown that the χ-curve describes the breakup properties and the final state energy momentum distributions in the mean. We present a method to find the variations around the χ-curve, which also implements the basic Lund Model fragmentation distributions (the area-law and the corresponding iterative cascade). We find differences when comparing the corresponding Monte Carlo implementation REVJET to the JETSET distributions inside the gluon jets. (au)

  14. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  15. Fluorescence lifetime imaging using light emitting diodes

    Kennedy, Gordon T; Munro, Ian; Poher, Vincent; French, Paul M W; Neil, Mark A A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Elson, Daniel S [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hares, Jonathan D [Kentech Instruments Ltd, Unit 9, Hall Farm Workshops, South Moreton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 9AG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gordon.kennedy@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-05-07

    We demonstrate flexible use of low cost, high-power light emitting diodes as illumination sources for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques have been implemented at wavelengths spanning the range 450-640 nm. Additionally, we demonstrate optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging by combining structured illumination with frequency-domain FLIM.

  16. Mass spectrometry with ionization induced by 252Cf fission fragments

    Sysoev, A.A.; Artaev, V.B.

    1991-01-01

    The review deals with mass-spectrometry with ionization induced by 252 Cf fission fragments. Equipment and technique of the analysis, analytic possibilities of the method are considered. The method permits to determine molecular masses of large nonvolatile biological molecules. The method is practically nondestructive, it possesses a high resolution over the depth and surface, which permits to use it for the analysis of surface of semiconductors, dielectrics, catalysts, for the study of formation kinetics of complex unstable molecules on the surface

  17. Hybrid light emitting transistors (Presentation Recording)

    Muhieddine, Khalid; Ullah, Mujeeb; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Burn, Paul L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well studied and established in current display applications. Light-emitting transistors (LETs) have been developed to further simplify the necessary circuitry for these applications, combining the switching capabilities of a transistor with the light emitting capabilities of an OLED. Such devices have been studied using mono- and bilayer geometries and a variety of polymers [1], small organic molecules [2] and single crystals [3] within the active layers. Current devices can often suffer from low carrier mobilities and most operate in p-type mode due to a lack of suitable n-type organic charge carrier materials. Hybrid light-emitting transistors (HLETs) are a logical step to improve device performance by harnessing the charge carrier capabilities of inorganic semiconductors [4]. We present state of the art, all solution processed hybrid light-emitting transistors using a non-planar contact geometry [1, 5]. We will discuss HLETs comprised of an inorganic electron transport layer prepared from a sol-gel of zinc tin oxide and several organic emissive materials. The mobility of the devices is found between 1-5 cm2/Vs and they had on/off ratios of ~105. Combined with optical brightness and efficiencies of the order of 103 cd/m2 and 10-3-10-1 %, respectively, these devices are moving towards the performance required for application in displays. [1] M. Ullah, K. Tandy, S. D. Yambem, M. Aljada, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, E. B. Namdas., Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 53, 6213 [2] R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, M. Muccini, Nature Materials 2010, 9, 496 [3] T. Takenobu, S. Z. Bisri, T. Takahashi, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, Y. Iwasa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 066601 [4] H. Nakanotani, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, K. Yano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 90, 262104 [5] K. Muhieddine, M. Ullah, B. N. Pal, P. Burn E. B. Namdas, Adv. Mater. 2014, 26,37, 6410

  18. Auger Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals for Cancer Therapy

    Falzone, Nadia; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons have been of particular interest as therapeutic agents. This is primarily due to the short range in tissue, controlled linear paths and high linear energy transfer of these particles. Taking into consideration that ionizations are clustered within several cubic nanometers around the point of decay the possibility of incorporating an Auger emitter in close proximity to the cancer cell DNA has immense therapeutic potential thus making nuclear targeted Auger-electron emitters ideal for precise targeting of cancer cells. Furthermore, many Auger-electron emitters also emit γ-radiation, this property makes Auger emitting radionuclides a very attractive option as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in the molecular imaging and management of tumors. The first requirement for the delivery of Auger emitting nuclides is the definition of suitable tumor-selective delivery vehicles to avoid normal tissue toxicity. One of the main challenges of targeted radionuclide therapy remains in matching the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide and targeting moiety with the clinical character of the tumor. Molecules and molecular targets that have been used in the past can be classified according to the carrier molecule used to deliver the Auger-electron-emitting radionuclide. These include (1) antibodies, (2) peptides, (3) small molecules, (4) oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), (5) proteins, and (6) nanoparticles. The efficacy of targeted radionuclide therapy depends greatly on the ability to increase intranuclear incorporation of the radiopharmaceutical without compromising toxicity. Several strategies to achieve this goal have been proposed in literature. The possibility of transferring tumor therapy based on the emission of Auger electrons from experimental models to patients has vast therapeutic potential, and remains a field of intense research.

  19. Critical Evaluation of Native Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Fragment-Based Screening.

    Göth, Melanie; Badock, Volker; Weiske, Jörg; Pagel, Kevin; Kuropka, Benno

    2017-08-08

    Fragment-based screening presents a promising alternative to high-throughput screening and has gained great attention in recent years. So far, only a few studies have discussed mass spectrometry as a screening technology for fragments. Herein, we report the application of native electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) for screening defined sets of fragments against four different target proteins. Fragments were selected from a primary screening conducted with a thermal shift assay (TSA) and represented different binding categories. Our data indicated that, beside specific complex formation, many fragments show extensive multiple binding and also charge-state shifts. Both of these factors complicate automated data analysis and decrease the attractiveness of native MS as a primary screening tool for fragments. A comparison of the hits identified by native MS and TSA showed good agreement for two of the proteins. Furthermore, we discuss general challenges, including the determination of an optimal fragment concentration and the question of how to rank fragment hits according to their affinity. In conclusion, we consider native MS to be a highly valuable tool for the validation and deeper investigation of promising fragment hits rather than a method for primary screening. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Analysis of production of forward-angle fragments in the 22Ne (40 AMeV + 9Be reaction

    G. Kaminski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A mechanisms of production of forward-emitted fragments in the 22Ne (40 АMeV + 9Be reaction are investigated. Inclusive velocity and isotopic distributions of products with 3 ≤ Z ≤ 11 were measured on the fragment separator COMBAS. The contribution of direct processes and dissipative ones is presented. Gaussian fitting functions according to Goldhaber formalism has been used to estimate direct components of fragments velocity distributions. Experimental data have been compared to geometric incomplete fusion model predictions. Incomplete fusion model was the first time applied for light nuclei as in the studied reaction system. Overall agreement of simulations with experiment in description of velocity distributions have been achieved for fragments with atomic number close to the projectile mass and for stable isotopes. Discrepancies for other products are the result of transition from incomplete fusion to direct processes with collisions of clusters in the participant zone.

  1. Fragmentation of Ceramics in Rapid Expansion Mode

    Maiti, Spandan; Geubelle, Philippe H.; Rangaswamy, Krishnan

    The study of the fragmentation process goes back to more than a century, motivated primarily by problems related to mining and ore handling (Grady and Kipp, 1985). Various theories have been proposed to predict the fragmentation stress and the fragment size and distribution. But the investigations are generally case specific and relate to only a narrow set of fragmentation processes. A number of theoretical studies of dynamic fragmentation in a rapidly expanding body can be found in the literature. For example, the study summarized in (Grady, 1982) presents a model based on a simple energy balance concept between the surface energy released due to fracture and the kinetic energy of the fragments. Subsequent refinements of the energy balance model have been proposed by (Glenn and Chudnovsky, 1986), which take into account the strain energy of the fragments and specify a threshold stress below which no fragmentation occurs. These models assume that the fracture events are instantaneous and occur simultaneously. Evidently, these assumptions are quite restrictive and these models can not take into account the transient nature of the fragmentation process after the onset of fracture in the material. A more recent model proposed by (Miller et al., 1999) however takes into account this time-dependent nature of the fragmentation event and the distribution of flaws of various strengths in the original material.

  2. Supporting complex search tasks

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  3. GREEN LIGHT EMITTING TRICOMPONENT LUMINOPHORS OF 2-NAPHTHOL FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES

    K. G. MANE , P. B. NAGORE , DR. S. R. PUJARI

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a previous study and incredible progress in basic theoretical modeling, and working for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) including preparation and characteristic studies of Organo- Luminescent Materials by conventional solid state reaction technique.

  4. Dynamic effects in fragmentation reactions

    Bertsch, G. F.; Esbensen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Fragmentation reactions offer a useful tool to study the spectroscopy of halo nuclei, but the large extent of the halo wave function makes the reaction theory more difficult. The simple reaction models based on the eikonal approximation for the nuclear interaction or first-order perturbation theory for the Coulomb interaction have systematic errors that they investigate here, comparing to the predictions of complete dynamical calculations. They find that stripping probabilities are underpredicted by the eikonal model, leading to extracted spectroscopy strengths that are two large. In contrast, the Coulomb excitation is overpredicted by the simple theory. They attribute this to a screening effect, as is well known in the Barkas effect on stopping powers. The errors decrease with beam energy as E(sub beam)(sup -1), and are not significant at beam energies above 50 MeV/u. At lower beam energies, the effects should be taken into account when extracting quantitative spectroscopic strengths

  5. Neutron emission effects on final fragments mass and kinetic energy distribution from low energy fission of 234U

    Montoya, M.; Rojas, J.; Lobato, I.

    2008-01-01

    The standard deviation of the final kinetic energy distribution (σ e ) as a function of mass of final fragments (m) from low energy fission of 234 U, measured with the Lohengrin spectrometer by Belhafaf et al., presents a peak around m = 109 and another around m = 122. The authors attribute the first peak to the evaporation of a large number of neutrons around the corresponding mass number, i.e. there is no peak on the standard deviation of the primary kinetic energy distribution (σ E ) as a function of primary fragment mass (A). The second peak is attributed to a real peak on σ E (A). However, theoretical calculations related to primary distributions made by H.R. Faust and Z. Bao do not suggest any peak on σ E (A). In order to clarify this apparent controversy, we have made a numerical experiment in which the masses and the kinetic energy of final fragments are calculated, assuming an initial distribution of the kinetic energy without structures on the standard deviation as function of fragment mass. As a result we obtain a pronounced peak on σ e (m) curve around m = 109, a depletion from m = 121 to m = 129, and an small peak around m = 122, which is not as great as that measured by Belhafaf et al. Our simulation also reproduces the experimental results on the yield of the final mass Y(m), the average number of emitted neutrons as a function of the provisional mass (calculated from the values of the final kinetic energy of the complementary fragments) and the average value of fragment kinetic energy as a function of the final mass. From our results we conclude that there are no peaks on the σ E (A) curve, and the observed peaks on σ e (m) are due to the emitted neutron multiplicity and the variation of the average fragment kinetic energy as a function of primary fragment mass. (Author)

  6. Number and mass analysis of particles emitted by aircraft engine

    Jasiński Remigiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions from aircraft is a complex issue because of the limited possibility of measurements in flight conditions. Most of the studies on this subject were performed on the basis of stationary test. Engine certification data is used to calculate total emissions generated by air transport. However, it doesnt provide any information about the local effects of air traffic. The main threat to local communities is particulate matter emissions, which adversely affects human health. Emissions from air transport affect air quality, particularly in the vicinity of the airports; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. The article presents the measurement results of the concentration and size distribution of particles emitted during aircraft landing operation. Measurements were carried out during the landings of aircraft at a civilian airport. It was found that a single landing operation causes particle number concentration value increase of several ten-fold in a short period of time. Using aircraft engine certification data, the methodology for determination of the total number of particles emitted during a single landing operation was introduced.

  7. Impact failure and fragmentation properties of metals

    Grady, D.E. [Applied Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kipp, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    In the present study we describe the development of an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  8. Fragmentation and flow in central collisions

    Jacak, B.V.; Doss, K.G.R.; Gustafsson, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigation of the fragmentation mechanism requires the measurement of complicated observables. To identify what part of the reacting system gives rise to the fragments, it would be useful to tag them as participants or spectators. A large acceptance for all the reaction products and an event-by-event measurement of the fragment multiplicity is required to distinguish fragment formation via sequential emission from a large equilibrated system and multifragmentation. In order to address whether fragments are formed early or late in the collision, information about the dynamical evolution of the reaction is necessary. This can be provided by study of the global properties of the events. This paper discusses experimental techniques applicable to studying fragmentation processes. 25 refs., 8 figs

  9. Gallstone fragmentation by control electrohydraulic lithotripsy

    Tung, G.A.; Mueller, P.R.; Brink, J.A.; Saini, S.; Picus, D.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have performed in vitro contact electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) of 100 gallstones > 10 mm in diameter to identify physical and technical factors that affect fragmentation success. Ninety-one of 100 stones were fragmented with a 3-F electrode (average, seven shocks; range, 1--42); only 12 stones were fragmented with a single shock. Of the nine stones refractory to 50 shocks, four were > 30 mm in diameter and five stones were densely calcified. The most important variable determining power requirements for fragmentation was gallstone size (R = .58), but radiographic calcification of gallstones was also important (R = .47). Stones < 15 mm tended to produce fragments of left-angle 2 mm; stones right-angle 20 mm tended to produce two to five large discrete fragments (P , .05). In addition, lithotripsy could be conducted equally well in 1:1 dilute diatrizoate contrast agent as in 1:6 normal saline, suggesting that contact EHL could be performed under fluoroscopy

  10. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  11. PTR-MS analysis of reference and plant-emitted volatile organic compounds

    Maleknia, Simin D.; Bell, Tina L.; Adams, Mark A.

    2007-05-01

    Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was applied to the analysis of a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that emit from various plants. These include a group of alcohols (methanol, ethanol and butanol), carbonyl-containing compounds (acetic acid, acetone and benzaldehyde), isoprene, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran (THF), pyrazine, toluene and xylene and a series of terpenes (p-cymene, camphene, 2-carene, limonene, [beta]-myrcene, [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-pinene, [gamma]-tepinene and terpinolene) and oxygen-containing terpenes (1,8-cineole and linalool). These mass spectral data were compared to an electron ionization (EI) database identifying that not all PTR-MS fragments were common to EI. PTR-MS studies of these reference compounds were utilized to identify VOCs emitted from Eucalyptus grandis leaf at a temperature range of 30-100 °C. In addition to protonated molecules (M + H)+, abundant proton-bound dimers or trimers were detected for alcohols, acetone, acetonitrile and THF. Abundant fragment ions attributed to the loss of water from these proton-bound clusters were also observed. The stability of butyl (C4H9+ m/z 57) and acetyl (CH3CO+ m/z 43) fragment ions directed the proton-transfer reactions of butanol and acetic acid. Abundant (M + H)+ ions were detected for pyrazine, THF, toluene and xylene, as well as for all terpenes except those containing oxygen. For linalool and 1,8-cineole, the loss of water generated an abundant fragment ion at m/z 137. PTR-MS fragmentation patterns for terpenes were proposed for m/z 81 (C6H9+), 93 (C7H9+), 95 (C7H11+), 107 (C8H11+), 109 (C8H13+), 119 (C9H11+), 121 (C9H13+) and 137 (loss of water for oxygen-containing terpenes; C10H17+). The relative abundances of (M + H)+ and fragments for all terpenes (except linalool) were dependent on the drift tube voltage and the optimum voltage for detection of molecular ions was different for various terpenes.

  12. DYNAMICS OF LARGE FRAGMENTS IN THE TAIL OF ACTIVE ASTEROID P/2010 A2

    Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Weaver, Harold

    2013-01-01

    We examine the motions of large fragments at the head of the dust tail of the active asteroid P/2010 A2. In previous work, we showed that these fragments were ejected from the primary nucleus in early 2009, either following a hypervelocity impact or by rotationally induced breakup. Here, we follow their positions through a series of Hubble Space Telescope images taken during the first half of 2010. The orbital evolution of each fragment allows us to constrain its velocity relative to the main nucleus after leaving its sphere of gravitational influence. We find that the fragments constituting a prominent X-shaped tail feature were emitted in a direction opposite to the motion of the asteroid and toward the south of its orbital plane. Derived emission velocities of these primary fragments range between 0.02 and 0.3 m s –1 , comparable to the ∼0.08 m s –1 gravitational escape speed from the nucleus. Their sizes are on the order of decimeters or larger. We obtain the best fits to our data with ejection velocity vectors lying in a plane that includes the nucleus. This may suggest that the cause of the disruption of P/2010 A2 is rotational breakup.

  13. Singly and Doubly Charged Projectile Fragments in Nucleus-Emulsion Collisions at Dubna Energy in the Framework of the Multi-Source Model

    Er-Qin, Wang; Fu-Hu, Liu; Jian-Xin, Sun; Rahim, Magda A.; Fakhraddin, S.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions of projectile fragments emitted in interactions of different nuclei with emulsion are studied by using a multi-source model. Our calculated results show that the projectile fragments can be described by the model and each source contributes an exponential distribution. As the weighted sum of the folding result of many exponential distributions, a multi-component Erlang distribution is used to describe the experimental data. The relationship between the height (or width) of the distribution and the mass of the incident projectile, as well as the dependence of projectile fragments on target groups, are investigated too. (nuclear physics)

  14. A new crystal structure fragment-based pharmacophore method for G protein-coupled receptors

    Fidom, Kimberley; Isberg, Vignir; Hauser, Alexander Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    and receptor residue pairs, from crystal structure complexes. We describe the procedure to collect a library with more than 250 fragments covering 29 residue positions within the generic transmembrane binding pocket. We describe how the library fragments are recombined and inferred to build pharmacophores...... for new targets. A validating retrospective virtual screening of histamine H1 and H3 receptor pharmacophores yielded area-under-the-curves of 0.88 and 0.82, respectively. The fragment-based method has the unique advantage that it can be applied to targets for which no (homologous) crystal structures...... or ligands are known. 47% of the class A G protein-coupled receptors can be targeted with at least four-element pharmacophores. The fragment libraries can also be used to grow known ligands or for rotamer refinement of homology models. Researchers can download the complete fragment library or a subset...

  15. Gas-phase fragmentation of peptides to increase the spatial resolution of the Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry experiment

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    are produced after precursor ion selection and thus do not add complexity to the LC-MS analysis. The key to obtaining optimal spatial resolution in a hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) experiment is the fragmentation efficiency. This chapter discusses common fragmentation techniques like collision....../D scrambling, thus making them suitable for HX applications. By combining the classic bottom-up HX-MS workflow with gas-phase fragmentation by ETD, detailed information on protein HX can be obtained....

  16. Fragment-based approaches to TB drugs.

    Marchetti, Chiara; Chan, Daniel S H; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The rise of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) urgently demands the development of new drug leads to tackle resistant strains. Fragment-based methods have recently emerged at the forefront of pharmaceutical development as a means to generate more effective lead structures, via the identification of fragment molecules that form weak but high quality interactions with the target biomolecule and subsequent fragment optimization. This review highlights a number of novel inhibitors of Mtb targets that have been developed through fragment-based approaches in recent years.

  17. Gluon fragmentation in T(1S) decays

    Bienlein, J.K.

    1983-05-01

    In T(1S) decays most observables (sphericity, charged multiplicity, photonic energy fraction, inclusive spectra) can be understood assuming that gluons fragment like quarks. New results from LENA use the (axis-independent) Fox-Wolfram moments for the photonic energy deposition. Continuum reactions show 'standard' Field-Feynman fragmentation. T(1S) decays show a significant difference in the photonic energy topology. It is more isotropic than with the Field-Feynman fragmentation scheme. Gluon fragmentation into isoscalar mesons (a la Peterson and Walsh) is excluded. But if one forces the leading particle to be isoscalar, one gets good agreement with the data. (orig.)

  18. Measuring the temperature of hot nuclear fragments

    Wuenschel, S.; Bonasera, A.; May, L.W.; Souliotis, G.A.; Tripathi, R.; Galanopoulos, S.; Kohley, Z.; Hagel, K.; Shetty, D.V.; Huseman, K.; Soisson, S.N.; Stein, B.C.; Yennello, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    A new thermometer based on fragment momentum fluctuations is presented. This thermometer exhibited residual contamination from the collective motion of the fragments along the beam axis. For this reason, the transverse direction has been explored. Additionally, a mass dependence was observed for this thermometer. This mass dependence may be the result of the Fermi momentum of nucleons or the different properties of the fragments (binding energy, spin, etc.) which might be more sensitive to different densities and temperatures of the exploding fragments. We expect some of these aspects to be smaller for protons (and/or neutrons); consequently, the proton transverse momentum fluctuations were used to investigate the temperature dependence of the source.

  19. Kinetics of fragmentation-annihilation processes

    Filipe, JAN; Rodgers, GJ

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the kinetics of systems in which particles of one species undergo binary fragmentation and pair annihilation. In the latter, nonlinear process, fragments react at collision to produce an inert species, causing loss of mass. We analyze these systems in the reaction-limited regime by solving a continuous model within the mean-field approximation. The rate of fragmentation for a particle of mass x to break into fragments of masses y and x-y has the form x(lambda-1) (lambda > 0), a...

  20. Binding thermodynamics discriminates fragments from druglike compounds: a thermodynamic description of fragment-based drug discovery.

    Williams, Glyn; Ferenczy, György G; Ulander, Johan; Keserű, György M

    2017-04-01

    Small is beautiful - reducing the size and complexity of chemical starting points for drug design allows better sampling of chemical space, reveals the most energetically important interactions within protein-binding sites and can lead to improvements in the physicochemical properties of the final drug. The impact of fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) on recent drug discovery projects and our improved knowledge of the structural and thermodynamic details of ligand binding has prompted us to explore the relationships between ligand-binding thermodynamics and FBDD. Information on binding thermodynamics can give insights into the contributions to protein-ligand interactions and could therefore be used to prioritise compounds with a high degree of specificity in forming key interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New approach to the nuclear in beam γ spectroscopy of neutron rich nuclei at N=20 using projectile fragmentation

    Lopez-Jimenez, M.J.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Achouri, L.; Daugas, J.M.; Belleguic, M.; Azaiez, F.; Bourgeois, C.; Angelique, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of nuclei far from stability around 32 Mg have been recently investigated by means of a novel method. In-beam γ-decay spectroscopy of a large number of exotic neutron-rich nuclei produced by projectile fragmentation of a 36 S projectile has been performed, using coincidences between the recoil fragments collected at the focal plane of SPEG spectrometer and γ-rays emitted at the target location. Preliminary results on both the population mechanism and the decay of excited states in nuclei around 32 Mg are presented. (author)

  2. Light-emitting device test systems

    McCord, Mark; Brodie, Alan; George, James; Guan, Yu; Nyffenegger, Ralph

    2018-01-23

    Light-emitting devices, such as LEDs, are tested using a photometric unit. The photometric unit, which may be an integrating sphere, can measure flux, color, or other properties of the devices. The photometric unit may have a single port or both an inlet and outlet. Light loss through the port, inlet, or outlet can be reduced or calibrated for. These testing systems can provide increased reliability, improved throughput, and/or improved measurement accuracy.

  3. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys.

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-03-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  4. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  5. White-light-emitting supramolecular gels.

    Praveen, Vakayil K; Ranjith, Choorikkat; Armaroli, Nicola

    2014-01-07

    Let there be light, let it be white: Recent developments in the use of chromophore-based gels as scaffolds for the assembly of white-light-emitting soft materials have been significant. The main advantage of this approach lies in the facile accommodation of selected luminescent components within the gel. Excitation-energy-transfer processes between these components ultimately generate the desired light output. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Near-infrared light emitting device using semiconductor nanocrystals

    Supran, Geoffrey J.S.; Song, Katherine W.; Hwang, Gyuweon; Correa, Raoul Emile; Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Scherer, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    A near-infrared light emitting device can include semiconductor nanocrystals that emit at wavelengths beyond 1 .mu.m. The semiconductor nanocrystals can include a core and an overcoating on a surface of the core.

  7. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria

    1997-01-01

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particles and antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus bypassing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out

  8. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria [Instituto per la Ricerca di Base (Italy)

    1997-08-15

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particles and antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus bypassing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out.

  9. Colour tuneable light-emitting transistor

    Feldmeier, Eva J.; Melzer, Christian; Seggern, Heinz von [Electronic Materials Department, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years the interest in ambipolar organic light-emitting field-effect transistors has increased steadily as the devices combine switching behaviour of transistors with light emission. Usually, small molecules and polymers with a band gap in the visible spectral range serve as semiconducting materials. Mandatory remain balanced injection and transport properties for both charge carrier types to provide full control of the spatial position of the recombination zone of electrons and holes in the transistor channel via the applied voltages. As will be presented here, the spatial control of the recombination zone opens new possibilities towards light-emitting devices with colour tuneable emission. In our contribution an organic light-emitting field-effect transistors is presented whose emission colour can be changed by the applied voltages. The organic top-contact field-effect transistor is based on a parallel layer stack of acenes serving as organic transport and emission layers. The transistor displays ambipolar characteristics with a narrow recombination zone within the transistor channel. During operation the recombination zone can be moved by a proper change in the drain and gate bias from one organic semiconductor layer to another one inducing a change in the emission colour. In the presented example the emission maxima can be switched from 530 nm to 580 nm.

  10. Mixed gamma emitting gas standard and method

    McFarland, R.C.; McFarland, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The invention in one aspect pertains to a method of calibrating gamma spectroscopy systems for gas counting in a variety of counting containers comprising withdrawing a precision volume of a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard from a precision volume vial and delivering the withdrawn precision volume of the gas standard to the interior of a gas counting container. Another aspect of the invention pertains to a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard, comprising a precision spherical vial of predetermined volume, multiple mixed emitting gas components enclosed within the vial, and means for withdrawing from the vial a predetermined amount of the components wherein the gas standard is used to calibrate a gamma spectrometer system for gas counting over a wide energy range without the use of additional standards. A third aspect comprehends a gamma spectrometer calibration system for gas counting, comprising a precision volume spherical glass vial for receiving mixed multiisotope gas components, and two tubular arms extending from the vial. A ground glass stopcock is positioned on each arm, and the outer end of one arm is provided with a rubber septum port

  11. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    Santilli, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particle sand antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus by passing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out. 16 refs

  12. Study of Particle Production and Nuclear Fragmentation in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions in Nuclear Emulsions

    2002-01-01

    % EMU11 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to use nuclear emulsions for the study of nuclear collisions of $^{207}$Pb, $^{197}$Au, and any other heavy-ion beams when they are available. We have, in the past, used $^{32}$S at 200A~GeV and $^{16}$O at 200A and 60A~GeV from CERN (Experiment EMU08) and at present the analysis is going on with $^{28}$Si beam from BNL at 14.5A~GeV. It will be important to compare the previous and the present investigations with the new $^{207}$Pb beam at 60-160A~GeV. We want to measure in nuclear emulsion, on an event by event basis, shower particle multiplicity, pseudorapidity density and density fluctuations of charged particles, charge multiplicity and angular distributions of projectile fragments, production and interaction cross-sections of heavily ionizing particles emitted from the target fragmentation. Special emphasis will be placed on the analysis of events produced in the central collisions which are selected on the basis of low energy fragments emitted from the target excitation. It woul...

  13. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Chen, Lei; Lin, Chun-Che; Yeh, Chiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2010-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV) LEDs) and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED) or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED), have a number of advantages over conventional incand...

  14. Fragmentation modeling of a resin bonded sand

    Hilth, William; Ryckelynck, David

    2017-06-01

    Cemented sands exhibit a complex mechanical behavior that can lead to sophisticated models, with numerous parameters without real physical meaning. However, using a rather simple generalized critical state bonded soil model has proven to be a relevant compromise between an easy calibration and good results. The constitutive model formulation considers a non-associated elasto-plastic formulation within the critical state framework. The calibration procedure, using standard laboratory tests, is complemented by the study of an uniaxial compression test observed by tomography. Using finite elements simulations, this test is simulated considering a non-homogeneous 3D media. The tomography of compression sample gives access to 3D displacement fields by using image correlation techniques. Unfortunately these fields have missing experimental data because of the low resolution of correlations for low displacement magnitudes. We propose a recovery method that reconstructs 3D full displacement fields and 2D boundary displacement fields. These fields are mandatory for the calibration of the constitutive parameters by using 3D finite element simulations. The proposed recovery technique is based on a singular value decomposition of available experimental data. This calibration protocol enables an accurate prediction of the fragmentation of the specimen.

  15. DETECÇÃO DO COMPLEXO Mycobacterium tuberculosis NO LEITE PELA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA DA POLIMERASE SEGUIDA DE ANÁLISE DE RESTRIÇÃO DO FRAGMENTO AMPLIFICADO (PRA DETECTION OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORFISM ANALYSIS OF THE HSP65 GENE

    Joab Trajano Silva

    2008-12-01

    , up to species level, is time consuming and difficult. In this work, the objective was to standardize a polymerase chain reaction followed by an enzyme restriction analysis in order to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk, without a microbiological isolation step. Reference strains and raw milk seeded with M. Bovis, were used as the starting material.  A 441pb fragment of the hsp65 gene was amplified and digested by two restriction enzymes BstEII and HaeIII. The obtained profile was used to identify the M. tuberculosis complex in milk. The minimum limit of detection of M. bovis in milk was 10CFU/mL. PRA methodology proved to be a specific and sensible method. It can be used to assist the microbiological and biochemical methods commonly used to identifying the bacilli in clinical samples, as milk 

    Key word: Detection limit (PRA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, milk Mycobacterium bovis, Restriction Enzyme Analysis (PCR,

  16. Mechanisms Affecting Population Density in Fragmented Habitat

    Lutz Tischendorf

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a factorial simulation experiment to analyze the relative importance of movement pattern, boundary-crossing probability, and mortality in habitat and matrix on population density, and its dependency on habitat fragmentation, as well as inter-patch distance. We also examined how the initial response of a species to a fragmentation event may affect our observations of population density in post-fragmentation experiments. We found that the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix, which partly determines the emigration rate, is the most important determinant for population density within habitat patches. The probability of crossing a boundary from matrix to habitat had a weaker, but positive, effect on population density. Movement behavior in habitat had a stronger effect on population density than movement behavior in matrix. Habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance may have a positive or negative effect on population density. The direction of both effects depends on two factors. First, when the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix is high, population density may decline with increasing habitat fragmentation. Conversely, for species with a high matrix-to-habitat boundary-crossing probability, population density may increase with increasing habitat fragmentation. Second, the initial distribution of individuals across the landscape: we found that habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance were positively correlated with population density when individuals were distributed across matrix and habitat at the beginning of our simulation experiments. The direction of these relationships changed to negative when individuals were initially distributed across habitat only. Our findings imply that the speed of the initial response of organisms to habitat fragmentation events may determine the direction of observed relationships between habitat fragmentation and population density. The time scale of post-fragmentation

  17. Ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule in the VUV energy range (12 to 310 eV)

    Bernini, R.B., E-mail: rafael.bernini@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), 25050-100 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Coutinho, L.H. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio De Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunez, C.V. [Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biotecnologia, Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), 69060-001 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Castilho, R.B. de [Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Souza, G.G.B. de [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Ionic fragmentation of isoprene following valence-shell and C 1s excitation. • Experimental observation of single and double ionization processes. • Large increase in fragmentation following core excitation. • Similar dissociation pattern bellow (270 eV) and above (310 eV) core edge. • Stable molecular ion observed at all photon energies. - Abstract: Isoprene, C{sub 5}H{sub 8}, is a biogenic volatile compound emitted from plants and animals, playing an important role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, we have studied the ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule induced by high energy photons (synchrotron radiation), both at the valence (12.0, 14.0, 16.0, 18.0, and 21.0 eV) and carbon 1s edge (270 and 310 eV, respectively, below and above edge) energies. The ionic fragments were mass-analyzed using a Wiley–McLaren time-of-flight spectrometer (TOF) and single (PEPICO) and double ionization coincidence (PEPIPICO) spectra were obtained. As expected, the fragmentation degree increases with increasing energy. Below and above the carbon 1s edge, the fragmentation patterns are quite similar, and basically the same fragments are observed as compared to the spectra following valence-shell ionization. Stable doubly-charged ions were not observed. A PEPIPICO spectrum has shown that the main dissociation route for doubly-ionized species corresponds to the [CH{sub 3}]{sup +}/[C{sub 4}H{sub 2–5}]{sup +} ion pair. Intense fragmentation of the isoprene molecule has been observed following valence shell and core electron ionization. The observance of basically the same fragments when moving from valence to inner-shell suggests that basically the same fragmentation routes are present in both cases. All doubly (or multiply)-charged cations are unstable, at least on a microsecond scale.

  18. Parton fragmentation and string dynamics

    Andersson, B.; Gustafson, G.; Ingelman, G.; Sjoestrand, T.

    1983-01-01

    While much has been learned recently about quark and gluon interactions in the framework of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, the relation between calculated parton properties and observed hadron densities involves models where dynamics and jet empirical rules have to be combined. The purpose of this article is to describe a presently successful approach which is based on a cascade jet model using String dynamics. It can readily lead to Monte Carlo jet programmes of great use when analyzing data. Production processes in an iterative cascade approach, with tunneling in a constant force field, are reviewed. Expected differences between quark and gluon jets are discussed. Low transverse momentum phenomena are also reviewed with emphasis on hyperon polarization. In so far as this approach uses a fragmentation scheme based on String dynamics, it was deemed appropriate to also include under the same cover a special report on the Classical theory of relativistic Strings, seen as the classical limit of the Dual Resonance model. The Equations of motion and interaction among strings are presented. (orig.)

  19. The multiple roles of computational chemistry in fragment-based drug design

    Law, Richard; Barker, Oliver; Barker, John J.; Hesterkamp, Thomas; Godemann, Robert; Andersen, Ole; Fryatt, Tara; Courtney, Steve; Hallett, Dave; Whittaker, Mark

    2009-08-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) represents a change in strategy from the screening of molecules with higher molecular weights and physical properties more akin to fully drug-like compounds, to the screening of smaller, less complex molecules. This is because it has been recognised that fragment hit molecules can be efficiently grown and optimised into leads, particularly after the binding mode to the target protein has been first determined by 3D structural elucidation, e.g. by NMR or X-ray crystallography. Several studies have shown that medicinal chemistry optimisation of an already drug-like hit or lead compound can result in a final compound with too high molecular weight and lipophilicity. The evolution of a lower molecular weight fragment hit therefore represents an attractive alternative approach to optimisation as it allows better control of compound properties. Computational chemistry can play an important role both prior to a fragment screen, in producing a target focussed fragment library, and post-screening in the evolution of a drug-like molecule from a fragment hit, both with and without the available fragment-target co-complex structure. We will review many of the current developments in the area and illustrate with some recent examples from successful FBDD discovery projects that we have conducted.

  20. Yield of Prompt Gamma Radiation in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U as a Function of the Total Fragment Kinetic Energy

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-07-01

    Fission gamma radiation yields as functions of the total fragment kinetic energy were obtained for 235U thermal-neutron induced fission. The fragments were detected with silicon surface-barrier detectors and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. In some of the measurements mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could also be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. Fission-neutron and gamma-ray data of previous experiments were used for comparisons of the yields, and estimates were made of the variation of the prompt gamma-ray energy with the total fragment kinetic energy

  1. Recombination zone in white organic light emitting diodes with blue and orange emitting layers

    Tsuboi, Taiju; Kishimoto, Tadashi; Wako, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Kuniharu; Iguchi, Hirofumi

    2012-10-01

    White fluorescent OLED devices with a 10 nm thick blue-emitting layer and a 31 nm thick orange-emitting layer have been fabricated, where the blue-emitting layer is stacked on a hole transport layer. An interlayer was inserted between the two emitting layers. The thickness of the interlayer was changed among 0.3, 0.4, and 1.0 nm. White emission with CIE coordinates close to (0.33, 0.33) was observed from all the OLEDs. OLED with 0.3 nm thick interlayer gives the highest maximum luminous efficiency (11 cd/A), power efficiency (9 lm/W), and external quantum efficiency (5.02%). The external quantum efficiency becomes low with increasing the interlayer thickness from 0 nm to 1.0 nm. When the location of the blue- and orange-emitting layers is reversed, white emission was not obtained because of too weak blue emission. It is suggested that the electron-hole recombination zone decreases nearly exponentially with a distance from the hole transport layer.

  2. Dissertation: Precompound Emission of Energetic Light Fragments in Spallation Reactions

    Kerby, Leslie Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-04

    Emission of light fragments (LF) from nuclear reactions is an open question. Different reaction mechanisms contribute to their production; the relative roles of each, and how they change with incident energy, mass number of the target, and the type and emission energy of the fragments is not completely understood. None of the available models are able to accurately predict emission of LF from arbitrary reactions. However, the ability to describe production of LF (especially at energies ≳ 30 MeV) from many reactions is important for different applications, such as cosmic-ray-induced Single Event Upsets (SEUs), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and heavy-ion beams, to name just a few. The Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM) version 03.03 and the Los Alamos version of the Quark-Gluon String Model (LAQGSM) version 03.03 event generators in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code version 6 (MCNP6) describe quite well the spectra of fragments with sizes up to ⁴He across a broad range of target masses and incident energies (up to ~ 5 GeV for CEM and up to ~ 1 TeV/A for LAQGSM). However, they do not predict the high energy tails of LF spectra heavier than ⁴He well. Most LF with energies above several tens of MeV are emitted during the precompound stage of a reaction. The current versions of the CEM and LAQGSM event generators do not account for precompound emission of LF larger than ⁴He. The aim of our work is to extend the precompound model in them to include such processes, leading to an increase of predictive power of LF-production in MCNP6. This entails upgrading the Modified Exciton Model currently used at the preequilibrium stage in CEM and LAQGSM. It also includes expansion and examination of the coalescence and Fermi break-up models used in the precompound stages of spallation reactions within CEM and LAQGSM. Extending our models to include emission of fragments heavier than ⁴He at the precompound stage has indeed provided results that have much

  3. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  4. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  5. Thermodynamics of the fuel fragmentation gas

    Perez, R.B.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In the context of nuclear reactor safety studies, a program is in progress at ORNL whereby fuel-fragmentation situations are mocked up by the application of high-current capacitor discharges through solid UO 2 samples. The goal of the present work is to predict such quantities as the number of gas and liquid fragments and their energy distributions. The point of view adopted is that upon fragmentation, a cloud of UO 2 vapor is formed containing ''primeval'' liquid fragments which act as condensation centers. In the evolution of time, fragment growth is controlled by nucleation, coagulation and evaporation processes. Eventually, the vapor-droplet system will reach a situation in which clusters (fragments) of various sizes and UO 2 vapor will coexist in an ''association-disassociation'' equilibrium. Thus, the physical model considered here consists of the identification of the fragmentation gas with an ''imperfect'' vapor, made up of interacting UO 2 vapor and liquid fragments. The results of the study are presented

  6. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  7. A note on convex renorming and fragmentability

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Using the game approach to fragmentability, we give new and simpler proofs of the following known results: (a) If the Banach space admits an equivalent. Kadec norm, then its weak topology is fragmented by a metric which is stronger than the norm topology. (b) If the Banach space admits an equivalent rotund ...

  8. Temperatures of fragment kinetic energy spectra

    Bauer, W.

    1995-01-01

    Multifragmentation reactions without large compression in the initial state (proton-induced reactions, reverse kinematics, projectile fragmentation) are examined, and it is verified quantitatively that the high temperatures obtained from fragment kinetic energy spectra and lower temperatures obtained from observables such as level population or isotope ratios can be understood in a common framework

  9. Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats

    Kwak, Manja M.; Velterop, Odilia; van Andel, Jelte

    . Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and

  10. Long-term effects of fragmentation and fragment properties on bird species richness in Hawaiian forests

    David J. Flaspohler; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory P. Asner; Patrick Hart; Jonathan Price; Cassie Ka’apu Lyons; Xeronimo. Castaneda

    2010-01-01

    Forest fragmentation is a common disturbance affecting biological diversity, yet the impacts of fragmentation on many forest processes remain poorly understood. Forest restoration is likely to be more successful when it proceeds with an understanding of how native and exotic vertebrates utilize forest patches of different size. We used a system of forest fragments...

  11. Recursive model for the fragmentation of polarized quarks

    Kerbizi, A.; Artru, X.; Belghobsi, Z.; Bradamante, F.; Martin, A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a model for Monte Carlo simulation of the fragmentation of a polarized quark. The model is based on string dynamics and the 3P0 mechanism of quark pair creation at string breaking. The fragmentation is treated as a recursive process, where the splitting function of the subprocess q →h +q' depends on the spin density matrix of the quark q . The 3P0 mechanism is parametrized by a complex mass parameter μ , the imaginary part of which is responsible for single spin asymmetries. The model has been implemented in a Monte Carlo program to simulate jets made of pseudoscalar mesons. Results for single hadron and hadron pair transverse-spin asymmetries are found to be in agreement with experimental data from SIDIS and e+e- annihilation. The model predictions on the jet-handedness are also discussed.

  12. Current fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering

    Hamer, C.J.

    1975-04-01

    It is argued that the current fragmentation products in deep inelastic electron scattering will not be distributed in a 'one-dimensional' rapidity plateau as in the parton model picture of Feynman and Bjorken. A reaction mechanism with a multiperipheral topology, but which the above configuration might have been achieved, does not in fact populate the current fragmentation plateau; and unless partons are actually observed in the final state, it cannot lead to Bjorken scaling. The basic reason for this failure is shown to be the fact that when a particle is produced in the current fragmentation plateau, the adjacent momentum transfer in the multiperipheral chain becomes large and negative: such processes are inevitably suppressed. Instead, the current fragmentation products are likely to be generated by a fragmentation, or sequential decay process. (author)

  13. The politics of municipal fragmentation in Ghana

    Abdulai Kuyini Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly debate over the rival merits of local government consolidation and fragmentation is an old but enduring one. However, in this debate very little attention has been focused on the political dimension of council amalgamation and fragmentation – yet political considerations play a central role in both the formulation and outcomes of de-concentration policy. The purpose of this article is to fill a gap in the literature by examining local government fragmentation in Ghana from 1988 to 2014. The article does this by identifying the key players and analysing their interests and gains, as well as the tensions arising from the fragmentation exercise. The implications from the Ghanaian case for more general theories of fragmentation are drawn out.

  14. Graph Theory. 1. Fragmentation of Structural Graphs

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of structural graphs has many fields of applications in engineering, especially in applied sciences like as applied chemistry and physics, computer sciences and automation, electronics and telecommunication. The main subject of the paper is to express fragmentation criteria in graph using a new method of investigation: terminal paths. Using terminal paths are defined most of the fragmentation criteria that are in use in molecular topology, but the fields of applications are more generally than that, as I mentioned before. Graphical examples of fragmentation are given for every fragmentation criteria. Note that all fragmentation is made with a computer program that implements a routine for every criterion.[1] A web routine for tracing all terminal paths in graph can be found at the address: http://vl.academicdirect.ro/molecular_topology/tpaths/ [1] M. V. Diudea, I. Gutman, L. Jäntschi, Molecular Topology, Nova Science, Commack, New York, 2001, 2002.

  15. Geospatial analysis of forest fragmentation in Uttara Kannada District, India

    Ramachandra T V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Landscapes consist of heterogeneous interacting dynamic elements with complex ecological, economic and cultural attributes. These complex interactions help in the sustenance of natural resources through bio-geochemical and hydrological cycling. The ecosystem functions are altered with changes in the landscape structure. Fragmentation of large contiguous forests to small and isolated forest patches either by natural phenomena or anthropogenic activities leads to drastic changes in forest patch sizes, shape, connectivity and internal heterogeneity, which restrict the movement leading to inbreeding among Meta populations with extirpation of species. Methods: Landscape dynamics are assessed through land use analysis by way of remote sensing data acquired at different time periods. Forest fragmentation is assessed at the pixel level through computation of two indicators, i.e., Pf (the ratio of pixels that are forested to the total non-water pixels in the window and Pff (the proportion of all adjacent (cardinal directions only pixel pairs that include at least one forest pixel, for which both pixels are forested. Results: Uttara Kannada District has the distinction of having the highest forest cover in Karnataka State, India. This region has been experiencing changes in its forest cover and consequent alterations in functional abilities of its ecosystem. Temporal land use analyses show the trend of deforestation, evident from the reduction of evergreen - semi evergreen forest cover from 57.31 % (1979 to 32.08 % (2013 Forest fragmentation at the landscape level shows a decline of interior forests 64.42 % (1979 to 25.62 % (2013 and transition of non-forest categories such as crop land, plantations and built-up areas, amounting now to 47.29 %. PCA prioritized geophysical and socio variables responsible for changes in the landscape structure at local levels. Conclusion: Terrestrial forest ecosystems in Uttara Kannada District of Central

  16. Enhanced quantum efficiency in blue-emitting polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposite light-emitting devices

    Park, Jong Hyeok; Lim, Yong Taik; Park, O Ok; Yu, Jae-Woong; Kim, Jai Kyeong; Kim, Young Chul

    2004-01-01

    Light-emitting devices based on environmentally stable, blue-emitting polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposites were fabricated by blending poly(di-octylfluorene) (PDOF) with organo-clay. By reducing the excimer formation that leads to long wavelength tails, the photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) color purity of the device was enhanced. When a conjugated polymer/dielectric nanolayer nanocomposite is applied to an EL device, we expect an electronic structure similar to the well-known quantum well in small nanodomains. The ratio of PDOF/organo-clay was regulated from 2:1 to 0.5:1 (w/w). The light-emitting device of 0.5:1 (w/w) blend demonstrated the highest quantum efficiency (QE), 0.72% (ph/el), which is ∼500 times higher value compared with that of the pure PDOF layer device. However, the driving voltage of the nanocomposite devices tended to increase with increasing organo-clay content

  17. Nanoengineering of organic light-emitting diodes

    Lupton, J.M.

    2000-11-01

    This thesis reports nanoengineerging of the emission and transport properties of organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs). This is achieved by a control of the electronic material properties and the photonic device properties. A novel class of conjugated materials for electroluminescence (EL) applications is presented, based on successively branching, or dendritic, materials comprising an emissive core and a shielding dendritic architecture. Exciton localisation at the centre of these dendrimers is observed in both luminescence and absorption. A detailed quantum chemical investigation using an exciton model supports these findings and accurately describes the energies and oscillator strengths of transitions in the core and branches. The dendrimer generation describes the degree of branching and gives a direct measure of the separation and interaction between chromophores. Increasing generation is found to lead to a reduction in red tail emission. This correlates with an increase in operating field and LED efficiency. Dendrimer blends with triplet harvesting dendritic phosphors are also investigated and found to exhibit unique emission properties. A numerical device model is presented, which is used to describe the temperature dependence of single layer polymer LEDs by fitting the field-dependent mobility and the barrier to hole injection. The device model is also used to obtain mobility values for the dendrimer materials, which are in excellent agreement with results obtained from time-of-flight measurements. The dendrimer generation is shown to provide a direct control of hopping mobility, which decreases by two orders of magnitude as the dendrimer generation increases from 0 to 3. The photonic properties and spontaneous emission of an LED are modified by incorporating a periodic wavelength scale microstructure into the emitting film. This is found to double the amount of light emitted with no effect on the device current. An investigation of the angular dependence

  18. Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy

    Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Today, cancer treatments mainly rely on surgery or external beam radiation to remove or destroy bulky tumors. Chemotherapy is given when tumours cannot be removed or when dissemination is suspected. However, these approaches cannot permanently treat all cancers and relapse occurs in up to 50% of the patients’ population. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) are effective against some disseminated and metastatic diseases, although they are rarely curative. Most preclinical and clinical developments in this field have involved electron-emitting radionuclides, particularly iodine-131, yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. The large range of the electrons emitted by these radionuclides reduces their efficacy against very small tumour cell clusters or isolated tumour cells present in residual disease and in many haematological tumours (leukaemia, myeloma). The range of alpha particles in biological tissues is very short, less than 0.1 mm, which makes alpha emitters theoretically ideal for treatment of such isolated tumour cells or micro-clusters of malignant cells. Thus, over the last decade, a growing interest for the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides has emerged. Research on targeted alpha therapy (TAT) began years ago in Nantes through cooperation between Subatech, a nuclear physics laboratory, CRCNA, a cancer research centre with a nuclear oncology team and ITU (Karlsruhe, Germany). CD138 was demonstrated as a potential target antigen for Multiple Myeloma, which is a target of huge clinical interest particularly suited for TAT because of the disseminated nature of the disease consisting primarily of isolated cells and small clusters of tumour cells mainly localized in the bone marrow. Thus anti-CD138 antibodies were labelled with bismuth-213 from actinium-225/bismuth-213 generators provided by ITU and used to target multiple myeloma cells. In vitro studies showed cell cycle arrest, synergism with chemotherapy and very little induction

  19. Exact Solutions of Fragmentation Equations with General Fragmentation Rates and Separable Particles Distribution Kernels

    S. C. Oukouomi Noutchie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We make use of Laplace transform techniques and the method of characteristics to solve fragmentation equations explicitly. Our result is a breakthrough in the analysis of pure fragmentation equations as this is the first instance where an exact solution is provided for the fragmentation evolution equation with general fragmentation rates. This paper is the key for resolving most of the open problems in fragmentation theory including “shattering” and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems with initial finite particles number.

  20. Missing Fragments: Detecting Cooperative Binding in Fragment-Based Drug Design

    2012-01-01

    The aim of fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is to identify molecular fragments that bind to alternate subsites within a given binding pocket leading to cooperative binding when linked. In this study, the binding of fragments to human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is used to illustrate how (a) current protocols may fail to detect fragments that bind cooperatively, (b) theoretical approaches can be used to validate potential hits, and (c) apparent false positives obtained when screening against cocktails of fragments may in fact indicate promising leads. PMID:24900472